WorldWideScience

Sample records for metro atlanta area

  1. 78 FR 68777 - Proposed Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Procedures in a Metroplex (OAPM) project. The proposed routes would have connectivity to the current airway... support the Atlanta OAPM project and provide routes through, around and over the Atlanta Metroplex area... (RNAV) Routes; Atlanta, GA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  2. Refined assessment of associations between drinking water residence time and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in Metro Atlanta, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karen; Klein, Mitchel; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Panwhar, Samina; Huttinger, Alexandra; Tolbert, Paige; Moe, Christine

    2016-08-01

    Recent outbreak investigations suggest that a substantial proportion of waterborne disease outbreaks are attributable to water distribution system issues. In this analysis, we examine the relationship between modeled water residence time (WRT), a proxy for probability of microorganism intrusion into the distribution system, and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal (GI) illness for two water utilities in Metro Atlanta, USA during 1993-2004. We also examine the association between proximity to the nearest distribution system node, based on patients' residential address, and GI illness using logistic regression models. Comparing long (≥90th percentile) with intermediate WRTs (11th to 89th percentile), we observed a modestly increased risk for GI illness for Utility 1 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.13), which had substantially higher average WRT than Utility 2, for which we found no increased risk (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.94-1.02). Examining finer, 12-hour increments of WRT, we found that exposures >48 h were associated with increased risk of GI illness, and exposures of >96 h had the strongest associations, although none of these associations was statistically significant. Our results suggest that utilities might consider reducing WRTs to water consumption.

  3. 78 FR 70895 - Proposed Establishment and Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... modify 4 Q-routes in support of the Optimization of Airspace and Procedures in a Metroplex (OAPM) project... 71 to establish 14 RNAV Q-routes and modify 4 Q-routes in support of the OAPM project. OAPM is... Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Atlanta, GA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION...

  4. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  5. Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; Graham, Shannon; Young, Randall; Lewis, Brian; Flanagan, Barry

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women with breast cancer who rely on public transportation may have difficulty in completing recommended radiation therapy due to inadequate access to radiation facilities. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and network analysis we quantified spatial accessibility to radiation treatment facilities in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. We built a transportation network model that included all bus and rail routes and stops, system transfers and walk and wait times experienced by public transportation system travelers. We also built a private transportation network to model travel times by automobile. We calculated travel times to radiation therapy facilities via public and private transportation from a population-weighted center of each census tract located within the study area. We broadly grouped the tracts by low, medium and high household access to a private vehicle and by race. Facility service areas were created using the network model to map the extent of areal coverage at specified travel times (30, 45 and 60 min) for both public and private modes of transportation. The median public transportation travel time to the nearest radiotherapy facility was 56 min vs. approximately 8 min by private vehicle. We found that majority black census tracts had longer public transportation travel times than white tracts across all categories of vehicle access and that 39% of women in the study area had longer than 1 h of public transportation travel time to the nearest facility. In addition, service area analyses identified locations where the travel time barriers are the greatest. Spatial inaccessibility, especially for women who must use public transportation, is one of the barriers they face in receiving optimal treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effects of urbanization on streamflow in the Atlanta area (Georgia, USA): A comparative hydrological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, S.; Peters, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    For the period from 1958 to 1996, streamflow characteristics of a highly urbanized watershed were compared with less-urbanized and non-urbanized watersheds within a 20 000 km2 region in the vicinity of Atlanta, Georgia: In the Piedmont and Blue Ridge physiographic provinces of the southeastern USA. Water levels in several wells completed in surficial and crystalline-rock aquifers were also evaluated. Data were analysed for seven US Geological Survey (USGS) stream gauges, 17 National Weather Service rain gauges, and five USGS monitoring wells. Annual runoff coefficients (RCs; runoff as a fractional percentage of precipitation) for the urban stream (Peachtree Creek) were not significantly greater than for the less-urbanized watersheds. The RCs for some streams were similar to others and the similar streams were grouped according to location. The RCs decreased from the higher elevation and higher relief watersheds to the lower elevation and lower relief watersheds: Values were 0.54 for the two Blue Ridge streams. 0.37 for the four middle Piedmont streams (near Atlanta), and 0.28 for a southern Piedmont stream. For the 25 largest stormflows, the peak flows for Peachtree Creek were 30% to 100% greater then peak flows for the other stream. The storm recession period for the urban stream was 1-2 days less than that for the other streams and the recession was characterized by a 2-day storm recession constant that was, on average, 40 to 100% greater, i.e. streamflow decreased more rapidly than for the other streams. Baseflow recession constants ranged from 35 to 40% lower for Peachtree Creek than for the other streams; this is attributed to lower evapotranspiration losses, which result in a smaller change in groundwater storage than in the less-urbanized watersheds. Low flow of Peachtree Creek ranged from 25 to 35% less than the other streams, possibly the result of decreased infiltration caused by the more efficient routing of stormwater and the paving of groundwater

  7. Environmental Public Health Survelliance for Exposure to Respiratory Health Hazards: A Joint NASA/CDC Project to Use Remote Sensing Data for Estimating Airborne Particulate Matter Over the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas; Mohammad, Al-Hamdan; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Qualters, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Describes the public health surveillance efforts of NASA, in a joint effort with the Center for Disease Control (CDC). NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking nvironmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value - added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. The venture sought to provide remote sensing data for the 5-country Metro-Atlanta area and to integrate this environmental data with public health data into a local network, in an effort to prevent and control environmentally related health effects. Remote sensing data used environmental data (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Air Quality System [AQS] ground measurements and MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth [AOD]) to estimate airborne particulate matter over Atlanta, and linked this data with health data related to asthma. The study proved the feasibility of linking environmental data (MODIS particular matter estimates and AQS) with health data (asthma). Algorithms were developed for QC, bias removal, merging MODIS and AQS particulate matter data, as well as for other applications. Additionally, a Business Associate Agreement was negotiated for a health care provider to enable sharing of Protected Health Information.

  8. 76 FR 28661 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions, Sacramento Metro 1-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area, California AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a...

  9. Investigation Into the Use of Satellite Data in Aiding Characterization of Particulate Air Quality in the Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Erica J.; Sokolik, Irina, N.; Doddridge, Bruce G.

    2011-01-01

    Poor air quality episodes occur often in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. The primary focus of this research is to assess the capability of satellites as a tool in characterizing air quality in Atlanta. Results indicate that intra-city PM2.5 concentrations show similar patterns as other U.S. urban areas, with the highest concentrations occurring within the city. Both PM2.5 and MODIS AOD show more increases in the summer than spring, yet MODIS AOD doubles in the summer unlike PM2.5. A majority of OMI AI is below 0.5. Using this value as an ambient measure of carbonaceous aerosols in the urban area, aerosol transport events can be identified. Our results indicate that MODIS AOD is well correlated with PM2.5 on a yearly and seasonal basis with correlation coefficients as high as 0.8 for Terra and 0.7 for Aqua. A possible alternative view of the PM2.5 and AOD relationship is seen through the use of AOD thresholds. These probabilistic thresholds provide a means to describe the AQI through the use of past AOD for a specific area. We use the NAAQS to classify the AOD into different AQI codes, and probabilistically determine thresholds of AOD that represent the majority of a specific AQI category. For example, the majority 80% of moderate AQI days have AOD values between 0.5 - 0.6. The development of thresholds could be a tool used to evaluate air quality from the use of satellites in regions where there are sparse ground-based measurements of PM2.5.

  10. The Washington DC Metro Area Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, P.; Rison, W.; Edens, H.; O'Connor, N.; Aulich, G.; Thomas, R.; Kieft, S.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Hall, J.; Bailey, J.

    2006-12-01

    During the spring and summer of 2006, a network of eight lightning mapping stations has been set up in the greater DC metropolitan area to monitor the total lightning activity in storms over Virginia, Maryland and the Washington DC area. The network is a joint project between New Mexico Tech, NASA, and NOAA/National Weather Service, with real-time data being provided to the NWS for use in their forecast and warning operations. The network utilizes newly available portable stations developed with support from the National Science Foundation. Cooperating institutions involved in hosting the mapping stations are Howard University, Montgomery County Community College in Rockville MD, NOAA/NWS's Test and Evaluation Site in Sterling, VA, College of Southern Maryland near La Plata MD, the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University, Northern Virginia Community College in Annandale, VA, the University of Maryland at Baltimore County, and George Mason University (Prince William Campus) in Manassas, VA. The network is experimental in that its stations a) operate in the upper rather than the lower VHF (TV channel 10, 192-198 MHz) to reduce the radio frequency background noise associated with urban environments, and b) are linked to the central processing site via the internet rather than by dedicated wireless communication links. The central processing is done in Huntsville, AL, and updated observations are sent to the National Weather Service every 2 min. The observational data will also be available on a public website. The higher operating frequency results in a decrease in signal strength estimated to be about 15-20 dB, relative to the LMA networks being operated in northern Alabama and central Oklahoma (which operate on TV channels 5 and 3, respectively). This is offset somewhat by decreased background noise levels at many of the stations. The detection threshold levels range from about -95 dBm up to -80 dBm and the peak lightning signals typically extend 15

  11. Advancing Residential Retrofits in Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Kim, Eyu-Jin [Southface Energy Institute; Roberts, Sydney [Southface Energy Institute; Stephenson, Robert [Southface Energy Institute

    2012-07-01

    This report will summarize the home energy improvements performed in the Atlanta, GA area. In total, nine homes were retrofitted with eight of the homes having predicted source energy savings of approximately 30% or greater based on simulated energy consumption.

