WorldWideScience

Sample records for metropolitan achievement tests

  1. Prediction of kindergarteners' behavior on Metropolitan Readiness Tests from preschool perceptual and perceptual-motor performances: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, D E

    1981-06-01

    Multiple regression equations were generated to predict cognitive achievement for 40 children (ages 57 to 68 mo.) 1 yr. after administration of a battery of 6 perceptual and perceptual-motor tests to determine if previous results from Toledo could be replicated. Regression equations generated from maximum R2 improvement techniques indicated that performance at prekindergarten is useful for prediction of cognitive performance (total score and total score without the copying subtest on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests) 1 yr. later at the end of kindergarten. The optimal battery included scores on auditory perception, fine perceptual-motor, and gross perceptual-motor tasks. The moderate predictive power of the equations obtained was compared with high predictive power generated in the Toledo study.

  2. Convergence of metropolitan house prices in South Africa: a re-examination using efficient unit root tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the Law of One Price (LOOP) holds in the housing market of five metropolitan areas of South Africa, namely Cape Town, Durban, Greater Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth/Uitenhage and Pretoria. The authors test the existence...

  3. Learned Helplessness, Test Anxiety, and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Frank D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the stability of individual differences in test anxiety and learned helplessness of 82 children in third grade and later in fifth grade. Results indicate that teacher reports of helplessness had the strongest and most consistent relation to concurrent achievement and to achievement test scores two years later. (RJC)

  4. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: Testing a Model of Their Joint Relations with Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…

  5. Achieving robust interchangeability of test assets in ATE systems

    CERN Document Server

    Oblad, R P

    1999-01-01

    This paper identities the key issues that have made if so difficult to achieve asset interchangeability. Several of the historical attempts to solve the problem of asset interchangeability are described, along with an analysis of the reasons that they did not achieve the expected results. Specific topics that are covered are SCPI, VXIplug&play, IVI, ATLAS, and Measurement Subsystems. Principles associated with the ownership of interfaces will be outlined. Finally, a set of rules and principles will be discussed that must be applied to achieve robust asset interchangeability. Robust is defined as interchangeability that can be "guaranteed" without testing all TPSs against the modified test system. (9 refs).

  6. The Relationship between Learning Style, Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Kubilay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between social studies pre-service teachers' (SSPTs) learning style, test anxiety and academic achievement. A total of 315 SSPTs participated in the study. Data were collected using Turkish versions of Grasha-Reichmann learning style scale (GRLSS) and test anxiety scale (TAS) by Spielberger.…

  7. A Feasibility Test on Adopting Electric Vehicles to Serve as Taxis in Daejeon Metropolitan City of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For realizing sustainable development, EV (Electric Vehicle is currently considered as one of the most promising alternative due to its cleanness and inexhaustibility. However, the development and dissemination of EV has stagnated because it faces major constraints such as battery performance and an excessively long charging time. Thus, this study examined the feasibility of using EVs as taxis by analyzing real data from a pilot project in Daejeon, a metropolitan city in South Korea for proposing the effective way to adopt EV. To reflect reality and improve accuracy, we adopted scenarios and assumptions based on in-depth interviews with groups of experts. The resulting initial benefit-to-cost (B/C ratio for EV taxis is approximately 0.4, which is quite low compared to 0.7 for traditional taxis. However, after incorporating some further assumptions into the calculation, the B/C ratio shifts to approximately 0.7, which is more appropriate for EV adoption. For this improvement to be achieved, the dissemination of a charging infrastructure, improvement of the business model and policy support is strongly needed. Limitations to this work and potential areas for future study are also fully discussed.

  8. Online formative tests linked to microlectures improving academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Rianne A M; de Kleijn, Renske A M; Freriksen, Astrid W M; van Emst, Maarten G; Veeneklaas, Rob J; van Hoeij, Maggy J W; Spinder, Matty; Ritzen, Magda J; Ten Cate, Olle Th J; van Rijen, Harold V M

    2013-12-01

    Online formative tests (OFTs) are powerful tools to direct student learning behavior, especially when enriched with specific feedback. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of OFTs enriched with hyperlinks to microlectures on examination scores. OFTs, available one week preceding each midterm and the final exams, could be used voluntarily. The use of OFTs was related to scores on midterm and final exams using ANOVA, with prior academic achievement as a covariate. On average, 74% of all students used the online formative tests (OFT+) while preparing for the summative midterm exam. OFT+ students obtained significantly higher grades compared to OFT-students, both without and with correction for previous academic achievement. Two out of three final exam scores did not significantly improve. Students using online formative tests linked to microlectures receive higher grades especially in highly aligned summative tests.

  9. Developing a Cloze Procedure as a Reading Comprehension Achievement Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Seken

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The project was concerned with developing a cloze procedure as a reading comprehension achievement test. The subjects were students of the English Department of the Faculty of Letters, State University of Malang, who were halfway in the semester to complete Reading II course. The test was planned and constructed on the foundation of existing theory of cloze test construction. A review of theory concerning reading comprehension, testing reading comprehension, and cloze testing led to the construction of the test, including the decision concerning how to score the test and to interpret the scores. Using a class of 28 students, the test was tried out a week after the mid-semester test was administered by the Reading II teacher. It was found that the test is sufficienty reliable on the basis of a reliability coefficient of .79 through split-half procedure and a coefficient value of .78 by K-R 20. The test also showed high inter-section correlation. The validity of the test was viewed in terms of face, content, and construct. The test scores correlate moderately with those obtained from the mid-semester test by the teacher. Some problems are discussed and a suggestion made with regard to a possible solution to these problems.

  10. Evaluating the Instructional Sensitivity of Four States' Student Achievement Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2016-01-01

    As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…

  11. Computer-Adaptive Testing: Implications for Students' Achievement, Motivation, Engagement, and Subjective Test Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Lazendic, Goran

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the implications of computer-adaptive testing (operationalized by way of multistage adaptive testing; MAT) and "conventional" fixed order computer testing for various test-relevant outcomes in numeracy, including achievement, test-relevant motivation and engagement, and subjective test experience. It did so…

  12. Optimal number of tests to achieve and validate product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Hussam; Chateauneuf, Alaa

    2014-01-01

    The reliability validation of engineering products and systems is mandatory for choosing the best cost-effective design among a series of alternatives. Decisions at early design stages have a large effect on the overall life cycle performance and cost of products. In this paper, an optimization-based formulation is proposed by coupling the costs of product design and validation testing, in order to ensure the product reliability with the minimum number of tests. This formulation addresses the question about the number of tests to be specified through reliability demonstration necessary to validate the product under appropriate confidence level. The proposed formulation takes into account the product cost, the failure cost and the testing cost. The optimization problem can be considered as a decision making system according to the hierarchy of structural reliability measures. The numerical examples show the interest of coupling design and testing parameters. - Highlights: • Coupled formulation for design and testing costs, with lifetime degradation. • Cost-effective testing optimization to achieve reliability target. • Solution procedure for nested aleatoric and epistemic variable spaces

  13. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  14. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female...

  15. Metropolitan isolation segregation and Black-White disparities in very preterm birth: a test of mediating pathways and variance explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael R; Cooper, Hannah L; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Waller, Lance A; Hogue, Carol R

    2010-12-01

    Residential isolation segregation (a measure of residential inter-racial exposure) has been associated with rates of preterm birth (births (32-36 weeks) raise questions about whether this association is similar across gestational ages, and through what pathways it might be mediated. Hierarchical Bayesian models were fit to answer three questions: is the isolation-prematurity association similar for very and moderately preterm birth; is this association mediated by maternal chronic disease, socioeconomic status, or metropolitan area crime and poverty rates; and how much of the geographic variation in Black-White very preterm birth disparities is explained by isolation segregation? Singleton births to Black and White women in 231 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas in 2000-2002 were analyzed and isolation segregation was calculated for each. We found that among Black women, isolation is associated with very preterm birth and moderately preterm birth. The association may be partially mediated by individual level socioeconomic characteristics and metropolitan level violent crime rates. There is no association between segregation and prematurity among White women. Isolation segregation explains 28% of the geographic variation in Black-White very preterm birth disparities. Our findings highlight the importance of isolation segregation for the high-burden outcome of very preterm birth, but unexplained excess risk for prematurity among Black women is substantial. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Achievements and Future Plans of CLIC Test Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Hans Heinrich

    2001-01-01

    CTF2 was originally designed to demonstrate the feasibility of two-beam acceleration with high current drive beams and a string of 30 GHz CLIC accelerating structure prototypes (CAS). This goal was achieved in 1999 and the facility has since been modified to focus on high gradient testing of CAS's and 30 GHz single cell cavities (SCC). With these modifications, it is now possible to provide 30 GHz RF pulses of more than 150 MW and an adjustable pulselength from 3 to 15 ns. While the SCC results are promising, the testing of CAS's revealed problems of RF breakdown and related surface damage. As a consequence, a new R&D program has been launched to advance the understanding of RF breakdown processes, to improve surface properties, investigate new materials and to optimise the structure geometries of the CAS's. In parallel the construction of a new facility named CTF3 has started. CTF3 will mainly serve two purposes. The first is the demonstration of the CLIC drive beam generation scheme. CTF3 will acceler-a...

  17. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  18. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda eSteinmayr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB, research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is however still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57 completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of one year. Grade Point Average (GPA indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction. Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  19. Comparison of the Reading Subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the reading subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised/Normative Update. Scores were compared on these two tests in a group of 28 students ages 7 through 12 who were referred or reevaluated for suspected learning problems. The data were collected…

  20. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  1. The Truth about Scores Children Achieve on Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan R.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of using the standard error of measurement (SEm) in determining reliability in test scores is emphasized. The SEm is compared to the hypothetical true score for standardized tests, and procedures for calculation of the SEm are explained. (JDD)

  2. Challenging Masculinities: Disability and Achievement in Testing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shereen

    2001-01-01

    Describes a feminist project on masculinities involving boys in a special education school. These labeled, segregated boys were invested in achieving successful positioning within a culture of hegemonic masculinity. Institutional and media preoccupations with quantifiable academic attainments had reinscribed them within a world of hetero/sexist…

  3. Major Achievements and Prospect of the ATLAS Integral Effect Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.; Kim, Y.; Song, C.; Baek, W.

    2012-01-01

    A large-scale thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), has been operated by KAERI. The reference plant of ATLAS is the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor, 1400 MWe). Since 2007, an extensive series of experimental works were successfully carried out, including large break loss of coolant accident tests, small break loss of coolant accident tests at various break locations, steam generator tube rupture tests, feed line break tests, and steam line break tests. These tests contributed toward an understanding of the unique thermal-hydraulic behavior, resolving the safety-related concerns and providing validation data for evaluation of the safety analysis codes and methodology for the advanced pressurized water reactor, APR1400. Major discoveries and lessons found in the past integral effect tests are summarized in this paper. As the demand for integral effect tests is on the rise due to the active national nuclear R and D program in Korea, the future prospects of the application of the ATLAS facility are also discussed.

  4. Achievement Goals, Study Strategies, and Achievement: A Test of the "Learning Agenda" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Hama, Hidetoshi; Belmonte, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Two classroom studies tested whether mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals nudge students to pursue different learning agendas. Each showed that mastery-approach goals promote an interest-based studying approach in which students allocate study time disproportionately to personally interesting material over duller material. Study 2…

  5. Held Back: The Impact of Curricular and Pedagogical Factors on Tested Achievement in High School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agvanian, Zara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of curricular factors and teaching practices on students' tested achievement in mathematics, explored the best predictors of the tested achievement, and examined differences in the tested achievement among student subgroups. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methods and triangulated findings from…

  6. Trends in cytogenetic testing and identification of chromosomal abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects, metropolitan Atlanta, 1968-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jodi M; Crider, Krista S; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Cragan, Janet D; Olney, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the use of cytogenetic testing and identification of chromosomal abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects. Utilizing data from 1968 to 2005 from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, we analyzed trends in the frequency and timing (prenatal or postnatal) of cytogenetic testing and the prevalence of recognized chromosome abnormalities among pregnancies and children with birth defects (n = 51,424). Cytogenetic testing of pregnancies and children with birth defects increased from 7.2% in 1968 to 25.0% in 2005, as did the identification of chromosomal abnormalities (2.2% in 1968 to 6.8% in 2005). The use of prenatal cytogenetic testing decreased from 1996 to 2005 among women aged ≥35 years. Identification of chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancies and children with birth defects increased from 1968 to 2005, possibly due to increased testing, improved diagnostic techniques, or increasing maternal age. The decline in prenatal cytogenetic testing observed among mothers aged ≥35 years may be related to the availability of improved prenatal screening techniques, resulting in a reduction in the utilization of invasive diagnostic tests. Published 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Measuring Student Achievement in Travel and Tourism. Sample Test Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

    The sample test items included in this document are intended as a resource for teachers of Marketing and Distributive Education programs with emphasis on hospitality and recreation marketing, and tourism and travel services marketing. The related curriculum material has been published in the Travel and Tourism syllabus, an advanced-level module in…

  8. Classroom Tests and Achievement in Problem Solving in Physical Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Janice J.; Stallings, William M.

    1975-01-01

    Two hundred students in an undergraduate physical geography course were assigned to a group which received either factually oriented quizzes or quizzes which stressed higher level behaviors such as application and analysis. Evaluation of the results indicated that the variation in testing procedures had no discernable effect on student scores in…

  9. Achievement test performance in children conceived by IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, L; Zimmerman, M; Blaine, J; Stegmann, B; Sparks, A; Ansley, T; Van Voorhis, B

    2010-10-01

    Long-term follow-up studies of children conceived by IVF are limited. We examine academic performance on standardized tests [Iowa Tests of Basic Skills/Educational Development (ITBS/ITED)] of children conceived by IVF. Parents of children 8-17 years of age at the onset of the study (March 2008) who were conceived by IVF at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics and living in the state of Iowa were contacted by mail. Parents completed questionnaires on their child's health and education and parental education. ITBS/ITED scores from school grades 3-12 were obtained on IVF children and a group of anonymous children matched by grade, year, gender and school district. Scores were analyzed using linear mixed models. Four hundred and ninety-seven couples were contacted. Two hundred and ninety-five couples (463 children) agreed to participate (59.4% of parents), with ITBS/ITED scores available on 423 children (91.4% of participants). IVF children scored higher than the national mean (P divorce and child's BMI. Cryopreservation, length of embryo culture and method of insemination did not affect scores. IVF children scored higher on standardized tests than their matched peers, suggesting that IVF does not have a negative effect on cognitive development. However, long-term follow-up of IVF children is still limited. Further research should be performed on the effect of multiple gestation on academic performance.

  10. Achievement Goals as Mediators of the Relationship between Competence Beliefs and Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous work suggests that the expectation of failure is related to higher test anxiety and achievement goals grounded in a fear of failure. Aim: To test the hypothesis, based on the work of Elliot and Pekrun (2007), that the relationship between perceived competence and test anxiety is mediated by achievement goal orientations.…

  11. Testing and Contrasting Road Safety Education, Deterrence, and Social Capital Theories: A Sociological Approach to the Understanding of Male Drink-Driving in Chile's Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Three theories offer different explanations to the understanding of male drink-driving. In order to test road safety education, deterrence, and social capital theories, logistic regression analysis was applied to predict respondents' statements of having or not having engaged in actual drink-driving (DD). Variable for road safety education theory was whether a driver had graduated from a professional driving school or not. Deterrence theory was operationalized with a variable of whether a driver had been issued a traffic ticket or not. Social capital theory was operationalized with two variables, having children or not and having religion identification or not. Since both variables 'years of formal education' and 'years of driving experience' have been reported to be correlated to alcohol consumption and DD respectively, these were introduced as controls. In order to assess the significance of each variable statistically, Wald tests were applied in seven models. Results indicate on the one hand that road safety education variable is not statistically significant; and on the other, deterrence theory variable and social capital theory variable 'having children' were both statistically significant at the level of .01. Findings are discussed in reference to Chile's context. Data were taken from the "Road Users Attitudes and Behaviors towards Traffic Safety" survey from the National Commission of Road Safety of the Government of Chile (2005). The sample size was reported to be 2,118 (N of male drivers was 396). This survey was representative of Chile's Metropolitan Region road users' population.

  12. Test Anxiety and Academic Performance among Undergraduates: The Moderating Role of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor

    2017-02-13

    This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p students' achievement motivation.

  13. Academic performance in the high school mathematics standardized test at metropolitan and remote areas of Costa Rica schools in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Castillo-Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the academic performance of students from urban and distant areas in the national mathematics test corresponding to the completion of secondary education, considering the specific test and according to the different types of schools: daytime (daytime scientific, daytime humanistic, nighttime, technical or integrated centers for education of young people and adults (CINDEA, in its Spanish acronym.  The main objective is to describe the students academic performance in the national mathematics test issued to complete high-school level, for the year 2013 and according to the country educational areas.  For the analysis of such information, the main source used was the High-School Education National Report, issued by the Ministry of Public Education for 2013 standardized tests.  One of the conclusions from this study is the need to carry out a historical analysis of the performance of educational institutions which have recently obtained the highest and lowest average grades in the high-school diploma tests, in order to be able to delve into the causes of those performances.

  14. Psychosocial work environment and health in U.S. metropolitan areas: a test of the demand-control and demand-control-support models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Schoenbach, C

    1994-01-01

    The authors use confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the psychosocial dimensions of work environments relevant to health outcomes, in a representative sample of five U.S. metropolitan areas. Through an aggregated inference system, scales from Schwartz and associates' job scoring system and from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) were employed to examine two alternative models: the demand-control model of Karasek and Theorell and Johnson's demand-control-support model. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the two models. The two multidimensional models yielded better fits than an unstructured model. After allowing for the measurement error variance due to the method of assessment (Schwartz and associates' system or DOT), both models yielded acceptable goodness-of-fit indices, but the fit of the demand-control-support model was significantly better. Overall these results indicate that the dimensions of Control (substantive complexity of work, skill discretion, decision authority), Demands (physical exertion, physical demands and hazards), and Social Support (coworker and supervisor social supports) provide an acceptable account of the psychosocial dimensions of work associated with health outcomes.

  15. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  16. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  17. Modeling Metropolitan Detroit transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    "The seven-county Southeast Michigan region, that encompasses the Detroit Metropolitan Area, : ranks fifth in population among top 25 regions in the nation. It also ranks among bottom five in : the transit service provided, measured in miles or hours...

  18. Metropolitan water management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milliken, J. Gordon; Taylor, Graham C

    1981-01-01

    This monograph is intended to inform interested and capable pesons, who happen not to be specialists in water resources planning, of the issues and alternative strategies related to metropolitan water supply...

  19. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.

    2017-01-01

    :This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test, achievement motivation test, and the math experience questionnaire. A significant positive correlation was found between math self-concept and math achievement in all four math domains (measurement, rela...

  20. USING OF BYOD MODEL FOR TESTING OF EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENTS ON THE BASIS OF GOOGLE SEARCH SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Bondarenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The technology of using their own mobile devices of learners for testing educational achievements, based on the model of BYOD, in an article is offered. The proposed technology is based on cloud services Google. This technology provides a comprehensive support of testing system: creating appropriate forms, storing the results in cloud storage, processing test results and management of testing system through the use of Google-Calendar. A number of software products based on cloud technologies that allow using BYOD model for testing of educational achievement are described, their strengths and weaknesses are identified. This article also describes the stages of the testing process of the academic achievements of students on the basis of Google search services with using the BYOD model. The proposed approaches to the testing of educational achievements based on using of BYOD model extends the space and time of the testing, makes the test procedure more flexible and systematically, adds to the procedure for testing the elements of a computer game. BYOD model opens up broad prospects for implementation of ICT in all forms of learning process, and particularly in testing of educational achievement in view of the limited computing resources in education

  1. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition." San Antonio, TX--NCS Pearson, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrimmon, Adam W.; Climie, Emma A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), a newly updated individual measure of academic achievement for students in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12 (age 4 years, 0 months to 19 years, 11 months). Suitable for use in educational, clinical, and research settings, the stated purposes of the WIAT-III…

  2. Auditory Automotive Mechanics Diagnostic Achievement Test. Center Technical Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Richard Arthur

    The Auditory Automotive Mechanics Diagnostic Achievement Test assesses an automobile mechanic's ability to determine mechanical faults from auditory cues alone. The 44-item test and its instructions are recorded on magnetic tape; answer choices are presented on tape, and are also written in the printed test booklets. The norming and validity…

  3. Test of Achievement in Quantitative Economics for Secondary Schools: Construction and Validation Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, Lydia I.; Esomonu, Nkechi P. M.

    2018-01-01

    A Test to measure achievement in quantitative economics among secondary school students was developed and validated in this study. The test is made up 20 multiple choice test items constructed based on quantitative economics sub-skills. Six research questions guided the study. Preliminary validation was done by two experienced teachers in…

  4. Individual Differences in Digit Span, Susceptibility to Proactive Interference, and Aptitude/Achievement Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Frank N.; Cooney, John B.

    1982-01-01

    Individual differences in digit span, susceptibility to proactive interference, and various aptitude/achievement test scores were investigated in two experiments with college students. Results indicated that digit span was strongly correlated with aptitude/achievement scores, but did not indicate that susceptibility to proactive interference…

  5. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  6. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  7. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  8. Test Review: D. Wechsler "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test" (3rd ed.). San Antonio, Texas--Pearson, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Adame, Cindy; McLean, Lauren; Gamez, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews "Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition" (WIAT-III), which is designed to assess students' skills in listening, speaking, reading, writing, and mathematics. The test can identify an individual's strengths and weaknesses, assist professionals who are determining whether a student is eligible for special…

  9. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhazlini Rahmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role.  MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to examine the relationship between English language proficiency test (as measured by MUET bands to predict the undergraduates academic achievement (as measured by Cumulative Grade Point Average score. It also aims to determine the recommended MUET band as an entry requirement for prospective technical programme undergraduates in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM. The study was carried out among 225 final year undergraduates of five different faculties in UPM, namely Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, and Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.  The data used were obtained by administering a brief questionnaire and were quantitatively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 19.  The study revealed that there is a medium positive correlation between English language proficiency and academic achievement where students who have scored higher bands for MUET are the ones who obtained higher CGPA in their study. Based on the findings, it is recommended that UPM and other local universities make changes towards the minimum MUET entry requirement to help prospective undergraduates excel in their academic study. Keywords: English language proficiency, academic achievement, technical programme, MUET, CGPA

  10. Analysis of Frequency of Tests and Varying Feedback Delays in College Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Neal R.; Wheatley, Grayson H.

    1975-01-01

    Sixteen beginning analytic geometry and calculus classes (442 students) followed eight testing regimes for one academic quarter. Three aptitude subgroups were identified in each class. Classes to which daily quizzes were given achieved significantly higher on a specially constructed test than those which had only a single midterm examination.…

  11. Impact of nutritional status at the onset of elementary school on academic aptitude test achievement at the end of high school in a multicausal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Rodríguez, María Del Pilar N; Pérez, Hernán T; Alvear, Jorge A; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Cruz, Arturo L; Ivanovic, Rodolfo M

    2009-07-01

    Like in many other countries, few investigations have been carried out in Chile to measure the long-term effects of nutritional status at an early age on scholastic achievement in a multicausal approach. The objectives of the present study were to describe the impact of nutritional, intellectual, family, educational and socio-economic variables at the onset of elementary school in 1987 that may affect achievement on the academic aptitude test (AAT) taken in 1998 at the end of high school, and to quantify the impact of these independent variables on the AAT. The present study comprises two cross-sectional stages: in 1987, a representative sample of 813 elementary school first-grader Chilean children from the Metropolitan Region was randomly chosen; in 1998, 12 years later, 632 school-age children were located and only 351 of them graduated from high school and, from these, 260 students took the AAT. In 1987 nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric parameters, intellectual ability by the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test, scholastic achievement through Spanish language and mathematics tests, and socio-economic status using Graffar's modified scale; family variables were also recorded. Maternal schooling, scholastic achievement, intellectual ability and head circumference-for-age z-score (anthropometric indicator of both nutritional background and brain development) all in 1987 were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for AAT variance in 1998 (r2 0.402). These results provide a foundation to identify the risk factors at an early age that affect AAT scores and should be useful to improve nutritional and educational policies.

  12. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.

    2017-01-01

    :This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test,

  13. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  14. Socioeconomic Status of Parents and the Achievement of Children on Readiness for School Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anela Hasanagic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status is often determined like the academic background of parents, and it can be determined like the place of living, village or town, city, as well. Socioeconomic status is an important factor in many aspects of living as in academic achievement as well. Problem in this research paper was to examine whether there are differences between children from different socio-economic status (level of education of parents and between children from villages and towns, on Readiness for school tests. The sample was constituted 296 kids, half from villages, and half from towns in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Tests that were used are: Differences test, Similarities test, Numerical test, Trace test, Knowledge Test, Questionnaire for measuring socio-emotional maturity, and Goodenough's Draw-a-Man Test. Results show that there are statistically significant differences between children from different socio-economic background. Children whose parents are low educated have lower results on Readiness for school test, comparing with children whose parents have finished high school or university level. There were differences between village and town children only on Goodenough's Draw-a-Man Test and on Similarity test, while on other instruments place of living was not important factor for achievement on Readiness for School Test.

  15. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  16. The Rapid Integration and Test Environment - A Process for Achieving Software Test Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. The Rapid Integration and Test Environment (RITE) initiative, implemented by the Program Executive Office, Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence, Command and Control Program Office (PMW-150), was born of necessity. Existing processes for requirements definition and management, as well as those for software development, did not consistently deliver high-qualit...

  17. Effectiveness of a Test-Taking Strategy on Achievement in Essay Tests for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, William J.; Hughes, Charles; Kapelski, Cory; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted to ascertain if an essay-writing strategy was effective at improving the achievement on essay tests for 7th- and 8th-grade students with reading and writing disabilities. Students were assigned via a stratified random sample to treatment or control group. Student scores were also compared to students without learning…

  18. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  19. PageFocus: Using paradata to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    Cheating threatens the validity of unproctored online achievement tests. To address this problem, we developed PageFocus, a JavaScript that detects when participants abandon test pages by switching to another window or browser tab. In a first study, we aimed at testing whether PageFocus could detect and prevent cheating. We asked 115 lab and 186 online participants to complete a knowledge test comprising items that were difficult to answer but easy to look up on the Internet. Half of the participants were invited to look up the solutions, which significantly increased their test scores. The PageFocus script detected test takers who abandoned the test page with very high sensitivity and specificity, and successfully reduced cheating by generating a popup message that asked participants not to cheat. In a second study, 510 online participants completed a knowledge test comprising items that could easily be looked up and a reasoning task involving matrices that were impossible to look up. In a first group, a performance-related monetary reward was promised to the top scorers; in a second group, participants took part in a lottery that provided performance-unrelated rewards; and in a third group, no incentive was offered. PageFocus revealed that participants cheated more when performance-related incentives were offered. As expected, however, this effect was limited to items that could easily be looked up. We recommend that PageFocus be routinely employed to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

  20. Do Children in Montessori Schools Perform Better in the Achievement Test? A Taiwanese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsin-Hui; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines whether elementary school students in Taiwan who had received Montessori education achieved significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than students who attended non-Montessori elementary programs. One hundred ninety six children in first, second, and third grade participated in the study.…

  1. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  2. Mental Abilities and School Achievement: A Test of a Mediation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vock, Miriam; Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the interplay of four cognitive abilities--reasoning, divergent thinking, mental speed, and short-term memory--and their impact on academic achievement in school in a sample of adolescents in grades seven to 10 (N = 1135). Based on information processing approaches to intelligence, we tested a mediation hypothesis, which states…

  3. Teaching-Learning Conceptions and Academic Achievement: The Mediating Role of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed at examining the mediating role of test anxiety in the relationship between teaching-learning conceptions and academic achievement. The correlation investigation model was adopted in this research. The participants of the research were volunteering teachers (n = 108) and students (n = 526) from five different high…

  4. Statistical Methods for the detection of answer copying on achievement tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotaridona, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    This thesis contains a collection of studies where statistical methods for the detection of answer copying on achievement tests in multiple-choice format are proposed and investigated. Although all methods are suited to detect answer copying, each method is designed to address specific

  5. Achievement-Based Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: A Test of Cognitive Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Judy; Pierce, W. David; Banko, Katherine M.; Gear, Amber

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed how rewards impacted intrinsic motivation when students were rewarded for achievement while learning an activity, for performing at a specific level on a test, or for both. Undergraduate university students engaged in a problem-solving activity. The design was a 2 * 2 factorial with 2 levels of reward in a learning phase…

  6. Achievement goal orientation and situational motivation for a low-stakes test of content knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskiewicz, Rhonda A

    2012-05-10

    To determine the extent of the relationship between students' inherent motivation to achieve in a doctor of pharmacy program and their motivation to achieve on a single low-stakes test of content knowledge. The Attitude Toward Learning Questionnaire (ATL) was administered to 66 third-year pharmacy students at the beginning of the spring 2011 semester, and the Student Opinion Scale (SOS) was administered to the same group immediately following completion of the Pharmacy Curricular Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Significant differences were found in performance approach and work avoidance based on situational motivation scores. Situational motivation was also found to be directly correlated with performance and mastery approaches and inversely correlated with work avoidance. Criteria were met for predicting importance and effort from performance and mastery approaches and work avoidance scores of pharmacy students. The ability to predict pharmacy students' motivation to perform on a low-stakes standardized test of content knowledge increases the test's usefulness as a measure of curricular effectiveness.

  7. Math Self-Concept, Grades, and Achievement Test Scores: Long-Term Reciprocal Effects across Five Waves and Three Achievement Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Marsh, Herbert W.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Murayama, Kou; vom Hofe, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    This study examines reciprocal effects between self-concept and achievement by considering a long time span covering grades 5 through 9. Extending previous research on the reciprocal effects model (REM), this study tests (1) the assumption of developmental equilibrium as time-invariant cross-lagged paths from self-concept to achievement and from…

  8. The establisment of an achievement test for determination of primary teachers’ knowledge level of earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Süleyman, E-mail: yupul@hotmail.com; Haşiloğlu, M. Akif, E-mail: mehmet.hasiloglu@hotmail.com; Kunduraci, Ayşe, E-mail: ayse-kndrc@hotmail.com [Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Faculty of Education, Science Education, Ağrı (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    In this study it was aimed to improve an academic achievement test to establish the students’ knowledge about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. In the method of this study, the steps that Webb (1994) was created to improve an academic achievement test for a unit were followed. In the developmental process of multiple choice test having 25 questions, was prepared to measure the pre-service teachers’ knowledge levels about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. The multiple choice test was presented to view of six academics (one of them was from geographic field and five of them were science educator) and two expert teachers in science Prepared test was applied to 93 pre-service teachers studying in elementary education department in 2014-2015 academic years. As a result of validity and reliability of the study, the test was composed of 20 items. As a result of these applications, Pearson Moments Multiplication half-reliability coefficient was found to be 0.94. When this value is adjusted according to Spearman Brown reliability coefficient the reliability coefficient was set at 0.97.

  9. The establisment of an achievement test for determination of primary teachers’ knowledge level of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Süleyman; Haşiloğlu, M. Akif; Kunduraci, Ayşe

    2016-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to improve an academic achievement test to establish the students’ knowledge about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. In the method of this study, the steps that Webb (1994) was created to improve an academic achievement test for a unit were followed. In the developmental process of multiple choice test having 25 questions, was prepared to measure the pre-service teachers’ knowledge levels about the earthquake and the ways of protection from earthquakes. The multiple choice test was presented to view of six academics (one of them was from geographic field and five of them were science educator) and two expert teachers in science Prepared test was applied to 93 pre-service teachers studying in elementary education department in 2014-2015 academic years. As a result of validity and reliability of the study, the test was composed of 20 items. As a result of these applications, Pearson Moments Multiplication half-reliability coefficient was found to be 0.94. When this value is adjusted according to Spearman Brown reliability coefficient the reliability coefficient was set at 0.97.

  10. Coping strategies as mediators in the relationship between test anxiety and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genc Ana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most modern societies, nearly every realm of life involves some form of evaluation of our knowledge, abilities and skills. Given the potentially significant consequences of exams, it is not surprising that they are often very stressful. This study aimed to determine the existence and nature of the relationships between level of test anxiety, coping strategies, and achieved success on a mid-term test. As well as examining the direct relations between the given variables, our primary interest was to investigate the potential mediating role of coping mechanisms between the input and output variables of the examined stressful transaction. The study was conducted on a sample of 263 students from the Psychology and German Studies Departments of the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Novi Sad. According to our results, only emotion-focused coping mechanisms were statistically significant mediators in the relationship between level of test anxiety and mid-term test achievement. The results indicate that students with high test anxiety who employ predominantly emotion-focused coping strategies score lower on a pre-exam knowledge test.

  11. Policy implications of achievement testing using multilevel models: The case of Brazilian elementary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Gomes Menezes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the 20th century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension and Mathematics (problem solving, as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students. This study aims to identify which variables are predictors of academic achievement of fifth grade students on Prova Brasil. Across a large sample of students, multilevel models tested a large number of variables relevant to student achievement. This approach uncovered critical variables not commonly seen as significant in light of other achievement determinants, including student habits, teacher ethnicity, and school technological resources. As such, this approach demonstrates the value of MLM to appropriately nuanced educational policies that reflect critical influences on student achievement. Its implications for wider application for psychology studies that may have relevant impacts for policy are also discussed.

  12. Large-Scale Academic Achievement Testing of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E.

    2012-01-01

    The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the…

  13. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  14. non-metropolitan stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Capitals gather constellations of bright and creative people, attracting them from the peripheries. Tchekhov’s sisters were anxious to get to Moscow, d’Artagnan – to Paris. Evtushenko, Shukshin and Gaidai ascended to the climax of their glory, having moved to the capital. Vampilov, Rasputin and Astafiev became internationally famous without leaving their home grounds, but having joined in the metropolitan whirl. In this regard, the architectural profession differs greatly from the literary and cinematographic ones. The destinies of the masters who fulfilled themselves far from the capital are different but equally bright and unique. The Irkutsk “Varangians”of the sixtieth – Voronezhsky, Bukh and Pavlov – built up their relations with geography in a different way:someone came from the capitals just for a few years that became the brightest, the most fruitful and the most interesting years of his creative life. But someone stayed in the non-metropolitan city for a long time and even forever. This subsection contains certain examples of self-fulfillment in the cities distant from the capitals: Khabarovsk, Irkutsk, Bratsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kemerovo and Anzhero-Sudzhensk.

  15. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Bunandar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss. Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  16. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  17. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  18. Sex differences in mathematical achievement: Grades, national test, and self-confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorova, Marina S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic achievement, which is inherently an indicator of progress in the curriculum, can also be viewed as an indirect measure of cognitive development, social adaptation, and motivational climate characteristics. In addition to its direct application, academic achievement is used as a mediating factor in the study of various phenomena, from the etiology of learning disabilities to social inequality. Analysis of sex differences in mathematical achievement is considered particularly important for exploring academic achievement, since creating an adequate educational environment with equal opportunities for boys and girls serves as a prerequisite for improving the overall mathematical and technical literacy that is crucial for modern society, creates balanced professional opportunities, and destroys traditional stereotypes about the roles of men and women in society. The objective of our research was to analyze sex differences in mathematical achievement among high school students and to compare various methods for diagnosing academic performance, such as school grades, test scores, and self-concept. The results were obtained through two population studies whose samples are representative of the Russian population in the relevant age group. Study 1 looked at sex differences in math grades among twins (n = 1,234 pairs and singletons (n = 2,227 attending high school. The sample of Study 2 comprised all twins who took the Unified State Examination in 2010–2012. The research analyzed sex differences in USE math scores across the entire sample and within the extreme subgroups. It also explored differences between boys and girls in opposite-sex dizygotic (DZ twin pairs. The key results were as follows. No difference in mathematical achievement was observed between twins and singletons. Sex differences were found in all measures of mathematical achievement. Girls had higher school grades in math than boys, while boys outperformed girls in USE math

  19. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strayhorn Jillian C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl. The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels, ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were

  20. Origin of differences between Serbian and Roma children in social intelligence test's achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đigić Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the presented research is to identify the origin of differences between Serbian (N=166 and Roma children (N=169 of primary school age in achievement on Modified Rosenzweig Test, used as a measure of social intelligence (Roma children had lower results than Serbian children. Results show that these differences can be partly explained with extreme inviolable socio-economic and cultural status of Roma children. Social intelligence test's scores are significantly correlated with socio-economic and cultural status; this correlation is more apparent in Roma than in Serbian sample. Differences between Serbian and Roma children become less apparent when we control the influence of socio-economic and cultural status. Parent's educational level is recognized as the most important indicator of socio-economic and cultural status. Another way to identify the origin of differences was directed to investigation of adequacy of used test as a measure of social intelligence of Roma children. Our assumption that some items make whole test unfair for Roma children is not confirmed. However, results concerning the relation between experience with particular social situations and success in particular test items, and results concerning the different structures of implicite understanding of social intelligence by Serbian and Roma parents, point out that test key favors responses that Serbian people accept as optimal in task situation, while the responses according to Roma implicite understanding of social intelligence are less valued.

  1. Testing measurement invariance of the Learning Programme Management and Evaluation scale across academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelekanyo C. Mulaudzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Measurement invariance is one of the most precarious aspects of the scale development process without which the interpretation of research findings on population subgroups may be ambiguous and even invalid. Besides tests for validity and reliability, measurement invariance represents the hallmark for psychometric compliance of a new measuring instrument and provides the basis for inference of research findings across a range of relevant population sub-groups. Research purpose: This study tested the measurement invariance of a Learning Programme Management and Evaluation (LPME scale across levels of academic achievement. Motivation for the study: It is important for any researcher involved in new scale development to ensure that the measurement instrument and its underlying constructs have proper structural alignment and that they both have the same level of meaning and significance across comparable heterogeneous groups. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional survey design was used, and data were obtained from 369 participants who were selected from three public sector organisations using a probabilistic simple random sampling technique. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Analysis of Moment Structures software (versions 21.0.0 were used to analyse the data. Main findings: The findings show that all the four invariance models tested have achieved acceptable goodness-of-fit indices. Furthermore, the findings show that the factorial structure of the LPME scale and the meaning of its underlying constructs are invariant across different levels of academic achievement for human resource development (HRD practitioners and learners or apprentices involved in occupational learning programmes. Practical implications: The findings of this study suggest practical implications for HRD scholars as they are enabled to make informed decisional balance comparisons involving educational

  2. What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribbia, John Luke

    . The STIRPAT method is used to test four social theories of environmental degradation -- the treadmill of production, ecological modernization, urban ecological transitions, and human ecology theories -- by quantifying variables associated with energy use and CO2 emissions drawn from each theory. The specific findings demonstrate that various demographic, economic, and governmental factors are related strongly to metropolitan area energy consumption and county-level CO2 emissions. The human ecology, treadmill of production, and urban ecological transitions theories are important to explaining how and why climate-related impacts differ for a wide variety of local areas in the United States. Related to human ecology and treadmill of production theory, environmental degradation is highest in metropolitan areas and counties with large populations and large economies that have various mechanisms in place to facilitate economic growth. By contrast, some U.S. counties are beginning to remedy their impact on the environment by applying economic and governmental resources toward the mitigation of CO2 emissions, which provides evidence of support for urban ecological transitions theory. However, because climate change is a complex cross-scale global environmental problem and the results in this dissertation confirm that this problem is locally driven by similar population and economic factors also affecting the climate at larger spatial scales, mitigation efforts to reduce energy use and emissions at the local level will be fruitless without a well-coordinated, cross-scale (local to global) ideological shift that puts less priority on economic goals and more on environmental sustainability. These results, and the methodological and theoretical framework applied in this dissertation, thus provide a useful platform for the successful application of future research that specifically addresses mitigation strategies to reduce local-level environmental impacts. This dissertation

  3. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  4. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  5. Aptitude Tests Versus School Exams as Selection Tools for Higher Education and the Case for Assessing Educational Achievement in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Advocates of using a US-style SAT for university selection claim that it is fairer to applicants from disadvantaged backgrounds than achievement tests because it assesses potential, not achievement, and that it allows finer discrimination between top applicants than GCEs. The pros and cons of aptitude tests in principle are discussed, focusing on…

  6. An Operational Definition of Learning Disabilities (Cognitive Domain) Using WISC Full Scale IQ and Peabody Individual Achievement Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, Beatrice White; Gilmore, Doug

    An operational index of discrepancy between ability and achievement using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) was tested with 50 male and 10 female legally identified learning disabled (LD) children (mean age 9 years 2 months). Use of the index identified 74% of the males and 30% of the…

  7. Ethnic identity, school connectedness, and achievement in standardized tests among Mexican-origin youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos E; Collins, Mary Ann

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between school connectedness and performance in standardized test scores and whether this association was moderated by ethnic private regard. The study combines self-report data with school district reported data on standardized test scores in reading and math and free and reduced lunch status. Participants included 436 Mexican-origin youth attending a middle school in a southwestern U.S. state. Participants were on average 12.34 years of age (SD = .95) and 51.8% female and 48.2% male. After controlling for age, gender, free and reduced lunch status, and generational status, school connectedness and ethnic private regard were both positive predictors of standardized test scores in reading and math. Results also revealed a significant interaction between school connectedness and ethnic private regard in predicting standardized test scores in reading, such that participants who were low on ethnic private regard and low on school connectedness reported lower levels of achievement compared to participants who were low on ethnic private regard but high on school connectedness. At high levels of ethnic private regard, high or low levels of school connectedness were not associated with higher or lower standardized test scores in reading. The findings in this study provide support for the protective role that ethnic private regard plays in the educational experiences of Mexican-origin youth and highlights how the local school context may play a role in shaping this finding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. High heat flux testing impact on the Tore Supra toroidal pumped limiter achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, J.; Escourbiac, F.; Cordier, J.J.; Mitteau, R.; Durocher, A.; Grosman, A.

