WorldWideScience

Sample records for metropolitan areas cities

  1. FINANCING FARMLAND PRESERVATION: THE TWIN CITIES METROPOLITAN AREA EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Greden, Leah R.; Taff, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Two farmland protection programs in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) Metropolitan Area--Green Acres and Agricultural Preserves-- together enrolled 608,331 acres in 1992. The principal financing tool was a provision common to both programs under which participating landowners paid reduced property taxes in exchange for certain non- development assurances. The resulting shift in property tax obligations to other taxpayers amounted to $7.6 million for the 1993 tax year, an average shift of $12.50 per...

  2. Designing Freshwater Resilience for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Wi, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    There are few places in the world where the water management challenges associated with global urbanization are as fully visible as in the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). MCMA has a population of 22 million of which only 82% have daily water provision and this figure is projected by local agencies to decrease drastically in the next decade due to population growth, infrastructure degradation and climate change. The city is served by a massive water delivery system, consisting of complex network of infrastructure in the surrounding basins that provides about 40% of the supply for MCMA and is characterized by increasing land use change and competition for water. The remaining 60% of MCMA's water is sourced internally from already depleted groundwater resources whose exploitation also results in significant subsidence throughout the city, further damaging already degraded infrastructure. Consequently, there is interest and need for investments that improve the performance of the freshwater delivery system, including local resources and connected basins, in the face of change and shocks that can be only partially anticipated. The quest for such resilience is a common theme in urban infrastructure design yet practical approaches for achieving it remain nascent. In this study, we use MCMA and the Cutzamala Water supply system to demonstrate a quantitative framework to evaluate investment strategies which seek resilience for the water supply system of MCMA. Multiobjective optimization and decisions under deep uncertainty approaches are used to evaluate the best performing investment portfolios across different resilience performance metrics which encompass social equity, environmental and economic objectives. This analysis shows dynamic system responses that result from different investment portfolios, elucidating difficult planning and management decisions around tradeoffs between allocations as well as performance metrics (e.g short period of total failure

  3. Water management for a megacity: Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortajada, Cecilia; Castelán, Enrique

    2003-03-01

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The analysis indicates an urgent need to radically improve the current water supply and wastewater management practices, to become sustainable. The MCMA is one of the most rapidly growing urban centers of the world, with a population of about 21 million people, a very high rate of immigration and numerous illegal settlements. In order to meet the increasing water demand, successive governments have focused almost exclusively on supply management and engineering solutions, which have resulted in investments of hundreds of millions of USD and the construction of major infrastructure projects for interbasin water transfer. Environmental, economic and social policies associated with water management are mostly inadequate and insufficient, which is resulting in increasing deterioration in the environment, health and socioeconomic conditions of a population living in one of the largest urban agglomerations of the world. Surprisingly, however, no long-term strategies on demand-management, reuse, conservation, and improved water-management practices have been developed so far.

  4. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S. [Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Col. Tiacopac San Angel (Mexico); Hernandez, C.G. [Departamento del Distrito Federal, Col. Centro (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  5. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  6. The polycentric structure of local labour markets in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Casado Izquierdo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.

  7. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  8. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  9. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  10. Energy and the environment: the case of the Metropolitan area of Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazan N, G.

    1992-01-01

    The inefficient use of energy by the different types of consumers of the Metropolitan area of Mexico City (ZMCM, this means, Mexico city and the municipalities of the Estado de Mexico, which constitute a single economic population unit), is one of the main causes for the production of polluting emissions into the atmosphere, specially of nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. This originates a deterioration of the environment, which injures the health of the population. As a consequence, the private and public sectors have been forced to establish programs in order to improve the use of energy, as well as to preserve the environment. (Author)

  11. Polycentric Development for Sustainable Cities: An Evaluation for the Ankara Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aydan Sat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban population growth and the accompanying urban growth and expansion are seen as the main problems of metropolitan cities; this keeps the issues of how to consider the social, economic, spatial and environmental dimensions of cities within the framework of a concept of sustainability, and how to shape cities within this context, on the agenda. In today’s world, cities are accepted as the main hubs of energy consumption and environmental pollution, as centers of capital, culture and innovation, and as the places of residence of millions of people. Expanding and sprawling urban forms are seen as unsustainable in terms of land use, energy and the consumption of environmental resources. Thus, the question ‘How should the urban development model be applied to create sustainable cities?’ is on the agenda of theorists, politicians and practitioners alike. Taking these discussions into consideration, this study searches for an answer to the question of whether the polycentric urban development model can be used as a tool for sustainable cities by taking into account the current literature and practices, and evaluating the case of the Ankara metropolitan area.

  12. Quality of runoff from small watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota - A project plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, M.A.; Payne, G.A.; Oberts, Gary L.

    1980-01-01

    A program of water-quality sampling to define the relationships between land use, watershed characteristics, and the quantity, quality, and timing of runoff has been started for the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota. Ten major watersheds were chosen as representative of conditions in the metropolitan area. Each will be sampled at one location near the outlet. Six of the watersheds are agricultural and range in size from 14.3 to 82.9 square miles. The four remaining watersheds are urbanized and range in size from 1.22 to 31.7 square miles. In addition, seven urban subwatersheds, which range in size from 0.12 to 0.47 square miles and reflect a dominant land-use type, will be sampled.

  13. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.

    2013-12-01

    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  14. Risk to a Changing Climate in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, N. D.

    2016-12-01

    The issue of climate change has dominated the atmospheric sciences agenda in recent decades. The concern about an increase in climate related disasters, mainly in large population centers, has led to ask whether they are mainly due to changes in climate or in vulnerability.The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is an example of megalopolis under high climate risk, where floods, landslides, health problems, high air pollution events, socioeconomic droughts are becoming important environmental and social problems. As urbanization spreads and population increases exposure to natural hazards increases, and so the magnitude of risk to a changing climate and the negative impacts. Since the late nineteenth century, in the MCMA an average maximum temperature could be around 22°C, whereas today it is about 24.5ºC. That is, the increase in the average temperature in Mexico City is around 3°C in a hundred years. But there are areas where an increase in the average temperature is similar in only thirty years. The heating rate of the city can vary depending on the change in land use. Areas that conserve forested regions in the process of urbanization tend to warm less than areas where the transformation into concrete and cement is almost complete. Thus, the climate of the MCMA shows important changes mainly in relation to land use changes. Global warming and natural climate variability were also analyzed as possible forcing factors of the observed warming by comparing low frequency variations in local temperature and indices for natural forcing. The hydrological cycle of the MCMA has also changed with urbanization. The "bubble of hot air" over the urban area has more capacity to hold moisture now than before the UHI. However, the increased risk to floods, heat or drought appears to be related not only to more frequent intense climatic hazards induced by the urbanization effect. This process also induces increased vulnerability to a changing climate. The establishment of

  15. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in the Kansas City metropolitan area, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S; Pahud, Barbara A; Weldon, William C; Curns, Aaron T; Oberste, M Steven; Harrison, Christopher J

    2017-04-03

    No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012-2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%-96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6-10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2-3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2-3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4-6 y.

  16. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  17. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Johnson; B. de Foy; B. de Foy; B. Zuberi; B. Zuberi; L. T. Molina; L. T. Molina; M. J. Molina; M. J. Molina; Y. Xie; A. Laskin; V. Shutthanandan

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign f...

  18. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson , K. S.; De Foy , B.; Zuberi , B.; Molina , L. T.; Molina , M. J.; Xie , Y.; Laskin , A.; Shutthanandan , V.

    2006-01-01

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) were collected dur...

  19. Public policy performance for social development : solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Arenas-Aquino, A.R.; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y.; Kleiche Dray, Mina

    2017-01-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, ne...

  20. A driving cycle for vehicle emissions estimation in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; López-Salinas, E

    2005-02-01

    A driving cycle derived from driving behavior and real traffic conditions in Mexico City (MC) is proposed. Data acquisition was carried out over diverse MC routes, representing travel under congested and uncongested conditions, using the chase-car approach. Thirteen different on-road patterns, including the four main access roads to MC, trips in both directions and different timetables, a total of 108 trips spanning 1044 km were evaluated in this study. The MC cycle lasts 1360 seconds with a distance of 8.8 km and average speed of 23.4 km h(-1). Both maximum speed (73.6 km h(-1)) and maximum acceleration (2.22 km h(-1)s(-1)) are lower than those of the new vehicles certification employed in Mexico ,FTP-75 cycle., that is, the MC cycle exhibits less cruising time and more transient events than the FTP cycle. A total of 30 light duty gasoline vehicles were classified into different technological groups and tested in an FTP-75 and MC driving cycles in order to compare their emission factors A potential concern is that in Mexico manufacturers design vehicles to meet the emission standards in the FTP, but emission levels increase significantly in a more representative cycle of present driving patterns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The use of a more representative cycle during certification testing, would provide an incentive for vehicle manufacturers to design emissions control systems to remain effective during operation modes that are not currently represented in the official test procedures used in the certification process. Based on the results of the study, the use of MC cycle, which better represents current day driving patterns during testing of vehicle fleets in emissions laboratories, would improve the accuracy of emissions factors used in the MAMC emissions inventories.

  1. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, Eric; Emmons, L.; Karl, Thomas G.; Flocke, Frank M.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, Sasha; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, Alan; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, Dirk; Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, Teresa; Weinheimer, Andrew J.; Knapp, David; Sive, B.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Springston, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Ortega, John V.; Voss, Paul B.; Blake, D. R.; Baker, Angela K.; Warneke, Carsten; Welsh-Bon, Daniel; de Gouw, Joost A.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Renyi; Rudolph, Jochen; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D.

    2010-01-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on March 18 and the NCAR C130 one day later on March 19. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the March 19 plume and to help interpret the OH

  2. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, E.; Springston, S.; Karl, T.; Emmons, L.; Flocke, F.; Hills, A. J.; Madronich, S.; Lee-Taylor, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Walega, J.; Richter, D., Tie, X.; Mauldin, L.; Campos, T.; Sive, B.; Kleinman, L.; Springston, S., Zaveri, R.; deGouw, J.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R.; Rudolph, J.; Junkermann, W.; Riemer, D. D.

    2009-11-01

    The volatile organic compound (VOC) distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs), predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers) were able to reproduce the general features of the daytime cycle of the VOC OH reactivity distribution showing that NMHCs dominate the distribution except in the afternoon hours and that the VOC OH reactivity peaks in the early morning due to high morning emissions from the city into a shallow boundary layer. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height. In addition, a plume was studied in which air was advected out of the MCMA and intercepted downwind with the DOE G1 on 18 March and the NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind. Ozone and many OVOCs were photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial and temporal extent of the 19 March plume and to help interpret the OH

  3. Levels, Composition and Sources of PM in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area During the MILAGRO Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Pey, J.; Minguillon, M. C.; Perez, N.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Bernabe, R.; Blanco, S.; Cardenas, B.

    2007-05-01

    Particle air pollution in urban agglomerations comes mostly from anthropogenic sources, mainly traffic, industrial processes, energy production, domestic and residential emissions, construction, but also a minor contribution from natural sources may be expected (bioaerosols, soil dust, marine aerosol). Once emitted into the atmosphere, this complex mixture of pollutants may be transformed as a function of the ambient conditions and the interaction among the different PM components, and also between PM components and gaseous pollutants. This system is especially complex in mega-cities due to the large emission volumes of PM components and gaseous precursors, the high variability and broad distribution of emission sources, and the possible long range transport of the polluted air masses. Speciation studies help to identify major sources of PM components with the end objective of applying plans and programs for PM pollution abatement. In this framework, concentration levels and compositions of particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10 and TSP) have been measured simultaneously at two sites in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (T0 and CENICA) and at one site 50 km away from Mexico City (T1) during the MILAGRO campaign (1st to 31st March 2006). Spatial and time (day and night) variations have been analysed. Coarse fraction levels were higher at T1 than at CENICA and T0, contrary to what was expected. This was due to the important soil re-suspension at T1, contributing significantly to the crustal load. Moreover, crustal levels were higher during daytime than during nights at all sites, while some secondary compounds (sulphate and ammonium) presented an opposite trend. Regarding trace elements, levels of Pb, Zn and Cd were higher at T0 than at CENICA and T1, probably due to traffic contribution. Arsenic levels did not show a clear pattern, being alternatively higher at CENICA and T0. Two intense episodes of Hg particulate have been recorded, more noticeable at T1 than at the urban

  4. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in the Kansas City metropolitan area, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S.; Pahud, Barbara A.; Weldon, William C.; Curns, Aaron T.; Oberste, M. Steven; Harrison, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012–2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%–96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6–10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2–3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2–3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4–6 y. PMID:28059613

  5. Air emissions scenarios from ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate in Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Carlos A. [Posgrado en Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Manzini, Fabio; Islas, Jorge [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Priv. Xochicalco s/n, Col. Centro, Apartado Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    The Mexican Biofuel Introduction Program states that during year 2010 the three biggest Mexican cities will have a gasoline blending with 6% ethanol available for all gasoline on-road vehicle fleet. Also in 2010 Mexican government has programmed to start the substitution of Tier 1 - the adopted US emission standards - by Tier 2, which are more stringent emission standards for motor vehicles and gasoline sulfur control requirements. How will the air emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) be modified by using this blending? Four scenarios up to year 2030 were constructed and simulated using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning model. Beginning with a BAU or reference scenario, in this scenario the current available fuel is a blending composed by 5% methyl tertiary butyl ether and 95% gasoline (MTBE5). Then, three alternative scenarios that use ethanol as an oxygenate are considered, one with the already programmed E6 blending (6% anhydride ethanol, 94% gasoline), for the sake of comparison the E10 blending (10% anhydride ethanol, 90% gasoline), and the other alternative to compare, ETBE13.7 (13.7% ethyl tertiary butyl ether, 86.3% gasoline; where ETBE is an ether composed by 48% anhydride ethanol and 52% isobutene). Emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and 1,3-butadiene were calculated using emission factors previously calculated using the adapted US-EPA computer model called MOBILE6-Mexico. Results show that Tier 1 and Tier 2 standards effectively lowers all emissions in all studied scenarios with the exception of PM10 and CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternative scenario E10 has the most total avoided emissions by weight but it is not the best when considering some individual pollutants. The greatest environmental benefit of ethanol in its final use as a gasoline oxygenate is for

  6. Chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds in the outflow of the Mexico City Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Apel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The volatile organic compound (VOC distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA and its evolution as it is uplifted and transported out of the MCMA basin was studied during the 2006 MILAGRO/MIRAGE-Mex field campaign. The results show that in the morning hours in the city center, the VOC distribution is dominated by non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs but with a substantial contribution from oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs, predominantly from primary emissions. Alkanes account for a large part of the NMHC distribution in terms of mixing ratios. In terms of reactivity, NMHCs also dominate overall, especially in the morning hours. However, in the afternoon, as the boundary layer lifts and air is mixed and aged within the basin, the distribution changes as secondary products are formed. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model and MOZART (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers were able to approximate the observed MCMA daytime patterns and absolute values of the VOC OH reactivity. The MOZART model is also in agreement with observations showing that NMHCs dominate the reactivity distribution except in the afternoon hours. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models showed higher reactivity than the experimental data during the nighttime cycle, perhaps indicating problems with the modeled nighttime boundary layer height.

    A northeast transport event was studied in which air originating in the MCMA was intercepted aloft with the Department of Energy (DOE G1 on 18 March and downwind with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR C130 one day later on 19 March. A number of identical species measured aboard each aircraft gave insight into the chemical evolution of the plume as it aged and was transported as far as 1000 km downwind; ozone was shown to be photochemically produced in the plume. The WRF-Chem and MOZART models were used to examine the spatial extent and temporal evolution of the plume

  7. Approach of Urban Design Elements in Preservation Area Kampung Bandar Senapelan Towards Pekanbaru Metropolitan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Yose; Cheris, Rika; Repi

    2017-12-01

    The development of Pekanbaru City is very rapid, consequently is constantly experiencing changes in buildings, areas or cultural objects that need to be preserved to be disrupted, replaced by economic-oriented development - commercial. The contradiction between the construction of the metropolis will be the beginning of the problem for urban areas. Kampong Bandar Senapelan is an early town of Pekanbaru town located on the banks of the Siak River. The settlement has a typology of Malay and vernacular Malay architecture. The existence of these villages experienced concern as a contradiction of the city's development toward the metropolis which resulted in degradation of the historical value of urban development in this region. This study was conducted to make an important assessment of preserving Kampung Bandar Senapelan as the oldest area and its great influence on the development of metropolis. Preservation of historical and cultural heritage with conservation and preservation measures is one of the urban design elements to be considered for all city stakeholders to safeguard the civilization of a generation. Considerations that will become a benchmark is the history, conservation and urban development towards the metropolis. The importance of awareness of the conservation of the city through conservation and preservation in this area can lead to new characters and values to the building and its environment and will create an atmosphere different from the rapid development (modern style). In addition, this preservation will be evident in a harmonious life with a high tolerance between multi-ethnicity that co-existed in the past.

  8. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  9. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Fuga, A.; Alves, E.R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  10. Metropolitan City: the Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Franco Ferrari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the definitions of territorial organization are no longer adequate, the concept of “metropolitan areas” arises as a solution to resolve such deficit. This study shows the beginnings of this figure in Italy and the problems of identification and delimitation caused by the abstraction of the norms, therefore entailing a difficult implementation of the concept of metropolitan cities. By identifying these obstacles, this paper presents an analysis where it is possible to ensure compliance with this new reality in the near future.

  11. Developing a Hierarchical Model for the Spatial Analysis of PM10 Pollution Extremes in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ivan Aguirre-Salado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We implemented a spatial model for analysing PM 10 maxima across the Mexico City metropolitan area during the period 1995–2016. We assumed that these maxima follow a non-identical generalized extreme value (GEV distribution and modeled the trend by introducing multivariate smoothing spline functions into the probability GEV distribution. A flexible, three-stage hierarchical Bayesian approach was developed to analyse the distribution of the PM 10 maxima in space and time. We evaluated the statistical model’s performance by using a simulation study. The results showed strong evidence of a positive correlation between the PM 10 maxima and the longitude and latitude. The relationship between time and the PM 10 maxima was negative, indicating a decreasing trend over time. Finally, a high risk of PM 10 maxima presenting levels above 1000 μ g/m 3 (return period: 25 yr was observed in the northwestern region of the study area.

  12. Atmospheric deposition of selected chemicals and their effect on nonpoint-source pollution in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and subsequent runoff concentrations of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, total sulfate (only for atmospheric deposition), total chloride, and total lead were studied from April 1 to October 31, 1980, in one rural and three urban watersheds in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota. Seasonal patterns of wetfall and dryfall generally were similar for all constituents except chloride in both rural and urban watersheds. Similarity between constituents and between rural and urban watersheds suggested that regional air masses transported from the Gulf of Mexico by frontal storm movements influence seasonal patterns of atmospheric deposition in the metropolitan area. Local influences such as industrial, agricultural, and vehicular air pollutants were found to influence the magnitude or rate of atmospheric deposition rather than the seasonal pattern. Chloride was primarily influenced by northwest frontal storms laden with coastal chloride. Local influences such as dust from road deicing salt dust are thought to have caused an increase in atmospheric chloride during June.

  13. Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, T. M.; Adegoke, J.; Stoddard, E.; Odom, L.; Ketchum, D.

    2007-12-01

    The GEOPATHS project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). The goal of GEOPATHS is to raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. We are addressing this goal by expanding dual-credit and Advanced Placement (AP) opportunities for high school students and also by serving teachers through enhancing their understanding of geoscience content and inquiry teaching methods using GLOBE resources and protocols. Our focus in the first two years of the project is to increase the number of teachers that are certified to teach AP Environmental Science by offering specially designed professional development workshops for high school teachers in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. The structure of the workshop for each year is divided into two weeks of content knowledge exploration using the learning cycle and concept mapping, and one week of inquiry-based experiments, field projects, and exercises. We are also supporting teachers in their use of these best-practice methods by providing materials and supplies along with lesson plans for inquiry investigations for their classes. The lesson plans include activities and experiments that are inquiry-based. The last two years of the project will include direct engagement/recruiting of promising minority high school students via paid summer research internships and scholarship offers.

  14. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish effective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5 were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE, Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM measurements were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion, V and Ni, correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of non-volatile PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  15. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  16. Air pollution impacts of speed limitation measures in large cities: The need for improving traffic data in a metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasano, José M.; Gonçalves, María; Soret, Albert; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the effects of air quality management strategies in urban areas is a major concern worldwide because of the large impacts on health caused by the exposure to air pollution. In this sense, this work analyses the changes in urban air quality due to the introduction of a maximum speed limit to 80 km h -1 on motorways in a large city by using a novel methodology combining traffic assimilation data and modelling systems implemented in a supercomputing facility. Albeit the methodology has been non-specifically developed and can be extrapolated to any large city or megacity, the case study of Barcelona is presented here. Hourly simulations take into account the entire year 2008 (when the 80 km h -1 limit has been introduced) vs. the traffic conditions for the year 2007. The data has been assimilated in an emission model, which considers hourly variable speeds and hourly traffic intensity in the affected area, taken from long-term measurement campaigns for the aforementioned years; it also permits to take into account the traffic congestion effect. Overall, the emissions are reduced up to 4%; however the local effects of this reduction achieve an important impact for the adjacent area to the roadways, reaching 11%. In this sense, the speed limitation effects assessed represent enhancements in air quality levels (5-7%) of primary pollutants over the area, directly improving the welfare of 1.35 million inhabitants (over 41% of the population of the Metropolitan Area) and affecting 3.29 million dwellers who are potentially benefited from this strategy for air quality management (reducing 0.6% the mortality rates in the area).

  17. Premises for Shaping Metropolitan Areas in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAULARIAN RUSU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The setting up of metropolitan areas is a process which is still in progress in Romania. The legislative framework for the creation of these areas has been built up only since 2001, and there are still a number of juridical inconsistencies concerning the association of administrative units to form metropolitan areas. On the other hand, political reasons and the fear of losing a certain degree of authority and to become subordinates of the large cities (in the case of rural municipalities also hindered the development of metropolitan areas in Romania. Nevertheless, the metropolitan areas already in existence are running a number of projects that are beneficial for most members of the association. Such positive examples may trigger the creation of the other metropolitan areas. Although the existing metropolitan areas did not yield spectacular results, the time passed since their foundation is yet too short to correctly assess their usefulness and territorial meaning. For the moment, the following metropolitan areas exist in Romania: Iaşi, Oradea, Braşov, Constanţa, Bacău, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş and Craiova. Bucharest, Timişoara, Ploieşti and Galaţi-Brăila metropolitan areas are still in process of setting up.

  18. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  19. Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in the Metropolitan Area of Edirne City, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Çelik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis may vary according to the influence of the altitude of a geographical area as well as the genetic and environmental factors. This study ained to determine the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Edirne population.Material and Methods: Patients with a definite diagnosis of MS according to McDonald’s criteria, admitted to one of the three MS clinics in Edirne, were included in this two-stage study. Also the records of hospitals in İstanbul serving patients from Edirne, have been evaluated. Results: The prevalence rate of confirmed MS patients was 33.9/100000 (95% CI: 32-36 in 2003. The mean annual incidence was 3.48/100000 (95% CI: 2.90-4.00. Mean age of the patients was 36.5±9.6 years. Mean age at onset was 29.2±8.5 years. Mean duration of disease was 6.9±5.2 years. Overall, 69.2% had a relapsing-remitting course, 20.5% had a primary progressive course and 10.3% had a secondary progressive course. Mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score was 3.04±2.18. The prevalence and annual incidence after one year was 36.5 per 100000 (95% CI: 33.2-38.6 and 2.60 per 100000 (95% CI: 2.1-3.8, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first city-based MS prevalence study performed in Turkey. The MS prevalence in Edirne is similar to that of Greece and Bulgaria but lower than that of European countries.

  20. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P; Bolduc, D; Gauvin, D; Guerrier, P; Gauthier, R [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1996-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  1. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  2. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  3. Aspects of Agricultural Landscape as a Cultural Asset in Metropolitan Areas: Case Study for Bucharest City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Popa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Typical for the last decades economical and social processes at metropolitan level induce new models of spatial organization characterized by extensive urban development. These extensive processes configure various components of the cultural landscape in different ways. Such development modifies the rural, agricultural and industrial landscapes and generates new landscape typologies modeled by interaction between urban and rural space. Diverse approaches of urban development have modified the territorial structure and also the way in which the territory visually and dynamically responds to external factors by transforming the main cultural features. In such a context, preservation of common agricultural landscape as a part of cultural landscape is becoming an important issue for the local development policies

  4. Implementing GLOBE in the New York City Metropolitan Area: Trials, Errors, and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludman, A.; Schmidt, P.; Borman, G.

    2003-12-01

    systems. To stimulate data entry, one half-day during the 3-day workshop is devoted to exploring the GLOBE website, and another to generating student research problems using the site's advanced capabilities. Three "carrots" have also improved data submission: (1)a vendor gives a probe and software to the first school in each workshop that submits 250 data items, (2)individual competitiveness (the record is 22 hours from end of training to first submission of data), and (3)congratulatory emails to teachers when they submit their first data. The "stick": a threat to repossess the instruments if no data are submitted within 6 months. We also offer training in GLOBE-related skills, such as acquiring free satellite images and digital elevation data, and workshops on the geological and environmental settings of the NYC area. Suggestions from our teachers for the future include: urbanize protocols to better welcome inner city schools to GLOBE; add protocols involving flora and fauna to fit GLOBE better into Biology classes; develop more links with researchers so GLOBE participants feel they are making a real contribution; create a NYC area listserve so teachers can discuss common issues and concerns; and develop correlations between GLOBE protocols and NYS Curricula in Earth Science, Living Environment, Chemistry, and Physics. The last would vastly improve integration of GLOBE into these Regents-level courses. Our teacher trainees are vehement in their appreciation of GLOBE for its high standards and scientific rigor.

  5. Public policy performance for social development: solar energy approach to assess technological outcome in Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Aquino, Angel Raúl; Matsumoto-Kuwabara, Y; Kleiche-Dray, M

    2017-11-01

    Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the most populated urban area in the country. In 2010, MCMA required 14.8% of total energy domestic demand, but greenhouse gas emissions accounted for 7.7% of domestic emissions. Mexico has massive renewable energy potential that could be harnessed through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The problem to explore is the relationship between local and federal public strategies in MCMA and their stance on energy transition concern, social empowerment, new technology appropriation, and the will to boost social development and urban sustainability. A public policy typology was conducted through instruments of State intervention approach, based on political agenda articulation and environmental local interactions. Social equality is encouraged by means of forthright funding and in-kind support and energy policies focus on non-renewable energy subsidies and electric transmission infrastructure investment. There is a lack of vision for using PV technology as a guiding axis for marginalized population development. It is essential to promote economic and political rearrangement in order to level and structure environmental governance. It is essential to understand people's representation about their own needs along with renewable energy.

  6. The energy demand and the impact by fossil fuels use in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, from 1988 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, M.; Gasca, J.; Gonzalez, U.

    2006-01-01

    Temporary variation for the demand of refining products which are used in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is presented. Its consequent energy contribution is evaluated from 1988 to 2000. The annual estimation was integrated from a detailed inventory of fuels volume, so as the calculus of its respective energy equivalence. The fuel quality specifications, which have been required by regional Air Quality authority for controlling emissions to the atmosphere, are also presented for the same period. The evolution demand of fuels, in term of volume, quality and its energy contribution for this area, is compared with the national demand. On this regard, fuel pool differs in each bound and the demand along the same period has been increasing on both regions but at different rates, with 21% at MCMA and 31% countrywide. In 2000, the MCMA demanded 14% of the internal refining products volume sales, which represented 17% of the energy contribution to the country for those fuels. Likewise, the energy use coefficient (GJ per capita) was applied to compare this region with country trends. During 1996 and up to 2000, the MCMA presented slightly minor energy use per capita, than the rest of the country, and this period was distinguished also for using cleaner fuels and for obtaining improvements in air quality. On the other hand, MCMA and country greenhouse gases emissions will increase because of their fossil fuel dependence, so several mitigation measures must be implemented in the next decades

  7. Asymmetric correlations in the ozone concentration dynamics of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz, M.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Echeverria, J. C.

    2017-04-01

    Mexico City is a megalopolis with severe pollution problems caused by vehicles and industrial activity. This condition imposes important risks to human health and economic activity. Based on hourly-sampled data during the last decade, in a recent work (Meraz et al., 2015) we showed that the pollutant dynamics in Mexico City exhibits long-term and scale-dependent persistence effects resulting from the combination of pollutants generation by vehicles and removal by advection mechanisms. In this work, we analyzed the dynamics of ozone, a key component reflecting the degree of atmospheric contamination, to determine if its long-term correlations are asymmetric in relation to the actual concentration trend (increasing or decreasing). The analysis is conducted with detrended fluctuation analysis. The results showed that the average ozone dynamics is uncorrelated when the concentration is increasing. In contrast, the ozone dynamics shows long-term anti-persistence effects when the concentration is decreasing.

  8. Concentrations of benzene and toluene in the atmosphere of the southwestern area at the Mexico City Metropolitan Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, H.; Sosa, R.; Sanchez, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria (Mexico). Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera; Bueno, E.; Gonzalez, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Capacitacion Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Ecologia, SEMARNAP, Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-08-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) presents important emissions of hazardous air pollutants. It is well documented that the MCMZ suffers a critical air pollution problem due to high ozone and particulate matter concentrations. However, toxic air pollutants such as benzene and toluene have not been considered. Benzene has accumulated sufficient evidence as a human carcinogen, and the ratio benzene/toluene is an excellent indicator to evaluate control strategies efficiency. In order to evaluate the levels of these two air toxic pollutants in the MCMZ, ambient air samples were collected in canisters and analyzed with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector, according to procedures described in the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method TO-15. Quality assurance was performed collecting duplicate samples which were analyzed in replicate to quantify the precision of air-quality measurements. Three different sites located in the Southwestern area in the MCMZ were selected for the sampling: the University campus, a gas station, and a vertical condominium area, in the same neighborhood, which presents different activities. At these sites, grab air samples were collected during the morning hours (7-8 a.m.), while for the University area, 24 h integrated air samples were collected simultaneously, with grab samples. Benzene concentrations (24 h sampling) in the atmosphere around the University campus have similar present levels as in other cities of North America. Mean values in this site were about 1.7 ppb. A significant variation exists between the benzene and toluene concentrations in the studied sites, being the more critical values than those registered at the gas station (an average of 25.8 ppb and a maximum of 141 ppb of benzene). There is a fuel regulation for gasoline in Mexico, which allows a maximum of 1 percent of benzene. However, since more than 60 percent of vehicles do not have catalytic converters (models before 1991

  9. Meteorological and sulphur dioxide dispersion modelling for an industrial complex near Mexico city metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, V.R.; Sosa, G.; Molina, M.M.; Palmerin-ruiz, M.E.; Melgarejo-flores, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    , and as input to dispersion modelling. Validation of the meteorological model was focused in the variables used as input in the dispersion model, consequently simulated and observed values of profiles of wind speed and direction, potential temperature, and specific humidity and were compared. RAMS mixing heights were overestimated at late morning (0800 LST), but during the afternoon were found to be in good agreement with observations. Simulated potential temperature and specific humidity profiles showed good agreement with the corresponding observed profiles. Simulated wind speed profiles and surface winds presented similar behavior that observations, but surface wind speed was overestimated at late morning and underestimated at the early evening. HYPACT simulations indicate that air quality standard for SO/sub 2/ (=0.13 ppm or 341 mu gm/sup -3/ in 24 hours) was exceed close to source emissions. Models simulations indicate that TVA emissions can reach the Mexico City. HYPACT performed well the general behaviour of surface concentrations of SO/sub 2/ but fails to simulate the observed peaks of the pollutant. (author)

  10. Limitations of urban development in land of social origin: the case of the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Sánchez Pedro Leobardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the occupation process of agricultural land with social origin and urban uses in the metropolitan area of the city of Toluca (ZMCT, and the barriers that the population and authorities have to face in order to regularize the settlements. A mixed research method was applied, which included the use of quantitative and qualitative methods, on the basis of a theoretical analysis, to build a methodological research model, which was applied to an empirical case in municipal and metropolitan areas. The analysis of the 14 municipalities that constitute ZMCT shows that the barriers for regularizing settlements in land of social origin are the result of legal/administrative inefficiencies due to the incapability of local city halls to address the collective needs of society.

  11. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  12. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Baeza, Carlos; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NO x , NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM 10 ) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 ), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NO x and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  13. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  14. Towards Providing Solutions to the Air Quality Crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: Carbon Sequestration by Succulent Species in Green Roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo-Ortega, Margarita; Rosas, Ulises; Reyes-Santiago, Jerónimo

    2017-03-31

    In the first months of 2016, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area experienced the worst air pollution crisis in the last decade, prompting drastic short-term solutions by the Mexico City Government and neighboring States. In order to help further the search for long-term sustainable solutions, we felt obliged to immediately release the results of our research regarding the monitoring of carbon sequestration by green roofs. Large-scale naturation, such as the implementation of green roofs, provides a way to partially mitigate the increased carbon dioxide output in urban areas. Here, we quantified the carbon sequestration capabilities of two ornamental succulent plant species, Sedum dendroideum and Sedum rubrotinctum, which require low maintenance, and little or no irrigation. To obtain a detailed picture of these plants' carbon sequestration capabilities, we measured carbon uptake on the Sedum plants by quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and fixation as organic acids, during the day and across the year, on a green roof located in Southern Mexico City. The species displayed their typical CAM photosynthetic metabolism. Moreover, our quantification allowed us to conservatively estimate that a newly planted green roof of Sedum sequesters approximately 180,000,000 ppm of carbon dioxide per year in a green roof of 100 square meters in the short term. The patterns of CAM and carbon dioxide sequestration were highly robust to the fluctuations of temperature and precipitation between seasons, and therefore we speculate that carbon sequestration would be comparable in any given year of a newly planted green roof. Older green roof would require regular trimming to mantain their carbon sink properties, but their carbon sequestration capabilities remain to be quantified. Nevertheless, we propose that Sedum green roofs can be part of the long-term solutions to mitigate the air pollution crisis in the Mexico City Metropolitan area, and other "megacities" with marked seasonal drought.

  15. Planning Assignments of the Italian Metropolitan Cities. Early Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The last stage of the process of establishment of the Italian Metropolitan Cities, which took place in 2014, follows of a few decades the start of this institutional reform. In 1990, in fact, the Act 142 (Local Autonomies Reform had planned metropolitan areas as the administrative organization more suitable to provide these territories of structures for the management and the strategic development alike the best international models. The paper proposes to analyse the first activities taken by the Italian Metropolitan Cities in the sector of territorial government, three years after the enactment in 2014 of Act nr. 56.  Focal point of the analysis is the jurisdiction in the formation of two plans (the Strategic Plan and the Metropolitan Territorial Plan and the following relationships among them, in the logical assumption that between them a necessary and strict consistency there should be. In the first part, the paper analyses some factors characterizing the metropolitan areas and the functions that the law assigns to the new institution in the territorial government sector. The second part outlines the updated situation with regard to the formation of the sectoral tools (Strategic Plan, Territorial Plan and homogeneous zones. The third part analyses the progresses in three Metropolitan Cities taken as sample (Milan, Genoa and Bologna and, in general, to those of Southern Italy. In the last part, the paper exposes some considerations regarding the issues raised in the article, particularly about the innovativeness of the tools and the timeline for the implementation of the act.

  16. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G. [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  17. The use of the electric vehicle in the metropolitan area of Mexico city; Uso de vehiculos electricos en el area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, G [Centro de Intrumentos, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Sheinbaum, C [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A study is performed on the impact that the introduction of the electric vehicle (EV) would have in the environmental pollution of the metropolitan area of Mexico City (MAMC) for different penetration scenarios of this technology and the costs of the electric vehicle is analyzed and compared with its counterpart, the gasoline vehicle. The associated emissions of a fleet formed of EV and internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV) were determined and the emissions reduction of the contaminants considered in the period 1995-2010 produced was analyzed. It was found that the introduction of EV could importantly reduce the carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide and marginally the nitrogen oxides. It was determined that if the EV is massively produced its total cost for its entire useful life would be comparable to the cost of the ICEV. [Espanol] Se realiza un estudio sobre el impacto que tendria la introduccion de vehiculos electricos (VE) en la contaminacion ambiental del area metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico (AMCM) para diferentes escenarios de penetracion de esta tecnologia y se analiza el costo de los vehiculos electricos en comparacion con su contraparte de gasolina. Se determinaron las emisiones asociadas a una flota compuesta de VE y vehiculos con motor de combustion interna (VMCI) y se analizo la reduccion que producia en las emisiones de los diferentes contaminantes considerados en el periodo 1995-2010. Se encontro que la introduccion de VE podria reducir de manera importante las emisiones de monoxido de carbono, metano y dioxido de carbono y marginalmente las de oxido de nitrogeno. Se determino que si los VE son producidos masivamente su costo total para toda su vida util seria comparable al correspondiente al de los VMCI.

  18. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  19. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  20. Forecasting summertime surface temperature and precipitation in the Mexico City metropolitan area: sensitivity of the WRF model to land cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bravo, Clemente; Caetano, Ernesto; Magaña, Víctor

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the frequency and intensity of severe hydrometeorological events in recent decades in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area have motivated the development of weather warning systems. The weather forecasting system for this region was evaluated in sensitivity studies using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for July 2014, a summer time month. It was found that changes in the extent of the urban area and associated changes in thermodynamic and dynamic variables have induced local circulations that affect the diurnal cycles of temperature, precipitation, and wind fields. A newly implemented configuration (land cover update and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA)) of the WRF model has improved the adjustment of the precipitation field to the orography. However, errors related to the depiction of convection due to parameterizations and microphysics remains a source of uncertainty in weather forecasting in this region.

  1. Total gaseous mercury and volatile organic compounds measurements at five municipal solid waste disposal sites surrounding the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, D. A.; Velasco, A.; Rosas, A.; Volke-Sepúlveda, T.

    The daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the highest nationwide (˜26000 ton day -1); this amount is discarded in sanitary landfills and controlled dumps. Information about the type and concentration of potential pollutants contained in landfill gas (LFG) from these MSW disposal sites is limited. This study intends to generate information about the composition of LFG from five MSW disposal sites with different operational characteristics and stages, in order to identify their contribution as potential pollutant sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Important methane (CH 4) contents (>55%) in LFG were registered at three of the five sites, while two sites were found in semi-aerobic conditions (CH 4clay cover. High values of the TGM air/LFG ratio were also related to external TGM sources of influence, as a landfill in operation stage located at a highly industrialized area.

  2. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  3. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  4. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  5. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  6. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  7. Emissions of black carbon and co-pollutants emitted from diesel vehicles in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Molina, Luisa T.; Fortner, Edward; Knighton, Berk; Herndon, Scott; Yacovitch, Tara; Floerchinger, Cody; Roscioli, Joseph; Kolb, Charles; Mejia, Jose Antonio; Sarmiento, Jorge; Paramo, Victor Hugo; Zirath, Sergio; Jazcilevich, Aron

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon emitted from freight, public transport, and heavy duty trucks sources is linked with adverse effects on human health. In addition, the control of emissions of black carbon, an important short-lived climate forcing agent (SLCF), has recently been considered as one of the key strategies for mitigating regional near-term climate change. Despite the availability of new emissions control technologies for reducing emissions from diesel-powered mobile sources, their introduction is still not widespread in many urban areas and there is a need to characterize real-world emission rates of black carbon from this key source. The emissions of black carbon, organic carbon, and other gaseous and particle pollutants from diesel-powered mobile sources in Mexico were characterized by deploying a mobile laboratory equipped with real-time instrumentation in Mexico City as part of the SLCFs-Mexico 2013 project. From February 25-28 of 2013 the emissions from selected diesel-powered vehicles were measured in both controlled experiments and real-world on-road driving conditions. Sampled vehicles had several emissions levels technologies, including: EPA98, EPA03, EPA04, EURO3-5, and Hybrid. All vehicles were sampled using diesel fuel and several vehicles were measured using both diesel and biodiesel fuels. Additional measurements included the use of a remote sensing unit for the co-sampling of all tested vehicles, and the installation and operation of a Portable Emissions Measurements System (PEMS) for the measurement of emissions from a test vehicle. We will present inter-comparisons of the emission factors obtained among the various vehicle technologies that were sampled during the experiment as well as the inter-comparison of results from the various sampling platforms. The results can be used to

  8. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  9. Recognition of the importance of geogenic sources in the content of metals in PM2.5 collected in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton-Bermea, Ofelia; Garza-Galindo, Rodrigo; Hernández-Álvarez, Elizabeth; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; Garcia-Arreola, Maria Elena; Ordoñez-Godínez, Sara L; Beramendi-Orosco, Laura; Santos-Medina, Graciela L; Miranda, Javier; Rosas-Pérez, Irma

    2018-01-17

    The study of airborne metals in urban areas is relevant due to their toxic effects on human health and organisms. In this study, we analyzed metals including rare earth elements (REE) in particles smaller than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), collected at five sites around the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), during three periods in 2011: April (dry-warm season, DW), August (rainy season, R), and November (dry-cold season, DC). Principal component analysis allowed identifying factors related to geogenic sources and factors related to anthropogenic sources. The recognition of the high impact of geogenic sources in PM 2.5 is in agreement with the REE distribution patterns, which show similar behavior as those shown by igneous rocks, confirming the influence of the regional geogenic material. Metals associated to geogenic sources showed higher concentration (p  0.05) and no similar seasonal pattern among them. These unexpected results exposed outstanding information regarding the identification of different geogenic sources as the main contributors of metals in the atmospheric environment in the MCMA and highlighted the importance of meteorology in the spatial and seasonal metal patterns.

  10. Application of nuclear techniques for the assessment of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte City, MG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucas, Janaina Goncalves

    2009-01-01

    Toxic metals, such as Ni, V, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn and metalloids as As and Se and their compounds are mainly associated with the smaller diameter particulates present in the atmospheric aerosols. This fact is important, principally, when it concerns public health, because this is considered the breathable fraction of particles that can penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause damage to the alveoli. Once in the atmosphere the concentrations of trace metals, in general, show very low levels, thus the determination of the elementary composition of those particles requires the use of appropriate analytical techniques such as Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE), Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and X-Rays Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), among others. The main objective of this study was the identification of the generating sources of gross (PM 10 ) and fine (PM 2.5 ) particles present in the atmospheric aerosols of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. Neutron Activation Analyses by k 0 -method (k0NAA) combined with energy dispersed by X-ray fluorescence was used to measurement of the concentration of trace elements present in each sample. High levels of particulate concentrations, especially PM 2.5 , were measured during the sampling period. In general, the air quality varied from Reasonable to Inadequate. The receptor model used to assist in the identification of the main emission sources was the Principal Components Analysis. The results showed that the main elements presents in particulate inhalable matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Si, Ti, W and Zn. The results for multi-variable analyses shown clearly four pollutant sources, these being: vehicular emissions; resuspended soil/asphalt powder; secondary aerosols associated with emission of SO 2 and industrial emissions associated with fossil oil burning. (author)

  11. The impact of the use of intraoperative radiotherapy on costs, travel time and distance for women with breast cancer in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargallo-Rocha, Juan Enrique; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Picó-Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Quintero-Rodríguez, Carlos Eduardo; Almog, David; Santiago-Concha, Gabriel; Flores-Balcazar, Christian Haydee; Corona, Jaime; Vazquez-Romo, Rafael; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Mohar, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    The low availability and poor access to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in developing countries makes it hard for women with breast cancer to receive breast conservation. We studied the effect of providing intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) on the travel time, distance, and costs of in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Sixty-nine patients treated between January 2013 and September 2014 were analyzed. Travel distance and transit time was calculated using Google Maps. The time and distance patients living in the MCMA treated with IORT would have spent if they had received EBRT was calculated. Cost analysis for each modality was performed. 71% (n = 49) lived in the MCMA. Sixteen (33%) received additional EBRT and 33 (66%) received IORT only. Mean driving distance and transit time of those 33 women was 132.6 km (SD 25.7) and 66 min (SD 32.9). Patients from the MCMA receiving IORT alone avoided 990 visits, 43 700 km and 65 400 min in transit. IORT led to a 12% reduction in costs per patient. By reducing costs and time needed for patients to receive radiotherapy, IORT could potentially enhance access to breast conservation in resource-limited developing countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  13. Assessment of macroinvertebrate communities in adjacent urban stream basins, Kansas City, Missouri, metropolitan area, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.; Krempa, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates were collected as part of two separate urban water-quality studies from adjacent basins, the Blue River Basin (Kansas City, Missouri), the Little Blue River and Rock Creek Basins (Independence, Missouri), and their tributaries. Consistent collection and processing procedures between the studies allowed for statistical comparisons. Seven Blue River Basin sites, nine Little Blue River Basin sites, including Rock Creek, and two rural sites representative of Missouri ecological drainage units and the area’s ecoregions were used in the analysis. Different factors or levels of urban intensity may affect the basins and macroinvertebrate community metrics differently, even though both basins are substantially developed above their downstream streamgages (Blue River, 65 percent; Little Blue River, 52 percent). The Blue River has no flood control reservoirs and receives wastewater effluent and stormflow from a combined sewer system. The Little Blue River has flood control reservoirs, receives no wastewater effluent, and has a separate stormwater sewer system. Analysis of macroinvertebrate community structure with pollution-tolerance metrics and water-quality parameters indicated differences between the Blue River Basin and the Little Blue River Basin.

  14. Family and Work Influences on Stress, Anxiety and Depression Among Bisexual Latino Men in the New York City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Ripkin, Alexandra; Garcia, Jonathan; Severson, Nicolette

    2015-12-01

    The empirical exploration of mental health problems among bisexual Latino men is scarce. Bisexual men experience stress because of their non-conforming sexuality from multiple-sources. In this study we focus on the family and work environments. We conducted a mixed-methods study to examine the impacts of these social environments among behavioral bisexual Latino men in New York City (N = 142). Using the Brief Symptom Inventory we measured stress, depression, and anxiety, and used specific scales to measure familial and work social environmental stress factors. We also measured four cultural factors to assess their potential influence on our hypothesized stressors. To test our hypothesis we used linear regression with stress, depression and anxiety as the primary outcome variables. Our results indicated that bisexual Latino men experienced negative mental health outcomes due to pressures in their familial and work environments. Stress was the strongest predictor of anxiety and depression among the men in the study. After taking stress into account, familial factors were stronger predictors of negative mental health outcomes than work factors. Cultural factors such as acculturation and length of living in the United States were not associated with negative mental health outcomes in our sample. Our findings suggest the importance of addressing stress, anxiety and depression among behaviorally bisexual men, and suggest that addressing family-based stressors is critical for this population. This research should inform future studies addressing this underserved population and provide mental health providers with a foundation for working with bisexual Latino men.