  12. Secondary Mortgage Market: Information on Underwriting and Home Loans in the Atlanta Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    program which must be used in connection with the insuring of loans in these areas. Finally, HUD states that gentrification may reverse the rate of...decline of an older neighborhood assuming it is not subject to heavy commercial or industrial encroachment. Gentrification occurs when people move into

  13. Occurrence of organic wastewater-indicator compounds in urban streams of the Atlanta area, Georgia, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Stephen J.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.

    2010-01-01

    Between March 2003 and January 2006, 863 water samples were collected from streams in seven urban watersheds with varying land uses within or near the City of Atlanta, Georgia. Sixty-four sampling sites representing three site types were established in those watersheds. The first type consisted of sites within three watersheds not affected by combined sewer overflows; these were designated as the control basins. The second and third site types were established in four watersheds and were designated as sites upstream or downstream from combined sewer outfalls.

  14. Exposure of preschoolers to lead in the Makati area of Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K; Reutergardh, L B

    2000-07-01

    A study was conducted in the Makati area of Metro Manila, the Philippines. The study evaluated the significance of playground soil lead intake to the total daily lead burden in preschool children. The lead concentration was measured in residential playground soils, food, water, and hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometer and the data were used to draw conclusions. All of the playground soils were contaminated with lead levels ranging from a minimum of 34.54 microg/g to a maximum of 283.13 microg/g in comparison to the naturally occurring lead level of 15 microg/g in soils. Further, the study conducted a lead analysis on the hair of the study population to determine the accumulated lead intake. Ingestion of 25 mg/day of soil contributed to 4% of the total lead intake per day by children exposed to the study sites. Food (83%) was found to be the major source of lead compared to other sources. The study also includes economic valuation and cost benefit analysis from reducing lead in gasoline.

  15. An Examination of Green School Practices in Atlanta Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to examine green environmental practices exercised in maintaining healthy schools in Atlanta. A forty-item researcher-developed instrument was used to survey 30 randomly sampled schools in the Atlanta area. Five schools particularly strong in green environment implementation were visited to observe their green…

  16. Eight Areas of Competency in Decision Making for Sustainability in Metro Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. WARBACH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Michigan State University (MSU held a focus group in Detroit, Michigan, USA in 2012 with members of the urban agriculture movement. The session included business persons involved in growing and selling food, members of the health system, community group members and city government. The purpose was to identify the full range of sectors of society involved in the food system, to identify the perceptions of the food system among the city population, test eight sustainability competency areas developed by MSU faculty as concepts and as they related to urban food systems, and to discover what kinds of decision support tools were needed to foster sustainable food systems in Detroit. The focus group session was video and audio recorded, the tapes transcribed and coded to identify common themes and responses to the competency area concepts. The competency areas presented were: ecological integrity, community well-being/social justice, economic vitality, aesthetic quality, civic responsibility, systems interdependence, critical thinking, and personal growth. Participants indicated that they considered sustainability a value that people in urban agriculture shared, but that people struggled with how to move forward toward sustainability. Focus group participants were able to identify some aspect of each of the eight competency areas that they perceived people in urban agriculture, and the broader city resident population already recognized, or engaged in without recognizing that they were doing something that could lead to more sustainable outcomes. However, participants perceived that a sustainable metropolitan food system remains a somewhat elusive goal to achieve for people engaged in pursuing urban agriculture in Detroit due to a negative perception they expressed that many of the city’s population holds for growing food in the city, and in general for goods produced in the city. Information gained from the focus group and subsequent focus groups

  17. Supporting the Mental Health Needs of Veterans in the Metro Detroit Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanielian, Terri; Hansen, Michael L; Martin, Laurie T; Grimm, Geoffrey; Ogletree, Cordaye

    2016-06-20

    Supporting the mental health needs of veterans is a national priority. Over the past decade, there have been several studies describing the needs of the veteran population, particularly those who served in the post-9/11 era, calling for improved access to high-quality mental health services. In response, the federal government has expanded funding and services to meet increasing demand. At the same time, there has also been a proliferation of nongovernmental support to improve services for veterans in local communities. Often, in an attempt to deploy resources quickly, new programs and services are implemented without a full understanding of the specific needs of the population. This article discusses findings and recommendations from a study designed to gather information on the mental health-related needs facing veterans in the Detroit metropolitan area to identify gaps in the support landscape and inform future investments for community-level resources to fill the identified gaps.

  18. Developing a historical energy and GHG emission inventory for the New York City Metro area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, P. J.; Sarznski, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Despite the vital importance of 21st Century urbanization, energy use and GHG emissions trends our understanding of the relationship between these variables is poor. Addressing these research lacunae is crucial for the success of policies, inter alia, to limit GHG emissions, as per the Paris Agreement (2015). Two reasons for the limited understanding of the relationships between urbanization, energy use and GHG emissions is the lack of longitudinal studies (longer than 10 years) and the limited spatial treatment of cities. Most research on urban GHGs is at a specific point in time and covers urban areas as single units. There are a number of studies performed at the individual city or metropolitan level at specific points in time. Exceptions to the first limitation include the Gurney, et al (2009) team that have developed the high resolution Vulcan dataset (now Hestia) that identifies emissions at high resolution (10 km) and has examined GHG emissions at the country level and studies from California, such as those in Los Angeles that examined GHG emissions at the census block level (Pincetl et al, 2015) and the Bay area (Jones and Kammen, 2014). All of these research teams, however, examined emissions at a single point in time or have not provided historical trends. To address these challenges we present a preliminary framework to develop a historical spatially disaggregated inventory of energy use and GHG emissions for selected sources at the county or finer scale for the New York City Metropolitan (31 county) region. The high-resolution and historical inventory could be provided as far back as 30 years. We describe the data and methods used and both the potential and limitations of these inventories.

  19. Metros descuadrados

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, David

    2012-01-01

    «¡Imposible! ¿Cómo van a caber 10 000 cuadraditos de esos ahí dentro». Pero Iván fue capaz de convencer a Patricia con el trabajo de ambos. Emociona ver los rostros de los alumnos cuando son capaces de demostrar sus argumentos cooperativamente. Partiendo de la construcción de un metro cuadrado con papel de periódico como primera actividad, nos adentramos en un mundo -en inicio insospechado- que nos acaba ofreciendo formidables posibilidades didácticas y una gran satisfacción. Es ese buen sabo...

  20. Climate Change Assessment and Runoff Simulation in Philippine Basins for the Water Security Master Plan of Metro Manila and its Adjoining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaranilla-sanchez, P. A.; Koike, T.; Nyunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Metro Manila gets 97% of its domestic water supply from the Angat-Umiray System. With increasing population and urbanization, water use conflicts arise resulting to serious water shortage in both the agricultural areas upstream of Angat and the domestic water supply downstream. Hence it is critically important to assess the development of water resources in the surrounding river basins (Kaliwa River Basin, Pampanga River Basin and Angat River Basin). To accomplish this, accurate water balance of Metro Manila in the future should be determined to validate the water-use project suggested in the previous study incorporating the effects of climate change. A detailed climate change analysis is necessary for future climate change and stream regime in Angat, Kaliwa and Pampanga River Basins. The main objectives for the Climate Change Assessment and Runoff Simulation component are: 1.) To assess the climate change impacts on the water cycle in Metro Manila and its adjoining areas including the Angat, Kaliwa and Pampanga river basin. 2.) To propose optimized operations of the water resources management facilities.Six GCM models from CMIP3 were selected using spatial correlation and relative error focusing on the best models that represent the rainy season over the region. 3-step bias correction was done for rainfall while direct values were used for longwave and short wave radiation as well as air temperature. Comparison of past (1981-2000) and future(2046-2064) discharge simulations were done to determine the effect of changes in climate on water resources. Results of the analysis showed that in all 6 models, flood peaks in the future will increase while 4 out of 6 models showed that baseflow will slightly decrease in the future. 20, 50, 100 and 200 year extremes were analyzed and hydrological drought was quantified using the SA drought index on discharge. It is very important to be able to optimize the timing of utilizing the available excess water during wet season to

  1. 36th ATLANTA EXECUTIVE SEMINAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    Advisors 11:15AM Army of the Future Brigadier General Edward P. Donnelly, Jr., USA Director, Joint & Futures Office of the Deputy Chief of...University. THE RITZ-CARLTON ATLANTA, GA Brigadier General Edward P. Donnelly, Jr., USA Director, Joint & Futures, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff...field of human rights, working primarily on a pro bono basis. He has worked with Amnesty International USA, where he served as a member of the Board