    2003-01-01

    The toroidal pumped limiter of Tore Supra is made of 576 elementary high heat flux (HHF) cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) and designed to sustain 10 MW/m 2 in steady state. One of the main technical difficulties is to ensure a high quality of the bond between the carbon fiber composite armor tile and the water-cooled heat sink due to the high thermal stresses that develop at the bond during operation. Consequently, a HHF facility able to reproduce in service operation of PFCs is required all along the development and manufacturing route. In Europe, the FE200 facility (electron beam, 200 kW, France) operating since 1991, was extensively used for such a development. A first testing campaign in 1995 was devoted to the qualification of this bond: AMC technology from Plansee GmbH was selected. Afterwards, a second campaign on scale-one elements (1996) allowed an optimization of the element design and series production to be launched. During the mass production, a non-destructive control process - cheaper and faster than HHF testing - based on infrared characterization was routinely operated on 100% of the manufactured elements. Strong variability of the bond quality was observed and a repair process allowing the replacement of deficient tiles was developed. In 2000 and 2001, 2 campaigns of HHF testing were launched to correlate the non-destructive measurements and to optimize and validate the repair process. This was done, in two steps, with success. This yielded moreover interesting information for qualifying both tests across each other and also to analyze the fatigue evolution of the bond. The qualification and the achievement of the Tore Supra limiter has greatly been made possible by such HHF tests, which appears as essential before and during PFC manufacturing. (authors)

  9. Daily online testing in large classes: boosting college performance while reducing achievement gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Pennebaker

    Full Text Available An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901 brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935. Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses.

  10. English Language Proficiency Tests and Academic Achievement: A Study on the Malaysian University English Test as a Predictor of Technical Programme Undergraduates Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, Nurhazlini; Min, Lau Sing; Sungif, Nur Atiqah Md.; Yusup, Farah Nabillah Mior

    2015-01-01

    In the Malaysian education system, English has always played an important role. In acknowledging its importance, Malaysian University English Test (MUET) has been introduced to enable continued emphasis on this role. MUET has been made compulsory for those who wish to pursue a first degree programme in local universities. This study aims to…

  11. A West Valley Demonstration Project Milestone - Achieving Certification to Ship Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J. P.; Pastor, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) has successfully pretreated and vitrified nearly all of the 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste that was generated at the site of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to have operated in the United States. Low-level waste (LLW) generated during the course of the cleanup effort now requires disposal. Currently the WVDP only ships Class A LLW for off-site disposal. It has been shipping Class A wastes to Envirocare of Utah, Inc. since 1997. However, the WVDP may also have a future need to ship Class B and Class C waste, which Envirocare is not currently authorized to accept. The Nevada Test Site (NTS), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, can accept all three waste classifications. The WVDP set a goal to receive certification to begin shipping Class A wastes to NTS by 2001. Formal certification/approval was granted by the DOE Nevada Operations Office on July 12, 2001. This paper discusses how the WVDP contractor, West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO), completed the activities required to achieve NTS certification in 2001 to ship waste to its facility. The information and lessons learned provided are significant because the WVDP is the only new generator receiving certification based on an NTS audit in January 2001 that resulted in no findings and only two observations--a rating that is unparalleled in the DOE Complex

  12. How many trials are needed to achieve performance stability of the Timed Up & Go test in patients with hip fracture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Ekdahl, Charlotte; Kehlet, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    To examine the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test using a standardized walking aid in patients with hip fracture who are allowed full weight bearing (FWB).......To examine the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test using a standardized walking aid in patients with hip fracture who are allowed full weight bearing (FWB)....

  13. Metropolitan City: the Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Franco Ferrari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the definitions of territorial organization are no longer adequate, the concept of “metropolitan areas” arises as a solution to resolve such deficit. This study shows the beginnings of this figure in Italy and the problems of identification and delimitation caused by the abstraction of the norms, therefore entailing a difficult implementation of the concept of metropolitan cities. By identifying these obstacles, this paper presents an analysis where it is possible to ensure compliance with this new reality in the near future.

  14. Large-scale academic achievement testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E

    2012-01-01

    The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the validity and reliability of using the Stanford for this special student population still require extensive scrutiny. Recent shifts in educational policy environment, which require that schools enable all children to achieve proficiency through accountability testing, warrants a close examination of the adequacy and relevance of the current large-scale testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students. This study has three objectives: (a) it will summarize the historical data over the last three decades to indicate trends in academic achievement for this special population, (b) it will analyze the current federal laws and regulations related to educational testing and special education, thereby identifying gaps between policy and practice in the field, especially identifying the limitations of current testing programs in assessing what deaf and hard-of-hearing students know, and (c) it will offer some insights and suggestions for future testing programs for deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

  15. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  16. A 100% renewable electricity mix? Analyses and optimisations. Testing the boundaries of renewable energy-based electricity development in metropolitan France by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubilly, Anne-Laure; Fournie, Laurent; Chiche, Alice; Faure, Nathalie; Bardet, Regis; Alais, Jean-Christophe; Girard, Robin; Bossavy, Arthur; Le Gars, Loic; Biau, Jean-Baptiste; Piqueras, Ugo; Peyrusse, Colombe

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, ADEME published its energy and climate scenarios for the period 2030 to 2050, suggesting possible avenues to achieve a four-fold reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050 by cutting energy consumption by half and deploying renewable energy sources for electricity generation on a substantial scale. Both of these objectives were the basis for targets set by the President of France and subsequently adopted by Parliament in the Energy Transition Law to promote green growth. With this new study, ADEME submits an exploratory scientific prospective study. Questions of balance between production and demand and cost efficiency of renewable-based electricity mixes are investigated through an advanced optimisation. The electricity mixes are theoretical: they are created from scratch and do not take into account the current situation or the path needed to achieve a 100% renewable-based electricity system. It aims at highlighting the technical measures to be implemented (strengthening grids, load shedding and storage) to support a policy of growth in renewable electricity technologies. It is also be used to identify the key factors for developing renewable technologies at lower cost such as lower costs of technologies, demand-side management, development of flexibility, support of R and D of least-mature technologies and the social acceptance of renewable electricity installations. (authors)

  17. Investigating the Relationship among Test Anxiety, Gender, Academic Achievement and Years of Study: A Case of Iranian EFL University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezazadeh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2009-01-01

    The construct of anxiety plays a major role in one's life. One of these anxieties is test anxiety or apprehension over academic evaluation. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between gender, academic achievement, years of study and levels of test anxiety. This investigation is a descriptive analytic study and was done…

  18. Metropolitan siting: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, D.F.

    1978-09-01

    The paper discusses the development and implementation of the Reactor Site Criteria and particularly the evolving posture of the agency on the subject of metropolitan siting. The review actions on nine sites are described to illustrate the various issues and positions and to clarify at least some of the bases for current practices of the NRC staff

  19. Raising the stakes: How students' motivation for mathematics associates with high- and low-stakes test achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simzar, Rahila M; Martinez, Marcela; Rutherford, Teomara; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M

    2015-04-01

    This study uses data from an urban school district to examine the relation between students' motivational beliefs about mathematics and high- versus low-stakes math test performance. We use ordinary least squares and quantile regression analyses and find that the association between students' motivation and test performance differs based on the stakes of the exam. Students' math self-efficacy and performance avoidance goal orientation were the strongest predictors for both exams; however, students' math self-efficacy was more strongly related to achievement on the low-stakes exam. Students' motivational beliefs had a stronger association at the low-stakes exam proficiency cutoff than they did at the high-stakes passing cutoff. Lastly, the negative association between performance avoidance goals and high-stakes performance showed a decreasing trend across the achievement distribution, suggesting that performance avoidance goals are more detrimental for lower achieving students. These findings help parse out the ways motivation influences achievement under different stakes.

  20. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  1. Effects Of Group Counseling and Behavior Therapy On The Academic Achievement Of Test-Anxious Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kenneth R.; Ng, Kim T.

    1972-01-01

    Results indicated that only significant reductions on test anxiety were obtained for groups given desensitization, but for groups given combinations of desensitization and counseling, improvement occurred in both test anxiety and study skills. (Author)

  2. Design and Achievement of User Interface Automation Testing of Linux Based on Element Tree of DogTail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wen-Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As Linux gets more popular around the world, the advantage of the open source on software makes people do automated UI test by unified testing framework. UI software testing can guarantee the rationality of User Interface of Linux and accuracy of the UI’s widgets. In order to set free from fuzzy and repeated manual testing, and improve efficiency, this paper achieves automation testing of UI under Linux, and proposes a method to identify and test UI widgets under Linux, which is according to element tree of DogTail automaton testing framework. It achieves automation test of UI under Linux. According to this method, Aiming at the product of Red Hat Subscription Manager under Red Hat Enterprise Linux, it designs the automation test plan of this series of product’s dialogs. After many tests, it is indicated that this plan can identify UI widgets accurately and rationally, describe the structure of software clearly, avoid software errors and improve efficiency of the software. Simultaneously, it also can be used in the internationalization testing for checking translation during software internationalization.

  3. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Performance in a State-Wide Test of Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkey, Eric D.; Cutting, Laurie E.; Price, Gavin R.

    2018-01-01

    The development of math skills is a critical component of early education and a strong indicator of later school and economic success. Recent research utilizing population-normed, standardized measures of math achievement suggest that structural and functional integrity of parietal regions, especially the intraparietal sulcus, are closely related…

  4. School Culture, Basic Psychological Needs, Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Achievement: Testing a Casual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Badri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Culture is s common system of believes, values and artifacts that the members of a society use it in their relations, and it transfers from one generation to another. The school culture is a system of norms, meanings and values between school members. One of STD (self-determination theory components is basic psychological needs that emphasizes on Relatedness, Competence and Autonomy to accomplish the motivation. Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior. It seems that school culture, basic psychological needs and motivation has immense effect on academic achievement. The purpose of the present research was to examine the relation between students' perceived school culture, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation and academic achievement in a causal model. 296 high school students (159 females and 137 males in Tabriz, north - west of Iran, participated in this research and completed the students' perceived school culture questionnaire based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions (femininity, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism and power distance, basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results of the path analysis showed that fulfillment of basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation has positive effect on academic achievement. Uncertainty avoidance and power distance have also negative effect on fulfillment of psychological needs, but the influence of femininity on this variable was positive. Also, collectivism has no significant effect on it. In general, the findings showed that if school culture supports students' autonomy, they will experience fulfillment of their basic psychological needs, and attain higher intrinsic motivation and academic achievement.

  5. Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigoli, D; Piek, J.P.; Kane, R; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three

  6. Three decades of development and achievements: the heavy vehicle simulator in accelerated pavement testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available , 1975, 10; Paterson, 1977, 11). The test section length remained at approx. 6m and loads of up to 200 kN were possible. Test wheel speed was about 8 kph, allowing approx. 18000 bi-directional wheel load repetitions per day. At a test wheel load of 40... tanks placed above the aircraft wheel supported by the Bailey Bridge structure. The facility produced useful results but was not mobile. As a result, Van Vuuren in 1972 (6) recommended that, due to atypical construction of test sections...

  7. Socioeconomic Status of Parents and the Achievement of Children on Readiness for School Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Anela Hasanagic

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is often determined like the academic background of parents, and it can be determined like the place of living, village or town, city, as well. Socioeconomic status is an important factor in many aspects of living as in academic achievement as well. Problem in this research paper was to examine whether there are differences between children from different socio-economic status (level of education of parents) and between children from villages and towns, on Readiness f...

  8. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Student Achievement Using Standardized and Performance-Based Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Brad; Matchock, Robert L.; Charles, Eric P.; Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Three groups of undergraduates (42 senior graduating psychology majors, 27 first-year premajors taking introductory psychology, and 24 first-year, high-performing nonmajors taking introductory psychology) completed the Psychology Major Field Test (MFT) and a short-answer (SA) essay test on reasoning about core knowledge in psychology. Graduating…

  9. Contracting for Statewide Student Achievement Tests: A Review. Department of Public Instruction 98-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Legislative Audit Bureau, Madison.

    The Wisconsin legislature has required the Department of Public Instruction to adopt or approve standardized tests for statewide use to measure student attainment of knowledge and concepts in grades 4, 8, and 10. Although school districts generally gave high ratings to the contents of TerraNova (McGraw Hill), the testing instrument most recently…

  10. Achievement Gap Projection for Standardized Testing through Logistic Regression within a Large Arizona School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermeyer, Steven Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades high-stakes testing has become more political than educational. The Districts within Arizona are bound by the mandates of both AZ LEARNS and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. At the time of this writing, both legislative mandates relied on the Arizona Instrument for Measuring Standards (AIMS) as State Tests for gauging…

  11. A Study of the Physical Fitness Test in Relation to Demographics, Academic Achievement, and Students' Physical Fitness Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilia-Jones, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall results of the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and the six fitness areas of the PFT, academic achievement, demographics and self perceptions and the potential impact on students' performance on the PFT. While academic expectations are increasing, the adolescent obesity rate is also increasing, producing a decline in the…

  12. Sisyphean Neoliberal Reforms: The Intractable Mythology of Student Growth and Achievement Master Narratives within the Testing and TFA Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Ari, Teresa; Kavanagh, Kara M.; Martin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Neoliberal discourses defining and measuring "student achievement" and "teacher success" through myopic high-stakes testing-driven criteria for "accountability," can perpetuate the very inequities these reforms purport to address. Nested within a five-year inquiry using grounded theory to investigate experiences of…

  13. Validation of the Spanish Version of the Woodcock-Johnson Mathematics Achievement Tests for Children Aged 6 to 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Pina, Violeta; Valero-Garcia, Ana V.; Gonzalez-Salinas, Carmen; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2012-01-01

    This study validated the four mathematics tests of the Spanish version of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Achievement (ACH) battery for use in the first six grades of school in Spain. Developmental effects and gender differences were also examined. Participants were a normal population sample of 424 (216 boys) children aged 6 to 13 years.…

  14. The Relationship Between Selected Subtests of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude and Second Grade Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Charles; Chambless, Martha

    Relationships between reading achievement and perceptual skills as measured by selected subtests of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude were investigated in a sample of 73 second graders. Verbal opposites, visual memory for designs, and visual attention span for letters were significantly correlated with both word meaning and vocabulary…

  15. Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Mark C.

    The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math…

  16. Effectiveness of Guided Multiple Choice Objective Questions Test on Students' Academic Achievement in Senior School Mathematics by School Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbojinwaekwu, Patrick Chukwuemeka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated, using pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design, the effectiveness of guided multiple choice objective questions test on students' academic achievement in Senior School Mathematics, by school location, in Delta State Capital Territory, Nigeria. The sample comprised 640 Students from four coeducation secondary…

  17. Radon survey in Metropolitan Toronto schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Moridi, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radon testing survey in Metropolitan Toronto public schools was the most intensive project of its kind ever undertaken in Canadian schools. It also included an extensive public education program on radiation and radon-in-schools. The radon levels at 632 schools were measured using the CAIRS Radon Monitors. Ninety percent of the locations measured were found to have a radon level equal to or less than 2 mWL. Two locations in two different schools were found to have a radon level at or above the Action Level (20 mWL). The remaining results were between the two extremes. Follow-up testing in those schools where more than 10 mWL of radon was found is in progress. (author)

  18. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. TIENKEN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries’ rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum’s Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI. The study investigated the existence of relationships between international test rankings from three different time periods during the last 50 years of U.S. education policy development (i.e., 1957–1982, 1983–2000, and 2001–2006 and 2006 GCI ranks. It extends previous research on the topic by investigating how GCI rankings in the top 50 percent and bottom 50 percent relate to rankings on international tests for the countries that participated in each test. The study found that the relationship between ranks on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic strength is stronger among nations with lower-performing economies. Nations with strong economies, such as the United States, demonstrate a weaker, nonsignificant relationship.

  19. Deprivation and mortality in non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, E G

    1996-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that the relationship between deprivation and mortality is weaker among residents of non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales than among residents of metropolitan areas. This study compared mortality, expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), in residents of metropolitan and non-metropolitan districts at three levels of deprivation classified by an electoral ward deprivation score and by home and car ownership. SMRs were computed for all causes of death, for bronchitis and asthma (ICD9 codes 490-493), and for accident, violence, and poisoning (ICD9 codes 800-999). England and Wales. Members of the longitudinal study of the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, a quasi-random 1% sample of the population of England and Wales. There was an association between deprivation and mortality which was clear for all cause mortality, more noticeable for respiratory disease, and less clear for deaths from accident, violence, and poison. In general, the results showed a remarkable similarity between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. This study does not support the hypothesis that the relationship between mortality and deprivation differs between residents of metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas of England and Wales.

  20. Achievement of course outcome in vector calculus pre-test questions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract. Keywords: pre-test; course outcome; bloom taxanomy; Rasch measurement model; vector calculus. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  1. Assessing Resilience in Students Who Are Deaf or Blind: Supplementing Standardized Achievement Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle A.; Katayama, Andrew D.; Schindling, Casey; Dials, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Although testing accommodations for standardized assessments are available for students with disabilities, interpretation remains challenging. The authors explored resilience to see if it could contribute to the interpretation of academic success for students who are deaf or hard of hearing or blind or have low vision. High school students (30…

  2. Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Markus; Kronberger, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on…

  3. Rankings of International Achievement Test Performance and Economic Strength: Correlation or Conjecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2008-01-01

    Examining a popular political notion, this article presents results from a series of Spearman Rho calculations conducted to investigate relationships between countries' rankings on international tests of mathematics and science and future economic competitiveness as measured by the 2006 World Economic Forum's Growth Competitiveness Index (GCI).…

  4. Non-Destructive Testing for Building Diagnostics and Monitoring: Experience Achieved with Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavukçuoğlu Ayşe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Building inspection on site, in other words in-situ examinations of buildings is a troublesome work that necessitates the use of non-destructive investigation (NDT techniques. One of the main concerns of non-destructive testing studies is to improve in-situ use of NDT techniques for diagnostic and monitoring studies. The quantitative infrared thermography (QIRT and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV measurements have distinct importance in that regard. The joint use of QIRT and ultrasonic testing allows in-situ evaluation and monitoring of historical structures and contemporary ones in relation to moisture, thermal, materials and structural failures while the buildings themselves remain intact. For instances, those methods are useful for detection of visible and invisible cracks, thermal bridges and damp zones in building materials, components and functional systems as well as for soundness assessment of materials and thermal performance assessment of building components. In addition, those methods are promising for moisture content analyses in materials and monitoring the success of conservation treatments or interventions in structures. The in-situ NDT studies for diagnostic purposes should start with the mapping of decay forms and scanning of building surfaces with infrared images. Quantitative analyses are shaped for data acquisition on site and at laboratory from representative sound and problem areas in structures or laboratory samples. Laboratory analyses are needed to support in-situ examinations and to establish the reference data for better interpretation of in situ data. Advances in laboratory tests using IRT and ultrasonic testing are guiding for in-situ materials investigations based on measurable parameters. The knowledge and experience on QIRT and ultrasonic testing are promising for the innovative studies on today’s materials technologies, building science and conservation/maintenance practices. Such studies demand a multi

  5. Quality control of achieved results of testings in interlaboratory reference measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Matel, L.; Rajec, P.

    2009-01-01

    The laboratory accredited according to the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 must ensure the quality of reported results including corresponding uncertainty. The important point of view of correct evaluation of results is precision and uncertainty. The validation of a method is an experimental verification and an objective proof that the method is suitable for planned application. The most frequent way of validation is a participation in an intercomparison test. LARCHA laboratory regularly participates in the proficiency tests on the determination of gamma, beta and alpha emitting radionuclides in various matrices. It is also a proof for the laboratory and client that the methods for radionuclides determination are validated according to the rules of ISO/IEC 17025:2005. (authors)

  6. The influence of population on the economic efficiency of the metropolitan governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    the expected value when implementing different metropolitan governance model. If the comparison showed the non-optimality of the implemented model for some index of the economic growth, then the values of the economic growth in the metropolitan area and the national average were compared. As a result, a recommendationwas given for the metropolitan area on the degree of need for the management reform and an optimal metropolitan governance model was selected.Results. Based on the revealed regularities, we have created a methodical approach to choose the optimal model of metropolitan governance according to the population size. It can be used as a tool to justify metropolitan governance reform. The advantage of the approach is the use of real quantitative data that reduces the degree of subjectivity in decision-making Conclusion. The methodical approach is tested on the example of eightmetropolitan areas (Lublin, Palermo, Krakow, Paris, Stuttgart, Madrid, Geneva, and Linz. It was revealed that there is no metropolitan governance model, which is always more efficient for all objects. As the result of the analysis for Geneva, the degree of need for management reforms was described as “high” with a recommendation for a transition to a decentralized metropolitan governance model. For Linz, Stuttgart and Madrid, the degree of need for reform is characterized as “low” with a recommendation for a transition to decentralization (Stuttgart and centralization (Linz and Madrid. The rest of the metropolitan areas of the sample do not need reforms.

  7. The Role of Principal Leadership in Achievement beyond Test Scores: An Examination of Leadership, Differentiated Curriculum and High-Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Danielle F.

    2013-01-01

    Though research has validated a link between principal leadership and student achievement, questions remain regarding the specific relationship between the principal and high-achieving learners. This association facilitates understanding about forming curricular decisions for high ability learners. The study was conducted to examine the perceived…

  8. COMPUTER TESTING AS A METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF STUDENTS ON BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY IN MEDICAL UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petushok N. E.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Assessment of students' knowledge is one of the key tasks of any educational system. The aim of the study is to identify the significance of testing in a multipurpose system of means of assessing students' knowledge. Material and methods. Statistic analysis of the relationship of the results of computer testing, the examination score and the average annual score. Results. A positive correlation was revealed between all pairs of the compared indicators. For students of the Faculty of General Medicine high strength of relationship was noted for the average annual score ↔ examination score and testing ↔ examination score. For students of the Medical Faculty for International Students, the tendencies of interdependence of the indicators are similar, the strength of relationship is less pronounced. Conclusions. Computer testing should be used in complex with other tools of assessment of academic achievements.

  9. Request of laboratory liver tests in primary care in Spain: potential savings if appropriateness indicator targets were achieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Uris, Joaquín; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Liver laboratory tests are used to screen for liver disease, suggest the underlying cause, estimate the severity, assess prognosis, and monitor the efficacy of therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the liver laboratory tests requesting patterns by GPs in Spain, according to geographic and hospital characteristics, to investigate the degree of requesting appropriateness. One hundred and forty-one clinical laboratories were invited to participate from diverse regions across Spain. They filed out the number of laboratory liver tests requested by GPs for the year 2012. Two types of appropriateness indicators were calculated: every test request per 1000 inhabitants or ratios of related tests requests. The indicator results obtained were compared between the different hospitals, according to their setting, location, and management. The savings generated, if each area would have achieved indicator targets, were calculated. We recruited 76 laboratories covering a population of 17,679,195 inhabitants. GPs requested 20,916,780 laboratory liver tests in the year 2012. No differences were obtained according to their setting. Lactate dehydrogenase and direct bilirubin per 1000 inhabitants were significantly higher in institutions with private management. Largest differences were observed between communities. Nine, 31, 0, and 13 laboratories, respectively, achieved the aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and total bilirubin-related alanine aminotransferase indicator targets. Reaching ratios would have resulted in savings of €1,028,468. There was a high variability in the request of liver tests. This emphasizes the need to implement interventions to improve appropriate use of liver tests.

  10. Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs

  11. Relating children's attentional capabilities to intelligence, memory, and academic achievement: a test of construct specificity in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Robert D; Bender, Bruce G; Gordon, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between attention, intelligence, memory, achievement, and behavior in a large population (N = 939) of children without neuropsychologic problems was investigated in children with mild and moderate asthma. It was hypothesized that different levels of children's attentional capabilities would be associated with different levels of intellectual, memory, and academic abilities. Children ages 6-12 at the eight clinical centers of the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) were enrolled in this study. Standardized measures of child neuropsychological and behavioral performance were administered to all participants, with analyses examining both the developmental trajectory of child attentional capabilities and the associations between Continuous Performance Test (CPT) scores and intellectual functioning, and measures of memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning. Findings demonstrated that correct responses on the CPT increase significantly with age, while commission errors decrease significantly with age. Performance levels on the CPT were associated with differences in child intellectual function, memory, and academic achievement. Overall these findings reveal how impairments in child attention skills were associated with normal levels of performance on measures of children's intelligence, memory, academic achievement, and behavioral functioning, suggesting that CPT performance is a salient marker of brain function.

  12. Premises for Shaping Metropolitan Areas in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAULARIAN RUSU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The setting up of metropolitan areas is a process which is still in progress in Romania. The legislative framework for the creation of these areas has been built up only since 2001, and there are still a number of juridical inconsistencies concerning the association of administrative units to form metropolitan areas. On the other hand, political reasons and the fear of losing a certain degree of authority and to become subordinates of the large cities (in the case of rural municipalities also hindered the development of metropolitan areas in Romania. Nevertheless, the metropolitan areas already in existence are running a number of projects that are beneficial for most members of the association. Such positive examples may trigger the creation of the other metropolitan areas. Although the existing metropolitan areas did not yield spectacular results, the time passed since their foundation is yet too short to correctly assess their usefulness and territorial meaning. For the moment, the following metropolitan areas exist in Romania: Iaşi, Oradea, Braşov, Constanţa, Bacău, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureş and Craiova. Bucharest, Timişoara, Ploieşti and Galaţi-Brăila metropolitan areas are still in process of setting up.

  13. The Challenge of Forecasting Metropolitan Growth: Urban Characteristics Based Models versus Regional Dummy Based Models

    OpenAIRE

    NA

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a study of errors in forecasting the population of Metropolitan Statistical Areas and the Primary MSAs of Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas and New England MAs. The forecasts are for the year 2000 and are based on a semi-structural model estimated by Mills and Lubelle using 1970 to 1990 census data on population, employment and relative real wages. This model allows the testing of regional effects on population and employment growth. The year 2000 forecasts are f...

  14. Addressing Achievement Gaps: Educational Testing in America: State Assessments, Achievement Gaps, National Policy and Innovations. ETS Policy Notes. Volume 17, Number 1, Winter 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Deborah; Coley, Richard J., Ed.; Pliskin, Richard, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Annual standardized testing lies at the heart of the accountability system that American education reformers and policymakers have established during the past decade in an effort to ensure equal opportunity for all students, no matter their race, ethnicity or wealth. The new testing regime has brought national attention to the schooling of…

  15. Green Urbanism for the Greener Future of Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Widawski, Krzysztof

    2016-10-01

    Intensive urbanization is swallowing municipal green areas which causes intensification of erosion, decrease in biodiversity and permanent fragmentation of habitats. In the face of these changes, a risk of irreversible damages to urban ecosystems is growing. That is why planning of solutions within the framework of Green Urbanism in metropolitan areas inhabited by over 55% of the global population is of extraordinary importance. The task of the paper is to present patterns of the Green Urbanism using selected examples of metropolitan areas as case studies. The main goal of the research is to make comparison between GU practices in different countries, in various spatial settings. The principles of triple zero framework: zero fossil-fuel energy use, zero waste, zero emissions (from low-to-no-carbon emissions) introduce not only the contemporary trends in theoretical urban planning but are dictated by practical considerations to create a healthy environment for a healthy society with a minimized environmental footprint. The research results help to identify Green Urbanism techniques used for multiple functions, including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic and other uses and present opportunities for implementation of Green Urbanism solutions in metropolitan areas. To achieve healthier society and environment, highly congested and polluted cities have to be recreated through working with the existing landscape, topography and natural resources particular to the site.

  16. New achievements of the Divertor Test Platform programme for the ITER divertor remote maintenance R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, C.; Baldi, L.; Galbiati, L.; Irving, M.; Lorenzelli, L.; Micciche, G.; Muro, L.; Nucci, S.; Varocchi, G.; Poggianti, A.; Fermani, G.; Maisonnier, D.; Palmer, J.; Martin, E.; Friconneau, J.P.; Gravez, P.; Takeda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The divertor assembly for the ITER fusion reactor consists of a number of rail mounted cassettes (54 now in ITER FEAT) located in the bottom region of the vacuum vessel. These cassettes shall be removed/installed remotely during the life of the reactor by means of specific devices. To demonstrate and optimise the feasibility of the in-vessel maintenance process the Divertor Test Platform (DTP) has been established at the ENEA Research Centre in Brasimone, Italy, as a major part of the large ITER R and D project L7. A first set of tests has been already carried out and reported during 1998, when the basic feasibility of the divertor replacement was demonstrated. In the present period (January 1999-July 2000), new activities, including both site tests and other 'external' R and D works, have been carried out in order to refine and improve the ITER divertor maintenance scenario. These include the study of abnormal maintenance operations and of possible handling equipment failure and its consequences; the procurement and testing of new sub-systems (e.g. a force reflection manipulator arm), and the development of remote handling techniques including a virtual reality system. Following a short description of the DTP, this paper reports on the new results and achievements, draws the relevant conclusions, and finally discusses future activities

  17. Broadband availability in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Wood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years having a broadband connection has become essential for many Internet activities. As broadband increases in importance, it becomes imperative to assess how its use and availability may vary, especially in relation to issues such as geographic location. For rural areas in particular, the availability of broadband service is especially important. This research assesses broadband service availability in rural areas of Pennsylvania, USA. In particular, it examines the extent to which Digital Subscriber Line (DSL and broadband cable modem services are being deployed throughout rural Pennsylvania. It compares this deployment with the availability of such services in the state’s urban and metropolitan areas. The results of this research suggest that there is a “digital divide” in terms of broadband availability between rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. However, this “divide” is perhaps not as wide as might be expected. Thus, as broadband is becoming increasingly available in rural areas of the U.S. and throughout much of the rest of the world, this research concludes that while research must remain vigilant in terms of assessing advanced telecommunications availability in rural areas, future research should also be sure to focus on how such technologies can be used to promote economic and social concerns, including in relation to building online networks and diminishing social and professional isolation in rural areas.

  18. Development and validation of an achievement test in introductory quantum mechanics: The Quantum Mechanics Visualization Instrument (QMVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataloglu, Erdat

    The purpose of this study was to construct a valid and reliable multiple-choice achievement test to assess students' understanding of core concepts of introductory quantum mechanics. Development of the Quantum Mechanics Visualization Instrument (QMVI) occurred across four successive semesters in 1999--2001. During this time 213 undergraduate and graduate students attending the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) at University Park and Arizona State University (ASU) participated in this development and validation study. Participating students were enrolled in four distinct groups of courses: Modern Physics, Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics, Graduate Quantum Mechanics, and Chemistry Quantum Mechanics. Expert panels of professors of physics experienced in teaching quantum mechanics courses and graduate students in physics and science education established the core content and assisted in the validating of successive versions of the 24-question QMVI. Instrument development was guided by procedures outlined in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA-APA-NCME, 1999). Data gathered in this study provided information used in the development of successive versions of the QMVI. Data gathered in the final phase of administration of the QMVI also provided evidence that the intended score interpretation of the QMVI achievement test is valid and reliable. A moderate positive correlation coefficient of 0.49 was observed between the students' QMVI scores and their confidence levels. Analyses of variance indicated that students' scores in Graduate Quantum Mechanics and Undergraduate Quantum Mechanics courses were significantly higher than the mean scores of students in Modern Physics and Chemistry Quantum Mechanics courses (p important factor for students in acquiring a successful understanding of quantum mechanics.

  19. Towards 20 A negative hydrogen ion beams for up to 1 h: Achievements of the ELISE test facility (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.; Wünderlich, D.; Riedl, R.; Kraus, W.; Nocentini, R.; Bonomo, F.

    2016-01-01

    The large-scale RF-driven ion source of the test facility extraction from a large ion source experiment is aimed to deliver an accelerated ion current of 20 A D − (23 A H − ) with an extracted electron-to-ion ratio below one for up to 1 h. Since the first plasma pulses for 20 s in volume operation in early 2013, followed by caesiation of the ion source, substantial progress has been achieved in extending the pulse length and the RF power. The record pulses in hydrogen are stable 400 s pulses with an extracted ion current of 18.3 A at 180 kW total RF power and 9.3 A at 80 kW stable for 1 h. For deuterium pulse, length and RF power are limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons

  20. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1995 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project.......The annual report describes the research carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1995. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners including DTU is involved in the project....

  1. Metropolitan Optical Networks 1996 Annual Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Jouanno, Jean-Marc; Malone, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC.......The report desribes the reasearch carried out in the ACTS-project METON (Metropolitan Optical Networks) in 1996. L.M. Ericsson is prime contractor and 12 partners are involved in the project including DTU, i.e. EMI and MIC....

  2. Some Remarks on Practical Aspects of Laboratory Testing of Deep Soil Mixing Composites Achieved in Organic Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanty, Piotr; Rybak, Jarosław; Stefaniuk, Damian

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory testing of organic soil-cement samples are presented in the paper. The research program continues previously reported the authors’ experiences with cement-fly ash-soil sample testing. Over 100 of compression and a dozen of tension tests have been carried out altogether. Several samples were waiting for failure test for over one year after they were formed. Several factors, like: the large amount of the tested samples, a long observation time, carrying out the tests in complex cycles of loading and the possibility of registering the loads and deformation in the axial and lateral direction - have made it possible to take into consideration numerous interdependencies, three of which have been presented in this work: the increments of compression strength, the stiffness of soil-cement in relation to strength and the tensile strength. Compressive strength, elastic modulus and tensile resistance of cubic samples were examined. Samples were mixed and stored in the laboratory conditions. Further numerical analysis in the Finite Element Method numerical code Z_Soil, were performed on the basis of laboratory test results. Computations prove that cement-based stabilization of organic soil brings serious risks (in terms of material capacity and stiffness) and Deep Soil Mixing technology should not be recommended for achieving it. The numerical analysis presented in the study below includes only one type of organic and sandy soil and several possible geometric combinations. Despite that, it clearly points to the fact that designing the DSM columns in the organic soil may be linked with a considerable risk and the settlement may reach too high values. During in situ mixing, the organic material surrounded by sand layers surely mixes with one another in certain areas. However, it has not been examined and it is difficult to assume such mixing already at the designing stage. In case of designing the DSM columns which goes through a

  3. The relationship between academic self-concept, intrinsic motivation, test anxiety, and academic achievement among nursing students: mediating and moderating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, Rabia

    2015-03-01

    The impact of cognitive factors on academic achievement is well documented. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating effects of non-cognitive, motivational and situational factors on academic achievement among nursing students. The aim of this study is to explore the direct and/or indirect effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement, and examine whether intrinsic motivation moderates the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. This descriptive-correlational study was carried out on a convenience sample of 170 undergraduate nursing students, in an academic college in northern Israel. Academic motivation, academic self-concept and test anxiety scales were used as measuring instruments. Bootstrapping with resampling strategies was used for testing multiple mediators' model and examining the moderator effect. A higher self-concept was found to be directly related to greater academic achievement. Test anxiety and intrinsic motivation were found to be significant mediators in the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. In addition, intrinsic motivation significantly moderated the negative effect of test anxiety on academic achievement. The results suggested that institutions should pay more attention to the enhancement of motivational factors (e.g., self-concept and motivation) and alleviate the negative impact of situational factors (e.g., test anxiety) when offering psycho-educational interventions designed to improve nursing students' academic achievements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Avaliação educacional por meio do teste iar em escolares com cegueira Scholastic achievement assessment of blind students using the iar test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rabello

    2007-08-01

    the study. During a six month period the students were assessed using the Instrument to Assess Basic Literacy Repertoire (IAR; the instrument was transcribed in Braille, also having raised images when applicable. Results of the IAR application showed that T.A.M. achieved 100% accuracy for all concepts; A.M. and D.A.C. achieved 100% accuracy for body scheme, laterality and word verbalization; D.A.C. achieved 50% for the concepts of position, size and quantity; A.M. achieved 50% for hearing discrimination; D.A.C. obtained a rate of less than 50% for concepts of direction, space, shape, tactile discrimination, hearing discrimination, analysis/synthesis and fine motor coordination; A.M. also achieved less than 50% success rate for direction, tactile discrimination, analysis/synthesis and fine motor coordination concepts. As to applicability, the IAR Test was shown to be effective in assessing blind students; it offers useful orientation to professionals and family members who wish to adopt stimulation and strategies that enhance their development.

  5. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    recovery, and life recovery. The primary target for long-term recovery, we propose, should be life recovery. To achieve this, economic recovery should be realized to secure sustainable economic growth. As the tool for economic recovery, physical recovery should deals with restoration of infrastructure, a proper land use planning, and the provision of housing for the victims. Fig. 1 The worst case scenario of Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake

  7. The Black-White-Other Test Score Gap: Academic Achievement among Mixed Race Adolescents. Institute for Policy Research Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Melissa R.

    This paper describes the achievement patterns of a sample of 1,492 multiracial high school students and examines how their achievement fits into existing theoretical models that explain monoracial differences in achievement. These theoretical models include status attainment, parenting style, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes. The…

  8. Teaching Language Minority Students in Los Angeles and Oslo--A Metropolitan Perspective nr 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor; Özerk, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Receiving, accommodation and education of children with immigrant background is one of the challenging issues in almost all the metropolitan areas in many countries. In our study we are exploring the impact of demographic changes on political agendas, legal frames, educational approaches, research findings and student achievement in the field of…

  9. Diversity and Educational Challenges in Oslo and Los Angeles--A Metropolitan Perspective nr 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özerk, Kamil; Kerchner, Charles Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Receiving, accommodation and education of children with immigrant background is one of the challenging issues in almost all the metropolitan areas in many countries. In our study we are exploring the impact of demographic changes on political agendas, legal frames, educational approaches, research findings and student achievement in the field of…

  10. Quality Teaching in Addressing Student Achievement: A Comparative Study between National Board Certified Teachers and Other Teachers on the Kentucky Core Content Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecker, Harrie Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the link between quality teaching and its potential impact on student achievement. National Board Certification is used to represent quality teaching and student achievement is measured by the Kentucky Core Content Test. Data were gathered on the reading and mathematics scores of students of National Board Teachers who…

  11. How do parent expectations promote child academic achievement in early elementary school? A test of three mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin-Presnal, John; Bierman, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    Using a longitudinal mediation framework and a low-income sample, this study had 2 aims: (a) to model bidirectional associations between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes from first through fifth grade, and (b) to explore 3 mediators of parental influence: parent involvement in child schooling, child learning behaviors, and child perceived academic competence. Participants included 356 children and their caregivers (89% mothers) recruited from Head Start centers (58% European American, 25% African American, 17% Latino). At each time point (grades 1, 2, 3, 5), parents rated their academic expectations, teachers rated parent involvement and child learning behaviors, and children rated their self-perceptions of their academic competence. Bidirectional longitudinal associations emerged between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes. Child learning behaviors mediated this association from first to third grade, whereas child perceived academic competence mediated from second to fifth grade. Parallel cross-lagged models replicated these findings with child academic outcomes assessed using a test of reading achievement and teacher ratings of academic performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Metropolitan planning from an international comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Grønning, Marius

    2016-01-01

    policies, and thus also to the instrumental orientation within planning. A challenge stemming from this comparison is to understand how similar policies are implemented at a strategic and metropolitan level. Within the institutional framework of Copenhagen, the problem with the Finger Plan directive might...... (Faludi & van der Valk, 1994), thus integrating the archetypal land-use character of municipal plans and the strategic and growth-oriented pursuit of regional plans. A number of questions may be deduced: How explicit is the metropolitan scale? How local and how regional is the knowledge basis? Within......Over the last few years new practices of spatial strategy making at different planning scales have emerged. At the metropolitan level, such spatial strategies are reminiscent of national and supranational competitive strategies (e.g. EU policies) as well as ratifications of international...