  15. Evaluation of the volatility basis-set approach for the simulation of organic aerosol formation in the Mexico City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Tsimpidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New primary and secondary organic aerosol modules have been added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism based on recent smog chamber studies. The new modelling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach: both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. This new framework with the use of the new volatility basis parameters for low-NOx and high-NOx conditions tends to predict 4–6 times higher anthropogenic SOA concentrations than those predicted with the older generation of models. The resulting PMCAMx-2008 was applied in Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA for approximately a week during April 2003 during a period of very low regional biomass burning impact. The emission inventory, which uses as a starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory, is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments. The predicted organic aerosol (OA concentrations peak in the center of Mexico City, reaching values above 40 μg m−3. The model predictions are compared with the results of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of the Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS observations. The model reproduces both Hydrocarbon-like Organic Aerosol (HOA and Oxygenated Organic Aerosol (OOA concentrations and diurnal profiles. The small OA underprediction during the rush-hour periods and overprediction in the afternoon suggest potential improvements to the description of fresh primary organic emissions and the formation of the oxygenated organic aerosols, respectively, although they may also be due to errors in the simulation of dispersion and vertical mixing. However, the AMS OOA data are not specific enough to prove that the model reproduces the organic aerosol

  16. Residential fencing in a metropolitan area and three small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Kallio; Jerry A. Sesco

    1967-01-01

    Many types of fences were found on residential lots in the metropolitan-suburban area of St. Louis County, Missouri, and three small towns in southern Illinois. Wire fences predominated. More wooden fences were found on village lots than on city lots. In general, the more expensive homes had the most wooden fencing. Homes over 5 years old had more fencing of all...

  17. Indicators of environmental contamination by heavy metals in leaves of Taraxacum officinale in two zones of the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Barba-García, Arisbel; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco; Cortés-Eslava, Josefina; de la Mora, Michel Grutter; García-Martínez, Rocío

    2018-02-01

    The present study was designed to detect the effect of heavy metals in two zones of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC), the Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera (CCA), and the Altzomoni station in the Iztaccíhuatl-Popocatépetl National Park. Taraxacum officinale was selected as the indicator organism of responses to atmospheric contamination by heavy metals. Determinations of heavy metals were performed, and total mRNA was extracted to quantify the expression of microRNA398 (miR398), superoxide dismutase 2 (CSD2), and the amounts of free radicals using the bromide of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-ilo)-2,5-diphenyltetrazole (MTT) salts reduction assay. Results from the Altzomoni station showed high concentrations of five heavy metals, especially Aluminum, while three heavy metals were identified in the CCA-UNAM zone, most importantly, Vanadium, both in the dry season; miR398 expression presented subtle changes but was greater in the leaves from the stations with higher concentrations of heavy metals. Observations included a significant expression of CSD2, mainly in the dry season in both study zones, where levels were significant with respect to controls (p < 0.05). Reduced MTT was also higher in the dry season than in the rainy season (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the increase in heavy metals on the leaves of Taraxacum officinale induces increased expression of the CSD2 gene and reduced MTT; thus, they can be used as indicators for biomonitoring heavy metal concentrations.

  18. Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mugica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A field study was carried out from 2003 to 2004 with the aim to develop the PM2.5 emission source profiles from light-duty gasoline and heavy-duty diesel vehicles, as well as emission source profiles from waste incineration, wood burning, LP gas combustion, and meat broiling. Over 25 chemical species were quantified from the fine particles emitted by the different combustion sources investigated, including organic and elemental carbon, ions, and elements. The OC/TC ratio found in the different PM2.5 profiles was dissimilar as well as the sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, soil species, and trace element content. Consequently, these combustion emission profiles could be used in source reconciliation studies for fine particles.

  19. City School District Reorganization: An Annotated Bibliography. Centralization and Decentralization in the Government of Metropolitan Areas with Special Emphasis on the Organization, Administration, and Financing of Large-City School Systems. Educational Research Series No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, E. Brock; Najat, Sandra

    As a guide to educational administrators working in large cities, abstracts of 161 books, pamphlets, papers, and journal articles published between 1924 and 1966 are classified into five categories: (1) Centralization versus decentralization, (2) local government, (3) metropolitan organization, (4) the financing of education, and (5) the…

  20. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  1. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part II. whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Dias, J.R.; Murowchick, J.B.; Welker, G.; Huggins, D.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of

  2. Household food wastage by income level: A case study of five areas in the city of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is generated throughout the supply chain including at household level. Household waste contains a fairly large percentage of food in developing countries. This study assesses household food wastage in five selected areas in the City...

  3. Radiocarbon-insights into temporal variations in the sources and concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the Los Angeles and Salt Lake City Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimczik, Claudia; Mouteva, Gergana; Simon, Fahrni; Guaciara, Santos; James, Randerson

    2014-05-01

    Increased fossil fuel consumption and biomass burning are contributing to significantly larger emissions of black carbon (BC) aerosols to the atmosphere. Together with organic carbon (OC), BC is a major constituent of fine particulate matter in urban air, contributes to haze and has been linked to a broad array of adverse health effects. Black carbon's high light absorption capacity and role in key (in-)direct climate feedbacks also lead to a range of impacts in the Earth system (e.g. warming, accelerated snow melt, changes in cloud formation). Recent work suggests that regulating BC emissions can play an important role in improving regional air quality and reducing future climate warming. However, BC's atmospheric transport pathways, lifetime and magnitudes of emissions by sector and region, particularly emissions from large urban centers, remain poorly constrained by measurements. Contributions of fossil and modern sources to the carbonaceous aerosol pool (corresponding mainly to traffic/industrial and biomass-burning/biogenic sources, respectively) can be quantified unambiguously by measuring the aerosol radiocarbon (14C) content. However, accurate 14C-based source apportionment requires the physical isolation of BC and OC, and minimal sample contamination with extraneous carbon or from OC charring. Compound class-specific 14C analysis of BC remains challenging due to very small sample sizes (5-15 ug C). Therefore, most studies to date have only analyzed the 14C content of the total organic carbonaceous aerosol fraction. Here, we present time-series 14C data of BC and OC from the Los Angeles (LA) metropolitan area in California - one of two megacities in the United States - and from Salt Lake City (SLC), UT. In the LA area, we analyzed 48h-PM10 samples near the LA port throughout 2007 and 2008 (with the exception of summer). We also collected monthly-PM2.5 samples at the University of California - Irvine, with shorter sampling periods during regional wildfire

  4. Travel Models for Corridors of Metropolitan Areas Served by Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems.

  5. Evaluation of the Volatility Basis-Set Approach for Modeling Primary and Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Pandis, S. N.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic air pollution is an increasingly serious problem for public health, agriculture, and global climate. Organic material (OM) contributes ~ 20-50% to the total fine aerosol mass at continental mid-latitudes. Although OM accounts for a large fraction of PM2.5 concentration worldwide, the contributions of primary and secondary organic aerosol have been difficult to quantify. In this study, new primary and secondary organic aerosol modules were added to PMCAMx, a three dimensional chemical transport model (Gaydos et al., 2007), for use with the SAPRC99 chemistry mechanism (Carter, 2000; ENVIRON, 2006) based on recent smog chamber studies (Robinson et al., 2007). The new modeling framework is based on the volatility basis-set approach (Lane et al., 2007): both primary and secondary organic components are assumed to be semivolatile and photochemically reactive and are distributed in logarithmically spaced volatility bins. The emission inventory, which uses as starting point the MCMA 2004 official inventory (CAM, 2006), is modified and the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions are distributed by volatility based on dilution experiments (Robinson et al., 2007). Sensitivity tests where POA is considered as nonvolatile and POA and SOA as chemically reactive are also described. In all cases PMCAMx is applied in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during March 2006. The modeling domain covers a 180x180x6 km region in the MCMA with 3x3 km grid resolution. The model predictions are compared with Aerodyne's Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) observations from the MILAGRO Campaign. References Robinson, A. L.; Donahue, N. M.; Shrivastava, M. K.; Weitkamp, E. A.; Sage, A. M.; Grieshop, A. P.; Lane, T. E.; Pandis, S. N.; Pierce, J. R., 2007. Rethinking organic aerosols: semivolatile emissions and photochemical aging. Science 315, 1259-1262. Gaydos, T. M.; Pinder, R. W.; Koo, B.; Fahey, K. M.; Pandis, S. N., 2007. Development and application of a three- dimensional aerosol

  6. The Role of Great Cities in Romania for the Metropolitan Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the legislation in force, in Romania there are 11 first rank cities that given their size, their importance, the level of services and the economic activity, represent attractions and are subjected to the development pressures. Still, according to the European tendencies, the urban agglomerations tend to approach this type of cooperation regardless the number of the inhabitants. Currently in Romania there are 11 great cities that have developed processes of organizing the metropolitan areas corresponding to them. Among them, two have already created metropolitan areas: Oradea (2001 and Iaşi (2004, both with the assistance of programs financed by USAID.

  7. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  8. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences

  9. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences related to the

  10. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  11. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  12. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  13. Metropolitan City Finances in India: Options for A New Fiscal Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Bahl

    2012-01-01

    India will face great problems in finding a way to finance public services in its large cities in the next two decades. Backlogs in service levels and infrastructure are already great, and migration to urban areas will put even more pressure on state and local government budgets. Metropolitan cities have an economic base of significant size, but have not been empowered to tap this revenue potential. State governments have more ability to reach a buoyant tax base, and to borrow, but must also ...

  14. On scaling of scientific knowledge production in U.S. metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomaler, Önder; Frenken, Koen; Heimeriks, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Using data on all scientific publications from the Scopus database, we find a superlinear scaling effect for U.S. metropolitan areas as indicated by the increase of per capita publication output with city size. We also find that the variance of residuals is much higher for mid-sized cities (100,000

  15. Implementing the Green City Policy in Municipal Spatial Planning: The Case of Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abongile Dlani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “eco-city,” and similar concepts such as “green” and “sustainable” cities, has evolved overtime concurrent to the development of the understanding of social change and mankind’s impact on environmental and economic health. With the advent of climate change impacts, modern economies developed the green city policy to create sustainable urban development, low emission, and environmentally friendly cities. In South Africa municipalities, including Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM have been tasked to and implement the green city policy. However, BCMM is yet to develop the green city policy that clearly articulate how the municipality will combat climate change and reduce its Green House Gases (GHG emissions in its spatial planning designs. Against this background, this article reviews and analyses green policy landscape in Metropolitan Municipalities. It is envisaged that the research will provide the basis for the development of a comprehensive green policy strategies and programmes for the local transition to action in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, in the Eastern Cape Province.

  16. Spatial mismatch, wages and unemployment in metropolitan areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial mismatch hypothesis states that a lack of connection to job opportunities may affect an individual’s prospects in the labour market, especially for low-skilled workers. This phenomenon is especially observed in large urban areas, in which low-skilled minorities tend to live far away from jobs and face geographical barriers to finding and keeping jobs. This paper aims to investigate whether this negative relationship between spatial mismatch and labour market outcomes is valid in Brazil after controlling for individual characteristics. Our conclusions indicate that there is no clear relation between different measures of accessibility to jobs and the probability of being unemployed. However, for wages there is a clear correlation, which is stronger in larger metropolitan areas in the country. Given the exploratory nature of this work, our results still rely on strong identification hypotheses to avoid potential bias related to simultaneous location decisions of workers and firms within the city. Even if these conditions do not hold, the results are still meaningful as they provide a better understanding of the conditional distribution of wages and the unemployment rate in the biggest metropolitan areas of Brazil.

  17. Regional Disparities and Social Cohesion Policies. The Case of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALINA GRUMO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of Regions appears reconfigured by the "reshaping" of national States. Besides, under a sub-regional scale, forms of governance have been launched, redefining a new territoriality. In Italy, the role of the Regions and Cities is more and more important in the decision-making processes of the territories and it is also characterized by the recent establishment of the metropolitan cities, but still not geo-politically defined. There is, in fact, a constitutional reform process through the region's reorganization legislative autonomy and strengthening of local governments. In this context, some areas are characterized by social unrest that includes new forms of poverty, urban malaise and marginalization, due also to the financial and economic crisis whose signs of recovery are still very weak. In the European Union, the programming decisions considered the policy of development and cohesion also at the local scale. The 2014-2020 EU programming cycle, in fact, has defined the main role of metropolitan cities, but also of cities and internal areas. The contribution will analyze Puglia, region of southern Italy, and the metropolitan area of Bari, the regional capital, in order to verify policies concerning the social field, both through "strategic planning" and launching the so-called "smart city" experience. In the metropolitan city, indeed, there is already an orientation towards the "social innovation" to address the issues of social cohesion and inclusion, consistent to sustainable development.

  18. Characterization of on-road vehicle emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area using a mobile laboratory in chase and fleet average measurement modes during the MCMA-2003 field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zavala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile laboratory was used to measure on-road vehicle emission ratios during the MCMA-2003 field campaign held during the spring of 2003 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA. The measured emission ratios represent a sample of emissions of in-use vehicles under real world driving conditions for the MCMA. From the relative amounts of NOx and selected VOC's sampled, the results indicate that the technique is capable of differentiating among vehicle categories and fuel type in real world driving conditions. Emission ratios for NOx, NOy, NH3, H2CO, CH3CHO, and other selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs are presented for chase sampled vehicles in the form of frequency distributions as well as estimates for the fleet averaged emissions. Our measurements of emission ratios for both CNG and gasoline powered "colectivos" (public transportation buses that are intensively used in the MCMA indicate that – in a mole per mole basis – have significantly larger NOx and aldehydes emissions ratios as compared to other sampled vehicles in the MCMA. Similarly, ratios of selected VOCs and NOy showed a strong dependence on traffic mode. These results are compared with the vehicle emissions inventory for the MCMA, other vehicle emissions measurements in the MCMA, and measurements of on-road emissions in U.S. cities. We estimate NOx emissions as 100 600±29 200 metric tons per year for light duty gasoline vehicles in the MCMA for 2003. According to these results, annual NOx emissions estimated in the emissions inventory for this category are within the range of our estimated NOx annual emissions. Our estimates for motor vehicle emissions of benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde in the MCMA indicate these species are present in concentrations higher than previously reported. The high motor vehicle aldehyde emissions may have an impact on the photochemistry of urban areas.

  19. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. The severity of dental caries in adults aged 35 to 44 years residing in the metropolitan area of a large city in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M; Vasconcelos, Mara; Haddad, João Paulo A; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2012-07-31

    In recent decades, studies in the field of public health have increasingly focused on social determinants that affect the health-illness process. The epidemiological perspective considers oral health to be a reflection of socioeconomic and environmental aspects, and it is particularly influenced by the social context. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the severity of dental caries among adults aged 35 to 44 years and characteristics on the different levels at which the determinants of caries operate (individual, social structure and social context). A home-based, cross-sectional field study was carried out involving a sample of 1,150 adults (35 to 44 years of age) residing in metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The DMFT (decayed, missing, filled tooth) index (≥14) was used to determine the severity of dental caries. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out using the Poisson regression model with the level of significance set at 5% (p caries severity. The rate of high-severity caries in the group between 40 and 44 years of age was 1.15-fold (CI: 1.04-1.26) greater than that among those aged 35 to 39 years. A greater prevalence of high caries severity was found among those who frequently visited the dentist (PR = 1.18; CI: 1.07-1.30), those with a lower income (PR = 1.11; CI: 1.01-1.23), those who reported that their neighborhood did not come together in the previous year to petition political leaders for benefits (PR = 1.16; CI: 1.05-1.28) and those who are unable to make decisions (without empowerment) (PR = 1.12; CI: 1.01-1.24). The present study revealed high dental caries severity in adults, which was associated with individual characteristics, health-related behavior and social structure and contextual variables. These findings underscore the importance of considering social determinants involved in the health-illness process when carrying out epidemiological studies on dental caries.

  1. Association between high temperature and mortality in metropolitan areas of four cities in various climatic zones in China: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghong; Cheng, Yibin; Cui, Guoquan; Peng, Chaoqiong; Xu, Yan; Wang, Yulin; Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Jingyi; Li, Chengcheng; Wu, Zhen; Bi, Peng; Jin, Yinlong

    2014-08-07

    Numerous studies have reported on the associations between ambient temperatures and mortality. However, few multi-city studies have been conducted in developing countries including China. This study aimed to examine the association between high temperature and mortality outcomes in four cities with different climatic characteristics in China to identify the most vulnerable population, detect the threshold temperatures, and provide scientific evidence for public health policy implementations to respond to challenges from extreme heat. A semi-parametric generalized additive model (GAM) with a Poisson distribution was used to analyze the impacts of the daily maximum temperature over the threshold on mortality after controlling for covariates including time trends, day of the week (DOW), humidity, daily temperature range, and outdoor air pollution. The temperature thresholds for all-cause mortality were 29°C, 35°C, 33°C and 34°C for Harbin, Nanjing, Shenzhen and Chongqing, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders including air pollution, strong associations between daily maximum temperature and daily mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic outcomes, and particularly diabetes, were observed in different geographical cities, with increases of 3.2-5.5%, 4.6-7.5% and 12.5-31.9% (with 14.7-29.2% in diabetes), respectively, with each 1°C increment in the daily maximum temperature over the threshold. A stronger temperature-associated mortality was detected in females compared to males. Additionally, both the population over 55 years and younger adults aged 30 to 54 years reported significant heat-mortality associations. Extreme heat is becoming a huge threat to public health and human welfare due to the strong temperature-mortality associations in China. Climate change with increasing temperatures may make the situation worse. Relevant public health strategies and an early extreme weather and health warning system should be

  2. Assessment of rain water chemistry in the Lucknow metropolitan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Purnima; Rai, Vibhuti

    2018-05-01

    Lucknow metropolitan city is one of the most populated cities of India, which have been facing many problems such as chaotic urbanization, overpopulation, water scarcity, waterlogging, etc., among these water scarcity is one of the important problem. Rain water harvesting is a futuristic tool for mitigation of water scarcity problem through conservation and storage of rain water. This rain water can be used for all purposes by human beings, thus it is necessary to check the chemistry of rain water. The rain water samples were collected from the five zones of Lucknow city. For the comparative study, water samples have been collected from two different dates first from first rainfall and second after 3 days of interval in the second rainfall. The heavy metal concentrations were found in both first and second rainfall water samples in all zones of Lucknow city. The concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead were found to be sufficiently high in several samples. These heavy metals show the concentration above the permissible limit as set by WHO, which can cause various adverse health impacts.

  3. Association between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 and distance from heavy traffic roads in the Mexico City metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Escamilla-Núñez, Consuelo; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Chow, Judith; Watson, John; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    To study the relationship between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 at various distances from heavy traffic roads and diesel vehicle counts in Mexico City. PM2.5 samples were obtained from June 2003-June 2005 in three MCMA regions. Light absorption (b abs) in a subset of PM2.5 samples was determined. We evaluated the effect of distance and diesel vehicle counts to heavy traffic roads on PM2.5 b abs using generalized estimating equation models. Median PM2.5 b abs measurements significantly decrease as distance from heavy traffic roads increases (proads. Our model predicts that PM2.5 b abs measurements would increase by 20% (CI95% 3-38) as the hourly heavy diesel vehicle count increases by 150 per hour. PM2.5 b abs measurements are significantly associated with distance from motorways and traffic density and therefore can be used to assess human exposure to traffic-related emissions.

  4. High-capacity transport, floor area ratio and its relationship with urbanization of metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, B.L. de; Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de

    2016-07-01

    Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas (54%). Near 42% of the global urban population live in cities with more than 1 million inhabitants, where problems associated with urban sprawl such as informal settlement, social-economic changes, environmental degradation and deficient high-capacity transport (HCT) systems are common. Meanwhile, urbanization and its associated transportation infrastructure define the relationship between city and countryside, between the city’s inner core and the periphery, between the citizen and his right to move. This article discusses and presents an overview about the relationship between the planning and extension of HCT systems and urban planning, (in the figure of the floor-area ratio - FAR- prescribed in regulations). The methodological approach consists of drawing a conceptual framework and studying 33 different cities of metropolitan areas on five continents. It’s noticed that areas in cities with a high construction potential but with an insufficient HCT negatively influence in urban mobility and hence the right to the city. We consider right to the city the various social and fundamental rights that, among others, includes the right to public transportation. Therefore there’s a real need of an integrated approach of community participation, FAR distribution, urban planning and transportation planning and so that urbanization, inevitable these days, takes place in a fair and harmonious way. (Author)

  5. Design and Scale Isses in the New Metropolitan City: a study of the south-east homogeneous zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mussinelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the new Metropolitan City and recent anti-sprawl legislations form part of a new urban regeneration initiative. In this context, the goal of the current research is to provide spatial forecasts, guidelines for governance, and economic feasibility scenarios for revitalisation work. The research is centred on the Milan Metropolitan area. In addition to exploring certain theories of regeneration and resilience, this paper reinstates the practice of spatial analysis of abandoned industrial areas at a metropolitan scale and identifies boundaries, environments, and issues for meta-design testing based on public initiatives aimed at increasing socio-economic resilience for the south-east sector of the Milanese metropolitan area

  6. Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Solid waste management is associated with health hazards. ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of ...

  7. Smart Policies and Metropolitan Vision: the Spatial Dimension in the Experience of Amsterdam Smart City Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Fini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the main projects and policies recently developed by the Municipality of Amsterdam in the field of energy policies, with particular reference to the projects promoted in the context of the ASC - Amsterdam Smart City Platform. The analyzed projects and policies seem to be relevant for at least three aspects and for the matters raised by them:I. for the aim to connect policies and projects of the Amsterdam Smart City with the definition of a territorial vision for the Amsterdam metropolitan area;II. for the strong connection characterizing this experience between energy-management policies on the territory and the management’s choices related to urban planning and urban design;III. finally, the experience is relevant in relation with the consolidation of the ACS’s platform as a place where several individuals are directly involved in the management of public good and where all requests and peculiarities contribute to defining a common planning process on the energy and environmental subjects in the urban and metropolitan area.  Based on the latest, most significant information of the activities performed by Amsterdam Smart City Platform, the paper focuses on the results after four years since the projects and tests have been carried out, on the basis of a network structuring, predetermined energy-saving targets and of some space-related choices regarding the whole territory as well as ASC’s policies.

  8. Recognition of management structure and spatial planning in Tehran metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Lalehpour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metropolitan areas are concentrated and dense areas filled settlements and include a central urban region with its surrounding residences. Severity and complexity of issues in metropolitan areas along with intricacy and quantity of influential factors in these areas necessitate novel approaches and innovative solutions for comprehensive strategies and management coordination of land use in these regions. The present study has taken this approach to investigate management structure and spatial planning in Tehran metropolitan area. The study takes parameters like political and management decentralization, elements affecting urban management based on the sources of power and province and finally spatial domain of urban management into account. Findings revealed that decentralization in national management and political structure has limited tasks and authority of urban management. In this regard, a closer look at management structure and spatial planning of Tehran metropolitan are demonstrates that the government and its element dominate policy making, planning and spatial management of the city and inherent position of municipality and city council suffer weaknesses in their role as urban management. Results from investigating official tasks in urban management elements and their spatial domain reveals lack of coordination and Fragmentation in management structure and spatial planning in the region. The paper attempts to discuss these Fragmentation in the fields of management, function, politics and domains.

  9. Performance of FHWA model for predicting traffic noise: a case study of metropolitan city, Lucknow (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Srivastava

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and transport activities are the two major sources of noise pollution in any metropolitan city. Lucknow city, the capital of the largest populated state Uttar Pradesh in India has an area of 310 sq. km and is rapidly growing as a commercial, industrial and trading centre of northern India. The population of Lucknow city as per census 2001 is 22.45 Lacs. It is expected that by the year 2021 it will make 45 Lacs. The total vehicle population in Lucknow city on 31 March 2008, was nearly 1 million with almost 80% two wheelers, 12% cars, 1.36% three wheelers, 0.45% buses etc. A study was carried out to assess the existing status of noise levels and its impacts on the environment with a possibility of further expansion of the city. Ambient noise levels were measured at different locations selected on the basis of land use such as silence, heavy traffic and residential and commercial zones. It was found that noise levels at all selected locations were much higher (75–90 dB than the prescribed limits. The observed traffic volume and data on road geometry were used to predict noise levels using Federal Highway Administration Agency (FHWA model and the calculated noise levels were compared with the observed levels for checking the suitability of this model for predicting the future levels. It was established that the results obtained by FHWA model were very close to the observed noise levels and that the model was suitable to be used for other similar metropolitan cities in India.

  10. Fez Wireless Metropolitan Area Network | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since 2004, IDRC's Acacia program initiative (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) has financed two projects in electronic local government services in Fez, Morocco. Project 101980 supported computerization of civil status registries in the city. Project 104053 is in the process of replicating the first project on a ...

  11. Usage of Social Media in City Marketing: A Research on 30 Metropolitan Municipalities in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Gümüş

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in information and communication technologies cause serious developments in marketing field similar to every sector. In parallel with these developments, the social media channels which appear as Web 2.0 applications have a number of advantages in comparison with traditional media channels. Social media gained a place in marketing activities because of its advantages. Social media is added on instruments in line with these developments that countries benefit in marketing activities for attracting more tourists, investment and becoming prominent against the other cities. Cities intensively benefit from social media because of social media’s properties like reaching the large masses, low marketing cost, interaction, receiving feedbacks rapidly, etc. Within this context, the purpose of this research is to determine the use statuses of social media by metropolitan municipalities as part of city marketing. In accordance with this purpose, official social media accounts of 30 metropolitan municipalities are investigated between the dates of 01/09/2016 and 30/09/2016, then their shares in social media channels are investigated in the context of city marketing.It is observed that two metropolitan municipalities do not have official Facebook accounts, four metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Twitter account as well. Again, it is found that 19 metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Instagram account and 17 metropolitan municipalities do not have official YouTube account. In consequence, it is observed that, our metropolitan municipalities do not benefit from social media effectively for city marketing activities.

  12. The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2005-01-01

    Metropolitan cities are undergoing a major spatial and environmental transformation. The proliferation of business districts, corporate headquarters and international hotels is prompting a massive verticalization and densification of land use, which is affecting the urban environment and

  13. Access to destinations : annual accessibility measure for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes previous phases of the Access to Destinations project and applies the techniques developed : over the course of the project to conduct an evaluation of accessibility in the Twin Cities metropolitan region for : 2010. It describ...

  14. Characterization of aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejias Perez, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present study, was to elaborate a profile of the contamination by private matter and to characterize the aerosols collected in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose (Costa Rica). For that, a campaign of sampling was carried out in three points of the city of San Jose, differentiated by there degree of activity: Center of San Jose (Central Station of Firemen), San Isidro of Coronado -Canton of Vasquez of Coronado- (Municipality) and Escazu (Municipality). Such campaign was carried out from April 4 to July 4, 1996 (transition summer-winter), and in two periods of time of 8 hours: 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. and of 8 p.m. to 4 a.m. The aerosols were collected utilizing Gent Pm-10 samplers, in filters of polycarbonate of 0,4 μm and 8 μm in cascade, with a flow average of 15 L/min., and it determined the composition average of the present aerosols. The concentration of the majority of the anions were obtained by means of ionic chromatography of high resolution, and the main cations by spectrophotometry of atomic absorption with electro thermic atomization. The space-temporary variations of the concentrations were evaluated and their correlation with the meteorologic variable. (S. Grainger) [es

  15. Haphazard commercialization: a potential threat to sustainable commercial development in metropolitan cities? The case of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, O.; Hameed, R.

    2005-01-01

    The demand of urban space for commercial development due to unprecedented population growth has surpassed the planned supply delivered by planning agencies in metropolitan cities of Pakistan. As a corollary to that, conversion of residential land use into various types of commercial activities has sprung up particularly along major roads of planned residential areas and arterial roads of cities. These conversions have proceeded, both with and without official consent, largely in a haphazard manner without following a coherent strategy. This has resulted in acute parking problems, reduction in traffic capacity of roads and resultant increase in congestion, energy use, air and noise pollution, and burden on utility services. Permitting conversion of land use in a haphazard manner seems not only a departure from planning principles but also jeopardizing the spatial structure of cities causing serious environmental repercussions. This paper presents evidence to the above observations through a detailed study of the environmental impact of commercial development in Lahore. The study is based on detailed land use, socio-economic, traffic, and parking surveys in carefully selected sample of three major housing schemes variously located in Lahore. The paper argues that weak development control, out-dated master plan, and inappropriate commercialization policies of the Government have lead to unsustainable pattern of commercial development even in planned residential areas. The findings of the study call for formulation of environmentally friendly commercialization policy. This will also involve redefining basic land use allocation standards and improvements in the design considerations so as to promote sustainable development of commercial areas in metropolitan cities. (author)

  16. The Spatial Changes of Land Use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area 1970s – 2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Simion

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explore the dimension of spatial changes of land use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area (BMA over the past forty years. Using GIS-based land use data sets of the years 1970, 1990 and 2000, combining with statistical data, we attempted to quantify the spatial pattern of land use changes in the BMA. Our findings indicate that most significantly changes occurred with arable lands that have been reduced from 77% of total metropolitan area in 1970 to 71.3% in 2000 and in same time the built up area increase from 6.2% in 1970 to 10.4% in 2000. Vineyards and orchards suffered a reduced of their spread. In the case of vineyards the percentage of total area decrease from 2.7% in 1970 to 0.8% and regarding orchards from 1.1% in 1970 to 0.6% in 2000. The growth of built up indicate the urban influence of Bucharest city on it the large metropolitan area. The decrease of vineyards and orchards can be correlated with agrarian reform passed after the fall of socialist economic system that generated many problems for the farmers that cannot continue to cultivate the land with these kinds of cultures. These findings have implication with the futures strategies on urban and metropolitan planning in this area.

  17. Understanding heterogeneity in metropolitan India: the added value of remote sensing data for analyzing sub-standard residential areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.; Kuffer, M.; Pfeffer, K.; Sliuzas, R.; Karuppannan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the heterogeneity in metropolitan areas of India utilizing remote sensing data can help to identify more precise patterns of sub-standard residential areas. Earlier work analyzing inequalities in Indian cities employed a constructed index of multiple deprivations (IMDs) utilizing data from

  18. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  19. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  20. Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Thermal Environment and Air Quality in Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. Y.; Sun, C. H.; Jiang, J. A.; Wen, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHI) caused by the regional-to-global environmental changes, dramatic urbanization, and shifting in land-use compositions has becoming an important environmental issue in recent years. In the past century, the coverage of urban area in Taipei Basin has dramatically increasing by ten folds. The strengthen of UHI effect significantly enhances the frequency of warm-night effect, and strongly influences the thermal environment of the residents in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan. In addition, the urban expansions due to dramatic increasing in urban populations and traffic loading significantly impacts the air quality and causes health issue in Taipei. In this study, the main objective is to quantify and characterize the temporal and spatial distributions of thermal environmental and air quality in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan Area by using monitoring data from Central Weather Bureau, Environmental Protection Administration. In addition, in this study, we conduct the analysis on the distribution of physiological equivalent temperature in the micro scale in the metropolitan area by using the observation data and quantitative simulation to investigate how the thermal environment is influenced under different conditions. Furthermore, we establish a real-time mobile monitoring system by using wireless sensor network to investigate the correlation between the thermal environment, air quality and other environmental factors, and propose to develop the early warning system for heat stress and air quality in the metropolitan area. The results from this study can be integrated into the management and planning system, and provide sufficient and important background information for the development of smart city in the metropolitan area in the future.

  1. Is There a Global Role for Metropolitan City Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the potential for linking large metropolitan public libraries to international interlibrary loan networks. Issues involved in international networking, including funding, standards, network connectivity, and protectionism, are discussed. Examples of libraries capable of participating and brief descriptions of their collections are given.…

  2. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Human Mobility in Manila Metropolitan Area with Person-Trip Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan area can be regarded as a multi-functional structure consisting of plural coordinated urban nucleuses. This study aims to clarify the characteristics of urban nucleuses and a spatiotemporal pattern of human mobility in the Manila metropolitan area. Hourly density of human mobility from 00:00 to 24:00 in the whole study area is quantitatively studied. Urban nucleuses with six types: central city, business city, commuter town, south suburb, north suburb, and subcenter city, are identified. Differences of human mobility owing to different human behaviors or properties are also analyzed in 10 typical areas with different urban functions. Results prove that pattern of human mobility in each area depends on its human social division, population composition, infrastructure condition, and functional structure. This study provides an effective thinking on handling geo-tagged big data supported by MATLAB programming and GIS technology. Moreover, spatiotemporal analysis of human mobility also possesses a meaningful academic value for transport geography.

  3. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographical information system grid modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  4. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  5. Urban mobility, socioeconomic and urban transport variables in metropolitan areas in three continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho da Costa, F.B. de; Nassi, C.D.

    2016-07-01

    Transportation is the soul of urban cities. Find sustainable ways to keep people moving in our cities is more important than ever. Historically, cities have developed in different ways. Each has its own personality and complexity. But in all cases, transport and mobility have played a key role in city life. Due to the relevance of mobility this article tries to establish the relationship between some variables. The method was developed by collecting, analyzing and comparing data on metropolitan regions in North America, South America, Europe and Oceania through a mathematical model. From each selected location the following data were gathered: population, area (km²), demographic density (inhab/km²), socio-economic aspects (annual GDP per capita), transport system (subway extension), number of trips per person per day and modal split (% non-motorized, % public transport and % private transport). In this study we analyze some variables that influence the number of trips per person per day. Understanding the associations between all the variables that influence the number of trips per person per day contributes the planners to determine whether changes are needed to improve in the transport system in the metropolitan region. (Author)

  6. Relevance of metropolitan government in Latin American cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paiva, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Large cities in the world confront an interesting dilemma: more democracy and therefore fragmentation of their governments into small agencies, or better performance in an integrated world system of cities and therefore better co-ordination of government functions. Fragmentation or co-ordination?

  7. Diabetes diagnosis and management among insured adults across metropolitan areas in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides diabetes-related metrics for the 50 largest metropolitan areas in the U.S. in 2012—including prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, insurance status of the population with diabetes, diabetes medication use, and prevalence of poorly controlled diabetes.Diabetes prevalence estimates were calculated using cross-sectional data combining the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, American Community Survey, National Nursing Home Survey, Census population files, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analysis of medical claims files (2012 de-identified Normative Health Information database, 2011 Medicare Standard Analytical Files, and 2008 Medicaid Analytic eXtract produced information on treatment and poorly controlled diabetes by geographic location, insurance type, sex, and age group.Among insured adults with diagnosed type 2 diabetes in 2012, the proportion receiving diabetes medications ranged from 83% in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, to 65% in West Palm Beach, Florida. The proportion of treated patients with medical claims indicating poorly controlled diabetes was lowest in Minneapolis, Minnesota (36% and highest in Texas metropolitan areas of Austin (51%, San Antonio (51%, and Houston (50%.Estimates of diabetes detection and management across metropolitan areas often differ from state and national estimates. Local metrics of diabetes management can be helpful for tracking improvements in communities over time. Keywords: Diabetes, Management

  8. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  9. Heterogeneous Structure and Seismicity beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kato, A.; Sakai, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2010-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes damaged mega-thrust earthquakes. Sato et al. (2005) revealed the geometry of upper surface of PSP, and Hagiwara et al. (2006) estimated the velocity structure beneath Boso peninsula. However, these results are not sufficient for the assessment of the entire picture of the seismic hazards beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area including those due to an intra-slab M7+ earthquake. So, we launched the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (Hirata et al., 2009). Proving the more detailed geometry and physical properties (e.g. velocities, densities, attenuation) and stress field within PSP is very important to attain this issue. The core item of this project is a dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) for making observations in the metropolitan area (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We deployed the 249 seismic stations with a spacing of 5 km. Some parts of stations construct 5 linear arrays at interval of 2 km such as Tsukuba-Fujisawa (TF) array, etc. The TF array runs from northeast to southwest through the center of Tokyo. In this study, we applied the tomography method to image the heterogeneous structure under the Tokyo metropolitan area. We selected events from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) unified earthquake list. All data of MeSO-net were edited into event data by the selected JMA unified earthquake list. We picked the P and S wave arrival times. The total number of stations and events are 421 and 1,256, respectively. Then, we applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) to this dataset and estimated the fine-scale velocity structure. The grid nodes locate 10 km interval in parallel with the array, 20 km interval in perpendicular to the array; and on depth direction, 5 km interval to a depth of less than 50 km and 10 km interval at a depth of more

  10. Appreciation of housing policies in the Metropolitan Area of Londrina-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Roberta Zanon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the interpretation of partial search results on the "Right to Housing: applicability and effectiveness of legal instruments in the Metropolitan Area of Londrina-PR" since 2012 in the Universidade Estadual de Londrina. The context of social housing production in Londrina, from the years 1980 provides analysis allowance and reflection on the implementation of social housing policy in the city, especially in the 2000s programs, in particular with the implementation of the Residential Vista Bela by Minha Casa Minha Vida Program, one of the largest housing projects in Brazil, handed out the population in 2011 and 2012.

  11. First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Carretón, Elena; García-Guasch, Laín; Expósito, Jordi; Armario, Belén; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-11-12

    The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown. Serum samples from 758 cats living in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were collected between 2012 and 2013. To establish the seroprevalence of heartworm infection in cats, serological techniques for anti-D.immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibody detection were used while a commercial ELISA test kit was used to detect circulating D.immitis antigens. Of these samples, 11.47% were positive to D.immitis and Wolbachia surface protein antibodies and 0.26% were positive to D.immitis antigens. The higher antibody seroprevalences were found in the areas that follow the courses of the rivers Llobregat and Anoia (Baix Llobregat 11.5%, Vallés Occidental 13.2%; Barcelonés 11.7%) where humidity and vegetation favour the development of the mosquito vectors. High antibody seroprevalences were also found in the urban areas (Barcelona city 13.1%; Sabadell 15.5%), which demonstrates that city cats are also at risk from D.immitis infection. Generally, in Spain cats do not receive prophylactic treatment and therefore the risk of infection is higher in this species than in dogs. Adequate prophylactic plans should be implemented in the feline population. This is the first epidemiologic study on feline heartworm infection to be carried out in continental Spain.

  12. PAD TECHNIQUE ON DEFORESTATION SITUATION ON PETROPOLIS’ METROPOLITAN AREA - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Santos de Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rising and intensification of production’s activities, as industries, the deforestation taxes show to be on an alarming level. It is wide spread known the consequences that deforestation might cause in metropolitan areas. In order to evalue the consequences of this growing phenomenon, is possible to use a role of ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. One of them is the Preliminary Analysis of Danger (PAD, which is based on qualitative and statistics analysis and might be used in association with other ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. It’s goal is to analyze dangers in potential, it’s causes and consequences, in which is also done an associated risk analysis, which the last is the association between the classifications of frequency and severity, and, in the end, it gives suggestions of measures to avoid these dangers (undesired events. In this study, six dangers have been identified, in which none of them present despicable or low risk (0%, 16% present medium or high risk and 66% present critic risk. These datas point out that the deforestation situation might cause dangers with great consequences to Petropolis’ metropolitan area, just as floodings and earth slidings, which higthlights the urgency of management of the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20003

  13. The medicinal animal markets in the metropolitan region of Natal City, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo S; Torres, Denise F; Brooks, Sharon E; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2010-07-06

    This study investigates the trade of animals for medicinal purposes in Natal metropolitan area, northeastern Brazil, to document which animal species are used, how and for what purposes. This study also discusses the implications of the use of zootherapeutics for wildlife conservation. Based on interviews with merchants of medicinal animals in all open fairs of the metropolitan region of Natal City, we calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species relative importance to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. We describe the therapeutic effects of 23 animal species used medicinally. The zootherapeutical products sold commercially are used to treat 34 health problems that were classified into 14 broad categories. We also highlight those species valued for their effectiveness against a range of ailments. The highest ICF value (1.0) was cited for diseases of the circulatory system, which include relief of symptoms such as stroke, hemorrhage, varicose veins and edema. Our study indicated that the local population holds a great deal of ethnomedical knowledge about their local animal resources, and highlights the need for clinical investigations of these traditional remedies to test the safety and efficacy. The animal species identified in this study not only hold high medicinal value for local populations, but could potentially be a source of healing compounds that could aid pharmaceutical research. While the impact of these practices on animal populations is unknown, the high extractive value of these animal populations and the associated medicinal traditional knowledge, needs to be considered in any conservation strategy aimed at the faunistic resources of this area. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An environmental pollution study of Indian metropolitan cities and industrial surroundings by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Chutke, N.L.; Ambulkar, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    The process of urbanization and industrialization during last two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin. (author) 26 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas, Regina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male, with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15; all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%, school difficulties (39.6%, and midlevel hearing problems (32%. Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%. The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3% to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%, as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%. A significant relationship (p = 0.0000 between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens.

  16. Seismic Microzonation of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfraz; Khan, M. Asif

    2018-01-01

    Microzonation deals with classifying seismic hazards in terms of ground motions resulting from amplification of seismic waves by nature of soil profiles underlying a site, town or city. This paper presents the results of microzonation study for Islamabad metropolitan, the capital of Pakistan. Cumulative SPT- N values from geophysical borehole and microtremor (Tromino Engy Plus) data were used to classify the soils into classes C (very dense soil profile and soft rock) and D (stiff soil profile) as devised by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). Soil response analyses were carried out based on scaled time histories of Kashmir earthquake (2005, 0.02 g), Mangla earthquake (2006, 0.031 g) and Haripur earthquake (2010, 0.13 g) corresponding to return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years. Spectral accelerations on the ground surface are calculated by two different approaches (1) soil response analysis performed using one dimensional shear wave propagation method (equivalent linear approach); and (2) NEHRP and Borcherdt amplification factors. Microzonation maps are produced with respect to ground shaking intensity for the return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years taking into account the variation of the spectral accelerations calculated based on these two procedures. The results show that the accelerations at the ground surface in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan are in the range of 0.40-0.48 g (for 150 years), 0.59-0.65 g (for 475 years), 0.71-0.77 g (for 975 years), and 0.92-0.94 g (for 2475 years). The amplification factors for these four hazard levels range from 0.96 to 1.38 (150 years), 0.90-1.14 (475 years), 0.85-1.04 (975 years) and 0.84-1.00 (2475 years).

  17. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  18. Urban mobility regulation in metropolitan area of Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the paradigm of sustainable urban mobility requires institutional capacities, appropriate policies and a regulatory framework that contains them. This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the regulation of urban mobility in the metropolitan area of Mendoza. To this end, the current mobility regulations are assessed through indicators that are classified into three key areas: institutional and political organization, urban system and financial setup. The purpose is to account for the existence, or not, of regulatory capacities contained in the paradigm of sustainable mobility. Among the results, the absence of a policy of sustainable urban mobility is noteworthy, as well as the lack of sectorial coordination. Also of note is the absence of coordination between the urban planning system and the public transport provision. Lastly, in the financial sector, the results point to a promotion of sustainable transport modes but without such an explicit purpose.

  19. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Decomposition of Net CO2 Emission in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area of Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers have been sharing growing concerns that climate change has significant impacts on human society and economic activates. Knowledge of the influencing factors of CO2 emission is the crucial step to reduce it. In this paper, both CO2 emission and CO2 sink on a city-level of the nine cities in Wuhan Metropolitan Area are calculated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach. Moreover, the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI model was employed to decompose the net CO2 emission from 2001 to 2009. Results showed that (1 the largest amount of CO2 emission comes from energy while the largest amount CO2 sink comes from cropland; (2 economic level (S was the largest positive driving factor for net CO2 emission growth in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, population (P also played a positive driving role, but with very weak contribution; and as negative inhibiting factors, energy structure (E and energy efficiency (C significantly reduced the net CO2 emission.

  1. Comparison of daytime and night-time populations adjacent to interstate highways in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Daytime and night-time population densities bordering Interstate highway routes in metropolitan areas are compared at the traffic analysis zone level. In three of the metropolitan areas studied, histograms of daytime to night-time population density ratios are peaked at 1.0. In a smaller metropolitan area, the peak of the histogram moves to values greater than 1.0 but less than 2.0. In view of the typical uncertainties in calculating radiological transport effects (∼2), this study indicates that a distinction between daytime and night-time transport is not warranted, especially since a typical route includes extensive transport outside metropolitan areas. (author)

  2. Evaluation of sludge management alternatives in Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, M; Erdim, E; Kinaci, C; Akca, L

    2005-01-01

    The main concern of this paper was to predict the sludge quantities generated from 18 wastewater treatment plants, which were stated to be established in the "Istanbul Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage, Sewage Treatment and Disposal Master Plan", 10 of which are in operation at present. Besides this, obtaining the required data to compare various treatment schemes was another goal of the study. Especially, the estimation of the sludge quantity in the case of enhanced primary sedimentation was of importance. Wastewater sludge management strategies were discussed in order to develop suggestions for Istanbul Metropolitan city. Within this context, the wastewater treatment facilities, mentioned in the Master Plan that had been completed by 2000, were evaluated in terms of sludge production rates, locations and technical and management aspects. Disposal alternatives of the wastewater treatment sludge were also evaluated in this study. Using of the dewatered sludge as a landfill cover material seems the best alternative usage. Up to the year of 2040, the requirement of cover material for landfills in Istanbul will be met by the dewatered sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants in the region.

  3. Massage Therapy in Outpatient Cancer Care: A Metropolitan Area Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccio, Robin Streit; Parikh, Bijal

    2017-01-01

    Massage offers cancer patients general quality of life benefits as well as alleviation of cancer-related symptoms/cancer-treatment–related symptoms including pain, anxiety, and fatigue. Little is known about whether massage is accessible to cancer patients who receive treatment in the outpatient setting and how massage is incorporated into the overall cancer treatment plan. Outpatient cancer centers (n = 78) in a single metropolitan area were included this mixed-methods project that included a systematic analysis of website information and a telephone survey. Massage was offered at only 40 centers (51.3% of total). A range of massage modalities were represented, with energy-based therapies (Reiki and Therapeutic Touch) most frequently provided. Although massage therapists are licensed health care providers in the states included in this analysis, massage was also provided by nurses, physical therapists, and other health care professionals. PMID:28845677

  4. Massage Therapy in Outpatient Cancer Care: A Metropolitan Area Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Virginia S; Miccio, Robin Streit; Parikh, Bijal

    2017-10-01

    Massage offers cancer patients general quality of life benefits as well as alleviation of cancer-related symptoms/cancer-treatment-related symptoms including pain, anxiety, and fatigue. Little is known about whether massage is accessible to cancer patients who receive treatment in the outpatient setting and how massage is incorporated into the overall cancer treatment plan. Outpatient cancer centers (n = 78) in a single metropolitan area were included this mixed-methods project that included a systematic analysis of website information and a telephone survey. Massage was offered at only 40 centers (51.3% of total). A range of massage modalities were represented, with energy-based therapies (Reiki and Therapeutic Touch) most frequently provided. Although massage therapists are licensed health care providers in the states included in this analysis, massage was also provided by nurses, physical therapists, and other health care professionals.