  2. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  3. Atlanta Ranks 3rd on EPAs Energy Star Top Cities List of Most Buildings in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its seventh-annual list of the top 25 U.S. metropolitan areas with the most Energy Star certified buildings in 2014 and the city of Atlanta ranks third. EPA's Energy Star Top C

  4. 34th Atlanta Executive Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-23

    Seminar “Supporting the Warfighter in an Era of New Challenges” Atlanta, Georgia 21 - 23 April 2009 Wednesday, April 22, 2009 “A Wall Street ...60L, Blackhawk Colombia : 15 - UH-60L, Blackhawks 360 - Assorted small arms (Numerous Cases) 39 – Armored Security Vehicles 214 - NVDs Chile: Avenger...the Chain  The Good News: Sellers and Buyers Will Be Motivated to Consolidate ($USD, Millions) DoD FY06 DoD FY07 DoD FY08E DoD FY09E Procurment

  5. Differences between Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Atlanta; Baltimore; Chicago; Dallas-Fort Worth; Denver; Houston; New York; Phoenix; Washington, DC; and Surrounding Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, C. L.; Tanenbaum, S.; Lawson, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated day-of-week differences in mean concentrations of ozone (O3) precursors (nitric oxide NO), nitrogen oxides NOx, carbon monoxide CO, and volatile organic compounds VOCs at monitoring sites in 23 states comprising seven geographic focus areas over the period 1998- 2003. Data for VOC measurements were available for six metropolitan areas in five regions. We used Wednesdays to represent weekdays and Sundays to represent weekends; we also analyzed Saturdays. At many sites, NO, NOx, and CO mean concentrations decreased at all individual hours from 6:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. on Sundays compared with corresponding Wednesday means. Statistically significant (p 0.01) weekend decreases in ambient concentrations were observed for 92% of NOx sites, 89% of CO sites, and 23% of VOC sites. Nine-hour (6:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.) mean concentrations of NO, NOx, CO, and VOCs declined by 65, 49, 28, and 19%, respectively, from Wednesdays to Sundays (median site responses). Despite the large reductions in ambient NOx and moderate reductions in ambient CO and VOC concentrations on weekends, ozone and particulate matter (PM) nitrate did not exhibit large changes from weekdays to weekends. The median differences between Wednesday and Sunday mean ozone concentrations at all monitoring sites ranged from 3% higher on Sundays for peak 8-hr concentrations determined from all monitoring days to 3.8% lower on Sundays for peak 1-hr concentrations on extreme-ozone days. Eighty-three percent of the sites did not show statistically significant differences between Wednesday and weekend mean concentrations of peak ozone. Statistically significant weekend ozone decreases occurred at 6% of the sites and significant increases occurred at 11% of the sites. Average PM nitrate concentrations were 2.6% lower on Sundays than on Wednesdays. Statistically significant Sunday PM nitrate decreases occurred at one site and significant increases occurred at seven sites.

  6. Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A.; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; VanHemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18–29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices. PMID:24659928

  7. Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; Vanhemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

    2014-03-01

    Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18-29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices.

  8. Health Impact Assessment of the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project in the Proctor Creek Watershed of Atlanta - Urban Waters National Training Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor Creek is one of the most impaired creeks in metro-Atlanta due to exceedance of state water quality standards for fecal coliforms. The topography, prevalence of impervious surfaces in the watershed, and a strained combined sewer system have contributed to pervasive floodin...

  9. Plaza Central Peachtree Atlanta-(EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portman, John

    1976-10-01

    Full Text Available This 70-storey hotel has been constructed to meet the requirements of the city of Atlanta which needed a building with a sufficient room capacity and adequate premises for Conventions. On a structure of reinforced concrete which serves as a base and in which the common areas are situated rises a big cylindric tower, covered with coloured glass and which contains the 1.100 rooms. 230 m above ground level, the construction is crowned with a roof top cocktail lounge and a revolving restaurant with a splendid view of the city. Among the most noteworthy characteristics of this hotel is the elegantly decorated entrance hall —atrium shaped and 7 storeys high— with a pond in the centre. Further premises worth mentioning in view of their design and dimensions are the great ball room, coffee-shops and luxurious restaurants, one of which is planned in different levels and in which the most impressive feature is a 30 m high waterfall.Este edificio de setenta plantas se construyó para responder a las necesidades hoteleras de la ciudad de Atlanta, que precisaba de una instalación con suficiente capacidad de habitaciones y preparación para albergar Convenciones. Sobre una estructura de hormigón armado, que sirve de base y en la que se sitúan las zonas comunes, se eleva una gran torre cilíndrica, recubierta de vidrio coloreado reflectante, destinada a distribuir las 1.100 habitaciones con las que cuenta el edificio. La construcción se corona, a 230 m de la cimentación, con una sala para cócteles y un restaurante giratorio desde el que se domina una espléndida vista del contorno. El edificio dispone de importantes servicios comunes, entre los que cabe destacar el hall de entrada —a modo de atrio y con una altura equivalente a siete plantas—, que está dotado de un gran estanque y variados elementos de gran efecto decorativo. Otros servicios notables por su diseño y dimensiones son la gran sala de baile, y las cafeterías, comedores y

  10. Resisting the Status Quo: The Narratives of Black Homeschoolers in Metro-Atlanta and Metro-DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields-Smith, Cheryl; Kisura, Monica Wells

    2013-01-01

    Trends suggest that homeschooling continues to increase among black families. Yet, research on contemporary Black homeschooling remains scarce. Given black educational history, the phenomena of Black families choosing homeschooling over public and private schools in the post-Desegregation era is worthy of investigation. Further, documenting the…

  11. Playground Hazards in Atlanta Child Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Jeffrey J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines 71 of the 605 licensed child care centers in Atlanta for playground hazards and school accidents. Finds 684 hazards in 66 centers, including climbing equipment over 6 feet high with inadequate impact-absorbing undersurfacing that had over twice the rate of fall injuries as climbing equipment under 6 feet high. (FMW)

  12. Modeling metro users' travel behavior in Tehran: Frequency of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Mamdoohi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transit-oriented development (TOD, as a sustainable supporting strategy, emphasizes the improvement of public transportation coverage and quality, land use density and diversity of around public transportation stations and priority of walking and cycling at station areas. Traffic, environmental and economic problems arising from high growth of personal car, inappropriate distribution of land use, and car-orientation of metropolitan area, necessitate adoption of TOD. In recent years, more researches on urban development and transportation have focused on this strategy. This research considering metro stations as base for development, aims to model metro users' travel behavior and decision-making procedures. In this regard, research question is: what are the parameters or factors affecting in the frequency of travel by metro in half-mile radius from stations. The radius was determine based on TOD definitions and 5 minute walking time to metro stations.  A questionnaire was designed in three sections that including travel features by metro, attitudes toward metro, economic and social characteristics of respondents. Ten stations were selected based on their geographic dispersion in Tehran and a sample of 450 respondents was determined. The questionnaires were surveyed face to face in (half-mile vicinity of metro stations. Based on a refined sample on 400 questionnaires ordered discrete choice models were considered. Results of descriptive statistics show that 38.5 percent of the sample used metro more than 4 times per week. Trip purpose for 45.7 percent of metro users is work. Access mode to the metro stations for nearly half of the users (47.6 percent is bus. Results of ordered logit models show a number of significant variables including: habit of using the metro, waiting time in station, trip purpose (working, shopping and recreation, personal car access mode to the metro station, walking access mode to the metro station and being a housewife.

  13. Public awareness and attitudes towards naval sonar mitigation for cetacean conservation: a preliminary case study in Fairfax County, Virginia. (the DC Metro area).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbel, K; Balint, P; Parsons, E C M

    2011-01-01

    The potential impacts of naval sonar on cetaceans has led to a series of court cases and statements of concern by international organizations. However, there has been no research conducted on attitudes of the general public with respect to this issue. To investigate this, a preliminary public survey was conducted in Fairfax, Virginia (the Washington, DC Metro region). The majority of the public sampled believed that naval sonar impacted marine mammals (51.3%), that the US Navy should not be exempt from environmental regulations in time of peace (75.2%), and that sonar use should be moderated if it impacts cetaceans (75.8%). Individuals who were conservative, Republican, and have served in the military were more likely to believe the Navy should be exempt from marine mammal protection regulations. In addition, expert interviews were conducted to gain opinions on the potential ramifications of the recent US Supreme Court case on naval sonar mitigation.