  13. Potential for air quality improvement in the Tokyo metropolitan area from use of hydrogen fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, Paul; Murdock, Mork

    1998-01-01

    A revised estimation has been made of the local air quality improvement that can be achieved in Tokyo as a byproduct of a word-wide hydrogen energy economy based on global reduction of CO2 emission from fossil fuels. The study for the WE-NET Project in Japan examined the potential for reduction in nitrogen oxide emission with hydrogen fuel in the Tokyo metropolitan area where sufficient data exist on trends in population, vehicle registrations, traffic activity, and exhaust emissions. A dynamic model was developed to extrapolate the trends in these data to estimate future NOx emission rates in comparison to regulatory scenarios based on policy and technical decisions of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government for improvement of air quality in the metropolitan area. The results of the model show significant potential for reduction of NOx emission by the year 2020 with a concomitant reduction in mean roadside NOx concentration. (author)

  14. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  15. Do Inequalities in Parents' Education Play an Important Role in PISA Students' Mathematics Achievement Test Score Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Lurdes; Veiga, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This paper measures and decomposes socioeconomic-related inequality in mathematics achievement in 15 European Union member states. Data is taken from the 2003 wave of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). There is socioeconomic-related inequality in mathematics achievement, favoring the higher socioeconomic groups in each…

  16. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  17. A New Approach to Response Sets in Analysis of a Test of Motivation to Achieve. A Section of the Final Report for 1969-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; Ballif, Bonnie L.

    Gumpgookies, an objective-projective test of school achievement motivation for children 3 1/2 to 8 year, was reduced from 100 to 75 items following extensive factor analyses. This revised test attempted to dissipate the effects of response sets of the subjects and was prepared in three versions--an individual form, a group form for non-readers,…

  18. Changing Housing Patterns in Metropolitan Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, George; Grier, Eunice

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, summarizes extensive studies of changing minority residential patterns in metropolitan Washington and less extensive studies of other groups; the prospects for future desegregation and for using the growing economic potential of minority families…

  19. Engaging with sustainability issues in metropolitan Chennai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, L.; Varrel, A.; Denis, E.; Dupont, V.; Dhanalakshmi, R.; Roumeau, S.; Baud, I.; Pfeffer, K.; Sridharan, N.; Vijayabaskar, M.; Suresh Babu, M.; Seifelislam, A.; Rouanet, H.; Saharan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Chennai is the largest metropolitan city in South India (8.7 million in 2011) and the provincial capital of the large state of Tamil Nadu (population 72 million in 2011). Before that, under British rule, the city was the capital of the Madras Presidency, and was known as Madras until 1996, when the

  20. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  1. Reconceptualization Sexuality and Rethinking Homophobia in Metropolitan Campus Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Caglar

    2017-01-01

    The Metropolitan city gives non-metropolitan students an opportunity to meet new social groups. In this article, the perceptions of sexuality of those students who come from provincial areas to a metropolitan city for university education are examined within a framework of semi-structured interviews. The study on which this article is based used a…

  2. Spatial variations in US poverty: beyond metropolitan and non-metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Kleit, Rachel Garshick; Cover, Jane; Fowler, Christopher S

    2012-01-01

    Because poverty in rural and urban areas of the US often has different causes, correlates and solutions, effective anti-poverty policies depend on a thorough understanding of the ruralness or urbanness of specific places. This paper compares several widely used classification schemes and the varying magnitudes of poverty that they reveal in the US. The commonly used ‘metropolitan/non-metropolitan’ distinction obscures important socioeconomic differences among metropolitan areas, making our understanding of the geography of poverty imprecise. Given the number and concentration of poor people living in mixed-rural and rural counties in metropolitan regions, researchers and policy-makers need to pay more nuanced attention to the opportunities and constraints such individuals face. A cross-classification of the Office of Management and Budget’s metro system with a nuanced RUDC scheme is the most effective for revealing the geographical complexities of poverty within metropolitan areas.

  3. Effects of Concept Map Extraction and a Test-Based Diagnostic Environment on Learning Achievement and Learners' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Liew, Keng-Hou; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Computerised testing and diagnostics are critical challenges within an e-learning environment, where the learners can assess their learning performance through tests. However, a test result based on only a single score is insufficient information to provide a full picture of learning performance. In addition, because test results implicitly…

  4. Leadership, Self-Efficacy, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the "Leadership Behavior Description Question" (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969),…

  5. Behavior problems and children’s academic achievement: A test of growth-curve models with gender and racial differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kristen P.; Flower, Andrea; Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between externalizing and internalizing behavior and children’s academic achievement, particularly in terms of whether these variables varied as a function of gender and race. Data pertaining to externalizing and internalizing behavior, academic achievement, gender, and race from three waves of the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 2028) were used. Results indicate that behavior problems had a negative relationship with academic performance and some of these associations endured over time. Externalizing behavior impacted reading scores more negatively for females compared to males at baseline, but the impact of externalizing behavior on long-term reading outcomes did not vary by gender. Externalizing behavior impacted reading scores more negatively for Black children than White children at multiple points in time. Differences between males, females, Black, and White children concerning behavior and achievement are explained. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future research are also presented. PMID:28529397

  6. Urban heat island effect on cicada densities in metropolitan Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Q. Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Urban heat island (UHI effect, the ubiquitous consequence of urbanization, is considered to play a major role in population expansion of numerous insects. Cryptotympana atrata and Hyalessa fuscata are the most abundant cicada species in the Korean Peninsula, where their population densities are higher in urban than in rural areas. We predicted a positive relationship between the UHI intensities and population densities of these two cicada species in metropolitan Seoul. Methods To test this prediction, enumeration surveys of cicada exuviae densities were conducted in 36 localities located within and in the vicinity of metropolitan Seoul. Samples were collected in two consecutive periods from July to August 2015. The abundance of each species was estimated by two resource-weighted densities, one based on the total geographic area, and the other on the total number of trees. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors critical for the prevalence of cicada species in the urban habitat. Results C. atrata and H. fuscata were major constituents of cicada species composition collected across all localities. Minimum temperature and sampling period were significant factors contributing to the variation in densities of both species, whereas other environmental factors related to urbanization were not significant. More cicada exuviae were collected in the second rather than in the first samplings, which matched the phenological pattern of cicadas in metropolitan Seoul. Cicada population densities increased measurably with the increase in temperature. Age of residential complex also exhibited a significantly positive correlation to H. fuscata densities, but not to C. atrata densities. Discussion Effects of temperature on cicada densities have been discerned from other environmental factors, as cicada densities increased measurably in tandem with elevated temperature. Several mechanisms may contribute to the abundance of

  7. Testing the Digital Divide: Does Access to High-Quality Use of Technology in Schools Affect Student Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Gregory Keith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between access, use of technology and student achievement in public middle schools in Maryland. The objective of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in access and utilization of technology based on student characteristics of race, socioeconomic status, and gender) exists among…

  8. The Grasshopper and the Ant: Motivational Responses of Low-Achieving Students to High-Stakes Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Melissa; Engel, Mimi

    2001-01-01

    Examined the responses of 102 low achieving sixth and eighth graders to Chicago's highly publicized efforts to end social promotion. Students generally described increased work efforts, and students with high levels of work effort generally had greater than average learning gains and positive outcomes in terms of promotion. About one-third of…

  9. A Test of Leading Explanations for the College Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gap: Evidence from a Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan D.; Spenner, Kenneth I; Mustillo, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined racial/ethnic differences in grade point average (GPA) among students at a highly selective, private university who were surveyed before matriculation and during the first, second and fourth college years, and assessed prominent explanations for the Black-White and Latino-White college achievement gap. We found that…

  10. Design and Scale Isses in the New Metropolitan City: a study of the south-east homogeneous zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mussinelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the new Metropolitan City and recent anti-sprawl legislations form part of a new urban regeneration initiative. In this context, the goal of the current research is to provide spatial forecasts, guidelines for governance, and economic feasibility scenarios for revitalisation work. The research is centred on the Milan Metropolitan area. In addition to exploring certain theories of regeneration and resilience, this paper reinstates the practice of spatial analysis of abandoned industrial areas at a metropolitan scale and identifies boundaries, environments, and issues for meta-design testing based on public initiatives aimed at increasing socio-economic resilience for the south-east sector of the Milanese metropolitan area. 

  11. Urban mobility regulation in metropolitan area of Mendoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Martínez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving the paradigm of sustainable urban mobility requires institutional capacities, appropriate policies and a regulatory framework that contains them. This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the regulation of urban mobility in the metropolitan area of Mendoza. To this end, the current mobility regulations are assessed through indicators that are classified into three key areas: institutional and political organization, urban system and financial setup. The purpose is to account for the existence, or not, of regulatory capacities contained in the paradigm of sustainable mobility. Among the results, the absence of a policy of sustainable urban mobility is noteworthy, as well as the lack of sectorial coordination. Also of note is the absence of coordination between the urban planning system and the public transport provision. Lastly, in the financial sector, the results point to a promotion of sustainable transport modes but without such an explicit purpose.

  12. Comparative Risk Analysis for Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Wang, S. F.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional solid waste management planning usually focuses on economic optimization, in which the related environmental impacts or risks are rarely considered. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the methodology of how optimization concepts and techniques can be applied to structure and solve risk management problems such that the impacts of air pollution, leachate, traffic congestion, and noise increments can be regulated in the iong-term planning of metropolitan solid waste management systems. Management alternatives are sequentially evaluated by adding several environmental risk control constraints stepwise in an attempt to improve the management strategies and reduce the risk impacts in the long run. Statistics associated with those risk control mechanisms are presented as well. Siting, routing, and financial decision making in such solid waste management systems can also be achieved with respect to various resource limitations and disposal requirements.

  13. Threats to Validity When Using Open-Ended Items in International Achievement Studies: Coding Responses to the PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Test in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arffman, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Open-ended (OE) items are widely used to gather data on student performance in international achievement studies. However, several factors may threaten validity when using such items. This study examined Finnish coders' opinions about threats to validity when coding responses to OE items in the PISA 2012 problem-solving test. A total of 6…

  14. Is Blended e-Learning as Measured by an Achievement Test and Self-Assessment Better than Traditional Classroom Learning for Vocational High School Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Shu, Kuen-Ming; Liang, Chaoyun; Tseng, Ju-Shih; Hsu, Yu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of blended e-learning on electrical machinery performance (achievement test and self-assessment). Participants were two classes of 11th graders majoring in electrical engineering and taking the electrical machinery class at a vocational high school in Taiwan. The participants were randomly…

  15. Barriers to Mathematics Achievement in Brunei Secondary School Students: Insights into the Roles of Mathematics Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Proactive Coping, and Test Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Malai Hayati Sheikh; Shahrill, Masitah; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The cross-sectional field survey examined the roles of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping, and test stress in mathematics achievement among 204 (151 females) randomly selected Year 8-10 Brunei secondary school students. The negative dimensions of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, and proactive coping correlated negatively with…

  16. Air pollution holiday effect in metropolitan Kaohsiung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.; Chen, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Different from Taipei, the metropolitan Kaohsiung which is a coastal and industrial city has the major pollution sources from stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants, petrochemical facilities and steel plants, rather than mobile sources. This study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, over the Kaohsiung metropolitan area. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where concentrations of NOx, CO, NMHC, SO2 and PM10 were significantly different between holidays and non-holidays, in the Kaohsiung metropolitan area from daily surface measurements of seven air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2010. Concentrations of the five pollutants were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, however, that of O3 was higher in the CNY than in the NCNY period and had no holiday effect. The exclusion of the bad air quality day (PSI > 100) and the Lantern Festival Day showed no significant effects on the holiday effects of air pollutants. Ship transportation data of Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau showed a statistically significant difference in the CNY and NCNY period. This difference was consistent with those found in air pollutant concentrations of some industrial and general stations in coastal areas, implying the possible impact of traffic activity on the air quality of coastal areas. Holiday effects of air pollutants over the Taipei metropolitan area by Tan et al. (2009) are also compared.

  17. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  18. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  19. Socio-motivational moderators – Two sides of the same coin?Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eHoferichter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive and test anxiety in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = .53, age span 12–15 years from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = .82, age span 12–16 years were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and test anxiety. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations (MGLMS were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of test anxiety related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of achievement drive; intensifying or mitigating feelings of test anxiety. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985. Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of achievement drive and test anxiety: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.

  20. Polycentric Metropolitan Form: Application of a ‘Northern’ Concept in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Romein

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid 20th century, large urban areas in advanced economies have experienced a fundamental transformation from relatively compact monocentric cities towards more extended polycentric metropolitan areas. By now, it is being commented repeatedly, but not investigated systematically that the concept of polycentricity is also adequate to characterise recent metropolitan dynamics in Latin-America.This paper aims to present a few key-issues for a future research agenda into polycentricity in Latin-American metropolitan areas. These elements are identified from a review of existing literature. Since no clear-cut definition and operationalisation of polycentricity exist yet, we distinguish some key-elements of this phenomenon in North America as a frame of reference for this review. It reveals that ‘polycentricity U.S. style’ is at best dawning in Latin-America. In order to achieve a more appropriate picture of polycentricity of Latin American metropolitan areas, our ideas for a research agenda take into account these areas typical economic, social and spatial conditions.

  1. Longitudinal relations among inattention, working memory, and academic achievement: testing mediation and the moderating role of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Gray

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral inattention, working memory (WM, and academic achievement share significant variance, but the direction of relationships across development is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine whether WM mediates the pathway between inattentive behaviour and subsequent academic outcomes.Methods. 204 students from grades 1–4 (49.5% female were recruited from elementary schools. Participants received assessments of WM and achievement at baseline and one year later. WM measures included a visual-spatial storage task and auditory-verbal storage and manipulation tasks. Teachers completed the SWAN behaviour rating scale both years. Mediation analysis with PROCESS (Hayes, 2013 was used to determine mediation pathways.Results. Teacher-rated inattention indirectly influenced math addition fluency, subtraction fluency and calculation scores through its effect on visual-spatial WM, only for boys. There was a direct relationship between inattention and math outcomes one year later for girls and boys. Children who displayed better attention had higher WM scores, and children with higher WM scores had stronger scores on math outcomes. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals for the indirect effects were entirely below zero for boys, for the three math outcomes. WM did not mediate the direct relationship between inattention and reading scores.Discussion. Findings identify inattention and WM as longitudinal predictors for math addition and subtraction fluency and math calculation outcomes one year later, with visual-spatial WM as a significant mediator for boys. Results highlight the close relationship between inattention and WM and their importance in the development of math skills.

  2. Sample Selectivity and the Validity of International Student Achievement Tests in Economic Research. NBER Working Paper No. 15867

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    Critics of international student comparisons argue that results may be influenced by differences in the extent to which countries adequately sample their entire student populations. In this research note, we show that larger exclusion and non-response rates are related to better country average scores on international tests, as are larger…

  3. Metabolic Testing for Adults in a State Medicaid Program Receiving Antipsychotics: Remaining Barriers to Achieving Population Health Prevention Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrato, Elaine H; Campagna, Elizabeth J; Brewer, Sarah E; Dickinson, L Miriam; Thomas, Deborah S K; Miller, Benjamin F; Dearing, James; Druss, Benjamin G; Lindrooth, Richard C

    2016-07-01

    Medicaid quality indicators track diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease screening in adults receiving antipsychotics and/or those with serious mental illness. To inform performance improvement interventions by evaluating the relative importance of patient, prescriber, and practice factors affecting metabolic testing. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Missouri Medicaid administrative claims data (January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012) linked with prescriber market data. The analysis included 9316 adults (age, 18-64 years) who were starting antipsychotic medication. Secondary analysis included the subset of adults (n = 1813) for whom prescriber knowledge, attitudes, and behavior survey data were available. Generalized estimating equations were performed to identify factors associated with failure to receive annual testing during antipsychotic treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 6 encounters vs none; 0.33 [0.28-0.39]). Analysis incorporating prescriber practice information found lower failure to receive glucose testing if the patient received care at a CMHC (0.74 [0.64-0.85]) or if the initiating prescriber was a primary care practitioner (0.81 [0.66-1.00]). However, the initiating prescriber specialty-setting was not associated with lipid testing. Compared with prior reports, progress has been made to improve diabetes screening, but lipid screening remains particularly underutilized. Medicaid performance improvement initiatives should target all prescriber settings and not just behavioral health.

  4. Academic Achievement and Behavioral Health among Asian American and African American Adolescents: Testing the Model Minority and Inferior Minority Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the model minority and inferior minority assumptions by examining the relationship between academic performance and measures of behavioral health in a subsample of 3,008 (22%) participants in a nationally representative, multicultural sample of 13,601 students in the 2001 Youth Risk Behavioral Survey, comparing Asian…

  5. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 2 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 2/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report is a collection of 26 achievement reports on joint research of a solar energy power generation field test project. The major contents of the achievement reports relate to the solar energy power generation field test project (summarized as manufacture and installation of solar energy power generation systems, summary of solar energy power generation facilities, peripheral devices, and daily schedule of the construction). The reports describe achievements of the joint research (names and achievements of the joint research, study presentation, lectures, literatures, status of patents, similar research in and cooperation with other research institutions), generalization of the research, and future problems. Locations of the joint research carried out are libraries, kindergartens, health and welfare centers, children's culture centers, general traffic centers, primary and middle schools, river water purifying facilities, credit banks, manufactories, retail shops at car parking areas, office buildings, hospitals, joint prefectural office buildings, municipal health centers, and prefectural general power generation control stations. (NEDO)

  6. African urbanization in metropolitan South Africa--differential urbanization perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, H S

    1993-07-01

    "As a potentially important urban development policy consideration, attention is focused in this paper on differential urbanization trends in South Africa at the metropolitan level. Recent informal urban settlement patterns of the African population within the major metropolitan areas are contrasted against these differential urbanization trends to determine the implications of both for residential development in the metropolitan areas during the post-apartheid era." excerpt

  7. Labor Force Activity of Women in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan America. Rural Development Research Report No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David L.; O'Leary, Jeanne M.

    Between 1960 and 1970 economic opportunity and progress for women in American non-metropolitan areas was mixed. While women in metropolitan areas were more likely to be labor force members than were non-metropolitan women, the difference in metropolitan and non-metropolitan labor force participation rates narrowed during the period. For women…

  8. Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Helsinki Metropolitan Area Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been prepared in close cooperation with the four cities of the metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen), the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY and other municipal, regional and state level organisations. In the strategy, strategic starting points and policies with which the metropolitan area prepares for the consequences of climate change, are compiled. The Helsinki Metropolitan Area adaptation strategy concentrates on the adaptation of the built and urban environment to the changing climate. The vision of the strategy is climate proof city - the future is built now. The strategy aims to (1) assess the impacts of climate change in the area, (2) prepare for the impacts of climate change and to extreme weather events and (3) to reduce the vulnerabilities of the area to climate variability and change. The target is to secure the well-being of the citizens and the functioning of the cities also in the changing climate conditions. The preparation of the adaptation strategy started in 2009 by producing the background studies. They include the regional climate and sea level scenarios, modelling of river floods in climate change conditions and a survey of climate change impacts in the region. Also, existing programmes, legislation, research and studies concerning adaptation were collected. The background studies are published in a report titled 'The Helsinki metropolitan area climate is changing - Adaptation strategy background studies' (in Finnish) (HSY 2010). HSY coordinated the strategy preparation. The work was carried out is close cooperation with the experts of the metropolitan area cities, regional emergency services, Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki Region Transport Authority and other regional organisations. The strategy work has had a steering group that consists of representatives of the cities and other central cooperation partners. The

  9. Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate, Self-Esteem, and Autonomous Motivation in Young Athletes: Testing Propositions from Achievement Goal and Self-Determination Theories

    OpenAIRE

    O'Rourke, Daniel J.; Smith, Ronald E.; Smoll, Frank L.; Cumming, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season), mastery climate scor...

  10. Is Blended e-Learning as Measured by an Achievement Test and Self-Assessment Better than Traditional Classroom Learning for Vocational High School Students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Cheng Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of blended e-learning on electrical machinery performance (achievement test and self-assessment. Participants were two classes of 11th graders majoring in electrical engineering and taking the electrical machinery class at a vocational high school in Taiwan. The participants were randomly selected and assigned to either the experimental group (n = 33 which studied through blended e-learning or the control group (n = 32 which studied through traditional classroom learning. The experiment lasted for five weeks. The results showed that (a there were no significant differences in achievement test scores between blended e-learning and traditional learning; (b students in the experimental group obtained significantly higher scores on self-assessment than students in the control group; (c students’ scores on self-assessment were significantly higher after studying through blended e-learning than before. Overall, blended e-learning did not significantly affect students’ achievement test scores, but significantly affected their self-assessment scores.

  11. Model LPA Terpadu untuk Wilayah Surabaya Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimien Bt. M. Al Muhdhar a Henie Irawati

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to establish the integrated LPA model for Surabaya Metropolitan Area. The methods used are literature overviews, comparative studies to well-established areas, and expert assistantships through national seminars. The result shows that the integrated LPA has opportunity to combine some activities such as sorting and classifying, producing, wrapping and containing, selling the compost and decayed materials, and filling residual waste by landfill system. In 25 Ha land area, 14.10 Ha is allocated for waste management, and 10.90 Ha for sanitary landfill.

  12. Metropolitan vision making - using backcasting as a strategic learning process to shape metropolitan futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuvonen, A.; Ache, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The need for new forward looking tools in urban planning is immense: The new functional relations and structures are stretching beyond our capacity to 'rationally' capture modern metropolitan spaces Neuman & Hull 2009). At the same time cities struggle to find tools to help manage a

  13. A test of the effect of advance organizers and reading ability on seventh-grade science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Patricia Annette

    The use of advance organizers was first introduced by Ausubel in his learning theory of meaningful learning. Subsequent research focused on the efficacy of advance organizers. Although, earlier research produced inconclusive results, more recent research suggests advance organizers do facilitate recall. However, the bulk of the research focused on older subjects (students in high school and college and adults). Prior research did not consider that a subject's reading ability may affect the effectiveness of an advance organizer. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether (1) an advance organizer facilitates both immediate and delayed recall, (2) the reading ability of students and the type of pre-instructional material they receive effect recall, and (3) reading ability has an effect on recall with younger students. Seventy-five seventh-grade students were divided into three groups. One group received a written organizer, one group received a graphic organizer, and one group received an introductory passage before reading a learning passage. After completing the reading passage, all subjects received an immediate posttest. Fourteen days later, subjects received the same posttest incorporated in an end-of-the-chapter test. Results of the study indicate the following: (1) no significant difference in immediate and delayed recall of learning material between students who received a written organizer, a graphic organizer, or an introductory passage, (2) there was a main effect for time of testing and a main effect for reading ability, and (3) there was not an interaction between reading ability and the type of pre-instructional material. These findings did not support previous research.

  14. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A

    1991-12-01

    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  15. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  16. Sex-specific predictive power of 6-minute walk test in chronic heart failure is not enhanced using percent achieved of published reference equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Zugck, Christian; Nelles, Manfred; Schellberg, Dieter; Katus, Hugo; Remppis, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is an established prognostic tool in chronic heart failure. The strong influence of height, weight, age, and sex on 6MWT distance may be accounted for by using percentage achieved of predicted value rather than uncorrected 6MWT values. The study included 1069 patients (862 men) with a mean age 55.2 +/- 11.7 years and mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 29% +/- 10%, attending the heart failure clinic of the University of Heidelberg between 1995 and 2005. The predictive power and accuracy of 6MWT and achieved percentage values according to all available published equations for mortality and mortality or transplant combined were tested separately for each sex. The percentage values varied largely between equations. For all equations, women in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I had higher values than men. Although the 6MWT significantly discriminated all NYHA classes for both sexes, only 1 equation discriminated all NYHA classes. No significant differences in the area under the receiver operating-characteristic curve were noted between achieved percentage values and 6MWT. Despite strong univariate significance, achieved percentage values did not retain multivariate significance. The 6MWT was independent from N-terminal brain natriuretic propeptide, NYHA, left ventricular ejection fraction, and peak oxygen uptake. We confirmed 6MWT to be a strong and independent risk predictor for both sexes. Because the prognostic power of 6MWT is not enhanced using percentage achieved of published reference equations, we suggest recalibration of these reference values rather than discarding this approach.

  17. Effects of achievement differences for internal/external frame of reference model investigations: A test of robustness of findings over diverse student samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Isabelle; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis

    2017-11-12

    Achievement in math and achievement in verbal school subjects are more strongly correlated than the respective academic self-concepts. The internal/external frame of reference model (I/E model; Marsh, 1986, Am. Educ. Res. J., 23, 129) explains this finding by social and dimensional comparison processes. We investigated a key assumption of the model that dimensional comparisons mainly depend on the difference in achievement between subjects. We compared correlations between subject-specific self-concepts of groups of elementary and secondary school students with or without achievement differences in the respective subjects. The main goals were (1) to show that effects of dimensional comparisons depend to a large degree on the existence of achievement differences between subjects, (2) to demonstrate the generalizability of findings over different grade levels and self-concept scales, and (3) to test a rarely used correlation comparison approach (CCA) for the investigation of I/E model assumptions. We analysed eight German elementary and secondary school student samples (grades 3-8) from three independent studies (Ns 326-878). Correlations between math and German self-concepts of students with identical grades in the respective subjects were compared with the correlation of self-concepts of students having different grades using Fisher's Z test for independent samples. In all samples, correlations between math self-concept and German self-concept were higher for students having identical grades than for students having different grades. Differences in median correlations had small effect sizes for elementary school students and moderate effect sizes for secondary school students. Findings generalized over grades and indicated a developmental aspect in self-concept formation. The CCA complements investigations within I/E-research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. The definition of achievement and the construction of tests for its measurement: A review of the main trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Algarabel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta revisión se analizan diferentes definiciones de rendimiento y se exploran posibilidades en la construcción de tests para su medida. Una primera caracterización del rendimiento se consigue a través del análisis de la representación del constructo. Desde esta perspectiva, la aproximación conductual, se centra más en el resultado final, mientras el enfoque cognitivo se centra más en el proceso. En segundo lugar, esta revisión analiza los datos sobre amplitud nomotética: relación entre rendimiento y aptitudes, status socioeconómico y cambios en el tiempo. La sección final ofrece una visión de las posibilidades y dificultades implicadas en el intento de sustituir los métodos tradicionalmente utilizados en la evaluación del rendimiento. Dada su dificultad y coste en términos del tiempo necesario para desarrollarlos, puntuarlos y otras variables, se concluye atribuyendo un peso mayor a las aplicaciones informáticas en evaluación, para que la evaluación conductual pueda tener mayor difusión.

  19. Business profile of metropolitan Las Vegas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    This first report describes the present makeup of the Las Vegas metropolitan statistical area (MSA) economy and analyzes the climate for business expansion. The second report contains an assessment of the competitiveness of the area as a location for new or expanded facilities investment by companies in approximately 600 business groups. The third report projects Las Vegas' competitiveness at the start of the next century in the absence of a nuclear waste storage facility and then evaluates the potential impacts of siting that facility near Las Vegas on its ability to attract and retain business investment. The primary purpose of these reports is to contribute to the overall assessment of the environmental impact of the US Department of Energy's proposed action to build and operate an underground nuclear waste storage facility at Yucca Mountain. The first two reports also serve a second purpose -- they can be used by economic development organizations in the Las Vegas metropolitan area in their ongoing efforts to attract new business investment. Information contained in the business climate analysis found in this first report can be incorporated into marketing materials. The competitiveness assessment contained in the second report can be used by these organizations in identifying targets they wish to pursue

  20. Youthification in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Cocheci

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This research exercise aims to identify all areas affected by what is now known as ‘youthification’ in the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. Broadly speaking, an area touched by youthification witnesses a massive arrival of young adults, who invest in housing, but only remain there until they age. Youthification is usually the second phase within an encompassing process of gentrification. To gain a clearer picture of this phenomenon, we employed a snapshot of the situation recorded by the Population and Housing Census of 2011. Using this image as a starting point, we then applied statistical thresholds aimed at measuring the presence and intensity of youthification within different areas. Thereafter, we looked at areas exhibiting the same level of youthification, in order to find those common traits of their young adult inhabitants that might prove relevant for their choices in matters of housing. Once completed, our efforts resulted in the first map showing the areas affected by youthification within the Metropolitan Area of Cluj. In addition, we reached the following conclusion: Young adults who live in the city are more likely to still be enrolled in a form of education and less likely to be married or to have children than those who live in the suburbs or in rural areas. This observation implies that there might be some hidden dependency relations, which are at work in shaping the choice of housing.

  1. Implications of failure to achieve a result from prenatal maternal serum cell-free DNA testing: a historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, N; Smet, M-E; Sandow, R; da Silva Costa, F; McLennan, A

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of women who failed to obtain a result in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Historical cohort study. A multicentre private practice in Sydney, Australia. Women who failed to obtain a result from NIPT (n = 131). The maternal characteristics, antenatal investigations and pregnancy outcomes for these women were compared with those who obtained a result at the same practice and to the general Australian obstetric population. Antenatal investigations: pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG), placental growth factor (PlGF), uterine artery pulsatility index (PI), mean arterial pressure (MAP). Pregnancy outcomes: chromosomal abnormality, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm delivery. Only 1.1% of NIPT samples failed to return a result. This cohort was significantly older and had significantly increased weight compared with the general Australian obstetric population. Pregnancy outcomes were available for 94% of the cohort. There were significantly higher rates of chromosomal aneuploidies (6.5% versus 0.2%, P < 0.0001), pre-eclampsia (11% versus 1.5%, P < 0.0001) and gestational diabetes (23% versus 7.5%, P < 0.0001) compared with the general obstetric population. Rates of preterm delivery and SGA were elevated but did not reach significance. Antenatal investigations demonstrated decreased PAPP-A MoM (0.75 versus 1.14, P < 0.0001), decreased free β-hCG (0.71 versus 1.01, P < 0.0001) and increased uterine artery PI (1.79 versus 1.65, P = 0.02). Women who fail to obtain a result from NIPT are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular chromosomal aneuploidy, gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. None received. Women who fail to obtain a result from cell-free DNA NIPT are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ACHIEVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF ACHIEVEMENT. APPROXIMATELY 40 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1952 TO 1965. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, ACHIEVEMENT BEHAVIOR, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, AND SOCIAL-CLASS BACKGROUND. A RELATED REPORT IS ED…

  3. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  4. Repeated testing improves achievement in a blended learning approach for risk competence training of medical students: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, C; Juenger, J

    2017-09-26

    Adequate estimation and communication of risks is a critical competence of physicians. Due to an evident lack of these competences, effective training addressing risk competence during medical education is needed. Test-enhanced learning has been shown to produce marked effects on achievements. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated tests implemented on top of a blended learning program for risk competence. We introduced a blended-learning curriculum for risk estimation and risk communication based on a set of operationalized learning objectives, which was integrated into a mandatory course "Evidence-based Medicine" for third-year students. A randomized controlled trial addressed the effect of repeated testing on achievement as measured by the students' pre- and post-training score (nine multiple-choice items). Basic numeracy and statistical literacy were assessed at baseline. Analysis relied on descriptive statistics (histograms, box plots, scatter plots, and summary of descriptive measures), bootstrapped confidence intervals, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and effect sizes (Cohen's d, r) based on adjusted means and standard deviations. All of the 114 students enrolled in the course consented to take part in the study and were assigned to either the intervention or control group (both: n = 57) by balanced randomization. Five participants dropped out due to non-compliance (control: 4, intervention: 1). Both groups profited considerably from the program in general (Cohen's d for overall pre vs. post scores: 2.61). Repeated testing yielded an additional positive effect: while the covariate (baseline score) exhibits no relation to the post-intervention score, F(1, 106) = 2.88, p > .05, there was a significant effect of the intervention (repeated tests scenario) on learning achievement, F(1106) = 12.72, p blended learning approach can be improved significantly by implementing a test-enhanced learning design, namely repeated testing. As

  5. How home HIV testing and counselling with follow-up support achieves high testing coverage and linkage to treatment and prevention: a qualitative analysis from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Norma C; Wyatt, Monique A; Asiimwe, Stephen; Turyamureeba, Bosco; Tumwesigye, Elioda; van Rooyen, Heidi; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Celum, Connie L

    2016-01-01

    The successes of HIV treatment scale-up and the availability of new prevention tools have raised hopes that the epidemic can finally be controlled and ended. Reduction in HIV incidence and control of the epidemic requires high testing rates at population levels, followed by linkage to treatment or prevention. As effective linkage strategies are identified, it becomes important to understand how these strategies work. We use qualitative data from The Linkages Study, a recent community intervention trial of community-based testing with linkage interventions in sub-Saharan Africa, to show how lay counsellor home HIV testing and counselling (home HTC) with follow-up support leads to linkage to clinic-based HIV treatment and medical male circumcision services. We conducted 99 semi-structured individual interviews with study participants and three focus groups with 16 lay counsellors in Kabwohe, Sheema District, Uganda. The participant sample included both HIV+ men and women (N=47) and HIV-uncircumcised men (N=52). Interview and focus group audio-recordings were translated and transcribed. Each transcript was summarized. The summaries were analyzed inductively to identify emergent themes. Thematic concepts were grouped to develop general constructs and framing propositional statements. Trial participants expressed interest in linking to clinic-based services at testing, but faced obstacles that eroded their initial enthusiasm. Follow-up support by lay counsellors intervened to restore interest and inspire action. Together, home HTC and follow-up support improved morale, created a desire to reciprocate, and provided reassurance that services were trustworthy. In different ways, these functions built links to the health service system. They worked to strengthen individuals' general sense of capability, while making the idea of accessing services more manageable and familiar, thus reducing linkage barriers. Home HTC with follow-up support leads to linkage by building

  6. 49 CFR 613.100 - Metropolitan transportation planning and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... programming. 613.100 Section 613.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 613.100 Metropolitan transportation planning and programming. The regulations in 23 CFR 450, subpart C, shall be followed in complying with the requirements of...

  7. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 3 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 3/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report is a collection of 40 achievement reports on joint research of a solar energy power generation field test project. The major contents of the achievement reports relate to the solar energy power generation field test project (summarized as manufacture and installation of solar energy power generation systems, summary of solar energy power generation facilities, status of installation of solar cells, peripheral devices, and daily schedule of the construction). The reports describe achievements of the joint research (names and achievements of the joint research, study presentation, lectures, literatures, status of patents, similar research in and cooperation with other research institutions), generalization of the research, and future problems. Locations of the joint research carried out are hospitals, township hospitals, a science hall for youths, study and educational cities, primary schools, middle schools, high schools, universities, senior health centers, a life cooperative association, retails shops, factories, office buildings, joint governmental office buildings, Shinkansen stations, prefectural industrial testing centers, health and welfare centers, FM broadcasting studios, a town operated hall of technologies, prefectural office buildings and training centers. (NEDO)

  8. Influence of Intimate Partner Violence on Domestic Relocation in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Young Australian Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, Gina; Hussain, Rafat; Kibele, Eva; Rahman, Saifur; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from a national, population-based longitudinal study of Australian women (26-34 years) were analyzed to investigate the association between domestic relocation and multiple explanatory factors, namely intimate partner violence (IPV), metropolitan versus non-metropolitan residence, education,

  9. The effect of four instructional methods, gender, and time of testing on the achievement of sixth graders learning to interpret graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jerry Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four instructional methods (direct instruction, computer-aided instruction, video observation, and microcomputer-based lab activities), gender, and time of testing (pretest, immediate posttest for determining the immediate effect of instruction, and a delayed posttest two weeks later to determine the retained effect of the instruction) on the achievement of sixth graders who were learning to interpret graphs of displacement and velocity. The dependent variable of achievement was reflected in the scores earned by students on a testing instrument of established validity and reliability. The 107 students participating in the study were divided by gender and were then randomly assigned to the four treatment groups, each taught by a different teacher. Each group had approximately equal numbers of males and females. The students were pretested and then involved in two class periods of the instructional method which was unique to their group. Immediately following treatment they were posttested and two weeks later they were posttested again. The data in the form of test scores were analyzed with a two-way split-plot analysis of variance to determine if there was significant interaction among technique, gender, and time of testing. When significant interaction was indicated, the Tukey HSD test was used to determine specific mean differences. The results of the analysis indicated no gender effect. Only students in the direct instruction group and the microcomputer-based laboratory group had significantly higher posttest-1 scores than pretest scores. They also had significantly higher posttest-2 scores than pretest scores. This suggests that the learning was retained. The other groups experienced no significant differences among pretest, posttest-1, and posttest-2 scores. Recommendations are that direct instruction and microcomputer-based laboratory activities should be considered as effective stand-alone methods for

  10. Perceptions of competence, implicit theory of ability, perception of motivational climate, and achievement goals: a test of the trichotomous conceptualization of endorsement of achievement motivation in the physical education setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, F; Da Fonséca, D; Rufo, M; Sarrazin, P

    2002-08-01

    To test and extend the conceptualization of the endorsement of achievement goals in the physical education setting Mastery, Performance-approach, and Performance-approach goals, Perception of the physical education competence, Implicit theory about sport ability, and Perception of the motivational climate were assessed among 682 boys attending five French schools. Analysis indicated that (1) Performance-approach goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Entity beliefs about sport ability, the Performance dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability. (2) Mastery goals were positively associated with perception of physical education Competence, Incremental beliefs about sport ability, the Mastery dimension of the motivational climate, and negatively associated with the Performance dimension of the motivational climate. Also, (3) Performance-avoidance goals were positively associated with Entity beliefs about sport ability and the Performance dimension of the motivational climate; these goals were negatively associated with Incremental beliefs about sport ability and perception of physical education Competence. These results clearly attested to the validity of the trichotomous model in the physical education setting.

  11. Suburbanization and sustainability in metropolitan Moscow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert J; Nigmatullina, Liliya

    2011-01-01

    Although Soviet-era urban-growth controls produced relatively sustainable metropolitan development patterns, low-density suburban sprawl has accelerated markedly in modern Russia. Distinctive features of Moscow's development history are its greenbelt, which dates from 1935 and is becoming increasingly fragmented, proliferation of satellite cities at the urban fringe, conversion of seasonal dachas into full-time residences, the very exclusive Rublevo Uspenskoe Highway development, and today's crippling traffic congestion. The recent economic crisis has slowed development and actually increased the supply of “economy-class” single-family homes, for which there is much pent-up desire but insufficient credit availability to meet the demand. A renewed commitment to sustainability's triple bottom line—environmental quality, equity, and economic prosperity—will require greater government transparency and fairness, stronger planning controls, and an expanded public transportation system.