  5. The design of gated communities in São Paulo metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rett Lemos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as study object the formation of a kind of residential urban landscape spread in a large number of Brazilian cities, in special those around the Sao Paulo metropolitan area: the gated communities destined to a population with average and high income. The premise that it deals with a type of appropriation of urban ground related since the middle of the 1970‘s when internal adjustments in real estate market were implemented, and to the standards of growth of the São Paulo metropolitan area, specifically its process of dispersion, excites the necessity of identify the characteristics and specially the effects to the rest of the urban space that are been spread in terms never seen. Twenty eight enterprises launched between 1994 and 2005 in the metropolitan area are analyzed. The set of case studies involves from communities settled in the rural zones to the urban areas; in common is the fact that are enterprises created by a private entrepreneur to subdivide an only one private property, and the management of the internal space by proper codes. The analysis was developed in two scales: at a first moment, it was restricted in the internal spaces, appointing the planning methods and the distribution standards of the open areas, the volumetric occupations, and the leisure equipments; in the following one, were analyzed the neighbor landscape, identifying the main characteristics of the fabric urban and the not constructed natural environment.

  6. Aspects of Land Take in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land take is a phenomenon of great concern nowadays because of the large number of its negative impacts regarding biological, economic and social balance. In Italy, the development of urban and other artificial land has been irreversibly transforming a non-renewable resource such as soil, regardless the almost constant population rate, with different speed depending of the region considered. The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Naples, which is an area highly affected by territorial aggression of human matrix. The data used are both by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA Report 2015 on the usage of the land and by ISTAT relating to the resident population up to the 1st of January 2015 and the extension of land for agricultural use (Census 2010. The mathematical combination of this data creates a new indicator that can be referred to as “residual land”; this residual area is of great extension with many different characteristics and it could represent the area where the phenomenon of land take most occurs. The identification, measurement and analysis of “residual land” provide new insights on the evolution of land take and this new indicator can represent a critical element to work on to prevent future land transformation and protect natural and agricultural areas within the Italian context.

  7. The Metropolitan Area of the Municipality of Bucharest. Present-Day Features Relating to Some Environmental Issues in an International Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INES GRIGORESCU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of metropolitan areas represents the main characteristic of today’s urban evolution trends. The first initiatives to delimitate and define metropolitan areas have been in the United States since 1910. In Europe, this concept was adopted at the beginning of the1990s when the United States had already had 250 metropolitan areas. Romania adopted the concept of metropolitan area in the late 1990s, namely in 1997 when a study on the Directions, Ways, and Intensities of Development in the Municipality of Bucharest and its Metropolitan Zone. Environmental protection politics appeared. This made public a point of view about the Bucharest metropolitan area, which was legally defined by Law no. 351 of July 6th 2001 regarding the National Territory Management Plan, Section IV – Settlements. But many other limits of this area were also taken into account. The uncontrolled evolution of the Bucharest Metropolitan Area as well as of many other European capital cities can be stopped or stabilized by developing green belts or green areas.

  8. Zoonotic disease transmission associated with feral cats in a metropolitan area: A geospatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taetzsch, S J; Bertke, A S; Gruszynski, K R

    2018-06-01

    Feral cats raise public health concerns due to their large population numbers and ability to harbour pathogens that cause disease in people, pets, and wildlife. Information regarding the potential for feral cats to intersect with areas frequented by humans is lacking. This study examined the potential for feral cats and human territories to overlap in the Richmond metropolitan area of Central Virginia. Feral cats (n = 275) were trapped for monthly trap-neuter-release (TNR) clinics from July to November 2016. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to map feral cat trapping locations, elementary and preschools, public parks, and community gardens, and to evaluate the potential for cat interaction with these areas, presuming a maximum habitat radius of 0.44 miles. We found that 8.0% of feral cats in the Richmond metropolitan area had potential to range onto public elementary or preschool property, and 81.5% of feral cats trapped in Richmond City had potential to roam into one or more places of interest, including elementary and preschool grounds, public parks, and community gardens. This provides public health, veterinary, and human health professionals with important information that can be used to focus resources in an effort to reduce zoonosis associated with feral cat populations. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Book Review of 'The Metropolitan Revolution, How Cities and Metros are fixing our Broken Policies and Fragile Economy'

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Book Reviews for Architecture Ireland of 'The Metropolitan Revolution, How Cities and Metros are fixing our Broken Policies and Fragile Economy', by Bruce Katz and Jennifer Bradley, Published by Brookings Institution Press, 288 pages.

  10. Coverage and accessibility levels of health services in the metropolitan periphery of Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor López

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is two fold: first, to analyze the spatial distribution of health services that different public institutions offer in the metropolitan peripheral municipalities of Mexico City; and second, give some reasons that explain that distribution. The analysis tries to demonstrate a lack of territorial approach in the construction of the social policy in the particular case of the health sector. The spatial range of health service, coverage and accessibility in the eastern part of the State of Mexico was calculate through variables much as number of doctors, nurses, beds and medical center, that the different public institution particularly IMSS, ISSSTE and ISSEMYM, offer. Results tend to show an unequal distribution of health resources either human or material, as well as a territorial disorden in their distribution with a high concentration in urban areas. Thus, analysis shows that space plays a fundamental role as a structuring factor in the application of health policies and in the planning of such services.

  11. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  12. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  13. Groundwater contamination and risk assessment of industrial complex in Busan Metropolitan City, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, S.-Y.; Ryu, S. M.; Cheong, J.-Y.; Woo, Y.-J.

    2003-04-01

    In Korea, the potential of groundwater contamination in urban areas is increasing by industrial and domestic waste waters, leakage from oil storage tanks and sewage drains, leachate from municipal landfill sites and so on. Nowadays, chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), which are driving residential area as well as industrial area, are recognized as major hazardous contaminants. As well known, TCE is wisely used industrial activities such as degreasing, metal stripping, chemical manufacturing, pesticide production, coal gasification plants, creosote operation, and also used in automobile service centers, photo shops and laundries as cleaning solvent. Thus, groundwater protection in urban areas is important issue in Korea This study is to understand groundwater quality and contamination characteristics and to estimate risk assessment in Sasang industrial complex, Busan Metropolitan City. Busan Metropolitan City is located on southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula and is the second largest city in South Korea with a population of 3.8 millions. The geology of the study area is composed of andesite, andesitic tuff, biotite granite and alluvium (Kim et al., 1998). However, geology cannot be identified on the surface due to pavement and buildings. According to drill logs in the study area, the geologic section consists in landfill, fine sand, clay, gravelly clay, and biotite granite from the surface. Biotite granite appears 5.5- 6 m depth. Groundwater samples were collected at twenty sites in Sasang industrial complex. The groundwater samples are plotted on Piper's trilinear diagram, which indicates Ca-Cl2 type. The groundwater may be influenced by salt water because Sasang industrial complex is located near the mouse of Nakdong river that flows to the South Sea. The Ca-Cl2 water type may be partly influenced by anthropogenic contamination in the study area, since water type in granite area generally belongs Ca

  14. Spatial change as drivers of risk and vulnerability in South African cities: Spatial trends in the three metropolitan cities of Gauteng

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pieterse, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1994 the South African urban landscape has been changing as a result of fundamental social, economic and political transformations. Metropolitan cities, especially, face unique challenges because of the dynamism of urban populations. South...

  15. Revenues for Education in Metropolitan Areas. Chapter VI, Metropolitanism: Its Challenge to Education, 1968. Sixty-seventh Yearbook, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkin, Marvin C.

    For local school districts to provide equal educational opportunities throughout a metropolitan area, a school organization plan should distribute populations among districts in such a manner as to maximize the aggregate expressed demand for educational services and to provide relatively equal financial support. Consolidation of contiguous…

  16. Truck transport of RAM: Risk effects of avoiding metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    In the transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stakeholders are generally most concerned about risks in high population density areas along transportation routes because of the perceived high consequences of potential accidents. The most significant portions of a transcontinental route and an alternative examined previously were evaluated again using population density data derived from US Census Block data. This method of characterizing population that adjoins route segments offers improved resolution of population density variations, especially in high population density areas along typical transport routes. Calculated incident free doses and accident dose risks for these routes, and the rural, suburban and urban segments are presented for comparison of their relative magnitudes. The results indicate that modification of this route to avoid major metropolitan areas through use of non-Interstate highways increases total risk yet does not eliminate a relatively small urban component of the accident dose risk. This conclusion is not altered by improved resolution of route segments adjoining high density populations

  17. Chieti-Pescara Metropolitan Area: International Migrations, Residential Choices and Economic Deconcentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Montanari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of human mobility – with reference to the migratory component – has taken on specific significance during the last decade, particularly with regard to the concept of place. This paper considers the subject in relation to residential and economic deconcentration. The specific point of reference is the metropolitan area of Chieti-Pescara, in the central part of Italy’s Adriatic coast. The research was carried out through quantitative analysis of official data from population censuses and register offices. The results highlight the links between movements of residents and those of firms, in which foreign residents show distinctive behaviour. The residential choices made by foreigners in the area are based on economic reasons and are primarily linked to housing and transport costs. Their communities tend to be concentrated in specific zones of the metropolitan area and in specific districts of the cities, as a consequence of a feeling of belonging and solidarity. Although there are no clear signs of segregation phenomena, the native population tends to avoid mingling with foreigners from marginal countries.

  18. Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Metropolitan City of Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... traffic intersection where they were both poor and very poor (D-E). The results suggest that strict and appropriate vehicle emission management, industrial air pollution control coupled with close burning management of wastes should be considered in the study area to reduce the risks associated with these pollutants.

  19. WATER RESOURCES IN THE CONTEXT OF REGIONAL PLANNING. CASE STUDY: CLUJ-NAPOCA METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA OLIVIA CIMPOIEŞ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue of water resources is controversial because it reveals the complex needs of the population on a certain territory, depending on the analysis scale. Public utilities or water surfaces in the surrounding rural areas of a city are rarely paid much attention to in comparison to the urban centre, though they could provide comfort attributes, aesthetic value and leisure activities. Is it a matter of social fairness, political orientation or funding accessibility for a community to benefit from the water resources in the vicinity? The present study propos ed to analyse the metropolitan area of Cluj and explain why the distribution of resources varies according to physical conditions, distance or localities’ economic statute.

  20. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073181773; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since

  1. Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework Policy in the New York Metropolitan Area: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…

  2. Assessing Anxiety, Depression and Psychological Wellbeing Status of Urban Elderly Under Represent of Tehran Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Alizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the present study describes assessing mental health status (anxiety, depression, and psychological wellbeing of old people in different age groups in tehran metropolitan city. The outcomes of this study could help to health policy makers to develop of better health policy in gerontology field by determine of priorities of mental care in different age groups of old people. Methods & Materials: this was a cross sectional study in 2010. The participants were (n=402 aged 60 years old and over which have underrepresented from Shahid Beheshti University. The survey methods were via face-to-face interviews, and just in a few cases as telephone interviews. The instrument to data collection included demographic questionnaire, k6 and yeild tools. Data analyzed by Stata and SPSS ver.15 through t-test, one-way anova. Regression models applied as well. Results: based on results in the past 4 weeks,10.9% of elderly had sever anxiety or depression symptoms and about half of them (46.5% had moderate psychological distress. The rate of psychological distress increased with age growing, specifically in 60- 79 years old however, this rate declined from age of 80 years and over. Psychological distress levels among elderly women were more than old men in all age groups, except of 60-69 years old people. Regarding psychological wellbeing, feeling of tireless, lone less, and depression are the most common complain of house dowelling old people in tehran metropolitan area. As the results show 43.1% elderly participants were in moderate level and 17% of them were in the bad level of psychological wellbeing. Based on regression model, sex (P=0.012, housing (P=0.004, and retirement salary (P=0.048 were significant variables that effect on psychological distress. The income rate was only important component that effect on psychological wellbeing of elderly participants. There was no significant different between aged groups 60-64 and 65-69 in psychological

  3. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae asociadas con viviendas de la ciudad de México (Zona Metropolitana Spider diversity (Arachnida: Araneae associated with houses in México city (Metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Gabriel Durán-Barrón

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La ecología urbana es un área de investigación relativamente reciente. Los ecosistemas urbanos son aquellos definidos como ambientes dominados por el hombre. Con el proceso de urbanización, insectos y arácnidos silvestres aprovechan los nuevos microhábitats que las viviendas humanas ofrecen. Se revisaron arañas recolectadas dentro de 109 viviendas durante los años de 1985 a 1986, 1996 a 2001 y 2002 a 2003. Se cuantificaron 1 196 organismos , los cuales se determinaron hasta especie. Se obtuvo una lista de 25 familias, 52 géneros y 63 especies de arañas sinantrópicas. Se utilizaron 3 índices (ocupación, densidad y estacionalidad y un análisis de intervalos para sustentar la siguiente clasificación: accidentales (índice de densidad de 0-0.9, ocasionales (1-2.9, frecuentes (3.0-9.9 y comunes (10 en adelante. Se comparan las faunas de arañas sinantrópicas de 5 países del Nuevo Mundo.Urban ecology is a relatively new area of research, with urban ecosystems being defined as environments dominated by humans. Insects and arachnids are 2 groups that successfully exploit the habitats offered by human habitations. We analyzed the occurrence and densities of spiders found in houses in México City. We used material collected between 1985 and 2003. We recorded 1 196 spiders from 109 houses. The list includes 25 families, 52 genera and 63 species of synanthropic spiders. Indices of ocupation, density and seasonality, as well as rank analyses were used to make the following classification of synanthropism: accidental (density index 0-0.9, occasional (1-2.9, frequent (3.0-9.9 and common (10 or more. The synanthropic spider faunas of 5 New World countries are compared.

  4. Manifestation of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP Model on Fire Potential Zonation Mapping in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kumar Chhetri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though fewer people die as a result of fire than other natural disasters, such as earthquake, flood, landslide, etc., the average loss of property due to fire is high. Kathmandu Metropolitan City is becoming more vulnerable to fire due to haphazard urbanization and increase in population. To control problems due to fire, systematic studies are necessary, including fire potential mapping and risk assessment. This study applies an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal for generation of fire potential zonation map. The fire potential zonation map is prepared on the basis of available data of land use, fuel stations, and population density. This map shows that 58.04% of the study area falls under low fire potential zone, 32.92% falls under moderate fire potential zone and 9.04% falls under high fire potential zone. The map is also validated through major past fire incidents. The results show that the predicted fire potential zones are found to be in good agreement with past fire incidents, and, hence, the map can be used for future land-use planning.

  5. Perspectives and limitations of QKD integration in metropolitan area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Slavisa; Hipp, Florian; Winkler, Dominic; Poppe, Andreas; Schrenk, Bernhard; Franzl, Gerald

    2015-04-20

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems have already reached a reasonable level of maturity. However, a smooth integration and a wide adoption of commercial QKD systems in metropolitan area networks has still remained challenging because of technical and economical obstacles. Mainly the need for dedicated fibers and the strong dependence of the secret key rate on both loss budget and background noise in the quantum channel hinder a practical, flexible and robust implementation of QKD in current and next-generation optical metro networks. In this paper, we discuss these obstacles and present approaches to share existing fiber infrastructures among quantum and classical channels. Particularly, a proposal for a smooth integration of QKD in optical metro networks, which implies removing spurious background photons caused by optical transmitters, amplifiers and nonlinear effects in fibers, is presented and discussed. We determine and characterize impairments on quantum channels caused by many classical telecom channels at practically used power levels coexisting within the same fiber. Extensive experimental results are presented and indicate that a practical integration of QKD in conventional optical metro networks is possible.

  6. Metropolitan area networks: a corner stone in the broadband era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Adel

    1991-02-01

    Deployment of Broadband ISDN is being influenced by both a market pull and a technology push. New broadband service opportunities exist in the business and residential sectors of the market place. It is envisioned that some customers will need connections directly to broadband switches because of the high bandwidth needed for their applications. At the same time Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) systems will serve those customers with bandwidth requirements less than or equal to 150 Mbps. A given MAN will have a geographical domain to serve where it will carry out the switching tasks within this domain. While MANs couldbe designed using differentarchitecturalconcepts the setofservices expected tobeprovidedby MANs could be equivalent to thelist ofservices thatwillbe supported by the targetbroadband network. This paperpositions MANs as a major building block for Broadband networks. It also examines the evolution process ofMANs as a needed step to assure the successful deployment of these new broadband services. 2. BISDN - OVERVIEW Broadband ISDN (BISDN) is being driven into existence by both a market pull as well as a technology push. Opportunities for new valueadded services are the prime market pull for future broadband networks. These services opportunities extend beyond simple voice and low speed data applications and cover both the residential and the business sectors of the market. It is noted for instance that business customers have growing needs for sophisticated telecommunication vehicles to support their

  7. Epidemiological Characteristics and Space-Time Analysis of the 2015 Dengue Outbreak in the Metropolitan Region of Tainan City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Ng, Ka-Chon; Nguyen, Thi Luong; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2018-02-26

    The metropolitan region of Tainan City in southern Taiwan experienced a dengue outbreak in 2015. This manuscript describes basic epidemiological features of this outbreak and uses spatial and temporal analysis tools to understand the spread of dengue during the outbreak. The analysis found that, independently of gender, dengue incidence rate increased with age, and proportionally affected more males below the age of 40 years but females above the age of 40 years. A spatial scan statistic was applied to detect clusters of disease transmission. The scan statistic found that dengue spread in a north-south diffusion direction, which is across the North, West-Central and South districts of Tainan City. Spatial regression models were used to quantify factors associated with transmission. This analysis indicated that neighborhoods with high proportions of residential area (or low wetland cover) were associated with dengue transmission. However, these association patterns were non-linear. The findings presented here can help Taiwanese public health agencies to understand the fundamental epidemiological characteristics and diffusion patterns of the 2015 dengue outbreak in Tainan City. This type of information is fundamental for policy making to prevent future uncontrolled dengue outbreaks, given that results from this study suggest that control interventions should be emphasized in the North and West-Central districts of Tainan city, in areas with a moderate percentage of residential land cover.

  8. Reconceptualization Sexuality and Rethinking Homophobia in Metropolitan Campus Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Caglar

    2017-01-01

    The Metropolitan city gives non-metropolitan students an opportunity to meet new social groups. In this article, the perceptions of sexuality of those students who come from provincial areas to a metropolitan city for university education are examined within a framework of semi-structured interviews. The study on which this article is based used a…

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of childhood allergic diseases in eight metropolitan cities in China: A multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xingming

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the past two decades suggested increasing trend of childhood allergic diseases in China. However, few studies have provided detailed description of geographic variation and explored risk factors of these diseases. This study investigated the pattern and risk factors of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in eight metropolitan cities in China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey during November-December 2005 in eight metropolitan cities in China. A total of 23791 children aged 6-13 years participated in this survey. Questions from the standard questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC were used to examine the pattern of current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the risk factors for childhood allergies. Results The average prevalence of childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema across the eight cities was 3∙3% (95% Confidence interval (CI: 3∙1%, 3∙6%, 9∙8% (95% CI: 9∙4%, 10∙2% and 5∙5% (95% CI: 5∙2%, 5∙8%, respectively. Factors related to lifestyle, mental health and socio-economic status were found to be associated with the prevalence of childhood allergies. These risk factors were unevenly distributed across cities and disproportionately affected the local prevalence. Conclusions There was apparent geographic variation of childhood allergies in China. Socio-environmental factors had strong impacts on the prevalence of childhood allergies; but these impacts differed across regions. Thus public health policies should specifically target at the local risk factors for each individual area.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of childhood allergic diseases in eight metropolitan cities in China: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhou, Yingchun; Li, Shenghui; Jiang, Fan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Yiwen; Tong, Shilu; Shen, Xiaoming

    2011-06-06

    Several studies conducted during the past two decades suggested increasing trend of childhood allergic diseases in China. However, few studies have provided detailed description of geographic variation and explored risk factors of these diseases. This study investigated the pattern and risk factors of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in eight metropolitan cities in China. We conducted a cross-sectional survey during November-December 2005 in eight metropolitan cities in China. A total of 23791 children aged 6-13 years participated in this survey. Questions from the standard questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) were used to examine the pattern of current asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the risk factors for childhood allergies. The average prevalence of childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema across the eight cities was 3.3% (95% Confidence interval (CI): 3.1%, 3.6%), 9.8% (95% CI: 9.4%, 10.2%) and 5.5% (95% CI: 5.2%, 5.8%), respectively. Factors related to lifestyle, mental health and socio-economic status were found to be associated with the prevalence of childhood allergies. These risk factors were unevenly distributed across cities and disproportionately affected the local prevalence. There was apparent geographic variation of childhood allergies in China. Socio-environmental factors had strong impacts on the prevalence of childhood allergies; but these impacts differed across regions. Thus public health policies should specifically target at the local risk factors for each individual area.

  11. A highly attennuative zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intensities of seismic waves observed at the dense seismic array of the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) inside the Kanto basin, display unusual distribution patterns. In several occasions, the highest intensities are not observed in the area above an earthquakes hypocenter but appear sifted more than 20 km away. In order to understand the source of this unusual intensity distribution pattern, it is crucial to understand how the waves attenuate before they reach the surface. The attenuation of seismic waves along their path is represented by the t∗ attenuation operator that can be obtained by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. In order to create a high quality dataset, only 1449 earthquakes that are recorded with intensity greater than 0 in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity scale are selected from the JMA unified earthquake list from April 1st 2008 to October 2nd 2013. A grid search method is applied to determine the t∗ values by matching the observed and theoretical spectra. The t∗ data where then inverted to estimate a 3D Q structure with grid points set at a 10 km spacing. We implemented the 3D velocity model estimated by Nakagawa et al., 2012 and in addition we set the initial Q values at 100 for the 0 km grids and to 400 for the grids below them. The obtained model suggests average Q values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin. Furthermore, a low Q zone is observed in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific sea plate. This area is located at approximately 40 km depth, beneath the north-east Tokyo and west Chiba prefectures and is represented by Q values Earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through this low Q area inside the Philippine sea plate and are attenuated significantly. The estimated attenuation distribution at the MeSO-net station for these earthquakes implementing our 3D Q model greatly coincides with the

  12. Deprivation and mortality in non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, E G

    1996-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that the relationship between deprivation and mortality is weaker among residents of non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales than among residents of metropolitan areas. This study compared mortality, expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), in residents of metropolitan and non-metropolitan districts at three levels of deprivation classified by an electoral ward deprivation score and by home and car ownership. SMRs were computed for all causes of death, for bronchitis and asthma (ICD9 codes 490-493), and for accident, violence, and poisoning (ICD9 codes 800-999). England and Wales. Members of the longitudinal study of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a quasi-random 1% sample of the population of England and Wales. There was an association between deprivation and mortality which was clear for all cause mortality, more noticeable for respiratory disease, and less clear for deaths from accident, violence, and poison. In general, the results showed a remarkable similarity between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. This study does not support the hypothesis that the relationship between mortality and deprivation differs between residents of metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales.

  13. Household dust metal levels in The Sao Paulo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Sato, Ivone M.

    2007-01-01

    A study about household dust is being conducted to determine the level of metal contamination in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The SPMA, with 18 million inhabitants, is one of the largest urban areas of the world, with serious environmental problems, due to the great amount of industries, heavy traffic and the disordered growth of population. The pollutants originate from a multiplicity of indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor sources are originated from residual (hair, skin scales), pets, human activities, construction materials, and furnishings as well as biological material (pollen, insect parts).and outdoor pollution, usually from the urban traffic. The pollutant mixture involved in numerous physical and chemical processes and changes its characteristics with time. Its composition and concentration depend on the strengths of indoor sources, the concentration of pollutants outside and the properties of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. It is well recognized that many metals have chronic effects on humans, in particular toddlers, who are at an higher risk compared to adults because they engage in greater hand to-mouth activity and their neurological systems are still developing. The household dust samples were collected from different localities, using vacuum cleaner, and sieved up to particle size -1 ; Mn, 119-369 μg g -1 ; Fe, 372-1464 μg g -1 ; Ni, 33-85 μg g -1 ; Cu, 42-303 μg g -1 ; Zn, 156-1369 μg g -1 and Pb, 26-160 μg g -1 . (author)

  14. Assessing Strategies for Urban Climate Change Adaptation: The Case of Six Metropolitan Cities in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As interest in climate change adaptation grows, an increasing number of national and local governments are developing adaptation strategies. This study assesses the strategies for urban climate change adaptation of municipal governments in South Korea. The adaptation plans and budget expenditures of six metropolitan cities in South Korea were compared, based on the Implementation Plan for Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (IPCCAS 2012–2016 and annual expenditure reports of each city. The results show that the actual implementation of these adaptation programs varied vis-à-vis the original plans, in terms of the level of overall expenditure and sector-specific expenditure. The following findings were drawn from the analysis: First, in most cases, the highest adaptation priorities were disaster/infrastructure, water management, and the health sector. Second, actual expenditure on climate change adaptation programs was smaller than the planned budget in the IPCCAS. Third, the prioritized sectors matched for planning and implementation in Seoul, Daegu, Daejeon, and Incheon, but not in Busan and Ulsan. Fourth, the adaptation programs of South Korean metropolitan cities do not seem to have been well-tailored to each case.

  15. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  16. Spatial Variability of Sources and Mixing State of Atmospheric Particles in a Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Gu, Peishi; Li, Hugh Z; Robinson, Ellis S; Lipsky, Eric; Kaltsonoudis, Christos; Lee, Alex K Y; Apte, Joshua S; Robinson, Allen L; Sullivan, Ryan C; Presto, Albert A; Donahue, Neil M

    2018-05-30

    Characterizing intracity variations of atmospheric particulate matter has mostly relied on fixed-site monitoring and quantifying variability in terms of different bulk aerosol species. In this study, we performed ground-based mobile measurements using a single-particle mass spectrometer to study spatial patterns of source-specific particles and the evolution of particle mixing state in 21 areas in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA. We selected sampling areas based on traffic density and restaurant density with each area ranging from 0.2 to 2 km 2 . Organics dominate particle composition in all of the areas we sampled while the sources of organics differ. The contribution of particles from traffic and restaurant cooking varies greatly on the neighborhood scale. We also investigate how primary and aged components in particles mix across the urban scale. Lastly we quantify and map the particle mixing state for all areas we sampled and discuss the overall pattern of mixing state evolution and its implications. We find that in the upwind and downwind of the urban areas, particles are more internally mixed while in the city center, particle mixing state shows large spatial heterogeneity that is mostly driven by emissions. This study is to our knowledge, the first study to perform fine spatial scale mapping of particle mixing state using ground-based mobile measurement and single-particle mass spectrometry.

  17. Urban agriculture in the metropolitan area of Mexico city L’agriculture urbaine dans la métropole de Mexico Agricultura urbana en el área metropolitana de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Losada

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City and the rest of the country do not escape from the social and economic inequalities of the present economic model applied worldwide.  Agriculture is a traditional activity in Mexico. This urban productive process has particular features: the predominance of smallholding, the restricted use of physical space, and the use of recycled materials and organic wastes. The population engaged in agriculture is heterogeneous, and includes women and children. There are a couple of production systems: the suburban, which uses the “chinampa” to produce mainly vegetable and flowers; and the periurban system, which has two sub-systems, the “terraces” producing nopal-vegetable and maize and the “Valleys” producing tuna (fruit and amaranth. The wastes of other systems (straw  and manure are used in these places. The production systems combine pre-hispanic and modern tools, such as the tractor and coa. The products of these sites are sold in tourist areas of ecological importance. These technologies are reproducible, socially inclusive and environmentally friendly, but government support is needed.developing countries, recycling, sub-urban, peri-urban, Opuntia, chinampaMexico et le reste du Mexique n’échappent pas aux inégalités sociales et économiques induites par le modèle économique qui prédomine actuellement dans le monde entier. L’agriculture est une activité traditionnelle au Mexique. Ce processus de production urbain présente des caractéristiques particulières : prédominance de petits lopins de terre, utilisation limitée de l’espace et utilisation de matériaux et de déchets organiques recyclés. La population engagée dans l’agriculture est hétérogène et comprend des femmes et des enfants. Deux systèmes de production cohabitent : le système suburbain qui utilise les « chinampa » pour produire essentiellement des légumes et des fleurs ; et le système périurbain qui comprend deux sous-systèmes : les

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of childhood allergic diseases in eight metropolitan cities in China: A multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Xingming; Jiang Fan; Zhou Yingchun; Li Shenghui; Li Fei; Yan Chonghuai; Tian Ying; Zhang Yiwen; Tong Shilu; Shen Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the past two decades suggested increasing trend of childhood allergic diseases in China. However, few studies have provided detailed description of geographic variation and explored risk factors of these diseases. This study investigated the pattern and risk factors of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in eight metropolitan cities in China. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey during November-December 2005 in eight metropolitan ...

  19. A study of risk in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara through dense GPS geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Azua, B.; Saldana-Hernandez, F.; Medina de La Pena, H.

    2007-05-01

    Geodesic measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) are used extensively for basic earth science research into natural hazards and seismic risk. In the private sector, GPS technology is additionally used for cadastral and photogrammetric mapping surveys, definition of political-administrative limits, space analysis with thematic cartography, GIS, and land-use planning, with a wide variety of applied social, economic, and political purposes, including conservation of the environment. The city of Guadalajara and its surrounding urban area has expanded greatly in the last three decades as a result of industrial, commercial and housing activity that have substantially changed in their urban morphology. This period of unprecedented growth has occurred primarily in an unplanned and sometimes disarticulated and unbalanced manner, incongruous with the development of the most important city in western Mexico. The Department of Geography of the University of Guadalajara and the Institute of Territorial Information of the State of Jalisco (IITJ) have initiated a study of 89 geodetic sites that are located in the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara to assist in future planning and regulation of urban development, including urban and rural cadastral surveys and the establishment of diverse public services. Our work includes careful examination and evaluation of the quality and distribution of these geodetic sites with regard to anticipated growth of the metropolitan municipalities, and the vulnerability of urban zones to ground subsidence or landslides. Guadalajara is also located in a seismic zone, making precise continuous GPS measurements useful for identifying rates of strain accumulation and aseismic strain events that cannot be measured by seismographs.

  20. Environmental impact assessment of bus rapid transit (BRT in the Metropolitan City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit is an innovative, high capacity, lower cost public transit solution in metropolitan cities. Idea is to dedicate lanes for quick and efficient transport of passengers to their destinations. In the present investigation the environmental impact assessment of bus rapid transit  in Tehran metropolitan city is brought out. For this purpose bus rapid transit Lane No. 10 is investigated. The bus rapid transit Lane No.10 is about 10 km in distance that moves up and down between Azadi and Simon Bolivar Squares. About 77500 passengers using 50 buses are transited per day in lane No. 10. These 50 buses cover a distance of 9600 km/day. The results of present study showed that about 6.5 million liters of fuel is saved annually. It should be pointed out that environmental costs are also reduced for about US$ 1.7 million/yr. The overall score of environmental impact assessment stands at +10 that is indicative of Lane No. 10 compatibility with the environmental considerations.

  1. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1996, the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program drilled 30 shallow monitoring wells in a study area characterized by urban residential and commercial land uses. The monitoring wells were installed in sandy river-terrace deposits adjacent to the Mississippi River in Anoka and Hennepin Counties, Minnesota, in areas where urban development primarily occurred during the past 30 years.

  2. Spatial clustering of knowledge-based industries in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Chica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The central locations of metropolitan areas have some specific attributes, leading to an accumulation of large knowledge exchanges and extensive knowledge externalities, which encourage the concentration of various economic activities, especially knowledge-based industries (KBI. Other agglomeration economies found in metropolitan areas – such as telecommunications and transport infrastructures connected to global productive circuits and complementary labour markets – are key factors for KBI employment growth. This paper explores the Helsinki Metropolitan Area’s (HMA spatial clustering of KBI at the sub-district level, and the role played by agglomeration economies (both specialization and diversity economies in fostering this process. The results reveal that KBI employment shows patterns of concentration in the core and adjacent areas. The specialization and diversity economies found in the metropolitan core and the specialization economies found in others areas lead to KBI spatial clustering in the HMA. Public policies regarding the promotion of science parks have also played a decisive role.

  3. Partners In Motion And Customer Satisfaction In The Washington Dc Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    PARTNERS IN MOTION IS A PROGRAM AIMED AT IMPROVING THE QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND AVAILABILITY OF TRAVEL INFORMATION TO TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES, THE MEDIA, AND, ULTIMATELY, TO THE TRAVELER IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. METROPOLITAN AREA. THE PROGRAM WAS INITIA...

  4. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  5. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  6. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  7. South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  8. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  9. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  10. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  11. Microseismicity in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea, and its implications for the seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kang, S.; Ryoo, Y.; Kim, M.; Park, Y.; Kyung, J.

    2012-12-01

    On 9 February 2010, a minor earthquake occurred in the northwest of South Korea. The earthquake was widely felt in the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA). The earthquake attracted much attention from media, politicians, policy makers and the public, who raised concerns about seismic hazards and risks in the Korea Peninsula, in particular, to the SNCA. SNCA includes the Seoul and Incheon metropolitans and most of the Gyeonggi province. It has a population of 24.5 million (as of 2007) and is ranked as the second largest metropolitan area in the world. The SNCA has been the center of the economics, politics, and culture during the past half millennium since the city has been designated as the capital city in 1394. We applied waveform correlation detector to 2007-2010 continuously recorded seismic data to identify repeating earthquakes. We identify 9 micro-earthquakes during 2007-2010 periods which are not reported in the KNSN bulletin because their magnitudes are too small. Estimated magnitudes using amplitude ratios measured at the station SEO indicate the smallest event detected by the waveform cross correlation technique in the study is as low as 0.19. The number of events for our interpretation becomes 11 including two previously reported events and nine newly identified micro-earthquakes. All of them occur in a very small area. While there are historic documents reporting earthquakes in the SNCA, repeating earthquakes or clustered seismicity from the instrumental earthquake record have not reported before. We have determined the focal mechanism solution for the representative events (9 February 2010, ML 3.0) using the first-motion polarities. The preferred focal mechanism solution for the representative event is the WNW-ESE striking fault, which are consistent with the precisely determined earthquake hypocenter distribution. It is also consistent with the results in the previous studies of stress orientation in and around the Korean peninsula. The new list of

  12. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    and infrastructural data. Through these three levels of spatial analysis it is possible to develop and to support a more comprehensible study of urban development of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. The aim of this study is (a) to develop an alternative spatial analysis leading to a more comprehensive...... understanding of the urban development process and its correlation not just with political-administrative borders but also to ecological systems: (b) to identify the correlations between infrastructure and socio-economical data in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area (c) to evaluate urban development dynamics...... in the period between 1990 and 2000, based on the application of the above-mentioned data to the three spatial levels in question. This paper highlights the role of the hydrographical systems of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area as an important spatial unit of analysis to understand the metropolitan urban...

  13. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, D; de Nazelle, A; Teixidó, O; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2012-11-15

    Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating 8 different scenarios on the replacement of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n=141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 66.12 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths). The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1,630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5. The deaths (including travellers and general population) avoided in Barcelona City therefore would be 76.15 annually. Further health benefits would be obtained with a shift of 40% of the car trips from the Greater Barcelona Metropolitan which either start or end in Barcelona City to public transport (40.15 deaths avoided) or public transport and cycling (98.50 deaths avoided).The carbon dioxide reduction for shifting from car to other modes of transport (bike and public transport) in Barcelona metropolitan area was estimated to be 203,251t/CO₂ emissions per year. Interventions to reduce car use and increase cycling and the use of public transport in metropolitan areas, like Barcelona, can produce health benefits for travellers and for the general population of the city. Also these interventions help to reduce green house gas emissions. Copyright © 2012

  14. Particulate matter levels in a South American megacity: the metropolitan area of Lima-Callao, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jose; Rojas, Jhojan; Norabuena, Magdalena; Molina, Carolina; Toro, Richard A; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A

    2017-11-13

    The temporal and spatial trends in the variability of PM 10 and PM 2.5 from 2010 to 2015 in the metropolitan area of Lima-Callao, Peru, are studied and interpreted in this work. The mean annual concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 have ranges (averages) of 133-45 μg m -3 (84 μg m -3 ) and 35-16 μg m -3 (26 μg m -3 ) for the monitoring sites under study. In general, the highest annual concentrations are observed in the eastern part of the city, which is a result of the pattern of persistent local winds entering from the coast in a south-southwest direction. Seasonal fluctuations in the particulate matter (PM) concentrations are observed; these can be explained by subsidence thermal inversion. There is also a daytime pattern that corresponds to the peak traffic of a total of 9 million trips a day. The PM 2.5 value is approximately 40% of the PM 10 value. This proportion can be explained by PM 10 re-suspension due to weather conditions. The long-term trends based on the Theil-Sen estimator reveal decreasing PM 10 concentrations on the order of -4.3 and -5.3% year -1 at two stations. For the other stations, no significant trend is observed. The metropolitan area of Lima-Callao is ranked 12th and 16th in terms of PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively, out of 39 megacities. The annual World Health Organization thresholds and national air quality standards are exceeded. A large fraction of the Lima population is exposed to PM concentrations that exceed protection thresholds. Hence, the development of pollution control and reduction measures is paramount.

  15. Twelve-Year Trends of PM10 and Visibility in the Hefei Metropolitan Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has been experiencing severe air pollution and previous studies have mostly focused on megacities and a few hot spot regions. Hefei, the provincial capital city of Anhui province, has a population of near 5 million in its metropolitan area, but its air quality has not been reported in literature. In this study, daily PM10 and visibility data in 2001–2012 were analyzed to investigate the air quality status as well as the twelve-year pollution trends in Hefei. The results reveal that Hefei has been suffering high PM10 pollution and low visibility during the study period. The annual average PM10 concentrations are 2~3 times of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM10 shows fluctuating variation in 2001–2007 and has a slightly decreasing trend after 2008. The annual average visibility range is generally lower than 7 km and shows a worsening trend from 2001 to 2006 followed by an improving trend from 2007 to 2012. Wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity have negative effects on PM10 concentrations in Hefei, while temperature could positively or negatively affect PM10. The results provide a general understanding of the status and long-term trends of PM10 pollution and visibility in a typical second-tier city in China.

  16. Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin

    2015-02-01

    Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

  17. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  18. Impact of energy consumption on urban warming and air pollution in Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Hoshi, H.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid progress of industrialization and urbanization due to economic growth and concentration of social function in the urban areas in Japan have had an adverse effect on the urban environment. In most cities, it has become evident that the increase in energy consumption is causing environmental problems, including a temperature rise in the urban atmosphere (urban heat island) and air pollution. This paper reports the results of field observations and three dimensional simulations of the urban heat island using a three-dimensional modelling vorticity-velocity vector potential formation, in the Tokyo metropolitan area. According to the simulation for urban warming in the study area for the year 2031, the maximum temperature of a summer evening (18:00) would exceed 43 degrees celsius, indicating that Tokyo would no longer be comfortable for its inhabitants. It is concluded that in the near future, the problem of the urban heat island will become a more important issue than that of global warming because the rate of urban warming is greater. For this reason, the urban heat island could be fatal to humans unless resolved in the near future. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 18 refs

  19. Transport scenarios in two metropolitan cities in India: Delhi and Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Anjana; Parikh, Jyoti

    2004-01-01

    With rising population and increasing migration to the cities, it is expected that the urban population will increase and many more metropolitan cities will arise. Urban transport will also increase due to the high growth in population, travel demand and vehicles. In this paper, we look at the growth in vehicles and travel demand up to 2020, assuming business as usual, high GDP growth and low GDP growth scenarios for Mumbai and Delhi assuming a certain population growth. The consequent energy needs and local and global environment implications are studied. The case studies demonstrate that despite similar population and higher per capita GDP, due to the higher share of public bus transport and suburban railway system, the Mumbai transport results in 60% less energy and emissions compared to Delhi. This picture may change in the future with the introduction of metro in Delhi, but basic differences remain even in 2020, perhaps also due to the different urban design. The vehicle stock increases nearly three times in both cities in 23 years due to the increase in population, migration and economic growth. However, the vehicle ownership per 1000 persons only doubles and is far lower in 2020, even compared to the present world average ownership. Emissions, however, do not rise as much due to the introduction of more efficient vehicles and fuels, such as CNG or battery operated vehicles. The high share of public transport also helps. The effects of various policies, such as urban design, suburban railway system, transport management, control practices, etc. are very important

  20. Air pollution problem in the Mexico City metropolitan zone: Photochemical pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, H.B.; Alvarez, P.S.; Echeverria, R.S.; Jardon, R.T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera (Mexico). Seccion de Contaminacion Ambiental

    1997-12-31

    Mexico City Metropolitan Zone (MCMZ) represents an example of a megacity where the air pollution problem has reached an important evolution in a very short time, causing a risk in the health of a population of more than 20 million inhabitants. The atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, began several decades ago, but it increased drastically in the middle of the 80`s. It is important to recognize that in the 60`s, 70`s and the first half of the 80`s the main pollutants were sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles. However since the second half of the 80`s until now, ozone is the most important air pollutant besides of the suspended particles (PM{sub 10}) and other toxic pollutants (1--8). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the evolution of the ozone atmospheric pollution problem in the MCMZ, as well as to analyze the results of several implemented air pollution control strategies.

  1. [Population dynamics, urban structure, and production of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schteingart, M

    1989-01-01

    "In this article, an attempt is made to account for certain trends in the growth and distribution of the population, and in the structuring of living space in the metropolitan zone of Mexico City.... Among the important conclusions of this essay are those having to do with the huge growth of some political-administrative units and the relation of this phenomenon to the practices followed by private realtors, often articulated with the policies and programs set by the State's housing agencies, as well as those that associate urban growth and expansion with the development of habitational spaces within the so-called 'formal' and 'informal' housing sectors." Data are from Mexican censuses and other official sources. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  2. Simulating urban-scale air pollutants and their predicting capabilities over the Seoul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yoo, Chul; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2004-06-01

    Urban-scale air pollutants for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter > or = 10 microm, and ozone (O3) were simulated over the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, during the period of July 2-11, 2002, and their predicting capabilities were discussed. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) and the highly disaggregated anthropogenic and the biogenic gridded emissions (1 km x 1 km) recently prepared by the Korean Ministry of Environment were applied. Wind fields with observational nudging in the prognostic meteorological model TAPM are optionally adopted to comparatively examine the meteorological impact on the prediction capabilities of urban-scale air pollutants. The result shows that the simulated concentrations of secondary air pollutant largely agree with observed levels with an index of agreement (IOA) of >0.6, whereas IOAs of approximately 0.4 are found for most primary pollutants in the major cities, reflecting the quality of emission data in the urban area. The observationally nudged wind fields with higher IOAs have little effect on the prediction for both primary and secondary air pollutants, implying that the detailed wind field does not consistently improve the urban air pollution model performance if emissions are not well specified. However, the robust highest concentrations are better described toward observations by imposing observational nudging, suggesting the importance of wind fields for the predictions of extreme concentrations such as robust highest concentrations, maximum levels, and >90th percentiles of concentrations for both primary and secondary urban-scale air pollutants.

  3. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  4. Subaltern urbanism in India beyond the mega-city slum: The civic politics of occupancy and development in two peripheral cities in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Tara van Dijk leverages concepts from subaltern urbanism, namely political society and occupancy urbanism, to look at how residence and locality development are constituted and governed in practice across three types of settlements in two 'satellite' cities of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region:

  5. Scaling of the Urban Water Footprint: An Analysis of 65 Mid- to Large-Sized U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjabin, T.; Garcia, S.; Grady, C.; Mejia, A.

    2017-12-01

    Scaling laws have been shown to be relevant to a range of disciplines including biology, ecology, hydrology, and physics, among others. Recently, scaling was shown to be important for understanding and characterizing cities. For instance, it was found that urban infrastructure (water supply pipes and electrical wires) tends to scale sublinearly with city population, implying that large cities are more efficient. In this study, we explore the scaling of the water footprint of cities. The water footprint is a measure of water appropriation that considers both the direct and indirect (virtual) water use of a consumer or producer. Here we compute the water footprint of 65 mid- to large-sized U.S. metropolitan areas, accounting for direct and indirect water uses associated with agricultural and industrial commodities, and residential and commercial water uses. We find that the urban water footprint, computed as the sum of the water footprint of consumption and production, exhibits sublinear scaling with an exponent of 0.89. This suggests the possibility of large cities being more water-efficient than small ones. To further assess this result, we conduct additional analysis by accounting for international flows, and the effects of green water and city boundary definition on the scaling. The analysis confirms the scaling and provides additional insight about its interpretation.

  6. Safe-Taipei a Program Project for Strong Motions, Active Faults, and Earthquakes in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    Strong collision between the Eurasian and Philippine Sea Plates causes high seismicity in the Taiwan region, which is often attacked by large earthquakes. Several cities, including three mega-cities, i.e., Taipei, Taichung, and Kaoshung, have been constructed on western Taiwan, where is lying on thick sediments. These cities, with a high-population density, are usually a regional center of culture, economics, and politics. Historically, larger-sized earthquakes, e.g. the 1935 Hsingchu—Taichung earthquake and the 1999 Chi—Chi earthquake, often caused serious damage on the cities. Hence, urban seismology must be one of the main subjects of Taiwan's seismological community. Since 2005, a program project, sponsored by Academia Sinica, has been launched to investigate seismological problems in the Taipei Metropolitan Area. This program project is performed during the 2005—2007 period. The core research subjects are: (1) the deployment of the Taipei Down-hole Seismic Array; (2) the properties of earthquakes and active faults in the area; (3) the seismogenic-zone structures, including the 3-D velocity and Q structures, of the area; (4) the characteristics of strong-motions and sites affects; and (5) strong-motion prediction. In addition to academic goals, the results obtained from the program project will be useful for seismic hazard mitigation not only for the area but also for others.