  14. Focus+context metro maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Chi, Ming-Te

    2011-12-01

    We introduce a focus+context method to visualize a complicated metro map of a modern city on a small displaying area. The context of our work is with regard the popularity of mobile devices. The best route to the destination, which can be obtained from the arrival time of trains, is highlighted. The stations on the route enjoy larger spaces, whereas the other stations are rendered smaller and closer to fit the whole map into a screen. To simplify the navigation and route planning for visitors, we formulate various map characteristics such as octilinear transportation lines and regular station distances into energy terms. We then solve for the optimal layout in a least squares sense. In addition, we label the names of stations that are on the route of a passenger according to human preferences, occlusions, and consistencies of label positions using the graph cuts method. Our system achieves real-time performance by being able to report instant information because of the carefully designed energy terms. We apply our method to layout a number of metro maps and show the results and timing statistics to demonstrate the feasibility of our technique. © 2011 IEEE

  15. The Value of Optimization in Dynamic Ride-Sharing: a Simulation Study in Metro Atlanta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.H. Agatz (Niels); A. Erera (Alan); M.W.P. Savelsbergh (Martin); X. Wang (Xing)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSmartphone technology enables dynamic ride-sharing systems that bring together people with similar itineraries and time schedules to share rides on short-notice. This paper considers the problem of matching drivers and riders in this dynamic setting. We develop optimization-based approac

  16. Spatial Growth Modeling and High Resolution Remote Sensing Data Coupled with Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Johnson, Hoyt; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 60 percent of the world s population will live in cities. Urban expansion has profound impacts on a host of biophysical, environmental, and atmospheric processes within an urban ecosystems perspective. A reduction in air quality over cities is a major result of these impacts. Because of its complexity, the urban landscape is not adequately captured in air quality models such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that is used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, primarily for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of the CMAQ model to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well the model predicts ozone levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban spatial growth modeling (SGM) projections as improved inputs to a meteorological/air quality modeling system focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. These growth projections include business as usual and smart growth scenarios out to 2030. The growth projections illustrate the effects of employing urban heat island mitigation strategies, such as increasing tree canopy and albedo across the Atlanta metro area, which in turn, are used to model how air temperature can potentially be moderated as impacts on elevating ground-level ozone, as opposed to not utilizing heat island mitigation strategies. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the CMAQ modeling schemes. Use of these data has been found to better characterize low density/suburban development as compared

  17. Remote Sensing and Spatial Growth Modeling Coupled with Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80 percent of the world s population will live in cities. Directly aligned with the expansion of cities is urban sprawl. Urban expansion has profound impacts on a host of biophysical, environmental, and atmospheric processes. A reduction in air quality over cities is a major result of these impacts. Strategies that can be directly or indirectly implemented to help remediate air quality problems in cities and that can be accepted by political decision makers and the general public are now being explored to help bring down air pollutants and improve air quality. The urban landscape is inherently complex and this complexity is not adequately captured in air quality models, particularly the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that is used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, primarily for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of the CMAQ model to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well the model predicts ozone pollutant levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban spatial growth modeling (SGM) projections as improved inputs to the meteorology component of the CMAQ model focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. These growth projections include "business as usual" and "smart growth" scenarios out to 2030. The growth projections illustrate the effects of employing urban heat island mitigation strategies, such as increasing tree canopy and albedo across the Atlanta metro area, which in turn, are used to model how ozone and air temperature can potentially be moderated as impacts on elevating ground-level ozone, as opposed to not utilizing heat

  18. Metro de Estocolmo, Suecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granit, Michael

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available The classic method of building stations and tunnels with cement or ceramic materials has been abandoned in favor of carrying out the most recent stations in the Stockholm underground system based on structures which take the esthetic value of the «cave» into account. Several artists have cooperated in the selection of paint colors, sculptures, paintings on the walls, etc. This article studies the characteristics of the underground system and its different construction stages, such as: mechanical perforation and blasting, load techniques, rock reinforcement, etc.En la realización de las estaciones más recientes del metro de Estocolmo se ha abandonado el método clásico de estaciones y túneles revestidos de cemento o materiales cerámicos, para llegar a estructuras en las que se tiene en cuenta el valor estético de la «cueva». Diversos artistas han aconsejado en la elección de colores de las pinturas, esculturas, cuadros de las paredes, etc. En este artículo se estudian las características del metro y sus diversas fases de realización: perforación mecánica, voladuras, técnicas de carga, refuerzos de la roca, etc.

  19. Metro Manila: the urban challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    Metro Manila is the commercial, industrial, financial, cultural and administrative center of the Philippines, and the world's 100 largest business corporations and 60% of all manufacturing firms. Experts predict that Metro Manila will continue to experience the surging population growth rate it recorded between 1980 and 1985 of about 3.4% annually and then decline to about 2% annually by the year 2000. Metro Manila's population is primarily young, with 35% of its total population under age 15. Although poverty is widespread in Metro Manila, with about 60% of households officially below the poverty line of a paltry $120 a month for a family of 6, Metro Manila still offers most interregional in-migrants a better life. The labor force participation rate has averaged around 54% annually in recent years. As in most cities of the developing world, manufacturing employment is giving way to service - sector employment. The dire need for adequate housing in Metro Manila cannot be overstated; although government spending on housing rose from 260 million to 1.1 billion pesos between 1978 and 1983, public investment could not keep up with the pressing demands of new family formation and in-migration. The most up-to-date analysis of Metro Manila demographics is Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities: Metro Manila, published by the UN in 1986.

  20. METRO DESIGN&CERAMIC APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Metro has become an essential transportation facility in big modern cities for its fast and convenient features.The basic requirements for metro design include:bright lighting,convenience and safety.Besides,it should explicitly mark the lines for the passengers.

  1. "Comets, Origins, and Life:” Promoting Interdisciplinary Science in Secondary and Middle Schools in the Washington, DC and Saint Louis, MO Metro Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonev, Boncho; Gibb, E. L.; Brewer, G.; Novak, R.; Mandell, A. M.; Seaton, P.; Price, J.; Long, T.; Bahar, S.; Edwards, S. S.

    2010-10-01

    Developing a full-year program to support secondary and middle school science education is a key part of the "broader impact” component of NSF Grant AST- 0807939 (PI/Co-PI Bonev/Gibb). This program is realized at two stages: (1) a professional development course for teachers is offered during the summer; (2) during the subsequent academic year we collaborate with educators in lessons planning or curriculum development as demanded in their particular schools. We successfully offered the course “ Comets, Origins, and Life: Interdisciplinary Science in the Secondary Classroom ” (45 contact hours; 3 credits) in the summers of 2009 and 2010 at the Catholic University of America. This class demonstrates how a complex hypothesis - for the delivery of water and prebiotic organic matter to early Earth - is being tested by integrating astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and Earth and planetary science. Collaborations with participants from the 2009 class include curriculum development within the Earth Science program in Prince Georges county, MD and strengthening science in Washington DC public schools. Our next step is to offer our class in the Saint Louis, MO area. The main challenge in our work with educators is not to present them with "interesting information", but to fit what we offer within the very particular curriculum expectations of their school districts. These curriculum expectations often vary from district to district and sometimes from year to year. We gratefully acknowledge the support by the NSF, allowing to fully integrate our research area into education. We also gratefully acknowledge our collaborations with the Goddard Center for Astrobiology and the Howard B. Owens Science Center (both in MD) in developing our class curriculum. Educators interested in this program can contact Boncho Bonev (bonev@cua.edu; for the Washington DC and Baltimore, MD areas) and Erika Gibb (gibbe@umsl.edu; for the Saint Louis, MO area).

  2. Belgrade metro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Arandjelović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The subway system is an indispensable part of every modern metropolis. Building a subway is no longer a matter of prestige but a necessity, a consequence of the traffic revolution worldwide. This paper shows four metro studies with specific reference to the Belgrade subway and problems that occurred. The first one was conducted in 1946 by the famous Serbian architect Nikola Dobrovic. This document is indeed the first written record discussing the subway issue in Belgrade. The next study dates back to 1968. This project was the first major study on the possibility of a subway. The third and biggest, this subway study was completed in 1982 and contained a major and comprehensive subway project. This project was officially accepted and enacted by the city government. The fourth project in circulation with regard to the subway is the light city railway project. It came out due to the consequences of the decision that a classical subway was not necessary in Belgrade, so that a replacement for the classical subway system was to be undertaken. The light city railway project was adopted as a part of the General Urban Plan for Belgrade by the year 2021.