  12. Test Review: Wilkinson, G. S., & Robertson, G. J. (2006). Wide Range Achievement Test--Fourth Edition. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. WRAT4 Introductory Kit (Includes Manual, 25 Test/Response Forms [Blue and Green], and Accompanying Test Materials): $243.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Cindy Ann; Harrold, Barbara; Dell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT4) is designed to provide "a quick, simple, psychometrically sound assessment of academic skills". The test was first published in 1946 by Joseph F. Jastak, with the purpose of augmenting the cognitive performance measures of the Wechsler-Bellevue Scales, developed by David Wechsler.…

  13. Children’s Mapping between Non-Symbolic and Symbolic Numerical Magnitudes and Its Association with Timed and Untimed Tests of Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankaer, Carmen; Ghesquière, Pol; De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    The ability to map between non-symbolic numerical magnitudes and Arabic numerals has been put forward as a key factor in children’s mathematical development. This mapping ability has been mainly examined indirectly by looking at children’s performance on a symbolic magnitude comparison task. The present study investigated mapping in a more direct way by using a task in which children had to choose which of two choice quantities (Arabic digits or dot arrays) matched the target quantity (dot array or Arabic digit), thereby focusing on small quantities ranging from 1 to 9. We aimed to determine the development of mapping over time and its relation to mathematics achievement. Participants were 36 first graders (M = 6 years 8 months) and 46 third graders (M = 8 years 8 months) who all completed mapping tasks, symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison tasks and standardized timed and untimed tests of mathematics achievement. Findings revealed that children are able to map between non-symbolic and symbolic representations and that this mapping ability develops over time. Moreover, we found that children’s mapping ability is related to timed and untimed measures of mathematics achievement, over and above the variance accounted for by their numerical magnitude comparison skills. PMID:24699664

  14. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, David J; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  15. Achievements in the development of the Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module of Japan to the milestones for installation in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Daigo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Mohri, Kensuke; Seki, Yohji; Enoeda, Mikio; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masato

    2009-01-01

    As the primary candidate of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested under the leadership of Japan, a water cooled solid breeder (WCSB) TBM is being developed. This paper shows the recent achievements towards the milestones of ITER TBMs prior to the installation, which consist of design integration in ITER, module qualification and safety assessment. With respect to the design integration, targeting the detailed design final report in 2012, structure designs of the WCSB TBM and the interfacing components (common frame and backside shielding) that are placed in a test port of ITER and the layout of the cooling system are presented. As for the module qualification, a real-scale first wall mock-up fabricated by using the hot isostatic pressing method by structural material of reduced activation martensitic ferritic steel, F82H, and flow and irradiation test of the mock-up are presented. As for safety milestones, the contents of the preliminary safety report in 2008 consisting of source term identification, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and identification of postulated initiating events (PIEs) and safety analyses are presented.

  16. A slotted access control protocol for metropolitan WDM ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziana, P. A.; Pountourakis, I. E.

    2009-03-01

    In this study we focus on the serious scalability problems that many access protocols for WDM ring networks introduce due to the use of a dedicated wavelength per access node for either transmission or reception. We propose an efficient slotted MAC protocol suitable for WDM ring metropolitan area networks. The proposed network architecture employs a separate wavelength for control information exchange prior to the data packet transmission. Each access node is equipped with a pair of tunable transceivers for data communication and a pair of fixed tuned transceivers for control information exchange. Also, each access node includes a set of fixed delay lines for synchronization reasons; to keep the data packets, while the control information is processed. An efficient access algorithm is applied to avoid both the data wavelengths and the receiver collisions. In our protocol, each access node is capable of transmitting and receiving over any of the data wavelengths, facing the scalability issues. Two different slot reuse schemes are assumed: the source and the destination stripping schemes. For both schemes, performance measures evaluation is provided via an analytic model. The analytical results are validated by a discrete event simulation model that uses Poisson traffic sources. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol manages efficient bandwidth utilization, especially under high load. Also, comparative simulation results prove that our protocol achieves significant performance improvement as compared with other WDMA protocols which restrict transmission over a dedicated data wavelength. Finally, performance measures evaluation is explored for diverse numbers of buffer size, access nodes and data wavelengths.

  17. Internal audit disclosures in annual reports of metropolitan municipalities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of internal audit in governance contributes significantly to accountability. However, its work is limited to internal use, and as such, it does not provide external stakeholders with information about the accountability contributions made by the internal audit function (IAF. The assurance provided by internal audit is equally important as the assurance provided by external auditors. Arguments exist that the inclusion of internal audit disclosure in public annual reports could contribute significantly to transparency and accountability in respect of municipalities. Literature suggest that the advantages of internal audit disclosure outweigh its disadvantages. This paper reports on the extent of internal audit disclosure in the eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa for the 2012/2013 financial year. To achieve the objective set out in this paper, a mixed method approach was followed. A qualitative content analysis (deductive and inductive was performed. Qualitative text was displayed showing evidence of the disclosure item (visual presentation of quotes. To complement the qualitative text, Atlas.Ti was further utilised to quantify the codes which showed the differences in the disclosure practices of IAFs across metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results of this study show evidence of internal audit disclosure in annual reports despite the fact that no legislative requirements exist for internal audit to report in annual reports of municipalities. The extent and the nature of disclosure varied across metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results of this paper could be used to assist with establishing policy guidelines for internal audit disclosure.

  18. CITTÀ METROPOLITANE E PROVINCE IN ITALIA: ORGANI, FUNZIONI FONDAMENTALI ED ESIGENZE DI RIDUZIONE DELLA SPESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cocozza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the problems derived from the metropolitan cities entities in Italy and the simultaneous reform of the provinces. These two issues are part of a broader and current Italian political debate related to targets for reduction of public spending and have to do with the achievement of a new order of local government different from that established in the Title V of the Italian Constitution after its 2001 reform. After an examination of previous attempts to regulate metropolitan cities entities, the article examines the aspects contained in decree law on spending review (d.l. n. 95/2012. In this way, the article aims to highlight both the difficulties and incoherencies of the identification of administrative functions and of the general structure to be assigned to the new level of government (the metropolitan city, provided in the Italian Constitution in 2001 but not yet established. Consequently, the article considers the effects that this new model has upon the other and already existing levels of government (such as municipalities, as provinces and as regions.

  19. Metropolitan migration and population growth in selected developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to estimate the components of metropolitan population growth in selected developing countries during 1960-1970 period. The study examines population growth in 26 cities: 5 are in Africa, 8 in Asia, and 13 in Latin America, using data from national census publications. These cities in general are the political capitals of their countries, but some additional large cities were selected in Brazil, Mexico, and South Africa. All cities, at the beginning of the 1960-1970 decade had over 500,000 population; Accra, the only exception, reached this population level during the 1960s. Some cities had over 4 million residents in 1970. Net migration contributed about 37% to total metropolitan population growth; the remainder of the growth is attributable to natural increase. Migration has a much stronger impact on metropolitan growth than suggested by the above figure: 1) Several metropolitan areas, for various reasons, are unlikely to receive many migrants; without those cities, the share of metropolitan growth from net migration is 44%. 2) Estimates of the natural increase of migrants after their arrival in the metropolitan areas, when added to migration itself, changes the total contribution of migration to 49% in some metropolitan areas. 3) Even where net migration contributes a smaller proportion to metropolitan growth than natural increase, the rates of net migration are generally high and should be viewed in the context of rapid metropolitan population growth from natural increase alone. Finally, the paper also compares the components of metropolitan growth with the components of growth in the remaining urban areas. The results show that the metropolitan areas, in general, grow faster than the remaining urban areas, and that this more rapid growth is mostly due to a higher rate of net migration. Given the significance of migration for metropolitan growth, further investigations of the effects of these migration streams, particularly with

  20. ‘New urbanism' or metropolitan-level centralization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2011-01-01

    Based on a study in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area, this paper compares the influences of macro-level and micro-level urban form characteristics on the respondents' traveling distance by car on weekdays. The Copenhagen study shows that metropolitan-scale urban structural variables generally exert...... stronger influences than neighborhood-scale built environment characteristics on the amount of car travel. In particular, the location of the residence relative to the main city center of the metropolitan region shows a strong effect. Some local scale variables often mentioned in the literature...

  1. A Three-Pronged Approach to Evaluating Salary Equity among Faculty, Administrators, and Staff at a Metropolitan Research University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armacost, Robert L.

    A study was conducted to evaluate inequalities in salary for all regular faculty, administrative, and staff employees with respect to gender and ethnicity at a major metropolitan research university. In all, there were 648 minorities in the study and 1,443 women. Three approaches were used to test for inequalities: (1) a multiple regression…

  2. Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Community College Students in Metropolitan New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Jenine

    This study investigated the association among select socio-cultural variables and sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with a diverse population of metropolitan New York community college students. The Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Test survey instrument was administered to 338 students between the ages of 17 and 26 in their…

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengifo-Herrera Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water were associated with seropositivity.

  4. The Effects of Individual Versus Cooperative Testing in a Flipped Classroom on the Academic Achievement, Motivation Toward Science, and Study Time for 9th Grade Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Megan O'Neill

    This study examined the effects of cooperative testing versus traditional or individual testing and the impacts on academic achievement, motivation toward science, and study time for 9th grade biology students. Research questions centered on weekly quizzes given in a flipped classroom format for a period of 13 weeks. The study used a mixed methods research design, which combined quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques. The study examined 66 students enrolled in three sections of a 9 th grade biology course at a private K-12 school. Students were randomly assigned to groups of three or four students. Weekly quizzes on regularly assigned curriculum material were provided from the flipped classroom videos. Six quizzes were randomly selected for each class to be in the cooperative testing format and six quizzes were randomly selected to be given individually or traditional-style testing format. Week 7 was reserved for administration of the mid-study questionnaire and no quiz was administered. Quantitative data collected included student grades on the 12 weekly quizzes. Qualitative data were also collected from pre-study, mid-study, and post-study questionnaires as well as semi-structured individual interviews and one focus group. Cooperative testing groups scored higher on the quizzes than when students took quizzes as individuals for five of the nine quizzes analyzed. Students did not score significantly higher than the best scorer in groups taking quizzes individually. For one quiz, the best scorer did better than the cooperative groups. Overall, cooperatively tested groups in some cases scored higher than the average of groups taking the quizzes individually, but the impact was not consistent across all quiz weeks. Difficulty level of the material, contextual factors, and ceiling effects are among potential explanations of the inconsistent outcomes. Across the study, motivation toward science stayed the same or increased depending on the aspect of

  5. Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Solid waste management is associated with health hazards. ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of ...

  6. Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes : a TPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-20

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning Processes Peer Exchange held on September 9-10, 2015 in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. This event was sponsored ...

  7. Expanding METCO and Closing Achievement Gaps. White Paper No. 129

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Katherine; Ardon, Ken

    2015-01-01

    School systems around the United States are heavily segregated by income and race. At the same time, an achievement gap between white and nonwhite students persists despite many efforts to close it. Against this background, in this white paper the authors explore the history and successes of the Metropolitan Council for Educational Opportunity…

  8. The effects of departmentalized and self-contained classrooms on fifth-grade students' achievement in science on the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Lisa S.

    Elementary instruction of fifth grade classrooms was found to be primarily in two organizational models in a school district northwest of Atlanta, Georgia. The self-contained classroom provided a generalist teacher responsible for the instruction of all academic subjects to one group of students throughout the day, while departmentalized classrooms were structured utilizing one teacher for the instruction of one or two content areas, and students rotated throughout the day for each of the academic subjects. The majority of studies looking at the effect of instructional organization were concentrated in the content areas of mathematics and reading. This quantitative study, utilized an ex post facto methodology to determine whether fifth grade students attending departmentalized schools or self-contained classrooms had higher student achievement in science as measured by the Georgia Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). The statistical data was collected through the Georgia Department of Education and included raw mean scores of over 500 students attending departmentalized schools and 500 students attending self-contained classrooms, along with the various subgroups such as gender, ethnicity status, English language learners (ELL), and students with disability (SWD) placement. This data was analyzed to show if a significant statistical difference emerged from either instructional organization. The overall results that emerged from the archival data suggested no significant difference in student achievement existed for almost all subgroups tested of the total 1000+ participant scores used in the study. The results also did however, showed the departmentalization model of instruction had a slight advantage over self-contained classrooms for male students with disabilities.

  9. Subsurface information for risk-sensitive urban spatial planning in Dhaka Metropolitan City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Andreas; Aziz Patwary, Mohammad Abdul; Bahls, Rebecca; Asaduzzaman, Atm; Ludwig, Rüdiger; Ashraful Kamal, Mohammad; Nahar Faruqa, Nurun; Jabeen, Sarwat

    2016-04-01

    Dhaka Metropolitan City (including Dhaka and five adjacent municipal areas) is one of the fastest developing urban regions in the world. Densely build-up areas in the developed metropolitan area of Dhaka City are subject to extensive restructuring as common six- or lower storied buildings are replaced by higher and heavier constructions. Additional stories are built on existing houses, frequently exceeding the allowable bearing pressure on the subsoil as supported by the foundations. In turn, newly developing city areas are projected in marshy terrains modified by extensive, largely unengineered landfills. In most areas, these terrains bear unfavorable building ground conditions within 30 meters. Within a collaborative technical cooperation project between Bangladesh and Germany, BGR supports GSB in the provision of geo-information for the Capital Development Authority (RAJUK). For general urban planning, RAJUK successively develops a detailed area plan (DAP) at scale 1 : 50000 for the whole Dhaka Metropolitan City area (approx. 1700 km2). Geo-information have not been considered in the present DAP. Within the project, geospatial information in form of a geomorphic map, a digital terrain model and a 3-D subsurface model covering the whole city area have been generated at a scale of 1 : 50000. An extensive engineering geological data base consisting of more than 2200 borehole data with associated Standard Penetration Testing (SPT) and lab data has been compiled. With the field testing (SPT) and engineering geological lab data, the 3-D subsurface model can be parameterized to derive important spatial subsurface information for urban planning like bearing capacity evaluations for different foundation designs or soil liquefaction potential assessments for specific earthquake scenarios. In conjunction with inundation potential evaluations for different flooding scenarios, comprehensive building ground suitability information can be derived to support risk

  10. Socio-motivational moderators—two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12–15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12–16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher–student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student–student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role. PMID:26583000

  11. Socio-motivational moderators-two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, M age = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12-15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, M age = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12-16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.

  12. Towards a Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram Using Travel Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Using travel diary data from 2000–2001 and 2010–2012 this research examines fundamental traffic relationships at the metropolitan level. The results of this paper can help to explain the causes of some traffic phenomena. Network average speed by time of day can be explained by trip length and cumulative number of vehicles on the road. A clockwise hysteresis loop is found in the Metropolitan Fundamental Diagram in the morning period and a reverse process happens in the afternoon. PMID:26866913

  13. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  14. Perceptions by medical students of their educational environment for obstetrics and gynaecology in metropolitan and rural teaching sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Dianne F; Jacques, Angela; Denz-Penhey, Harriet; Puddey, Ian; Newnham, John P

    2009-12-01

    Medical student education in Western Australia is expanding to secondary level metropolitan hospitals and rural sites to accommodate workforce demands and increasing medical student numbers. To determine if students' perceptions of the teaching environment for obstetrics and gynaecology differ between tertiary, secondary level metropolitan hospitals and rural sites, and to determine if students' perceptions of their learning environment are associated with improved academic performance. An evaluation was conducted of medical students' perceptions of their learning environment during an obstetrics and gynaecology program at a variety of sites across metropolitan and rural Western Australia. The evaluation was based on the Dundee Ready Education Environmental Measure (DREEM) questionnaire. There were no significant differences in students' perceptions of their learning environment between the tertiary hospital, combined programs involving a tertiary and secondary metropolitan hospital, rural sites with a population of more than 25,000 and rural sites with a population less than 25,000 people. Perceptions were similar in male and female students. The overall mean score for all perceptions of the learning environment in obstetrics and gynaecology were in the range considered to be favorable. Higher scores of perceptions of the learning environment were associated positively with the measures of academic achievement in the clinical, but not written, examination. Medical students' perceptions of their learning environment in obstetrics and gynaecology were not influenced by the geographical site of delivery or their gender but were positively related to higher academic achievement. Providing appropriate academic and clinical support systems have been put in place the education of medical students can be extended outside major hospitals and into outer metropolitan and rural communities without any apparent reduction in perceptions of the quality of their learning

  15. Planning Assignments of the Italian Metropolitan Cities. Early Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The last stage of the process of establishment of the Italian Metropolitan Cities, which took place in 2014, follows of a few decades the start of this institutional reform. In 1990, in fact, the Act 142 (Local Autonomies Reform had planned metropolitan areas as the administrative organization more suitable to provide these territories of structures for the management and the strategic development alike the best international models. The paper proposes to analyse the first activities taken by the Italian Metropolitan Cities in the sector of territorial government, three years after the enactment in 2014 of Act nr. 56.  Focal point of the analysis is the jurisdiction in the formation of two plans (the Strategic Plan and the Metropolitan Territorial Plan and the following relationships among them, in the logical assumption that between them a necessary and strict consistency there should be. In the first part, the paper analyses some factors characterizing the metropolitan areas and the functions that the law assigns to the new institution in the territorial government sector. The second part outlines the updated situation with regard to the formation of the sectoral tools (Strategic Plan, Territorial Plan and homogeneous zones. The third part analyses the progresses in three Metropolitan Cities taken as sample (Milan, Genoa and Bologna and, in general, to those of Southern Italy. In the last part, the paper exposes some considerations regarding the issues raised in the article, particularly about the innovativeness of the tools and the timeline for the implementation of the act.

  16. Diversity and Educational Challenges in Oslo and Los Angeles - A Metropolitan Perspective nr 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil ÖZERK

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Receiving, accommodation and education of children with immigrant background is one of the challenging issues in almost all the metropolitan areas in many countries. In our study we are exploring the impact of demographic changes on political agendas, legal frames, educational approaches, research findings and student achievement in the field of education of linguistic minorities in Oslo, Norway and Los Angeles, USA. Although there are significant historical and socio economical differences between Los Angeles and Oslo, many of the educational challenges facing the educational policy makers and the linguistic minority students are quite similar.

  17. Consumer Confidence from Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Area, in the Food Labeling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ancuța Iancu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover the aspects that influence the consumer level of confidence (from ClujNapoca metropolitan area, regarding the information on the food label and their reading frequency a study based on a questionnaire was made. This was promoted online, especially on Facebook and was filled in by 392 persons. Besides the descriptive analysis meant to offer us an overview of the aspects that influence the consumer level of confidence regarding the information on the food label, the authors have proposed to observe the level of association and test some hypotheses, which are linked to the importance of some elements (sex, age, education, family income, buying food for children under 5 and over 6 years old, smokers, athletes, the perception of the correctness of information on the label, food poisoning, country of origin and the benefits of technology in food sector. The results indicate a decrease in the level of confidence of Romanian consumers in the information on the food label, while the age, the number of years spent on formal study, increased revenue and shopping of products for children under the age of 5 influence the frequency of label reading. On the other side, women grant a higher importance to the information that is mandatory, by law, to be included on the label, than men. This study shows the importance of improving the trust of consumers in the food labelling system by increasing the frequency of reading. We underline that information of consumers can’t be successfully achieved if they don’t read or trust the information found on the labels.

  18. Suicide among young rural Australians 1964-1993: a comparison with metropolitan trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, M; Kelk, N; Florio, T; Howard, J; Waters, B; Haski, C; Alcock, M

    1997-07-01

    The study tested hypotheses that from 1964 to 1993: (1) suicide rates among Australian 15- to 24-year-old males rose more sharply in rural than metropolitan areas; (2) firearm suicide rates among 15- to 24-year-old males, declining throughout Australia recently, rose continuously in rural areas; (3) suicide rates among 15- to 24-year-old females did not change significantly in either metropolitan or rural areas. Suicides of those aged 10-24 years recorded by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) were classified according to the subject's residential grouping. Rates were calculated using ABS population data corresponding to these groupings. Results were analysed using log-linear analysis and chi-square statistics. The results supported the first two hypotheses, but not the third. Suicide rates for 15- to 24-year-old males rose by a factor of 2.2 in metropolitan areas, by 4-fold in towns with populations between 4,000 and 25,000, and by 12-fold in towns with populations less than 4,000. Male firearm suicide rates continued to rise in rural areas, and the greatest proportion of deaths in those locations were by firearms, though male hanging rates increased most in recent years in all locations. Female youth suicide rates did not change overall, but in towns with populations less than 4,000, they increased 4.5-fold. Possible explanations for this epidemic, which are mostly speculative and require confirmation, are discussed.

  19. Internal audit risk management in metropolitan municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Ackermann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal audit functions (IAFs of organisations are regarded as crucial components of the combined assurance model, alongside the audit committee, management and external auditors. The combined assurance model aims at having integrated and aligned assurance in organisations with the overall aim of maximising risk and governance oversight and control efficiencies. In this regard, internal audit plays a crucial role, insofar as it consists of experts in risk, governance and control consultancy who provide assurance to senior management and the audit committee. Audit committees are dependent on internal audit for information and their effectiveness revolves around a strong and well-resourced internal audit function which is able to aid audit committees to meet their oversight responsibilities. There is thus a growing demand for managing risk through the process of risk management and internal audit is in a perfect position to assist with the improvement of such processes. If internal auditors wish to continue being an important aspect of the combined assurance model, they need to address the critical area, amongst others, of risk management as part of their work. If not, it follows that the board, audit committees and other levels of management will remain uninformed on the status of these matters which, in turn, will negatively impact the ability of these stakeholders to discharge their responsibilities. This study therefore focuses on analysing the functioning of IAFs, with specific reference to their risk management mandate. The study followed a mixed method approach to describe internal audits risk management functioning in the big eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. The results show that internal audit provide a broad scope of risk management work which assist senior management in the discharge of their responsibilities. However, in the public eye, internal audits risk management functioning is scant

  20. Effects of Absence and Cognitive Skills Index on Various Achievement Indicators. A Study of ISTEP Scores, Discrepancies, and School-Based Math and English Tests of 1997-1998 Seventh Grade Students at Sarah Scott Middle School, Terre Haute, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Holly S.

    This study examines the correlation between absence, cognitive skills index (CSI), and various achievement indicators such as the Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) test scores, discrepancies, and school-based English and mathematics tests for 64 seventh-grade students from one middle school. Scores for each of the subtests…

  1. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 1 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report is a collection of 101 achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project. The contents of the achievement reports are the results and generalization of the joint research with respect to the solar energy power generation field test project. As regards the locations of executing the joint research, the locations by areas and applications are stated. By areas, the joint research was carried out on gymnasiums, parks, recreation centers in the standard areas, universities, sports facilities, public halls, agricultural associations, aged persons' homes, primary, middle and high schools, prefectural office buildings and industrial technology centers in cold districts; prefectural office buildings, agricultural associations, universities, museums, industrial technology centers in good insolation districts; museums, primary, middle and high schools, parks in strong wind and salt polluted districts; and universities and police stations in snowy districts. By applications, the joint research was performed on life cooperative halls, factories, nursery schools, hospitals, clinics, local newspaper companies, indoor warm-water swimming pools, and mushroom fields. (NEDO)

  2. Joint research achievement report on field test project for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use in fiscal 2000; 1999 nendo sangyo tou you taiyokohatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000 on the field tests for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use. This report describes the details of the achievements of the field tests in 36 locations including the following organizations: the Japan Industrial University, a school juristic person; the Harukawa Gakusha, a school juristic person; the Snow Brand Dairy; the Sony Chemicals; the West Japan Passenger Railways; the Hokushin Welfare Society, a social welfare juristic person; the Seikyou Gakuen, a school juristic person; the Miko Corporation; the Akashi Apparel Corporation; Shigenobu Township in Ehime Prefecture; the Japan Ham; the Seiko Epson; Henri Charpantier Corporation; the Joyo Gakuen, a school juristic person; Matsushita Electric Industry; Nio Township in Kagawa Prefecture; Matsumae Township in Ehime Prefecture; Nakajima Township in Ehime Prefecture; Sugo Gakuen, a school juristic person; the East Japan East Japan Passenger Railways (General Training Center); Shizuoka Automobile Gakuen, a school juristic person; Tomiyama Village in Aichi Prefecture; Futamura Grinding Industry; Toba City in Mie Prefecture; Higashi-ura Township in Hyogo Prefecture, Taisho Township in Kochi Prefecture; the Nagasaki Branch Office of the West Japan Telegraph and Telephone Company; Ashikita Township in Kumamoto Prefecture; the Miyazaki Branch Office of the West Japan Telegraph and Telephone Company; Oi Township in Fukui Prefecture; the Keishin Society, a social welfare juristic person; the Azabu Veterinarian School, a school juristic person, Omiya Township in Ibaraki Prefecture; and the Showa Electric Machinery. (NEDO)

  3. Achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project in fiscal 1997. Part 1 of 3; 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 1/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    This report is a collection of 101 achievement reports on joint research of solar energy power generation field test project. The contents of the achievement reports are the results and generalization of the joint research with respect to the solar energy power generation field test project. As regards the locations of executing the joint research, the locations by areas and applications are stated. By areas, the joint research was carried out on gymnasiums, parks, recreation centers in the standard areas, universities, sports facilities, public halls, agricultural associations, aged persons' homes, primary, middle and high schools, prefectural office buildings and industrial technology centers in cold districts; prefectural office buildings, agricultural associations, universities, museums, industrial technology centers in good insolation districts; museums, primary, middle and high schools, parks in strong wind and salt polluted districts; and universities and police stations in snowy districts. By applications, the joint research was performed on life cooperative halls, factories, nursery schools, hospitals, clinics, local newspaper companies, indoor warm-water swimming pools, and mushroom fields. (NEDO)

  4. Designing Freshwater Resilience for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Wi, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    There are few places in the world where the water management challenges associated with global urbanization are as fully visible as in the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). MCMA has a population of 22 million of which only 82% have daily water provision and this figure is projected by local agencies to decrease drastically in the next decade due to population growth, infrastructure degradation and climate change. The city is served by a massive water delivery system, consisting of complex network of infrastructure in the surrounding basins that provides about 40% of the supply for MCMA and is characterized by increasing land use change and competition for water. The remaining 60% of MCMA's water is sourced internally from already depleted groundwater resources whose exploitation also results in significant subsidence throughout the city, further damaging already degraded infrastructure. Consequently, there is interest and need for investments that improve the performance of the freshwater delivery system, including local resources and connected basins, in the face of change and shocks that can be only partially anticipated. The quest for such resilience is a common theme in urban infrastructure design yet practical approaches for achieving it remain nascent. In this study, we use MCMA and the Cutzamala Water supply system to demonstrate a quantitative framework to evaluate investment strategies which seek resilience for the water supply system of MCMA. Multiobjective optimization and decisions under deep uncertainty approaches are used to evaluate the best performing investment portfolios across different resilience performance metrics which encompass social equity, environmental and economic objectives. This analysis shows dynamic system responses that result from different investment portfolios, elucidating difficult planning and management decisions around tradeoffs between allocations as well as performance metrics (e.g short period of total failure

  5. Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate, Self-Esteem, and Autonomous Motivation in Young Athletes: Testing Propositions from Achievement Goal and Self-Determination Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. O'Rourke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions with parents are known to have a significant impact on children's self-esteem. In this study, designed to test propositions derived from Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, we assessed the influence of perceived parent-initiated mastery and ego motivational climates on self-esteem and self-esteem change in competitive youth swimmers over the course of a 32-week sport season. At each of three measurement points (early, mid, and late season, mastery climate scores on the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 scale were positively related to global self-esteem scores and to a measure of relative motivational autonomy that reflects the intrinsic-extrinsic motivation continuum, whereas ego climate scores were negatively related to self-esteem and autonomy. Longitudinal analyses revealed that early-season mastery climate predicted positive changes in self-esteem over the course of the season, whereas ego climate predicted decreased self-esteem. Consistent with predictions derived from Self-Determination Theory, a meditational analysis revealed that these self-esteem changes were mediated by changes in autonomous motivation.

  6. The Factors of Local Energy Transition in the Seoul Metropolitan Government: The Case of Mini-PV Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a way of enhancing urban sustainability, Seoul Special City, the capital of South Korea, has shown strong enthusiasm for urban energy transition by tackling climate change and expanding renewable energy. The Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG has adopted the “One Less Nuclear Power Plant (OLNPP” strategy since April 2012 and specific policy measures, including a mini-photovoltaic (PV plant program, were introduced to facilitate the energy transition. However, varying degrees of success were achieved by 25 district-level local governments (Gu with mini-PV plant programs. This study explored the reason why those local governments showed different levels of performance despite the strong will of municipal government (SMG to implement urban energy transitions through the mini-PV plant program. The tested hypotheses were based on capacity, political context, public awareness and geographical diffusion. The findings indicated that institutional capacity, financial dependence, political orientation and public perception had positively affected the performance of mini-PV plant installation at each district level. Especially, the political will of each district mayor played an important role in the implementation of the policy.

  7. The metropolitan area as a knee-jerk response to the multilevel governance and its derived national public decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Daniel DUMITRICĂ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper objectifies the first part of a larger projects aiming at establishing a public decision-making map pertaining to the negative externalities in the framework of the economic approach of subsidiarity in the multilevel governance (the case of Romania. The first part of the larger research project refers to testing whether the economic theory of the European Union multilevel governance, with its core consisting in the subsidiarity principle, puts more pressure on the national public decisions (more specifically those related to specific market failures, though it interferes with all state’s functions and their specific decisions.Our research thesis begins by establishing whether the relationship between the local political elites and public governance at the level of towns and communes is considered a very straight forward, even obvious relationship. The political parties, by means of the publicly and democratically-elected officials (mayors and local council-members, make the most important decisions concerning public affairs (i.e. pertaining to a market failure examined by a second stage of the project.In an attempt to modernize the Romanian administrative system, to make public administration more dynamic, flexible and pro-active, the local political leaders decided the development of a new type of structure, the metropolitan area. The metropolitan areas, due to the constraints of the law, were established as associative organizations, composed of several administrative-territorial units.The paper at hand presents the establishment of the metropolitan areas in Romania as a political decision to associate towns and communes, in view of gaining access to better-performance instruments for local economic development. The emergence of the metropolitan areas in our country is strongly connected with the local political elites, the local political actors representing, in fact, the engine of the metropolitan structures and regional

  8. A Test of the Reciprocal-Effects Model of Academic Achievement and Academic Self-Concept in Regular Classes and Special Classes for the Gifted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preckel, Franzis; Schmidt, Isabelle; Stumpf, Eva; Motschenbacher, Monika; Vogl, Katharina; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    According to the reciprocal-effects model (REM), prior academic self-concept (ASC) has a positive effect on subsequent achievement beyond what can be explained in terms of prior achievement and vice versa. The present study investigated the REM for students studying in special classes for the gifted compared to students studying in regular…

  9. A Correlation Study of Exemplary Exurban African American Achievement in Standardized Testing and the Relationship of Parental Household Size in a Southeastern Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, David H.

    2012-01-01

    This study included a literature review of juried research studies of student achievement factors that affect African American achievements tracked in the No Child Left Behind Legislative Act. Statistical correlation analyses were performed to determine if the absence or presence of one or two-parents in the household affected student achievement…

  10. The food environment and adult obesity in US metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2015-11-26

    This research examines the larger-scale associations between obesity and food environments in metropolitan areas in the United States (US). The US Census County Business Patterns dataset for 2011 was used to construct various indices of food environments for selected metropolitan areas. The numbers of employees engaged in supermarkets, convenience stores, full service restaurants, fast food restaurants, and snack/coffee shops were standardised using the location quotients, and factor analysis was used to produce two uncorrelated factors measuring food environments. Data on obesity were obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Individual level obesity measures were linked to the metropolitan area level food environment factors. Models were fitted using generalised estimating equations to control for metropolitan area level intra-correlation and individual level sociodemographic characteristics. It was found that adults residing in cities with a large share of supermarket and full-service restaurant workers were less likely to be obese, while adults residing in cities with a large share of convenience store and fast food restaurant workers were more likely to be obese. Supermarkets and full-service restaurant workers are concentrated in the Northeast and West of the US, where obesity prevalence is relatively lower, while convenience stores and fast-food restaurant workers are concentrated in the South and Midwest, where obesity prevalence is relatively higher. The food environment landscapes measured at the metropolitan area level explain the continental-scale patterns of obesity prevalence. The types of food that are readily available and widely served may translate into obesity disparities across metropolitan areas.

  11. Joint research achievement report on field test project for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use in fiscal 2000 (5/5); 2000 nendo sangyo tou you taiyokohatsuden field test jigyo kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho 5/5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000 on the field tests for photovoltaic power generation of industrial use. This report describes the details of the achievements on the following organizations: the Hiroshima Riverside Hotel; the Saraya Corporation; the Nanshin Subaru Corporation; the Ricoh Uni-techno Corporation; Toyota Motors Kyushu Corporation (Eco-center); Hitachi Electric Wires; Yuasa Corporation, Furukawa City in Ibaraki Prefecture; the Takasaki Branch Office of East Japan Passenger Railways; the World Trade Center Building, the Minami Trading Company, Onga Township in Fukuoka Prefecture; the Keio Electric Railways (Wakabadai Station); the Business Enterprise Bureau of Kyoto Prefectural Government; Okinawa Electric Power (Kita-Daito Island), Kawagoe Township in Mie Prefecture, the Keio Electric Railways (Meidai-mae Station); Kitakata Township in Gifu Prefecture; the Yamaguchi Prefectural Government; the MSK Corporation; the Fuji Pream Corporation; Kumano Township in Hiroshima Prefecture; Fukuroi City in Shizuoka Prefecture; the Water Supply Bureau of Yokohama Municipality in Kanagawa Prefecture; Ashiya City in Hyogo Prefecture; Shinoyama City in Hyogo Prefecture; the Gantan Beauty Industry; the Toyokuni Industry; and Minoo City in Osaka Prefecture. (NEDO)

  12. Printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Banulescu Bodoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Fustei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is dedicated to the printing activity of the Metropolitan Gavriil Bănulescu-Bodoni’s activity. The religious and secular prints made from Chisinau’s Diocesan typography by Metropolitan Gavriil promote the idea of national unity of people from Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania. Due to the new documents from archives, more evidences and „more light” are being spread over the activity of famous hierarch, whose life is linked with the history of culture of three nations – Romanians, Ukrainians and Russians.

  13. Tracking the deployment of the integrated metropolitan ITS infrastructure in Orlando : FY99 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In January 1996, Secretary Pea set a goal of deploying the integrated metropolitan Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) infrastructure in 75 of the nations largest metropolitan areas by 2006. In 1997, the U.S. Department of Transportation ini...

  14. 75 FR 40726 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD...

  15. 75 FR 40762 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District and South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

  16. New Metropolitan Spaces and Metropolitan Strategies in the Face of Modernisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Salet

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Au début du xxie siècle, les espaces urbains traversent une période de croissance et de transformation radicale. Les villes s’étendent de plus en plus. Leur configuration spatiale devient de plus en plus décentralisée et fragmentée. La dichotomie traditionnelle entre hiérarchie urbaine et périphérie est en train de disparaître. Les nouveaux espaces métropolitains sont caractérisés par des processus de segmentation et de spécialisation à distance ainsi que par des polarisations sociales qui structurent l’espace. Les tentatives de planification des villes-régions essaient de rééquilibrer ces processus qui font éclater la ville. Cet article explore brièvement les transformations métropolitaines actuelles en utilisant une approche générique. Il se focalise également sur les stratégies des métropoles pour affronter ces défis dans le cadre de situations institutionnelles variées, un peu partout en Europe. En troisième lieu, cet article interroge les effets potentiels des projets urbains sur un rééquilibrage des transformations urbaines. Comment les grands projets urbains sont-ils conceptuellement élaborés ? Comment les alliances d’acteurs qui les soutiennent se forgent-elles ? Comment les citoyens et les groupes sociaux sont-ils impliqués de manière à produire de nouveaux espaces plus intégrés ?At the beginning of the 21st century, urban spaces can be said to be in a stage of growth and radical transformation. Cities are highly expansive, both in scale and scope. The spatial configuration of urban spaces is, however, becoming more and more decentralised and fragmentary. The traditional dichotomy between urban hierarchy and periphery is disappearing. New metropolitan spaces are characterised by distance related processes of social and economic specialisation and segmentation, and often also by splitting social polarisation. The planning agendas in city regions are trying to make add more balance to the

  17. Survey of intestinal parasitism in dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; O'Neal, Peter R; Wong, Valerie M; Noah, Donald L

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of selected intestinal parasites in pet dogs and recently apprehended free-roaming (AFR) shelter dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare those prevalences between the 2 groups. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Convenience samples of fecal specimens from owned pet dogs from the Phoenix metropolitan area (n = 175) and free-roaming dogs apprehended and admitted to Maricopa County Animal Care and Control and Arizona Humane Society facilities from November 2014 through March 2015 (188). PROCEDURES Fresh fecal specimens were collected from all dogs; for AFR shelter dogs, specimens were collected within 72 hours after facility admission. Standard centrifugal flotation tests and an ELISA were performed to detect 5 common intestinal parasites (roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, Giardia spp, and Cystoisospora spp). Group comparisons were performed by means of the χ 2 test and Rogan-Gladen prevalence estimate. RESULTS At least 1 of the 5 evaluated parasites was detected in 85 (45.2%) fecal specimens from AFR shelter dogs and 24 (13.7%) specimens from owned pet dogs. This prevalence differed significantly between the groups. Notably, the prevalence of Giardia spp in AFR shelter dogs (n = 76 [40.4%]) was higher than previously reported in the United States. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prevalence of the evaluated intestinal parasites, particularly of Giardia spp, in AFR shelter dogs was higher than expected. This information is important for veterinarians, animal shelter personnel, pet owners, human health-care providers, and public health officials to consider when devising effective interventions and risk communication efforts against potential zoonotic threats, particularly those relevant to the Phoenix metropolitan area.

  18. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  19. Governing metropolitan green infrastructure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Young; E. Gregory McPherson

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore whether the enhancement of urban ecosystem services through largescale metropolitan treeplanting initiatives is being planned and executed as a component of traditional municipal government or represents new transdisciplinary strategies in environmental governance Drawing on qualitative interviews with...

  20. Disparities in Salaries: Metropolitan versus Nonmetropolitan Community College Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Louis C.; Simpson, Lynn A.; Waller, Lee Rusty

    2009-01-01

    This article explores disparities in faculty salaries between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan Texas community colleges. The analysis reveals a significant difference in faculty salaries for the 2000 and 2005 academic years respectively. The study found no significant difference in the rate of change in faculty salaries from 2000 to 2005.…

  1. Is There a Global Role for Metropolitan City Libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the potential for linking large metropolitan public libraries to international interlibrary loan networks. Issues involved in international networking, including funding, standards, network connectivity, and protectionism, are discussed. Examples of libraries capable of participating and brief descriptions of their collections are given.…

  2. Designing metropolitan landscapes for biodiversity: deriving guidelines from metapopulation ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    The decentralization of planning is giving local planning groups more power in decision making on the spatial development of metropolitan landscapes. However, because scientific knowledge is rarely used in these decision-making processes, there is a risk of discrepancies between the conservation

  3. The Tshwane metropolitan municipality and strategic partnerships in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality commissioned research to investigate the potential of strategic partnerships for the optimal facilitation and co-operative governance of sport and recreation. The aim of this project was to identify the possible structure and nature of partnerships in order to facilitate effective management, ...

  4. Residential fencing in a metropolitan area and three small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Kallio; Jerry A. Sesco

    1967-01-01

    Many types of fences were found on residential lots in the metropolitan-suburban area of St. Louis County, Missouri, and three small towns in southern Illinois. Wire fences predominated. More wooden fences were found on village lots than on city lots. In general, the more expensive homes had the most wooden fencing. Homes over 5 years old had more fencing of all...

  5. OXYGEN TRANSFER STUDIES AT THE MADISON METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies at the Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District facilities were conducted over a 3-year period to obtain long-term data on the performance of fine pore aeration equipment in municipal wastewater. The studies were conducted on several basins in the East Plant containi...

  6. 40 CFR 81.17 - Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.17 Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality Control Region consists of the following territorial area (including the territorial... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Los Angeles Air Quality...