  7. Ozone, area social conditions, and mortality in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, M.S.; Loomis, Dana; Borja-Aburto, V.H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the association of daily mortality and ambient ozone differs by age and area social conditions of the region of residence using a time-series analysis. The study setting was metropolitan Mexico City, a high altitude city situated in a valley, with an estimated 20 million inhabitants, large socioeconomic gradients, and ozone levels frequently exceeding international standards. We stratified daily deaths by six census-derived socioeconomic indicators, based on characteristics of the county where decedents lived. We used Poisson regression to model the association between daily mortality and ozone levels (on the day of death and the previous day) in separate models, stratified by area socioeconomic level and age, and controlling for time trends and temperature. Ozone was positively associated with total mortality [0.65% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02%, 1.28%] and for mortality among those over age 65 [1.39% increase per 10 ppb increment, 95% CI: 0.51%, 2.28%]. Associations between ozone and all-age mortality did not show any consistent patterns according to socioeconomic gradients. We conclude that elderly people are at higher risk for ozone-associated mortality. Though county-level social indicators in Mexico City were not strong markers of vulnerability to ozone-associated acute mortality in this analysis, complex associations between individual and area-level factors may exist that would require additional data and further analyses to elucidate

  8. Air quality and social deprivation in four French metropolitan areas – A localized spatiotemporal environmental inequality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cindy M; Kihal-Talantikite, Wahida; Vieira, Verónica. M; Rosselo, Philippe; LeNir, Geraldine; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Deguen, Severine

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have documented that more deprived populations tend to live in areas characterized by higher levels of environmental pollution. Yet, time trends and geographic patterns of this disproportionate distribution of environmental burden remain poorly assessed, especially in Europe. We investigated the spatial and temporal relationship between ambient air nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and socioeconomic and demographic data in four French Metropolitan Areas (Lille in the north, Lyon in the center, Marseille in the south, and Paris) during two different time periods. The geographical unit used was the census block. The dependent variable was the NO2 annual average concentration (µg/m3) per census block, and the explanatory variables were a neighborhood deprivation index and socioeconomic and demographic data derived from the national census. Generalized additive models were used to account for spatial autocorrelation. We found that the strength and direction of the association between deprivation and NO2 estimates varied between cities. In Paris, census blocks with the higher social categories are exposed to higher mean concentrations of NO2. However, in Lille and Marseille, the most deprived census blocks are the most exposed to NO2. In Lyon, the census blocks in the middle social categories were more likely to have higher concentrations than in the lower social categories. Despite a general reduction in NO2 concentrations over the study period in the four metropolitan areas, we found contrasting results in the temporal trend of environmental inequalities. There is clear evidence of city-specific spatial and temporal environmental inequalities that relate to the historical socioeconomic make-up of the cities and its evolution. Hence, general statements about environmental and social inequalities may not properly characterize situations where people of higher social status find the benefits of living in a specific city outweigh the detriment of

  9. An Investigation of Environmental Inequality in a Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Sadat Pourtaghi

    2014-03-01

    Materials & Methods: In this study, we used individual and cumulative environmental hazard inequality indices to compare the inequality among 379 neighborhoods in the city. Inequality indices were calculated based on unequal shares of environmental hazards for socioeconomic status (SES. The hazards include ambient concentrations of PM10 and NO2 in 2011. Results: Results revealed that inequalities from cumulative hazards (additive and multiplicative and individual PM10 in different education rates were significant (P0.05. Conclusion: Findings of this research can be useful for policymakers and managers to investigate environmental justice especially in mega cities.

  10. 76 FR 33333 - Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5525-N-01] Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Small Area Fair Market Rents (SAFMRs) for Project-Based Vouchers (PBVs) located in the Dallas, TX...

  11. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  12. Spatial Structure and Productivity in U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Meijers (Evert); M.J. Burger (Martijn)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRecent concepts as megaregions and polycentric urban regions emphasize that external economies are not confined to a single urban core, but shared among a collection of close-by and linked cities. However, empirical analyses of agglomeration and agglomeration externalities so-far

  13. AN ANALYZING OF SOCIAL TRUST IN THE TABRIZ METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Zali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The social capital consists of two fundamental components. Relations and links, norms and trust that facilitate group activities, relations and social networks as components of social capital has been evaluated in Tabriz city. This research has been conducted with descriptive and analytical approach in survey. The statistical society of this research was citizens of Tabriz city and the information has been gathered via face to face referring to homes by cluster sampling. In this research four components like accumulating social relations, symmetrical relations, supporting relations and mediation relations as main components of quality of social relations and structure of relations has been analyzed. The results of this study show that the relational stable degree is low in Tabriz city and accumulating the social relation as one of indices of relational stability has got better status in comparison to other indices. Also based on results of this research the social relations in Tabriz city have got very low adaptability degree. At the end of article according to importance of social capital in social development it has been referred to its role in advancement of programs of social development.

  14. AN ANALYZING OF SOCIAL TRUST IN THE TABRIZ METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Zali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The social capital consists of two fundamental components. Relations and links, norms and trust that facilitate group activities, relations and social networks as components of social capital has been evaluated in Tabriz city. This research has been conducted with descriptive and analytical approach in survey. The statistical society of this research was citizens of Tabriz city and the information has been gathered via face to face referring to homes by cluster sampling. In this research four components like accumulating social relations, symmetrical relations, supporting relations and mediation relations as main components of quality of social relations and structure of relations has been analyzed. The results of this study show that the relational stable degree is low in Tabriz city and accumulating the social relation as one of indices of relational stability has got better status in comparison to other indices. Also based on results of this research the social relations in Tabriz city have got very low adaptability degree. At the end of article according to importance of social capital in social development it has been referred to its role in advancement of programs of social development.

  15. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future

  16. Environment, wealth, inequality and the burden of disease in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-06-01

    The study examines environmental problems and adverse impacts on the health of urban households in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana. Accra is faced with severe inadequacy of urban infrastructure in the face of rapid population growth in the metropolis. More than half of the city's population do not have access to solid waste collection services. Only 39.8% of households have indoor pipe and over 35.0% of households depend on unsanitary public latrines whilst 2.5% do not have access to toilet facilities. Human excrement, garbage and wastewater are usually deposited in surface drains, open spaces and streams in poor neighbourhoods. The resultant poor sanitation has serious health impacts as more than half of reported diseases are related to poor environmental sanitation. The majority of households depend on solid fuels for cooking and this leads to indoor air pollution and high incidence of respiratory infections. Poor households bear a disproportionately large share of the burden of environmental health hazards than their wealthy counterparts, due to their particular vulnerability resulting from inadequate access to environmental health facilities and services.

  17. Municipal community gardens in the metropolitan area of Milano. Assessment and planning criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Senes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A community garden (CG can generally be defined as a piece of land gardened collectively by a group of people that grow their produce on shared lots that have been divided into smaller plots. Some gardens are grown collectively, are divided into different plots for individual and family use; CGs are usually located in urban or peri-urban areas. As a growing portion of the urban open space network, CGs are contributing to land preservation, access to open space, and sustainable re-use of vacant land. They promote healthy communities and provide food security for many. In this context, the object of the study are the municipal community gardens (MCGs, a specific typology of CGs provided for land-use planning legislation and practice as an urban service with social function, made available to the community by the municipalities and assigned to be cultivated to citizens (usually seniors/retired people. In particular, the study aimed: i to evaluate the presence of MCGs in the città metropolitana di Milano (the former province of Milano; and ii to define criteria for new MCGs settlement, using existing geo-database and geographical information system to make it replicable in other settings. For the first topic the 133 municipalities of the former province of Milano (excluded the city of Milano were analysed. Only 59 municipalities had presence of MCGs. The average area per capita of MCGs is 0.68 sq.m/inhab. (if we exclude Rodano, an outlier with 35 sq.m/inhab.. An overlay with land use map has permitted to define the relationships between the MCGs and their surrounding territory. The major part of MCGs are included in urban or suburban areas. For the second goal, the land area to be allocated for new MCGs was assessed for each municipality, comparing area of existing MCGs and a minimum required area (calculated on the basis of the inhabitants number. Finally a method was proposed to locate the new MCGs areas. Criteria used to identify suitable areas

  18. Metropolitan natural area protection to maximize public access and species representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane A. Ruliffson; Robert G. Haight; Paul H. Gobster; Frances R. Homans

    2003-01-01

    In response to widespread urban development, local governments in metropolitan areas in the United States acquire and protect privately-owned open space. We addressed the planner's problem of allocating a fixed budget for open space protection among eligible natural areas with the twin objectives of maximizing public access and species representation. Both...

  19. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, M.; Bleidorn, W.; Lamb, M.E.; Gosling, S.D.; Rentfrow, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations

  20. EVALUATION OF PRIVATE SCHOOL LOCATION IN THE ISTANBUL METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TOPÇU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment in education is considered important for economic growth and poverty alleviation. In many developed and developing countries families contribute privately to the education of their children as a result of continuously shrinking public budgets. Also, in Istanbul private primary schools were supported by the government in order to answer to increasing demand due to continuous rural migration and to create a competitive educational market to improve the quality of primary education. This paper, first, analyzes the spatial distribution of private primary schools according to the concentric rings and illustrates the gap between the center and the periphery and among the districts. Then, the relationships between the number of private primary schools and demand and the characteristics of the districts are investigated by a regression analysis. According to the results, the number of public primary schools is the most important factor and GDP per capita is the second factor to affect the number of private primary schools in the districts. Currently, the cluster of private primary schools mainly in high-income districts does not allow developing a competitive educational market at the metropolitan level. It is expected that a more balanced market will be develop as the urban structure of Istanbul adjusted to the neo-liberal economies in the future. The results are useful for urban planners, investors and policy makers. Further research is suggested to investigate the impact of private primary schools on the quality of public primary school education in Istanbul.

  1. Economic and environmental impact analysis of new road network project, connecting the inland metropolitan cities with port city of Karachi in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohi, K.M.; Uqaili, M.A.; Harijan, K.

    2005-01-01

    Most of the developing countries face a lack of infrastructure facilities, where the road transport network is one of them. In this paper, firstly impacts of new road network project connecting with port city and inland metropolitan cities or northwest part of Pakistan are analyzed by using Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. Secondly, for the estimation of economic and environmental impacts of this project, a multi-regional CGE model is proposed. It is found that construction of this project is going to change the industrial structure, especially in production of manufacturing sector, and it will also change the Equivalent Variation (EV). It is also observed that remarkable economic and environmental impacts appeared in the inland metropolitan cities or northwest region than the rest of Pakistan. After analysis of these impacts, it is easy for government to make proper policy for maintaining economic impacts and reducing environmental impacts on national and regional level. (author)

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns of childhood asthma hospitalization and utilization in Memphis Metropolitan Area from 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyana, Tonny J; Podila, Pradeep; Wesley, Jagila Minso; Lomnicki, Slawo; Cormier, Stephania

    2017-10-01

    To identify the key risk factors and explain the spatiotemporal patterns of childhood asthma in the Memphis metropolitan area (MMA) over an 11-year period (2005-2015). We hypothesize that in the MMA region this burden is more prevalent among urban children living south, downtown, and north of Memphis than in other areas. We used a large-scale longitudinal electronic health record database from an integrated healthcare system, Geographic information systems (GIS), and statistical and space-time models to study the spatiotemporal distributions of childhood asthma at census tract level. We found statistically significant spatiotemporal clusters of childhood asthma in the south, west, and north of Memphis city after adjusting for key covariates. The results further show a significant increase in temporal gradient in frequency of emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient hospitalizations from 2009 to 2013, and an upward trajectory from 4 per 1,000 children in 2005 to 16 per 1,000 children in 2015. The multivariate logistic regression identified age, race, insurance, admit source, encounter type, and frequency of visits as significant risk factors for childhood asthma (p asthma burden and healthcare utilization for African American (AA) patients living in a high-risk area than those living in a low-risk area in comparison to the white patients: AA vs. white [odds ratio (OR) = 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.75-3.34]; and Hispanic vs. white (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.21-2.17). These findings provide a strong basis for developing geographically tailored population health strategies at the neighborhood level for young children with chronic respiratory conditions.

  3. Social conflict in response to urban sprawl in rural areas: urban reconfiguration of the Mezquital valley as influence area of the megalopolis of Mexico City

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Brisa; Cadena, Edel; Campos, Juan; Hinojosa, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    The urban sprawl of metropolitan areas involves complex processes of coexistence between urban and rural dynamics, the functional redefining of central urban areas and rural areas or urban-rural surrounding transition generates land conflicts. In this paper the context of Mexico City megalopolis and its expansion process, will be discussed in the new specialization of the central city to tertiary services and increasing the value of land, it has resulted in the expulsion of the industry and s...

  4. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  5. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Spadaro, Joseph V; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Kendrovski, Vladimir; Kochubovski, Mihail; Mudu, Pierpaolo

    2018-03-29

    Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce. we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM) concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. In 2012, long-term exposure to PM 2.5 (49.2 μg/m³) caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821-1519). The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM 2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104-977) from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937-1869) for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM 2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 μg/m³) could have averted an estimated 45% of PM-attributable mortality, while achieving the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (10 μg/m³) could have averted an estimated 77% of PM-attributable mortality. Both scenarios would also attain significant reductions in attributable respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM 2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city.

  6. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sanchez Martinez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce. Methods: we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. Results: In 2012, long-term exposure to PM2.5 (49.2 μg/m3 caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821–1519. The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104–977 from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937–1869 for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 μg/m3 could have averted an estimated 45% of PM-attributable mortality, while achieving the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (10 μg/m3 could have averted an estimated 77% of PM-attributable mortality. Both scenarios would also attain significant reductions in attributable respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Conclusions: Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city.

  7. The Spatial Changes of Land Use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area 1970s – 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Simion

    2010-01-01

    The article explore the dimension of spatial changes of land use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area (BMA) over the past forty years. Using GIS-based land use data sets of the years 1970, 1990 and 2000, combining with statistical data, we attempted to quantify the spatial pattern of land use changes in the BMA. Our findings indicate that most significantly changes occurred with arable lands that have been reduced from 77% of total metropolitan area in 1970 to 71.3% in 2000 and in same time th...

  8. Study on waste waters of metal finishing industries around Lahore metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Izhar-ul-Haq; Mahmood, F.; Tufail, S.; Naeem, M.

    2002-01-01

    Study was undertaken on the waste water samples from metal finishing industries of Lahore metropolitan area for the evaluation of metallic impurities. The metal finishing industry was classified into three categories i. e. medium scale, small scale and cottage scale industry. About 93 wastewater samples were collected from various metal finishing industries around Lahore metropolitan area. In addition to toxic elements like cadmium, nickel and zinc the other parameters such as hydrogen ion concentration (pH), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) were also determined. (author)

  9. Potential for air quality improvement in the Tokyo metropolitan area from use of hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul; Murdock, Mork

    1998-01-01

    A revised estimation has been made of the local air quality improvement that can be achieved in Tokyo as a byproduct of a word-wide hydrogen energy economy based on global reduction of CO2 emission from fossil fuels. The study for the WE-NET Project in Japan examined the potential for reduction in nitrogen oxide emission with hydrogen fuel in the Tokyo metropolitan area where sufficient data exist on trends in population, vehicle registrations, traffic activity, and exhaust emissions. A dynamic model was developed to extrapolate the trends in these data to estimate future NOx emission rates in comparison to regulatory scenarios based on policy and technical decisions of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government for improvement of air quality in the metropolitan area. The results of the model show significant potential for reduction of NOx emission by the year 2020 with a concomitant reduction in mean roadside NOx concentration. (author)

  10. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  11. An Urban Heat Island Study of the Colombo Metropolitan Area, Sri Lanka, Based on Landsat Data (1997–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Ranagalage

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major impacts associated with unplanned rapid urban growth is the decrease of urban vegetation, which is often replaced with impervious surfaces such as buildings, parking lots, roads, and pavements. Consequently, as the percentage of impervious surfaces continues to increase at the expense of vegetation cover, surface urban heat island (SUHI forms and becomes more intense. The Colombo Metropolitan Area (CMA, Sri Lanka, is one of the rapidly urbanizing metropolitan regions in South Asia. In this study, we examined the spatiotemporal variations of land surface temperature (LST in the CMA in the context of the SUHI phenomenon using Landsat data. More specifically, we examined the relationship of LST with the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI at three time points (1997, 2007 and 2017. In addition, we also identified environmentally critical areas based on LST and NDVI. We found significant correlations of LST with NDVI (negative and NDBI (positive (p < 0.001 across all three time points. Most of the environmentally critical areas are located in the central business district (CBD, near the harbor, across the coastal belt, and along the main transportation network. We recommend that those identified environmentally critical areas be considered in the future urban planning and landscape development of the city. Green spaces can help improve the environmental sustainability of the CMA.

  12. Effect of Land-Use Change on the Urban Heat Island in the Fukuoka–Kitakyushu Metropolitan Area, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In coastal cities, the effect of the sea breeze in mitigating the urban heat island (UHI phenomenon has attracted attention. This study targeted the Fukuoka–Kitakyushu metropolitan area, the fourth largest metropolitan area in Japan which is also coastal. Doppler Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR observations were conducted in the summer of 2015 to clarify the transition of the wind field over the targeted area. To investigate the effects on the UHI of land-use change related to urbanization, the National Land Numerical Information (NLNI land-use datasets for Japan in 1976 (NLNI-76 and 2009 (NLNI-09 were used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The results of the simulation showed that most of the northern part of the Kyushu region became warmer, with an average increase of +0.236 °C for the whole simulation period. Comparing the two simulations and the Doppler LiDAR observations, the simulation results with the NLNI-09 dataset (for the year closest to the study period in 2015 showed closer conformity with the observations. The results of the simulation using NLNI-76 showed faster sea breeze penetration and higher wind velocity than the observations. These results suggest that the land-use change related to urbanization weakened the sea breeze penetration in this area.

  13. Energy-Independent Architectural Models for Residential Complex Plans through Solar Energy in Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yul Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests energy-independent architectural models for residential complexes through the production of solar-energy-based renewable energy. Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea, was selected as the target area for the residential complex. An optimal location in the area was selected to maximize the production of solar-energy-based renewable energy. Then, several architectural design models were developed. Next, after analyzing the energy-use patterns of each design model, economic analyses were conducted considering the profits generated from renewable-energy use. In this way, the optimum residential building model was identified. For this site, optimal solar power generation efficiency was obtained when solar panels were installed at 25° angles. Thus, the sloped roof angles were set to 25°, and the average height of the internal space of the highest floor was set to 1.8 m. Based on this model, analyses were performed regarding energy self-sufficiency improvement and economics. It was verified that connecting solar power generation capacity from a zero-energy perspective considering the consumer’s amount of power consumption was more effective than connecting maximum solar power generation capacity according to building structure. Moreover, it was verified that selecting a subsidizable solar power generation capacity according to the residential solar power facility connection can maximize operational benefits.

  14. Hot emission model for mobile sources: application to the metropolitan region of the city of Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalán, Roberto M; Osses, Mauricio; Urrutia, Cristian M

    2002-02-01

    Depending on the final application, several methodologies for traffic emission estimation have been developed. Emission estimation based on total miles traveled or other average factors is a sufficient approach only for extended areas such as national or worldwide areas. For road emission control and strategies design, microscale analysis based on real-world emission estimations is often required. This involves actual driving behavior and emission factors of the local vehicle fleet under study. This paper reports on a microscale model for hot road emissions and its application to the metropolitan region of the city of Santiago, Chile. The methodology considers the street-by-street hot emission estimation with its temporal and spatial distribution. The input data come from experimental emission factors based on local driving patterns and traffic surveys of traffic flows for different vehicle categories. The methodology developed is able to estimate hourly hot road CO, total unburned hydrocarbons (THCs), particulate matter (PM), and NO(x) emissions for predefined day types and vehicle categories.

  15. Assessment of heavy metals in street dust in Kathmandu metropolitan city and their possible impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrakar, C.S.; Shakya, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Street dust often contains elevated concentrations of heavy metals and can influence on environment and human health. Therefore, a study on the characteristics of heavy metals in street dusts at different localities was carried out in the metropolitan city of Kathmandu of Nepal. A total of 20 street dusts have been sampled from four sampling sites with various activities or characteristics such as mechanical workshops (MWK), motor parks (MPK), market areas (MKA) and residential areas (RDA) and analyzed for Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Results showed that street dust samples contained significant levels of the metals studied compared to the values from the control site. The variation in concentration of most of the heavy metals determined decreased in an order represented as MWK>MPK>MKA>RDA>Control. While the RDA and MKA give the same element abundance order as Zn > Pb > Ni > Cr > Cd, the MPK and MWK show different abundance order in some elemental contents. In all the street dusts, zinc is the most available and labile element followed by lead. From the place of low activity (RDA) to the place of high activity (MWK), the metal concentrations in street dusts varied from 55.4-419.3 mu g/sup -1/ for Zn, 12.3-116.8 mu g/sup -1/ for Pb, 4.9-86.3 mu /sup -1/ for Ni, 1.4-14.3 mu g/sup -1/ for Cr and 0.3-39.6 mu g/sup -1/ for Cd respectively. Results indicate that the metal pollutants in street dusts could significantly contribute to deteriorate the environmental status of the city of Kathmandu metropolis. (author)

  16. Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Wang, Jian; Liang, Hao; Liu, Wei-Yue; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Yuan; Wan, Xu; Cai, Wei-Qi; Ju, Lei; Chen, Luo-Kan; Wang, Liu-Jun; Gao, Yuan; Chen, Kai; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-12-20

    We have demonstrated a metropolitan all-pass quantum communication network in field fiber for four nodes. Any two nodes of them can be connected in the network to perform quantum key distribution (QKD). An optical switching module is presented that enables arbitrary 2-connectivity among output ports. Integrated QKD terminals are worked out, which can operate either as a transmitter, a receiver, or even both at the same time. Furthermore, an additional link in another city of 60 km fiber (up to 130 km) is seamless integrated into this network based on a trusted relay architecture. On all the links, we have implemented protocol of decoy state scheme. All of necessary electrical hardware, synchronization, feedback control, network software, execution of QKD protocols are made by tailored designing, which allow a completely automatical and stable running. Our system has been put into operation in Hefei in August 2009, and publicly demonstrated during an evaluation conference on quantum network organized by the Chinese Academy of Sciences on August 29, 2009. Real-time voice telephone with one-time pad encoding between any two of the five nodes (four all-pass nodes plus one additional node through relay) is successfully established in the network within 60 km.

  17. PASSENGER CAR EQUIVALENT (PCE OF THROUGH VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS IN DHAKA METROPOLITAN CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha SAHA

    2009-01-01

    PCE currently used in Bangladesh is based on the values given in Geometric Design of Highways (MoC, 2001, which is the modification of the values given by Webster (1958 on the study performed in the United Kingdom in the 50's and 60's. But now-a-days, the situation is far different both for traffic and road user as the characteristics have changed from that time. Hence, in this paper an empirical study was carried out to determine the PCE of different types of vehicle that reflect the actual traffic conditions of Dhaka Metropolitan City. Data were collected from ten signalized intersections and the headway ratio method was used to estimate the PCE of different types of vehicle. The main vehicle compositions observed during the study period consist of passenger cars, auto-rickshaws, mini-buses and buses. The PCE obtained in this study were compared to the values established earlier. It was found that the estimated PCE are smaller than those being used in Bangladesh.

  18. Relative Food Prices and Obesity in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: 1976-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Variyam, Jayachandran N.; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of food price on obesity, by exploring the co-occurrence of obesity growth with relative food price reduction between 1976 and 2001. Analyses control for female labor participation and metropolitan outlet densities that might affect body weight. Both the first-difference and fixed effects approaches provide consistent evidence suggesting that relative food prices have substantial impacts on obesity and such impacts were more pronounced among the low-educated. These findings imply that relative food price reductions during the time period could plausibly explain about 18% of the increase in obesity among the U.S. adults in metropolitan areas. PMID:25502888

  19. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M; Shih, Regina A

    2016-01-01

    Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8-20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16-18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States.

  20. Hybrid Wavelength Routed and Optical Packet Switched Ring Networks for the Metropolitan Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness...... attractive when traffic is unbalanced....

  1. Evaluation of the external costs of energy production in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterstroem, T.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the research is to evaluate the external costs of energy production at Helsinki metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa). The previously developed valorization method for effects on population centres is adjusted. All the main health, material and environmental effects will be taken into account in the research. The effects of emissions of the energy production of the Helsinki metropolitan area on concentrations of the impurities in the air and through them on human and environment will be evaluated. The estimates will be based on the relativistic fuels consumption and the emission data of Helsinki metropolitan area. Life-cycle reasoning will be applied so that the emissions of the main components of the fuels used in the metropolitan area will be included in the estimation. The cost-effectiveness of the investments will be estimated by comparing the environmental investments of energy boards with the external costs. The methods of this work can be applied to estimation of the profitability of energy production plants from the point of view of national economy also elsewhere in the country

  2. The metropolitan park: searching for a new typology for intermediate green areas in urban fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhuijsen, M.; Velde, van der R.; Graaf, de E.; Kruit, E.; Lodder, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing urbanization in metropolitan regions creates a wish for large green areas in the urban peripheries for recreational purposes. Agricultural landscapes are being replaced with woods, nature and water to provide citizens with space for outdoor recreation and other activities. Park-like settings

  3. Climate change impacts on extreme temperature mortality in select metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected mortality from climate change-driven impacts on extremely hot and cold days increases significantly over the 21st century in a large group of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Increases in projected mortality from more hot days are greater than decreases in ...

  4. A Political-Ecological Analysis of Income Inequality in the Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollens, Scott A.

    1986-01-01

    Metropolitan development is not simply a result of ecological factors. Governmental organization affects the incentives of localities and helps determine patterns of growth. This study updates previous studies on factors influencing residential area income inequality. Modification of the variables in the ecological explanation will increase…

  5. [The use of seatbelts and child seats in drivers and passengers of motor vehicles in four metropolitan areas in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Trejo, Arturo; Leenen, Iwin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the rate of seatbelt and child seat use in drivers and passengers of motor vehicles in four metropolitan areas in Mexico (Guadalajara, León, Monterrey and Mexico City). To evaluate the impact of the Mexican Initiative for Road Safety (IMESEVI) in this respect. Data were collected at the start of IMESEVI (June 2008) and one year after the program's implementation (October 2009) in the four participating metropolitan areas. In particular, the use of seatbelts and child seats was observed in occupants of automobiles, station wagons, and light trucks. The sample included 28,412 (pre) and 52,274 (post) individuals, of which 1,454 (pre) and 1,679 (post) were younger than five years old. The data analysis was based on a hierarchical logistic model. Globally, the probability of using either safety device is 46% (95% CI: 43-49%) at baseline and 52% (95% CI: 48-55%) at the post measurement, with large differences, though, among the four participating metropolitan areas. Factors that significantly affect their use include the individual's position in the vehicle, the type and age of the vehicle, and the individual's sex. Child seat use is very limited. At baseline, about 17% (95% CI: 11-25%) of children below five years old travelled in a special seat, with this number increasing to 26% (95% CI: 19-34%) after the implementation of IMESEVI. Child seat use for children above four years is virtually nonexistent. Continued efforts are required to raise the public awareness of the importance of using safety devices, especially for passengers in the back of the car as well as with respect to the use of adapted seats for small children.

  6. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  7. A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed.

  8. Iron, Oil, and Emeryville: Resource Industrialization and Metropolitan Expansion in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1850-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Lunine, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have largely overlooked the formative role of industry in both California's economic development and the San Francisco Bay Area's metropolitan expansion during the late nineteenth century. Beginning in the early 1880s, leading firms in San Francisco's specialized industries, such as the iron and chemicals sectors, dispersed to the metropolitan periphery. This process of industrial suburbanization created an integrative metropolitan economy, as well as individual suburbs. In this di...

  9. A Mediterranean case study of flood evolution: the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria Carmen; Gilabert, Joan; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Cortès, Maria; Marcos, Raül; Martín-Vide, Juan Pedro; Turco, Marco; Falcón, Lluis

    2016-04-01

    ensemble of regional models (ENSEMBLES project) have been also considered. Flood events have been obtained from newspapers, reports and insurance data. The role played by prevention measures, particularly in the specific case of Barcelona, which has been recognized by UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) as resilient city in front of floods, is also presented. Results confirm the strong role played by the increase of urban surface (from less than 15% in 1956 to near 40% in 2009) and explore future adaptation measures in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This work has been supported by the Spanish project HOPE and the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, and developed by an interdisciplinary team that include experts from hydrology, meteorology, geography, environmental sciences and architecture.

  10. Local and remote black carbon sources in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Resquin, Melisa; Santágata, Daniela; Gallardo, Laura; Gómez, Darío; Rössler, Cristina; Dawidowski, Laura

    2018-06-01

    Equivalent black carbon (EBC) mass concentrations in the fine inhalable fraction of airborne particles (PM2.5) were determined using a 7-wavelength Aethalometer for 17 months, between November 2014 and March 2016, for a suburban location of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA), Argentina. In addition to describing seasonal and diurnal black carbon (BC) cycles for the first time in this region, the relative contributions of fossil fuel and remote and local biomass burning were determined by distinguishing different carbonaceous components based on their effect on light attenuation for different wavelengths. Trajectory analyses and satellite-based fire products were used to illustrate the impact of long-range transport of particles emitted by non-local sources. EBC data showed a marked diurnal cycle, largely modulated by traffic variations and the height of the boundary layer, and a seasonal cycle with monthly median EBC concentrations (in μg /m3) ranging from 1.5 (February) to 3.4 (June). Maximum values were found during winter due to the combination of prevailingly stable atmospheric conditions and the increase of fossil fuel emissions, derived primarily from traffic and biomass burning from the domestic use of wood for heating. The use of charcoal grills was also detected and concentrated during weekends. The average contribution of fossil fuel combustion sources to EBC concentrations was 96%, with the remaining 4% corresponding to local and regional biomass burning. During the entire study period, only two events were identified during which EBC concentrations attributed to regional biomass burning accounted for over 50% of total EBC ; these events demonstrate the relevance of agricultural and forestry activities that take place far from the city yet whose emissions can affect the urban atmosphere of the MABA.

  11. Demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Renato C.; Zouain, Desiree M.

    2005-01-01

    This research presents partial results from the development of a Masters Dissertation for the Post-Graduation in Nuclear Technology Program - IPEN/USP, aiming to study the demand of radiopharmaceutical Fluoride 18-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) in the Sao Paulo State metropolitan area, as a subsidiary for the establishment of distribution strategy within the State. This study presented the results of a bibliographic review as well as the market evolution for FDG in Sao Paulo. Studies pointed to a tendency of an increase in the international and national nuclear medicine market; while the United States of America participate in 47% of the world profit, South America shares only 2.5% of the global market. This market will tend to grow in 2006 to 2020 up to 776% for diagnosis and 760% for therapy. Partial results are presented in this study from researching medical centers that use PET in the city of Sao Paulo, as well as companies that commercialize the equipment and the manufacturer center. There is an increase of sales for IPEN's Fluoride 18-FDG and its representation on the total radiopharmaceutical profit surpassed 5.3% in 2003 to 8.2% in 2004. The dissemination of this technology in Brazil is lately being discussed especially due to the acquisition price of the equipment as well as the viability of the resources (Fluoride 18- FDG; implementation strategies of regional cyclotron accelerators) and the question of remuneration of the PET produced exams for health care plans and national health care system (SUS). IPEN is developing yet another study to grasp possible demand for this product in the Southern and Southeastern regions, allowing better view of the necessity of the supplement, and in study the implementation of a new cyclotron in the institute dedicated for the production of Fluoride 18-FDG. (author)

  12. Multi-geohazards of Ende city area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan Supriatman Sutawidjaja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no4.20073The Ende City is a steep mountainous area, of which the height of their peaks are above 1500 m asl. It has the limited extent of plain places, without coastal plains. Due to this condition, large parts of the area are vulnerable to mass-movements mainly debris flows, rock-falls and shallow translational and rotational landslides. On the other hand, Flores Island is a segment of the Banda Arc that contains eleven very active volcanoes and numerous inactive volcanic cones. Two of them, Mount Iya and Mount Kelimutu are included to Ende Regency. The northern foot of Mount Iya is only about 1 km away from the southern outskirts of Ende city. But the presence of Mount Meja and Mount Roja as the barrier, and the orientation of the active crater (K2, the highly explosive eruption of Iya Volcano may not directly endanger the city of Ende. Most pyroclastic flows of previous eruptions and other eruptive material emplaced into the sea, but due to a short horizontal distance between Mount Iya and Ende City, the ejected rock fragments can endanger the city of Ende especially its southern parts. A crack has developed around the active crater (K2 of Iya Volcano. It seems that the crack indicates a major weakness within the volcano, which could result in a giant landslide, entering the sea in future eruptions of Iya Volcano. The kinetic energy which is transmitted through the water may probably generate a tsunami. The Ende City also experienced significant damages in the 1992 earthquake. Luckily this city is located on a solid rock instead of alluvial sediments which can potentially undergo liquefaction.  

  13. Tendencia de los niveles de plomo en la atmósfera de la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de México: 1988-1998 Trends in atmospheric concentrations of lead in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City: 1988-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Cortez-Lugo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las tendencias del plomo atmosférico asociadas a la eliminación paulatina del plomo de la gasolina y el uso de convertidores catalíticos en el auto transporte de la Ciudad de México, de 1988 a 1998. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de series de tiempo que incluye las mediciones atmosféricas de plomo que se obtuvieron, entre 1988 y 1998, de nueve estaciones de la red manual de monitoreo atmosférico de la Ciudad de México. Las intervenciones evaluadas fueron la introducción de gasolina Magnasin, el uso de convertidores catalíticos y el descenso en la concentración de plomo hasta su eliminación total de la gasolina utilizada en los auto transportes. Se describen las tendencias de plomo por monitor, por zona geográfica, utilizando un modelo de regresión que incorpora una estructura de auto-correlación. RESULTADOS: La introducción de gasolina sin plomo y de los convertidores catalíticos se asoció con un descenso en la concentración de plomo atmosférico en 23%, la reducción paulatina del plomo en la gasolina ocasionó una reducción acumulada de 89% en todas las zonas estudiadas. CONCLUSIONES: La introducción de la gasolina sin plomo ha logrado abatir las concentraciones ambientales de este contaminante de una manera importante.OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in airborne lead levels and their association with the control measures implemented from 1988 to 1998 to phase out lead from gasoline that included the introduction of a lead-free gasoline and the use of catalytic converters in automobiles in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data of atmospheric lead levels were obtained from the 9 field stations included in the local air quality monitoring network (RMMA. Trends for airborne lead are shown by monitor, monitoring area and for the entire metropolitan zone. Analysis of data was performed using linear regression models including autocorrelation analysis. The models were validated by standard diagnostic

  14. Prediction of heavy rainfall over Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India: Impact of microphysical parameterization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. S.; Bonthu, Subbareddy; Purvaja, R.; Robin, R. S.; Kannan, B. A. M.; Ramesh, R.

    2018-04-01

    This study attempts to investigate the real-time prediction of a heavy rainfall event over the Chennai Metropolitan City, Tamil Nadu, India that occurred on 01 December 2015 using Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model. The study evaluates the impact of six microphysical (Lin, WSM6, Goddard, Thompson, Morrison and WDM6) parameterization schemes of the model on prediction of heavy rainfall event. In addition, model sensitivity has also been evaluated with six Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and two Land Surface Model (LSM) schemes. Model forecast was carried out using nested domain and the impact of model horizontal grid resolutions were assessed at 9 km, 6 km and 3 km. Analysis of the synoptic features using National Center for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP-GFS) analysis data revealed strong upper-level divergence and high moisture content at lower level were favorable for the occurrence of heavy rainfall event over the northeast coast of Tamil Nadu. The study signified that forecasted rainfall was more sensitive to the microphysics and PBL schemes compared to the LSM schemes. The model provided better forecast of the heavy rainfall event using the logical combination of Goddard microphysics, YSU PBL and Noah LSM schemes, and it was mostly attributed to timely initiation and development of the convective system. The forecast with different horizontal resolutions using cumulus parameterization indicated that the rainfall prediction was not well represented at 9 km and 6 km. The forecast with 3 km horizontal resolution provided better prediction in terms of timely initiation and development of the event. The study highlights that forecast of heavy rainfall events using a high-resolution mesoscale model with suitable representations of physical parameterization schemes are useful for disaster management and planning to minimize the potential loss of life and property.

  15. Current target industry analysis: Las Vegas Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    This is the second of three reports dealing with the Las Vegas MSA's economic development potential in support of an overall effort to prepare an environmental impact statement for the proposed underground nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain. The first report provides an assessment of the MSA current business climate for economic growth. This second report draws on that business climate assessment to evaluate the Las Vegas MSA's competitive posture in pursuing business investment in the ''primary'' sector of the economy -- businesses which sell their products or services outside the local marketplace and bring new money back into the area and businesses serving local customers who would otherwise import these products or services from suppliers outside the area. GSO has developed an analytic tool which attempts to model the decision process used by businesses in selecting locations for new or expanded business investment. This computer based model reflects variations in site selection decision making among industries and ownership and management types. The underlying premise of the GSO locational compatibility index (LCI) model is that locational decisions are based more on a process of elimination that on a process of selection. There are many factors, some essential and some desirable, which influence any site selection decision. Multivariate comparative analyses narrow the geographic field to a region, then a group of states, then a state, then a sub-state region, then a community and finally to a specific site. Sometimes these analyses are rational and quantitative. More often, they are at least partially random and intuitive. 2 tabs

  16. Shifting balances in U.S. metropolitan and nonmetropolitan area growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnick, D H

    1984-12-01

    "This paper assesses some of the recent attempts to explain the perceived growth reversal between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas in the United States during the 1970s. The paper argues that the reversal in population trends was not a one-time, radical shift in settlement trends, but rather the result of more continuous underlying industrial trends. Indeed, since 1979, population growth has again become faster in metropolitan than nonmetropolitan areas." The paper includes three sections. Regional and area population and industrial earnings growth patterns are first summarized for the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Theories of polarization and polar reversal are then evaluated and found to be inadequate. Finally, a reconstruction of the neoclassical model is proposed. excerpt

  17. MUNICIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: A PROPOSAL OF INSTRUMENTS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF SALVADOR (MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Azevedo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this paper is to propose a model for mapping strategies of municipal environmental management for local environmental public policies. To do so, the study adopted a theoretical approach. More specifically, there is discussion on the concepts of public policies and the scenario of the Brazilian municipal environmental management, a brief history of the aspects that involve current national environmental policies. Methodologically, a bibliographical study was carried out through a literature review, which enabled the proposal of instruments for mapping actions and strategies of environmental management in the municipalities of the Metropolitan Area of Salvador (MAS. This theoretical study resulted in the creation of a model form that will be used by empirical researches for mapping the environmental public policies in the MAS City Halls.

  18. Network Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions From On-road Sources in the Portland OR, (USA) Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, governments at multiple levels are developing policies to decrease anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The City of Portland (Oregon) and Multnomah County have adopted a Climate Action Plan with a stated goal of reducing emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The transportation sector alone accounts for about 40% of total emissions in the Portland metropolitan area. Here we show a new street-level model of on-road mobile CO2 emissions for the Portland, OR metropolitan region. The model uses hourly traffic counter recordings made by the Portland Bureau of Transportation at 9,352 sites over 21 years (1986-2006), augmented with freeway loop detector data from the Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) transportation data archive. We constructed a land use regression model to fill in traffic network gaps with traffic counts as the dependent variable using GIS data such as road class (32 categories) and population density. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model was used to estimate transportation CO2 emissions. The street-level emissions can be aggregated and gridded and used as input to atmospheric transport models for comparison with atmospheric measurements. This model also provides an independent assessment of top-down inventories that determine emissions from fuel sales, while being an important component of our ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of emission mitigation strategies at the urban scale.

  19. Local materials in the regeneration of urban space of the historic centre of the Metropolitan City of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Joanna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is part of the studies conducted by the Urban Planning Board, Land Management, Environment Laboratory for the “metropolitan city” and the Big Project “Historic centre of Naples, enhancement of the UNESCO site”. Among the issues under discussion, very important for the 92 municipalities of the Metropolitan City, is the preservation of different urban identities which, although united administratively, are claiming their own cultural profile rooted in the urban space, in the architecture of places and in local resources. The work is based on the principle that the use of local resources affects the quality and perception of urban space and, as evidence of belonging to the place, it is necessary to deal its exploitation under sustainable auspices.

  20. Analyzing Land Use Changes in the Metropolitan Jilin City of Northeastern China Using Remote Sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Yang, Guodong; Wu, Qiong; Li, Hongqing; Liu, Xusheng; Niu, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhiheng; Wang, Qiong

    2008-09-03

    Remote sensing and GIS have been widely employed to study temporal and spatial urban land use changes in southern and southeastern China. However, few studies have been conducted in northeastern regions. This study analyzed land use change and spatial patterns of urban expansion in the metropolitan area of Jilin City, located on the extension of Changbai Mountain, based on aerial photos from 1989 and 2005 Spot images. The results indicated that urban land and transportation land increased dramatically (by 94.04% and 211.20%, respectively); isolated industrial and mining land decreased moderately (by 29.54%); rural residential land increased moderately (by 26.48%); dry land and paddy fields increased slightly (by 15.68% and 11.78%, respectively); forest and orchards decreased slightly (by 5.27% and 4.61%, respectively); grasslands and unused land decreased dramatically (by 99.12% and 86.04%, respectively). Sloped dry land (more than 4 degrees) was mainly distributed on the land below 10 degrees with an east, southeastern and south sunny direction aspect, and most sloped dry land transformed to forest was located on an east aspect lower than 12 degrees, while forest changed to dry land were mainly distributed on east and south aspects lower than 10 degrees. A spatial dependency analysis of land use change showed that the increased urban land was a logarithmic function of distance to the Songhua River. This study also provided some data with spatial details about the uneven land development in the upstream areas of Songhua River basin.

  1. Analyzing Land Use Changes in the Metropolitan Jilin City of Northeastern China Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Wang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and GIS have been widely employed to study temporal and spatial urban land use changes in southern and southeastern China. However, few studies have been conducted in northeastern regions. This study analyzed land use change and spatial patterns of urban expansion in the metropolitan area of Jilin City, located on the extension of Changbai Mountain, based on aerial photos from 1989 and 2005 Spot images. The results indicated that urban land and transportation land increased dramatically (by 94.04% and 211.20%, respectively; isolated industrial and mining land decreased moderately (by 29.54%; rural residential land increased moderately (by 26.48%; dry land and paddy fields increased slightly (by 15.68% and 11.78%, respectively; forest and orchards decreased slightly (by 5.27% and 4.61%, respectively; grasslands and unused land decreased dramatically (by 99.12% and 86.04%, respectively. Sloped dry land (more than 4 degrees was mainly distributed on the land below 10 degrees with an east, southeastern and south sunny direction aspect, and most sloped dry land transformed to forest was located on an east aspect lower than 12 degrees, while forest changed to dry land were mainly distributed on east and south aspects lower than 10 degrees. A spatial dependency analysis of land use change showed that the increased urban land was a logarithmic function of distance to the Songhua River. This study also provided some data with spatial details about the uneven land development in the upstream areas of Songhua River basin.

  2. Measures of social segregation in the context of Warsaw, Berlin and Paris metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorczyk Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social segregation is a subject common in contemporary studies of metropolitan areas. Until recently, studies of segregation focused on the distribution of ethnic groups, immigrants, and the poor. Today, they also cover additional indicators such as demographic properties, education, and affiliation with social and professional categories, which can also serve to determine the causes of the segregation (including the self-segregation of the rich. This article aims to point out the measures of segregation that present the segregation levels in the most complete manner, along with their application in the context of three European metropolitan areas: Warsaw, Berlin, and Paris. The first part of the article is a review of the existing approaches to segregation measures, followed by the selection of research method, presentation of the analysis’ results, and evaluation of the applied methods; presenting the opportunities and limitations in research of the social segregation phenomenon.

  3. Going Up? Canada's metropolitan areas and their role as escalators or elevators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Newbold

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canada’s major metropolitan areas offer multiple opportunities for economic and social advancement for in-migrants. As such, young adults may be attracted to these locations. In-migrants to Toronto have been observed to receive a substantial income benefit associated with migration into Toronto that is consistent with a productivity effect. This income effect is greater than the income benefit received by migrants elsewhere in the system or those who did not migrate. However, migration into Toronto did not lead to an acceleration in income gains consistent with the more rapid career progression expected to result from the migration into an escalator region.Consequently, this paper explores the income benefits for young adult migrants by considering the role of other major metropolitan areas within Canada, and whether they function similar to Toronto as escalators, or serve other roles that are unique to employment sector and type.

  4. Modelling the emissions from ships in ports and their impact on air quality in the metropolitan area of Hamburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramacher, Martin; Karl, Matthias; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Ships emit not only when sailing on open sea, but also when approaching harbors, during port manoeuvers and at berth to produce electricity and heat for the ship's operations. This affects the population of harbor cities because long-term exposure to PM and NOX has significant effects on human health. The European Union has therefore has set air quality standards for air pollutants. Many port cities have problems meeting these standards. The port of Hamburg with around 10.000 ship calls per year is Germany's largest seaport and Europe's second largest container port. Air quality standard reporting in Hamburg has revealed problems in meeting limits for NO2 and PM10. The amount and contribution of port related ship emissions (38% for NOx and 17% for PM10) to the overall emissions in the metropolitan area in 2005 [BSU Hamburg (2012): Luftreinhalteplan für Hamburg. 1. Fortschreibung 2012] has been modelled with a bottom up approach by using statistical data of ship activities in the harbor, technical vessel information and specific emission algorithms [GAUSS (2008): Quantifizierung von gasförmigen Emissionen durch Maschinenanlagen der Seeschiffart an der deutschen Küste]. However, knowledge about the spatial distribution of the harbor ship emissions over the city area is crucial when it comes to air quality standards and policy decisions to protect human health. Hence, this model study examines the spatial distribution of harbor ship emissions (NOX, PM10) and their deposition in the Hamburg metropolitan area. The transport and chemical transformation of atmospheric pollutants is calculated with the well-established chemistry transport model TAPM (The Air Pollution Model). TAPM is a three-dimensional coupled prognostic meteorological and air pollution model with a condensed chemistry scheme including

  5. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix H. Bloomington Lake Reformulation Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    tourism . In terms of absolute numbers, manufacturing dominates the economic base of the area. The industries are mainly concentrated in the metropolitan...A A~~0 tq 0 .0 UI 05 C ’.M Mo A U S. C *.Ob 5 . 0 S S a ~ IS 5 N U C U 556 55 6 SMM MS .. 55 -O USO .0 5 MC 0.55 S.S H ~ ~ ~ F s J." I MU~ .,C U05 5US

  6. Legislation and water management of water source areas of São Paulo Metropolitan Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Gregolin Grisotto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the history of occupation in the water source areas in São Paulo Metropolitan Region (hereinafter SPMR and the evolution of the legislation related to this issue, from the point of view of the environmental and water management. A descriptive methodology was used, with searches into bibliographical and documental materials, in order to present the main laws for the protection of the water supply areas of SPMR and environmental and water management. It was possible to observe some progress in the premises of the both legislation and the format proposed for the management of the water source areas. However, such progress is limited due to the lack of a more effective mechanism for metropolitan management. The construction of the metropolitan management in SPMR would enlarge the capacity of integration between municipalities and sectors. The integration between the management of water and the land use management showed to be fundamental for the protection of the water sources. The new law for protection of the water sources, State Law nº 9.866/97, is decentralized and participative, focusing on non-structural actions and integrated management. However, the effective implementation of the law still depends on the harmonization of sectoral public policies, extensive coordination and cooperation among municipalities and the progress in the degree of the commitment of the governments.