  3. Complejo Omni - Atlanta – (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Housworth, Marvin

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available This complex of buildings, situated in the centre of Atlanta City, forms a dynamic nucleus for various social activities, such as recreational, commercial and business activities. These buildings are constructed above railway nets, due to special property rights for this lot, which constituted one of the main determinants for the characteristics of the property. The unit is made up by a luxurious hotel, two restaurants, office buildings and shopping arcades, arranged around a spacious inner yard. This patio is covered by means of an exceedingly big glass roof, supported by beams and steel framework and is provided with walls of big glazed surfaces. Thus, an intimate and friendly atmosphere is created, free from the contamination and noise of the big city whereby the square displays the typical characteristics of open squares in smaller towns.Este conjunto de edificios, emplazado en el centro de la ciudad de Atlanta, conforma un núcleo dinámico en donde se encuentran diversas actividades de tipo social: recreativas, comerciales y empresariales. Se ha construido sobre ruedas ferroviarias, en virtud de derechos especiales de propiedad que conservaba la parcela, lo que constituyó uno de los principales condicionamientos de fas características del proyecto. El complejo dispone de un hotel de lujo, dos restaurantes, edificios de oficinas y galerías comerciales, dispuestos en torno a un amplio espacio interior, cerrado por una enorme cubierta acristalada, apoyada en vigas y entramados metálicos, y por grandes ventanales corridos entre bloques. Conforma así un ambiente íntimo y acogedor, liberado del ruido y de la atmósfera turbulenta de la gran ciudad, con características propias de las pequeñas plazas populares.

  4. Human-Environment Patterns of Metropolitan Spatial Restructuring: Atlanta, Georgia and Shanghai, PRC, 1950-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper compares the spatial and environmental impacts of rapid growth through the five decades in Atlanta, Georgia and Shanghai, PRC. Both metropolitan areas represent the prime demographic and economic engines of their respective regions, and exhibit some of the worst environmental degradation problems, though from significantly different sources. Atlanta epitomizes spatial patterns of sprawl arising from an unfettered topographic and economic setting. Shanghai, in a political economy transitioning from decades of centralized constraint, seeks to spread out some of the world's densest core settlement population to its inner suburbs. Remotely sensed photographic images are utilized to classify land use changes, while census figures and environmental data are integrated in a Geographic Information System to correlate shifts through time.

  5. El gran impacto del Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOUIS DE GRANGE C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Las grandes ciudades del mundo que han resuelto su problema de transporte público lo han logrado principalmente a la luz de las siguientes dos políticas públicas: una expansión significativa de la red de Metro y trenes urbanos, y una firme regulación en el uso del automóvil. La evidencia empírica a nivel mundial ha permitido constatar que la expansión de redes de Metro genera una reducción mucho más efectiva en el uso del transporte privado que otras medidas como por ejemplo subsidiar la tarifa del transporte público. Adicionalmente, la existencia de una importante red de Metro o trenes urbanos permite aumentar notablemente la efectividad de políticas regulatorias al uso del automóvil, como tarificación vial y gravámenes específicos, entre otras, ya que los automovilistas habituales sí ven en el Metro una alternativa real de transporte, no así en los servicios de buses.Large cities around the world that have successfully addressed their public transport problems have made it mainly through the folio wing two public policies: a significant expansion of the Metro or urban train networks, and a tight regulation of the use of automobiles. Empirical evidence worldwide shows that the expansion of the Metro network produces a much more effective reduction in the use of private transport than alternative policies as for instance subsidizing the tariff of public transport. Besides, the existence of an important Metro or urban train network enlarges the effectiveness of other regulatory policies to the use of automobile, as road pricing and specific taxes, since the users of automobiles see in Metro a reasonable alternative of transport, which is not the case for buses.

  6. Sense of Place among Atlanta Public Housing Residents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tester, Griff; Ruel, Erin; Anderson, Angela; Reitzes, Donald C; Oakley, Deirdre

    2011-01-01

    .... In this paper, we examine sense of place, consisting of both community and place attachment, among a sample of Atlanta public housing residents prior to relocation (N = 290). We find that 41...

  7. Outcomes among Asylum Seekers in Atlanta, Georgia, 2003--2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dabney P; Donato, Caitlin E; Malewezi, Bridget A; Li, Anyie J; Corea, Mario J; Mitchell, Andrew B

    2015-10-01

    to have a negative case outcome. CONCLUSION Network assessment appears to result in higher rates of positive case outcomes compared to the average for asylum seekers seen in the Atlanta circuit court. Areas for programmatic improvement include systematic followup and increased community awareness of Network services, since the Network may directly impact future case outcomes by offering assessment to more asylum seekers. Access to English language instruction and legal representation for asylum claimants may also contribute to more cases with positive outcomes. KEYWORDS Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), vulnerable populations, transients and migrants, human rights, human rights abuses, torture, PTSD, USA.

  8. Settlement Behaviors of Metro Tunnels during the Metro Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the settlement behaviors of a metro tunnel during metro operation. A nonlinear vibration model of vehicle-track is established, and a series of vibration loadings for the frequency domain acting on segments are obtained based on a modal analysis method and applying the Fourier transformation algorithm. The displacements at any position in the soil are derived from the segment-soil interaction coupled model with the elastic continuum theory, and its accuracy is verified by comparing with the calculation result obtained by elastic-plastic finite element model.

  9. Evaluation of streamwater quality in the Atlanta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Norman E.; Kandell, Stephen J.; Hatcher, Kathryn J.

    1997-01-01

    A water-quality index (WQI) was developed from historical data for streams in the Atlanta region. The WQI was derived from percentile ranks of individual water-quality parameter values at each stream by normalizing the constituent ranks for values from all sites in the area for the period from 1990 to 1995. WQIs were developed primarily for nutrients and nutrient-related parameters, because data for metals, organics (pesticides and herbicides), biological conditions, and suspended sediment generally were unavailable. Average WQI of the individual parameter WQIs for sites in the region ranged from 0.26 (good quality) to 0.86 (poor quality), and increased downstream of known nutrient sources. Annual average site WQI decreased at most long-term monitoring sites from 1986 to 1995. Temporal trends, in part, reflect effects of a drought in the late 1980's and normal to higher-than-normal rainfall and runoff in the 1990's. For several sites, particularly in the northern part of the region where major development is ongoing, WQI increased dramatically from 1994 to 1995. Interannual WQI variability typically was less than spatial variability. Average annual site WQI for individual parameters correlated with annual hydrologic characteristics, particularly precipitation amount and water yield, reflecting the effect of dilution on individual water-quality parameter values.

  10. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  11. El cerealémetro

    OpenAIRE

    Santos López, Pascual

    2006-01-01

    "Apparatus for measuring wheat" was the title that Geronimo Salmerón Gómez put his invention patented in 1939. Which calls for defining the quality of wheat is marketed. Salmerón always worried about the price of bread and flour quality came to manufacture his invention usually called "Cerealémetro".

  12. El cerealémetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available "Apparatus for measuring wheat" was the title that Geronimo Salmerón Gómez put his invention patented in 1939. Which calls for defining the quality of wheat is marketed. Salmerón always worried about the price of bread and flour quality came to manufacture his invention usually called "Cerealémetro".

  13. Packet transport network in metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Yi, Xiaobo; Zhang, Hanzheng; Gong, Ping

    2008-11-01

    IP packet based services such as high speed internet, IP voice and IP video will be widely deployed in telecom network, which make transport network evolution to packet transport network. Characteristics of transport network and requirements of packet transport network are analyzed, T-MPLS/MPLS-TP based PTN technology is given and it will be used in metro (access, aggregation and core) network.

  14. EPA Awards Environmental Education Grant to Captain Planet Foundation in Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA --- Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Captain Planet Foundation as a recipient of an Environmental Education Grant. The Atlanta-based non-profit was selected in the latest round of awards

  15. Multi-criteria robustness analysis of metro networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Koç, Yakup; Derrible, Sybil; Ahmad, Sk Nasir; Pino, Willem J. A.; Kooij, Robert E.

    2017-05-01

    Metros (heavy rail transit systems) are integral parts of urban transportation systems. Failures in their operations can have serious impacts on urban mobility, and measuring their robustness is therefore critical. Moreover, as physical networks, metros can be viewed as topological entities, and as such they possess measurable network properties. In this article, by using network science and graph theory, we investigate ten theoretical and four numerical robustness metrics and their performance in quantifying the robustness of 33 metro networks under random failures or targeted attacks. We find that the ten theoretical metrics capture two distinct aspects of robustness of metro networks. First, several metrics place an emphasis on alternative paths. Second, other metrics place an emphasis on the length of the paths. To account for all aspects, we standardize all ten indicators and plot them on radar diagrams to assess the overall robustness for metro networks. Overall, we find that Tokyo and Rome are the most robust networks. Rome benefits from short transferring and Tokyo has a significant number of transfer stations, both in the city center and in the peripheral area of the city, promoting both a higher number of alternative paths and overall relatively short path-lengths.