  7. 23 CFR 450.336 - Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation plans and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Secretary concerning a metropolitan transportation plan or TIP developed through the processes... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of NEPA to metropolitan transportation... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and...

  8. 40 CFR 81.38 - Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Houston-Galveston... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.38 Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Houston-Galveston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) has been...

  9. 40 CFR 81.63 - Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.63 Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Fort Smith Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Oklahoma) has been revised to consist...

  10. Forest Fires in the Metropolitan District of Quito (DMQ: Risk knowledge and public intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Estacio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Every summer, the Metropolitan District of Quito (MDQ is subject to the recurrence of forest fires with different consequences in terms of loss of protected areas of great biodiversity, affectation of public and private spaces of different use and impact on the population well-being. The management of municipal authorities of this type of risks is still limited, since there is no decisional tool that can improve the preventive planning and the response to the annual presence of these events. For this reason, the generation of a study on potential fores fires represents the first step towards the comprehension and the reduction of risks. The present article presents the result of this study, the mechanisms and the efforts of the municipal technicians that made possible the achievement of these tools in the frame of the Risk Reduction Program of the Metropolitan District of Quito. The obtained results allowed the implementation of prevention actions in areas with very valuable ecosystems services but fragile in the same time, as well as the improvement of the fire emergency plans in order to optimize resources and reinforce local capacities. 

  11. Revenues for Education in Metropolitan Areas. Chapter VI, Metropolitanism: Its Challenge to Education, 1968. Sixty-seventh Yearbook, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkin, Marvin C.

    For local school districts to provide equal educational opportunities throughout a metropolitan area, a school organization plan should distribute populations among districts in such a manner as to maximize the aggregate expressed demand for educational services and to provide relatively equal financial support. Consolidation of contiguous…

  12. "Smart Students Get Perfect Scores in Tests without Studying Much": Why Is an Effortless Achiever Identity Attractive, and for Whom Is It Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carolyn; Nyström, Anne-Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Discourses about the value of effort and hard work are prevalent and powerful in many western societies and educational contexts. Yet, paradoxically, in these same contexts effortless achievement is often lauded, and in certain discourses is heralded as the pinnacle of success and a sign of genius. In this paper we interrogate discourses about…

  13. First epidemiological report of feline heartworm infection in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Carretón, Elena; García-Guasch, Laín; Expósito, Jordi; Armario, Belén; Morchón, Rodrigo; Simón, Fernando

    2014-11-12

    The metropolitan area of Barcelona is the most densely populated metropolitan area on the Mediterranean coast. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease in this region; however, there are no published epidemiological data regarding feline heartworm in this region and the prevalence in this species remains unknown. Serum samples from 758 cats living in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain) were collected between 2012 and 2013. To establish the seroprevalence of heartworm infection in cats, serological techniques for anti-D.immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibody detection were used while a commercial ELISA test kit was used to detect circulating D.immitis antigens. Of these samples, 11.47% were positive to D.immitis and Wolbachia surface protein antibodies and 0.26% were positive to D.immitis antigens. The higher antibody seroprevalences were found in the areas that follow the courses of the rivers Llobregat and Anoia (Baix Llobregat 11.5%, Vallés Occidental 13.2%; Barcelonés 11.7%) where humidity and vegetation favour the development of the mosquito vectors. High antibody seroprevalences were also found in the urban areas (Barcelona city 13.1%; Sabadell 15.5%), which demonstrates that city cats are also at risk from D.immitis infection. Generally, in Spain cats do not receive prophylactic treatment and therefore the risk of infection is higher in this species than in dogs. Adequate prophylactic plans should be implemented in the feline population. This is the first epidemiologic study on feline heartworm infection to be carried out in continental Spain.

  14. Evaluation of treated sewage reuse potential and membrane-based water reuse technology for the Bangkok Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Prasertkulsak, Sirilak; Hamjinda, Nutta Sangnarin; Kootatep, Thammarat; Itonaga, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Only 3.4% of total water use in the Bangkok Metropolitan area is reused treated sewage. This study anticipates that further treated-sewage reuse in industrial sectors, commercial buildings and public parks, in addition to present in-plant and street cleaning purposes, would increase total water reuse to about 10%. New water reuse technologies using membrane bioreactor (MBR) and microfiltration (MF) as tertiary treatment were implemented to assess their potential for their application in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MBR was applied to the treatment of raw sewage in a central treatment plant of the Bangkok Metropolitan area. The MF membrane was used for polishing the effluent of the treatment plant. The results show the quality of treated water from MBR and tertiary MF treatment could meet stringent water reuse quality standard in terms of biochemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and biological parameters. Constant permeate flux of the membrane was achieved over long-term operation, during which inorganic fouling was observed. This is due to the fact that incoming sewage contains a considerable amount of inorganic constituents contributed from storm water and street inlet in the combined sewerage systems. The total cost of the MBR for sewage treatment and production of reuse water is estimated to be about USD1.10/m3.

  15. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  16. Evaluation of Confluence Model Variables on IQ and Achievement Test Scores in a Sample of 6- to 11-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanum, Soren; Bringle, Robert G.

    1980-01-01

    The confluence model of cognitive development was tested on 7,060 children. Family size, sibling order within family sizes, and hypothesized age-dependent effects were tested. Findings indicated an inverse relationship between family size and the cognitive measures; age-dependent effects and other confluence variables were found to be…

  17. Achievement Testing with the Wechsler Quicktest: An Examination of Its Psychometric Properties and Applied Utility with a Greek-Cypriot Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrachimi-Souroulla, Andry; Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to field-test a Greek version of the Wechsler Quicktest and to examine its psychometric properties. The Quicktest was individually administered to 208 students, aged 5-14 years, along with a reading test. Based on the Rasch analysis, data for the Quicktest subtests showed acceptable fit to the model. Also, correlations were found…

  18. Information manager profile in university libraries from the Metropolitan Region of Recife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielma Maria Marques Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is a literature of descriptive nature in order to define the profile of the manager of information in university libraries of Recife and its metropolitan area. Method. To achieve the proposed objective was based on a literature in the area of information science, in which it was possible to contextualize the attributes skills of information professionals from qualitative and quantitative approaches. Results. Results indicate issues: a activities performed in the routine of professional b skills that have to do their jobs, c professional d workplace e academic. Conclusions. With the responses is possible to discern the different skills of the librarian in accordance with their professional and personal experience.

  19. Value system of Chinese youth: the comparative analysis of metropolitan and regional students' priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Li Wuyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the survey of students in Guangzhou which ranks third among major cities in China in terms of social, economic and demographic indicators are presented in the article. The aim of the research was not only to reveal Chinese youth priorities in the sphere of education, private life, work, social activity and morality, but also to provide characteristics of value system of the students of the major regional centre versus the corresponding answers of the respondents in Beijing. The comparative analysis of the value system of students in metropolitan and regional institutions of higher education was carried out in the framework of the following theme-based modules: the total level of political and social involvement and activity, the choice of achievement criteria, educational and professional strategies, family and marriage relations, etc.

  20. ELECTRICITY DEMAND IN A NORTHERN MEXICO METROPOLITAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Fullerton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using an error correction framework, this study analyzes the long- and short-run dynamics of electricity demand in Ciudad Juarez, a large metropolitan economy on Mexico’s northern border. Demand is decomposed into the total number of electricity accounts and electricity usage per customer, each of which is modeled separately. A two-stage least squares approach is used to estimate the per customer electricity demand equations due to the endogeneity of the average price variable. The results indicate sustained growth in population, employment, and income can be expected to exert substantial upward pressure on regional electric power demand. Furthermore, demand is found to be price-inelastic in this metropolitan area, suggesting that rate increases can help raise the revenues necessary to fund expansion of the electrical grid.

  1. Analysis of Solid Waste Management and Strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palika Wannawilai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine and analyze strategic gaps and the environment of waste management of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in order to suggest suitable waste management strategies for Bangkok Metropolitan. The study was conducted by interviewing BMA and districts’ administrators and officers, local leaders and people, and private sectors, conducting a focus group, as well as reviewing relevant documents. The data was analyzed by applying Gap analysis and SWOT analysis. The proposed five strategies are: 1 enhancement of efficiency in solid waste and hazardous waste management; 2 discipline, participation and responsibility of citizens and all sectors related to waste management; 3 appropriate and integrated waste management; 4 capacity building for BMA’s staff and improvement of solid waste management system; and 5 research and development of knowledge and technology in waste management. The study also suggested driving approaches for effective implementation of the strategies.

  2. Use of renewable energy in the greater metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Garcia, Rocio; Castro Gomez, Gustavo; Fallas Cordero, Kenneth; Grant Chaves, Samuel; Mendez Parrales, Tony; Parajeles Fernandez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    A study is conducted on different renewable energy within the larger metropolitan area, selecting the most suitable for the area and the implementation for distributed generation. A research methodology is practiced type pretending gather the necessary information to make proposals selected of different type of energy. The geography of the greater metropolitan area is studied along with the different existing renewable energy: distributed generation, remote measurement of energy which is one of the elements of the concept of intelligent networks (Smart Grid) in the electricity sector, legislation of Costa Rica regarding the generation of renewable energy and environmental impact. An analysis of economic feasibility is covered for each of the proposals estimating current rates for leading distributors of a future value, concluding with the viability of projects for possible execution of the same. (author) [es

  3. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    pressure. Growth management strategies are necessary to secure future balanced and sustainable development throughout the whole urban region. The analysis of urbanisation and urban growth in peri-urban areas is at the core of this study, including socio-demographic and functional dynamics, land use impacts...... and options for spatial planning. The main case was the metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Other cases from Europe and the USA were used as reference studies. The methods included quantitative analyses of register and land use data as well as general case study work to investigate options for spatial...... planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...

  4. Dog ownership, dog walking, and leisure-time walking among Taiwanese metropolitan and nonmetropolitan older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yung; Huang, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2018-04-04

    This study examined the prevalence of dog ownership and dog walking and its association with leisure-time walking among metropolitan and nonmetropolitan older adults. A telephone-based cross-sectional survey targeting Taiwanese older adults was conducted in November 2016. Data related to dog ownership, time spent dog walking (categorized as non-dog owner, non-dog walkers, and dog walkers), and sociodemographic variables were obtained from 1074 older adults. Adjusted binary logistic regression was then performed. In this sample, 12% of Taiwanese older adults owned a dog and 31% of them walked their dogs for an average of 232.13 min over 5.9 days/week (standard deviation = 2.03). Older adults living in nonmetropolitan areas were more likely to own a dog (14.7% vs. 9.1%) but less likely to walk their dog (25.9% vs. 39.6%) than were those living in metropolitan areas. Compared with non-dog owners, only older adults living in nonmetropolitan areas who were dog walkers achieved 150 min of leisure-time walking (odds ratio: 3.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-8.77), after adjustment for potential confounders. Older Taiwanese adults living in nonmetropolitan areas who owned and walked their dogs were more likely to achieve health-enhancing levels of leisure-time walking. Tailored physical activity interventions for promoting dog walking should be developed for older adults who are dog owners living in nonmetropolitan areas and who do not engage in dog walking.

  5. FINANCING FARMLAND PRESERVATION: THE TWIN CITIES METROPOLITAN AREA EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Greden, Leah R.; Taff, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Two farmland protection programs in the Twin Cities (Minnesota) Metropolitan Area--Green Acres and Agricultural Preserves-- together enrolled 608,331 acres in 1992. The principal financing tool was a provision common to both programs under which participating landowners paid reduced property taxes in exchange for certain non- development assurances. The resulting shift in property tax obligations to other taxpayers amounted to $7.6 million for the 1993 tax year, an average shift of $12.50 per...

  6. Skinner boxes for psychotics: Operant conditioning at Metropolitan state hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named “Studies in Behavior Therapy,” was renamed “Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory” in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavio...

  7. SPATIAL SEGMENTATION WITHIN METROPOLITAN LABOUR MARKET: MAPPING THE GENDER DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    DEBNATH, TANIA

    2017-01-01

    Spatial segmentation of the labour market of informal workers within the metropolitan is observed globally. InIndia it is not only compartmentalised on gender, caste, ethnic lines but also geographically segmented by thecreation of spatially disjoined markets. The differential impact of this limited mobility on female and malelabour remains largely unexplored. The present paper argues that the labour market for informal workers issegmented into smaller labour markets separated by commuting (h...

  8. Factors Influencing Patronage Of Medical Tourism In Metropolitan Lagos Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omisore; E.O.; Agbabiaka; H. I.

    2015-01-01

    Since medical tourism attract patient from various origin to seek medical services at different destinations it is paramount to consider the factors that motivate patrons decision on medical tourism. Hence this study assesses the factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in Lagos metropolis Nigeria. Lagos State is situated in the southwestern corner of Nigeria it lies within Latitudes 62N to 64N of the Equator and Longitudes 245E to 420E of the Greenwich meridian. Metropolitan Lagos is...

  9. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Enrique Saavedra Martinez

    2011-01-01

    The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH), which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university stud...

  10. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Martinez, Manuel Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH), which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university stud...

  11. The 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake: A Metropolitan shock

    OpenAIRE

    Hauksson, Egill; Stein, Ross S.

    1989-01-01

    Just 3 hours after the Whittier Narrows earthquake struck, it became clear that a heretofore unseen geological structure was seismically active beneath metropolitan Los Angeles. Contrary to initial expectations of strike-slip or oblique-slip motion on the Whittier fault, whose north end abuts the aftershock zone, the focal mechanism of the mainshock showed pure thrust faulting on a deep gently inclined surface [Hauksson et al., 1988]. This collection of nine research reports spans the spectru...

  12. Twelve metropolitan carbon footprints. A preliminary comparative global assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Brown, Marilyn A.

    2010-01-01

    A dearth of available data on carbon emissions and comparative analysis between metropolitan areas make it difficult to confirm or refute best practices and policies. To help provide benchmarks and expand our understanding of urban centers and climate change, this article offers a preliminary comparison of the carbon footprints of 12 metropolitan areas. It does this by examining emissions related to vehicles, energy used in buildings, industry, agriculture, and waste. The carbon emissions from these sources - discussed here as the metro area's partial carbon footprint - provide a foundation for identifying the pricing, land use, help metropolitan areas throughout the world respond to climate change. The article begins by exploring a sample of the existing literature on urban morphology and climate change and explaining the methodology used to calculate each area's carbon footprint. The article then depicts the specific carbon footprints for Beijing, Jakarta, London, Los Angeles, Manila, Mexico City, New Delhi, New York, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Singapore, and Tokyo and compares these to respective national averages. It concludes by offering suggestions for how city planners and policymakers can reduce the carbon footprint of these and possibly other large urban areas. (author)

  13. Is Urban Planning in Australia Hindered by Poor Metropolitan Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Burton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many calls for urban planning in Australia to be reformed, although often in contradictory ways. For example, some argue it should be capable of delivering greater certainty to developers while others call for more flexibility in processes of urban development regulation; some would like to roll back its regulatory impact while others argue for a renewal of planning’s commitment to promoting social and spatial justice. The Australian planning system is also held to be hindered by a comparative lack of planning at and for the metropolitan scale. This is connected to the absence of well-developed structures of metropolitan governance in what is a three-tier federal system, with most power over planning concentrated at the State and Territory government scale. The paper explores this putative hindrance by considering three important issues in Australian urban policy debates about the efficacy of contemporary multi-level governance arrangements: spatial scale; identity and legitimacy; and efficiency and effectiveness. It includes some analysis of the case made for a more explicit and rigorous national urban policy and how this might relate to lower level planning regimes. The paper focuses on recent urban policy and planning initiatives in South East Queensland, one of Australia’s fastest growing metropolitan regions, and concludes that while incremental but nonetheless significant improvements in planning policy and practice are possible, these are unlikely to satisfy those calling for more radical changes to improve the Australian planning system.

  14. Smart Policies and Metropolitan Vision: the Spatial Dimension in the Experience of Amsterdam Smart City Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Fini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting the main projects and policies recently developed by the Municipality of Amsterdam in the field of energy policies, with particular reference to the projects promoted in the context of the ASC - Amsterdam Smart City Platform. The analyzed projects and policies seem to be relevant for at least three aspects and for the matters raised by them:I. for the aim to connect policies and projects of the Amsterdam Smart City with the definition of a territorial vision for the Amsterdam metropolitan area;II. for the strong connection characterizing this experience between energy-management policies on the territory and the management’s choices related to urban planning and urban design;III. finally, the experience is relevant in relation with the consolidation of the ACS’s platform as a place where several individuals are directly involved in the management of public good and where all requests and peculiarities contribute to defining a common planning process on the energy and environmental subjects in the urban and metropolitan area.  Based on the latest, most significant information of the activities performed by Amsterdam Smart City Platform, the paper focuses on the results after four years since the projects and tests have been carried out, on the basis of a network structuring, predetermined energy-saving targets and of some space-related choices regarding the whole territory as well as ASC’s policies.

  15. Achievements in testing of the MGA and FRAM isotopic software codes under the DOE/NNSA-IRSN cooperation of gamma-ray isotopic measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Duc; Wang, Tzu-Fang; Funk, Pierre; Weber, Anne-Laure; Pepin, Nicolas; Karcher, Anna

    2009-01-01

    DOE/NNSA and IRSN collaborated on a study of gamma-ray instruments and analysis methods used to perform isotopic measurements of special nuclear materials. The two agencies agreed to collaborate on the project in response to inconsistencies that were found in the various versions of software and hardware used to determine the isotopic abundances of uranium and plutonium. IRSN used software developed internally to test the MGA and FRAM isotopic analysis codes for criteria used to stop data acquisition. The stop-criterion test revealed several unusual behaviors in both the MGA and FRAM software codes.

  16. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  17. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  18. Involving new actors to achieve ART scaling-up: difficulties in an HIV/AIDS counselling and testing centre in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakam, J C Y Tantchou; Gruénais, M-E

    2009-03-01

    The high HIV/AIDS-related mortality among young adults is devastating countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The implementing capacity of the health systems is the main limiting factor of antiretroviral treatment (ART) scaling-up;(1) this capacity depends mainly on the health workforce. Tackling the issue of human resources for health is thus of paramount importance to achieve universal access to ART and for the survival of health systems in time of AIDS. To support such a process, the World Health Organization stresses the importance of task shifting(2) from medical doctors to nurses and from nurses to community health workers. Such task shifting is not easy to achieve but undoubtedly needed. This paper raises issues about the involvement of new actors(3) without precise redefinitions of roles and task-shifting procedures. We take the example of a 'Centre de Prévention et de Dépistage Volontaire du VIH/sida'(4) in one major town of the Far-North province of Cameroon (Central Africa). The study was qualitative. Observations were carried out in the service and in-depth interviews conducted with health workers and actors of Cameroon's National AIDS Control Committee. These interviews were recorded and transcribed. The material was analysed using keywords. KEY RESULT: The involvement of new actors in a context of human resources for health shortage and health system crisis creates confusion and role conflicts, which lead to frustration. It favours the appearance of chinks within which these new actors slip and 'find their way' in the system; it finally raises problems related to their legitimacy and position within the existing hierarchy. KEY POLICY MESSAGE: It is necessary, when involving new staff members (particularly when they do not belong to internationally recognized health professionals such as nurses, doctors and pharmacists), to redefine roles and build precise task-shifting procedures so that everyone may still have a place in the whole system and feel useful.

  19. Testing the limits of Paleozoic chronostratigraphic correlation via high-resolution (13Ccarb) biochemostratigraphy across the Llandovery–Wenlock (Silurian) boundary: Is a unified Phanerozoic time scale achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Loydell, David K.; Samtleben, Christian; Munnecke, Axel; Kaljo, Dimitri; Mannik, Peep; Martma, Tonu; Jeppsson, Lennart; Kleffner, Mark A.; Barrick, James E.; Johnson, Craig A.; Emsbo, Poul; Joachimski, Michael M.; Bickert, Torsten; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The resolution and fidelity of global chronostratigraphic correlation are direct functions of the time period under consideration. By virtue of deep-ocean cores and astrochronology, the Cenozoic and Mesozoic time scales carry error bars of a few thousand years (k.y.) to a few hundred k.y. In contrast, most of the Paleozoic time scale carries error bars of plus or minus a few million years (m.y.), and chronostratigraphic control better than ??1 m.y. is considered "high resolution." The general lack of Paleozoic abyssal sediments and paucity of orbitally tuned Paleozoic data series combined with the relative incompleteness of the Paleozoic stratigraphic record have proven historically to be such an obstacle to intercontinental chronostratigraphic correlation that resolving the Paleozoic time scale to the level achieved during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic was viewed as impractical, impossible, or both. Here, we utilize integrated graptolite, conodont, and carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) data from three paleocontinents (Baltica, Avalonia, and Laurentia) to demonstrate chronostratigraphic control for upper Llando very through middle Wenlock (Telychian-Sheinwoodian, ~436-426 Ma) strata with a resolution of a few hundred k.y. The interval surrounding the base of the Wenlock Series can now be correlated globally with precision approaching 100 k.y., but some intervals (e.g., uppermost Telychian and upper Shein-woodian) are either yet to be studied in sufficient detail or do not show sufficient biologic speciation and/or extinction or carbon isotopic features to delineate such small time slices. Although producing such resolution during the Paleozoic presents an array of challenges unique to the era, we have begun to demonstrate that erecting a Paleozoic time scale comparable to that of younger eras is achievable. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  20. What role for law in achieving transboundary drainage basin security?--the development and testing of the Legal Assessment Model (LAM) for transboundary watercourse states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, P K

    2004-01-01

    The beneficial use of the world's transboundary waters raises difficult issues for drainage basin security on most parts of the globe. International law provides that each transboundary watercourse State is entitled to, and obliged to ensure, an "equitable and reasonable use" of these shared waters. The IWLRI developed and tested a Legal Assessment Model (LAM) through the work of interdisciplinary teams working in three different transboundary situations--China (upstream), Mozambique (downstream) and Palestine (shared groundwater). The LAM provides a tool for transboundary watercourse States to use in the preparation of their national water strategy for use at the national and international levels. The model should now be tested at the basin level, with a view to assisting to accomplish the peaceful and rational use of transboundary waters in line with the governing rule of international law and thereby to facilitate the overall policy objective of drainage basin security.

  1. The Influence of Race-Ethnicity and Physical Activity Levels on Elementary School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Reilly, Monique S.

    2018-01-01

    The authors used structural equation modeling to map the relationships between student race-ethnicity via the mediating variable physical activity on English language arts (ELA) and mathematics achievement among 964 fourth- and fifth-grade students. The students attended a New York City Metropolitan area school district and completed the Physical…

  2. CBM Reading, Mathematics, and Written Expression at the Secondary Level: Examining Latent Composite Relations Among Indices and Unique Predictions With a State Achievement Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codding, Robin S; Petscher, Yaacov; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-05-01

    A paucity of research has examined the utility of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for data-based decision making at the secondary level. As schools move to multitiered systems of service delivery, it is conceivable that multiple screening measures will be used that address various academic subject areas. The value of including different CBM indices measures is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the relationship among a variety of reading, writing, and mathematics CBM indices administered to 249 seventh-grade students; (b) investigate amount and patterns of growth; and (c) examine predictive validity to a high-stakes state test using latent factor analysis and multiple indicator growth models. Results indicated strong correspondence among CBM types for fall static scores but weak relationships among slopes. Different patterns of growth were yielded for CBM writing than for CBM reading and mathematics. Findings from this study suggested that although reading, mathematics, and writing CBM were independently and moderately related to both English Language Arts and Math test scores, reading was the strongest predictor when all 3 CBM constructs were considered jointly.

  3. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  4. Comparison of daytime and night-time populations adjacent to interstate highways in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Daytime and night-time population densities bordering Interstate highway routes in metropolitan areas are compared at the traffic analysis zone level. In three of the metropolitan areas studied, histograms of daytime to night-time population density ratios are peaked at 1.0. In a smaller metropolitan area, the peak of the histogram moves to values greater than 1.0 but less than 2.0. In view of the typical uncertainties in calculating radiological transport effects (∼2), this study indicates that a distinction between daytime and night-time transport is not warranted, especially since a typical route includes extensive transport outside metropolitan areas. (author)

  5. Long- and short-term retention of traditional instruction vs. previously tested tactual vs. innovative tactual resources on the achievement and attitudes of second-grade students in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sherese A.

    This researcher investigated the long- and short-term retention of information using traditional instruction versus previously tested tactual resources versus innovative tactual resources on the achievement and attitudes of second-grade students in science. The processing of new and difficult knowledge has challenged many young children who tend to be kinesthetic or tactual learners. In compliance with the National Science Education Standards, students should be actively engaged in their own learning. Therefore, to boost student achievement in science, the use of tactual materials was implemented. The sample included 67 second-grade students drawn from three heterogeneously grouped classes in a low socio-economic neighborhood. It consisted of 30 females and 37 males of which 97 percent were African American, 2 percent were Hispanic, and 1 percent Other. Students were unaware of their diagnosed learning-style preference(s) during the instruction and assessment phases of the study. Therefore, students' knowledge of their learning-style preferences could not have had any impact on their achievement or attitudes. A counterbalanced research design was employed. During the first session, Group 1 was taught with previously tested tactual resources (Electroboards, Flip Chutes, Fact Wheels, and Fact Fans), and Group 3 was taught traditionally. During the second session of instruction, Group 1 received instruction with innovative tactual resources, Group 2 received traditional instruction, Group 3 received instruction with previously tested tactual resources. During the final session of instruction, Group 1 received traditional instruction, Group 2 received instruction with previously tested tactual resources, and Group 3 received instruction with innovative tactual resources. The results indicated that the use of tactual materials, regardless of whether they were previously tested or innovative, produced higher achievement gains and more positive attitudes than traditional

  6. Heterogeneous Structure and Seismicity beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kato, A.; Sakai, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2010-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes damaged mega-thrust earthquakes. Sato et al. (2005) revealed the geometry of upper surface of PSP, and Hagiwara et al. (2006) estimated the velocity structure beneath Boso peninsula. However, these results are not sufficient for the assessment of the entire picture of the seismic hazards beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area including those due to an intra-slab M7+ earthquake. So, we launched the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (Hirata et al., 2009). Proving the more detailed geometry and physical properties (e.g. velocities, densities, attenuation) and stress field within PSP is very important to attain this issue. The core item of this project is a dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) for making observations in the metropolitan area (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We deployed the 249 seismic stations with a spacing of 5 km. Some parts of stations construct 5 linear arrays at interval of 2 km such as Tsukuba-Fujisawa (TF) array, etc. The TF array runs from northeast to southwest through the center of Tokyo. In this study, we applied the tomography method to image the heterogeneous structure under the Tokyo metropolitan area. We selected events from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) unified earthquake list. All data of MeSO-net were edited into event data by the selected JMA unified earthquake list. We picked the P and S wave arrival times. The total number of stations and events are 421 and 1,256, respectively. Then, we applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) to this dataset and estimated the fine-scale velocity structure. The grid nodes locate 10 km interval in parallel with the array, 20 km interval in perpendicular to the array; and on depth direction, 5 km interval to a depth of less than 50 km and 10 km interval at a depth of more

  7. Operation test for 200-kW class internally improved MCFC stacks having achieved 5000 hours; 200kW kyu naibu kaishitsu gata MCFC sutakku unten shiken 5,000 jikan tassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashino, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-03-10

    The operation test for 200-kW class internally improved MCFC stacks being performed at the Amagasaki fuel cell power generation testing plant of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. has achieved on January 22, 2000 five thousand hours, the original test time target. Temperature raising has begun on June 18 last year, and the first power generation was carried out on June 30. Since then the operation has continued smoothly at near rated output, and the test was completed nearly as planned without experiencing any trouble caused by Y2K problem. This research is being carried out as the research work shared by the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Power Generation System Technology Research Association (MCFC Research Association) based on the research commissioning from NEDO as part of the New Sunshine Project. After the confirmation of the initial performance, verification of the carbon dioxide self-sustaining operation, and the property evaluation test of every 500 hours are going smoothly. The intention hereafter is to achieve 5,000 hours as the power generation time, with the schedule to reduce the stack temperature in the middle of February, and cease the operation. As of January 25, the amount of power generated reached 1,089 MWh. (NEDO)

  8. Key achievements in elementary R&D on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER test blanket module in JAERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the significant progress made in the research and development (R&D) of key technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armours, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup and tritium release behaviour from a Li2TiO3 pebble bed under neutron-pulsed operation conditions are summarized. With the improvement of the heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 °C followed by normalizing it at 930 °C after the hot isostatic pressing process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armour and an F82H structural material was developed using a solid-state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it has been confirmed that a fatigue lifetime correlation, which was developed for the ITER divertor, can be made applicable for the F82H first wall mockup. As for R&D on the breeder material, Li2TiO3, the effect of compression loads on effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds has been clarified for the Li2TiO3 pebble bed. The tritium breeding ratio of a simulated multi-layer blanket structure has successfully been measured using 14 MeV neutrons with an accuracy of 10%. The tritium release rate from the Li2TiO3 pebble has also been successfully measured with pulsed neutron irradiation, which simulates ITER operation.

  9. Key achievements in elementary R and D on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER test blanket module in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the significant progress made in the research and development (R and D) of key technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armours, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup and tritium release behaviour from a Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed under neutron-pulsed operation conditions are summarized. With the improvement of the heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 0 C followed by normalizing it at 930 0 C after the hot isostatic pressing process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armour and an F82H structural material was developed using a solid-state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it has been confirmed that a fatigue lifetime correlation, which was developed for the ITER divertor, can be made applicable for the F82H first wall mockup. As for R and D on the breeder material, Li 2 TiO 3 , the effect of compression loads on effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds has been clarified for the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed. The tritium breeding ratio of a simulated multi-layer blanket structure has successfully been measured using 14 MeV neutrons with an accuracy of 10%. The tritium release rate from the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble has also been successfully measured with pulsed neutron irradiation, which simulates ITER operation

  10. Key achievements in elementary R and Ds on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER Test Blanket Module in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Tanigawa, H.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.; Hayashi, K.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents significant progress in research and development (R and D) of key elementary technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armors, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup, and tritium release behavior from Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed under neutron pulsed operation condition are summarized. By the improvement of heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H, can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 deg C followed by normalizing at 930 deg C after the Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armor and an F82H structural material was developed by using a solid state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it was found that the thermal fatigue lifetime of F82H can be predicted by using Manson-Coffin's law. As for R and Ds on a breeder material, Li 2 TiO 3 , effective thermal conductivity of Li 2 TiO 3 pebble was measured under compressive force simulating the ITER TBM environment. The increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the pebble bed was about 2.5 % at the compressive strain of 0.9 % at 400 deg C. Neutronic performance of the blanket module mockup has been carried out by the 14 MeV neutron irradiation. It was confirmed that the measured tritium production rate agreed with the calculated values within about 10% difference. Also, tritium release from a Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed was measured under pulsed neutron irradiation conditions simulating the ITER operation. (author)

  11. Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (Italy) Metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.

    2001-05-01

    The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: Campi Flegrei, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data

  12. Population deconcentration in metropolitan Manila in the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, W F; Bacol-montilla, M

    1981-10-01

    "The present analysis is intended to delineate the extent of population deconcentration through an examination of changes in core-periphery growth and density patterns within the Metropolitan Manila complex. Specifically, [the authors] examine changes in absolute and relative population growth and density levels in the central city of Manila, the inner suburban ring, and the outer suburban ring from 1903 to 1975. [The authors] also present a preliminary assessment of the demographic processes underlying the post-World War II trends." Data are from the 1975 Philippine census. excerpt

  13. Travel Models for Corridors of Metropolitan Areas Served by Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems.

  14. The determinants of part-time work in Metropolitan Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Enrique Saavedra Martinez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper examines the part-time work in Metropolitan Lima in 2008. The overall objective is to identify the determinants of the incidence of part-time work in Lima. We worked with one Probit econometric model, measured by the National Survey of Households (NSH, which explores the job characteristics of people. This will determine the presence of part-time workers in the areas of trade, health, education and communication; also realized that this group has completed university studies and incomplete, and the woman has a probability of 83,11397% more than men of working part time.

  15. The MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network) confronts the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, Japan (Mw 9.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Morita, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.

    2011-12-01

    On April 2007, we have launched the special project for earthquake disaster mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (Fiscal 2007-2011). As a part of this project, construction of the MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network) has been completed, with about 300 stations deployed at mainly elementary and junior-high schools with an interval of about 5 km in space. This results in a highly dense network that covers the metropolitan area. To achieve stable seismic observation with lower surface ground noise, relative to a measurement on the surface, sensors of all stations were installed in boreholes at a depth of about 20m. The sensors have a wide dynamic range (135dB) and a wide frequency band (DC to 80Hz). Data are digitized with 200Hz sampling and telemetered to the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. The MeSO-net that can detect and locate most earthquakes with magnitudes above 2.5 provides a unique baseline in scientific and engineering researches on the Tokyo metropolitan area, as follows. One of the main contributions is to greatly improve the image of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and provides an accurate estimation of the plate boundaries between the PSP and the Pacific plate, allowing us to possibly discuss clear understanding of the relation between the PSP deformation and M7+ intra-slab earthquake generation. Also, the latest version of the plate model in the metropolitan area, proposed by our project, attracts various researchers, comparing with highly-accurate solutions of fault mechanism, repeating earthquakes, etc. Moreover, long-periods ground motions generated by the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) were observed by the MeSO-net and analyzed to obtain the Array Back-Projection Imaging of this event (Honda et al., 2011). As a result, the overall pattern of the imaged asperities coincides well with the slip distribution determined based on other waveform inversion

  16. A final report on the performance achieved by non-destructive testing of defective butt welds in 50mm thick Type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.; Hudgell, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report concludes a programme of work started approximately eight years ago to fabricate deliberately defective austenitic downhand welds in 50 mm thick Type 316 plate and then to examine them non-destructively under ideal laboratory conditions. After completing and reporting the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT), the specimens were subjected to detailed metallography to locate, identify and size all the planned and unplanned flaws in the welds. The report gives the final analysis of this exercise on the relative merits of X-radiography, pulse echo ultrasonics and the time-of-flight technique for the detection, location and sizing of weld flaws. It was found that X-radiography and pulse echo ultrasonics were the best techniques for flaw detection but neither technique was reliable for flaw sizing. The time-of-flight technique provided accurate sizing data but the location of the flaws had to be known to identify the diffracted signals from the extremities of the flaws due to the poor signal to noise ratio. Observations are also reported on the fabrication of deliberately defective austenitic welds for use as reference specimens in the FR programme. (author)

  17. Comparative Associations Between Achieved Bicultural Identity, Achieved Ego Identity, and Achieved Religious Identity and Adaptation Among Australian Adolescent Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rayya, Hisham M; Abu-Rayya, Maram H; White, Fiona A; Walker, Richard

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the comparative roles of biculturalism, ego identity, and religious identity in the adaptation of Australian adolescent Muslims. A total of 504 high school Muslim students studying at high schools in metropolitan Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, took part in this study which required them to complete a self-report questionnaire. Analyses indicated that adolescent Muslims' achieved religious identity seems to play a more important role in shaping their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation compared to adolescents' achieved bicultural identity. Adolescents' achieved ego identity tended also to play a greater role in their psychological and socio-cultural adaptation than achieved bicultural identity. The relationships between the three identities and negative indicators of psychological adaptation were consistently indifferent. Based on these findings, we propose that the three identity-based forces-bicultural identity development, religious identity attainment, and ego identity formation-be amalgamated into one framework in order for researchers to more accurately examine the adaptation of Australian adolescent Muslims.

  18. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko eLüftenegger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.

  19. Recent achievements of the neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment in the CEI region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Vaccari, F.; Kouteva, M.

    2008-03-01

    A review of the recent achievements of the innovative neo-deterministic approach for seismic hazard assessment through realistic earthquake scenarios has been performed. The procedure provides strong ground motion parameters for the purpose of earthquake engineering, based on the deterministic seismic wave propagation modelling at different scales - regional, national and metropolitan. The main advantage of this neo-deterministic procedure is the simultaneous treatment of the contribution of the earthquake source and seismic wave propagation media to the strong motion at the target site/region, as required by basic physical principles. The neo-deterministic seismic microzonation procedure has been successfully applied to numerous metropolitan areas all over the world in the framework of several international projects. In this study some examples focused on CEI region concerning both regional seismic hazard assessment and seismic microzonation of the selected metropolitan areas are shown. (author)

  20. Metropolitan social environments and pre-HAART/HAART era changes in mortality rates (per 10,000 adult residents among injection drug users living with AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R Friedman

    Full Text Available Among the largest US metropolitan areas, trends in mortality rates for injection drug users (IDUs with AIDS vary substantially. Ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories suggest many metropolitan areas characteristics that might drive this variation. We assess metropolitan area characteristics associated with decline in mortality rates among IDUs living with AIDS (per 10,000 adult MSA residents after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was developed.This is an ecological cohort study of 86 large US metropolitan areas from 1993-2006. The proportional rate of decline in mortality among IDUs diagnosed with AIDS (as a proportion of adult residents from 1993-1995 to 2004-2006 was the outcome of interest. This rate of decline was modeled as a function of MSA-level variables suggested by ecosocial, risk environment and dialectical theories. In multiple regression analyses, we used 1993-1995 mortality rates to (partially control for pre-HAART epidemic history and study how other independent variables affected the outcomes.In multivariable models, pre-HAART to HAART era increases in 'hard drug' arrest rates and higher pre-HAART income inequality were associated with lower relative declines in mortality rates. Pre-HAART per capita health expenditure and drug abuse treatment rates, and pre- to HAART-era increases in HIV counseling and testing rates, were weakly associated with greater decline in AIDS mortality.Mortality among IDUs living with AIDS might be decreased by reducing metropolitan income inequality, increasing public health expenditures, and perhaps increasing drug abuse treatment and HIV testing services. Given prior evidence that drug-related arrest rates are associated with higher HIV prevalence rates among IDUs and do not seem to decrease IDU population prevalence, changes in laws and policing practices to reduce such arrests while still protecting public order should be considered.

  1. Spatial mismatch, wages and unemployment in metropolitan areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bonomi Barufi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial mismatch hypothesis states that a lack of connection to job opportunities may affect an individual’s prospects in the labour market, especially for low-skilled workers. This phenomenon is especially observed in large urban areas, in which low-skilled minorities tend to live far away from jobs and face geographical barriers to finding and keeping jobs. This paper aims to investigate whether this negative relationship between spatial mismatch and labour market outcomes is valid in Brazil after controlling for individual characteristics. Our conclusions indicate that there is no clear relation between different measures of accessibility to jobs and the probability of being unemployed. However, for wages there is a clear correlation, which is stronger in larger metropolitan areas in the country. Given the exploratory nature of this work, our results still rely on strong identification hypotheses to avoid potential bias related to simultaneous location decisions of workers and firms within the city. Even if these conditions do not hold, the results are still meaningful as they provide a better understanding of the conditional distribution of wages and the unemployment rate in the biggest metropolitan areas of Brazil.

  2. The Audiometric Findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas, Regina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hearing loss can compromise the language, learning process, and socialization of students. Objective Study the audiometric findings among Curitiba and Metropolitan Area students. Methods Analysis of data collected at the hearing health service of Paraná State special education and inclusion department. Results The sample consisted of 646 students, children and teenagers of both genders (38.2% female and 61.8% male, with average age of 8.12 years (range 2 to 15; all were students of public or private schools of Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. The justifications to refer the students to audiometric evaluation were: otolaryngologists diagnosis (73.1%, school difficulties (39.6%, and midlevel hearing problems (32%. Audiometric results showed that 29.5% of the students had hearing loss. Conductive hearing losses showed the greatest occurrence among preschool students (right ear 38.6%, left ear 39.8%. The predominant hearing loss degree was mild (RE 20.5%, LE 19.3% to slight (RE 17%, LE 19.3%, as was the horizontal configuration (RE 81.5%, LE 78.4%. A significant relationship (p = 0.0000 between hearing loss and poor school performance was noted. Conclusion Considering the available data, especially the high number of findings of conductive losses, it is necessary to highlight prevention and diagnosis of early hearing alteration. Nevertheless, Brazil, as an emerging country, has been pursuing improvement in health and life quality of all citizens.