  7. A Partial Proportional Odds Model for Pedestrian Crashes at Mid-Blocks in Melbourne Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toran Pour Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian crashes account for 11% of all reported traffic crashes in Melbourne metropolitan area between 2004 and 2013. There are very limited studies on pedestrian accidents at mid-blocks. Mid-block crashes account for about 46% of the total pedestrian crashes in Melbourne metropolitan area. Meanwhile, about 50% of all pedestrian fatalities occur at mid-blocks. In this research, Partial Proportional Odds (PPO model is applied to examine vehicle-pedestrian crash severity at mid-blocks in Melbourne metropolitan area. The PPO model is a logistic regression model that allows the covariates that meet the proportional odds assumption to affect different crash severity levels with the same magnitude; whereas the covariates that do not meet the proportional odds assumption can have different effects on different severity levels. In this research vehicle-pedestrian crashes at mid-blocks are analysed for first time. In addition, some factors such as distance of crashes to public transport stops, average road slope and some social characteristics are considered to develop the model in this research for first time. Results of PPO model show that speed limit, light condition, pedestrian age and gender, and vehicle type are the most significant factors that influence vehicle-pedestrian crash severity at mid-blocks.

  8. Leaching Functions from the Outer Metropolitan Zones (Trade, Services - Increasing Peripherality of Small Towns and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Heffner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive spatial processes taking place around metropolitan areas leads to many economic, structural and social changes in their surroundings. The small towns and rural areas located in the outer zone of metropolitan areas are most affected by this functional changes. In the outer zone of a big urban canters appears a lot of new competing possibilities on the labor market and a comprehensive commercial, service and cultural offer to smaller centres. One of the most competitive advantage of the metropolitan zones becomes modern shopping centres being established in the most accessible places, providing a comprehensive shopping-services and even cultural-recreational offer.

  9. [Problems resulting from the absorption of small towns into urban areas in major Third World cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, D L

    1985-01-01

    The tendency toward hypertrophy of large metropolitan areas in the Third World has been a subject of concern to economists and other social scientists for some time. Inability to absorb vast waves of migrants into the organized labor force or to provide adequate infrastructure and services are serious problems in many growing cities of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A different phenomenon created by perpetual urban expansion has been relatively neglected: the problems caused when preexisting urban areas are absorbed into the metropolis. The tendency of squatter settlements to constrict normal urban growth and expansion and to impede rational provision of services has been recognized, but the absorption of small cities does not necessarily produce identical problems. Small cities absorbed into a metropolis lose their identity in the successive waves of suburban proliferation. Los Angeles in the US may be considered the prototype of the phenomenon in which multiple preexisting urban zones are absorbed into the same metropolis without formation of any visible center of gravity. In some cases, small cities may be completely engulfed by the encroaching metropolis, if transit routes or availability of land makes them interesting to developers. The livelihood of residents may be threatened if they are no longer able to cultivate gardens or raise small animals. Local services may deteriorate. The youngest and most able residents are likely to abandon such places for the greater opportunities of the city, leaving the aged and less qualified to fend for themselves. Jobs may disappear and traditional commercial relations may be destroyed without being replaced. The future wellbeing of residents depends on their ability to maneuver in the new metropolitan environment, but many will be unable to adjust for lack of training, the weight of immovable property, or diverse personal considerations. Planning could help to reduce the problems that occasional survival of some small

  10. Actual Condition of Quality Control of X-ray Imaging System in Primary Care Institution: focused on Gwangju Metropolitan City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Kyung Rae; Lee, Seun Joo; Lee, Kyu Su; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Goo, Eun Hoe; Jung, Jae Eun; Lee, Kyu Su

    2010-01-01

    With the expanded use of radiation in modern medical practices, the most important issue in regards to efforts to reduce individual exposure dose is quality assurance. Therefore in order to study the present condition of quality assurance, the Gwangju Metropolitan City area was divided into five districts each containing ten hospitals. Four experiments were conducted: a reproducibility experiment for kVp, mA, and examination time (sec) intensity of illumination; half-value layer (HVL) measurement; and beam perpendicularity test matching experiment. The tube voltage reproducibility experiment for all fifty hospitals resulted in a 95.33% passing rate and mA and examination time both resulted in a 77.0% passing rate. The passing rate for intensity of illumination was 86.0% and 52.0% for HVL, which was the lowest passing rate of all four factors. For the beam perpendicularity test matching experiment, generally the central flux is matched to within 1.5 . deg. . Of all fifty hospitals 30.0% were beyond 3 . deg. . The results of the survey showed that 58% responded that they knew about quality assurance cycle. All fifty respondents stated that they have not received any training in regards to quality assurance at their current place of employment. Although quality assurance is making relative progress, the most urgent issue is awareness of the importance of quality assurance. Therefore, the implementation of professional training focusing on safety management and accurate quality assurance of radiation will reduce the exposure to radiation for radiologists and patients and higher quality imaging using less dosage will also be possible

  11. A survey of online social networking used to support health awareness campaigns in the City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Eloff

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Department of Health (DoH at the City of Johannesburg metropolitan municipality in South Africa develops various health awareness campaigns aimed at creating awareness of general health risks within the Johannesburg area. According to staff members of the DoH, the resources utilised in the current campaigns fail to reach a sufficiently broad audience and the campaigns struggle to deliver the intended messages. Furthermore, the development and implementation of campaigns are time consuming and costly. Objectives: This research focused on how online social networking (OSN can support health awareness campaigns for the DoH in the Johannesburg region. OSN may be regarded as a tool that will assist the DoH to reach a wider audience, send health-related messages and provide a two-way communication channel. Method: The research used an exploratory research design with a purposive non-probability sample. A survey was used as the data collection instrument. Statistical analysis was performed on the data obtained from the surveys. Results: The results indicate that the DoH can benefit from the use of OSN in health promotion campaigns. The benefits include, but are not limited to, an increase in engagement with the target market, ease of use and reach within the specified audience. Conclusion: Although there are numerous advantages associated with the integration of OSN by the DoH, the DoH needs to develop training and development programmes for OSN to encourage its use by DoH staff members. The main aim of the programmes is to create internal OSN capabilities to support the OSN strategy.

  12. Coronary heart disease prevalence and occupational structure in U.S. metropolitan areas: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Nagy, Christine; Peterson, Tina

    2013-05-01

    This research explored the link between coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and metropolitan-area level occupational structure among 137 metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas (MMSA) in the United States. Using data from the 2006-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 2007 County Business Patterns, logistic mixed models were developed to estimate CHD prevalence between MMSAs controlling for individual-level socioeconomic characteristics and various types of occupational structure. Results showed that CHD prevalence was lower in MMSAs where their economy was dominated by 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' and higher in MMSAs dominated by 'manufacturing', 'transportation and warehousing', and 'mining'. MMSA-level effects on CHD were found in 'tourism and resort' and 'the quaternary sector' having lower risk and 'mining' having higher risk of CHD. Although these effects prevailed in many MMSAs, some MMSAs did not fit into these effects. Additional analysis indicated a possible link between metropolitan population loss and higher CHD prevalence especially in the coal mining region of the Appalachian Mountains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retaining nurses in metropolitan areas: insights from senior nurse and human resource managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Vari M; Halter, Mary; Gale, Julia; Harris, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the views of senior nurse and human resource managers of strategies to retain hospital nurses in a metropolitan area. Against a global shortage, retaining nurses is a management imperative for the quality of hospital services. Semi-structured interviews, thematically analysed. Metropolitan areas have many health organisations in geographical proximity, offering nurses choices in employer and employment. Senior nurse and human resource managers recognised the complexity of factors influencing nurse turnover, including those that 'pulled' nurses out of their jobs to other posts and factors that 'pushed' nurses to leave. Four themes emerged in retaining nurses: strategy and leadership, including analysis of workforce and leavers' data, remuneration, the type of nursing work and career development and the immediate work environment. In contexts where multiple organisations compete for nurses, addressing retention through strategic leadership is likely to be important in paying due attention and apportioning resources to effective strategies. Aside from good human resource management practices for all, strategies tailored to different segments of the nursing workforce are likely to be important. This metropolitan study suggests attention should be paid to strategies that address remuneration, progressing nursing careers and the immediate work environment. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for adult pulmonary tuberculosis in a metropolitan city of South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Dhanaraj

    Full Text Available The present study measured the community prevalence and risk factors of adult pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in Chennai city, and also studied geographical distribution and the presence of different M. tuberculosis strains in the survey area.A community-based cross sectional survey was carried out from July 2010 to October 2012 in Chennai city. Prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated by direct standardization method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to identify significant risk factors. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping was performed on isolated M. tuberculosis strains. Mapping of PTB cases was done using geographic positioning systems.Of 59,957 eligible people, 55,617 were screened by X-ray and /or TB symptoms and the prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated to be 228 (95% CI 189-265, 259 (95% CI 217-299 and 349 (95% CI 330-428 per 100,000 population, respectively. Prevalence of smear, culture, and bacteriologically positive PTB was highest amongst men aged 55-64 years. Multivariate analysis showed that occurrence of both culture and bacteriologically positive PTB disease was significantly associated with: age >35 years, past history of TB treatment, BMI <18.5 Kgs/m2, solid cooking fuel, and being a male currently consuming alcohol. The most frequent spoligotype family was East African Indian. Spatial distribution showed that a high proportion of patients were clustered in the densely populated north eastern part of the city.Our findings demonstrate that TB is a major public health problem in this urban area of south India, and support the use of intensified case finding in high risk groups. Undernutrition, slum dwelling, indoor air pollution and alcohol intake are modifiable risk factors for TB disease.

  16. Impact of the 2001 Tohoku-oki earthquake to Tokyo Metropolitan area observed by the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kasahara, K.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a great impact to the Tokyo metropolitan area in both seismological aspect and seismic risk management although Tokyo is located 340 km from the epicenter. The event generated very strong ground motion even in the metropolitan area and resulted severe requifaction in many places of Kanto district. National and local governments have started to discuss counter measurement for possible seismic risks in the area taking account for what they learned from the Tohoku-oki event which is much larger than ever experienced in Japan Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. We will discuss the main results that are obtained in the respective fields which have been integrated to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area; the project has been much improved after the Tohoku event. In order to image seismic structure beneath the Metropolitan Tokyo area we have developed Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net; Hirata et al., 2009). We have installed 296 seismic stations every few km (Kasahara et al., 2011). We conducted seismic

  17. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Age-adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA age-adjusted prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the...

  18. Assessing post apartheid settlement growth patterns using remote sensing and GIWS: A case study of Cape Town metropolitan area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, DL

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The significant land-use change in South African metropolitan areas, due to urbanization, created challenges of spatial development planning, infrastructure and service provision. This paper outlines the change detection analysis method applied...

  19. Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco Bay area : developing regional objectives and performance measures to improve system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) uses an objectives-driven, performance-based approach in its transportation planning for the San Francisco Bay Area. This approach focuses attention on transportation investments of highest priority. T...

  20. Spatial and Temporal Variations of EC and OC Aerosol Combustion Sources in a Polluted Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Fahrni, S.; Santos, G.; Bush, S. E.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Czimczik, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbonaceous aerosols are a major component of fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) in polluted metropolitan areas and in the global atmosphere. Elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols influence Earth's energy balance by means of direct and indirect pathways and EC has been suggested as a better indicator of public health impacts from combustion-related sources than PM mass. Quantifying the contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion to the EC and OC emissions and their temporal and spatial variations is critical for developing efficient legislative air pollution control measures and successful climate mitigation strategies. In this study, we used radiocarbon (14C) to separate and quantify fossil and biomass contributions to a time series of EC and OC collected at 3 locations in Salt Lake City (SLC). Aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and a modified OC/EC analyzer was used with the Swiss_4S protocol to isolate and trap the EC fraction. Together with the total carbon (TC) content of the samples, the EC was analyzed for its 14C content with accelerator mass spectrometry. The 14C of OC was derived as a mass balance difference between TC and EC. EC had an annual average fraction modern of 0.13±0.06 and did not vary significantly across seasons. OC had an annual average FM of 0.49±0.13, with the winter mean (0.43±0.11) lower than the summer mean (0.64±0.13) at the 5% significance level. While the 3 stations were chosen to represent a variety of environmental conditions within SLC, no major differences in this source partitioning were observed between stations. During winter, the major sources of air pollutants in SLC are motor vehicles and wood stove combustion and determining their relative contributions has been the subject of debate. Our results indicated that fossil fuels were the dominant source of carbonaceous aerosols during winter, contributing 87% or more of the total EC mass and 40-75% of the OC

  1. Perceptions of High School Principals about Teacher Motivation in in the Metropolitan Area of Medellin, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán López-Arellano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is an exploratory research with the purpose of measuring perceptions High School principals have about teachers’ motivation in four specific areas: facilities and institutional resources, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and social impacts. In this article, perceptions of principals working in public and private schools are compared. The authors designed and applied a five Likert-scale questionnaire to determine the perceptions of principals about motivation in their teacher staffs; the tool was implemented in fifty-one schools of the Metropolitan Area of Medellín, Colombia. Data show a higher favorability (i.e., categories with a better score in private schools than in public ones.

  2. Rainfall, runoff, and water-quality data for the urban storm-water program in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area, water year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Todd; Romero, Orlando; Jimenez, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Urbanization has dramatically increased precipitation runoff to the system of drainage channels and natural stream channels in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, metropolitan area. Rainfall and runoff data are important for planning and designing future storm-water conveyance channels in newly developing areas. Storm-water quality also is monitored in accordance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority, the City of Albuquerque, and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative program to collect hydrologic data to assist in assessing the quality and quantity of surface-water resources in the Albuquerque area. This report presents water-quality, streamflow, and rainfall data collected from October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004 (water year 2004). Also provided is a station analysis for each of the 18 streamflow-gaging sites and 39 rainfall-gaging sites, which includes a description of monitoring equipment, problems associated with data collection during the year, and other information used to compute streamflow discharges or rainfall records. A hydrographic comparison shows the effects that the largest drainage channel in the metropolitan area, the North Floodway Channel, has on total flow in the Rio Grande.

  3. From groundwater baselines to numerical groundwater flow modelling for the Milan metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Peretti, Lidia; Villa, Federica; Gorla, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Contamination of major aquifers in highly densely populated areas is a major concern for stakeholders involved in the use and protection of groundwater resources. Sustainable groundwater withdrawal and management, and the identification of trends in groundwater contamination require a careful hydrochemical baseline characterization. This characterization is fundamental to investigate the presence and evolutionary trend of contaminants. In fact, it allows recovering and understanding: the spatial-temporal trend of contamination; the relative age of the contamination episodes; the reasons for anomalous behavior of some compounds during migration to and in the groundwater; the associations with which some contaminants can be found; the different behaviors in phreatic and semi-confined and confined aquifers. To attain such a characterization for the Milan metropolitan area (about 2,500 km2, ca 4.000.000 inhabitants, Lombardy, Italy), we carried out three main activities. (1) Collection of complete and reliable datasets concerning the geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical (over 60,000 chemical analysis since 2003 to 2013) characteristics of the area and of the involved aquifers. This activity was very demanding because the available data are provided by different authorities (Lombardy Region, Provinces, Lombardy Environmental Agency - ARPA Lombardia, public own companies in charge of water system managements) in raw format and with different database standard, which required a large effort of manual verification and harmonization. (2) Completion of a hydrochemical characterization of the metropolitan area aquifers by classical statistical and multivariate statistical analyses, in order to define a baseline both for some major physical chemical characteristics and for the most relevant contaminants. (3) Development of a three dimensional hydrogeological model for the metropolitan area starting from the above listed datasets and existing models. This model will

  4. Alternative Intake Station in Saguling Reservoir for The Needs of Raw Water in Bandung Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselina Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bandung Metropolitan Area (BMA region is the upper watershed of Citarum with an area of ± 2338 km2. The status carried by BMA as a National Strategic Area from the perspective of economic encourage the increasing migration flows to BMA. These circumstances lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, in which on the one hand, demand for clean water is increasing. The potency of Saguling Reservoir as an alternative of raw water of BMA region in terms of quantity in this research was determined based on the determination of mainstay discharge. In this study, the intake site selection 11 monitoring posts will be carried out by reviewing the concentration of all parameters in Government Regulation No. 82 Year 2001 on any division of discharge grade using 5-grade Makov Discrete method (very dry, dry, normal, wet and very wet. In addition, the calculation of the value of Water Quality Index (WQI was done at each monitoring station for each division of discharge grade that has been done. The series of data flow and concentration parameters used in this study start from the year 1999 to 2014. The allocation of raw water discharge calculation for Saguling Reservoir in order to fulfill the needs of raw water in Bandung Metropolitan Area is 46,92m3/second (R5 dry for irrigation raw water supply and 29,53 92 m3/second (R10 dry for drinking water supply. Based on the assessment of the concentration of measured parameters and determination of Water Quality Index, it can be found that around Muara Ciminyak location is the most qualified location to be used as drinking raw water intake for Bandung Metropolitan Area. Based on this study, it also notes that the determination of the concentration of pollutant parameters needs to be done on the each division of discharge grade occurred.

  5. Management of groundwater in urban centers: A case study; Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrahman, Walid A.; Elamin, Abdalla S.; Al-Harazin, Ibrahim M.; Eqnaibi, Badie S.

    2007-01-01

    Effective management of groundwater resources in urban centers of arid regions is vital for sustainable development and groundwater protection especially with rapid growth of water demands under water stress conditions. Greater Dammam Metropolitan Area is a good example of rapid growing urban center due to comprehensive development and population growth. The water demand has increased by many times during the last three decades. Groundwater from local aquifers namely Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma, supplies more than 85% of the total water demands. The aquifers have been subjected to extensive and increasing groundwater pumping especially during last three decades. Negative impacts such as significant decline in water levels have been experienced in the area. A new groundwater management scheme in terms of improving the long-term water pumping policies is required for protection of the aquifers groundwater productivity. A special numerical simulation model of the multi-aquifer system including Dammam and Umm Er Radhuma aquifers has been developed to assess the behavior of the aquifer system under long term water stresses in Dammam Metropolitan Area. The developed numerical simulation model has been utilized to predict the responses of the aquifer system in terms of decline in terms of water level under different pumping schemes from the two aquifers during the next 30 years. The model results have postulated the importance of Umm Er Radhuma (UER) aquifer as a major water supply source to Dammam Metropolitan Area, as well as potential recharge source of more than 30% of the total water pumped from Dammam aquifer. These findings have been utilized in improving present and future groundwater management and conservation for the study area. Similar techniques can be used to improve the groundwater management in other parts of the country as well as other arid regions. (author)

  6. Morbidity Forecast in Cities: A Study of Urban Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2018-05-29

    In the last two decades, urbanization has intensified, and in Brazil, about 90% of the population now lives in urban centers. Atmospheric patterns have changed owing to the high growth rate of cities, with negative consequences for public health. This research aims to elucidate the spatial patterns of air pollution and respiratory diseases. A data-based model to aid local urban management to improve public health policies concerning air pollution is described. An example of data preparation and multivariate analysis with inventories from different cities in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba was studied. A predictive model with outstanding accuracy in prediction of outbreaks was developed. Preliminary results describe relevant relations among morbidity scales, air pollution levels, and atmospheric seasonal patterns. The knowledge gathered here contributes to the debate on social issues and public policies. Moreover, the results of this smaller scale study can be extended to megacities.

  7. [Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women under Monitoring in Pre Distinct Prenatal Services: The Metropolitan Area and the Rural Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Caroline San Severino; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2016-01-01

    To determine differences in some nutritional aspects of pregnant women assisted at prenatal care services in a country town and in a metropolitan area. Pregnant women received prenatal care in the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), metropolitan area, and Paula Cândido (PC), a country town. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) containing socioeconomic information and information about eating habits was applied. In addition,weight and height were measured on the occasion of the visits and the women were ask to give their prepregnancy weight for subsequent BMI calculation. Data were analyzed according to region and trimester of pregnancy using the SPSS software version 15.0, the t-test to compare averages and the chi-square test of independence, with the level of significance set at 5%. 240 pregnant women were included, 90 from the country town and 150 from the metropolitan area. Of these, most were married (BH = 56.6%; PC = 46.6%) and did not work outside the home (BH = 54.0%; PC = 84.4%). They predominantly had 3-4 meals/ day during the 1st and 2nd quarters (BH = 54.0 and 46%; PC = 66.7 and 63.3%, respectively) and had 5-6 meals/day during Q3 in BH (44%). There was significant weight gain only in the 1st quarter (BH: 58,0%; PC: 53.3%). Weight gain versus eating habits was significant for the variables "lunch or dinner away from home" for the 1st quarter in BH (p = 0.006), "How many times they consume milk" in the 1 st quarter in PC (p = 0.03), and "How many times they consume junk food" in the 3rd quarter in BH (p = 0.009). Pregnant woman showed proper eating habits in both regions despite the prevalence of pregestational overweight in BH and a low level of education and income, especially in the country town, an indicator that may be unfavorable for the nutrition of pregnant women during this period. Studies of association between eating habits and newborn health will provide more information about nutrition during pregnancy.

  8. Seismic ground motion and hazard assessment of the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, southeastern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amponsah, P.E.; Banoeng-Yakubo, B.K.; Asiedu, D.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-08-01

    The seismic ground motion of the Greater Accra Metropolitan area has been computed and the hazard zones assessed using a deterministic hybrid approach based on the modal summation and finite difference methods. The seismic ground motion along four profiles located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area has been modelled using the 1939 earthquake of magnitude 6.5(M L ) as the scenario earthquake. Synthetic seismic waveforms from which parameters for engineering design such as peak ground acceleration, velocity and spectral amplifications have been produced along the geological cross sections. From the seismograms computed, the seismic hazard of the metropolis, expressed in terms of peak ground acceleration and peak ground velocity have been estimated. The peak ground acceleration estimated in the study ranges from 0.14 - 0.57 g and the peak ground velocity from 9.2 - 37.1cms -1 . The presence of low velocity sediments gave rise to high peak values and amplifications. The maximum peak ground accelerations estimated are located in areas with low velocity formations such as colluvium, continental and marine deposits. Areas in the metropolis underlain by unconsolidated sediments have been classified as the maximum damage potential zone and those underlain by highly consolidated geological materials are classified as low damage potential zone. The results of the numerical simulation have been extended to all areas in the metropolis with similar geological formation. (author)

  9. Hurricane & Tropical Storm Impacts over the South Florida Metropolitan Area: Mortality & Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon Pagan, I. C.

    2007-12-01

    Since 1985, the South Florida Metropolitan area (SFMA), which covers the counties of Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach, has been directly affected by 9 tropical cyclones: four tropical storms and 5 hurricanes. This continuous hurricane and tropical storm activity has awakened the conscience of the communities, government, and private sector, about the social vulnerability, in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and others. Several factors have also been significant enough to affect the vulnerability of the South Florida Metropolitan area, like its geographic location which is at the western part of the Atlantic hurricane track, with a surface area of 6,137 square miles, and elevation of 15 feet. And second, from the 2006 Census estimate, this metropolitan area is the 7th most populous area in the United States supporting almost 1,571 individuals per square mile. Mortality levels due to hurricanes and tropical storms have fluctuated over the last 21 years without any signal of a complete reduction, a phenomenon that can be related to both physical characteristics of the storms and government actions. The average annual death count remains almost the same from 4.10 between 1985 and 1995 to 4 from 1996 to 2006. However, the probability of occurrence of a direct impact of an atmospheric disturbance has increase from 0.3 to 0.6, with an average of three hurricane or tropical storm direct impacts for every five. This analysis suggests an increasing problem with regard to atmospheric disturbances-related deaths in the South Florida Metropolitan area. In other words, despite substantial increases in population during the last 21 years, the number of tropical cyclone-related deaths is not declining; it's just being segregated among more storms. Gaps between each impact can be related to mortality levels. When that time increases in five years or more, such as Bob and Andrew or Irene and Katrina, or decreases in weeks or months, such as Harvey and Irene or Katrina and Wilma

  10. Urban density and the metabolic reach of metropolitan areas: A panel analysis of per capita transportation emissions at the county-level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergas, Christina; Clement, Matthew; McGee, Julius

    2016-07-01

    We engage a tension in the urban environment literature that positions cities as both drivers of environmental destruction and loci of environmental protection. We argue that the traditional binary view of cities as either harmful or beneficial is too simplistic; we advance a more nuanced understanding of cities to study their internal and external metabolic effects in terms of carbon emissions from on-road transportation at the county-level across the continental United States between 2002 and 2007. First, utilizing satellite imagery from the National Land Cover Database, we create a novel measure of population density by quantifying the number of people per square mile of impervious surface area. Second, we develop a measure of metropolitan adjacency from the rural classifications datasets published by the USDA. In spatial regression models, we find that while higher density reduces emissions, counties that are geographically isolated from metropolitan areas actually have lower per capita emissions, all else equal. We elaborate on the conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of our study in the conclusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis in the Metropolitan Area of Rome: A Capture-Recapture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcomeni, Alessio; Cortese, Antonio; Sgarlata, Eleonora; Alunni Fegatelli, Danilo; Marfia, Gerolama Alessandra; Buttari, Fabio; Mirabella, Massimiliano; De Fino, Chiara; Prosperini, Luca; Pozzilli, Carlo; Grasso, Maria Grazia; Iasevoli, Luigi; Di Battista, Giancarlo; Millefiorini, Enrico

    2018-03-02

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in central Italy. The objective of this study is to estimate MS prevalence in the metropolitan area of Rome. We used the capture-recapture method to calculate prevalence estimates in the study area. The selected prevalence day was December 31, 2015. A total of 1,007 patients, with a definite diagnosis of MS according to the revised McDonald's criteria, were considered for crude, age- and sex-specific prevalence estimation. The overall crude prevalence rate was 146.2 cases per 100,000 (95% CI 119.9-172.5). A higher prevalence rate was recorded in females (194.1, 95% CI 149.6-238.6) than in males (93.0, 95% CI 67.2-118.8) with a female to male ratio of 1.8. Age-specific prevalence peaked in the 25-34 , 35-44 and 45-54 years class; moreover, it was found to increase up to the 45-54 years age group in females and the 35-44 years age group in males, decreasing thereafter. The results confirm that the metropolitan area of Rome is a high-risk area for MS. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Spatiotemporal Simulation of Future Land Use/Cover Change Scenarios in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruci Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulating future land use/cover changes is of great importance for urban planners and decision-makers, especially in metropolitan areas, to maintain a sustainable environment. This study examines the changes in land use/cover in the Tokyo metropolitan area (TMA from 2007 to 2017 as a first step in using supervised classification. Second, based on the map results, we predicted the expected patterns of change in 2027 and 2037 by employing a hybrid model composed of cellular automata and the Markov model. The next step was to decide the model inputs consisting of the modeling variables affecting the distribution of land use/cover in the study area, for instance distance to central business district (CBD and distance to railways, in addition to the classified maps of 2007 and 2017. Finally, we considered three scenarios for simulating land use/cover changes: spontaneous, sub-region development, and green space improvement. Simulation results show varied patterns of change according to the different scenarios. The sub-region development scenario is the most promising because it balances between urban areas, resources, and green spaces. This study provides significant insight for planners about change trends in the TMA and future challenges that might be encountered to maintain a sustainable region.

  13. Metropolitan Governance and Strategic Learning in City-Regions. The Ruhr and the Randstad Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dembski, S.

    2008-01-01

    Synopis The urban transformation and the increasing inter-urban competition pose new challenges for city-regions. Cities have extended far into their hinterlands and the social and economic relations within city-regions are much less concentrated on the urban core than some decades ago. In fact,

  14. Survey of intestinal parasitism in dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; O'Neal, Peter R; Wong, Valerie M; Noah, Donald L

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of selected intestinal parasites in pet dogs and recently apprehended free-roaming (AFR) shelter dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare those prevalences between the 2 groups. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Convenience samples of fecal specimens from owned pet dogs from the Phoenix metropolitan area (n = 175) and free-roaming dogs apprehended and admitted to Maricopa County Animal Care and Control and Arizona Humane Society facilities from November 2014 through March 2015 (188). PROCEDURES Fresh fecal specimens were collected from all dogs; for AFR shelter dogs, specimens were collected within 72 hours after facility admission. Standard centrifugal flotation tests and an ELISA were performed to detect 5 common intestinal parasites (roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, Giardia spp, and Cystoisospora spp). Group comparisons were performed by means of the χ 2 test and Rogan-Gladen prevalence estimate. RESULTS At least 1 of the 5 evaluated parasites was detected in 85 (45.2%) fecal specimens from AFR shelter dogs and 24 (13.7%) specimens from owned pet dogs. This prevalence differed significantly between the groups. Notably, the prevalence of Giardia spp in AFR shelter dogs (n = 76 [40.4%]) was higher than previously reported in the United States. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prevalence of the evaluated intestinal parasites, particularly of Giardia spp, in AFR shelter dogs was higher than expected. This information is important for veterinarians, animal shelter personnel, pet owners, human health-care providers, and public health officials to consider when devising effective interventions and risk communication efforts against potential zoonotic threats, particularly those relevant to the Phoenix metropolitan area.

  15. Relationships between environmental governance and water quality in a growing metropolitan area of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.; Thiers, P.; Netusil, N. R.; Yeakley, J. A.; Rollwagen-Bollens, G.; Bollens, S. M.; Singh, S.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate relationships between environmental governance and water quality in two adjacent growing metropolitan areas in the western US. While the Portland, Oregon and Vancouver, Washington metro areas share many common biophysical characteristics, they have different land development histories and water governance structures, providing a unique opportunity for examining how differences in governance might affect environmental quality. We conceptualize possible linkages in which water quality influences governance directly, using monitoring efforts as a metric, and indirectly by using the change in the sale price of single-family residential properties. Governance may then influence water quality directly through riparian restoration resulting from monitoring results and indirectly through land use policy. We investigate evidence to substantiate these linkages. Our results showed that changes in monitoring regimes and land development patterns differed in response to differences in growth management policy and environmental governance systems. Our results also showed similarities in environmental quality responses to varying governance systems. For example, we found that sales prices responded positively to improved water quality (e.g., increases in DO and reductions in bacteria counts) in both cities. Furthermore, riparian restoration efforts improved over time for both cities, indicating the positive effect of governance on this land-based resource that may result in improved water quality. However, as of yet, there were no substantial differences across study areas in water temperature over time, despite an expansion of these urban areas of more than 20 % over 24 years. The mechanisms by which water quality was maintained was similar in the sense that both cities benefited from riparian restoration, but different in the sense that Portland benefited indirectly from land use policy. A combination of long-term legacy effects of land development, and a

  16. USING THE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE USE OF GEO-RESOURCES IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oswald MARINONI; Andreas HOPPE

    2006-01-01

    Sand and gravel are important raw materials which are needed for many civil engineering projects.Due to economic reasons, sand and gravelpits are frequently located in the periphery of metropolitan areas which are often subject to competing land-use interests. As a contribution to land-use conflict solving, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Two AHP preference matrix scenario constellations are evaluated and their results are used to create a land-use conflict map.

  17. Rural migration: what attracts new residents to non-metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, L J; Kelsey, T W; Thee, R J; Fousekis, P

    1997-01-01

    "This study uses the experience of three non-metropolitan counties in Pennsylvania to explore which community characteristics have the greatest influence on people's decisions to move to rural areas. Personal characteristics affected how in-migrants evaluated prospective rural residential locations. Higher income in-migrants placed a high priority on job opportunities, housing quality, a short commute to work, quality of schools, and low local taxes. Lower income in-migrants were more likely to value a location near family and friends. Ability to own a home, housing costs, and local taxes were also important." excerpt

  18. Landscape dynamics analysis in Iasi Metropolitan Area (Romania using remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÃTÃLIN CÎMPIANU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the observation and quantification of land cover changes in Iasi Metropolitan Area during 1993-2009. The analysis is centered upon the built-up space dynamics and includes the detection of its extension directions and the measurement of its structural changes by landscape metrics. In order to obtain the land cover data, some remote sensing images were processed by supervised classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. In the end of the study, a synthetic statistical analysis of the change dynamics is performed at commune level, in order to compare the administrative units by the intensity of land cover dynamics.

  19. Cognition of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) produced by nuclear power generation is an urgent issue. Recently, some questionnaire surveys were conducted. Especially the surveys in the Tokyo metropolitan area which were conducted by AESJ include the fulfilling questions concerning HLW relatively. In this paper, the author shows the results of surveys by AESJ. These results show that the issue concerning HLW is not so much concern for the respondents by comparison with many kinds of issues in the society. They also show that female respondents have less understanding about HLW disposal and have more degree of anxiety against HLW and disposal than male respondents. (author)

  20. Revolutionary landscapes: the PCTP/MRPP mural paintings in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Carmo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the mural paintings made by the PCTP/MRPP in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, in the aftermath of the 1974 Portuguese revolution. Drawing on Erwin Panofsky’s iconographic method of interpretation, murals are explored from an integrated landscape approach that combines two perspectives: landscapes as representations and landscapes as material artifacts. Findings suggest that the PCTP/MRPP mural paintings translated the visual ideology of social transformation and revolution underlying its politics. Furthermore, they also crystallized performative revolutionary landscapes, in the sense that they materialized acts of collective artistic citizenship, in which the social space of mural production played a fundamental role.

  1. Seismic microzoning in the metropolitan area of Port - au-Prince - complexity of the subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, R.; Bertil, D.; Belvaux, M.; Roulle, A.; Noury, G.; Prepetit, C.; Jean-Philippe, J.

    2013-12-01

    The magnitude 7.3 earthquake that struck Haiti in January 12, 2010 has caused a lot of damages in surrounding areas epicenter. These damages are due to a lack of knowledge of the Haitian subsoil. To overcome this problem, the LNBTP, the BME and BRGM have agreed to implement a project of seismic microzonation of the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince which is financed by the Fund for the reconstruction of the country. The seismic microzonation is an important tool for knowledge of seismic risk. It is based on a collection of geological, geotechnical, geophysical and measures and recognition and the campaign of numerous sites. It describes a class of specific soils with associated spectral response. The objective of the microzoning is to identify and map the homogeneous zones of lithology, topography, liquefaction and ground movements. The zoning of lithological sites effect is to identify and map areas with geological and geomechanical consistent and homogeneous seismic response; the objective is to provide, in each area, seismic movements adapted to the ground. This zoning is done in about five steps: 1- Cross-analysis of geological, geotechnical and geophysical information; 2- Such information comprise the existing data collected and the data acquired during the project; 3- Identification of homogeneous areas. 4- Definition of one or more columns of representative soils associated with each zone; 5 - Possible consolidation of area to get the final seismic zoning. 27 zones types were considered for the study of sites effects after the analysis of all geological, geotechnical and geophysical data. For example, for the formation of Delmas, there are 5 areas with soil classes ranging from D to C. Soil columns described in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince are processed with the CyberQuake software, which is developed at the BRGM by Modaressi et al. in 1997, to calculate their response to seismic rock solicitation. The seismic motion is determined by 4

  2. Place matters: variation in the black/white very preterm birth rate across U.S. metropolitan areas, 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael R; Hogue, Carol R

    2008-01-01

    We reported on the distribution of very preterm (VPT) birth rates by race across metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Rates of singleton VPT birth for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women were calculated with National Center for Health Statistics 2002-2004 natality files for infants in 168 MSAs. Subanalysis included stratification by parity, age, smoking, maternal education, metropolitan size, region, proportion of MSA that was black, proportion of black population living below the poverty line, and indices of residential segregation. The mean metropolitan-level VPT birth rate was 12.3, 34.8, and 15.7 per 1,000 live births for white, black, and Hispanic women, respectively. There was virtually no overlap in the white and black distributions. The variation in mean risk across cities was three times greater for black women compared with white women. The threefold disparity in mean rate, and two- to threefold increased variation as indicated by standard deviation, was maintained in all subanalyses. Compared with white women, black women have three times the mean VPT birth risk, as well as three times the variance in city-level rates. The racial disparity in VPT birth rates was composed of characteristics that were constant across MSAs, as well as factors that varied by MSA. The increased sensitivity to place for black women was unexplained by measured maternal and metropolitan factors. Understanding determinants of differences in both the mean risk and the variation of risk among black and white women may contribute to reducing the disparity in risk between races.

  3. The Importance of Green Spaces in Minimizing Urban Heat in The Istanbul Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağdaş KUŞÇU ŞİMŞEK

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental and atmospheric pollution due to urbanization, industrialization and global warming is increasing with every passing day. Life in water, air and on land is threatened by environmental problems and disasters caused by this pollution. In addition to global climate change, changes also occur in urban microclimate and regional heat islands are occurring in urban areas. This dual effect and resulting vicious circle increasingly affect human health and natural life negatively. In this context, urban climate studies have come into question in recent years. Results have showed that increasing numbers of built-up areas are linked toincreases in urban temperature and conversely larger areas of vegetation improve the city’s ventilation and climatic comfort. The Istanbul Metropolitan Area is in a period of regeneration as it attempts to prepare for the expected earthquake and as a result of global dynamics. The resulting massive building campaigns and rapid destruction of green areas have a potential to trigger climatic threats. The effects of vegetation on the urban surface temperature in the Istanbul Metropolitan Area have contributed to the improved health construction strategies. Surface Heat Islands (SHI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI values were determined from remote sensing techniques. The dependent variable is temperature and independent variable is NDVI values and the regression analysis was carried out. Then the heat model for NDVI was established with decision tree. The results of regression analysis were R=0.452; R2= 20%; sig.=0.00 and so the analysis was significant in 95%. As a result of the analysis of the residential area of İstanbul, the difference between the expected temperature of the minimum and maximum vegetation clusters was calculated as 4.24.

  4. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  5. Renewed growth in hospital inpatient cost since 1998: variation across metropolitan areas and leading clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Bernard S; Wong, Herbert S; Steiner, Claudia A

    2006-03-01

    To use disaggregated data about metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) and clinical conditions to better describe the variation in cost increases and explore some of the hypothesized influences. The study uses the state inpatient databases from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, containing all discharges from hospitals in 172 MSAs in 1998 and 2001. The discharge summary information was combined with standardized hospital accounting files, surveys of managed care plans, MSA demographics, and state data pertaining to caps on medical malpractice awards. The analysis used descriptive comparisons and multivariate regressions of admission rate and cost per case in 9 leading disease categories across the MSAs. The increase in hospital input prices and changes in severity of illness were controlled. Metropolitan statistical areas with higher HMO market penetration continued to show lower admission rates, no less so in 2001 than in 1998. A cap on malpractice awards appeared to restrain admissions, but the net effect on hospital cost per adult eroded for those states with the most experience with award caps. Higher admission rates and increase in cost were found in several disease categories.

  6. Social-ecological perspective in the analysis of protected natural areas of the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iago Otero, Armengol; Boada Junca, Marti

    2008-01-01

    Socio ecological approach tries to integrate natural sciences and social sciences to study reality from an interdisciplinary perspective. Under this point of view, the article analyses the environmental history in the municipality of Matadepera and studies the socio ecological heritage in Olzinelles valley. Through the two case studies we link socio ecological approach with the improvement of management and conservation of two natural protected areas in the Barcelona Metropolitan Region: Sant Llorenc del Munt i l'Obac Natural Park and Montnegre i el Corredor Park

  7. A study on the characteristics of silt loading on paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area using a mobile monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sehyun; Jung, Yong-Won

    2012-07-01

    This study is considered the first attempt to apply a mobile monitoring system to estimating silt loading on paved roads in a megacity such as the Seoul metropolitan area. Using a mobile monitoring system developed in 2005, we estimated silt loadings on representative paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area, including the city of Incheon, over a period of 3 yr. The temporal and spatial characteristics of silt loading were investigated for the carefully selected roads that may reflect the characteristics of the cities of Seoul and Incheon. In this study, changes in the average silt loading values were investigated in terms of land use, the temporal resolution of data acquisition (i.e., seasonal, daily, three-hour scale), the road width or number of lanes, and rainfall, which may affect the characteristics of the average silt loading significantly. It was found that the advantages of using the mobile monitoring system are its ability to obtain a large quantity of silt loading data in a short period of time and over a wide area and its ability to create a silt loading map showing the relative magnitude of silt loading in relation to a specific location, which makes it possible to easily locate hot spots.

  8. Airborne pollen of Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus in the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, Alejandra; Alvarado-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Torres-Cepeda, Teresa Elizabeth; Foroughbakhch-Pournavab, Rahim; Hernández-Piñero, Jorge Luis

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere over the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was analyzed throughout a year from March 2003-February 2004, focused on the genus Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus owing to their interest as etiological pollinosis agents in diverse regions of the world. A 7-day Hirst type volumetric spore and pollen trap was located on a building roof of the city at 15 m from ground level for continuous sampling. The total quantity of pollen recorded for the study period was 21,083 grains/m(3), corresponding to 49.75 % of the taxa of interest. February and March were the months with higher pollen amounts in the air with 7,525 and 2,781 grains/m(3), respectively, and amounted to 49 % of total year through pollen. Fraxinus was the genus which contributed to the largest amount of pollen with 28 % of total grains (5,935 grains/m(3)) followed by Cupressus with 13 % (2,742 grains/ m(3)). Celtis, Pinus and Carya contributed with 5.3 % , 2.7 % , and 0.6 % of total pollen, respectively. These results indicate that Fraxinus and Cupressus are present in the area in sufficient quantity to indicate likely involvement in the origin of allergic disorders in the human population.

  9. Transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in a risk area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.P. Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has spread rapidly across cities in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. The aim of this study was to investigate VL dynamics in a prospective cohort study of dogs in Juatuba, between 2010 and 2011, to confirm the incidence of Leishmania infantum, and to assess possible risk factors associated with infection. An observational and prospective closed cohort study was performed using serology testing in dogs, randomly selected from the whole municipality. All seronegative dogs, or dogs with inconclusive results were monitored using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF at 6-month intervals. The dog's owners completed a semi-structured questionnaire to assess possible causal factors of seroconversion, and the responses were assessed using logistic regression. The canine incidence coefficient was 206/1,000 dogs per year (CI: 178-238, and a cluster was identified in an area with a high concentration of seropositive dogs, but a low overall canine population. Large dogs were identified as a risk factor and the following variables were identified as protection factors: dogs aged over 4 years, daily peridomicile cleaning, and better socioeconomic conditions. VL is spreading over a large area in Juatuba in a short period of time.

  10. Removal of PM10 by Forests as a Nature-Based Solution for Air Quality Improvement in the Metropolitan City of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Marando

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based solutions have been identified by the European Union as being critical for the enhancement of environmental qualities in cities, where urban and peri-urban forests play a key role in air quality amelioration through pollutant removal. A remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS approach was applied to the Metropolitan City (MC of Rome to assess the seasonal particulate matter (PM10 removal capacity of evergreen (broadleaves and conifers and deciduous species. Moreover, a monetary evaluation of PM10 removal was performed on the basis of pollution externalities calculated for Europe. Deciduous broadleaves represent the most abundant tree functional group and also yielded the highest total annual PM10 deposition values (1769 Mg. By contrast, PM10 removal efficiency (Mg·ha−1 was 15%–22% higher in evergreen than in deciduous species. To assess the different removal capacity of the three functional groups in an area with homogeneous environmental conditions, a study case was performed in a peri-urban forest protected natural reserve (Castelporziano Presidential Estate. This study case highlighted the importance of deciduous species in summer and of evergreen communities as regards the annual PM10 removal balance. The monetary evaluation indicated that the overall PM10 removal value of the MC of Rome amounted to 161.78 million Euros. Our study lends further support to the crucial role played by nature-based solutions for human well-being in urban areas.

  11. Internet of Things (IoT) Applicability in a Metropolitan City

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. D Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things (IoT)is defined here as a network of interconnected objects. These objects can include several technological systems. This paper examines the wireless communication systems and IoT sensors. IoT is technically feasible today, allowing people and things to be connected anytime, anyplace, with anything and anyone. IoT privacy is a concern but security solutions exist today to solve these issues. A proposal is made to use secure IoT solutions in supporting the metropolitan need...

  12. Water-quality assessment of the largely urban blue river basin, Metropolitan Kansas City, USA, 1998 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, D.H.; Armstrong, D.J.; Hampton, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    From 1998 through 2007, over 750 surface-water or bed-sediment samples in the Blue River Basin - a largely urban basin in metropolitan Kansas City - were analyzed for more than 100 anthropogenic compounds. Compounds analyzed included nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, suspended sediment, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Non-point source runoff, hydrologic alterations, and numerous waste-water discharge points resulted in the routine detection of complex mixtures of anthropogenic compounds in samples from basin stream sites. Temporal and spatial variations in concentrations and loads of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and organic wastewater compounds were observed, primarily related to a site's proximity to point-source discharges and stream-flow dynamics. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  13. Women in Guatemala’s Metropolitan Area: Violence, Law, and Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Godoy-Paiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the legal framework for addressing violence against women in post war Guatemala. Since the signing of the Peace Accords in 1996, judicial reform in Guatemala has included the passing of laws in the area of women‘s human rights, aimed at eliminating discrimination and violence against women. These laws constitute a response to and have occurred concurrently to an increase in violent crime against women, particularly in the form of mass rapes and murders. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Guatemala‘s Metropolitan Area, this paper juxtaposes the laws for addressing violence against women to Guatemalan women‘s complex, multilayered and multi-dimensional life experiences. The latter expose the limitations of strictly legal understandings of the phenomenon of gender-based violence, and highlight the need for broad social justice approaches that take into account the different structures of violence, inequality, and injustice present in women‘s lives.

  14. Women in Guatemala’s Metropolitan Area: Violence, Law, and Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Godoy-Paiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the legal framework for addressing violence against women in post war Guatemala. Since the signing of the Peace Accords in 1996, judicial reform in Guatemala has included the passing of laws in the area of women‘s human rights, aimed at eliminating discrimination and violence against women. These laws constitute a response to and have occurred concurrently to an increase in violent crime against women, particularly in the form of mass rapes and murders. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Guatemala‘s Metropolitan Area, this paper juxtaposes the laws for addressing violence against women to Guatemalan women‘s complex, multilayered and multi-dimensional life experiences. The latter expose the limitations of strictly legal understandings of the phenomenon of gender-based violence, and highlight the need for broad social justice approaches that take into account the different structures of violence, inequality, and injustice present in women‘s lives.