  16. Weekday/Weekend differences in ambient air pollutant concentrations in atlanta and the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Charles L; Tanenbaum, Shelley

    2006-03-01

    The authors quantified changes between mean weekday and weekend ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) precursors (volatile organic compounds [VOC], carbon monoxide [CO], nitric oxide, and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]) in Atlanta and surrounding areas to observe how weekend precursor emission levels influenced ambient O3 levels. The authors analyzed CO, nitric oxide (NO), and NO, measurements from 1998 to 2002 and speciated VOC from 1996 to 2003. They observed a strong weekend effect in the Atlanta region, with median daytime (6:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time) decreases of 62%, 57%, and 31%, respectively, in the ambient levels of NO, NOx, and CO from Wednesdays to Sundays, during the ozone season (March to October). They also observed significant decreases in ambient VOC levels between Wednesdays and Sundays, with decreases of 28% for the sum of aromatic compounds and 19% for the sum of Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations target compounds. Despite large reductions in O3 precursor levels on weekends, day-of-week differences in O3 mixing ratios in and near Atlanta were much smaller. Averaging overall O3-season days, the 1-hr and 8-hr mean peak daily O3 maxima on Sundays were 4.5% and 2.3% lower, respectively, than their mean levels on Wednesdays (median of 14 site differences), with no sites showing statistically significant Wednesday-to-Sunday differences. When restricted to high-O3 days (highest 3 peak O3 days per day of week per site per year), the 1-hr and 8-hr Sunday O3 mixing ratios were 11% and 10% lower, respectively, than their mean peak levels on Wednesdays (median of 14 site differences), with 6 of 14 sites showing statistically significant Wednesday-to-Sunday differences. The analyses of weekday/weekend differences in O3 precursor concentrations show that different emission reductions than normally take place each weekend will be required to achieve major reductions in ambient ozone levels in the Atlanta area.

  17. Street floods in Metro Manila and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Mendoza, Jerico; Cipriano, Fatima; Delmendo, Patricia Anne; Lacsamana, Micah Nieves; Moises, Marc Anthony; Pellejera, Nicanor; Punay, Kenneth Niño; Sabio, Glenn; Santos, Laurize; Serrano, Jonathan; Taniza, Herbert James; Tingin, Neil Eneri

    2017-09-01

    Urban floods from thunderstorms cause severe problems in Metro Manila due to road traffic. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived topography, flood simulations and anecdotal reports, the root of surface flood problems in Metro Manila is identified. Majority of flood-prone areas are along the intersection of creeks and streets located in topographic lows. When creeks overflow or when rapidly accumulated street flood does not drain fast enough to the nearest stream channel, the intersecting road also gets flooded. Possible solutions include the elevation of roads or construction of well-designed drainage structures leading to the creeks. Proposed solutions to the flood problem of Metro Manila may avoid paralyzing traffic problems due to short-lived rain events, which according to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) cost the Philippine economy 2.4billionpesos/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Atlanta Ranks 4th on EPAs List of Cities with the Most Energy Star Certified Buildings/Energy efficiency leads to a stronger economy and healthier environmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced its eighth-annual Top Cities list, which ranks the 25 U.S. metropolitan areas with the most Energy Star certified commercial buildings in the preceding calendar year with Atlan

  19. Next Stop in the Study Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.W.; Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a web based interactive tool designed to teach freewriting - a well known writing technique useful to everyone producing text - through step-by-step instructions and interactive feedback which is not possible in face-to-face teaching. The Freewriting Module is part of the Study...... Metro; a web based resource organizing a collection of guided tours by applying a metro map metaphor. The Study Metro aims at teaching academic writing to students at university level. This paper shortly introduces the Study Metro and more thoroughly describes the interactive Freewriting Module...

  20. NEOPLASIA IN SNAKES AT ZOO ATLANTA DURING 1992-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Karjian, Annie; Hahne, Megan; Leach, Kate; Murphy, Hayley; Lock, Brad; Rivera, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to review neoplasia of captive snakes in the Zoo Atlanta collection from 1992 to 2012. Of 255 snakes that underwent necropsy and histopathologic examination at Zoo Atlanta during the study period, 37 were observed with neoplasia at necropsy. In those 37 snakes, 42 neoplastic lesions of 18 primary cell types were diagnosed. Thirty-five of those neoplasms (83.3%) were malignant, and of those, 19 were of mesenchymal origin, whereas 14 were of epithelial origin. The median annual rate of neoplasia at necropsy was 12.5% (interquartile range = 2.8-19.5%) over the 21-yr study period. The mean estimated age at death for snakes with neoplasia was 13.2 yr (range, 1-24 yr). Investigating the incidence and clinical significance of neoplasia in captive snakes is vital for developing effective preventative and treatment regimes.

  1. UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS: CLASSIFICATION OF ATLANTA 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gleim Dias de; Souza, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz; Cuenca, Ronaldo Máfia; Jerônimo, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros; Souza, Guilherme Medeiros de; Vilela, Vinícius Martins

    2016-01-01

    morfologia pancreática e peripancreática. O entendimento dos diversos subtipos da doença e identificação de suas possíveis complicações requer familiaridade com a terminologia padrão, a qual permite comunicação efetiva entre os diversos membros da equipe multidisciplinar. Demonstrar terminologia e os parâmetros para identificação das diferentes classificações da doença a partir do consenso internacional para as pancreatites agudas (Classificação de Atlanta 2012. Busca e análise de artigos no "Portal de Periódicos da CAPES" com descritores "pancreatite aguda" e "Revisão de Atlanta". : Foram selecionados 23 artigos que continham descrições radiológicas, manejo ou dados estatísticos relacionados à doença. Dados estatísticos adicionais foram obtidos no sistema Datasus e Censo Demográfico 2010. O critério de diagnóstico radiológico adotado foi o do Colégio Americano de Radiologia. A "Classificação da pancreatite aguda - 2012: revisão da classificação de Atlanta e definições por consenso internacional" tenta eliminar a inconsistência e divergências a partir da determinação de uniformidade para os achados radiológicos, em especial à terminologia relacionada às coleções de fluidos. Termos mais abrangentes como "abscesso pancreático" e "flegmão" entraram em desuso e a evolução da coleção de fluidos pode ser descrita como: "coleções peripancreáticas agudas", "coleções necróticas agudas", "pseudocisto" e "necrose pancreática murada ou isolada". A tomografia computadorizada e a ressonância magnética representam as melhores técnicas com cortes sequenciais disponíveis para diagnóstico. A adequação da terminologia é ponto crítico e deve permitir o manejo do paciente por múltiplos profissionais, estratificação de risco e adequação de tratamento.

  2. Intelligent Risk Assessment for Dewatering of Metro-Tunnel Deep Excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Ye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, China has been undergoing a metro railway construction boom in order to alleviate the urban traffic congestion problem resulting from the rapid urbanization and population growth in many metropolises. In the construction of metro systems, deep excavations and continuous dewatering for construction of the metro tunnels and stations remain a challenging and high risk task in densely populated urban areas. Intelligent computational methods and techniques have exhibited the exceptional talent in dealing with the complicated problems inherent in the deep excavation and dewatering practice. In this paper, an intelligent risk assessment system for deep excavation dewatering is developed and has been applied in the project of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 which is the first metro line of the urban rapid rail transit system in Hangzhou, China. The specific characteristics and great challenges in deep excavation dewatering of the metro-tunnel airshaft of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are addressed. A novel design method based on the coupled three-dimensional flow theory for dewatering of the deep excavation is introduced. The modularly designed system for excavation dewatering risk assessment is described, and the field observations in dewatering risk assessment of the airshaft excavation of Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are also presented.

  3. Cost, Power Consumption and Performance Evaluation of Metro Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Andrea; Bonald, Thomas; Cuda, Davide; Indre, Raluca-Maria

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We provide models for evaluating the performance, cost and power consumption of different architectures suitable for a metropolitan area network (MAN). We then apply these models to compare today's SONET/SDH metro rings with different alternatives envisaged for next-generation MAN: an Ethernet-carrier grade ring, an optical hub-based architecture and an optical time-slotted WDM ring. Our results indicate that the optical architectures are likely to decrease power consu...

  4. What would you do? Managing a metro network during mass crowd events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Andy C; Lau, Raymond C M; Ng, Nelson W H; da Silva, Marco Antônio; Baptista, Marcia; Oliveira, Vinícius Floriano; Barbosa, Maria Beatriz; Batistini, Estela; de Toledo Ramos, Nancy

    2010-03-01

    Major public events, such as sporting events, carnivals and festivals, are common occurrences in urban and city environments. They are characterised by the mass movement of people in relatively small areas, far in excess of normal daily activity. This section reviews how different metro systems across the globe respond to such peaks of activity, ensuring that people are moved swiftly, efficiently and safely. To this end, representatives from four major public metro systems (London, Hong Kong, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo) describe how their respective metro systems respond to the capacity demands of a major annual event.