  3. PAD TECHNIQUE ON DEFORESTATION SITUATION ON PETROPOLIS’ METROPOLITAN AREA - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Santos de Alencar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rising and intensification of production’s activities, as industries, the deforestation taxes show to be on an alarming level. It is wide spread known the consequences that deforestation might cause in metropolitan areas. In order to evalue the consequences of this growing phenomenon, is possible to use a role of ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. One of them is the Preliminary Analysis of Danger (PAD, which is based on qualitative and statistics analysis and might be used in association with other ambiental impacts evaluations techniques. It’s goal is to analyze dangers in potential, it’s causes and consequences, in which is also done an associated risk analysis, which the last is the association between the classifications of frequency and severity, and, in the end, it gives suggestions of measures to avoid these dangers (undesired events. In this study, six dangers have been identified, in which none of them present despicable or low risk (0%, 16% present medium or high risk and 66% present critic risk. These datas point out that the deforestation situation might cause dangers with great consequences to Petropolis’ metropolitan area, just as floodings and earth slidings, which higthlights the urgency of management of the area. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20003

  4. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  5. An exploratory study of healthcare strategic planning in two metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begun, James W; Kaissi, Amer A

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about empirical variation in the extent to which healthcare organizations conduct formal strategic planning or the extent to which strategic planning affects performance. Structural contingency and complexity science theory offer differing interpretations of the value of strategic planning. Structural contingency theory emphasizes adaptation to achieve organizational fit with a changing environment and views strategic planning as a way to chart the organization's path. Complexity science argues that planning is largely futile in changing environments. Interviews of leaders in 20 healthcare organizations in the metropolitan areas of Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota, and San Antonio, Texas, reveal that strategic planning is a common and valued function in healthcare organizations. Respondents emphasized the need to continuously update strategic plans, involve physicians and the governing board, and integrate strategic plans with other organizational plans. Most leaders expressed that strategic planning contributes to organizational focus, fosters stakeholder participation and commitment, and leads to achievement of strategic goals. Because the widespread belief in strategic planning is based largely on experience, intuition, and faith, we present recommendations for developing an evidence base for healthcare strategic planning.

  6. Environmental non-governmental organizations – The actions of civil society in Curitiba and Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleusa Mara WOLSKY CARNEIRO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at achieving a diagnosis of the major actions of the environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs that actuate in Curitiba and Metropolitan Area. It also studies the relations established by these organizations to build a place socially fair and environmental sustainable. In order to do that the main activities of these organizations in the last decades were raised through interviews with their representatives, visitations to the central office and verification of the institutional documents available. The paper explains that the NGOs search to make actions that raise a sustainable model of development, since they understand that the State reduced the participation in this sector and that the people gave them power for it. To achieve so, they need to create a net of relationships between the community, the private and public agents and the NGOs, with the objective of learn the problems, point at the solutions and to develop environmental interventions models to legitimize their actions. That way, the territoriality that these organizations seek to create depend of integrated decisions and of a continuous search of people, information and mobilization, to set up news socials actors and to ensure the development of the activities of these organizations.

  7. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.43 Section 81.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial area...

  8. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.31 Section 81.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of the...

  9. 40 CFR 81.78 - Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.78 Section 81.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.78 Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Portland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maine) consists of the territorial area...

  10. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of the...

  11. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.16 Section 81.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial area...

  12. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  13. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.20 Section 81.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  14. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of the...

  15. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.44 Section 81.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of the...

  16. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.34 Section 81.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  17. 40 CFR 81.19 - Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.19 Section 81.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.19 Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boston Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial area...

  18. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.28 Section 81.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.28 Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland) consists of the territorial area...

  19. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of the...

  20. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of the...

  1. 40 CFR 81.89 - Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.89 Section 81.89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.89 Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cheyenne Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wyoming) consists of the territorial area...

  2. 40 CFR 81.87 - Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.87 Section 81.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.87 Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Boise Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Idaho) consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  3. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been revised...

  4. Metropolization Process for enhancing local and regional planning : an experience of cirebon metropolitan, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi Rustidja, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metropolitan develops in line with resource utilization, investment, and transactions of regional activities. Metropolization of an area gives emerge urban economy that changes the situation, form, and pattern of urban space interactions. On the other hand, metropolism concerns the strategy of changing variation of urban space, so that metropolitan invasion not only form of urban space but also the process of interaction among stakeholders in developing metropolitan area. Based on participatory research, this article explores metropolitan invasion process for enhancing local and regional planning, both indigenous and intrusive cataclysmic. The study find that the primeval, rural, and urban as elemental environment must be considered in developing metropolitan, not merely form the structure and pattern of urban space. The metropolization process also requires the strategic of rural urban linkage, context setting and local assessment, strategic community investment, and interculturalist approach. The other findings of the study show that metropolization in Cirebon Metropolitan, West Java emphasizing on promotion of competitiveness strategy, value chain urban activities, and networking of urban areas. Cirebon Metropolitan must promote the realization of growth centers and connect the interregional activities of metropolitan area for providing sustainable economic growth.

  5. 78 FR 10589 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the California State... sources within the areas covered by the plan as necessary to assure that the National Ambient Air Quality...

  6. Spatio-temporal aspects of gated residential security estates in non-metropolitan Western Cape

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available . This research attempts to address this research gap by focusing on the spatio-temporal aspects of non-metropolitan gated residential security estates in the Western Cape Province. It was found that most non-metropolitan gated residential security estates were...

  7. Urban food security at the crossroads between metropolitan food planning and global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Dirk Michael; Jeurissen, Leonne

    2017-01-01

    Making use of Life Cycle Thinking, the Metropolitan Foodscape Planner (MFP) tool provides ecological footprint maps and supply/demand data showing a large potential for metropolitan food supplies. In the discussion, we examine these results in the light of recent research on the impacts of the

  8. Polycentric Structures in Latin American Metropolitan Areas : Identifying Employment Sub-centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Romein, Arie; Verkoren, Otto|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073181773; Parente Paula Pessoa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Fernández-Maldonado A. M., Romein A., Verkoren O. and Parente Paula Pessoa R. Polycentric structures in Latin American metropolitan areas: identifying employment sub-centres, Regional Studies. The significant spatial transformations that have occurred within Latin American metropolitan areas since

  9. Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework Policy in the New York Metropolitan Area: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Sandra Lorraine Hawks

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study, "Knowledge Worker Perceptions of Telework in the New York Metropolitan Area," was conducted to explore the perceptions of knowledge workers who commute to a physical workplace in the New York Metropolitan area (NYMA). In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen NYMA commuters who are…

  10. 23 CFR 420.109 - What are the requirements for distribution of metropolitan planning funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Research Funds § 420.109 What are the requirements for distribution of metropolitan planning funds... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the requirements for distribution of metropolitan planning funds? 420.109 Section 420.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Non-metropolitan residential gated developments in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available -metropolitan locale and the topic is also unexplored in the South African context. This research attempts to address this research gap by investigating the locations of gated developments in non-metropolitan towns of varying sizes in the Western Cape...

  12. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a sustainable urban environment, the increase of green space areas is commonly used as a planning tool and adaptation strategy to combat environmental impacts resulting from global climate change and urbanization. Therefore, it is important to understand the change of green space areas and the derived impacts from the change. This research firstly applied space analysis and landscape ecology metrics to analyze the structure change of the pattern of green space area within the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Then, partial least squares were used to identify the consequences on microclimate and air pollution pattern caused by the changing pattern of green space areas within the districts of the Taipei Metropolitan Area. According to the analytical results, the green space area within Taipei Metropolitan Areas has decreased 1.19% from 1995 to 2007, but 93.19% of the green space areas have been kept for their original purposes. Next, from the landscape ecology metrics analysis, in suburban areas the linkages, pattern parameters, and space aggregation are all improving, and the fragmentation measure is also decreasing, but shape is becoming more complex. However, due to intensive land development in the city core, the pattern has becomes severely fragmented and decentralized causing the measures of the linkages and pattern parameters to decrease. The results from structural equation modeling indicate that the changing pattern of green space areas has great influences on air pollution and microclimate patterns. For instance, less air pollution, smaller rainfall patterns and cooler temperatures are associated with improvement in space aggregation, increasing the larger sized green space patch.

  13. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness: the Case Study of Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In several urban contexts, the definition of a new development process is arising and it is focused on the use and the application of new technologies in different areas of the urban system. Such new development process is aimed at increasing life quality and local communities wellness and at promoting the creation of a more efficient and more sustainable urban system, as well as at making it more competitive. The issue of the reorganization of metropolitan areas is combined with such process, following the recent approval of the Delrio Law that establishes the Metropolitan City in Italy, as government authority of the metropolitan areas. Smart City, Metropolitan Areas and Competitiveness are the three topics of this paper, which aim is the description of the most innovative politics and initiatives adopted in the Metropolitan City of Florence that is proposed as a case study where such topics are combined.

  14. The medicinal animal markets in the metropolitan region of Natal City, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo S; Torres, Denise F; Brooks, Sharon E; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2010-07-06

    This study investigates the trade of animals for medicinal purposes in Natal metropolitan area, northeastern Brazil, to document which animal species are used, how and for what purposes. This study also discusses the implications of the use of zootherapeutics for wildlife conservation. Based on interviews with merchants of medicinal animals in all open fairs of the metropolitan region of Natal City, we calculated the informant consensus factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species relative importance to determine the extent of potential utilization of each species. We describe the therapeutic effects of 23 animal species used medicinally. The zootherapeutical products sold commercially are used to treat 34 health problems that were classified into 14 broad categories. We also highlight those species valued for their effectiveness against a range of ailments. The highest ICF value (1.0) was cited for diseases of the circulatory system, which include relief of symptoms such as stroke, hemorrhage, varicose veins and edema. Our study indicated that the local population holds a great deal of ethnomedical knowledge about their local animal resources, and highlights the need for clinical investigations of these traditional remedies to test the safety and efficacy. The animal species identified in this study not only hold high medicinal value for local populations, but could potentially be a source of healing compounds that could aid pharmaceutical research. While the impact of these practices on animal populations is unknown, the high extractive value of these animal populations and the associated medicinal traditional knowledge, needs to be considered in any conservation strategy aimed at the faunistic resources of this area. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced time and wavelength division multiplexing for metropolitan area optical data communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watford, M.; DeCusatis, C.

    2005-09-01

    With the advent of new regulations governing the protection and recovery of sensitive business data, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, there has been a renewed interest in business continuity and disaster recovery applications for metropolitan area networks. Specifically, there has been a need for more efficient bandwidth utilization and lower cost per channel to facilitate mirroring of multi-terabit data bases. These applications have further blurred the boundary between metropolitan and wide area networks, with synchronous disaster recovery applications running up to 100 km and asynchronous solutions extending to 300 km or more. In this paper, we discuss recent enhancements in the Nortel Optical Metro 5200 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) platform, including features recently qualified for data communication applications such as Metro Mirror, Global Mirror, and Geographically Distributed Parallel Sysplex (GDPS). Using a 10 Gigabit/second (Gbit/s) backbone, this solution transports significantly more Fibre Channel protocol traffic with up to five times greater hardware density in the same physical package. This is also among the first platforms to utilize forward error correction (FEC) on the aggregate signals to improve bit error rate (BER) performance beyond industry standards. When combined with encapsulation into wide area network protocols, the use of FEC can compensate for impairments in BER across a service provider infrastructure without impacting application level performance. Design and implementation of these features will be discussed, including results from experimental test beds which validate these solutions for a number of applications. Future extensions of this environment will also be considered, including ways to provide configurable bandwidth on demand, mitigate Fibre Channel buffer credit management issues, and support for other GDPS protocols.

  16. Smart management of sample dilution using an artificial neural network to achieve streamlined processes and saving resources: the automated nephelometric testing of serum free light chain as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Pieri, Massimo; Bernardini, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Saving resources is a paramount issue for the modern laboratory, and new trainable as well as smart technologies can be used to allow the automated instrumentation to manage samples more efficiently in order to achieve streamlined processes. In this regard the serum free light chain (sFLC) testing represents an interesting challenge, as it usually causes using a number of assays before achieving an acceptable result within the analytical range. An artificial neural network based on the multi-layer perceptron (MLP-ANN) was used to infer the starting dilution status of sFLC samples based on the information available through the laboratory information system (LIS). After the learning phase, the MLP-ANN simulation was applied to the nephelometric testing routinely performed in our laboratory on a BN ProSpec® System analyzer (Siemens Helathcare) using the N Latex FLC kit. The MLP-ANN reduced the serum kappa free light chain (κ-FLC) and serum lambda free light chain (λ-FLC) wasted tests by 69.4% and 70.8% with respect to the naïve stepwise dilution scheme used by the automated analyzer, and by 64.9% and 66.9% compared to a "rational" dilution scheme based on a 4-step dilution. Although it was restricted to follow-up samples, the MLP-ANN showed good predictive performance, which alongside the possibility to implement it in any automated system, made it a suitable solution for achieving streamlined laboratory processes and saving resources.

  17. Working Together to Connect Care: a metropolitan tertiary emergency department and community care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Debra; McDonald, Clancy; Cartlidge-Gann, Leonie; Burke, John

    2017-03-02

    small compared with non-frequent users, the presentations are high. People in the frequent attendee group will often seek care from multiple EDs for, in the main, mental health issues and substance abuse. Furthermore, frequent ED users are vulnerable and experience higher mortality, hospital admissions and out-patient visits than non-frequent users. Aggressive and assertive outreach, intense coordination of services by integrated care teams, and the need for non-medical resources, such as supportive housing, have positive outcomes for this group of people. What does this paper add? This study uses international research findings in an Australian setting to provide a testing of the generalisability of an assertive and collaborative ED and community case management approach for supporting people who frequent a metropolitan ED. What are the implications for practitioners? The chronicling of a process undertaken to affect change in a health care setting supports practitioners when developing processes for this cohort across different ED contexts.

  18. NATIC achievement report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements of the MAnufacturing Technology supported by advanced and integrated Information system through international Cooperation (MATIC) ended in March 1999. The MATIC project is intended to develop international information systems to support manufacturing process from design to production through an international network in order to upgrade the manufacturing and supporting industries in Asian countries. The project has been completed by support provided by a large number of Japanese corporations and research institutes, and the counterparts in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. The developed prototype systems cover the three areas of automobile, electronics, textile and apparel industries. Demonstration tests have verified the functions thereof. In the automobile industry field, development was made on a system to link Japanese research and development corporations with Indonesian parts making corporations, and a system to exchange technological data between Indonesia and Thailand. In the electronics industry field, development was performed on an electronic catalog system to link Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. (NEDO)

  19. Injuries to Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas in British Columbia, Canada: Incidence and trends, 1986-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in injury rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in British Columbia (BC are well established. Information regarding the influence of residence on disparities is scarce. We sought to fill these gaps by examining hospitalization rates for all injuries, unintentional injuries and intentional injuries across 24 years among i Aboriginal and total populations; ii populations living in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas; and iii Aboriginal populations living on- and off-reserve. Methods We used data spanning 1986 through 2010 from BC’s universal health care insurance plan, linked to vital statistics databases. Aboriginal people were identified by insurance premium group and birth and death record notations, and their residence was determined by postal code. “On-reserve” residence was established by postal code areas associated with an Indian reserve or settlement. Health Service Delivery Areas (HSDAs were classified as “metropolitan” if they contained a population of at least 100,000 with a density of 400 or more people per square kilometre. We calculated the crude hospitalization incidence rate and the Standardized Relative Risk (SRR of hospitalization due to injury standardizing by gender, 5-year age group, and HSDA. We assessed cumulative change in SRR over time as the relative change between the first and last years of the observation period. Results Aboriginal metropolitan populations living off-reserve had the lowest SRR of injury (2.0, but this was 2.3 times greater than the general British Columbia metropolitan population (0.86. For intentional injuries, Aboriginal populations living on-reserve in non-metropolitan areas were at 5.9 times greater risk than the total BC population. In general, the largest injury disparities were evident for Aboriginal non-metropolitan populations living on-reserve (SRR 3.0; 2.5 times greater than the general BC non-metropolitan population (1

  20. Causes of informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality: An exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah K. Marutlulle

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the causes of informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM. The article strongly challenges the view that the cause of informal settlements in EMM and other parts of South Africa is predominantly the apartheid government and agrees with literature which provides evidence that to a larger extent, the present government, not the apartheid government, is one of the dominant causes of informal settlements. The article further establishes a common and fertile ground for the convergence of the different views and perspectives into variables which, in addition to the present government, include population growth, government economic policies, economic variables, housing shortage, unavailability of land and unaffordability as the real causes of informal settlements in EMM.

  1. Massage Therapy in Outpatient Cancer Care: A Metropolitan Area Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccio, Robin Streit; Parikh, Bijal

    2017-01-01

    Massage offers cancer patients general quality of life benefits as well as alleviation of cancer-related symptoms/cancer-treatment–related symptoms including pain, anxiety, and fatigue. Little is known about whether massage is accessible to cancer patients who receive treatment in the outpatient setting and how massage is incorporated into the overall cancer treatment plan. Outpatient cancer centers (n = 78) in a single metropolitan area were included this mixed-methods project that included a systematic analysis of website information and a telephone survey. Massage was offered at only 40 centers (51.3% of total). A range of massage modalities were represented, with energy-based therapies (Reiki and Therapeutic Touch) most frequently provided. Although massage therapists are licensed health care providers in the states included in this analysis, massage was also provided by nurses, physical therapists, and other health care professionals. PMID:28845677

  2. Skinner boxes for psychotics: operant conditioning at Metropolitan State Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2003-01-01

    Between 1953 and 1965, Ogden Lindsley and his associates conducted free-operant research with psychiatric inpatients and normal volunteers at Metropolitan State Hospital in Waltham, Massachusetts. Their project, originally named "Studies in Behavior Therapy," was renamed "Harvard Medical School Behavior Research Laboratory" in 1955. This name change and its implications were significant. The role of the laboratory in the history of the relationship between the experimental analysis of behavior and applied behavior analysis is discussed. A case is made for viewing Lindsley's early work as foundational for the subfield of the experimental analysis of human behavior that formally coalesced in the early 1980s. The laboratory's work is also contextualized with reference to the psychopharmacological revolution of the 1950s. Finally, a four-stage framework for studying the historical and conceptual development of behavior analysis is proposed.

  3. Atmospheric aerosol layers over Bangkok Metropolitan Region from CALIPSO observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridhikitti, Arika

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies suggested that aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System satellite retrievals could be used for inference of ground-level air quality in various locations. This application may be appropriate if pollution in elevated atmospheric layers is insignificant. This study investigated the significance of elevated air pollution layers over the Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) from all available aerosol layer scenes taken from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) for years 2007 to 2011. The results show that biomass burning smoke layers alone were the most frequently observed. The smoke layers accounted for high AOD variations and increased AOD levels. In the dry seasons, the smoke layers alone with high AOD levels were likely brought to the BMR via northeasterly to easterly prevailing winds and found at altitudes above the typical BMR mixing heights of approximately 0.7 to 1.5 km. The smoke should be attributed to biomass burning emissions outside the BMR.

  4. Quantum metropolitan optical network based on wavelength division multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurana, A; Martínez-Mateo, J; Peev, M; Poppe, A; Walenta, N; Zbinden, H; Martín, V

    2014-01-27

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is maturing quickly. However, the current approaches to its application in optical networks make it an expensive technology. QKD networks deployed to date are designed as a collection of point-to-point, dedicated QKD links where non-neighboring nodes communicate using the trusted repeater paradigm. We propose a novel optical network model in which QKD systems share the communication infrastructure by wavelength multiplexing their quantum and classical signals. The routing is done using optical components within a metropolitan area which allows for a dynamically any-to-any communication scheme. Moreover, it resembles a commercial telecom network, takes advantage of existing infrastructure and utilizes commercial components, allowing for an easy, cost-effective and reliable deployment.

  5. Massage Therapy in Outpatient Cancer Care: A Metropolitan Area Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Virginia S; Miccio, Robin Streit; Parikh, Bijal

    2017-10-01

    Massage offers cancer patients general quality of life benefits as well as alleviation of cancer-related symptoms/cancer-treatment-related symptoms including pain, anxiety, and fatigue. Little is known about whether massage is accessible to cancer patients who receive treatment in the outpatient setting and how massage is incorporated into the overall cancer treatment plan. Outpatient cancer centers (n = 78) in a single metropolitan area were included this mixed-methods project that included a systematic analysis of website information and a telephone survey. Massage was offered at only 40 centers (51.3% of total). A range of massage modalities were represented, with energy-based therapies (Reiki and Therapeutic Touch) most frequently provided. Although massage therapists are licensed health care providers in the states included in this analysis, massage was also provided by nurses, physical therapists, and other health care professionals.

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on joint research business (2/2). Photovoltaic power generation field test for public facilities; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (2/2). Kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Photovoltaic power generation systems are experimentally installed at public facilities at various locations, and subjected to field tests in which they experience long-term operation under real loads. Mie Prefectural Iidaka Senior/Junior High School has a 10kW solar cell system installed on the south-side roof of the school house. The system is linked to an in-house transformation station and the power generated by the system is supplied to the lighting and air-conditioning facilities in the building, and surplus if any is transmitted to the Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., system. A field test is being conducted to determine if there are usability and safety in the 10kW system. A number of like systems are undergoing field tests, installed at a comprehensive technological training center of Kyushu Electric Power Safety Association, Kongo Gakuen Senior High School, Sakata Nursery School, Taiyo Daiichi Nursery School, Minami Kindergarten, Neyagawa Ishizu Old People's Home, Co-Op Living Konan, Factory Hishimeki, Tochigi Fuji Industries, Gamo-cho Hirabayashi Public Hall, Fukuoka Prefectural Culture Complex, Yatsusugi Forest Schooling Center, Osaka Prefectural Murano Water Purification Plant, Yamanashi Institute of Environmental Sciences, Utatsu-cho Town Office, Ginga Gakuen Junior High School, etc. (NEDO)

  7. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on joint research business (2/2). Photovoltaic power generation field test for public facilities; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (2/2). Kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Photovoltaic power generation systems are experimentally installed at public facilities at various locations, and subjected to field tests in which they experience long-term operation under real loads. Mie Prefectural Iidaka Senior/Junior High School has a 10kW solar cell system installed on the south-side roof of the school house. The system is linked to an in-house transformation station and the power generated by the system is supplied to the lighting and air-conditioning facilities in the building, and surplus if any is transmitted to the Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., system. A field test is being conducted to determine if there are usability and safety in the 10kW system. A number of like systems are undergoing field tests, installed at a comprehensive technological training center of Kyushu Electric Power Safety Association, Kongo Gakuen Senior High School, Sakata Nursery School, Taiyo Daiichi Nursery School, Minami Kindergarten, Neyagawa Ishizu Old People's Home, Co-Op Living Konan, Factory Hishimeki, Tochigi Fuji Industries, Gamo-cho Hirabayashi Public Hall, Fukuoka Prefectural Culture Complex, Yatsusugi Forest Schooling Center, Osaka Prefectural Murano Water Purification Plant, Yamanashi Institute of Environmental Sciences, Utatsu-cho Town Office, Ginga Gakuen Junior High School, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Seismic Microzonation of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarfraz; Khan, M. Asif

    2018-01-01

    Microzonation deals with classifying seismic hazards in terms of ground motions resulting from amplification of seismic waves by nature of soil profiles underlying a site, town or city. This paper presents the results of microzonation study for Islamabad metropolitan, the capital of Pakistan. Cumulative SPT- N values from geophysical borehole and microtremor (Tromino Engy Plus) data were used to classify the soils into classes C (very dense soil profile and soft rock) and D (stiff soil profile) as devised by the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP). Soil response analyses were carried out based on scaled time histories of Kashmir earthquake (2005, 0.02 g), Mangla earthquake (2006, 0.031 g) and Haripur earthquake (2010, 0.13 g) corresponding to return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years. Spectral accelerations on the ground surface are calculated by two different approaches (1) soil response analysis performed using one dimensional shear wave propagation method (equivalent linear approach); and (2) NEHRP and Borcherdt amplification factors. Microzonation maps are produced with respect to ground shaking intensity for the return periods of 150, 475, 975 and 2475 years taking into account the variation of the spectral accelerations calculated based on these two procedures. The results show that the accelerations at the ground surface in the Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan are in the range of 0.40-0.48 g (for 150 years), 0.59-0.65 g (for 475 years), 0.71-0.77 g (for 975 years), and 0.92-0.94 g (for 2475 years). The amplification factors for these four hazard levels range from 0.96 to 1.38 (150 years), 0.90-1.14 (475 years), 0.85-1.04 (975 years) and 0.84-1.00 (2475 years).

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on joint research business (2/2). Photovoltaic power generation field test for industrial purposes; 1998 nendo sangyo nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (2/2). Kyodo kenkyu gyomu seika hokokushyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Solar cell systems are installed on the roofs of facilities at various locations, and verification tests are conducted for usability and safety they will exhibit after prolonged operation under real loads, and this project aims at the popularization of photovoltaic systems. At Children's Ferrite and Science Museum of Nikaho Town, Akita Prefecture, a 20kW solar cell system is installed on the rooftop, and a 20kW inverter in the machine house. The power obtained is connected in a high-voltage interconnection to electric facilities in the museum, and supplied to in-house power facilities, illuminating systems, and air-conditioning equipment. Operation-related data are recorded in a data recording unit. Similar facilities are installed at corporations and institutions such as WAIDA Works, Kuriyama Shop, Nikko Building, Kiya Works, Aichi Prefectural Tobishima Junior High School, Gunma Prefectural Niisato Hall of Commerce and Industry, Ube Techno-Enji Corporation, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Kinki Kensetsu K.K., Takaoka Electric Manufacturing Company, Aichi Prefectural Incorporated Educational Institution Miura Gakuen, Asaguchi Taxi Company, Family Mart, etc., and field tests are under way for them. (NEDO)

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on joint research business (1/2). Photovoltaic power generation field test for public facilities; 1998 nendo kokyo shisetsu nadoyo taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (1/2). Kyodo kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Photovoltaic power generation systems are experimentally installed at public facilities at various locations, and subjected to field tests in which they experience long-term operation under real loads. At Livelihood Cooperative Association Co-Op Kanagawa, a photovoltaic cell system is installed on the roof, facing true south, of its Yokohama eastern district joint purchase center, and the power generated by the system is utilized as interconnected with the commercial distribution line connecting to its power facilities. It is called a '10kW Photovoltaic Power Generation Model System,' and is subjected to a verification test, carried over from the previous fiscal year, centering about its usability and safety. Similar systems are also installed at many locations, such as the Kadosawa Bridge district of Ebina City, Kanagawa Prefectural Industrial Technology Research Center, Shiga Prefectural University, Suntory Museum, Fukui Institute of Technology, Saigo Police Station, Higashi-Murayama Water Purification Plant, Kanagawa Prefectural Disaster Prevention Center, Toyosato-cho Health Center, Kyodo Gakusha School, Sakuragi Nursery School, Yagi Junior High School, Shizuoka Prefectural Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center, Tanabe City Health Center. (NEDO)

  12. Usage of Social Media in City Marketing: A Research on 30 Metropolitan Municipalities in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Gümüş

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in information and communication technologies cause serious developments in marketing field similar to every sector. In parallel with these developments, the social media channels which appear as Web 2.0 applications have a number of advantages in comparison with traditional media channels. Social media gained a place in marketing activities because of its advantages. Social media is added on instruments in line with these developments that countries benefit in marketing activities for attracting more tourists, investment and becoming prominent against the other cities. Cities intensively benefit from social media because of social media’s properties like reaching the large masses, low marketing cost, interaction, receiving feedbacks rapidly, etc. Within this context, the purpose of this research is to determine the use statuses of social media by metropolitan municipalities as part of city marketing. In accordance with this purpose, official social media accounts of 30 metropolitan municipalities are investigated between the dates of 01/09/2016 and 30/09/2016, then their shares in social media channels are investigated in the context of city marketing.It is observed that two metropolitan municipalities do not have official Facebook accounts, four metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Twitter account as well. Again, it is found that 19 metropolitan municipalities do not have an official Instagram account and 17 metropolitan municipalities do not have official YouTube account. In consequence, it is observed that, our metropolitan municipalities do not benefit from social media effectively for city marketing activities.

  13. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  14. Solar radiation in forested urban environments with dry climate. Case: Metropolitan Area of Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Edith Arboit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to advance the understanding of the solar potential of urban residential environments which, by their morphology, and the impact of urban trees, present values of irradiance very different from full solar collection. Morphological variables of urban settings and urban trees, a very distinctive feature of the Mendoza Metropolitan Area (MMA, have a fundamental impact on the feasibility of implementing strategies for solar energy utilization in urban environments. The results achieved will contribute to modify and gradually update urban and building legislation to implement higher levels of energy efficiency and minimum environmental impacts.This work proposes to study the potential of solar collection in urban environments, analyzing eleven urban configurations selected according to their building and urban morphological characteristics.Methodologically, we have monitored the global solar irradiance on vertical plane on northern facades, completely sunny and partly sunny, affected by solid masking and arboreal masking. Results obtained so far indicate that solar masking is critical for vertical surfaces, with a reduction of the available solar energy between 2% and 66% in the winter season. However, these drawbacks caused by urban trees are compensated by benefits in the warm season: controlling the intensity of the urban heat island, absorption of pollutants, cooling and humidifying the air through evapotranspiration, reducing thermal loads of buildings, occupancy of public open spaces, and an invaluable contribution to the urban aesthetic.

  15. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in the Kansas City metropolitan area, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S; Pahud, Barbara A; Weldon, William C; Curns, Aaron T; Oberste, M Steven; Harrison, Christopher J

    2017-04-03

    No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012-2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%-96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6-10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2-3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2-3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4-6 y.

  16. [Innovation in the organization of health services delivery within the Metropolitan System of Solidarity in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Juan; Pastor-Goyzueta, Ada

    2013-06-01

    Based on the results achieved to date by the Metropolitan System of Solidarity (SISOL) in Peru, this study undertook to analyze the extent to which SISOL has contributed to innovation in the organization of health services delivery. SISOL performance indicators were analyzed and compared with those of other health services delivery models in Peru, drawing on data from a survey of 4 570 SISOL users conducted in the last quarter of 2011, National Household Surveys from 2003 through 2011, and statistical data from the Peruvian Ministry of Health and Social Security. SISOL rated high in terms of growth of the demand served in Lima, productivity of human resources in office visits, and levels of user satisfaction. These results are attributed to: (a) the presence of specialists at the first level of care; (b) an innovative public-private structure, as opposed to outsourcing; and (c) a system of incentives based on shared risk management. The findings support the need for primary health care renewal, especially in urban areas to reduce the proliferation of unnecessary levels and sublevels of care. They also point to the possibility of developing synergistic public-private partnerships in which both sectors share risks and act in collaboration within a single service system. And finally, they indicate that primary care needs to be articulated into the segmented models.

  17. Audit of child maltreatment medical assessments in a culturally diverse, metropolitan setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Hotton, Paul Rex

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is a major public health problem globally. While there is evidence for the value of medical examination in the assessment of CM, little is known about the quality of clinical assessments for CM. South Western Sydney (SWS) has a large metropolitan population with many vulnerable subgroups. We aimed to describe acute presentations of CM in SWS over a 3-year period-with a focus on the quality of the clinical assessments. We wanted to determine whether the cases assessed fulfilled established minimum standards for clinical assessment of CM and whether the assessments were performed in a child-friendly manner. We gathered data from the acute child protection database on all children forensic doctors were better at identifying these health concerns than solo assessments. Most assessments were multidisciplinary and used protocols; half were not followed up; a third were performed after-hours and a third had no carer present during assessments. We identified strengths and weaknesses in current CM assessments in our service. Locally relevant standards for CM assessments are achievable in the acute setting, more challenging is addressing appropriate medical and psychosocial follow-up for these children. While we have established baseline domains for measuring a child-friendly approach to CM assessments, more should be done to ensure these vulnerable children are assessed in a timely, child-friendly manner, with appropriate follow-up.

  18. An audit of the pharmacological management of ischaemic stroke patients in a metropolitan Australian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Viviane; Li, Matthew; Hua, Qiantong Amanda

    2015-02-01

    According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, stroke is the second leading cause of death in Australia. The clinical Guidelines for stroke management published by the National Stroke Foundation provide a series of evidence based recommendations to assist clinicians in the management of stroke patients. Appropriate management of patients admitted to stroke units reduces death and disability by 20 %. Moreover, a multidisciplinary team approach also improves patient outcomes. To retrospectively review the pharmacological management of ischaemic stroke patients in a metropolitan Australian hospital, and to compare adherence with the guidelines for stroke management with the national stroke foundation data with and without pharmacist intervention. A retrospective audit of medical records was undertaken of all patients admitted to a large teaching hospital with the diagnosis of stroke or cerebral infarction from January 2013 to May 2013. A total of 124 patients were included in the study. Most patients were discharged on appropriate pharmacological intervention for the prevention of secondary stroke: antihypertensive agents (71 %), lipid lowering agents (67 %) and antithrombotic (85 %) medications. The majority of the cohort was discharged on the appropriate evidence based medications for the management of secondary stroke. Further improvement may be achieved by pharmacist intervening as part of a multidisciplinary team.

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of ceramic gas turbine (Reliability verification test for ceramic members); 1998 nendo ceramic gas turbine no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ceramic buzai no shinraisei kakusho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    For a ceramic gas turbine to achieve efficiency of 42%, materials capable of withstanding approximately 1300 degrees C are required. In fiscal 1998, the mechanism of creep deformation and life prediction are studied, with specimens exposed to a short-term high-stress conditions equivalent to a time to fracture of 1000h. It is known after studies in the past that, under a stress of approximately 240Mpa, the logarithmic values of the load stress and time to fracture may be described by two differently inclined straight lines. Strain is accurately measured by use of a CCD camera for the determination of a creep curve, and then stress indexes are worked out. It is then found that the stress indexes are 4 on the lower stress side of 260MPa and 11 on the higher stress side of the same. This enables the extrapolation of short-term creep fracture data for the prediction of long-term life. No large-scale reduction in resistance to creep due to changes in the crystal phase is not predicted. Longitudinal sound wave speeds are measured, and the result manifestly describes how the longitudinal sound wave speed slows down with the progress of creepage in the material. Reference is also made to international reports about the study of ceramics performance tests and evaluation methods, international joint studies about mechanical properties tests, and the international round robin test of material powder. (NEDO)

  20. Free treatment, rapid malaria diagnostic tests and malaria village workers can hasten progress toward achieving the malaria related millennium development goals: the Médecins Sans Frontières experience from Chad, Sierra-Leone and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Tayler-Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Halving the burden of malaria by 2015 and ensuring that 80% of people with malaria receive treatment is among the health related targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Despite political momentum toward achieving this target, progress is slow and many with malaria (particularly in poor and rural communities in Africa are still without access to effective treatment. Finding ways to improve access to anti-malarial treatment in Africa is essential to achieve the malaria related and other MDG targets. During its work in Chad, Sierra Leone and Mali in the period 2004 to 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières showed that it was possible to significantly improve access to effective malaria treatment through: i the removal of health centre level user fees for essential healthcare for vulnerable population groups, ii the introduction of free community based treatment for children using malaria village workers to diagnose and treat simple malaria in communities where geographical and financial barriers limited access to effective malaria care, iii the improved diagnosis and treatment of malaria using rapid diagnosis tests and artemisinin based combination therapy, at both health facilities and in the community. This paper describes and discusses these strategies and their related impact.

  1. The Politics of Achievement Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valant, J.; Newark, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    on achievement gaps have received little attention from researchers, despite playing an important role in shaping policymakers’ behaviors. Drawing on randomized experiments with a nationally representative sample of adults, we explore the public’s beliefs about test score gaps and its support for gap...

  2. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  3. Radon and lung cancer in Bangalore Metropolitan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, L.A.; Nethravathi, K.S.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas released from the normal decay of 238 U in rocks and soil. It is an invisible, odorless, tasteless gas that seeps up through the ground and diffuses into the air. In a few areas, depending on local geology, radon dissolves into ground water and can be released into the air when the water is used. Radon gas usually exists at very low levels outdoors. However, in areas without adequate ventilation, such as underground mines, radon can accumulate to levels that substantially increase the risk of lung cancer. Radon decays quickly, giving off tiny radioactive particles. When inhaled, these radioactive particles can damage the cells that line the lung. Long-term exposure to radon can lead to lung cancer, the only cancer proven to be associated with inhaling radon. Public interest in radon has been occasionally piqued by articles in the general press. Considerable attention has been given to the high radon levels that were uncovered in the Reading Prong region of Pennsylvania, following the discovery in late 1984 of extremely high levels in one home. Several epidemiological study programmes in different countries are in progress to estimate the population exposures due to natural radiation with a view to obtain the radiation risk coefficients at low dose rate levels. In this regard, radiation surveys in high background areas (HBRAs) can provide excellent settings for epidemiological studies relating to the effects of low doses of radiation. In view of these, a comprehensive estimate of the natural inhalation dose requires both 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels in the indoor atmosphere. In this outlook an attempt is made to investigate the 222 Rn and 220 Rn levels in dwellings of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. Three year results shows that the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, radon in ground water, the concentrations 222 Rn and 220 Rn and the dose rate (mSvy -1 ) are at alarming levels for the environment of Bangalore Metropolitan, India. The

  4. Development of a Statistical Model for Forecasting Episodes of Visibility Degradation in the Denver Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P. J.; Barbarick, D. E.; Osterburg, R. D.

    1995-03-01

    In 1990, the State of Colorado implemented a visibility standard of 0.076 km1 of beta extinction for the Denver metropolitan area. Meteorologists with Colorado's Air Pollution Control Division forecast high pollution days associated with visibility impairment as well as those due to high levels of the federal criteria pollutants. Visibility forecasts are made from a few hours up to about 26 h in advance of the period of interest. Here we discuss the key microscale, mesoscale, and synoptic-scale features associated with episodes of visibility impairment. Data from special studies, case studies, and the 22 NOAA Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services mesonet sites have been invaluable in identifying patterns associated with extremes in visibility conditions. A preliminary statistical forecast model has been developed using variables that represent many of these patterns. Six variables were selected from an initial pool of 27 to be used in a model based on linear logistic regression. These six variables include forecast measures of snow cover, surface pressures and a surface pressure gradient in eastern Colorado, relative humidity, and 500-mb ridge position. The initial testing of the model has been encouraging. The model correctly predicted 76% of the good visibility days and 67% of the poor visibility days for a test set of 171 days.

  5. Cancer incidence in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, 2000-2004. First five years report from population based cancer registry of Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Eliana Meza Durán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most common chronic diseases that cause high morbidity and mortality. In the evaluation of all illnessand its impact on the community, a surveillance system becomes necessary to allows us to know its incidence. Cancersurveillance is achieved by the population-based cancer registry. Methodology: The Population Based Cancer Registry ofMetropolitan Area of Bucaramanga (RPC-AMB collected information from the years 2000 to 2004, in patients with anymalignant cancer the which include both invasive and in situ behavior in addition to reside within this geographical area . TheCancer Registry also collects data on brain and nervous system tumors classified as benign or those that have uncertainbehavior. Basal cell cancers of the skin were included during the two first years as well as all the intraepithelial neoplasm ofthe cervix. Active collections of information at all sources by registry staff were made (Hospitals, Health care institutions,especially oncology centers and Pathology and Hematology Laboratories and some specialist in oncology attention. Theinclusion approaches are verified and collects data on specific sociodemographic information (age, gender, residence, placeof birth, etc. and on the anatomic site of the tumor, the cell type of the cancer, behavior and extension on each individualdiagnosed with cancer. Each case was coded using the International Classification of Diseases Oncology Third Edition (ICDO-3, for topographical and morphological code. The data was entered into a computer with CanReg-4 software that is aconfigurable computer program designed for cancer registration in population-based registries and was provided as aservice by the Descriptive Epidemiology Unit to members of the International Association of Cancer Registries. This softwareprovides the number of cancer cases (frequency and the incidence rates. The quality control included exhaustiveness of thecases and information, verification of the

  6. Agricultural land cover changes in metropolitan areas of Poland for the period 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalej Marta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land covers more than half the area of metropolitan areas in Poland, and is therefore particularly prone to the influences of the processes associated with their development. The aim of the study was to analyse changes in agricultural land cover within the metropolitan areas of Poland for the years 1990–2012; and to capture their dynamics, types and directions. The percentage share of the total study area, for each of the forms of agricultural land cover and their changes were traced, with the spatial distribution of the changes also being determined. The results of the study show that in metropolitan areas, agricultural land cover is undergoing transformations that do not result in the loss of agricultural lands, or that involve a decrease in surface area due to their change into anthropogenic forms of land cover. The greatest transitions occurred between 2000 and 2006 and were observed in the outer zones of metropolitan areas.