  15. Cancer incidence in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, 2000-2004. First five years report from population based cancer registry of Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Eliana Meza Durán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most common chronic diseases that cause high morbidity and mortality. In the evaluation of all illnessand its impact on the community, a surveillance system becomes necessary to allows us to know its incidence. Cancersurveillance is achieved by the population-based cancer registry. Methodology: The Population Based Cancer Registry ofMetropolitan Area of Bucaramanga (RPC-AMB collected information from the years 2000 to 2004, in patients with anymalignant cancer the which include both invasive and in situ behavior in addition to reside within this geographical area . TheCancer Registry also collects data on brain and nervous system tumors classified as benign or those that have uncertainbehavior. Basal cell cancers of the skin were included during the two first years as well as all the intraepithelial neoplasm ofthe cervix. Active collections of information at all sources by registry staff were made (Hospitals, Health care institutions,especially oncology centers and Pathology and Hematology Laboratories and some specialist in oncology attention. Theinclusion approaches are verified and collects data on specific sociodemographic information (age, gender, residence, placeof birth, etc. and on the anatomic site of the tumor, the cell type of the cancer, behavior and extension on each individualdiagnosed with cancer. Each case was coded using the International Classification of Diseases Oncology Third Edition (ICDO-3, for topographical and morphological code. The data was entered into a computer with CanReg-4 software that is aconfigurable computer program designed for cancer registration in population-based registries and was provided as aservice by the Descriptive Epidemiology Unit to members of the International Association of Cancer Registries. This softwareprovides the number of cancer cases (frequency and the incidence rates. The quality control included exhaustiveness of thecases and information, verification of the

  16. The Potential of Periurban Areas for the Resilience of Metropolitan Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present as an organic structure the outcomes from various pieces of research and consulting activities developed over the last few years (2011-2015. Shared topics are: urban-rural partnerships, food planning, metropolitan polices and the territorial resilience of periurban areas. In the first part (the core of the paper the paper underlines critical questions and establishes needs so as to move towards a new approach to development processes in periurban areas. The paper uses some key concepts to present the main outcomes: 1. Understanding complexity (multiscales in space and dynamics (multiscales in time; 2. Identifying all the resources and opportunities; 3. Crosscutting and multi-issues. In the second part (in the final part the paper proposes the “Ecotone” metaphor to support innovation in the approach to periurban areas. It is a “zone of transition between adjacent ecological systems, having a set of characteristics uniquely defined by space and time scales and by the strength of the interactions between adjacent ecological systems” (Hansen et al, 1992. In these terms, periurban areas may be assumed to be ecotonal zones of transition between urban and rural or natural systems. Using the concept of “ecotonal buffer of transition” to approach the periurban systems it is possible to connect main needs and critical questions underlined to a homogeneous framework and to emphasise on the strategic role that the peri-urban systems play for the future development of metropolitan regions oriented to a improvement of resilience of socio-ecosystems. In the final part the paper focuses on the governace of urban rural partnerships and research perspectives.

  17. Landslide susceptibility assessment using Spatial Analysis and GIS modeling in Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Area, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Eugen Dolean

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, landslides together with the multitude geomorphological processes linked to them are some of the most common hazards which manifested in vulnerable areas with important human activities can induce many negative effects. From this perspective, identifying the areas affected by landslides, based on GIS spatial analysis models and statistical methods, is a subject frequently discussed in the national and international literature. This research was focused on the methods and practices of GIS spatial analysis, with a target of creating a complex model and a viable methodology of assessment the probability of occurrence of landslides, applicable within any territory. The study was based on the identification and analysis in a bivariate systemic manner of the numerous factors involved in the production of landslides, such as topography, morphology, hydrography, geological, lithology, weather, land use. The area in which the analysis has been conducted, The Metropolitan Area of Cluj-Napoca, was chosen due to the exacerbated urbanization of the recent years, coupled with a massive increase in the number of inhabitants, thus being a space of socioeconomic importance and a real challenge regarding spatial planning. Applying the model in this area has generated relatively good results, with a power of predictability of over 80%, measured in landslides sample areas used for the validation of the results, fact which attest the viability of the model and the fact that the model can be used in different areas with related morphometric and environmental characteristics.

  18. Exploring the Role of Online ‘Ojek’ In Public Transport Trips: Case of Jakarta Metropolitan Area Rail Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffan, A. F.; Rizki, M.

    2018-05-01

    The invention of information technology shapes people’s lives in the city, including the recent invention of online motorcycle taxi service. Known as ‘ojek’, it offers a reliable means of tactical commuting in dealing with traffic congestion in Greater Jakarta. Moreover, recent development in the online system improves the punctuality and reliability of ojek services. The emergence disrupts the transport landscape, resulting in commuters’ dependency to this transport mode. However, academic sources are insufficient to answer the policy debate among planners and policy maker regarding this issue. This paper probes the role of online ojek in Jakarta Metropolitan Area Rail users’ trip from their perspective, especially for the first mile and the last mile of their trip. The intensive commuter survey is currently being done at selected stations to gain information of their first mile and last mile trip diary. Discriminant analysis will be exercised to explain that to some extent online ojek is able to work to fill the gap produced due to minimum proper pedestrian facilities and a lack of public transport connection.

  19. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  20. Extreme temperature events affecting the electricity distribution system of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (1971–2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santágata, Daniela M.; Castesana, Paula; Rössler, Cristina E.; Gómez, Darío R.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the role of cold waves and heat waves on major power outages in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires. Impacts of events occurring in the tails of distributions were assessed estimating deviations of minimum temperature, maximum temperature and hourly electricity consumption with respect to statistically derived thresholds and using three sets of data: temperature observations (1911–2013); major power outages reported in a disaster database (1971–2013) and hourly electricity consumption (2006–2013). These deviations (exceedances) proved to be adequate indicators of the stress posed by extreme temperature events to the electricity distribution system leading to major blackouts. Based on these indicators, we found that the electricity distribution system was under similar stress during cold waves or heat waves, but it was much more vulnerable to heat waves (three blackouts under cold waves against 20 under heat waves between 2006 and 2013). For heat waves, the results of a binomial regression logistic model provided an adequate description of the probability of disastrous supply interruptions in terms of exceedances in extreme temperatures and electricity consumption stress. This approach may be of use for other cities wishing to evaluate the effects of extreme temperature events on the electricity distribution infrastructure. - Highlights: • The linkage between extreme temperatures and disastrous power outages is analyzed. • Exceedance in extreme temperature and electricity consumption are stress indicators. • Extreme temperatures pose moderate to extreme impacts to electricity distribution. • Electricity distribution is more vulnerable to heat waves than cold waves.

  1. Advanced time and wavelength division multiplexing for metropolitan area optical data communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watford, M.; DeCusatis, C.

    2005-09-01

    With the advent of new regulations governing the protection and recovery of sensitive business data, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, there has been a renewed interest in business continuity and disaster recovery applications for metropolitan area networks. Specifically, there has been a need for more efficient bandwidth utilization and lower cost per channel to facilitate mirroring of multi-terabit data bases. These applications have further blurred the boundary between metropolitan and wide area networks, with synchronous disaster recovery applications running up to 100 km and asynchronous solutions extending to 300 km or more. In this paper, we discuss recent enhancements in the Nortel Optical Metro 5200 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) platform, including features recently qualified for data communication applications such as Metro Mirror, Global Mirror, and Geographically Distributed Parallel Sysplex (GDPS). Using a 10 Gigabit/second (Gbit/s) backbone, this solution transports significantly more Fibre Channel protocol traffic with up to five times greater hardware density in the same physical package. This is also among the first platforms to utilize forward error correction (FEC) on the aggregate signals to improve bit error rate (BER) performance beyond industry standards. When combined with encapsulation into wide area network protocols, the use of FEC can compensate for impairments in BER across a service provider infrastructure without impacting application level performance. Design and implementation of these features will be discussed, including results from experimental test beds which validate these solutions for a number of applications. Future extensions of this environment will also be considered, including ways to provide configurable bandwidth on demand, mitigate Fibre Channel buffer credit management issues, and support for other GDPS protocols.

  2. Seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doku, M. S.

    2013-07-01

    A seismological and geological investigation for earthquake hazard in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area was undertaken. The research was aimed at employing a methematical model to estimate the seismic stress for the study area by generating a complete, unified and harmonized earthquake catalogue spanning 1615 to 2012. Seismic events were souced from Leydecker, G. and P. Amponsah, (1986), Ambraseys and Adams, (1986), Amponsah (2008), Geological Survey Department, Accra, Ghana, Amponsah (2002), National Earthquake Information Service, United States Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado 80225, USA, the International Seismological Centre and the National Data Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Events occurring in the study area were used to create and Epicentral Intensity Map and a seismicity map of the study area after interpolation of missing seismic magnitudes. The least square method and the maximum likelihood estimation method were employed to evaluate b-values of 0.6 and 0.9 respectively for the study area. A thematic map of epicentral intensity superimposed on the geology of the study area was also developed to help understand the relationship between the virtually fractured, jointed and sheared geology and the seismic events. The results obtained are indicative of the fact that the stress level of GAMA has a telling effect on its seismicity and also the events are prevalents at fractured, jointed and sheared zones. (au)

  3. Sachet drinking water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, John R.; Fink, Günther

    2013-01-01

    Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481

  4. Water Services in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area: How Does State Regulation Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Verónica Rocca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the State regulation of drinking water and sanitation services in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Its main objective is to identify the continuities and ruptures in State regulation during the transition from private management (1993-2006 to renationalisation and State management (2006 onwards. The concept of “State capacities” (both administrative and relational is used to assess regulatory performance. For the administrative capacities, the correspondence between the design and resources of the agencies, as well as the differences between their formal functions and actual practices, is examined. For the relational capacities, the policies of the National Government and its interaction with both the water and sanitation companies and the regulatory and control agencies are considered. The analysis is based on official documents, legislation and statistics, company balance sheets and reports, newspaper articles and semi-structured interviews.

  5. Health heat stress in the Porto Metropolitan Area – a matter of temperature or inadequate adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to understand the negative outcomes for human health during hot weather in a Mediterranean urban environment. Examining seasonal variations of thermal comfort in Porto, by Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET, and comparing expected and observed daily mortality (all causes and morbidity (all causes, respiratory and circulatory diseases, suggests that in southern Europe, people’s adaptation techniques for reducing heat stress and associated health risks need to be developed much further. Research already done in Porto shows that social and economic vulnerability must be included alongside with individual characteristics, like age, gender or genetics, when defining the thresholds above which negative health impacts begin to become severe. Findings from Porto show that a climate risk map is needed for every metropolitan area, with sufficient detail to give locally appropriate temperature thresholds taking into account both the local climate and the socio-economic conditions of every sector of the urban environment.

  6. ESTIMATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN THE ABURRA VALLEY METROPOLITAN AREA - COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deicy Catalina Guerra Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG generated by the agricultural activities carried out in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley (AMVA, located in Medellin - Colombia. A TIER 1 approach of the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC was followed. Emissions of GHG from cropland, aggregate sources and non-CO2 emissions from land were estimated and analysis of the uncertainty of activity data and emission factors were made. The estimated total emission was 63.1 and 66 Gg CO2 eq for 2009 and 2011, respectively. The greatest contribution to greenhouse gases in agricultural production was the application of nitrogen to soils in the form of synthetic and organic fertilizers, which was associated with direct and indirect N2O emissions. The main sources of uncertainty were those derived from the activity data.

  7. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  8. Sachet drinking water in Ghana's Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R; Fink, Günther

    2012-01-01

    Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana's Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision.

  9. Gamma-ray dose rate in air on the subway lines in Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masayuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Ogashiwa, Susumu; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of gamma-ray dose rates in air were performed on 12 subway lines in Tokyo from the perspective of health physics, because the subways are commonly used for commuting in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The results showed that the maximum dose rate (36.5 nGy/h) was 1.6 times higher than that of the minimum one (23.3 nGy/h), and that the dose rate in the subway car was 33% lower than the outside. Also the results strongly suggested that the dose rates depend on the concentration of natural radionuclide around the subway lines and the platform structures rather than the depth. (author)

  10. Validation of walk score for estimating neighborhood walkability: an analysis of four US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Aldstadt, Jared; Whalen, John; Melly, Steven J; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-11-01

    Neighborhood walkability can influence physical activity. We evaluated the validity of Walk Score(®) for assessing neighborhood walkability based on GIS (objective) indicators of neighborhood walkability with addresses from four US metropolitan areas with several street network buffer distances (i.e., 400-, 800-, and 1,600-meters). Address data come from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programs located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the US (n = 733). GIS data were used to measure multiple objective indicators of neighborhood walkability. Walk Scores were also obtained for the participant's residential addresses. Spearman correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. There were many significant moderate correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators such as density of retail destinations and intersection density (p walkability. Correlations generally became stronger with a larger spatial scale, and there were some geographic differences. Walk Score(®) is free and publicly available for public health researchers and practitioners. Results from our study suggest that Walk Score(®) is a valid measure of estimating certain aspects of neighborhood walkability, particularly at the 1600-meter buffer. As such, our study confirms and extends the generalizability of previous findings demonstrating that Walk Score is a valid measure of estimating neighborhood walkability in multiple geographic locations and at multiple spatial scales.

  11. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Claudia; Osma, Sonia; Herrera, Víctor

    2012-10-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) make possible to estimate the burden of this condition. To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA) during 2003-2007. Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR). Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (NADS). We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi's world population) incidence (ASIR(W)) and mortality (ASMR(W)) rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1. We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women). Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4%) were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1%) were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W) for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W) was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  12. Perceptions of Medicinal Plant Use Amongst the Hispanic Population in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim M. Grafford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plant use in the United States has increased as reported by the National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health and U.S. Census Bureau.However, little is known about how many minority groups in the United States use medicinal plants.There is a rise in the Hispanic population; a community with a steep tradition of medicinal plant use, in the U.S., so understanding the perceptions of medicinal plant use is useful to healthcare providers. Methods: A survey was designed to gauge a better understanding of the perceptions of medicinal plant use amongst Latino patients with varying education levels who reside in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area. Survey questions highlighted the perceptions of medicinal plants use, patient communication regarding medicinal plant use with healthcare providers (pharmacists and doctors, and the impact the education level has on medicinal plant use. Results: Surveys were distributed to six different investigational sites around the St. Louis Metropolitan Area from August 2015 to December 2015. Survey respondents identified 45 different plants/herbs that they currently use or had used at some point in their life. Those with higher levels of education had varying opinions on medicinal plant use with their current practices. Conclusion: The participants’ high interest in the use of medicinal plants exemplifies the need for enhanced communication between patients and healthcare professionals about medicinal plant use. However, it was hard to determine whether the participants’ level of education had any direct relationship to this use. Conflict of Interest None   Type: Original Research

  13. Assessing Natural Background Levels of aquifers in the Metropolitan Area of Milan (Lombardy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni; Frattini, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/CE) requires Member States to evaluate the status of groundwater bodies in order to reach a good water quality for human consumption. One of the preliminary steps for defining the status of groundwater bodies consists in the definition and evaluation of the so-called Natural Background Levels (NBL). The NBL or Baseline level can be defined as "the range of concentration of a given element, isotope or chemical compound in solution, derived entirely from natural, geological, biological or atmospheric sources, under conditions not perturbed by anthropogenic activity" (Edmund and Shand, 2009). The qualitative analysis for a large area (ca 4500 Km2) of the Po Plain around the Milan Metropolitan area (Lombardy, Italy) is presented in this study. Despite the aquifers in the Milan metropolitan area are an incredible groundwater resource for a very large population (3.195.629 inhabitants in the metropolitan area, data at November 2014) and a highly industrialized area, a groundwater baseline characterization is still missing. In order to attain the hydro-geochemical characterization a complete geodatabase was built (120.655 chemical samples from 1980 to 2014). This database has been explored by classical and multivariate statistical analyses to provide relationships among the more influential lithological, hydrogeological and hydro-chemical variables. Finally, the NBLs of different chemical species which may be anthropogenic sensitive (Na, Cl, K, NO3, SO4, NH4, As, Fe, Cr, Fe, Mn, Zn) and for multiple aquifer bodies (phreatic, semi-confined and confined aquifer) are evaluated. Two different approaches are applied: the Pre-Selection method (BRIDGE, 2006) and the Component-Separation method. The first one (PS) consists in the exclusion of samples from the available dataset that could indicate human activities then deriving the NBL as the 90th percentile of the remaining data. The second one (CS) consists in the fitting of

  14. Reflexions on the heavy load transportation in the Sao Paulo - Brazil metropolitan area and technologies consistent with the Agenda 21; Reflexoes sobre o transporte de grandes cargas na RMSP e tecnologias compativeis com a Agenda 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondani, M.; Faga, Murilo W. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    1998-12-31

    Looking for the optimization of the commercial transportation system in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo, it is necessary to develop some reflexions about the relations between the transportation matrix and energy matrix, taking into account the minimization up economical, social and environmental cost and responsible use of existing and viable technologies. This paper develops a simplified analysis about the managing of commercial transportation systems in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo. We discuss important topics such as the inter-modal transportation concept and the sustainability of cities. We also suggest other researches that should be explored in the future such as the use of electrical train system in metropolitan areas. (author) 13 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Biological assessment and streambed-sediment chemistry of streams in the Indianapolis metropolitan area, Indiana, 2003–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, David C.

    2012-01-01

    During 2003–2008, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 13 sites in the Indianapolis metropolitan area in Indiana for benthic invertebrates, fish communities, and streambed-sediment chemistry. Data from seven White River sites and six tributary sites complement surface-water chemistry data collected by the Indianapolis Department of Public Works. The information is being used to assess changes in water quality in conjunction with the City's programs to reduce combined sewer overflows and other point and nonpoint sources of pollution in the Indianapolis area. During the study, 233 benthic-invertebrate taxa were identified from which the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) Index, the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and the Invertebrate Community Index (ICI) were calculated. EPT index scores ranged from 2 to 16 on the White River and from 2 to 17 on the tributaries. EPT index scores indicate that these pollution-intolerant taxa are more prevalent upstream from and away from the combined-sewer areas of Indianapolis. HBI scores from sites on the White River ranged from 4.67 (good) to 9.55 (very poor), whereas on the tributaries, scores ranged from 4.21 (very good) to 8.14 (poor). Lower HBI scores suggest that less organic pollution was present and, like the EPT scores, indicate better conditions where combined-sewer overflows (CSOs) are not present. Similarly, ICI scores indicated better conditions upstream from the CSO outfalls on the White River. White River scores ranged from 12 to 46, where higher ICI scores indicate better conditions in the benthic-invertebrate community. ICI scores at the tributary sites ranged from 12 to 52, with the highest scores on streams without CSOs.

  16. Urban sustainability through strategic planning: A case of metropolitan planning in Khulna city, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ashiq Ur Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Planning is a crucial element for any development initiative. Planning entails choice making in pursuit of stated goals e.g. improving living conditions for individuals and societies. Planning initiatives are employed within social systems that are governed by institution, and planning intervenes with and may reconfigure these institutions resulting in social change. This paper discusses how urban sustainability can be achieved through strategic action in urban development by analysing the planning process of Khulna city, Bangladesh. This paper reviews different scholarly articles to draw a conceptual framework for identifying the interface of strategic planning, components of strategic action planning and urban sustainability. Based on this conceptual framework this paper identifies the scope of achieving urban sustainability through analysing the current planning practice of Khulna city, Bangladesh. This paper identifies that though the Khulna city plan adopted the approach of strategic planning but it failed to comply with its theoretical notion to achieve the issues related to urban sustainability. Analysis reveals that in terms of social attribute that recognizes the interest of different group of people the exiting planning packages is not sustainable. Similar phenomenon have been observed in terms of recognition of gender and marginalized people in planning, equitable provision of income and employment generation, peoples’ participation in planning and polices for ensuring equitable access to infrastructure services. Therefore the existing planning package of Khulna city failed to achieve the issues of urban sustainability through its adapted strategic planning approach.

  17. The metropolitan area as a knee-jerk response to the multilevel governance and its derived national public decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Daniel DUMITRICĂ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper objectifies the first part of a larger projects aiming at establishing a public decision-making map pertaining to the negative externalities in the framework of the economic approach of subsidiarity in the multilevel governance (the case of Romania. The first part of the larger research project refers to testing whether the economic theory of the European Union multilevel governance, with its core consisting in the subsidiarity principle, puts more pressure on the national public decisions (more specifically those related to specific market failures, though it interferes with all state’s functions and their specific decisions.Our research thesis begins by establishing whether the relationship between the local political elites and public governance at the level of towns and communes is considered a very straight forward, even obvious relationship. The political parties, by means of the publicly and democratically-elected officials (mayors and local council-members, make the most important decisions concerning public affairs (i.e. pertaining to a market failure examined by a second stage of the project.In an attempt to modernize the Romanian administrative system, to make public administration more dynamic, flexible and pro-active, the local political leaders decided the development of a new type of structure, the metropolitan area. The metropolitan areas, due to the constraints of the law, were established as associative organizations, composed of several administrative-territorial units.The paper at hand presents the establishment of the metropolitan areas in Romania as a political decision to associate towns and communes, in view of gaining access to better-performance instruments for local economic development. The emergence of the metropolitan areas in our country is strongly connected with the local political elites, the local political actors representing, in fact, the engine of the metropolitan structures and regional

  18. Studying the urban thermal environment under a human-biometeorological point of view: The case of a large coastal metropolitan city, Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Georgiou, Giorgos K.; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment in modern cities has become potentially unfavorable and harmful for its residents, as a result of urbanization and industrialization. Exposure to these extreme thermal conditions increases the heat stress of people in cities considerably. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the urban thermal environment of the large coastal metropolitan city of Athens, in a human-biometeorologically significant way, utilizing the thermo-physiological assessment index PET. The analysis was based on three hour measurements derived from three-year datasets (2006-2009), at 12 monitoring sites located in the urban complex of Athens, on its boundaries and beyond them. The differences of PET values have been investigated in order to attribute urban and exurban thermal characteristics to the considered sites. The frequency and spatial distribution of PET as well as the urban/rural differences of PET have also been analyzed. Finally, a trend analysis has been applied in order to detect possible PET trends by employing long-term recording data (1985-2008). In terms of thermal human-biometeorological conditions, the analysis reveals that among the considered stations, those located inside the urban complex and the industrialized area present urban thermal characteristics, regardless the fact that they are installed either in a park and on a hill or at an open field. The spatial distribution of PET, at 0200 LST, shows a difference of about 3 to 4 °C, on the main axis of the city (SSW-NNE) in the summer period, while the difference exceeds 2.5 °C in the winter period. In general, cooler (less warm) thermal perception is observed at the north/northeast sites of the city as well as at the areas beyond the eastern boundaries of it. The PET differences between urban and rural sites hold a positive sign, except of those at 0500 LST and at 0800 LST. The highest differences are noted at 1400 LST and the most intense of them is noticed in the summer period

  19. Urban-rural demarcation within a metropolitan area: a methodology for using small area disaggregation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing debate with regard to the levels of service provision in urban and rural areas. However, progress with respect to the delivery of planned services can only be efficiently and equitably measured once benchmarks for different areas...

  20. Construction of the seismic wave-speed model by adjoint tomography beneath the Japanese metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Takayuki

    2017-04-01

    The Japanese metropolitan area has high risks of earthquakes and volcanoes associated with convergent tectonic plates. It is important to clarify detail three-dimensional structure for understanding tectonics and predicting strong motion. Classical tomographic studies based on ray theory have revealed seismotectonics and volcanic tectonics in the region, however it is unknown whether their models reproduce observed seismograms. In the present study, we construct new seismic wave-speed model by using waveform inversion. Adjoint tomography and the spectral element method (SEM) were used in the inversion (e.g. Tape et al. 2009; Peter et al. 2011). We used broadband seismograms obtained at NIED F-net stations for 140 earthquakes occurred beneath the Kanto district. We selected four frequency bands between 5 and 30 sec and used from the seismograms of longer period bands for the inversion. Tomographic iteration was conducted until obtaining the minimized misfit between data and synthetics. Our SEM model has 16 million grid points that covers the metropolitan area of the Kanto district. The model parameters were the Vp and Vs of the grid points, and density and attenuation were updated to new values depending on new Vs in each iteration. The initial model was assumed the tomographic model (Matsubara and Obara 2011) based on ray theory. The source parameters were basically used from F-net catalog, while the centroid times were inferred from comparison between data and synthetics. We simulated the forward and adjoint wavefields of each event and obtained Vp and Vs misfit kernels from their interaction. Large computation was conducted on K computer, RIKEN. We obtained final model (m16) after 16 iterations in the present study. For the waveform improvement, it is clearly shown that m16 is better than the initial model, and the seismograms especially improved in the frequency bands of longer than 8 sec and changed better for seismograms of the events occurred at deeper than a

  1. Delineating Urban Fringe Area by Land Cover Information Entropy—An Empirical Study of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has caused many environmental problems, such as the heat island effect, intensifying air pollution, pollution from runoff, loss of wildlife habitat, etc. Accurate evaluations of these problems demand an accurate delineation of the spatial extent of the urban fringe. Conceptual and analytical ambiguity of the urban fringe and a general lack of consensus among researchers have made its measurement very difficult. This study reports a compound and reliable method to delineate the urban fringe area using a case study. Based on the 'fringe effect' theory in landscape ecology, the existing land cover information entropy model for defining the urban fringe is renewed by incorporating scale theory, cartography and urban geography theory. Results show that the urban fringe area of Guangzhou and Foshan metropolitan area covers an area of 2031 km2, and it occupies over 31% of the total study area. Result evaluation by industry structure data shows satisfactory correspondence with different land cover types. This paper reports the method and outcome of an attempt to provide an objective, repeatable and generally applicable method for mapping its spatial extent from remote sensing imageries, and could be beneficial to relevant urban studies and urban fringe management projects.

  2. Dense wavelength division multiplexing devices for metropolitan-area datacom and telecom networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCusatis, Casimer M.; Priest, David G.

    2000-12-01

    Large data processing environments in use today can require multi-gigabyte or terabyte capacity in the data communication infrastructure; these requirements are being driven by storage area networks with access to petabyte data bases, new architecture for parallel processing which require high bandwidth optical links, and rapidly growing network applications such as electronic commerce over the Internet or virtual private networks. These datacom applications require high availability, fault tolerance, security, and the capacity to recover from any single point of failure without relying on traditional SONET-based networking. These requirements, coupled with fiber exhaust in metropolitan areas, are driving the introduction of dense optical wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) in data communication systems, particularly for large enterprise servers or mainframes. In this paper, we examine the technical requirements for emerging nextgeneration DWDM systems. Protocols for storage area networks and computer architectures such as Parallel Sysplex are presented, including their fiber bandwidth requirements. We then describe two commercially available DWDM solutions, a first generation 10 channel system and a recently announced next generation 32 channel system. Technical requirements, network management and security, fault tolerant network designs, new network topologies enabled by DWDM, and the role of time division multiplexing in the network are all discussed. Finally, we present a description of testing conducted on these networks and future directions for this technology.

  3. Modelling the photochemical pollution over the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Moraes, M. R.; Carvalho, A.; Ribeiro, I.; Miranda, A. I.; Moreira, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the photochemical pollution over the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (MAPA), Brazil, where high concentrations of ozone have been registered during the past years. Due to the restricted spatial coverage of the monitoring air quality network, a numerical modelling technique was selected and applied to this assessment exercise. Two different chemistry-transport models - CAMx and CALGRID - were applied for a summer period, driven by the MM5 meteorological model. The meteorological model performance was evaluated comparing its results to available monitoring data measured at the Porto Alegre airport. Validation results point out a good model performance. It was not possible to evaluate the chemistry models performance due to the lack of adequate monitoring data. Nevertheless, the model intercomparison between CAMx and CALGRID shows a similar behaviour in what concerns the simulation of nitrogen dioxide, but some discrepancies concerning ozone. Regarding the fulfilment of the Brazilian air quality targets, the simulated ozone concentrations surpass the legislated value in specific periods, mainly outside the urban area of Porto Alegre. The ozone formation is influenced by the emission of pollutants that act as precursors (like the nitrogen oxides emitted at Porto Alegre urban area and coming from a large refinery complex) and by the meteorological conditions.

  4. Needs Assessment of the Healthcare Sector in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area. Research Report. Business Needs Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale. Office of Institutional Research.

    According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the growing population of elderly citizens will result in an increased demand for healthcare services that will rise for a full 50 years. This study assesses the need for healthcare sector workers in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Information on the skills, education, and experience that…

  5. Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries), Region 9, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Administrative Area Boundaries 4 (City Boundaries) for Region 9. There are five Administrative Area Boundaries layers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). These layers contain...

  6. Understanding heterogeneity in metropolitan India: The added value of remote sensing data for analyzing sub-standard residential areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Isa; Kuffer, Monika; Pfeffer, Karin; Sliuzas, Richard; Karuppannan, Sadasivam

    2010-10-01

    Analyzing the heterogeneity in metropolitan areas of India utilizing remote sensing data can help to identify more precise patterns of sub-standard residential areas. Earlier work analyzing inequalities in Indian cities employed a constructed index of multiple deprivations (IMDs) utilizing data from the Census of India 2001 ( http://censusindia.gov.in). While that index, described in an earlier paper, provided a first approach to identify heterogeneity at the citywide scale, it neither provided information on spatial variations within the geographical boundaries of the Census database, nor about physical characteristics, such as green spaces and the variation in housing density and quality. In this article, we analyze whether different types of sub-standard residential areas can be identified through remote sensing data, combined, where relevant, with ground-truthing and local knowledge. The specific questions address: (1) the extent to which types of residential sub-standard areas can be drawn from remote sensing data, based on patterns of green space, structure of layout, density of built-up areas, size of buildings and other site characteristics; (2) the spatial diversity of these residential types for selected electoral wards; and (3) the correlation between different types of sub-standard residential areas and the results of the index of multiple deprivations utilized at electoral ward level found previously. The results of a limited number of test wards in Delhi showed that it was possible to extract different residential types matching existing settlement categories using the physical indicators structure of layout, built-up density, building size and other site characteristics. However, the indicator 'amount of green spaces' was not useful to identify informal areas. The analysis of heterogeneity showed that wards with higher IMD scores displayed more or less the full range of residential types, implying that visual image interpretation is able to zoom in

  7. Landslides in West Coast metropolitan areas: The role of extreme weather events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Biasutti

    2016-12-01

    That a news-based catalog of landslides is accurate enough to allow the identification of different landslide/rainfall relationships in the major urban areas along the US West Coast suggests that this technology can potentially be used for other English-language cities and could become an even more powerful tool if expanded to other languages and non-traditional news sources, such as social media.

  8. Functional and nutraceutical legumes marketed in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we analyzed data from ethnobotanical surveys of functional and nutraceutical legumes (Leguminosae commercialized in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The surveys took place in outlets of the general commercial circuit and the restricted circuits belonging to Bolivian and Chinese immigrants. We recorded the species, its products, local therapeutic uses, and available published data on biological activity and effects. Nineteen species were found: Arachis hypogaea var. hypogaea, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lablab purpureus, Lens culinaris, Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, Medicago sativa, Phaseolus lunatus, P. vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Prosopis alba, Tamarindus indica, Trifolium repens, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Vicia faba, Vigna angularis, V. radiata and V. unguiculata var. unguiculata. Most of these species (15 were found in the general commercial circuit, whereas the rest (4 only in the restricted commercial circuits of immigrants, including L. mutabilis, which deserves a wider diffusion. In most cases, the local uses assigned to a surveyed species correspond to the information available in the literature on the species’ biological activity and effects. This paper provides new insights for ethnobotanical studies and highlights the therapeutic relevance of legumes in the study area.

  9. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  11. A complex systems approach to evaluate HIV prevention in metropolitan areas: preliminary implications for combination intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D L; Paczkowski, Magdalena M; Seemann, Lars; Tempalski, Barbara; Pouget, Enrique R; Galea, Sandro; Friedman, Samuel R

    2012-01-01

    HIV transmission among injecting and non-injecting drug users (IDU, NIDU) is a significant public health problem. Continuing propagation in endemic settings and emerging regional outbreaks have indicated the need for comprehensive and coordinated HIV prevention. We describe the development of a conceptual framework and calibration of an agent-based model (ABM) to examine how combinations of interventions may reduce and potentially eliminate HIV transmission among drug-using populations. A multidisciplinary team of researchers from epidemiology, sociology, geography, and mathematics developed a conceptual framework based on prior ethnographic and epidemiologic research. An ABM was constructed and calibrated through an iterative design and verification process. In the model, "agents" represent IDU, NIDU, and non-drug users who interact with each other and within risk networks, engaging in sexual and, for IDUs, injection-related risk behavior over time. Agents also interact with simulated HIV prevention interventions (e.g., syringe exchange programs, substance abuse treatment, HIV testing) and initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) in a stochastic manner. The model was constructed to represent the New York metropolitan statistical area (MSA) population, and calibrated by comparing output trajectories for various outcomes (e.g., IDU/NIDU prevalence, HIV prevalence and incidence) against previously validated MSA-level data. The model closely approximated HIV trajectories in IDU and NIDU observed in New York City between 1992 and 2002, including a linear decrease in HIV prevalence among IDUs. Exploratory results are consistent with empirical studies demonstrating that the effectiveness of a combination of interventions, including syringe exchange expansion and ART provision, dramatically reduced HIV prevalence among IDUs during this time period. Complex systems models of adaptive HIV transmission dynamics can be used to identify potential collective benefits of

  12. A complex systems approach to evaluate HIV prevention in metropolitan areas: preliminary implications for combination intervention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon D L Marshall

    Full Text Available HIV transmission among injecting and non-injecting drug users (IDU, NIDU is a significant public health problem. Continuing propagation in endemic settings and emerging regional outbreaks have indicated the need for comprehensive and coordinated HIV prevention. We describe the development of a conceptual framework and calibration of an agent-based model (ABM to examine how combinations of interventions may reduce and potentially eliminate HIV transmission among drug-using populations.A multidisciplinary team of researchers from epidemiology, sociology, geography, and mathematics developed a conceptual framework based on prior ethnographic and epidemiologic research. An ABM was constructed and calibrated through an iterative design and verification process. In the model, "agents" represent IDU, NIDU, and non-drug users who interact with each other and within risk networks, engaging in sexual and, for IDUs, injection-related risk behavior over time. Agents also interact with simulated HIV prevention interventions (e.g., syringe exchange programs, substance abuse treatment, HIV testing and initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART in a stochastic manner. The model was constructed to represent the New York metropolitan statistical area (MSA population, and calibrated by comparing output trajectories for various outcomes (e.g., IDU/NIDU prevalence, HIV prevalence and incidence against previously validated MSA-level data. The model closely approximated HIV trajectories in IDU and NIDU observed in New York City between 1992 and 2002, including a linear decrease in HIV prevalence among IDUs. Exploratory results are consistent with empirical studies demonstrating that the effectiveness of a combination of interventions, including syringe exchange expansion and ART provision, dramatically reduced HIV prevalence among IDUs during this time period.Complex systems models of adaptive HIV transmission dynamics can be used to identify potential collective benefits

  13. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Cesaretti

    Full Text Available Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations, our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured

  14. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  15. Enviro-HIRLAM in Studies of Urban and Aerosol Impacts on Metropolitan Areas: Science-Education Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, Alexander; Nuterman, Roman; Mazeikis, Adomas; Gonzalez-Aparicio, Iratxe; Ivanov, Sergey; Palamarchuk, Julia

    2014-05-01

    To attract more perspective young scientists (and especially, MSc and PhD students) for advanced research and development of complex and modern modelling systems, a specific approach is required. It should allow within a short period of time to evaluate personal background levels, skills, capabilities, etc. To learn more about new potential science-oriented developers of the models, it is often not enough to look into the personal resume. Thus, a special event such as Young Scientist Summer School (YSSS) can be organized, where young researchers could have an opportunity to attend not only relevant lectures, but also participate in practical exercises allowing to solidify lecture materials. Here, the practical exercises are presented as independent small-scale (having duration of up to a week) research projects or studies oriented on specific topics of YSSS. Developed approach was tested and realized during 2008 and 2011 YSSS events held and organized in Zelenogorsk, Russia (by NetFAM et al.; http://netfam.fmi.fi/YSSS08) and Odessa, Ukraine (by MUSCATEN et al.; http://atmos.physic.ut.ee/~muscaten/YSSS/1info.html), respectively. It has been refined for the new YSSS (Jul 2014) to be organized by the COST Action EuMetChem. The main focus of all these YSSSs was/is on the integrated modelling of meteorological and chemical transport processes and impact of chemical weather on numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. During previous YSSSs some of such projects - "URBAN: The Influence of Metropolitan Areas on Meteorology", "AEROSOL: The Impact of Aerosols Effects on Meteorology", and "COASTAL: The Coastal & Cities Effects on Meteorology" - were focused on evaluation of influence of metropolitan areas on formation of meteorological and chemical fields above urban areas (such as Paris, France; Copenhagen, Denmark, and Bilbao, Spain) and surroundings. The Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (Enviro-HIRLAM) was used and modifications were made taking

  16. Dreptul la oraș – generația a IV-a de drepturi ale omului metropolitan (The Right to city – the IVth generation of rights for the metropolitan man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Virginia ANTONESCU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The right to city begins to be recently consecrated by academic research, presenting several links with the “sustainable development” paradigm. UN documents see our contemporary world as an “urban global world”, confronted with issues as chronic poverty, lack of access to basic urban services, insufficient democratic participation to main decisions regarding the urban management. This new right can be regarded as derived from solidarity rights as the right to a healthy, clean, durable environment, as well as the right to continuous improvement of life quality, but also, it can be seen as a special, distinct kind of human right. Right to have clean, sustainable cities can be recognized, at national, regional, international levels, to individuals, to local groups (as the metropolitan inhabitants of one city or to nations (having at their disposal a collective new right to own prosperous, sustainable cities, as effect of their right to economic development. We consider the right to city as being a dynamic right, in full process of exploration and consecration within academic research, more than necessary for understanding an urban globalized world characterized by proliferation of metropolises, towns, cities, megalopolises that demand new juridical approaches.

  17. Illicit Drug Use, Illicit Drug Use Disorders, and Drug Overdose Deaths in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Areas - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin A; Jones, Christopher M; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2017-10-20

    Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015. The National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) collects information through face-to-face household interviews about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the U.S. noninstitutionalized civilian population aged ≥12 years. Respondents include residents of households and noninstitutional group quarters (e.g., shelters, rooming houses, dormitories, migratory workers' camps, and halfway houses) and civilians living on military bases. NSDUH variables include sex, age, race/ethnicity, residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan), annual household income, self-reported drug use, and drug use disorders. National Vital Statistics System Mortality (NVSS-M) data for U.S. residents include information from death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Cases were selected with an underlying cause of death based on the ICD-10 codes for drug overdoses (X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14). NVSS-M variables include decedent characteristics (sex, age, and race/ethnicity) and information on intent (unintentional, suicide, homicide, or undetermined), location of death (medical facility, in a home, or other [including nursing homes, hospices, unknown, and other locations]) and county of residence (metropolitan/nonmetropolitan). Metropolitan/nonmetropolitan status is assigned independently in each data system. NSDUH uses a three-category system: Core Based Statistical Area (CBSA) of ≥1 million persons; CBSA of illicit drugs, the prevalence was highest for the large metropolitan areas compared with

  18. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  19. Solar radiation in forested urban environments with dry climate. Case: Metropolitan Area of Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Edith Arboit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to advance the understanding of the solar potential of urban residential environments which, by their morphology, and the impact of urban trees, present values of irradiance very different from full solar collection. Morphological variables of urban settings and urban trees, a very distinctive feature of the Mendoza Metropolitan Area (MMA, have a fundamental impact on the feasibility of implementing strategies for solar energy utilization in urban environments. The results achieved will contribute to modify and gradually update urban and building legislation to implement higher levels of energy efficiency and minimum environmental impacts.This work proposes to study the potential of solar collection in urban environments, analyzing eleven urban configurations selected according to their building and urban morphological characteristics.Methodologically, we have monitored the global solar irradiance on vertical plane on northern facades, completely sunny and partly sunny, affected by solid masking and arboreal masking. Results obtained so far indicate that solar masking is critical for vertical surfaces, with a reduction of the available solar energy between 2% and 66% in the winter season. However, these drawbacks caused by urban trees are compensated by benefits in the warm season: controlling the intensity of the urban heat island, absorption of pollutants, cooling and humidifying the air through evapotranspiration, reducing thermal loads of buildings, occupancy of public open spaces, and an invaluable contribution to the urban aesthetic.

  20. An exploratory study of healthcare strategic planning in two metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Kaissi, Amer A

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about empirical variation in the extent to which healthcare organizations conduct formal strategic planning or the extent to which strategic planning affects performance. Structural contingency and complexity science theory offer differing interpretations of the value of strategic planning. Structural contingency theory emphasizes adaptation to achieve organizational fit with a changing environment and views strategic planning as a way to chart the organization's path. Complexity science argues that planning is largely futile in changing environments. Interviews of leaders in 20 healthcare organizations in the metropolitan areas of Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, and San Antonio, Texas, reveal that strategic planning is a common and valued function in healthcare organizations. Respondents emphasized the need to continuously update strategic plans, involve physicians and the governing board, and integrate strategic plans with other organizational plans. Most leaders expressed that strategic planning contributes to organizational focus, fosters stakeholder participation and commitment, and leads to achievement of strategic goals. Because the widespread belief in strategic planning is based largely on experience, intuition, and faith, we present recommendations for developing an evidence base for healthcare strategic planning.

  1. The perils of healthcare workforce forecasting: a case study of the Philadelphia metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Barton; Aaronson, William

    2003-01-01

    In 1996, a widely circulated and influential forecast for the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area stated that a decline in hospital and healthcare employment in the region would occur over the next five years. It also suggested that this decline would exacerbate the problem of an oversupply of nurses seeking hospital employment. The forecast reflected a regional leadership and expert consensus on the impact of the managed care transformation on workforce needs and was supported by short-term statistical trends in regional utilization and employment. Confounding these predictions was the fact that hospital and healthcare employment actually grew. By the end of 2001, hospitals in the region were experiencing problems in recruiting sufficient numbers of nurses, pharmacists, and technicians. The forecast failed to anticipate the impact of a strong regional economy on supply and underestimated the resilience of underlying forces that have driven the long-term growth in healthcare workforce demand. More effective ongoing monitoring can help moderate the fluctuation of workforce shortages and surpluses.

  2. Application of preliminary risk analysis at marble finishing plants in Recife's metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Neto, Rútilo P; Kohlman Rabbani, Emilia R

    2012-01-01

    The finishing of marble occurs in quarries all over Brazil, being the most significant dimension of the ornamental stone sector, with 7,000 businesses. Recife's Metropolitan Area (RMR) contains approximately 106 marble quarries, 25 of them unionized. The study focused on the application of Preliminary Risk Analysis, conducted at two unionized quarries: M1, a small business; and the second, M2, considered a micro enterprise. In this analysis both the administrative and the productive sectors were evaluated. The fieldwork was done in the month of December 2010. The study revealed that the two quarries carried moderate risks in the administrative sector, mainly due to ergonomic factors, and that in the productive sectors the risks were high, specifically because of excess noise, dust material, and precarious electrical installations. Using the results of the qualitative analysis as a base, the need for quantitative study presents itself in order to determine the most adequate modes of protection to be of assistance in the management of these risks, guaranteeing the safety and health of the worker and consequently the improvement in productivity in this sector.

  3. Seismic Observations in the Taipei Metropolitan Area Using the Downhole Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Underlain by soft soils, the Taipei Metropolitan Area (TMA experienced major damage due to ground-motion amplification during the Hualien earthquake of 1986, the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999, the Hualien earthquake of 2002 and the Taitung earthquake of 2003. To study how a local site can substantially change the characteristics of seismic waves as they pass through soft deposits below the free surface, two complementary downhole seismic arrays have been operated in the TMA, since 1991 and 2008. The accelerometer downhole array is composed of eight boreholes at depths in excess of 300 meters. The downhole array velocity sensor collocated with accelerometer composed of four boreholes at depths up to 90 meters. The integrated seismic network monitors potential earthquakes originating from faults in and around the TMA and provides wide-dynamic range measurement of data ranging in amplitude from seismic background noise levels to damage levels as a result of shaking. The data sets can be used to address on the response of soft-soil deposits to ground motions. One of the major considerations is the nonlinear response of soft soil deposits at different levels of excitation. The collocated acceloerometer and velocity sensors at boreholes give the necessary data for studies of non-linearity to be acquired. Such measurements in anticipation of future large, damaging earthquakes will be of special importance for the mitigation of earthquake losses.

  4. Trace metals analysis of hair samples from students in metropolitan area high school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.F.; Wang, P.C.; Kao, P.F.; Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Lin, J.B.; Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Lin, D.B.; Chen, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples from junior high school students in metropolitan areas of Taichung, Taiwan were tested for a total of 13 elements, Al, Ag, Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Se, and Zn by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to establish seasonal variations, gender and environmental exposures. The seasonal variations of hairs in 39 healthy students (18 males and 21 females; age 13.3 ± 0.4 years; height, 158.0 ± 4.1 cm; weight, 53.4 ± 5.7 kg) were collected at 1.5-month intervals for 1 year starting from late August, 2008. The concentrations of the above elements varied from 10 3 to 10 -2 μg g -1 at different sampling times. A quantified index of agreement (AT) was introduced to help classify the elements. A smaller AT indicated highly consistent quantities of specific metals in the hair while a larger AT indicated increased fluctuation, i.e., less agreement. The different ATs in various hair samples were discussed. The concentrations of these elements are compared with the data in the literature. (author)

  5. Analysis of Spatiotemporal Statistical Properties of Rainfall in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, G.

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of the rainfall statistical properties at multiple spatiotemporal scales is a necessary preliminary step to support modeling of urban hydrology, including flood prediction and simulation of impacts of land use changes. In this contribution, the rainfall statistical properties are analyzed in the Phoenix Metropolitan area and its surroundings ( 29600 km2) in Arizona using observations from 310 gauges of the Flood Control District of the Maricopa County network. Different techniques are applied to investigate the rainfall properties at temporal scales from 1 min to years and to quantify the associated spatial variability. Results reveal the following. The rainfall regime is characterized by high interannual variability, which is partially explained by teleconnections with El Niño Southern Oscillation, and marked seasonality, with two maxima in the monsoon season from July to September and in winter from November to March. Elevation has a significant control on seasonal rainfall accumulation, strength of thermal convective activity during the monsoon, and peak occurrence of the rainfall diurnal cycle present in summer. The spatial correlation of wintertime rainfall is high even at short aggregation times (cells).

  6. Atoyac River Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez Castresana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atoyac River crosses the metropolitan area of Puebla-Tlaxcala in Mexico and presents a state of pollution that has been scarcely studied. In 2016, the water quality of the river was evaluated based on physicochemical and bacteriological parameters, under the guidelines established for the Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL for Aquatic Life Protection (ALP and Agricultural Irrigation (AI. The sampling sites were the Covadonga Dam, the Echeverría Dam, and an irrigation canal. Water from wells and a spring in the Emilio Portes Gil (EPG population that uses Atoyac water for agricultural irrigation was also analyzed. The data obtained from the river were compared with the 2011 data published in the declaration of classification of Atoyac and Xochiac or Hueyapan and its tributaries. There was a notable increase in hemical oxygen demand (COD (49% and in heavy metals with varying percentages. The anoxic condition of the river (mean 1.47 mg of O2/L with large populations of coliform bacteria was demonstrated, 11 pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceae were found, and high organic pollution concentrations were shown, particularly during droughts. Irrigation and well water was contaminated with fecal bacteria (104–549 NMP/100 mL, which included pathogens.