  5. Testing urban design and air quality relationships in the Atlanta region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, L.D.; Bachman, W.; Stone, B. [City Planning Program, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This study presents evidence that households, located in areas of the Atlanta Region with moderately high levels of street connectivity and compactness, drive and pollute less on a daily basis. This analysis employs a rigorous methodology to assess the emissions per household on a per trip basis accounting for cold start cycles, speed, hot stabilized operation, distance, and regional fleet characteristics. Emissions per household are cross-sectionally correlated with the land use patterns at the place of residence. These findings support the argument that a 'nexus' exists between land use policies implemented through local government development regulations and household travel behavior (i.e. mode choice, travel distance, travel time, and vehicle emissions). This research provides an initial and very critical step that is required to lend credibility to the argument that major metropolitan regions should consider alternatives to current land and travel intensive development patterns to meet future air quality objectives. (authors)

  6. Metro U.S.A. Data Sheet: Population Estimates and Selected Demographic Indicators for the Metropolitan Areas of the United States. Special edition of the United States Population Data Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This poster-size data sheet presents population estimates and selected demographic indicators for the nation's 281 metropolitan areas. These areas are divided into 261 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and 20 Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas (CMSAs), reporting units which replace the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs)…

  7. Network centrality of metro systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all" unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node, but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48. Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc. to develop more sustainable cities.

  8. Acute pancreatitis: reflections through the history of the Atlanta Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres López, Ana María

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process with systemic and local repercussions. Most cases are mild with low mortality rate, but 20% of the patients have severe pancreatitis with a mortality rate up to 30%. Through the years the medical community has tried to reach consensus about this disease in order to better understand, classify and treat it. The most important of these has been known as the Atlanta Consensus 1992, in use for many years. However, it has been recently the subject of various proposals for changes and updates, which are discussed in this review article.

  9. Modeling the spatial differentiation in cloud-to-ground lightning: A case study in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikas, Ona

    likely to occur between 15 and 33microg/m 3, but the data has significant flash frequency variability even within these PM10 levels. Immediate proximity to highways proves not to be a significant variable in modeling flash frequency at any resolution. Coal plant proximity has the potential to enhance CG flash frequency, but the inherent variability in frequency precludes a strong p-value compared to randomly generated areas. However, if the data is subset by flashes/day over 500, then the areas close to coal plants have significantly more lightning (p=2.19e-5). Using a subset of the twenty-five highest frequency flash days in three equal area study areas (Haralson and Polk Counties representing rural, Cobb County representing developed and upwind of Atlanta, and Gwinnett County representing downwind and developed) Mann-Whitney tests are completed to determine if NWS severe thunderstorm storms are significantly different in CG flash frequency. In each study area, the NWS severe thunderstorms are not significantly different in flash frequency than non-severe storms. This analysis also suggests spatial tendencies of high frequency storms in each area. This multi-scale analysis also suggests that when examining CG lightning, more than one scale of examination should be used. Some processes of lightning amplification appear to occur at very local scales (500m), whereas others are coarser (up to 8km). There appears to be no goldilocks scale of analysis for CG lightning. However, if only one resolution is to be used, 2km is recommended.

  10. Why, Where, and How to Infuse the Atlanta Sociological Laboratory into the Sociology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Earl, II

    2012-01-01

    The Atlanta Sociological Laboratory is the moniker bestowed on scholars engaged in sociological research at Atlanta University between 1895 and 1924. Under the leadership of W. E. B. Du Bois, 1897-1914, this school made substantive yet marginalized contributions to the discipline. Its accomplishments include, but are not limited to, its…

  11. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.45 Section 81.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  12. Why, Where, and How to Infuse the Atlanta Sociological Laboratory into the Sociology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Earl, II

    2012-01-01

    The Atlanta Sociological Laboratory is the moniker bestowed on scholars engaged in sociological research at Atlanta University between 1895 and 1924. Under the leadership of W. E. B. Du Bois, 1897-1914, this school made substantive yet marginalized contributions to the discipline. Its accomplishments include, but are not limited to, its…

  13. A New Definition in Atlanta: Q&A with Beverly Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Beverly Hall has been superintendent of Atlanta Public Schools since 1999. Before coming to Atlanta, Hall was state district superintendent of Newark Public Schools, deputy chancellor for instruction of New York City Public Schools, superintendent of Community School District 27 in New York City, and a principal in Brooklyn. Hall chairs Harvard…

  14. Quantifying the robustness of metro networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangrong; Derrible, Sybil; Ahmad, Sk Nasir; Kooij, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Metros (heavy rail transit systems) are integral parts of urban transportation systems. Failures in their operations can have serious impacts on urban mobility, and measuring their robustness is therefore critical. Moreover, as physical networks, metros can be viewed as network topological entities, and as such they possess measurable network properties. In this paper, by using network science and graph theoretical concepts, we investigate both theoretical and experimental robustness metrics (i.e., the robustness indicator, the effective graph conductance, and the critical thresholds) and their performance in quantifying the robustness of metro networks under random failures or targeted attacks. We find that the theoretical metrics quantify different aspects of the robustness of metro networks. In particular, the robustness indicator captures the number of alternative paths and the effective graph conductance focuses on the length of each path. Moreover, the high positive correlation between the theoretical m...

  15. Flight delay performance at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Yablonsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this paper is to determine the annual cyclical flight delays at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Then using other data such as annual precipitation, passenger and aircraft traffic volumes and other factors, we attempted to correlate these factors with overall delays. These data could assist airport management in predicting periods of flight delay.Design/methodology/approach: Data were taken and analyzed from the data base “Research and Innovation Technology Administration” (RITA for the years 2005-2011 for Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The data included 2.8 million flights originating and departing from this airport. Data were also gathered from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA showing precipitation. Additional data were gathered from the FAA regarding delay causes, number and types of delays and changes to the infrastructure of ATL airportFindings: There is a repeatable annual pattern of delays at ATL that can be modeled using delay data from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. This pattern appears to be caused primarily by the frequency and amount of precipitation that falls at ATL and by the amount of flights that arrive and depart at ATL.Originality/value: This information could assist airport operations personnel, FAA air traffic controllers and airlines in anticipating and mitigating delays at specific times of the year.

  16. Predictors of emergency department use in children with persistent asthma in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Jeffery M; Grunwell, Jocelyn R; Bruce, Alice C; Smith, Robin C; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2017-08-01

    Racial disparities are evident among children with asthma in the United States, with non-Hispanic black children at particularly high risk for poor asthma outcomes, including frequent emergency department (ED) use for asthma exacerbations. To compare asthma features in non-Hispanic black vs white children in Atlanta, Georgia, and determine what clinical features predict future ED use for asthma. Self-reported black and white children 6 to 17 years of age with persistent asthma treated with controller medications completed medical history questionnaires, lung function testing, aeroallergen sensitization testing, and venipuncture. Medical records were reviewed for asthma-related ED visits for 12 months after the initial study visit. A total of 276 children were enrolled. Black children, compared with white children, resided in more disadvantaged zip code areas and were more likely to have public insurance. Black children also had more features of asthma severity and more ED visits during the study period. Predictors of ED use, aside from a previous ED visit, differed by race. After adjustment for socioeconomic status, predictors of ED use in white children included an ED visit in the previous year and sensitization to pets and dust; in black children, predictors included ED use in the previous year, the number of asthma controller medications, forced expiratory volume in 1 second less than 80% predicted, blood eosinophil count greater than 4%, and mold sensitization. Asthma features and ED use differ between black and white children in metropolitan Atlanta. Strategies to eliminate allergen exposure in the home and improve asthma control in these children may require tailoring for different racial groups. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots.

  18. Using a Metro Map Metaphor for organizing Web-based learning resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Bang, Tove; Hansen, Per Steen

    2002-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the WebNize system and how it applies a Metro Map metaphor for organizing guided tours in Web based resources. Then, experiences in using the Metro Map based tours in a Knowledge Sharing project at the library at Aarhus School of Business (ASB) in Denmark, are discussed....... The Library has been involved in establishing a Learning Resource Center (LRC). The LRC serves as an exploratorium for the development and the testing of new forms of communication and learning, at the same time as it integrates the information resources of the electronic research library. The objective...... is to create models for Intelligent Knowledge Solutions that can contribute to form the learning environments of the School in the 21st century. The WebNize system is used for sharing of knowledge through metro maps for specific subject areas made available in the Learning Resource Centre at ASB. The metro...

  19. Books and Game-Review: Metro 2033 und Metro 2034 - von Dmitry Glukhovsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl H. Stingeder rezensiert die beiden postapokalyptischen Romane Metro 2033 und Metro 2034 von Dmitry Glukhovsky, die auch in einer Spielversion auf den Markt gebracht wurden. Ein typischer Fall für unseren stellaren Spielexperten, der uns in die multimediale Welt der Science Fiction entführt.

  20. Books and Game-Review: Metro 2033 und Metro 2034 - von Dmitry Glukhovsky

    OpenAIRE

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2013-01-01

    Karl H. Stingeder rezensiert die beiden postapokalyptischen Romane Metro 2033 und Metro 2034 von Dmitry Glukhovsky, die auch in einer Spielversion auf den Markt gebracht wurden. Ein typischer Fall für unseren stellaren Spielexperten, der uns in die multimediale Welt der Science Fiction entführt.

  1. METRO Line to Growth- An Interview with Jean-Luc Tuzes, President of Metro China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Metro is the world No. 1 Cash & Carry system business giant, came to China in 1995 and opened its first store in Shanghai one year after, brought a new business concept to China circulation. At present Metro operates 17 stores across the country and will employ around 6,000 people over the country by the end of this year.