  7. Political apathy amongst students: A case study of Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntsikelelo B. Breakfast

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary motivation for this research, in which a qualitative method was employed, was to examine political apathy amongst students at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. The secondary motivation was to question whether youth political apathy threatens the consolidation of democracy. The researchers arranged four focus groups at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. A purposive sampling technique was utilised. All 50 participants in the study were Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University undergraduate and postgraduate black students, with ages ranging from 21 to 35 years. The researchers encouraged participants to have maximum participation in the focus group deliberations. The researchers also made use of elite interviews in the study. The findings of this study suggest that political apathy does exist amongst students at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University. Most of the participants in the focus groups indicated that young people in post-apartheid South Africa have no interest in politics.

  8. Regional transportation and land use decision making in metropolitan regions : findings from four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    "Throughout the United States, metropolitan regions face increasingly complex issues related to transportation and : land use. The diffuse nature of decision making creates a need to better coordinate land use and transportation to : address issues s...

  9. The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchert Saguas Presas, L.

    2005-01-01

    Metropolitan cities are undergoing a major spatial and environmental transformation. The proliferation of business districts, corporate headquarters and international hotels is prompting a massive verticalization and densification of land use, which is affecting the urban environment and

  10. Spatial clustering of knowledge-based industries in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Eduardo Chica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The central locations of metropolitan areas have some specific attributes, leading to an accumulation of large knowledge exchanges and extensive knowledge externalities, which encourage the concentration of various economic activities, especially knowledge-based industries (KBI. Other agglomeration economies found in metropolitan areas – such as telecommunications and transport infrastructures connected to global productive circuits and complementary labour markets – are key factors for KBI employment growth. This paper explores the Helsinki Metropolitan Area’s (HMA spatial clustering of KBI at the sub-district level, and the role played by agglomeration economies (both specialization and diversity economies in fostering this process. The results reveal that KBI employment shows patterns of concentration in the core and adjacent areas. The specialization and diversity economies found in the metropolitan core and the specialization economies found in others areas lead to KBI spatial clustering in the HMA. Public policies regarding the promotion of science parks have also played a decisive role.

  11. Partners In Motion And Customer Satisfaction In The Washington Dc Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    PARTNERS IN MOTION IS A PROGRAM AIMED AT IMPROVING THE QUALITY, QUANTITY, AND AVAILABILITY OF TRAVEL INFORMATION TO TRANSPORTATION AGENCIES, THE MEDIA, AND, ULTIMATELY, TO THE TRAVELER IN THE WASHINGTON, D.C. METROPOLITAN AREA. THE PROGRAM WAS INITIA...

  12. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  13. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2011 to Present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  14. The New England Drought Study: Water Resources Planning Metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce, Charles

    1994-01-01

    .... The drought of the 1960s precipitated a debate between the operators of the metropolitan Boston water system and interested citizens and citizens' groups, who were opposed to a structural solution...

  15. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2011 to 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to 2012. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence combined land line and cell phone data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral...

  16. South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Platte Watershed from the Headwaters to the Denver Metropolitan Area (Colorado) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating

  17. Can Maine metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) finance transportation projects through bond financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In January 2008 the Maine metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) requested the Transportation : Research Division of the Maine Department of Transportation to conduct research to determine if it is : possible for MPOs to finance projects through ...

  18. Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, R.: Symphony in F minor, Op. 12... Tokyo Metropolitan Symphony Orchestra / Hiroshi Wakasugi. Denon CD CO-75 860 (54 minutes); Symphony - comparative version: SNO, Järvi" (8/93)(CHAN) CHAN 9166

  19. The freight landscape : using secondary data sources to describe metropolitan freight flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Metropolitan areas around the world are seeking to better manage freight flows and reduce negative impacts on local populations. A major challenge to better urban freight management is the lack of data; little is known about freight movements at the ...

  20. The freight landscape : using secondary data sources to describe metropolitan freight flows : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Metropolitan areas around the world are seeking to better manage freight flows and reduce negative impacts on local populations. A major challenge to better urban freight management is the lack of data; little is known about freight movements at the ...

  1. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Household and Non-Household Populations (DC-MADSH-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  2. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  3. Washington DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study Homeless and Transient Population (DC-MADST-1991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DC Metropolitan Area Drug Study (DCMADS) was conducted in 1991, and included special analyses of homeless and transient populations and of women delivering live...

  4. Spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and social and environmental management issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    and infrastructural data. Through these three levels of spatial analysis it is possible to develop and to support a more comprehensible study of urban development of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. The aim of this study is (a) to develop an alternative spatial analysis leading to a more comprehensive...... understanding of the urban development process and its correlation not just with political-administrative borders but also to ecological systems: (b) to identify the correlations between infrastructure and socio-economical data in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area (c) to evaluate urban development dynamics...... in the period between 1990 and 2000, based on the application of the above-mentioned data to the three spatial levels in question. This paper highlights the role of the hydrographical systems of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area as an important spatial unit of analysis to understand the metropolitan urban...

  5. Uudised : Õhtu Metropolitan Operas. Järvi Michigani ülikooli audoktoriks / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    "Klassikaraadio" vahendab 25. dets. otseülekande New Yorgist Metropolitan Operast, kus tuleb ettekandele W.A. Mozarti ooper "Figaro pulm". 19. dets. nimetati N. Järvi Michigani ülikooli audoktoriks

  6. Uudised : ERSO menu Rootsis. Õhtu Metropolitan Operas. NYYD Ensemble'i kontserdid / Madis Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Madis, 1953-

    2001-01-01

    ERSO kontserdireisist Rootsis. "Klassikaraadio" teeb 17. veebr. otseülekande New Yorgi Metropolitan Operast, kus tuleb ettekandele Rossini ooepr "Itaallanna Alzhiiris". NYYD Ensemble'i kontsertidest Pärnus ja Tallinnas kontserdisarjas "I Got Rhythm"

  7. FINE PORE DIFFUSER SYSTEM EVALUATION FOR THE GREEN BAY METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE DISTRICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District retrofitted two quadrants of their activated sludge aeration system with ceramic and membrane fine pore diffusers to provide savings in energy usage compared to the sparged turbine aerators originally installed. Because significant di...

  8. The New England Drought Study: Water Resources Planning Metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The study has traced the water resources planning experience for the metropolitan Boston area from the 17th century to the present in order to investigate how current planning has evolved from seeking...

  9. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority climate change adaptation pilot project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project Report details the project background of the recently-completed Los Angeles County : Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) Transit Climate Change Adaptation Pilot Project as well as the various wor...

  10. URBANIZATION AND SPATIAL CHANGES IN DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN MONTERREY METROPOLITAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Acharya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to explore the process of urbanization and spatial changes in demographic features in the Monterrey Metropolitan Region (MMR, Mexico. This city is the third largest urban sector in Mexico which has around 4 million population. It is also the industrial and economic capital of the country. The present study found that rapid urbanization in the metropolitan region has a close association with process of industrialization. In population distribution and composition, study found that the metropolitan region had its “demographic transition” during the years seventies and currently the region is taking advantages of demographic bonus cohort, i.e. a higher concentration of population in economic active groups compare to children and old age population. However, this paper indentified a higher imbalance in metropolitan demographic scenario. On the one hand, there is di-populization in the city center region and in other there is a steady increment of population in peri-urban region.

  11. Working paper : national costs of the metropolitan ITS infrastructure : updated with 2004 deployment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report, "Working Paper National Costs of the Metropolitan ITS infrastructure: Updated with 2004 Deployment Data," is to update the estimates of the costs remaining to deploy Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) infrastructure ...

  12. Access to destinations : annual accessibility measure for the Twin Cities Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes previous phases of the Access to Destinations project and applies the techniques developed : over the course of the project to conduct an evaluation of accessibility in the Twin Cities metropolitan region for : 2010. It describ...

  13. FFTF operations - 1980 - a year of achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newland, D.J.; Bliss, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The year 1980 saw FFTF achieve initial criticality, proceed through an intense maintenance and system testing period, and achieve a remarkably successful two-day full power (400 MW) demonstration run. These achievements were preceded by two and one-half years of plant startup activity

  14. Movement Technologies, Scale Structure and Metropolitan Life – an Empirical Research on the Effects of the Transportation System on the Metropolitan Process in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a morphological study on Beijing’s metropolitanisation process based on the development of its transportation networks. By extracting the ‘scale structure’ embedded in them, we construct a movement network model for Beijing and use it to analyse changing metropolitan centralities as shopping areas and market places in 1924, 1987 and 2006. Following Taylor’s proposal of Central Flow as a complementary model to Central Place, our study focuses on how the spatial distribution of metropolitan centralities has been affected by the rapid modernisation of transportation networks.

  15. The metropolitan VoD system based on ethernet/SCM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Yang, Hongliang; Feng, Dejun; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jande

    2008-11-01

    VoD is a very attractive service which used for entertainment, education and other purposes. In this paper, we present an evolution method that integrates the EPON and SCM-PON by WDM technology to provide high dedicated bandwidth for the metropolitan VoD services. Using DVB, IPTV protocol, unicasting and broadcasting method to maximize the system throughput and by numerical analysis, the hybrid PON system can implement the metropolitan VoD services.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Chlorinated-Solvent Sites on Metropolitan Groundwater Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Brusseau, Mark L.; Narter, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Chlorinated-solvent compounds are among the most common groundwater contaminants in the U.S.A. The majority of the many sites contaminated by chlorinated-solvent compounds are located in metropolitan areas, and most such areas have one or more chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites. Thus, contamination of groundwater by chlorinated-solvent compounds may pose a potential risk to the sustainability of potable water supplies for many metropolitan areas. The impact of chlorinated-solvent sites on...

  17. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  18. Cooling effect of rivers on metropolitan Taipei using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chang; Tan, Chih-Hung; Wei, Chiang; Su, Zi-Wen

    2014-01-23

    This study applied remote sensing technology to analyze how rivers in the urban environment affect the surface temperature of their ambient areas. While surface meteorological stations can supply accurate data points in the city, remote sensing can provide such data in a two-dimensional (2-D) manner. The goal of this paper is to apply the remote sensing technique to further our understanding of the relationship between the surface temperature and rivers in urban areas. The 2-D surface temperature data was retrieved from Landsat-7 thermal infrared images, while data collected by Formosat-2 was used to categorize the land uses in the urban area. The land surface temperature distribution is simulated by a sigmoid function with nonlinear regression analysis. Combining the aforementioned data, the range of effect on the surface temperature from rivers can be derived. With the remote sensing data collected for the Taipei Metropolitan area, factors affecting the surface temperature were explored. It indicated that the effect on the developed area was less significant than on the ambient nature zone; moreover, the size of the buffer zone between the river and city, such as the wetlands or flood plain, was found to correlate with the affected distance of the river surface temperature.

  19. Water management for a megacity: Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortajada, Cecilia; Castelán, Enrique

    2003-03-01

    The paper presents an overview of the present situation of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The analysis indicates an urgent need to radically improve the current water supply and wastewater management practices, to become sustainable. The MCMA is one of the most rapidly growing urban centers of the world, with a population of about 21 million people, a very high rate of immigration and numerous illegal settlements. In order to meet the increasing water demand, successive governments have focused almost exclusively on supply management and engineering solutions, which have resulted in investments of hundreds of millions of USD and the construction of major infrastructure projects for interbasin water transfer. Environmental, economic and social policies associated with water management are mostly inadequate and insufficient, which is resulting in increasing deterioration in the environment, health and socioeconomic conditions of a population living in one of the largest urban agglomerations of the world. Surprisingly, however, no long-term strategies on demand-management, reuse, conservation, and improved water-management practices have been developed so far.

  20. Secular variations of radon in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Slawson, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sampling of radon within the soil from three sites in metropolitan Vancouver is reported. Alpha trace bi-weekly measurements during a period of 4 years show secular variations with a period of 8-15 months. There are low-radon and high-radon episodes enduring several months to a year. Average radon level during the high-radon episodes reaches 5-10 times that of the low-radon periods. During high-radon episodes the high-frequency variations show very high amplitudes. After filtering of the high-frequency fluctuations, the data from different sites demonstrate remarkably similar trends. It is suggested that along with hydrogeological events, stress relaxation in rocks, earthquake, and magma emplacement may contribute to the sources of secular variations of radon. Because of long-term variations, radon level in urban areas should be monitored on a continuous basis. Single measurements, even those integrating radiation over a period of few months, may sample a low-radon episode, and provide a false assurance, or occur during a high-radon episode and give a false alarm

  1. EVALUATION OF PRIVATE SCHOOL LOCATION IN THE ISTANBUL METROPOLITAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TOPÇU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment in education is considered important for economic growth and poverty alleviation. In many developed and developing countries families contribute privately to the education of their children as a result of continuously shrinking public budgets. Also, in Istanbul private primary schools were supported by the government in order to answer to increasing demand due to continuous rural migration and to create a competitive educational market to improve the quality of primary education. This paper, first, analyzes the spatial distribution of private primary schools according to the concentric rings and illustrates the gap between the center and the periphery and among the districts. Then, the relationships between the number of private primary schools and demand and the characteristics of the districts are investigated by a regression analysis. According to the results, the number of public primary schools is the most important factor and GDP per capita is the second factor to affect the number of private primary schools in the districts. Currently, the cluster of private primary schools mainly in high-income districts does not allow developing a competitive educational market at the metropolitan level. It is expected that a more balanced market will be develop as the urban structure of Istanbul adjusted to the neo-liberal economies in the future. The results are useful for urban planners, investors and policy makers. Further research is suggested to investigate the impact of private primary schools on the quality of public primary school education in Istanbul.

  2. Aspects of Land Take in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land take is a phenomenon of great concern nowadays because of the large number of its negative impacts regarding biological, economic and social balance. In Italy, the development of urban and other artificial land has been irreversibly transforming a non-renewable resource such as soil, regardless the almost constant population rate, with different speed depending of the region considered. The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Naples, which is an area highly affected by territorial aggression of human matrix. The data used are both by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA Report 2015 on the usage of the land and by ISTAT relating to the resident population up to the 1st of January 2015 and the extension of land for agricultural use (Census 2010. The mathematical combination of this data creates a new indicator that can be referred to as “residual land”; this residual area is of great extension with many different characteristics and it could represent the area where the phenomenon of land take most occurs. The identification, measurement and analysis of “residual land” provide new insights on the evolution of land take and this new indicator can represent a critical element to work on to prevent future land transformation and protect natural and agricultural areas within the Italian context.

  3. Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, Paul G.; Carcione, Dale; Rettura, Vince; Daly, Alison; Woods, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Van Buynder et al. (2010) Marketing paediatric influenza vaccination: results of a major metropolitan trial. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 33–38. Objectives  After a cluster of rapidly fulminant influenza related toddler deaths in a Western Australian metropolis, children aged six to 59 months were offered influenza vaccination in subsequent winters. Some parental resistance was expected and previous poor uptake of paediatric influenza vaccination overseas was noted. A marketing campaign addressing barriers to immunization was developed to maximise uptake. Design  Advertising occurred in major statewide newspapers, via public poster displays and static ‘eye‐lite’ displays, via press releases, via a series of rolling radio advertisements, via direct marketing to child care centres, and via a linked series of web‐sites. Parents were subsequently surveyed to assess reasons for vaccination. Main Outcome Results  The campaign produced influenza vaccination coverage above that previously described elsewhere and led to a proportionate reduction in influenza notifications in this age group compared to previous seasons. Conclusions  Influenza in children comes with significant morbidity and some mortality. Paediatric influenza vaccination is safe, well tolerated and effective if two doses are given. A targeted media campaign can increase vaccine uptake if it reinforces the seriousness of influenza and addresses community ‘myths’ about influenza and influenza vaccine. The lessons learned enabling enhancements of similar programs elsewhere. PMID:21138538

  4. Characterization of aerosols in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejias Perez, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of the present study, was to elaborate a profile of the contamination by private matter and to characterize the aerosols collected in the Metropolitan Area of San Jose (Costa Rica). For that, a campaign of sampling was carried out in three points of the city of San Jose, differentiated by there degree of activity: Center of San Jose (Central Station of Firemen), San Isidro of Coronado -Canton of Vasquez of Coronado- (Municipality) and Escazu (Municipality). Such campaign was carried out from April 4 to July 4, 1996 (transition summer-winter), and in two periods of time of 8 hours: 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. and of 8 p.m. to 4 a.m. The aerosols were collected utilizing Gent Pm-10 samplers, in filters of polycarbonate of 0,4 μm and 8 μm in cascade, with a flow average of 15 L/min., and it determined the composition average of the present aerosols. The concentration of the majority of the anions were obtained by means of ionic chromatography of high resolution, and the main cations by spectrophotometry of atomic absorption with electro thermic atomization. The space-temporary variations of the concentrations were evaluated and their correlation with the meteorologic variable. (S. Grainger) [es

  5. Emissions inventory for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, V.H.P.; Renteria, J.S. [Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Col. Tiacopac San Angel (Mexico); Hernandez, C.G. [Departamento del Distrito Federal, Col. Centro (Mexico)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The emissions inventory bears a broad relationship to the energy balance, reflecting the dependence of the emissions with reference to the use of energy. Actually the consumption of gasoline and diesel fuel in the transport sector represents collectively, the greatest comparative expense of energy and the major contributor of the ozone precursor pollutants HC, NO{sub x} and CO, relative to the total volume of emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Also, the industrial sector introduces significant emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} due to its energy consumption of fuel oils and natural gas. In contrast, the great majority of suspended particulate in the MCMA emanate from degradation processes of surface soil along the periphery of the urban zone. To the federal and local authorities charged with the design of strategies for prevention and control of atmospheric pollution, the emissions inventory is a strategic tool that reflects the relative intensity of the various emitters to the load capacity of the atmosphere. A comprehensive inventory was compiled for 1995, categorizing the emissions generated by four sectors: industry, services, transport and surface soils and vegetation, considering the following pollutants: TSP, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HC and CO. The combined pollutant emissions are 4,009,628 tons/year of which 3% are generated by the industry, 10% by the services sector, 75% by the transport sector, and 12% by surface soils and vegetation.

  6. E-book Collections in Academic Libraries of Metropolitan Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Fahimifar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present age users not only need to have access information, but they need to have access as fast and as easy as possible. This is one of the reasons that has intensified the current ICT applications and the growing need for it. Today not only countless journals are published in electronic format side by side with their printed versions, but numerous books on diverse subjects are published elecrtronically. To better serve their patrons, academic libraries should also collect electronic books along with printed resources. Managers of academic libraries must consider acquisition of various types of electronic books and provision of facilities for accessing. The present paper initially offers the definitions offered with respect to e-books as well as the workshops held globally, researches carried out in academic libraries as well as the categories of information contained in e-books. It would then investigates the various types of e-books held in the academic libraries within metropolitan Tehran and describes the access method for students and patrons. A survey , using questionnaire as a data collection instrument, was conducted .

  7. Evaluation of sludge management alternatives in Istanbul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, M; Erdim, E; Kinaci, C; Akca, L

    2005-01-01

    The main concern of this paper was to predict the sludge quantities generated from 18 wastewater treatment plants, which were stated to be established in the "Istanbul Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage, Sewage Treatment and Disposal Master Plan", 10 of which are in operation at present. Besides this, obtaining the required data to compare various treatment schemes was another goal of the study. Especially, the estimation of the sludge quantity in the case of enhanced primary sedimentation was of importance. Wastewater sludge management strategies were discussed in order to develop suggestions for Istanbul Metropolitan city. Within this context, the wastewater treatment facilities, mentioned in the Master Plan that had been completed by 2000, were evaluated in terms of sludge production rates, locations and technical and management aspects. Disposal alternatives of the wastewater treatment sludge were also evaluated in this study. Using of the dewatered sludge as a landfill cover material seems the best alternative usage. Up to the year of 2040, the requirement of cover material for landfills in Istanbul will be met by the dewatered sludge originated from wastewater treatment plants in the region.

  8. Perspectives and limitations of QKD integration in metropolitan area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Slavisa; Hipp, Florian; Winkler, Dominic; Poppe, Andreas; Schrenk, Bernhard; Franzl, Gerald

    2015-04-20

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) systems have already reached a reasonable level of maturity. However, a smooth integration and a wide adoption of commercial QKD systems in metropolitan area networks has still remained challenging because of technical and economical obstacles. Mainly the need for dedicated fibers and the strong dependence of the secret key rate on both loss budget and background noise in the quantum channel hinder a practical, flexible and robust implementation of QKD in current and next-generation optical metro networks. In this paper, we discuss these obstacles and present approaches to share existing fiber infrastructures among quantum and classical channels. Particularly, a proposal for a smooth integration of QKD in optical metro networks, which implies removing spurious background photons caused by optical transmitters, amplifiers and nonlinear effects in fibers, is presented and discussed. We determine and characterize impairments on quantum channels caused by many classical telecom channels at practically used power levels coexisting within the same fiber. Extensive experimental results are presented and indicate that a practical integration of QKD in conventional optical metro networks is possible.

  9. Metropolitan area networks: a corner stone in the broadband era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Adel

    1991-02-01

    Deployment of Broadband ISDN is being influenced by both a market pull and a technology push. New broadband service opportunities exist in the business and residential sectors of the market place. It is envisioned that some customers will need connections directly to broadband switches because of the high bandwidth needed for their applications. At the same time Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) systems will serve those customers with bandwidth requirements less than or equal to 150 Mbps. A given MAN will have a geographical domain to serve where it will carry out the switching tasks within this domain. While MANs couldbe designed using differentarchitecturalconcepts the setofservices expected tobeprovidedby MANs could be equivalent to thelist ofservices thatwillbe supported by the targetbroadband network. This paperpositions MANs as a major building block for Broadband networks. It also examines the evolution process ofMANs as a needed step to assure the successful deployment of these new broadband services. 2. BISDN - OVERVIEW Broadband ISDN (BISDN) is being driven into existence by both a market pull as well as a technology push. Opportunities for new valueadded services are the prime market pull for future broadband networks. These services opportunities extend beyond simple voice and low speed data applications and cover both the residential and the business sectors of the market. It is noted for instance that business customers have growing needs for sophisticated telecommunication vehicles to support their

  10. Assessment of rain water chemistry in the Lucknow metropolitan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Purnima; Rai, Vibhuti

    2018-05-01

    Lucknow metropolitan city is one of the most populated cities of India, which have been facing many problems such as chaotic urbanization, overpopulation, water scarcity, waterlogging, etc., among these water scarcity is one of the important problem. Rain water harvesting is a futuristic tool for mitigation of water scarcity problem through conservation and storage of rain water. This rain water can be used for all purposes by human beings, thus it is necessary to check the chemistry of rain water. The rain water samples were collected from the five zones of Lucknow city. For the comparative study, water samples have been collected from two different dates first from first rainfall and second after 3 days of interval in the second rainfall. The heavy metal concentrations were found in both first and second rainfall water samples in all zones of Lucknow city. The concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead were found to be sufficiently high in several samples. These heavy metals show the concentration above the permissible limit as set by WHO, which can cause various adverse health impacts.

  11. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  12. Truck transport of RAM: Risk effects of avoiding metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1997-11-01

    In the transport of radioactive material (RAM), e.g., spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stakeholders are generally most concerned about risks in high population density areas along transportation routes because of the perceived high consequences of potential accidents. The most significant portions of a transcontinental route and an alternative examined previously were evaluated again using population density data derived from US Census Block data. This method of characterizing population that adjoins route segments offers improved resolution of population density variations, especially in high population density areas along typical transport routes. Calculated incident free doses and accident dose risks for these routes, and the rural, suburban and urban segments are presented for comparison of their relative magnitudes. The results indicate that modification of this route to avoid major metropolitan areas through use of non-Interstate highways increases total risk yet does not eliminate a relatively small urban component of the accident dose risk. This conclusion is not altered by improved resolution of route segments adjoining high density populations

  13. Mammography screening among Arab American women in metropolitan Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kendra; Fakhouri, Monty; Bartoces, Monina; Monsur, Joseph; Younis, Amani

    2008-12-01

    Mammography screening behavior has not been well studied among Middle Eastern immigrant women. We conducted a telephone survey of 365 Arab American women residing in metropolitan Detroit, home to one of the largest populations of Middle Eastern immigrants in the US, to determine prevalence of factors associated with mammography, and attitudes and beliefs regarding mammography screening. Of 365 participants, only five were born in the US. Mean age was 53.2 years (SD 10.8). Two hundred twelve (58.1%) reported having mammogram every 1-2 years; 70% ever had mammogram. Age 50-64 years, having health insurance, married status, being in the US over 10 years, and being Lebanese were associated with mammography every 1-2 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, perceived seriousness of disease, general health motivation, and having fewer barriers were associated with more frequent screening. Appropriate mammography screening is decreased in this group. Targeted outreach regarding screening is appropriate for this population; however, lack of insurance may prevent adequate follow-up.

  14. Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, A.; Oort, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals),

  15. Assessing Anxiety, Depression and Psychological Wellbeing Status of Urban Elderly Under Represent of Tehran Metropolitan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Alizadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the present study describes assessing mental health status (anxiety, depression, and psychological wellbeing of old people in different age groups in tehran metropolitan city. The outcomes of this study could help to health policy makers to develop of better health policy in gerontology field by determine of priorities of mental care in different age groups of old people. Methods & Materials: this was a cross sectional study in 2010. The participants were (n=402 aged 60 years old and over which have underrepresented from Shahid Beheshti University. The survey methods were via face-to-face interviews, and just in a few cases as telephone interviews. The instrument to data collection included demographic questionnaire, k6 and yeild tools. Data analyzed by Stata and SPSS ver.15 through t-test, one-way anova. Regression models applied as well. Results: based on results in the past 4 weeks,10.9% of elderly had sever anxiety or depression symptoms and about half of them (46.5% had moderate psychological distress. The rate of psychological distress increased with age growing, specifically in 60- 79 years old however, this rate declined from age of 80 years and over. Psychological distress levels among elderly women were more than old men in all age groups, except of 60-69 years old people. Regarding psychological wellbeing, feeling of tireless, lone less, and depression are the most common complain of house dowelling old people in tehran metropolitan area. As the results show 43.1% elderly participants were in moderate level and 17% of them were in the bad level of psychological wellbeing. Based on regression model, sex (P=0.012, housing (P=0.004, and retirement salary (P=0.048 were significant variables that effect on psychological distress. The income rate was only important component that effect on psychological wellbeing of elderly participants. There was no significant different between aged groups 60-64 and 65-69 in psychological

  16. A driving cycle for vehicle emissions estimation in the metropolitan area of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; López-Salinas, E

    2005-02-01

    A driving cycle derived from driving behavior and real traffic conditions in Mexico City (MC) is proposed. Data acquisition was carried out over diverse MC routes, representing travel under congested and uncongested conditions, using the chase-car approach. Thirteen different on-road patterns, including the four main access roads to MC, trips in both directions and different timetables, a total of 108 trips spanning 1044 km were evaluated in this study. The MC cycle lasts 1360 seconds with a distance of 8.8 km and average speed of 23.4 km h(-1). Both maximum speed (73.6 km h(-1)) and maximum acceleration (2.22 km h(-1)s(-1)) are lower than those of the new vehicles certification employed in Mexico ,FTP-75 cycle., that is, the MC cycle exhibits less cruising time and more transient events than the FTP cycle. A total of 30 light duty gasoline vehicles were classified into different technological groups and tested in an FTP-75 and MC driving cycles in order to compare their emission factors A potential concern is that in Mexico manufacturers design vehicles to meet the emission standards in the FTP, but emission levels increase significantly in a more representative cycle of present driving patterns in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). The use of a more representative cycle during certification testing, would provide an incentive for vehicle manufacturers to design emissions control systems to remain effective during operation modes that are not currently represented in the official test procedures used in the certification process. Based on the results of the study, the use of MC cycle, which better represents current day driving patterns during testing of vehicle fleets in emissions laboratories, would improve the accuracy of emissions factors used in the MAMC emissions inventories.

  17. Achieving Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  18. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  19. Visceral leishmaniasis in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Eduardo S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years the number of human cases of American visceral leishmaniasis in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, Minas Gerais, Brazil has increased, indicating an elevation in the transmission rate of the disease. The total number of notified human cases in the MRBH since 1994, when the first case was identified, up to 1999 was 345 of which 223 (65% were from the city itself, indicating an urbanization of the disease in this region of Minas Gerais. The age distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in the MRBH shows a higher prevalence in children from 0-4 years old, responsible for 28.9% of the notifications. Clinical and immunological findings from dogs infected with Leishmania chagasi are described. The majority of these animals showed no sign of the disease. Sera from all infected dogs showed detectable Leishmania-induced high titles of antibodies based on the results of an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Samples of isolated Leishmania from human and dogs were characterized as L. (L. chagasi by biochemical and molecular techniques.

  20. Dense wavelength division multiplexing devices for metropolitan-area datacom and telecom networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCusatis, Casimer M.; Priest, David G.

    2000-12-01

    Large data processing environments in use today can require multi-gigabyte or terabyte capacity in the data communication infrastructure; these requirements are being driven by storage area networks with access to petabyte data bases, new architecture for parallel processing which require high bandwidth optical links, and rapidly growing network applications such as electronic commerce over the Internet or virtual private networks. These datacom applications require high availability, fault tolerance, security, and the capacity to recover from any single point of failure without relying on traditional SONET-based networking. These requirements, coupled with fiber exhaust in metropolitan areas, are driving the introduction of dense optical wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) in data communication systems, particularly for large enterprise servers or mainframes. In this paper, we examine the technical requirements for emerging nextgeneration DWDM systems. Protocols for storage area networks and computer architectures such as Parallel Sysplex are presented, including their fiber bandwidth requirements. We then describe two commercially available DWDM solutions, a first generation 10 channel system and a recently announced next generation 32 channel system. Technical requirements, network management and security, fault tolerant network designs, new network topologies enabled by DWDM, and the role of time division multiplexing in the network are all discussed. Finally, we present a description of testing conducted on these networks and future directions for this technology.

  1. Peer-support suicide prevention in a non-metropolitan U.S. community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Ashby, Judy; Hoskins, Olivia D; Greene, Farrah N

    2009-01-01

    Though suicide is a leading cause of death for high school age youth, the overall base rates for suicide deaths are relatively low. Consequently, very few evidence-based suicide prevention programs that address suicide death have emerged. Relative to urban areas, non-metropolitan and rural communities in particular tend to report higher suicide rates that are compounded by poor access to mental health care. In the current study, 63 high school youth participated in the three-day, LifeSavers peer-support suicide prevention training program. The goals of the program are to teach youth to engage in teamwork and listen to others without judgment in addition to recognizing the signs for youth who may be at risk for suicide. The overall aim of LifeSavers is to create a culture whereby primary prevention is active and crisis situations are preempted. Each participant in the current study completed pre-test and posttraining measures of suicide attitudes and knowledge, self-esteem, and also self-acceptance. Findings demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge and positive attitudes toward suicide prevention and also self-esteem, but not self-acceptance. Though more work is needed, these preliminary data reveal that youth in rural communities may benefit from programming such as LifeSavers that commit to advancing peer support and peer-gatekeeping efforts.

  2. Trace metals analysis of hair samples from students in metropolitan area high school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.F.; Wang, P.C.; Kao, P.F.; Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Lin, J.B.; Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Lin, D.B.; Chen, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples from junior high school students in metropolitan areas of Taichung, Taiwan were tested for a total of 13 elements, Al, Ag, Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sc, Se, and Zn by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to establish seasonal variations, gender and environmental exposures. The seasonal variations of hairs in 39 healthy students (18 males and 21 females; age 13.3 ± 0.4 years; height, 158.0 ± 4.1 cm; weight, 53.4 ± 5.7 kg) were collected at 1.5-month intervals for 1 year starting from late August, 2008. The concentrations of the above elements varied from 10 3 to 10 -2 μg g -1 at different sampling times. A quantified index of agreement (AT) was introduced to help classify the elements. A smaller AT indicated highly consistent quantities of specific metals in the hair while a larger AT indicated increased fluctuation, i.e., less agreement. The different ATs in various hair samples were discussed. The concentrations of these elements are compared with the data in the literature. (author)

  3. Diurnal variations of indoor radon progeny for Bangalore metropolitan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagesh, V.; Sathish, L.A.; Nagaraja, K.; Sundareshan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Radon progenies are identified as major causes of the lung cancer if the activity is above its normal. It has not been clear whether radon poses a similar risk of causing lung cancer in humans exposed at generally lower levels found in homes, but a number of indoor radon survey have been carried out in recent years around the world. In view of this an attempt has been made for the measurement of diurnal variation of indoor radon levels for the environment of Bangalore metropolitan, India. The Radon progeny concentrations in terms of working level were measured using Kusnetz's method. The patterns of daily and annual changes in indoor Radon concentration have been observed in a general way for many years. However, understanding of the physical basis for these changes had to await the development of continuous monitors and a more complete knowledge of transport processes in the atmosphere. Over a continent, heating of the ground surface by the Sun during the day and cooling by radiation during the night causes a marked diurnal change in temperature near the surface. As a result cool air near the ground will accumulate radon isotopes from surface flux during the night; while during the day the warm air will be transported upward carrying radon with it. Many buildings show diurnal radon variations. Concentrations are relatively higher during night than daytime. This is influenced by the outdoor-indoor temperature contrast. This effect can be enhanced in buildings with strong diurnal use patterns. Buildings that have high average radon concentrations, but are only occupied for part of the day, may need to be measured during occupied periods to determine if there is significant diurnal radon variation. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  4. Household dust metal levels in The Sao Paulo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene O.; Scapin, Marcos A.; Sato, Ivone M.

    2007-01-01

    A study about household dust is being conducted to determine the level of metal contamination in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). The SPMA, with 18 million inhabitants, is one of the largest urban areas of the world, with serious environmental problems, due to the great amount of industries, heavy traffic and the disordered growth of population. The pollutants originate from a multiplicity of indoor and outdoor sources. Indoor sources are originated from residual (hair, skin scales), pets, human activities, construction materials, and furnishings as well as biological material (pollen, insect parts).and outdoor pollution, usually from the urban traffic. The pollutant mixture involved in numerous physical and chemical processes and changes its characteristics with time. Its composition and concentration depend on the strengths of indoor sources, the concentration of pollutants outside and the properties of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. It is well recognized that many metals have chronic effects on humans, in particular toddlers, who are at an higher risk compared to adults because they engage in greater hand to-mouth activity and their neurological systems are still developing. The household dust samples were collected from different localities, using vacuum cleaner, and sieved up to particle size -1 ; Mn, 119-369 μg g -1 ; Fe, 372-1464 μg g -1 ; Ni, 33-85 μg g -1 ; Cu, 42-303 μg g -1 ; Zn, 156-1369 μg g -1 and Pb, 26-160 μg g -1 . (author)

  5. Indoor radon distribution in metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita O.; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2009-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to ionizing radiation from many natural sources. Radon and its progeny have been recognized as the most important contributors to the natural radioactivity dose, accounting for about half of all human exposure to ionizing radiation. Radon ( 222 Rn) is a α-radioactive noble gas derived from the natural series of uranium (2 38 U), which occurs in a wide concentration range in all geological materials, especially, in rocks, soils and waters. By diffusion and convection, radon migrates from the rocks and soils to atmosphere and through fissures, pipes and holes it may enter the dwellings and other buildings. Another important radon source in dwellings is its emanation from the construction material. The radon progeny concentration in dwellings has been receiving considerable global attention due to its potential effect in causing lung cancer if it deposited in upper respiratory tract when inhaled. This paper presents radon concentration distribution in dwellings in Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte - RMBH. The effective dose estimate is also presented for the RMBH inhabitants. The geological settings of the area are Archean rocks of Granitic Gnaissic Complex and of metasediments sequences of the great Precambrian unit of the Iron Quadrangle of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Radon concentration measurements were carried out with continuous detector AlphaGUARD PQ200PRO (Genitron), in passive mode and with passive detectors E-PERM R Eletret Ion Chamber-EIC. The radon progeny concentration was carried out with a solid state alpha spectroscope, the DOSEman PRO (Sarad). It was found an indoor radon concentration varying in a large range from 18.5 to 2671.4 Bq/m -3 , with an average value of 148.0 Bqm -3 and geometric mean equal to 128.2 Bqm -3 . The variable results are due mainly to region geological factors and building material composition of dwellings. The equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny were determined in dwellings, as 0.3 in

  6. Achieving excellence in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangin, A.M.; Solymossy, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Operating a nuclear power plant is a uniquely challenging activity, requiring a high degree of competence from all who are involved. Achieving and maintaining this competence requires excellence in training. But what does excellence mean, and how do we achieve it. Based on the experience gained by INPO in plant training evaluations and accreditation activities, this paper describes some of the actions that can be taken to achieve the quality appropriate for nuclear power plant training. These actions are discussed in relation to the four phases of a performance-based training system: (1) needs analysis, (2) program design and development, (3) implementation, and (4) evaluation and improvement

  7. Project subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1982. Report on achievements in the project commissioned from NEDO - research and development on return of low-temperature hot water (simulated return test and a demonstration return test); 1982 nendo teion nessui kangen ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kangen mogi shiken kangen jissho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    Tests and researches were performed with an objective to elucidate a decaying mechanism of return wells when low-temperature hot water utilized for geothermal binary power generation is returned underground. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 1982. For the simulated return testing equipment, the hot water supply line was changed, a supply line was newly installed for a water flowing test on hot water in the Hacchobara area, flow rate measuring lines for each system were newly installed, and the pressure detecting locations were changed. In the fundamental tests on the simulated return test, experimental researches were carried out on the following items: production of silica scale from geothermal water, solubility of silica acid, effect of pH on polymerization of silica acid, induction time in the polymerization process of silica acid, sizes of poly-silica acid particles in geothermal water, production of poly-silica acid due to temperature drop, oversaturation degree of mono-silica acid, and scale deposition. In the simulated return test, temperature of a simulated column reproducing the return ground bed, particle sizes, and hot water properties were used as the parameters for the test conducted. As a result, the decay in return wells was estimated to be governed predominantly by chemical deposition of the scales. (NEDO)

  8. Iron, Oil, and Emeryville: Resource Industrialization and Metropolitan Expansion in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1850-1900

    OpenAIRE

    Lunine, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have largely overlooked the formative role of industry in both California's economic development and the San Francisco Bay Area's metropolitan expansion during the late nineteenth century. Beginning in the early 1880s, leading firms in San Francisco's specialized industries, such as the iron and chemicals sectors, dispersed to the metropolitan periphery. This process of industrial suburbanization created an integrative metropolitan economy, as well as individual suburbs. In this di...