  7. Development of a Statistical Model for Forecasting Episodes of Visibility Degradation in the Denver Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. J.; Barbarick, D. E.; Osterburg, R. D.

    1995-03-01

    In 1990, the State of Colorado implemented a visibility standard of 0.076 km1 of beta extinction for the Denver metropolitan area. Meteorologists with Colorado's Air Pollution Control Division forecast high pollution days associated with visibility impairment as well as those due to high levels of the federal criteria pollutants. Visibility forecasts are made from a few hours up to about 26 h in advance of the period of interest. Here we discuss the key microscale, mesoscale, and synoptic-scale features associated with episodes of visibility impairment. Data from special studies, case studies, and the 22 NOAA Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services mesonet sites have been invaluable in identifying patterns associated with extremes in visibility conditions. A preliminary statistical forecast model has been developed using variables that represent many of these patterns. Six variables were selected from an initial pool of 27 to be used in a model based on linear logistic regression. These six variables include forecast measures of snow cover, surface pressures and a surface pressure gradient in eastern Colorado, relative humidity, and 500-mb ridge position. The initial testing of the model has been encouraging. The model correctly predicted 76% of the good visibility days and 67% of the poor visibility days for a test set of 171 days.

  8. Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc. within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water. Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users.

  9. Environmental non-governmental organizations – The actions of civil society in Curitiba and Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleusa Mara WOLSKY CARNEIRO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at achieving a diagnosis of the major actions of the environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs that actuate in Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. It also studies the relations established by these organizations to build a place socially fair and environmental sustainable. In order to do that the main activities of these organizations in the last decades were raised through interviews with their representatives, visitations to the central office and verification of the institutional documents available. The paper explains that the NGOs search to make actions that raise a sustainable model of development, since they understand that the State reduced the participation in this sector and that the people gave them power for it. To achieve so, they need to create a net of relationships between the community, the private and public agents and the NGOs, with the objective of learn the problems, point at the solutions and to develop environmental interventions models to legitimize their actions. That way, the territoriality that these organizations seek to create depend of integrated decisions and of a continuous search of people, information and mobilization, to set up news socials actors and to ensure the development of the activities of these organizations.

  10. Helmet "tang" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City, United States. Features of Construction, Design and Operational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses iron helmet (No. 36.25.115, which is stored in the Metropolitan Museum of art (New York City, United States. For the first time this helmet was published and analyzed by American scientists G. C. Stone and D.G. Alexander. The analysis showed that the Bowl was made by Turkish masters of the XVII century and backplate and the hoop is added to the helmet in 1781–1782 D.G. Alexander speculated that the helmet belonged to the Warrior of the Crimean Khanate. Dating the helmet does not raise objections. However, the attribution of a helmet requires some clarification. Analysis of the design of the helmet and decoration revealed that backplate, hoop and Aventail from iron rings added to Bowl in 1781–1782, were manufactured by Circassian craftsmen living in the Northern Caucasus or in Crimea. For the decoration of the helmet has been used typical Circassian ornaments: "sieve", cherkessian floral pattern, geometric shapes, triangular in shape, "gear", etc. During Assembly of the helmet were applied characteristic of Circassian gunsmiths technological solutions: using as a basis the bowl old-style helmet, tapered Finial with a ring for a decorative plume, hoop with four plates, ringed with aventail lip to protect the forehead, etc. In Circassia similar headgear worn were known as tang (from the Arabic. "Taj", i.e., the "Crown". In the XVII–XVIII centuries. they willingly purchased representatives of Crimean Tatar nobility. Similar in design and system design helmets Circassian production belonged to the highest aristocracy of the Crimean Khanate, are stored in Museum and private collections in Poland, Turkey and the United States. The inscription "Bekmurun" on the hoop from the Metropolitan helmet suggests that it was manufactured on request of Kabardian Bekmur princely heir (Bekmurziny, which moved from Circassia in Crimea, 1737. The popularity of tang type helmets among the aristocracy of North Caucasus and Crimea were due not

  11. Determinants of SME location in a suburban area: Evidence from the Gdańsk–Gdynia–Sopot Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the European economy, it is essential to have adequate information about the various factors that determine their choice of location. However, the size of a company is often an aspect not covered in theoretical studies and empirical research on industrial locations and urban planning. This article examines the place of residence as a stimulator of SME development in suburbs. Multidisciplinary research carried out in the Gdańsk–Gdynia–Sopot Metropolitan Area, known as the Tricity, confirms this trend. The location determinants of SMEs in suburban areas were identified using a questionnaire. The survey was conducted in 251 enterprises located in seven municipalities with the highest suburbanisation rates within the Tricity. The study confirms that the municipalities characterised by the highest intensity of suburbanisation processes have higher business activity than other municipalities. Location decisions were largely made by business owners in line with behavioural theory. This means that SME owners more often consider personal factors than cost or demand factors. From the perspective of an entrepreneur, living conditions, the quality of public space, education and healthcare are significant.

  12. Revitalización de subcentros metropolitanos. Buenos Aires entre la ciudad dispersa y la ciudad compacta / Revitalization of metropolitan subcentres. Buenos Aires between the dispersed city and the compact city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccolella, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Las grandes ciudades latinoamericanas se debaten actualmente entre dos procesos de transformación socio-territorial convergentes: la densificación y verticalización de las áreas centrales, y la expansión cada vez más difusa y fragmentada de los suburbios. Esta dicotomía entre ciudad compacta y ciudad dispersa parece mostrar procesos singulares en el caso de la región metropolitana de Buenos Aires. A partir de los años dos mil, se han ralentizado los nuevos lanzamientos de urbanizaciones cerradas y, paralelamente, han comenzado a manifestarse algunos casos de revitalización de antiguas subcentralidades del sur de la metrópolis, que habían entrado en una fase de estancamiento y deterioro desde mediados de los años setenta, y actualmente experimentan una aceleración de la producción de vivienda multifamiliar de calidad. Este trabajo explora y muestra algunas experiencias concretas de esta tendencia, con la hipótesis que, al menos en Buenos Aires, los procesos de transformación y reestructuración metrolitana muestran complejidades y diversidades según los contextos temporales y territoriales que se analicen. The large Latin American cities are currently experiencing two convergent socio-territoria transformation processes: the densification and verticalization of central areas, and the increasingly diffuse and fragmented suburban expansion. This dichotomy between the compact city and the dispersed city seems to show unique features in the case of the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires. After the 2000s, the expansion of gated communities has slowed down and at the same time some old subcentralities in the South of the metropolis have begun to revitalize. Since the mid-1970s, they had entered a phase of stagnation and deterioration, and at present the production of quality multifamily housing is rapidly growing. This paper reflects on this trend and show some concrete experiences. Our hypothesis is that in Buenos Aires the process

  13. Development of new citizenship HSE model for schools and kindergartens of Tehran Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Karbassi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today many of wide scope and famous organizations design and develop HSE models to achieve a more suitable HSE management system for their own purposes. To implement such models some requirements should be considered in line with defined goals and missions. The present study was carried out in order to achieve the HSE management system for children and adolescents in education and training centers. This study was conducted in two phases, namely identification and assessment/ documentation. The study was carried out in districts one, four, six, seven and eight of Tehran municipality during eighteen months. The employer was Tehran Shahr-e-salem Company (Healthy City and the contractor was the faculty of environment, University of Tehran. As the final result of study, based on initial data and by holding brainstorming meetings, the final citizenship HSE model was constructed in five panels: Management responsibility and commitment, Infrastructures and resources management and documentation, Planning, HSE operations management and Monitoring, analysis and improvement. This model was designed by consideration of existing capacities and with the goal of being responsive to all stakeholders (service provider, recipients of services and others.

  14. Analysis of entrance skin radiation dose in mammography equipment in Rio Grande do Sul state (Ijui municipality and surroundings) and Rio de Janeiro (metropolitan area)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Geovane Silva; Padilha Filho, Lucas Gomes; Sousa, Carlos Henrique Simoes de; Feldmann, Gerson; Albrecht, Marcos R.A.; Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes de

    2016-01-01

    Mammography is the technique widely used to the early detection of breast cancer, despite of not being a consensus the ideal age to initiate the radiologic examinations, it is recommended that women with the age of forty realize the examinations periodically. With the objective to analyze the entrance skin dose (ESD) in different mammography equipment, Were analyzed in the Estate of Rio Grande do Sul (Ijui City and neighborhoods) and in Rio de Janeiro (metropolitan area) 24 mammography equipment. Among them included in the study, just one presented ESD higher than the established limit of ANVISA. It was observed in the mammography equipment of Ijui and neighborhoods high levels of mAs to achieve the values of ESD next to the limit. (author)

  15. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele; Martinico, Francesco; Privitera, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: → Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. → NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). → NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. → Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). → By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  16. Agricultural and green infrastructures: The role of non-urbanised areas for eco-sustainable planning in a metropolitan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Greca, Paolo; La Rosa, Daniele [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Martinico, Francesco, E-mail: fmartinico@dau.unict.it [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Privitera, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Architettura e Urbanistica, Universita di Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are part of agricultural and green infrastructures that provide ecosystem services. Their role is fundamental for the minimization of urban pollution and adaptation to climate change. Like all natural ecosystems, NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl. The regulation of sprawl is a key issue for land-use planning. We propose a land use suitability strategy model to orient Land Uses of NUAs, based on integration of Land Cover Analysis (LCA) and Fragmentation Analysis (FA). With LCA the percentage of evapotranspiring surface is defined for each land use. Dimensions and densities of NUAs patches are assessed in FA. The model has been developed with Geographical Information Systems, using an extensive set of geodatabases, including orthophotos, vectorial cartographies and field surveys. The case of the municipality of Mascalucia in Catania metropolitan area (Italy), characterized by a considerable urban sprawl, is presented. - Highlights: > Non-Urbanised Areas (NUAs) are crucial for land planning and pollution minimization. > NUAs are endangered by urban sprawl in Catania metropolitan areas (Italy). > NUAs can be characterized by Land Cover and Fragmentation analysis. > Results from analysis are used in a Land Use Suitability Strategy Model (LUSSM). > By LUSSM application seven new prospective land uses for NUAs are proposed. - Characterization of non-urbanised areas in metropolitan regions is crucial for land-use planning aimed at environmental pollution minimization.

  17. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  18. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  19. Vs30 mapping at selected sites within the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Grace; Armah, Thomas K.; Amponsah, Paulina

    2018-06-01

    A large part of Accra is underlain by a complex distribution of shallow soft soils. Within seismically active zones, these soils hold the most potential to significantly amplify seismic waves and cause severe damage, especially to structures sited on soils lacking sufficient stiffness. This paper presents preliminary site classification for the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana (GAMA), using experimental data from two-dimensional (2-D) Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) technique. The dispersive characteristics of fundamental mode Rayleigh type surface waves were utilized for imaging the shallow subsurface layers (approx. up to 30 m depth) by estimating the 1D (depth) and 2D (depth and surface location) shear wave velocities at 5 selected sites. The average shear wave velocity for 30 m depth (Vs30), which is critical in evaluating the site response of the upper 30 m, was estimated and used for the preliminary site classification of the GAM area, as per NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program). Based on the Vs30 values obtained in the study, two common site types C, and D corresponding to shallow (>6 m Lower velocity profiles are inferred for the residual soils (sandy to silty clays), derived from the Accraian Formation that lies mainly within Accra central. Stiffer soil sites lie to the north of Accra, and to the west near Nyanyano. The seismic response characteristics over the residual soils in the GAMA have become apparent using the MASW technique. An extensive site effect map and a more robust probabilistic seismic hazard analysis can now be efficiently built for the metropolis, by considering the site classes and design parameters obtained from this study.

  20. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  1. Relationship between premature mortality and socioeconomic factors in black and white populations of US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R S; Kennelly, J F; Durazo-Arvizu, R; Oh, H J; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J

    2001-01-01

    examined the association of mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators of inequality and segregation among blacks and whites younger than age 65 in 267 US metropolitan areas. The primary aim of the analysis was to operationalize the concept of institutional racism in public health. Socioeconomic indicators were drawn from Census and vital statistics data for 1989-1991 and included median household income; two measures of income inequality; percentage of the population that was black; and a measure of residential segregation. Age-adjusted premature mortality was 81% higher in blacks than in whites, and median household income was 40% lower. Income inequality, as measured by the Gini coefficient, was greater within the black population (0.45) than within the white population (0.40; p inequality for the total population was significantly correlated with premature mortality (r = 0.33). Black (r = 0.26) and white (r = 0.20) population-specific correlations between income inequality and premature mortality, while still significant, were smaller. Residential segregation was significantly related to premature mortality and income inequality for blacks (r = 0.38 for both); among whites, however, segregation was modestly correlated with premature mortality (r = 0.19) and uncorrelated with income inequality. Regional analyses demonstrated that the association of segregation with premature mortality was much more pronounced in the South and in areas with larger black populations. Social factors such as income inequality and segregation strongly influence premature mortality in the US. Ecologic studies of the relationships among social factors and population health can measure attributes of the social context that may be relevant for population health, providing the basis for imputing macro-level relationships.

  2. Simulations of the Urban Planetary Boundary Layer in an Arid Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Liu, Yubao; Zehnder, Joseph A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2008-03-15

    Characteristics of the summertime urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) were investigated for the arid Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region using simulated data as well as observations from two field campaigns conducted in May/June 1998 and June 2001. A version of the fifth-generation PSU/NCAR mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was applied that included a refined land cover classification and updated land use/cover data for Phoenix as well as bulk approaches of characteristics of the urban surface energy balance. Planetary boundary layer processes were simulated by a modified version of MM5¹s non-local closure Medium Range Forecast (MRF) scheme that was enhanced by new surface flux and non-local mixing approaches to better capture near-surface wind speeds and the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. Simulated potential temperature profiles were tested against radiosonde data, indicating that the PBL scheme was able to simulate the evolution and height of the PBL with good accuracy and better than the original MRF scheme. During both simulation periods, MM5¹s performance for near-surface meteorological variables in the urban area was consistently improved by the modifications applied to the standard MM5. The results showed that the urban PBL evolved faster after sunrise than the rural PBL due to the reminiscence of the nighttime urban heat island and its influence on the flow field and surface sensible heat fluxes. During afternoon hours the urban PBL was lower than the rural PBL due to the higher water availability for evaporation in the urban area and accompanying lower sensible heat fluxes. No consistent differences between the urban and rural PBL were detected during nighttime because of deviations in air flow and accompanying wind shear.

  3. Determinants of blood-lead levels in children in Callao and Lima metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Rocío

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n=2 510 and women (n=874 in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 µg/dl ranging from I µg/dl to 64 µg/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 µg/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 µg/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 µg/dl (SD=2.4 µg/dl, and 2.4% (n=21 displayed levels greater than 10 µg/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 µg/dl (SD=4.6 µg/dl, while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 µg/dl (SD=5.1 µg/dl. The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 µg/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 µg/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. CONCLUSIONS: In metropolitan Lima, we conclude that the mean blood lead levels of

  4. Bryophytes use like atmospheric indicators of heavy metals in the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblano B, J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in species of frequent and abundant bryophytes in the Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV). The concentration of the studied metals was determined in two different seasons (cold-dry and warm-humid) in 11 sites of the MATV, 7 of them classified as urban areas, 2 as transition areas and 2 as protected natural areas. Only epiphyte organisms found to a superior height of 100 cm of the floor were considered and the species determination was realized in the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, while the processing of the samples was carried out in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The samples processing consisted on separating the bryophytes of the bark of the trees, later on each one of the samples was washed, milled and homogenized, at the end they were subjected to a digestion process accelerated by microwaves. The concentration of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bryophytes was determined applying the X-rays Fluorescence technique, using a spectrometer Tx-2000 Ital-Structures, with a detector type Si (Li), a tube of Mo (40 kV, 30 m A) with 17,4 keV like excitement energy. Each sample was analyzed six times with a counting time of 500 seconds. Additionally enrichment factors were obtained using reference soils considered as not impacted by anthropogenic activities. With the obtained results space and temporary differences were established through descriptive statistic, also the enrichment factor to infer the possible origin of the metals was calculated, as well as the sites that could represent a risk for the health. The species more frequent and abundant were F. ciliaris and L. angustata, presenting the following tendency in their metals concentration Fe>Ti>Mn>Zn>Pb>V ≅ Cu>Cr, being observed that the temporality is a factor that influences in the metals concentration and that in general F. ciliaris

  5. O deslocamento da população brasileira para as metrópoles The displacement of the Brazilian population to the metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Brito

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O OBJETIVO deste artigo é analisar a urbanização no Brasil, na segunda metade do século XX, lembrando que somente o Censo de 1970 registrou uma população urbana que superou a rural. Essa recente e acelerada urbanização, em razão da intensa migração interna, fez coincidir a concentração da população urbana nas grandes cidades, assim como nas principais metrópoles brasileiras. Essas últimas, nas duas últimas décadas, têm reduzido as suas taxas de crescimento populacional, não só em razão do declínio generalizado das taxas de fecundidade, mas, principalmente, como conseqüência da redução do número dos seus imigrantes. O saldo migratório negativo do aglomerado metropolitano de São Paulo, entre 1995-2000, é um expressivo exemplo. Contudo, apesar de o país ter se distanciado de uma hipermetroplização, vale a pena sublinhar que, em 2000, mais de 40% da população urbana brasileira ainda residia nessas metrópoles.THE AIM of this article is the analysis of the Brazilian urbanization process during the second half of the 20th century. For this purpose it is important to take note that the 1970 Demographic Census indicated that the urban population had surpassed the rural population for the first time. The rapid contemporary urbanization due to intense internal migration concentrated the urban population in the larger Brazilian cities and metropolitan areas. During the last two decades, however, the growth rates of the larger cities has declined due to lower fertility rates and, more importantly, decreasing number of immigrants. Indeed, the metropolitan area of São Paulo, for example, presented negative net migration for the 1995-2000 period. Although internal migration trends do not point to a process of "hipermetropolitanization", it must be taken into account that as of 2000 40% of the country’s urban population still inhabited the larger metropolitan areas.

  6. Study of the demand for radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG in the metropolitan regions of Sao Paulo and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Renato Cesar

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine in Brazil and worldwide has developed distinction with diagnosis techniques that allow metabolic research of the disease, changing in a significant fashion the patient's outcome. This innovative technology leads expectations from specific fields up to society itself. This research studied the use of 18 F-FDG radiopharmaceutical in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and adjacent areas, as well as the recent trade structure and the difficulties that should be overcome with the increase of the 18 F-FDG demand. This research counted on the analysis of the international radiopharmaceutical trade and the main changes that have been happening in this area in Brazil during the past few years. Interviews were performed with professionals within the area of nuclear medicine and data has been collected through questionnaire sent to the consuming centers of the radiopharmaceutical in the region covered in this research. The interviews expressed the opinions of the interviewees concerning transformations in this field and future tendencies and the information obtained from the survey was the basis of complementation of the use of radiopharmaceutical on equipment such as Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Emission Tomography I Computer Tomography (PET/CT). The major use of 18 F-FDG has been used for oncology diagnosis with equipment such as PET and PEC/CT. This use shall grow in the next years, maybe expanding to other specialties such as neurology and cardiology. Although nowadays restricted to the cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, there is a possibility of expansion to other diagnosis modalities in other states of the country that are starting to structure the production of the radioisotope. The recent change in the constitution permitting the production and commerce of short half-life radioisotopes also contributes to the increase the interest of private funding of this sector in which

  7. CO2 emission inventories for Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas compared with European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wei; Pagani, Roberto; Huang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The international literature has paid significant attention to presenting China as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the world, despite having much lower per-capita emissions than the global average. In fact, the imbalance of economic development leads to diversity in GHG emissions profiles in different areas of China. This paper employs a common methodology, consistent with the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) approved by the Covenant of Mayors (CoM), to estimate CO 2 emissions of four Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. The results show that the CO 2 emissions of all four cities are still rising and that secondary industries emit the most CO 2 in these cities. By comparing these data with the inventory results of two European cities, this paper further reveals that Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas contribute much higher per-capita emissions than their European competitors. Furthermore, the per-capita CO 2 emissions of the residential sector and private transport in these Chinese cities are growing rapidly, some of them approaching the levels of European cities. According to these findings, several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided that aim to reduce the CO 2 emissions of highly urbanized areas in China. - Highlights: ► An exemplary study of GHG emission inventory for Chinese cities. ► Estimate CO 2 emissions of Chinese city in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. ► The studied Chinese cities contribute higher per-capita emissions than European’s. ► Emissions of residential sector and private transport in China are growing rapidly. ► Several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided.

  8. Recreating of rurality around the totoro forest in the outer fringe of tokyo metropolitan area : the spirituality of rurality

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, Toshio; Obara, Norihiro

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we made a point of rural land use and its conservation as the reflection of rurality in outer fringes, and discussed about recreating of rurality with utilising its conservation activities and the spirituality. In Sayama hill region of Tokyo metropolitan area, restructuring of rural land use and recreating rurality have been practised with conservation and maintenance activities in the Totoro forest. Although rural and urban residents think about those activities and their parti...

  9. Water-resources-related information for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District planning area, Wisconsin, 1970-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Morgan A.; Lutz, Michelle A.; ,

    2004-01-01

    The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study is a three-phase project designed to improve the understanding of water resources in the stream corridors of the MMSD planning area by initially compiling existing data and using the compiled information to develop 3-year baseline and long-term monitoring plans. This report is one of the products of Phase I of the Corridor Study.

  10. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and excess'' human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all non-external'' causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO[sub 4][sup =], Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM[sub 15], PM[sub 2.5] and SO[sub 4][sup =], for 63[sup 4] locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  11. (Draft) Community air pollution and mortality: Analysis of 1980 data from US metropolitan areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1992-11-01

    1980 data from up to 149 metropolitan areas were used to define cross-sectional associations between community air pollution and ``excess`` human mortality. The regression model proposed by Ozkaynak and Thurston (1987), which accounted for age, race, education, poverty, and population density, was evaluated and several new models were developed. The new models also accounted for migration, drinking water hardness, and smoking, and included a more detailed description of race. Cause-of-death categories analyzed include all causes, all ``non-external`` causes, major cardiovascular diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Both annual mortality rates and their logarithms were analyzed. Air quality data were obtained from the EPA AIRS database (TSP, SO{sub 4}{sup =}, Mn, and ozone) and from the inhalable particulate network (PM{sub 15}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}, for 63{sup 4} locations). The data on particulates were averaged across all monitoring stations available for each SMSA and the TSP data were restricted to the year 1980. The associations between mortality and air pollution were found to be dependent on the socioeconomic factors included in the models, the specific locations included in the data set, and the type of statistical model used. Statistically significant associations were found as follows: between TSP and mortality due to non-external causes with log-linear models, but not with a linear model betweenestimated 10-year average (1980--90) ozone levels and 1980 non-external and cardiovascular deaths; and between TSP and COPD mortality for both linear and log-linear models. When the sulfate contribution to TSP was subtracted, the relationship with COPD mortality was strengthened.

  12. Differences in attitudes towards medication between population groups in the Durban Metropolitan Area of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Fatima; Ally, Shabnam; Bayat, Samirah; Essack, Razia; Moodley, Renalda; Mtembu, Thobekile; Ramalingham, Emily

    2009-08-01

    Personal factors, especially attitude, have been implicated in the utilization of health care services, and in access to medical treatment. There is little information on the attitudes of the general public in South Africa towards medications and whether attitudes differ across population groups or among the different users of the health care system. This study aimed to determine the general attitude of a local population to medications, self-care orientation and health professional contact, and whether differences existed between age groups, gender and race groups. METHODS We carried out a randomized, cross-sectional quantitative study via telephonic questionnaire survey (adapted from a previous study) of a sample of 1132 telephone numbers. The setting was the Durban Metropolitan Area, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. KEY FINDINGS A total of 500 (44.2%) people responded. The majority had a positive attitude towards medication. An increase in age resulted in increased medication use. Females were more likely than males to use medication and seek professional health care (P = 0.0406). Most of the respondents (86.0%) were self-care-orientated and displayed moderate medication knowledge (46.2%). Some 295 (59.0%) of the 500 respondents had visited a pharmacy within the last 6 months. Conclusions Health care professionals can adopt an informed approach to address the needs of the population with regard to medication, by targeting groups more likely to use medication (females and the older age group). In addition, gaps in medication knowledge were identified which could be used for health-promotion interventions by health care workers.

  13. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in retailed meat in the Tokyo metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Yoshitsugu; Yamada, Fumiya; Batmunkh, Otgonchimeg; Mochizuki, Mariko; Takano, Takashi; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in retailed meats, comprising beef, chicken, and pork, in the Tokyo metropolitan area. A total of 379 samples of retailed meat were collected from 1998 to 2003, most of which were obtained by simultaneously purchasing the three classes of meat from a shop and then making another simultaneous purchase of meat from the same shop a few weeks later. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was 28.0%, and the serotypes isolated were mainly 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, and 4b. Comparison of the prevalence of each serotype among the classes of meat showed a predominant distribution of serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b in chicken, while serotype 1/2c was dominant in pork. A total of nine cases considered to be due to persistence and/or cross-contamination were found. Most of the strains involved in persistence and/or cross-contamination were of serotypes 1/2c or 4b. These results suggest that contamination in retailed meat in Japan is at almost the same level as in other countries and that chicken has the highest potential as a source of contamination and infection. In addition, we suggest that the ecological niche of serotype 1/2c is distinct from those of 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b, which may explain why human hosts have less opportunity to be exposed to serotype 1/2c and why there is a lower rate of isolation of this serotype from cases of human listeriosis.

  14. The effects of water filtration systems on fluoride: Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, M D; Grimm, S E; Banks, K; Henley, G

    2000-01-01

    According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), approximately one in eight Americans is exposed to potentially harmful microbes, pesticides, lead, or radioactive radon whenever they drink a glass of tap water or take a shower. One reason for this exposure is that the water plants are aging or ill equipped to process the huge amounts of raw sewage and agricultural pollutants that are still being discharged into our drinking-water sources. Other compounds such as fluoride and chloride have been added to the community water supplies for health benefits. Water filtration systems are becoming more popular as people become concerned with pollutants in the public water supply and questions are being raised as to whether fluoride is affected by these filters. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of three types of water filtration systems and to determine their impact on fluoride content of the water in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. One sample of water was collected daily for fourteen days, from one location. The sample was divided to use as a control and the test samples which were processed through various filter systems. With the use of a fluoride ion specific electrode, the fluoride concentration level was tested in all samples in order to determine the percentage of fluoride removed. This study was intended to prove that the water filtration systems did not affect the advantage offered by optimum water fluoride levels. The experimental samples were ascertained and compared to the control group, resulting in three of the four carbon filters showing statistically significant amounts of fluoride removed from the water. Both Reverse Osmosis and Distillation, as expected, removed the fluoride at a high rate.

  15. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  16. Consumer Confidence from Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Area, in the Food Labeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuța Iancu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the aspects that influence the consumer level of confidence (from ClujNapoca metropolitan area, regarding the information on the food label and their reading frequency a study based on a questionnaire was made. This was promoted online, especially on Facebook and was filled in by 392 persons. Besides the descriptive analysis meant to offer us an overview of the aspects that influence the consumer level of confidence regarding the information on the food label, the authors have proposed to observe the level of association and test some hypotheses, which are linked to the importance of some elements (sex, age, education, family income, buying food for children under 5 and over 6 years old, smokers, athletes, the perception of the correctness of information on the label, food poisoning, country of origin and the benefits of technology in food sector. The results indicate a decrease in the level of confidence of Romanian consumers in the information on the food label, while the age, the number of years spent on formal study, increased revenue and shopping of products for children under the age of 5 influence the frequency of label reading. On the other side, women grant a higher importance to the information that is mandatory, by law, to be included on the label, than men. This study shows the importance of improving the trust of consumers in the food labelling system by increasing the frequency of reading. We underline that information of consumers can’t be successfully achieved if they don’t read or trust the information found on the labels.

  17. An evaluation of monk parakeet damage to crops in the metropolitan area of Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senar, J.C.; Domenech, J.; Arroyo, L.; Torre, I.; Gordo, O.

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated damage to commercial crops caused by the monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus, in the Baix Llobregat agricultural area (1,024 ha) bordering the city of Barcelona, Spain. Average crop loss was 0.4% for tomatoes, 28% for corn, 9% for red plums, 36% for round plums, 37% for pears, 17% for persimmons, and 7% for quinces. Our data show that the potential damage to crops by monk parakeets in this invaded area is now a reality. As a wait–and–see approach is likely to be a more costly strategy in the long–term, policy makers should assess issues such as the extent of damage, feasibility/cost benefit analysis, and public opinion so as to avoid greater damage and loss in the future. (Author)

  18. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  19. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  20. DRINKING WATER, SANITATION AND HEALTH IN KOLKATA METROPOLITAN CITY: CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS URBAN SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an urban area, the water is supplied through centralised municipal tap water system. For the present enquiry, the municipal supply of water for drinking and sanitation purposes has been assessed in terms of its availability and accessibility to the people, possible sources of water contamination and related health issues in Kolkata. The relevant data have been accessed from various secondary sources where the published data from West Bengal Pollution Control Board (WBPCB and Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC are noteworthy. The data thus obtained have been assessed qualitatively to depict the ground reality on sanitation and health related issues. The analyses of the data reveal that in Kolkata, the availability of good quality drinking water is not sufficient as the supply is low and inadequate. On the other hand, the underground water which is considered as the alternative source to the people is found to be contaminated with heavy metals like arsenic and lead. The non-availability of sufficientwater for drinking and sanitation purposes and consumption of contaminated water mayresult into poor health condition with various water borne diseases. The data on diseases from dispensaries (aided by KMC in Kolkata has revealed that people with water borne diseases are significant in number where they are found to be affected with diseases like Acute Diarrhoeal Infection and Dysenteries. Some suitable measures have been proposed whereby applying those, the availability and accessibility of water for drinking and proper sanitation could be enhanced and the occurrences of diseases might be avoided.

  1. A system dynamics approach for healthcare waste management: a case study in Istanbul Metropolitan City, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciplak, Nesli; Barton, John R

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare waste consists of various types of waste materials generated at hospitals, medical research centres, clinics and laboratories. Although 75-90% of this waste is classified as 'domestic' in nature, 20-25% is deemed to be hazardous, which if not disposed of appropriately, poses a risk to healthcare workers, patients, the environment and even the whole community. As long as healthcare waste is mixed with municipal waste and not segregated prior to disposal, costs will increase substantially. In this study, healthcare waste increases along with the potential to decrease the amounts by implementing effective segregation at healthcare facilities are projected to 2040. Our long-term aim is to develop a system to support selection and planning of the future treatment capacity. Istanbul in Turkey was used as the case study area. In order to identify the factors affecting healthcare waste generation in Istanbul, observations were made and interviews conducted in Istanbul over a 3 month period. A system dynamics approach was adopted to build a healthcare waste management model using a software package, Vensim Ple Plus. Based on reported analysis, the non-hazardous municipal fraction co-disposed with healthcare waste is around 65%. Using the projected waste generation flows, reducing a municipal fraction to 30% has the potential to avoid some 8000 t year(-1) of healthcare waste by 2025 and almost 10 000 t year(-1) by 2035. Furthermore, if segregation practices ensured healthcare waste requiring incineration was also selectively managed, 77% of healthcare waste could be diverted to alternative treatment technologies. As the throughput capacity of the only existing healthcare waste treatment facility in Istanbul, Kemerburgaz Incinerator, has already been exceeded, it is evident that improved management could not only reduce overall flows and costs but also permit alternative and cheaper treatment systems (e.g. autoclaving) to be adopted for the healthcare waste.

  2. Bacterial Composition of Biofilms Collected From Two Service Areas in a Metropolitan Drinking Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development and succession of bacteria were examined by 16S rRNA gene clone libraries generated from various biofilms within a metropolitan water distribution system. Biofilms were obtained from off-line devices using polycarbonate coupons from annular reactors incubated for ...

  3. The improbable metropolis: decentralization, local democracy and metropolitan areas in the western world A metrópole improvável: Descentralização, democracia local e áreas metropolitanas no mundo ocidental

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Lefèvre

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan areas have become the new spatial fix of globalised capitalism. However, their economic strength is not matched by their political strength because metropolitan areas remain politically weak. This article reflects upon the process of building metropolitan areas as political spaces. Considering this process as a conflicting one because it challenges the power of existing players, it seeks to expose the general failure of metropolitan institution building - including most of the so...

  4. Sources and Seasonality of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Pollack, I. B.; Sive, B. C.; Zaragoza, J.; Lindaas, J.; Fischer, E. V.; Farmer, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Northern Front Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) of Colorado, with a growing population of over 3 million, was deemed an ozone (O3) nonattainment area (NAA) in 2008 despite continued work on NOx reductions. Ground-level O3 is produced from photochemical catalytic cycles initiated by the OH oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and propagated through reactions involving peroxy (HO2+RO2) and NOx (NO + NO2) radicals. We measured a suite of speciated VOCs during two 8-week deployments (March-May 2015, July-September 2015) at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO. The spring deployment overlapped with the NOAA SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) campaign. The BAO site lies at an urban-rural interface in the NFRMA with multiple urban centers surrounding the site, a major interstate highway within 2 miles, local suburban development in Erie, agricultural operations in the surrounding counties, and recent rapid expansion of oil and gas development in adjacent Weld County. VOCs were measured hourly with a custom-built online gas chromatography system along with measurements of O3, NOx, PAN, CO, and CH4. VOC measurements included C2-C8 hydrocarbons (NMHCs), C1-C5 alkyl nitrates, C1-C2 halocarbons, and several oxygenated species (OVOCs: methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, acetaldehyde). Using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) we have identified four distinct VOC sources in the spring and five in the summer: 1) Oil and Natural Gas (ONG, e.g. C2 - C5 alkanes), 2) Traffic (e.g. ethyne & aromatics), 3) Background species (e.g. long-lived halogenated species), 4) Secondary production (e.g. C3-C5 alkyl nitrates & OVOCs), and for summer 5) Biogenic (e.g. isoprene). Using the source factors generated from the PMF analysis we calculated the VOC reactivity (VOCr) of each source. For both seasons, the ONG factor dominates VOCr in the mornings. In spring afternoons, a combination of background species and secondary products make up a large percentage of VOCr as

  5. AC Transmission Emulation Control Strategies for the BTB VSC HVDC System in the Metropolitan Area of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoon Song

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Korean power system, growing power loads have recently created the problems of voltage instability and fault current in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA. Accordingly, the back-to-back (BTB voltage source converter (VSC high-voltage direct-current (HVDC system is emerging to resolve such problems with grid segmentation. However, non-convergence problems occur in this metropolitan area, due to the large change of power flow in some contingencies. Therefore, this paper proposes two kinds of AC transmission emulation control (ATEC strategies to improve the metropolitan transient stability, and to resolve the non-convergence problem. The proposed ATEC strategies are able to mitigate possible overloading of adjacent AC transmission, and maintain power balance between metropolitan regions. The first ATEC strategy uses a monitoring system that permits the reverse power flow of AC transmission, and thus effectively improves the grid stability based on the power transfer equation. The second ATEC strategy emulates AC transmission with DC link capacitors in a permissible DC-link voltage range according to angle difference, and securely improves the gird stability, without requiring grid operator schedule decisions. This paper compares two kinds of ATEC schemes: it demonstrates the first ATEC strategy with specific fault scenario with PSS/E (Power Transmission System Planning Software, and evaluates the second ATEC strategy with internal controller performance with PSCAD/EMTDC (Power System Electromagnetic Transients Simulation Software.

  6. Health impact of urban air pollution: the case of the metropolitan Paris area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrto, V.; Menut, L.; Chatignoux, E.

    2011-01-01

    Urban meteorology and atmospheric composition has become an issue of great public concern. Mega-cities are areas of great population density and also of high rates of gaseous and particulate matter emission. The health of the residents of such large agglomerations will potentially be influenced by the local air-pollution, its formation and dispersion. Efforts are made to link air-pollution and health. Several questions are open: what is the relative contribution of the ambient air-pollution compared to all other exposure factors? What is the 'real' level of exposure reaching the individuals of a population? Can we distinguish the health effects of multiple- pollutants? To answer to these questions we have developed a modeling framework that maps the exposure of the Parisian population to ozone, nitrogen dioxide and fine particles at hourly resolution. This integrated model incorporates a meteorological model, a three-dimensional Eulerian air-quality model and a human exposure module. The first results of this modeling effort suggest new epidemiological evidence of the relationship between ambient air pollution levels and mortality over the city of Paris. (authors)

  7. Selection of City Distribution Locations in Urbanized Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bu, L.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Wiegmans, B.; Luo, Z.; Yin, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to apply a preference method for selecting optimal city distribution reloading locations in urbanized areas. The focus in the optimization is on trucks entering the urbanized area where the truck can choose between at least two locations with similar distances determined by a

  8. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...

  9. Wilmington Area Planning Council, New Castle County, Delaware and Cecil County, Maryland : a performance-based approach to integrating congestion management into the metropolitan planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Wilmington Area Planning Council takes an objectives-driven, performance-based approach to its metropolitan transportation planning, including paying special attention to integrating its Congestion Management Process into its planning efforts. Th...

  10. State safety oversight program : audit of the tri-state oversight committee and the Washington metropolitan area transit authority, final audit report, March 4, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) conducted an on-site audit of the safety program implemented by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) and overseen by the Tri-State Oversight Committee (TOC) between December 14 and 17, 20...

  11. Study of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in a Leishmania-endemic area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2010-11-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are distributed across nearly all faunal regions of the world, represented by over 800 species, of which many are important vectors of human pathogens. Brazil is currently faced with the expansion and urbanization of leishmaniases, with an increase in the numbers of human cases and seropositive dogs in various medium-sized to large cities. The objective of the current study was to survey the phlebotomine sand fly species in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), i.e., the municipal district of Santa Luzia, lying within the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected monthly in 2004-2005 using modified Falcão light traps hung in the peridomiciles of houses and surrounding wooded areas in the district of Baronesa. A total of 1,552 sand flies belonging to seven species was collected, and an interesting pattern of the distribution of the most abundant species relative to the sampling locality was revealed. In the wooded areas Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) predominated, whereas in the urban area Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was the most abundant species. These results indicate two possible epidemiological patterns of Leishmania transmission in Santa Luzia: one for American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated predominantly with wooded areas, and another for AVL, with transmission principally occurring around human habitations.

  12. Desperately Seeking Sustainability: Urban Shrinkage, Land Consumption and Regional Planning in a Mediterranean Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation has expanded in the Mediterranean region as a result of a variety of factors, including economic and population growth, land-use changes and climate variations. The level of land vulnerability to degradation and its growth over time are distributed heterogeneously over space, concentrating on landscapes exposed to high human pressure. The present study investigates the level of land vulnerability to degradation in a shrinking urban area (Rome, Italy at four points in time (1960, 1990, 2000 and 2010 and it identifies relevant factors negatively impacting the quality of land and the level of landscape fragmentation. A multi-domain assessment of land vulnerability incorporating indicators of climate quality, soil quality, vegetation quality and land management quality was carried out based on the Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA framework. The highest rate of growth in the level of land vulnerability was observed in low-density suburban areas. The peri-urban mosaic formed by coastal woodlands and traditional cropland preserved high-quality land with a stable degree of vulnerability over time. Evidence suggests that the agro-forest mosaic surrounding Mediterranean cities act as a “buffer zone” mitigating on-site and off-site land degradation. The conservation of relict natural landscapes is a crucial target for multi-scale policies combating land degradation in suburban dry regions.

  13. Prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in pregnant women living in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Leite Maia Monteiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-1/2 infection can cause severe and disabling diseases in children and adults. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection in pregnant women living in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro.1,204 pregnant women were tested upon hospital admission for delivery in two public hospitals in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Mesquita, between November, 2012 and April, 2013. The samples were screened by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA and reactive ones were confirmed by Western blot (WB. Epi-info software was used for building the database and performing the statistical analysis. Eight patients had confirmed HTLV-1/2 infection (7 HTLV-1, one HTLV-2, equivalent to a prevalence rate of 0.66%. Two further reactive screening tests had negative Western blot results and therefore were considered negative in the statistical analysis. All HTLV-1/2-positive patients were born in Rio de Janeiro, most were non-Caucasian (87.5%, in a stable relationship (62.5%, had at least ten years of formal education (62.5% and a monthly family income of up to US$600.00 (87.5%. There was only one case of coinfection with syphilis and none with HIV. The mean age of the infected women was 28.4 (SD = 6.3 years and of the seronegative ones was 24.8 (SD = 6.5 (p = 0.10. The median number of pregnancies were 3.0 and 1.0 (p = 0.06 and the median number of sexual partners were 3.5 and 3.0 (p = 0.33 in the seropositive and negative groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups.A significant prevalence of HTLV-1/2 was found in our population. The socio-epidemiological profile of carrier mothers was similar to the controls. Such findings expose the need for a public health policy of routine HTLV-1/2 screening in antenatal care, since counselling and preventive measures are the only strategies currently available to interrupt the chain of transmission and the future development of HTLV-1

  14. Radionuclide concentration in drinking water from public supplies in the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, N.P.; Amaral, R.S.; Silva, C.M.; Hazin, C.A.; Lima, R.A.; Valentim, E.