  9. [Compatibility of Work and Family Life: Survey of Physicians in the Munich Metropolitan Area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauchart, Meike; Ascher, Philipp; Kesel, Karin; Weber, Sabine; Grabein, Beatrice; Schneeweiss, Bertram; Fischer-Truestedt, Cordula; Schoenberg, Michael; Rogler, Gudrun; Borelli, Claudia

    2017-05-15

    Aim Investigation of the compatibility of work and family life for physicians in the Munich metropolitan area. Methods Survey of a representative sample of 1,800 physicians using a questionnaire. Results Men were less satisfied (7% very satisfied vs. 21%) with compatibility between work and family life than women. The group least satisfied overall was hospital-based physicians (p=0.000, chi-square=122.75). Women rather than men cut back their career due to children, perceived their professional advancement as impaired, desisted from establishing private practice or quit hospital employment altogether. Respondents strove for flexible childcare and makeshift solution if the established service failed. Most did not have that at their disposal. Hospital-based physicians wished for predictable working hours, and would like to have a say in the structure of their schedule. For the majority this was not the case. While for 80% it would be important to participate in the definition of their working hours, this was only possible in 17%. 86% found the opportunity to work part-time important, but many doctors (more than 30%) did not have that option. The biggest help for office-based physicians would be an expedited procedure by the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KVB) when applying for a proxy. The second most important would be the ability to hand over on-call duties. 36% of respondents felt that compatibility of work and family life was best achieved outside of patient care, during residency 42% believed this to be the case. Only 6% of physicians felt the best compatibility to be achieved in a hospital. Among the physician owners of practices, 34% considered their model to be the best way to reconcile both aspects of life. Conclusion More flexible options for childcare and more influence on the definition of working hours are necessary in order to better reconcile work and family life. For office-based physicians it must be made easier to

  10. Seroprevalence of poliovirus antibodies in the Kansas City metropolitan area, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory S.; Pahud, Barbara A.; Weldon, William C.; Curns, Aaron T.; Oberste, M. Steven; Harrison, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012–2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%–96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6–10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2–3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2–3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4–6 y. PMID:28059613

  11. Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso de André

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. METHODS: The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 μm, [PM2.5]. This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1 the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2 the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years method. RESULTS: The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies.

  12. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gerardo Sanchez; Spadaro, Joseph V; Chapizanis, Dimitris; Kendrovski, Vladimir; Kochubovski, Mihail; Mudu, Pierpaolo

    2018-03-29

    Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce. we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM) concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. In 2012, long-term exposure to PM 2.5 (49.2 μg/m³) caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821-1519). The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM 2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104-977) from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937-1869) for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM 2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 μg/m³) could have averted an estimated 45% of PM-attributable mortality, while achieving the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (10 μg/m³) could have averted an estimated 77% of PM-attributable mortality. Both scenarios would also attain significant reductions in attributable respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM 2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city.

  13. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Sanchez Martinez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce. Methods: we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. Results: In 2012, long-term exposure to PM2.5 (49.2 μg/m3 caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821–1519. The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104–977 from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937–1869 for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 μg/m3 could have averted an estimated 45% of PM-attributable mortality, while achieving the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (10 μg/m3 could have averted an estimated 77% of PM-attributable mortality. Both scenarios would also attain significant reductions in attributable respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Conclusions: Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city.

  14. Achieveing Organizational Excellence Through

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Abzari; Mohammadreza Dalvi

    2009-01-01

    AbstractToday, In order to create motivation and desirable behavior in employees, to obtain organizational goals,to increase human resources productivity and finally to achieve organizational excellence, top managers oforganizations apply new and effective strategies. One of these strategies to achieve organizational excellenceis creating desirable corporate culture. This research has been conducted to identify the path to reachorganizational excellence by creating corporate culture according...

  15. Small-town migration to metropolitan centres: a case in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Boon Thong

    1979-12-01

    In Malaysia small towns are an important source of population gowth in metropolitan areas. To provide empirical evidence of the magnitude and roles of small urban centers as complementary sources of population growth in metropolitan areas, a small survey was conducted in 10 small towns in the State of Selangor. Criteria for the selection of these towns include a fair geographical spread over the State, and each area must characteristically possess a dominant urban center. The questionnaires were directed to the heads of 300 households with the intention of investigating the socioeconomic background of the households and the magnitude and characteristics of those members of the households who have migrated elsewhere. The total number of outmigrants from each area varied from 27-57, giving an overall average figure of 1.53 outmigrants/household. About 77% of the outmigrants had moved to the metropolitan centers. As the majority of the metropolitan migrants were more attracted to Kuala Lumpur, Klang, and Petaling Jaya, it may be assumed that the total outmigrants from small towns as derived would have consitituted about 39% of the population in the Klang Valley region. Based on this estimate, the role of small towns in metropolitan population growth is important. In the survey conducted, 2 broad categories of movements were involved: "economic movers," i.e., those who migrated to work or to establish businesses in the metropolitan areas; and "noneconomic movers," i.e., those who moved to continue their studies or to follow their spouses, and so forth. The economic mover stream made up 71% of the total metropolitan migrants. 2 variables--marital status and sex--were significantly related to the economic or noneconomic nature of the metropolitan migrants. The movement of males tended to be associated with economic motives whereas noneconomic reasons for movement tended to be the case among females migrants. The most important occupational group of the economically

  16. An audit of food and beverage advertising on the Sydney metropolitan train network: regulation and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sainsbury

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods has been identified as a driver of the global obesity epidemic and a priority area for preventative efforts. Local and international research has focused on the unhealthiness of television advertising, with limited research into the growing outdoor advertising industry. This study aimed to examine the extent of food and beverage advertising on the Sydney metropolitan train network, and to assess the nutritional quality of advertised products against the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Methods All 178 train stations on the Sydney metropolitan train network were surveyed in summer and winter. A survey tool was developed to collect information for all advertisements on and immediately surrounding the train station. Information included product, brand, location and advertisement format. Advertisements were coded by nutrition category, product subcategory and size. Chi-square, ANOVA and ANCOVA tests were conducted to test for differences in the amount of food and beverage advertising by season and area socioeconomic status (SES. Results Of 6931 advertisements identified, 1915 (27.6% were promoting a food or beverage. The majority of food and beverage advertisements were for unhealthy products; 84.3% were classified as discretionary, 8.0% core and 7.6% miscellaneous. Snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages were the most frequently advertised products, regardless of season. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo were the largest advertisers on the network, contributing 10.9% and 6.5% of total advertisements respectively. There was no difference in the mean number of food and beverage advertisements by area SES, but the proportion of advertising that was for discretionary foods was highest in low SES areas (41.9%, p < 0.001. Conclusions The results indicate that, irrespective of season, food and beverage advertisements across the Sydney metropolitan train network are overwhelmingly for

  17. [Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women under Monitoring in Pre Distinct Prenatal Services: The Metropolitan Area and the Rural Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Caroline San Severino; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2016-01-01

    To determine differences in some nutritional aspects of pregnant women assisted at prenatal care services in a country town and in a metropolitan area. Pregnant women received prenatal care in the city of Belo Horizonte (BH), metropolitan area, and Paula Cândido (PC), a country town. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) containing socioeconomic information and information about eating habits was applied. In addition,weight and height were measured on the occasion of the visits and the women were ask to give their prepregnancy weight for subsequent BMI calculation. Data were analyzed according to region and trimester of pregnancy using the SPSS software version 15.0, the t-test to compare averages and the chi-square test of independence, with the level of significance set at 5%. 240 pregnant women were included, 90 from the country town and 150 from the metropolitan area. Of these, most were married (BH = 56.6%; PC = 46.6%) and did not work outside the home (BH = 54.0%; PC = 84.4%). They predominantly had 3-4 meals/ day during the 1st and 2nd quarters (BH = 54.0 and 46%; PC = 66.7 and 63.3%, respectively) and had 5-6 meals/day during Q3 in BH (44%). There was significant weight gain only in the 1st quarter (BH: 58,0%; PC: 53.3%). Weight gain versus eating habits was significant for the variables "lunch or dinner away from home" for the 1st quarter in BH (p = 0.006), "How many times they consume milk" in the 1 st quarter in PC (p = 0.03), and "How many times they consume junk food" in the 3rd quarter in BH (p = 0.009). Pregnant woman showed proper eating habits in both regions despite the prevalence of pregestational overweight in BH and a low level of education and income, especially in the country town, an indicator that may be unfavorable for the nutrition of pregnant women during this period. Studies of association between eating habits and newborn health will provide more information about nutrition during pregnancy.

  18. An audit of food and beverage advertising on the Sydney metropolitan train network: regulation and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainsbury, Emma; Colagiuri, Stephen; Magnusson, Roger

    2017-05-22

    Increased marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods has been identified as a driver of the global obesity epidemic and a priority area for preventative efforts. Local and international research has focused on the unhealthiness of television advertising, with limited research into the growing outdoor advertising industry. This study aimed to examine the extent of food and beverage advertising on the Sydney metropolitan train network, and to assess the nutritional quality of advertised products against the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. All 178 train stations on the Sydney metropolitan train network were surveyed in summer and winter. A survey tool was developed to collect information for all advertisements on and immediately surrounding the train station. Information included product, brand, location and advertisement format. Advertisements were coded by nutrition category, product subcategory and size. Chi-square, ANOVA and ANCOVA tests were conducted to test for differences in the amount of food and beverage advertising by season and area socioeconomic status (SES). Of 6931 advertisements identified, 1915 (27.6%) were promoting a food or beverage. The majority of food and beverage advertisements were for unhealthy products; 84.3% were classified as discretionary, 8.0% core and 7.6% miscellaneous. Snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages were the most frequently advertised products, regardless of season. Coca-Cola and PepsiCo were the largest advertisers on the network, contributing 10.9% and 6.5% of total advertisements respectively. There was no difference in the mean number of food and beverage advertisements by area SES, but the proportion of advertising that was for discretionary foods was highest in low SES areas (41.9%, p food and beverage advertisements across the Sydney metropolitan train network are overwhelmingly for unhealthy (discretionary) products. The results of this study highlight the inadequacy of Australia's voluntary self

  19. Comparative Analysis of User-Generated Online Yelp Reviews for Periodontal Practices in Multiple Metropolitan Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Dan J

    2017-02-01

    Previously published research for a single metropolitan market (Austin, Texas) found that periodontists fare poorly on the Yelp website for nearly all measured metrics, including average star ratings, number of reviews, review removal rate, and evaluations by "elite" Yelp users. The purpose of the current study is to confirm or refute these findings by expanding datasets to additional metropolitan markets of various sizes and geographic locations. A total of 6,559 Yelp reviews were examined for general dentists, endodontists, pediatric dentists, oral surgeons, orthodontists, and periodontists in small (Austin, Texas), medium (Seattle, Washington), and large (New York City, New York) metropolitan markets. Numerous review characteristics were evaluated, including: 1) total number of reviews; 2) average star rating; 3) review filtering rate; and 4) number of reviews by Yelp members with elite status. Results were compared in multiple ways to determine whether statistically significant differences existed. In all metropolitan markets, periodontists were outperformed by all other dental specialties for all measured Yelp metrics in this study. Intermetropolitan comparisons of periodontal practices showed no statistically significant differences. Periodontists were outperformed consistently by all other dental specialties in every measured metric on the Yelp website. These results were consistent and repeated in all three metropolitan markets evaluated in this study. Poor performance of periodontists on Yelp may be related to the age profile of patients in the typical periodontal practice. This may result in inadvertently biased filtering of periodontal reviews and subsequently poor performance in multiple other categories.

  20. Impact of the 2001 Tohoku-oki earthquake to Tokyo Metropolitan area observed by the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kasahara, K.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a great impact to the Tokyo metropolitan area in both seismological aspect and seismic risk management although Tokyo is located 340 km from the epicenter. The event generated very strong ground motion even in the metropolitan area and resulted severe requifaction in many places of Kanto district. National and local governments have started to discuss counter measurement for possible seismic risks in the area taking account for what they learned from the Tohoku-oki event which is much larger than ever experienced in Japan Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. We will discuss the main results that are obtained in the respective fields which have been integrated to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area; the project has been much improved after the Tohoku event. In order to image seismic structure beneath the Metropolitan Tokyo area we have developed Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net; Hirata et al., 2009). We have installed 296 seismic stations every few km (Kasahara et al., 2011). We conducted seismic

  1. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies in carthorses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Angélica Finger

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, the agent for toxoplasmosis, has worldwide distribution. Horses normally play a secondary role in its life cycle, but movement around urban areas, feeding on grass and the increasing use of carthorses for gathering recyclable material in some urban areas of Brazil may increase their exposure to T. gondii infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies in carthorses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba, PR. IgG antibodies against T. gondii were detected using the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT (titers ≥ 64. Seventeen (17.0% of the 100 horses sampled were seropositive. There were no statistical differences in relation to sex (p = 0.28 or age (p = 0.15. Our findings suggest that carthorses are exposed to T. gondii infections and that no associations with age or sex exist.

  2. A highly attennuative zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intensities of seismic waves observed at the dense seismic array of the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) inside the Kanto basin, display unusual distribution patterns. In several occasions, the highest intensities are not observed in the area above an earthquakes hypocenter but appear sifted more than 20 km away. In order to understand the source of this unusual intensity distribution pattern, it is crucial to understand how the waves attenuate before they reach the surface. The attenuation of seismic waves along their path is represented by the t∗ attenuation operator that can be obtained by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 model. In order to create a high quality dataset, only 1449 earthquakes that are recorded with intensity greater than 0 in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity scale are selected from the JMA unified earthquake list from April 1st 2008 to October 2nd 2013. A grid search method is applied to determine the t∗ values by matching the observed and theoretical spectra. The t∗ data where then inverted to estimate a 3D Q structure with grid points set at a 10 km spacing. We implemented the 3D velocity model estimated by Nakagawa et al., 2012 and in addition we set the initial Q values at 100 for the 0 km grids and to 400 for the grids below them. The obtained model suggests average Q values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin. Furthermore, a low Q zone is observed in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific sea plate. This area is located at approximately 40 km depth, beneath the north-east Tokyo and west Chiba prefectures and is represented by Q values Earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through this low Q area inside the Philippine sea plate and are attenuated significantly. The estimated attenuation distribution at the MeSO-net station for these earthquakes implementing our 3D Q model greatly coincides with the

  3. Forecasting drug utilization and expenditure in a metropolitan health region

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    Korkmaz Seher

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New pharmacological therapies are challenging the healthcare systems, and there is an increasing need to assess their therapeutic value in relation to existing alternatives as well as their potential budget impact. Consequently, new models to introduce drugs in healthcare are urgently needed. In the metropolitan health region of Stockholm, Sweden, a model has been developed including early warning (horizon scanning, forecasting of drug utilization and expenditure, critical drug evaluation as well as structured programs for the introduction and follow-up of new drugs. The aim of this paper is to present the forecasting model and the predicted growth in all therapeutic areas in 2010 and 2011. Methods Linear regression analysis was applied to aggregate sales data on hospital sales and dispensed drugs in ambulatory care, including both reimbursed expenditure and patient co-payment. The linear regression was applied on each pharmacological group based on four observations 2006-2009, and the crude predictions estimated for the coming two years 2010-2011. The crude predictions were then adjusted for factors likely to increase or decrease future utilization and expenditure, such as patent expiries, new drugs to be launched or new guidelines from national bodies or the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. The assessment included a close collaboration with clinical, clinical pharmacological and pharmaceutical experts from the regional Drug and Therapeutics Committee. Results The annual increase in total expenditure for prescription and hospital drugs was predicted to be 2.0% in 2010 and 4.0% in 2011. Expenditures will increase in most therapeutic areas, but most predominantly for antineoplastic and immune modulating agents as well as drugs for the nervous system, infectious diseases, and blood and blood-forming organs. Conclusions The utilisation and expenditure of drugs is difficult to forecast due to uncertainties about the rate

  4. Factors Influencing Patronage Of Medical Tourism In Metropolitan Lagos Nigeria

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    Omisore

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since medical tourism attract patient from various origin to seek medical services at different destinations it is paramount to consider the factors that motivate patrons decision on medical tourism. Hence this study assesses the factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in Lagos metropolis Nigeria. Lagos State is situated in the southwestern corner of Nigeria it lies within Latitudes 62N to 64N of the Equator and Longitudes 245E to 420E of the Greenwich meridian. Metropolitan Lagos is a statistical division and not an administrative unit it extends over 16 of the 20 LGAs of Lagos State it contains 88 of the population of Lagos State and includes semi-rural areas. Data were collected from primary source. Primary data collection was carried out through the use of structured questionnaire. Systematic sampling technique was employed to select 15 specialized private hospitals and 14 Public hospitals in the study area resulting to a sample size of 29 hospitals. Ten 10 patrons were contacted in each of the selected hospitals consequently 290 patrons were sampled. The study revealed three factors influencing patronage of medical tourism in the study area to be service related economic and facilities. These were further established by factor analysis result which combine service related economic factor as factor one with 29.5 variance explained and Eigen value of 5.605 Facility factor as factor two with 28.6 variance explained and Eigen value of 5.435 Service related factor as factor three with 14.7 variance explained and Eigen value of 2.788 and Economic factor as factor four with 9.2 variance explained and Eigen value of 1.754. The relevant authority in charge of health facilities in the study area would have to employ adequate manpower in-terms of doctors and other healthcare personnel across the public hospital while also regulating the scale of charges of the registered private hospitals in the study area. There is need to improve upon the

  5. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  6. The effects of water filtration systems on fluoride: Washington, D.C. metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, M D; Grimm, S E; Banks, K; Henley, G

    2000-01-01

    According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), approximately one in eight Americans is exposed to potentially harmful microbes, pesticides, lead, or radioactive radon whenever they drink a glass of tap water or take a shower. One reason for this exposure is that the water plants are aging or ill equipped to process the huge amounts of raw sewage and agricultural pollutants that are still being discharged into our drinking-water sources. Other compounds such as fluoride and chloride have been added to the community water supplies for health benefits. Water filtration systems are becoming more popular as people become concerned with pollutants in the public water supply and questions are being raised as to whether fluoride is affected by these filters. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of three types of water filtration systems and to determine their impact on fluoride content of the water in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. One sample of water was collected daily for fourteen days, from one location. The sample was divided to use as a control and the test samples which were processed through various filter systems. With the use of a fluoride ion specific electrode, the fluoride concentration level was tested in all samples in order to determine the percentage of fluoride removed. This study was intended to prove that the water filtration systems did not affect the advantage offered by optimum water fluoride levels. The experimental samples were ascertained and compared to the control group, resulting in three of the four carbon filters showing statistically significant amounts of fluoride removed from the water. Both Reverse Osmosis and Distillation, as expected, removed the fluoride at a high rate.

  7. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  8. Epitaphios of Jovan, the Metropolitan of Skopje, in the treasury of the Hilandar monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The epitaphios of Jovan, the Metropolitan of Skopje, was created between 1346 and 1348. It is unique for its beauty and iconographic program and, at the same time, it is the oldest of the epitaphia preserved in our country. The epitaphios was worn in the course of Holy Liturgy, during the Great Entrance in the cathedral churches and the major monasteries. Metropolitan Jovan presented the epitaphios as a gift to Christ 'my life-giver.' Depicted on its central field is the Epitaphios Threnos (Lamentation at the Tomb. Added around it, at a later time it seems, are bands representing the fourteen scenes of Great Feasts and the officiating Church Fathers, in embroidery. Holy Liturgy is served by the greatest fathers and teachers of the Church and Metropolitan Jovan.

  9. Analysing contemporary metropolitan spatial plans in Europe through their institutional context, instrumental content and planning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elinbaum, Pablo; Galland, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article sets out to propose and apply a qualitative framework for thinking about how to analyze and compare metropolitan spatial plans in a milieu of divergent spatial planning traditions and discretionary planning practices. In doing so, the article reviews and develops an understanding...... concerning the institutional context, instrumental content and planning processes associated with four contemporary metropolitan spatial plans in Europe, namely London, Copenhagen, Paris and Barcelona. Through the results of a multiple case study and a subsequent cross comparative analysis, the article...... stresses that contemporary metropolitan spatial plans tend to merge characteristics associated with project-based and strategy-based spatial plans, thus contrasting with the typical land-use character of municipal plans and the often strategic, growth-oriented pursuit of regional plans in Europe...

  10. Regional differences in commuting activities of inhabitants in the Tokyo metropolitan suburb

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    Masaki Kawase

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to elucidate gender differences and regional differences of co-mmuting activities by inhabitants in Japanese metropolitan suburbs. I found the different parts by districts in the metropolitan suburb. Regional factors cause gender differences in commuting activities and result in regional differences: In residential areas, inhabitants who work in metropolitan centers occupy much of the population. In older built-up areas, there are many “local” persons. In rural areas, motorization is progressing because access to rail-roads has been inconvenient. These regional factors influence the behavioral characteristics of commuting by married men, married women, never married men and never married women.

  11. Intra-metropolitan inequalities in Rio de Janeiro and the Guanabara Bay cleaning programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo; Silva, Victor

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of the Guanabara Bay Cleaning Programme (GBCP) on the Rio de Janeiro urban development process. Based on the magnitude of the budget of the programme (HOW MUCH?) and its relevance to the improvement of the life quality of urban dwellers, the main discussion...... of this paper focuses on the role of GBCP in the context of the Rio de Janeiro urban trends and intra-metropolitan inequality dynamics. In studying the impact of the GBCP, we present: (a) a description of the GBCP intervention process and its goals, (b) a spatial analysis of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area...... the role of the GBCP implementation in the spatial distribution of these patterns throughout these 10 years. The conclusion builds on an analysis of the GBCP role in the current urban development process of the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, identifying its influences on the dynamics of intra...

  12. Enriching the hierarchical model of achievement motivation: autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-12-01

    The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between achievement motives and outcomes. We tested whether mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous and controlling reasons would jointly explain the relation between achievement motives (i.e., fear of failure and need for achievement) and learning strategies (Study 1). Additionally, we examined whether the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying learners' dominant achievement goal would account for the link between achievement motives and the educational outcomes of learning strategies and cheating (Study 2). Six hundred and six Greek adolescent students (Mage = 15.05, SD = 1.43) and 435 university students (Mage M = 20.51, SD = 2.80) participated in studies 1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, a correlational design was used and the hypotheses were tested via path modelling. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals mediated, respectively, the relation of need for achievement and fear of failure to aspects of learning outcomes. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals could further explain learners' functioning in achievement settings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  13. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  14. Reducing the Achievement Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Barbara L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," which addresses educational underrepresentation of high-achieving minority students, examining how social sciences, psychology, and education research contribute to an understanding of the feasibility of the report's recommendations and noting implications of these recommendations…

  15. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  16. Schooling and Social Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byong-sung; And Others

    Until the 1960s schooling in Korea was looked upon quite favorably as a means of achieving equal social and economic opportunities. In the 1970s, however, many began to raise the question of whether the expansion of educational opportunities really did reduce social inequalities. This report discusses research that analyzes available evidence…

  17. Correlates of Achievement Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Marilyn

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates given a self-concept scale, a sentence completion exercise, and story cues related to academic achievement generally expressed positive attitudes toward success; but students of both sexes with high self-esteem tended to associate success with a male, and those with lower self-esteem attributed success to a female. (Author)

  18. Achieving Quality Integrated Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; Rosenholtz, Susan J.

    While desegregation is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for ensuring either equity or quality education for minorities, the evidence is convincing that it is "educationally more difficult" to improve student achievement in segregated schools. Desegregation offers the opportunity to enhance the quality of education, particularly when…

  19. The Spatial Changes of Land Use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area 1970s – 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Simion

    2010-01-01

    The article explore the dimension of spatial changes of land use in the Bucharest Metropolitan Area (BMA) over the past forty years. Using GIS-based land use data sets of the years 1970, 1990 and 2000, combining with statistical data, we attempted to quantify the spatial pattern of land use changes in the BMA. Our findings indicate that most significantly changes occurred with arable lands that have been reduced from 77% of total metropolitan area in 1970 to 71.3% in 2000 and in same time th...

  20. Relative Food Prices and Obesity in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: 1976-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Variyam, Jayachandran N.; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of food price on obesity, by exploring the co-occurrence of obesity growth with relative food price reduction between 1976 and 2001. Analyses control for female labor participation and metropolitan outlet densities that might affect body weight. Both the first-difference and fixed effects approaches provide consistent evidence suggesting that relative food prices have substantial impacts on obesity and such impacts were more pronounced among the low-educated. These findings imply that relative food price reductions during the time period could plausibly explain about 18% of the increase in obesity among the U.S. adults in metropolitan areas. PMID:25502888

  1. The polycentric structure of local labour markets in Mexico City's Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Casado Izquierdo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Commuting data at a district level and an algorithm designed to delineate self–contained areas show that Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA was organized in 2007 in twelve local labour market areas. Although six exployment subcenters were identified, the MCMA is still clearly dominated by its Central Business District (CBD, being located the remaining five subcenters close to the CBD. Assessment of this spatial structure is not a positive one: diminishing co–location, decrease in speed and increase in commuting time and distance. Nevertheless, the rising percentage of intra–district commuting is a positive sign, even if this trend is not uniform throughout the metropolitan area.

  2. The Role of Great Cities in Romania for the Metropolitan Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Irina POPESCU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the legislation in force, in Romania there are 11 first rank cities that given their size, their importance, the level of services and the economic activity, represent attractions and are subjected to the development pressures. Still, according to the European tendencies, the urban agglomerations tend to approach this type of cooperation regardless the number of the inhabitants. Currently in Romania there are 11 great cities that have developed processes of organizing the metropolitan areas corresponding to them. Among them, two have already created metropolitan areas: Oradea (2001 and Iaşi (2004, both with the assistance of programs financed by USAID.

  3. Exarh of the Bulgarian Church metropolitan Stephen and the Moscow Patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostriukov Andrei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the last period of church-administrative activity of the Sofia’s metropolitan Stephаn (Shokov. The author describes the testimonies of contemporaries about the character and personal qualities of this ambiguous hierarch. In 1945–1948 metropolitan Stephan was the exarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church and participated in the Meeting of heads and representatives of Autocephalous Orthodox Churches in 1948. The author considers the circumstances of the dismissal of metropolitan Stephаn and his exile as especially important and interesting ones. The meeting of 1948 became the critical event in the exarch’s destiny. Being the supporter of ecumenism, metropolitan Stephen tried unsuccessfully to convince Patriarch Alexis of his rightness in order not to allow the condemnation of ecumenical contacts by the Moscow meeting. However Moscow looked on ecumenism differently in those days. In Moscow the Soviet management aspired to establishment of the centre of World Orthodoxy and tried to cite the Moscow Patriarchy against Constantinople that was under the influence of the USA and the Great Britain. As the Constantinople Patriarchy approved the ecumenical movement, the Moscow Patriarchy has been forced to take of an opposite position. Therefore, the participation of the Russian Church and Churches of the socialist countries in the ecumenical movement was impossible. Metropolitan Stephan, supporting the superiority of the Moscow Patriarchy in the World Orthodoxy, supported the active participation of all Local Churches in the ecumenical movement. The communistic management applied the maximum force to the exarch in order he has not made undesirable statements at the meeting. The fate of metropolitan Stephan has been decided after this meeting. In 1948 he was fired and exiled. The Moscow Patriarchy did not exclude the possibility of moving of metropolitan Stephаn to Russia and his location in any monastery. However metropolitan

  4. Study on waste waters of metal finishing industries around Lahore metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Izhar-ul-Haq; Mahmood, F.; Tufail, S.; Naeem, M.

    2002-01-01

    Study was undertaken on the waste water samples from metal finishing industries of Lahore metropolitan area for the evaluation of metallic impurities. The metal finishing industry was classified into three categories i. e. medium scale, small scale and cottage scale industry. About 93 wastewater samples were collected from various metal finishing industries around Lahore metropolitan area. In addition to toxic elements like cadmium, nickel and zinc the other parameters such as hydrogen ion concentration (pH), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Salts (TDS) were also determined. (author)

  5. Co-benefit analysis of an air quality management plan and greenhouse gas reduction strategies in the Seoul metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the co-benefits of an air quality management plan and CO 2 emission control measures in the Seoul metropolitan area. This co-benefit analysis includes NO x , PM 10 and CO 2 emission reductions and cost estimations, yielding cost-effectiveness values for each of the measures. It has been found that fuel switching from BC-oil to LNG, CNG bus operation are most cost effective in NO x and PM 10 emission reduction. For CO 2 emission reduction, landfill gas reuse and fuel switching were the most effective option. The correlation of cost-effectiveness analysis indicated that fuel switching and CNG bus operation were the most cost effective option to reduce NO x and CO 2 , PM 10 and CO 2 emissions at the same time. Based on cost effectiveness and co-benefit analysis, this study developed an alternative scenario of emission reduction measures through optimization in order to achieve both air quality improvements and CO 2 reduction targets at the minimum cost. These integrated environmental strategies make it possible to reduce 10.3 Mt of CO 2 emissions, which is beyond the target of the CO 2 reduction strategy, and achieve air quality improvement targets together and at a lower cost than the CO 2 emission reduction and air quality improvement measures combined.

  6. Implementation of nutrition risk screening using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool across a large metropolitan health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P L; Raja, R; Golder, J; Stewart, A J; Shaikh, R F; Apostolides, M; Savva, J; Sequeira, J L; Silvers, M A

    2016-12-01

    A standardised nutrition risk screening (NRS) programme with ongoing education is recommended for the successful implementation of NRS. This project aimed to develop and implement a standardised NRS and education process across the adult bed-based services of a large metropolitan health service and to achieve a 75% NRS compliance at 12 months post-implementation. A working party of Monash Health (MH) dietitians and a nutrition technician revised an existing NRS medical record form consisting of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and nutrition management guidelines. Nursing staff across six MH hospital sites were educated in the use of this revised form and there was a formalised implementation process. Support from Executive Management, nurse educators and the Nutrition Risk Committee ensured the incorporation of NRS into nursing practice. Compliance audits were conducted pre- and post-implementation. At 12 months post-implementation, organisation-wide NRS compliance reached 34.3%. For those wards that had pre-implementation NRS performed by nursing staff, compliance increased from 7.1% to 37.9% at 12 months (P Audit', which is reported 6-monthly to the Nutrition Risk Committee and site Quality and Safety Committees. NRS compliance improved at MH with strong governance support and formalised implementation; however, the overall compliance achieved appears to have been affected by the complexity and diversity of multiple healthcare sites. Ongoing education, regular auditing and establishment of NRS routines and ward practices is recommended to further improve compliance. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Assessing the impacts of transport policies through energy system simulation: The case of the Medellin Metropolitan Area, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Jaramillo, Juan Esteban; Arango-Aramburo, Santiago; Álvarez-Uribe, Karla C.; Jaramillo-Álvarez, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The transport sector contributes to climate change, and it has been the target of public interventions to improve quality of life and reduce CO_2 emissions. The Medellin metropolitan area (Colombia) has developed a mass transportation system called Metro de Medellin that integrates train lines, a tram line, BRTs, gondola lift systems, a bicycle-sharing system and hybrid buses to reduce traffic and CO_2 emissions. Despite these efforts, pollution is peaking, and the situation requires new plans. The aim of this paper is to quantify the emissions that will be avoided by the implementation of Medellin's Master Plan, the promotion of telecommuting, and the development of a transport energy model for Medellin between 2010 and 2040. The results indicate that combining the promotion of mass transportation and telecommuting could represent 5.65 MTons of CO_2 equivalent avoided by 2040 (9.4% reduction) and estimated total energy savings of 86,575.55 TJ. Therefore, it is necessary to implement complementary policies in order to achieve the commitment assumed by Colombia at the COP 21. The analytical framework used here could be applied to other regions in order to evaluate environmental and energy mitigation strategies, especially in the developing world where similar policies may be in place. - Highlights: • This paper models Aburra's valley transport sector using LEAP model platform. • Impact analysis includes: telecommuting, massive transport investments. • Implementing a combination of the scenarios decreases emissions by 9.4%. • Aggressive transport policies should be made to achieve mitigation targets.

  8. Information Technology Diffusion: Impact on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gregory M.; Lind, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    For student achievement, the diffusion and adoption of information technology (IT) infrastructure enabled by special funding was posited to have a positive impact on student achievement. Four urban school districts provided the context for this study to assess the impact of IT adoption on standardized test scores.

  9. Metropolitan Blueprints of Colonial Taxation? Lessons from Fiscal Capacity Building in British and French Africa, c. 1880-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Waijenburg, van M.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical and social science literature is divided about the importance of metropolitan blueprints of colonial rule for the development of colonial states. We exploit historical records of colonial state finances to explore the importance of metropolitan identity on the comparative development

  10. Demographic Transformation in a Policy Vacuum: The Changing Face of U.S. Metropolitan Society and Challenges for Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordechay, Kfir; Orfield, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Educators and policy makers must confront the race and class disparities in learning opportunities across American society. Nowhere are these disparities more acute than in the country's great metropolitan areas. As the demographic landscape continues to shift, metropolitan areas are fueling the transition to a majority-minority country. This…

  11. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Baeza, Carlos; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NO x , NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM 10 ) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 ), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NO x and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  12. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  13. Quantifying Changes of Villages in the Urbanizing Beijing Metropolitan Region: Integrating Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has resulted in great changes in rural landscapes globally. Using remote sensing data to quantify the distribution of rural settlements and their changes has received increasing attention in the past three decades, but remains a challenge. Previous studies mostly focused on the residential changes within a grid or administrative boundary, but not at the individual village level. This paper presents a new change detection approach for rural residential settlements, which can identify different types of rural settlement changes at the individual village level by integrating remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS analyses. Using multi-temporal Landsat TM image data, this approach classifies villages into five types: “no change”, “totally lost”, “shrinking”, “expanding”, and “merged”, in contrast to the commonly used “increase” and “decrease”. This approach was tested in the Beijing metropolitan area from 1984 to 2010. Additionally, the drivers of such changes were investigated using multinomial logistic regression models. The results revealed that: (1 36% of the villages were lost, but the total area of developed lands in existing villages increased by 34%; (2 Changes were dominated by the type of ‘expansion’ in 1984–1990 (accounted for 43.42% and 1990–2000 (56.21%. However, from 2000 to 2010, 49.73% of the villages remained unchanged; (3 Both topographical factors and distance factors had significant effects on whether the villages changed or not, but their impacts changed through time. The topographical driving factors showed decreasing effects on the loss of rural settlements, while distance factors had increasing impacts on settlement expansion and merging. This approach provides a useful tool for better understanding the changes in rural residential settlements and their associations with urbanization.

  14. Simulations of the Urban Planetary Boundary Layer in an Arid Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman-Clarke, Susanne; Liu, Yubao; Zehnder, Joseph A.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2008-03-15

    Characteristics of the summertime urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) were investigated for the arid Phoenix (Arizona, USA) metropolitan region using simulated data as well as observations from two field campaigns conducted in May/June 1998 and June 2001. A version of the fifth-generation PSU/NCAR mesoscale meteorological model (MM5) was applied that included a refined land cover classification and updated land use/cover data for Phoenix as well as bulk approaches of characteristics of the urban surface energy balance. Planetary boundary layer processes were simulated by a modified version of MM5¹s non-local closure Medium Range Forecast (MRF) scheme that was enhanced by new surface flux and non-local mixing approaches to better capture near-surface wind speeds and the evolution of the planetary boundary layer. Simulated potential temperature profiles were tested against radiosonde data, indicating that the PBL scheme was able to simulate the evolution and height of the PBL with good accuracy and better than the original MRF scheme. During both simulation periods, MM5¹s performance for near-surface meteorological variables in the urban area was consistently improved by the modifications applied to the standard MM5. The results showed that the urban PBL evolved faster after sunrise than the rural PBL due to the reminiscence of the nighttime urban heat island and its influence on the flow field and surface sensible heat fluxes. During afternoon hours the urban PBL was lower than the rural PBL due to the higher water availability for evaporation in the urban area and accompanying lower sensible heat fluxes. No consistent differences between the urban and rural PBL were detected during nighttime because of deviations in air flow and accompanying wind shear.

  15. Concentration Levels, Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Dust Heavy Metals in the Metropolitan Area of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiulin; Zhao, Wenji; Zhao, Jiayin; Zhao, Wenhui; Jiang, Lei

    2017-09-30

    This study aims to investigate the concentration levels, pollution characteristics and the associated potential ecological risks of the heavy metals found in dust in the metropolitan area of Beijing, China during the winter. Dust samples were collected at 49 different spatial locations of Beijing's metropolitan area from November 2013 to January 2014, in which the concentration levels of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, V, Bi and Mo were measured by Elan DRC II type inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Test results showed that the concentrations of dust heavy metals Pb, Cr, Cu and Zn in the urban areas (147.1 mg·kg -1 , 195.9 mg·kg -1 , 239.2 mg·kg -1 and 713.2 mg·kg -1 ) were significantly higher than those in the suburbs (91.6 mg·kg -1 , 125.1 mg·kg -1 , 131.9 mg·kg -1 and 514.5 mg·kg -1 ). Enrichment factors and the geo-accumulation index were used to describe the pollution characteristics of dust heavy metals in urban and suburban areas. Results indicated that Zn and Cu were moderately polluting in both urban and suburban areas, Cd was severely polluting in urban areas and heavily polluting in the suburbs. Furthermore, potential ecological risk assessment revealed that the degrees of ecological harm of dust heavy metals were very strong in both urban and suburban areas, but especially in urban areas. The potential ecological risk of heavy metal Cd, whose single factor of ecological damage was extremely strong, accounted for about 90% of the total ecological risk.

  16. Learning Motivation and Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯泽野

    2016-01-01

    It is known to all that motivation is one of the most important elements in EFL learning.This study analyzes the type of English learning motivations and learning achievements within non-English majors’ students (Bilingual program in Highway School and Architecture) in Chang’an University, who has been considered English as the foreign language. This thesis intends to put forward certain strategies in promoting foreign language teaching.

  17. Achieving maximum baryon densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1984-01-01

    In continuing work on nuclear stopping power in the energy range E/sub lab/ approx. 10 GeV/nucleon, calculations were made of the energy and baryon densities that could be achieved in uranium-uranium collisions. Results are shown. The energy density reached could exceed 2 GeV/fm 3 and baryon densities could reach as high as ten times normal nuclear densities

  18. Are Adults Diagnosed with Diabetes achieving the American Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cynthia M.; Febo-Vázquez, Isaedmarie; Guzmán, Manuel; Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Suárez, Erick

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the proportion of adults with previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) who met selected preventive practices and treatment goals according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) standards of medical care. Methods A secondary analysis of data collected for a previous epidemiologic study that used a probability cluster design to select 859 persons aged 21–79 years in the San Juan metropolitan area was undertaken. This study focused on 136 (15.8%) adults who self-reported DM. The Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes published by the ADA in 2011 were used to determine the proportion of adults achieving selected clinical practice recommendations. Results Less than half of adults achieved recommended treatment goals for LDL-cholesterol (47.8%), HDL-cholesterol (44.1%), blood pressure (41.2%) and HbA1c (28.7%). The percentage of adults achieving recommended levels of HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol simultaneously was 6.6%; the percentage achieving HbA1c, blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin-to-creatinine ratio target levels was only 2.2%. More than half (60.2%) reported daily self-monitoring of foot ulcers and HbA1c testing at least twice over the past year (52.3%). However, less than half reported annual dilated eye examination (49.2%), annual comprehensive foot examination (43.8%), daily self-monitoring blood glucose (37.5%), moderate or vigorous physical activity (33.8%), and self-management DM education (28.9%). Conclusion This study showed that a substantial proportion of adults with DM did not achieve ADA recommendations on selected preventive practices and treatment goals. Strategies to improve DM medical care and surveillance of preventive-care practices and treatment goals among affected individuals are essential for planning further initiatives that contribute to reduce the burden of DM complications. PMID:22432404

  19. Hybrid Wavelength Routed and Optical Packet Switched Ring Networks for the Metropolitan Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness...... attractive when traffic is unbalanced....

  20. Evaluation of the external costs of energy production in the Helsinki metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterstroem, T.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the research is to evaluate the external costs of energy production at Helsinki metropolitan area (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa). The previously developed valorization method for effects on population centres is adjusted. All the main health, material and environmental effects will be taken into account in the research. The effects of emissions of the energy production of the Helsinki metropolitan area on concentrations of the impurities in the air and through them on human and environment will be evaluated. The estimates will be based on the relativistic fuels consumption and the emission data of Helsinki metropolitan area. Life-cycle reasoning will be applied so that the emissions of the main components of the fuels used in the metropolitan area will be included in the estimation. The cost-effectiveness of the investments will be estimated by comparing the environmental investments of energy boards with the external costs. The methods of this work can be applied to estimation of the profitability of energy production plants from the point of view of national economy also elsewhere in the country