    2000-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern with the assessment of human exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides as they account for around 70% of the total dose received by the population. Most of the exposure derived from natural terrestrial sources comes from the radionuclides in the uranium series, which is headed by the long-lived isotope 238 U. Radionuclides pertaining to this decay chain, such as, 226 Ra, 222 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po are the most important to be studied, as far as the dose to the population is concerned. In order to verify if the levels of radioactive contaminants in the water from public supplies are in compliance with the limits set by the Ministry of Health, a survey has been carried out in the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil. This paper reports the results of this survey for both, superficial and groundwater supplies. Water samples collected from 107 sampling points were analyzed to determine their content of natural uranium, 226 Ra, 222 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po. Uranium concentrations were determined by fluorimetry after extraction with an organic solvent and deposition in LiF/NaF pellets, which were fused at 1000degC. Radium-226 was determined by the emanation technique, whereas 222 Rn was determined by liquid scintillation counting. Polonium-210, on the other hand, was determined by alpha spectrometry, following its spontaneous plating in copper disks immersed in the water samples. Measured concentrations ranged from 43 to 1330 mBq/L for natural uranium, 5.3 to 83.7 Bq/L for 222 Rn and from below the MDL (22 mBq/L) to 337 mBq/L for 210 Po. The annual intake of each radionuclide was calculated by considering an ingestion of 2L of water per day. The dose to each organ considered important to the ingestion pathway was calculated by using the masses given in the ICRP 23 for the standard man and by applying the appropriate dose conversion factors. (author)

  15. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  16. Phenomenology of summer ozone episodes over the Madrid Metropolitan Area, central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Gangoiti, Gotzon; Perez, Noemí; Lee, Hong K.; Eun, Heeram R.; Park, Yonghee; Mantilla, Enrique; Escudero, Miguel; Titos, Gloria; Alonso, Lucio; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Moreta, Juan R.; Arantxa Revuelta, M.; Salvador, Pedro; Artíñano, Begoña; García dos Santos, Saúl; Anguas, Mónica; Notario, Alberto; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Harrison, Roy M.; Millán, Millán; Ahn, Kang-Ho

    2018-05-01

    Various studies have reported that the photochemical nucleation of new ultrafine particles (UFPs) in urban environments within high insolation regions occurs simultaneously with high ground ozone (O3) levels. In this work, we evaluate the atmospheric dynamics leading to summer O3 episodes in the Madrid air basin (central Iberia) by means of measuring a 3-D distribution of concentrations for both pollutants. To this end, we obtained vertical profiles (up to 1200 m above ground level) using tethered balloons and miniaturised instrumentation at a suburban site located to the SW of the Madrid Metropolitan Area (MMA), the Majadahonda site (MJDH), in July 2016. Simultaneously, measurements of an extensive number of air quality and meteorological parameters were carried out at three supersites across the MMA. Furthermore, data from O3 soundings and daily radio soundings were also used to interpret atmospheric dynamics.The results demonstrate the concatenation of venting and accumulation episodes, with relative lows (venting) and peaks (accumulation) in O3 surface levels. Regardless of the episode type, the fumigation of high-altitude O3 (arising from a variety of origins) contributes the major proportion of surface O3 concentrations. Accumulation episodes are characterised by a relatively thinner planetary boundary layer ( 2400 m a.s.l.). This orographic-meteorological setting causes the vertical recirculation of air masses and enrichment of O3 in the lower tropospheric layers. When the highly polluted urban plume from Madrid is affected by these dynamics, the highest Ox (O3+ NO2) concentrations are recorded in the MMA.Vertical O3 profiles during venting episodes, with strong synoptic winds and a deepening of the planetary boundary layer reaching > 2000 m a.s.l., were characterised by an upward gradient in O3 levels, whereas a reverse situation with O3 concentration maxima at lower levels was found during the accumulation episodes due to local and/or regional production

  17. [Compatibility of Work and Family Life: Survey of Physicians in the Munich Metropolitan Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchart, Meike; Ascher, Philipp; Kesel, Karin; Weber, Sabine; Grabein, Beatrice; Schneeweiss, Bertram; Fischer-Truestedt, Cordula; Schoenberg, Michael; Rogler, Gudrun; Borelli, Claudia

    2017-05-15

    Aim Investigation of the compatibility of work and family life for physicians in the Munich metropolitan area. Methods Survey of a representative sample of 1,800 physicians using a questionnaire. Results Men were less satisfied (7% very satisfied vs. 21%) with compatibility between work and family life than women. The group least satisfied overall was hospital-based physicians (p=0.000, chi-square=122.75). Women rather than men cut back their career due to children, perceived their professional advancement as impaired, desisted from establishing private practice or quit hospital employment altogether. Respondents strove for flexible childcare and makeshift solution if the established service failed. Most did not have that at their disposal. Hospital-based physicians wished for predictable working hours, and would like to have a say in the structure of their schedule. For the majority this was not the case. While for 80% it would be important to participate in the definition of their working hours, this was only possible in 17%. 86% found the opportunity to work part-time important, but many doctors (more than 30%) did not have that option. The biggest help for office-based physicians would be an expedited procedure by the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KVB) when applying for a proxy. The second most important would be the ability to hand over on-call duties. 36% of respondents felt that compatibility of work and family life was best achieved outside of patient care, during residency 42% believed this to be the case. Only 6% of physicians felt the best compatibility to be achieved in a hospital. Among the physician owners of practices, 34% considered their model to be the best way to reconcile both aspects of life. Conclusion More flexible options for childcare and more influence on the definition of working hours are necessary in order to better reconcile work and family life. For office-based physicians it must be made easier to

  18. Effects of a power shortage in the Tokyo metropolitan area on awareness of nuclear power generation and power savings behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2004-01-01

    The shutdown of a number of nuclear power stations of the Tokyo Electric Power Company in the summer of 2003 caused a power shortage problem in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. To examine the effects of the power shortage, in September 2003 a survey was conducted in the service areas of the Kansai Electric Power Company (Kansai region) and the Tokyo Electric Power Company (Kanto region). This survey was part of a wider opinion survey begun in 1993 concerning nuclear power generation. The results of the September 2003 survey are as follows: The degree of recognition of the power shortage problem in the Metropolitan area was high, with 40% of respondents in the Kansai region and nearly 70% in the Kanto region understanding that the shortage was caused by the shutdown of several nuclear power station. The overall awareness of nuclear power generation was little affected in both the Kansai and Kanto regions, though the sense of a shortage of the generating capacity had been raised slightly. Once respondents knew about the power shortage problem, they estimated the likelihood of an occurrence of large-scale service interruption to be low, nearly at an even chance, and they had been only slightly worried about it, essentially viewing the problem optimistically. In the Kanto region, where public relations activities for power savings had been actively pursued, the frequency of experiencing exposure to such public relations activities was remarkably higher than in the Kansai region. The relation between exposure to public relations activities for power savings and power savings behavior was analyzed using quantification method II. Analysis results suggest that public relations activities for power savings in the Kanto region had the effect of urging power savings behavior. However, the difference in the rate of putting power savings behavior into practice was small between the Kanto and Kansai regions, indicating that public relation activities for power savings in the Kanto

  19. The contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events and white roof mitigation strategy in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingna

    2015-04-01

    The UHI effect can aggravate summertime heat waves and strongly influence human comfort and health, leading to greater mortality in metropolitan areas. Many geo-engineering technological strategies have been proposed to mitigate climate warming, and for the UHI, increasing the albedo of artificial urban surfaces (rooftops or pavements) has been considered a lucrative and effective way to cool cities. The objective of this work is to quantify the contribution of urbanization to recent extreme heat events of the early 21st century in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, using the mesoscale WRF model coupled with a single urban canopy model and actual urban land cover datasets. This work also investigates a simulation of the regional effects of white roof technology by increasing the albedo of urban areas in the urban canopy model to mitigate the urban heat island, especially in extreme heat waves. The results show that urban land use characteristics that have evolved over the past ~20 years in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area have had a significant impact on the extreme temperatures occurring during extreme heat events. Simulations show that new urban development has caused an intensification and expansion of the areas experiencing extreme heat waves with an average increase in temperature of approximately 0.60°C. This change is most obvious at night with an increase up to 0.95°C, for which the total contribution of anthropogenic heat is 34%. We also simulate the effects of geo-engineering strategies increasing the albedo of urban roofs. White roofs reflect a large fraction of incoming sunlight in the daytime, which reduced the net radiation so that the roof surface keep at a lower temperature than regular solar-absorptive roofs. Urban net radiation decreases by approximately 200 W m-2 at local noon because of high solar reflectance of white roofs, which cools the daytime urban temperature afer sunrise, with the largest decrease of almost -0.80

  20. Area Median Income and Metropolitan Versus Nonmetropolitan Location of Care for Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Complex Interaction of Social Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabreau, Gabriel E; Leung, Alexander A; Southern, Danielle A; James, Matthew T; Knudtson, Merrill L; Ghali, William A; Ayanian, John Z

    2016-02-23

    Metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan status and area median income may independently affect care for and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes. We sought to determine whether location of care modifies the association among area income, receipt of cardiac catheterization, and mortality following an acute coronary syndrome in a universal health care system. We studied a cohort of 14 012 acute coronary syndrome patients admitted to cardiology services between April 18, 2004, and December 31, 2011, in southern Alberta, Canada. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of cardiac catheterization within 1 day and 7 days of admission and the odds of 30-day and 1-year mortality according to area median household income quintile for patients presenting at metropolitan and nonmetropolitan hospitals. In models adjusting for area income, patients who presented at nonmetropolitan facilities had lower adjusted odds of receiving cardiac catheterization within 1 day of admission (odds ratio 0.22, 95% CI 0.11-0.46, Pcommunities. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soil from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta-García, Sandra Teresa; Ochoa-Martinez, Angeles Catalina; Carrizalez-Yáñez, Leticia; Varela-Silva, José Antonio; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), and four heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) in outdoor surface soils (50 samples) collected from the metropolitan area of Monterrey in Mexico. Total PBDEs levels ranged from 1.80 to 127 µg/kg, with mean total PBDEs level of 14.2 ± 21.5 µg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation). For PCBs, the mean total level in the studied soils was 23.5 ± 20.2 µg/kg (range 4.0-65.5 µg/kg). An important finding in our study was that all soil samples (100%) had detectable levels of the metabolite p,p'-DDE. Moreover, the mean total DDT level (∑p'p-DDT and p'p-DDE) was approximately 132 ± 175 µg/kg. The mean levels for arsenic, cadmium, and lead in soil were 5.30 ± 1.35 (range 1.55-7.85) mg/kg, 2.20 ± 1.20 (range 0.65-6.40) mg/kg, and 455 ± 204 (range 224-1230) mg/kg, respectively. Our study has several limitations, the most notable of which is the small sample of soils evaluated. However, this screening study provided concentration data for the occurrence of POPs and four heavy metals in soil from the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, and taking into consideration that soil is an important pathway of exposure for people, a biomonitoring program for the surveillance of the general population in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon is deemed necessary.

  2. Ferruginous compounds in the airborne particulate matter of the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Fernanda Vasconcelos Fonseca; Ardisson, José Domingos; Rodrigues, Paulo César Horta; Fabris, José Domingos; Fernandez-Outon, Luis Eugenio; Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2017-08-01

    Samples of soil, iron ore, and airborne particulate matter (size airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, are either from natural origin, as, for instance, re-suspension of particles from soil, or due to anthropogenic activities, meaning that it would be originated from the many iron ore minings surrounding the metropolitan area. Numerical simulations were used to model the atmospheric dispersion of the airborne particulate matter emitted by iron mining located at the Iron Quadrangle geodomain, Minas Gerais. Results from these numerical simulations supported identifying the sites with the highest concentrations of airborne particulate matter in the metropolitan area. Samples of these suspended materials were collected at the selected sites by using high-volume air samplers. The physicochemical features of the solid materials were assessed by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, magnetometry, and 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The soil materials were found to be rich in quartz, aluminum, organic matter, and low contents of iron, mainly as low crystalline iron oxides. The samples of the iron ores, on the other hand, contain high concentration of iron, dominantly as relatively pure and crystalline hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ). The samples of the airborne particulate matter are rich in iron, mainly as hematite, but contained also quartz, aluminum, and calcium. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to evaluate the hyperfine structure of 57 Fe of the hematite both from the iron ore and the soil samples. The structural characteristics of the hematite of these particulate materials were further explored. The direct influence of the iron ore mining on the composition of the airborne particulate matter was clearly evidenced based on the trace ability of hematite to its source of emission. Even the atmospheric air on regions relatively far away from the mining activities is also significantly influenced.

  3. ‘New urbanism' or metropolitan-level centralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Based on a study in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area, this paper compares the influences of macro-level and micro-level urban form characteristics on the respondents' traveling distance by car on weekdays. The Copenhagen study shows that metropolitan-scale urban structural variables generally exert...... stronger influences than neighborhood-scale built environment characteristics on the amount of car travel. In particular, the location of the residence relative to the main city center of the metropolitan region shows a strong effect. Some local scale variables often mentioned in the literature...

  4. The Search of a New Logic of Public Administration Reforms: The Case of Metropolitan Areas in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ruffini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to formulate some recommendations for the currently undergoing reform of Italian metropolitan areas. This case is particularly relevant since it clearly represents how, even if expected by law, reforms might not happen on the implementation side. We draw the recommendations from some basic assumptions of the collaborative governance model. Recommendations deal with the development of a systemic, collaborative and leadership oriented view of reforms. Indeed, reforms should be intended not only as a legislative process, but also as a complex change management process characterized by the decisive role of the human factor.

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis applied to the natural gas program for vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga Isaza, Carlos Adrian; Vasquez Sanchez, Edison; Chavarria Munera, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation of the natural gas program for vehicles applied in Metropolitan Area of the Aburra Valley. By using the Cost- Benefit Analysis method, four cost variables were identified: private, fiscal, gas tax, and conversion tax; and three types of benefits: private, fiscal and social. For the environmental social benefit estimation the benefit transfer technique was employed, carrying out meta-analysis function estimation. The cost-benefit net outcome is positive and favors the program application in the study site; in real terms the total profits are about COP$ 803265 million for the complete eight year period it took place (2001- 2008).

  6. Concentration and chemical composition of PM10 particles in the metropolitan area of ​Costa Rica in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Herrera; José F. Rojas; Víctor H. Beita; Agustín Rodríguez; David Solórzano; Hazel Argüello

    2014-01-01

    During 2012 the PM10 concentrations were measured in 13 sampling sites distributed in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica. The samples were collected using high volume samplers and subsequently analyzed for: ions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-), trace metals (V, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Pb, Ni), organic and elemental carbon content. Sampling sites located in high traffic commercial and industrial zones exhibited significative increased concentrations (42 – 29 µg/m3) compared to low traffic com...

  7. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  8. Point-of-sale alcohol promotions in the Perth and Sydney metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Barrie, Lance; Robinson, Laura; Allsop, Steve; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2012-09-01

    Point-of-sale (POS) is increasingly being used as a marketing tool for alcohol products, and there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that these materials are positively associated with drinking and contribute to creating a pro-alcohol environment. The purpose of the present study was to document the nature and extent of POS alcohol promotions in bottle shops in two Australian capital cities. A purposive sample of 24 hotel bottle shops and liquor stores was selected across Sydney (New South Wales) and Perth (Western Australia) and audited for the presence and nature of POS marketing. Point-of-sale promotions were found to be ubiquitous, with an average of 33 promotions per outlet. Just over half were classified as 'non-price' promotions (e.g. giveaways and competitions). Spirits were the most commonly promoted type of alcohol. The average number of standard drinks required to participate in the promotions ranged from 12 for ready to drinks to 22 for beer. Alcohol outlets that were part of supermarket chains had a higher number of promotions, more price-based promotions, and required a greater quantity of alcohol to be purchased to participate in the promotion. The data collected in this study provides a starting point for our understanding of POS promotions in Australia, and poses important questions for future research in this area. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  9. Lead poisoning among Arab American and African American children in the Detroit metropolitan area, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, Jerome; Senthamarai-Kannan, Raghavendra; Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhori, Monty; Korponic, Summer

    2011-09-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that acculturation is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning in the Detroit area of Michigan. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 Arab American and African American children, aged 6 months to 15 years, who were receiving well-child examination in three Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city. Mean BLL was 3.8 ± 2.3 μg/dL (range: 1-18 μg/dL) and 3.3% of the children tested had blood lead values above the 10 μg/dL level of concern. Neither the age of the dwelling units nor ethnicity of the child was significantly associated with the BLL. Multivariable analyses instead identified a number of acculturation-related factors that are associated with elevation in blood lead including paternal education, language spoken at home (English only, English and Arabic, or Arabic only), home ownership, smoking in the home, and exposure of child to home health remedies. The difference in blood lead between Arab American children from families where Arabic only versus Arabic and English is spoken at home was found to be statistically significant. This study provides information showing that immigrant children are at heightened risk of being poisoned by lead which can be useful in identifying groups at risk of atypical exposures.

  10. The Impact of Changing Land Use upon the Environment in the Metropolitan Area of Bucharest. Preliminary Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INES GRIGORESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we highlight the major changes in land use during the transition from the centralised to the market economy (1989-2005. Agricultural de-collectivisation and privatisation have caused major structural changes in land uses with direct effects upon the quality of the environment. An urban area appeared around the metropolis where the most important environmental changes took place by dint of those from agriculture, because of agricultural policies and urban expansion. Within the interior ring of the metropolitan area several regional disparities have been highlighted. These are caused by the unequal development of its southern and southeastern areas, on the one hand, and of the western area, on the other hand.

  11. Perceived stigmatization and discrimination of people with mental illness: A survey-based study of the general population in five metropolitan cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Kerem; Zieger, Aron; Mungee, Aditya; Tandon, Abhinav; Fuchs, Lukas Marian; Schomerus, Georg; Tam Ta, Thi Minh; Dettling, Michael; Bajbouj, Malek; Angermeyer, Matthias; Hahn, Eric

    2018-01-01

    India faces a significant gap between the prevalence of mental illness among the population and the availability and effectiveness of mental health care in providing adequate treatment. This discrepancy results in structural stigma toward mental illness which in turn is one of the main reasons for a persistence of the treatment gap, whereas societal factors such as religion, education, and family structures play critical roles. This survey-based study investigates perceived stigma toward mental illness in five metropolitan cities in India and explores the roles of relevant sociodemographic factors. Samples were collected in five metropolitan cities in India including Chennai ( n = 166), Kolkata ( n = 158), Hyderabad ( n = 139), Lucknow ( n = 183), and Mumbai ( n = 278). Stratified quota sampling was used to match the general population concerning age, gender, and religion. Further, sociodemographic variables such as educational attainment and strength of religious beliefs were included in the statistical analysis. Participants displayed overall high levels of perceived stigma. Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant effect of gender ( P Gender differences in cultural and societal roles and expectations could account for higher levels of perceived stigma among female participants. A higher level of perceived stigma among female participants is attributed to cultural norms and female roles within a family or broader social system. This study underlines that while India as a country in transition, societal and gender rules still impact perceived stigma and discrimination of people with mental illness.

  12. Perceived stigmatization and discrimination of people with mental illness: A survey-based study of the general population in five metropolitan cities in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Kerem; Zieger, Aron; Mungee, Aditya; Tandon, Abhinav; Fuchs, Lukas Marian; Schomerus, Georg; Tam Ta, Thi Minh; Dettling, Michael; Bajbouj, Malek; Angermeyer, Matthias; Hahn, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Background: India faces a significant gap between the prevalence of mental illness among the population and the availability and effectiveness of mental health care in providing adequate treatment. This discrepancy results in structural stigma toward mental illness which in turn is one of the main reasons for a persistence of the treatment gap, whereas societal factors such as religion, education, and family structures play critical roles. This survey-based study investigates perceived stigma toward mental illness in five metropolitan cities in India and explores the roles of relevant sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected in five metropolitan cities in India including Chennai (n = 166), Kolkata (n = 158), Hyderabad (n = 139), Lucknow (n = 183), and Mumbai (n = 278). Stratified quota sampling was used to match the general population concerning age, gender, and religion. Further, sociodemographic variables such as educational attainment and strength of religious beliefs were included in the statistical analysis. Results: Participants displayed overall high levels of perceived stigma. Multiple linear regression analysis found a significant effect of gender (P mental illness. PMID:29736059

  13. Association between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 and distance from heavy traffic roads in the Mexico City metropolitan area Asociación entre las mediciones de PM2.5 por absorbancia y la distancia a vías de alto tráfico en la zona metropolitana de la Ciudad de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Cortez-Lugo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between light absorption measurements of PM2.5 at various distances from heavy traffic roads and diesel vehicle counts in Mexico City. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PM2.5 samples were obtained from June 2003-June 2005 in three MCMA regions. Light absorption (b abs in a subset of PM2.5 samples was determined. We evaluated the effect of distance and diesel vehicle counts to heavy traffic roads on PM2.5 b abs using generalized estimating equation models. RESULTS: Median PM2.5 b abs measurements significantly decrease as distance from heavy traffic roads increases (pOBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación entre las mediciones de absorción de luz de las PM2.5 a diferentes distancias de vías de tráfico y el aforo vehicular de diesel en la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron mediciones de PM2.5 y su análisis de b abs en tres zonas de la Ciudad de México. Se usaron modelos GEE para evaluar el efecto de la distancia y el aforo vehicular de tráfico pesado sobre PM2.5 b abs. RESULTADOS: Se observó una tendencia decreciente en la mediana de PM2.5 b abs conforme se incrementó la distancia a las avenidas de alto tráfico (p<0.002; los niveles decrecen en 7% (CI95% 0.9-14 por cada 100 metros de incremento. Las mediciones de PM2.5 b abs se incrementan en 20% (CI95% 3-38 cuando el aforo vehicular a diesel es mayor de 150 en una hora. CONCLUSIONES: Las mediciones de PM2.5 b abs están significativamente asociadas con la distancia de avenidas con alto tránsito vehicular y con vehículos de diesel.

  14. Genotoxic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, evaluated by Helix aspersa (Mueller, 1774)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianistcki, M. [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Dallarosa, J. [Laboratorio de Ecologia, UFRGS (Brazil); Sauer, C.; Teixeira, C.E. [Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, FEPAM, RS (Brazil); Silva, J. da, E-mail: juliana.silva@ulbra.b [Laboratorio de Genetica Toxicologica, Department of Biology, ULBRA, Av. Farroupilha 8001, Pr. 14/Sala 218, Bairro Sao Jose, CEP 92425-900 Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to biomonitor metropolitan areas of Porto Alegre (Brazil) for PAHs associated with atmospheric particles and check their effects on the DNA of the land mollusk Helix aspersa. The sampling sites are located in an urban area with heavy traffic: (i) Canoas, (ii) Sapucaia do Sul, and (iii) FIERGS/Porto Alegre. The samples were collected during a continuous period of 24 hours during 15 days using Stacked Filter Units (SFU) on polycarbonate filters (two separated size fractions: PM{sub 10-2.5} and PM{sub <2.5}). The concentrations of 16 major PAHs were determined according to EPA. Comet assay on H. aspersa hemolymph cells was chosen for genotoxicity evaluation. This evaluation shows that, in general, the smaller PM-size fractions (PM{sub <2.5}) have the highest genotoxicity and contain higher concentrations of extractable organic matter. In addition, associations between chemical characteristics and PM carcinogenicity tend to be stronger for the smaller PM-size fractions. - DNA damage in H. aspersa exposed to atmospheric particulate in Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre demonstrated association with PAHs in the fine filter (PM{sub <2.5}).

  15. Public Transit Equity Analysis at Metropolitan and Local Scales: A Focus on Nine Large Cities in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Greg Phillip; Sener, Ipek Nese

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies on transit service through an equity lens have captured broad trends from the literature and national-level data or analyzed disaggregate data at the local level. This study integrates these methods by employing a geostatistical analysis of new transit access and income data compilations from the Environmental Protection Agency. By using a national data set, this study demonstrates a method for income-based transit equity analysis and provides results spanning nine large auto-oriented cities in the US. Results demonstrate variability among cities' transit services to low-income populations, with differing results when viewed at the regional and local levels. Regional-level analysis of transit service hides significant variation through spatial averaging, whereas the new data employed in this study demonstrates a block-group scale equity analysis that can be used on a national-scale data set. The methods used can be adapted for evaluation of transit and other modes' transportation service in areas to evaluate equity at the regional level and at the neighborhood scale while controlling for spatial autocorrelation. Transit service equity planning can be enhanced by employing local Moran's I to improve local analysis.

  16. Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Zhao, Jiayin; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Lei

    2017-09-30

    This study aims to investigate the concentration levels, pollution characteristics and the associated potential ecological risks of the heavy metals found in dust in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China during the winter. Dust samples were collected at 49 different spatial locations of Beijing's metropolitan area from November 2013 to January 2014, in which the concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, V, Bi and Mo were measured by Elan DRC II type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Test results showed that the concentrations of dust heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn in the urban areas (147.1 mg·kg -1 , 195.9 mg·kg -1 , 239.2 mg·kg -1 and 713.2 mg·kg -1 ) were significantly higher than those in the suburbs (91.6 mg·kg -1 , 125.1 mg·kg -1 , 131.9 mg·kg -1 and 514.5 mg·kg -1 ). Enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics of dust heavy metals in urban and suburban areas. Results indicated that Zn and Cu were moderately polluting in both urban and suburban areas, Cd was severely polluting in urban areas and heavily polluting in the suburbs. Furthermore, potential ecological risk assessment revealed that the degrees of ecological harm of dust heavy metals were very strong in both urban and suburban areas, but especially in urban areas. The potential ecological risk of heavy metal Cd, whose single factor of ecological damage was extremely strong, accounted for about 90% of the total ecological risk.

  17. A comparison between developed and developing countries in terms of urban land use change effects on nitrogen cycle: Paris and São Paulo metropolitan areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardoto, Gabriela; Svirejeva-Hopkin, Anastasia; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Urbanization is considered one of the most powerful and characteristic anthropogenic forces on Earth in the 21st century. Although, currently, cities occupy only about 2 percent of the Earth's land surface, they are home to over 50 percent of the world's population. While in cities of some developed countries, urban population might stabilize or even slightly decrease, its rate of growth in developing countries is faster than in the industrialized nations. Such increase is accompanied by growing energy production, increased food demand, expanding transportation and industrialization. Although agricultural production is by far the largest cause of the doubling in the amount of reactive nitrogen entering the biospheric cycle compared to pre-industrial conditions, nowadays more than half of the crops produced in rural areas are consumed in urban zones. Having in mind that there is a clear global trend towards urbanization and growing urban areas, the objective of this study was to compare major nitrogen fluxes between a mega city situated in a developing country (São Paulo Metropolitan Area - SPMA) in Brazil with one of the largest city of highly industrialized Europe (Paris Metropolitan Area - PMA). We make the first step in producing a detailed N mass balance for the SPMA and PMA in order to estimate the magnitude of major fluxes across the urban landscape and see how N cycling vary among urban system components. This effort may help to highlight differences between developing and developed areas and subsidize the formulation of public policies towards reduction of N related pollution of recipient systems. The N mass balance showed the SPMA as a net source of nitrogen, emitting in total about 93.5 Gg of N per year, or about 4750 g of N per capita. Most N inputs to the SPMA are directly related to food consumption, N in wastewater and landfills. These fluxes are quite amendable to management efforts to reduce N input to the receiver component of the urban ecosystem

  18. Spatial distribution of ground-level urban background O3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a recently developed urban-scale atmospheric dispersion model (DAUMOD-GRS) is applied to evaluate the ground-level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations resulting from anthropogenic area sources of NO x and VOC in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA). The statistical comparison of model results with observations (including new available data from seventeen sites) shows a good model performance. Estimated summer highest diurnal O 3 1-h concentrations in the MABA vary between 15 ppb in the most urbanised area and 53 ppb in the suburbs. All values are below the air quality standard. Several runs are performed to evaluate the impact of possible future emission reductions on O 3 concentrations. Under all hypothetical scenarios, the maximum diurnal O 3 1-h concentration obtained for the area is slightly reduced (up to 4%). However, maximum diurnal O 3 concentrations could increase at some less urbanised areas of MABA depending on the relative reductions of the emissions of NO x and VOC. -- Highlights: ► A recently developed air quality model reproduces well observed O 3 levels in MABA. ► Modelled summer maximum diurnal O 3 concentrations vary in the area between 15 and 53 ppb. ► All hourly values are below the air quality standard (120 ppb). ► Possible future emission reductions would have small impact on the highest level. -- The distribution of summer maximum diurnal ground-level O 3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires is evaluated applying a recently developed simple urban air quality model

  19. Evolution of air pollution source contributions over one decade, derived by PM10 and PM2.5 source apportionment in two metropolitan urban areas in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapouli, E.; Manousakas, M.; Vratolis, S.; Vasilatou, V.; Maggos, Th; Saraga, D.; Grigoratos, Th; Argyropoulos, G.; Voutsa, D.; Samara, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2017-09-01

    Metropolitan Urban areas in Greece have been known to suffer from poor air quality, due to variety of emission sources, topography and climatic conditions favouring the accumulation of pollution. While a number of control measures have been implemented since the 1990s, resulting in reductions of atmospheric pollution and changes in emission source contributions, the financial crisis which started in 2009 has significantly altered this picture. The present study is the first effort to assess the contribution of emission sources to PM10 and PM2.5 concentration levels and their long-term variability (over 5-10 years), in the two largest metropolitan urban areas in Greece (Athens and Thessaloniki). Intensive measurement campaigns were conducted during 2011-2012 at suburban, urban background and urban traffic sites in these two cities. In addition, available datasets from previous measurements in Athens and Thessaloniki were used in order to assess the long-term variability of concentrations and sources. Chemical composition analysis of the 2011-2012 samples showed that carbonaceous matter was the most abundant component for both PM size fractions. Significant increase of carbonaceous particle concentrations and of OC/EC ratio during the cold period, especially in the residential urban background sites, pointed towards domestic heating and more particularly wood (biomass) burning as a significant source. PMF analysis further supported this finding. Biomass burning was the largest contributing source at the two urban background sites (with mean contributions for the two size fractions in the range of 24-46%). Secondary aerosol formation (sulphate, nitrate & organics) was also a major contributing source for both size fractions at the suburban and urban background sites. At the urban traffic site, vehicular traffic (exhaust and non-exhaust emissions) was the source with the highest contributions, accounting for 44% of PM10 and 37% of PM2.5, respectively. The long

  20. Potential and impacts of car-sharing in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Tampere and Turku; Autojen yhteiskayton potentiaali ja vaikutukset paakaupunkiseudulla, Turussa ja Tampereella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltti, V.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the potential and impacts of car-sharing in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Tampere and Turku. Car-sharing means flexible car rental suitable for everyday needs. It is a service that is growing rapidly in Central Europe and North America. The number car-sharing users has increased, for example, in Belgium by approximately 35% and in Great Britain by up to 70-100% each year. The characteristics of car sharers have been studied on the basis of an online questionnaire aimed at the customers of the City Car Club operating in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The potential number of car-sharing customers has been estimated, for example, with the so called 'Kulkuri' postal survey material and the National Travel Survey (HLT) material, based on a population-based cohort. In addition to the questionnaire material, overseas studies and statistical data from car-sharing operators in various countries have also been used as source and reference material. Car sharers are typically young adults. In the Helsinki metropolitan area, almost half of car sharers are families with children. The most popular reasons for using car sharing cars include shopping trips and various leisure trips. The daily travel of car sharers relies strongly on public transport. As a result of its transparent cost structure, a car-sharing car is not used in vain, and therefore public transport, cycling and walking remain as primary modes of travel. Approximately 60% of households using the car-sharing service have not owned a car before joining the car-sharing service. After joining, about 80% of households do not own a car. Approximately 30% of customers give up a previously owned car and about 20% of customers who did not own a car will not purchase one, either. One car-sharing car replaces about 20 private cars, and therefore more widespread use of car-sharing will save street space to a considerable extent. The mobility options for car sharers who were

  1. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  2. Food insecurity, a determinant of obesity? - an analysis from a population-based survey in the Paris metropolitan area, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Caillavet, France; Lhuissier, Anne; Chauvin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between food insecurity and obesity is discussed in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine whether food insecurity and obesity were associated in the Paris metropolitan area. We used data from third wave of the Health, Inequalities and Social Ruptures (SIRS) cohort study, a longitudinal population-based, representative health and socioepidemiological survey of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area. The participants' BMI (calculated using self-reported height and weight) was analyzed as a continuous variable, and a dichotomous variable (BMI Food insecurity was estimated using the Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) and was treated as a trichotomous variable (food security / low food security / very low food security). Multilevel models were estimated for men and women separately. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) prevalence was 10.2%. The determinant of obesity differs according to gender. After adjustment for age, income and the sociooccupational group, very low food security was associated with obesity in women (OR = 2.01, 95%CI 1.05-3.82), and women with very low food security had a higher BMI (Coef. = 1.78, 95% CI 0.24-3.31). This association, however, was not significant for men (OR = 1.84, 95%CI 0.64-5.30). In times of economic crisis, it is increasingly essential to explore and understand the pathway through which very low food security is linked to obesity.

  3. PERFIL DEL MINI-MENTAL EN POLICONSUMIDORES DE 25 A 50 AÑOS DEL ÁREA METROPOLITANA DE LA CIUDAD DE BARRANQUILLA-COLOMBIA - PROFILE OF THE MINI-MENTAL POLICONSUMER FROM 25 TO 50 YEAR OF THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF THE CITY OF BARRANQUILLA-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHAN ACOSTA LÓPEZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE is a widely used screening test for assessing mental status and cognitive decline in particular. Includes assessment of temporo-spatial orientation, immediate evocation, attention, calculation, evoking lazy, language (verbal description, reading, writing. The criteria in this instrument are highly sensitive to cognitive impairment. This study seeks to establish the significant differences in mental status among consumers poly (cases and nonusers (controls through a screening test in cognitive-behavioral scales to confirm and quantify a person’s mental state MMSE. Intentionally were selected 55 adults of both sexes aged 25 to 50 years grouped in 25 cases and 30 controls that met the inclusion criteria, a structured interview, medical and neurological evaluation, neuropsychological assessment that includes various tests that assessed cognitive functions, were administrated as the main finding indicates that the MMSE total score statistically separated the consumer poly (cases and nonusers (controls, gave a poorer score in those affected. An 32%consumers poly a totalof 30 points, while 16%had a score of 29 points in the scale, followed by 44%, poly consumerswith a score of 28 points, and finally in records obtained by 8% of consumers cop was 26 points. The case group showed greater disturbances in the areas that assess memory and attention.

  4. Landslides in West Coast Metropolitan Areas: The Role of Extreme Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michela; Seager, Richard; Kirschbaum, Dalia B.

    2016-01-01

    occurrence and intensity of atmospheric rivers, in their duration and clustering, and in the occurrence of short-duration (sub-daily) extreme rainfall as well. Major regional landslide events, in which multiple occurrences are recorded in the catalog for the same day, are too rare to allow a statistical characterization of their triggering events, but a case study analysis indicates that a variety of synoptic-scale events can be involved, including not only atmospheric rivers but also broader cold- and warm-front precipitation. That a news-based catalog of landslides is accurate enough to allow the identification of different landslide/ rainfall relationships in the major urban areas along the US West Coast suggests that this technology can potentially be used for other English-language cities and could become an even more powerful tool if expanded to other languages and non-traditional news sources, such as social media.

  5. The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, D; Mostashari, F; Fine, A; Miller, J; O'Leary, D; Murray, K; Huang, A; Rosenberg, A; Greenberg, A; Sherman, M; Wong, S; Layton, M

    2001-06-14

    In late August 1999, an unusual cluster of cases of meningoencephalitis associated with muscle weakness was reported to the New York City Department of Health. The initial epidemiologic and environmental investigations suggested an arboviral cause. Active surveillance was implemented to identify patients hospitalized with viral encephalitis and meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and tissue specimens from patients with suspected cases underwent serologic and viral testing for evidence of arboviral infection. Outbreak surveillance identified 59 patients who were hospitalized with West Nile virus infection in the New York City area during August and September of 1999. The median age of these patients was 71 years (range, 5 to 95). The overall attack rate of clinical West Nile virus infection was at least 6.5 cases per million population, and it increased sharply with age. Most of the patients (63 percent) had clinical signs of encephalitis; seven patients died (12 percent). Muscle weakness was documented in 27 percent of the patients and flaccid paralysis in 10 percent; in all of the latter, nerve conduction studies indicated an axonal polyneuropathy in 14 percent. An age of 75 years or older was an independent risk factor for death (relative risk adjusted for the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 59.1), as was the presence of diabetes mellitus (age-adjusted relative risk, 5.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.5 to 17.3). This outbreak of West Nile meningoencephalitis in the New York City metropolitan area represents the first time this virus has been detected in the Western Hemisphere. Given the subsequent rapid spread of the virus, physicians along the eastern seaboard of the United States should consider West Nile virus infection in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis and viral meningitis during the summer months, especially in older patients and in those with muscle weakness.

  6. LCA of road infrastructure in Mexico City.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosales Carreon, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major problem in metropolitan areas and Mexico City is no exception. Located in a pollutant-trapping valley, Mexico City (one of the largest cities in the world) is famous for its size, its history, and the warmth of its people. Nev

  7. Quantitative study on spatio-temporal change of urban landscape pattern based on RS/GIS: a case of Xi'an metropolitan area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiwu; Zong, Yueguang; Ma, Qiang; Li, Jian

    2007-06-01

    The study on landscape pattern is an important field of urban land use and ecological change. Since 1990s, the widely accepted Patch-Corridor-Matrix model is generally used in qualitative description of landscape pattern. In recent years, quantitative evaluation on urban landscape dynamics is becoming hot in research. By making a critical review on existing research methods of landscape pattern, a new approach based on RS/GIS is put forward in this paper, comprising three steps, "General pattern characteristics - Gradient differentiation feature- Directional signature of the landscape", and we call it GGD. This method is applied to the case study of Xi'an metropolitan area in China. The result shows that the method is effective on quantitative study of urban landscape. The preparation of the method GGD is setting up research platform based on RS and GIS. By using the software of Geographical Information System (Arcgis9.0 & Erdas), the authors got the interpretation of remote sensing images of different years, and carried on the division of the landscape type of the research region. By calculating various index of landscape level with software Fragstats3.3 as an assistant tool and adopting three steps of GGD combined with landscape index, this paper can assesses the landscape spatial pattern of urban area: 1) General pattern characteristics analysis is to get transition probability of various landscape through Markov chain and to predict the landscape transformation by introducing CA model. The analysis emphasizes on total landscape structure and its change over time; 2) Gradient characteristic analysis, which makes gradient zone by taking city as a center outwardly with certain distance and contrastively analyzes the landscape index of each subarea, stresses the spatial character of landscape pattern, verifies urban morphology theories and provides the quantitative warranty for establishment of urban modality. Therefore, the analysis is useful for supervising urban

  8. Satisfaction with physical and social surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ricardo Alexandre de; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual satisfaction with social and physical surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes. Data from the Health Survey of Adults from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. Based on a probability sample, participants (n = 12,299) were selected among residents aged 20 years old or more. The response variable was the smoking habit and the explanatory variable of interest was the neighborhood perception. Potential confounding variables included demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other indicators of socioeconomic position. The prevalence of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers were 20.8, 14.1 and 65.1%, respectively; 74.4 and 25.5% of the participants were categorized as being more satisfied and less satisfied with the neighborhood, respectively. Compared to those who never smoked, former smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.20 - 1.62) and current smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03 - 1.34) were less satisfied with the neighborhood compared to those who never smoked. The results of this study indicate there is an independent association between the smoking habit and a less satisfying neighborhood perception in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which does not depend on individual characteristics, traditionally reported as being associated with smoking.

  9. Trends in primary surgical and radiation therapy for localized breast cancer in the detroit metropolitan area 1973-1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuba, Paul J.; Simon, Michael S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this report is to describe trends in primary surgical and radiation therapy for localized breast cancer from 1973 through 1992 among residents of the Detroit Metropolitan area. Methods and Materials: Data on surgical and radiation therapy procedures for women with local stage breast cancer were obtained from the population-based Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS). Results: Women age 75 years and older were treated less aggressively than younger women (< age 75) as evidenced by higher rates of simple mastectomy or no treatment among older women. Younger women (< age 75) were more likely to have had optimal breast conservation therapy which consisted of partial mastectomy, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and radiation therapy, than were women who were older than 75. Partial mastectomy has increased proportionally from 4% of all breast cancer surgeries in the time period 1973 to 1977, to 39% of all surgeries from 1988 through 1992. Conclusion: A marked difference in surgical treatment of breast cancer exists for younger vs. older women. Despite changes in surgical treatment trends for breast cancer, a large proportion of women who are candidates for conservative therapy continue to undergo mastectomy

  10. Travel purpose and expenditure patterns in city tourism : evidence from the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Ruben; Rouwendal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the expenditure patterns of urban tourists with different trip purposes including visiting cultural heritage. Expenditure categories include museums and theatres. We use a two-step approach, in which we first analyse the total daily amount of expenditure and then the budget

  11. Review of the transportation planning process in the Kansas City metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the FHWA Office of Operations, Office of Transportation Management (HOTM) commissioned the development of a white paper, Data Capture and Management: Needs and Gaps in the Operation and Coordination of U.S. DOT Data Capture and Management Pro...

  12. Antenatal Health Care Service Utilization in Slum Areas of Pokhara Sub-Metropolitan City, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D; Pokharel, H P; Budhathoki, S S; Yadav, B K; Pokharel, R K

    2016-01-01

    Half a million women die every year due to pregnancy and childbirth in the world. Among these death, 99% occur in the low and middle income countries. Antenatal care (ANC) provides an opportunity to deliver different services which are important in improving maternal survival. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted from September 2012 - February 2013 among 400 married women of reproductive age group. A pre-tested structured questionnaire were used and data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science(SPSS) for windows version 18.0. Frequency, crude and adjusted odds ratios and confidence intervals were performed. Nearly 27% had four or more antenatal health care utilization(ANC) visits on appropriate time according to schedule of World Health Organization(WHO). In logistic regression, ANC users were found to be more/less likely to be in age group 20 - 35 years (AOR =2.825, 95% CI: 1.166-6.843), education of spouse (AOR 0.361, 95% CI : 0.130-1.000), occupation of spouse (AOR = 0.261, 95% CI: 0.093 -0.739), monthly income of family > 20,000Nrs (AOR = 2.190, 95% CI: 1.041-4.606), planned pregnancy (AOR = 2.417, 95% CI: 1.047 -5.609), death of child (AOR = 3.153, 95% CI: 1.112 -8.944). This study demonstrated low antenatal care service utilization. Hence, there is a need to increase the availability and accessibility of antenatal care to all women.

  13. Evidence for ongoing introduction of non-native earthworms in the Washington, DC metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Bruce A. Snyder; Samuel W. James; Erik T. Oberg

    2016-01-01

    Earthworm introductions and invasions are ongoing, with significant consequences for ecological characteristics and function where populations of invasive species reach high densities. In North America the influx of people, goods and materials to coastal cities has long been recognized to be related to introduction and establishment of...

  14. Susceptibility analysis of landslide in Chittagong City Corporation Area, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Chittagong city, landslide phenomena is the most burning issue which causes great problems to the life and properties and it is increasing day by day and becoming one of the main problems of city life. On 11 June 2007, a massive landslide happened in Chittagong City Corporation (CCC area, a large number of foothill settlements and slums were demolished; more than 90 people died and huge resource destruction took place. It is therefore essential to analyze the landslide susceptibility for CCC area to prepare mitigation strategies as well as assessing the impacts of climate change. To assess community susceptibility of landslide hazard, a landslide susceptibility index map has been prepared using analytical hierarchy process (AHP model based on geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS and its susceptibility is analyzed through community vulnerability assessment tool (CVAT. The major findings of the research are 27% of total CCC area which is susceptible to landslide hazard and whereas 6.5 sq.km areas are found very highly susceptible. The landslide susceptible areas of CCC have also been analyzed in respect of physical, social, economic, environmental and critical facilities and it is found that the overall CCC area is highly susceptible to landslide hazard. So the findings of the research can be utilized to prioritize risk mitigation investments, measures to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response mechanisms for reducing the losses and damages due to future landslide events. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12635 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 157-181

  15. Evolution of industrial wastewater pollution in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area; Evolucion de la contaminacion industrial en las aguas residuales del area metropolitana de Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantecon Pascual, R.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area has full powers regarding sewerage. Industrial wastewater emptied into the public sewer system has been monitored and analysed since 1988. the data showing the evolution of the pollution in industrial wastewater are presented, broken down by activities and parameters. These data are based on the analysis of 14,528 samples taken during 19,555 inspections of 5,655 factories. It was found that there has been a gradual improvement in the quality of the effluents. Failure to meet the requirements concerning one or more of the physico-chemical parameters fell from 71% to 39% of the samples analysed. (Author)

  16. Hospital workplace experiences of registered nurses that have contributed to their resignation in the Durban metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L A; McInerney, P A

    2006-11-01

    Hospital workplace experiences of registered nurses that have contributed to their resignation in the Durban Metropolitan Area. The purpose of this research was to explore and describe the hospital workplace experiences that had contributed to the resignations of Registered Nurses in the Durban Metropolitan Area. The broad perspective governing this research is qualitative in nature. The researcher employed a phenomenological approach specifically because the researcher was interested in identifying, describing and understanding the subjective experiences of individual nurses at the two Private and two Provincial health care institutions selected to participate in the study - in respect of their decision (s) to resign from their employment, and/or to leave the nursing profession. Two semistructured interviews were conducted with each participant by the researcher. The researcher applied the principle of theoretical saturation and a total of fifteen participants were interviewed and thirty interviews were conducted. Experiential themes and subthemes in the data were identified by a process of meaning condensation, and the data were managed by means of a qualitative software package - NVIVO (QSR - NUD*IST). The resignations of registered nurses in the Durban Metropolitan Area were found to be linked to their respective hospital workplace experiences. These experiences related to their physical working conditions and environment and included the following: unsupportive management structures, autocratic and dehumanizing management styles, negative stereotypy of nurses and the nursing profession, lack of autonomy in the workplace, professional jealousies and fractures within the profession, sub-optimal physical working conditions and shortage of staff, equipment and lack of appropriate surgical supplies, concerns regarding occupational safety e.g. the increasing exposure of health care personnel to HIV and AIDS; lack of opportunities for promotion or continuing one

  17. Evaluation of multielement in serum of healthy population of the metropolitan area of the state of Rio de Janeiro by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Bellido, Alfredo Victor B.

    2013-01-01

    The determination of multielemental concentrations in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established this levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions. The multielement composition determination in human serum is important for the investigation of their role in human physiology and metabolism. From this research, more detailed studies on the health of individuals living in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro can be realized in order to improve the quality of life of these individuals. We studied three hundred and sixty healthy volunteers (162 males and 198 females) aged 18 to 60 years old. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a monochromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Standards solutions with Vanadium and Galium (Internal standards) were prepared for the calibration system. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following eleven elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  18. [Health and economic benefits of reducing 10 µm particulate matter (PM₁₀) in Metropolitan Area of Concepción, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones, Cristian; Saavedra, Andrés; Jiménez, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Several international studies show the effects of PM10 pollution on health but specific analyses for many cities in Chile are lacking. To relate PM10 concentrations to effects with population health and quantify the economic benefits of its reduction in Concepción Metropolitan Area. Poisson regression and generalized additive models were used to analyze the short-term effects of PM10 on mortality and morbidity, controlling for lags, seasonal, trend and weather variables. The damage function method to determine the economic impact of pollution reduction was used. The selected concentration-response (C-R) coefficients showed that PM10 concentrations had effects on hospital admissions with a two days lag for respiratory diseases in children under 15 years of age and with a one day lag for asthma in patients over 64 years. The effects on premature mortality had a six days lag. The decrease in 1 µg/m³ of PM10 concentration would generate benefits ranging from 1,025.8 to 32,490.9 million of Chilean pesos per year, with a confidence level of 95%, according the estimation based on concentration-response coefficients and their economic cost. Reduction of PM10 would have important health and economic benefits.

  19. Exchange Sex Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in the New York Metropolitan Area: The Importance of Local Context, Gender and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Suzan M; Rivera, Alexis V; Reilly, Kathleen H; Anderson, Bridget J; Bolden, Barbara; Wogayehu, Afework; Neaigus, Alan; Braunstein, Sarah

    2018-02-21

    Exchanging sex for money or drugs is known to increase risk for HIV among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To better understand determinants of exchange sex among PWID we examined factors associated with exchange sex in the New York metropolitan area-defined as New York City (NYC), NY; Newark, NJ; and Long Island, NY-using data from the 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system cycle on injection drug use. Of the 1160 PWID in this analysis, 24% reported exchange sex, with differences in gender and sexual identity by location. In multivariable analysis gay/bisexual men, heterosexual women, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) women were more likely to exchange sex compared to heterosexual men. Exchange sex was also associated with race/ethnicity, homelessness, incarceration, location, and non-injection crack and cocaine use. We find that heterosexual women and LGB women who injected drugs residing in Newark were more likely to report exchange sex compared to NYC. This study highlights how local conditions impact exchange sex.

  20. Evaluation of multielement in serum of healthy population of the metropolitan area of the state of Rio de Janeiro by TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: c.canellas@uerj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.br [Instituto Estadual de Hematologia Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu, E-mail: roberta@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    The determination of multielemental concentrations in physiological fluids is of considerable interest in clinical chemistry. Since it has been established this levels in human serum can be utilized as indicators for several pathological conditions. The multielement composition determination in human serum is important for the investigation of their role in human physiology and metabolism. From this research, more detailed studies on the health of individuals living in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro can be realized in order to improve the quality of life of these individuals. We studied three hundred and sixty healthy volunteers (162 males and 198 females) aged 18 to 60 years old. All the serum samples had been collected of people who live in the urban area of Rio de Janeiro City/Brazil. The measurements were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a monochromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Standards solutions with Vanadium and Galium (Internal standards) were prepared for the calibration system. It was possible to determine the elemental concentrations of the following eleven elements: Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. (author)

  1. Urban expansion simulation and the spatio-temporal changes of ecosystem services, a case study in Atlanta Metropolitan area, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Crittenden, John C; Li, Feng; Lu, Zhongming; Dou, Xiaolin

    2018-05-01

    Urban expansion can lead to land use changes and, hence, threatens the ecosystems. Understanding the effects of urbanization on ecosystem services (ESs) can provide scientific guidance for land use planning and the protection of ESs. We established a framework to assess the spatial distributions of ESs based on land use changes in the Atlanta Metropolitan area (AMA) from 1985 to 2012. A new comprehensive ecosystem service (CES) index was developed to reflect the comprehensive level of ESs. Associated with the influential factors, we simulated the business as usual scenario in 2030. Four alternative scenarios, including more compact growth (MCG), riparian vegetation buffer (RVB), soil conservation (SC), and combined development (CD) scenarios were developed to explore the optimal land use strategies which can enhance the ESs. The results showed that forest and wetland had the greatest decreases, while low and high intensity built-up lands had the greatest increases. The values of CES and most of ESs decreased significantly due to the sprawling expansion of built-up land. The scenario analysis revealed that the CD scenario performs best in CES value, while it performs the worst in food supply. Compared with the RVB and SC scenarios, MCG scenario is a more optimal land use strategy to enhance the ESs without at the expense of food supply. To integrate multiple ESs into land use planning and decision making, corresponding land management policies and ecological engineering measures should be implemented to enhance: (1) the water yield and water purification in urban core counties, (2) the carbon storage, habitat quality, and recreational opportunity in counties around the core area, and (3) the soil conservation and food supply in surrounding suburban counties. The land use strategies and ecological engineering measures in this study can provide references for enhancing the ESs in the AMA and other metropolitan areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimating the health and economic benef