  2. Flebotomíneos coletados em matas remanescentes e abrigos de animais silvestres de zoológico no perímetro urbano de Maringá, sul do Brasil. Estudo preliminar Phlebotomines collected in remaining florests and wild animal shelters in zoological garden in the urban area of Maringá, Paraná State, shoutern Brazil. Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Um caso de leishmaniose tegumentar com provável infecção em uma das áreas de matas remanescentes no perímetro urbano de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, o desconhecimento da fauna e do comportamento de flebotomíneos nestas matas despertaram o interesse desta investigação. Os flebotomíneos foram coletados com armadilhas de Falcão instaladas em matas remanescentes do Parque do Ingá, Bosque Dois e Horto Florestal, de junho a setembro de 1995, no período noturno. Nestas áreas coletaram-se 3.532 flebotomíneos, prevalecendo Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 com 3.395 (96,1% exemplares. No Parque do Ingá, onde as coletas também foram feitas em abrigos de animais silvestres, mantidos em zoológico, foram coletados 2.907 flebotomíneos, dos quais 1.723 nestes abrigos. Os resultados mostram melhor adaptação de Lutzomyia whitmani nas matas remanescentes no perímetro urbano de Maringá e sua freqüência nos abrigos dos animais silvestres mantidos em cativeiro.The present study was undertaken after the detection of one case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with presumed infection in one of the three remaining wooded areas in the urban area of the city of Maringá, Southern Brazil; also in view of the lack of knowledge about sand flies and their behavior. From June to September, 1995, sand flies were caught with Falcão traps during the night in the remaining wooded areas (Parque do Ingá, Bosque Dois and Horto Florestal. A total of 2,907 sand flies were caugth in Parque do Ingá; 1,723 of them were aught in forest traps and 1,184 in wild animal shelter traps at the zoo. The results show that Lutzomyia whitmani is better adapted to the three areas under study and that it frequently occurs in wild animal shelters within the urban perimeter of Maringá.

  3. Construindo um Densímetro

    OpenAIRE

    Ricetti Rodrigo

    2002-01-01

    Para fins didáticos, é apresentada uma maneira de construir um densímetro, aparelho utilizadopara medir a densidade de fluidos. um aparato fácil de ser construído e muito simples de serutilizado. Sua principal vantagem sobre os densímetros que comercialmente encontramos, é a suacapacidade de medir a densidade de quaisquer líquidos, operando em qualquer faixa de densidade. Outra vantagem que apresenta, é a possibilidade de fazer uma medição relativa entre quaisquerlíquidos, não fazendo apenas ...

  4. Wage Premiums for On-the-Job Computer Use: A Metro and Nonmetro Analysis. Rural Development Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmin, Lorin D.

    By 1997, almost half of all U.S. workers used computers on the job, and such workers generally received higher wages than non-users. However, on-the-job use was less common in nonmetro areas than in metro areas, and wages for nonmetro workers were generally lower. But is computer use instrumental in explaining the metro-nonmetro wage gap? A survey…

  5. Flexible Twin Open Ring Metro WDM Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susumu Kinoshita; Cechan Tian; Satoru Ohdate; Koji Takeguchi; Yasuhiko Aoki

    2003-01-01

    We have demonstrated a flexible twin open ring WDM network for metro applications. A pair of optical switches in the network keeps the fiber rings open to prevent signal circulation. Traffics are broadcast to every node and selected at the receiving side. Superior transmission and protection switching are proved.

  6. Battelle Education: Metro Institute of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This new district partnership school, slated to open in fall 2015, will serve Columbus, OH students in grades 6-13 in a competency-based, blended learning early college high school model that is focused on both college and career success. The Metro Institute of Technology is designed to solve two problems: (1) capable students may struggle in…

  7. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Alicia S.T. Robbins

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities.Objectives: We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes,...

  8. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  9. Producers characterization and dairy production systems in the irrigated area in Petrolina/PE Caracterização dos produtores e dos sistemas de produção de leite no perímetro irrigado de Petrolina/PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maria Oliveira Spaniol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate social, technological levels, and economic results of dairy cattle producers on properties located in the Senator Nilo Coelho Irrigation District, located in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco State. Twenty-eight producers were interviewed in the period from April to September of 2007. The families of the milk producers the Senator Nilo Coelho Irrigation District living in rural and urban areas amounted to 53,6 e 46,4% respectively. Rural properties were mostly classified as intensive systems (57,1% with an average production of 9,3 L/lactating cow/day. Gross income from milk was R$ 2.477,47. The ratio between lactating cows and the total number of cows and calving interval were respectively 52.1% and 19,1 months. It was observed that most properties worked with natural mating (96,4% and manual milking (96,4%. In general vaccination is deficient, however 96,4% of farms vaccinated against Food and Month Disease. Information main source from these producers is television. Regarding the feeding management, it was observed a high dependence on external inputs and the average land productivity and the number of milking cows per area were 3722,0L/ha/year and 1,1 cows/ha, respectively. Dairy cattle have a potential to supplement the producers income, but investments are needed to intensify the use of forage resources, to improve milk quality, reproductive management, nutrition and health herd and technical assistance to producers.Objetivou-se conhecer alguns aspectos sociais, níveis tecnológicos e resultados econômicos de produtores de leite de vaca em propriedades situadas no Perímetro Irrigado Senador Nilo Coelho, localizado no município de Petrolina, estado de Pernambuco. Foram entrevistados 28 produtores no perímetro, no período de abril a setembro do ano de 2007. As famílias dos produtores que residem nos estabelecimentos rurais e na zona urbana somaram 53,6 e 46,4%, respectivamente. As propriedades estudadas

  10. Sense of place among Atlanta public housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Griff; Ruel, Erin; Anderson, Angela; Reitzes, Donald C; Oakley, Deirdre

    2011-06-01

    For almost two decades now, cities around the country have been demolishing traditional public housing and relocating residents to subsidized private market rental housing. In this paper, we examine sense of place, consisting of both community and place attachment, among a sample of Atlanta public housing residents prior to relocation (N = 290). We find that 41% of the residents express place attachment, and a large percentage express some level of community attachment, though residents of senior public housing are far more attached than residents of family public housing. Positive neighborhood characteristics, such as collective efficacy and social support, are associated with community attachment, and social support is also associated with place attachment. Negative neighborhood characteristics, such as social disorder and fear of crime, are not consistently associated with sense of place. We argue that embodied in current public housing relocation initiatives is a real sense of loss among the residents. Policy makers may also want to consider the possibilities of drawing upon residents' sense of place as a resource for renovating and revitalizing public housing communities rather than continuing to demolish them and relocating residents to other neighborhoods.

  11. The Winter Olympics in Lillehammer: the last dress rehearsal for Atlanta '96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, J D

    1994-06-01

    Buoyed by the Norwegian spirit and example, our Atlanta Olympic medical team returned with a sense of admiration and also with the self-confidence that we can provide the same quality of medical care in 1996. It won't be an easy task, though, as the summer games are at least eight times the size of the winter games. It will take great cooperation and self-sacrifice from area physicians and hospitals that are now seemingly enmeshed in vigorous competition for the health care dollar. Perhaps, like Bjornson, I am also an idealist. But I truly feel that we can rise to the occasion and cooperate fully in unselfish ways to accomplish what needs to be done. We will then be able to look back upon the experience with a great sense of self-satisfaction, not for personal accolades, but for a job well done. In 1996, we can show the world the remarkable and too often maligned American health care system and, in so doing, make friends with people from all over the globe. "Let our deeds speak for themselves," implored Bjornson. I toasted that thought with a second glass of Chateau Batailley, then took a long nap and dreamed that I had slapped the hockey puck past the Russian goalie in double overtime to bring a gold medal back to the good old U.S. of A.

  12. Construindo um Densímetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricetti Rodrigo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para fins didáticos, é apresentada uma maneira de construir um densímetro, aparelho utilizadopara medir a densidade de fluidos. um aparato fácil de ser construído e muito simples de serutilizado. Sua principal vantagem sobre os densímetros que comercialmente encontramos, é a suacapacidade de medir a densidade de quaisquer líquidos, operando em qualquer faixa de densidade. Outra vantagem que apresenta, é a possibilidade de fazer uma medição relativa entre quaisquerlíquidos, não fazendo apenas a medição relativa à densidade da água. Desta maneira, pode-semedir, por exemplo, a densidade do mercúrio em relação ao éter, com este instrumento. Nota-seque, desta maneira, com apenas um instrumento determina-se a densidade de qualquer líquido, nãosendo necessário dispor-se de densímetros que operem em diversas faixas de densidade, como é ocaso dos instrumentos encontrados comercialmente.

  13. A comparison of traditional food and health strategies among Taiwanese and Chinese immigrants in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies on the use of plants amongst migrant populations are of great relevance to public health. Traditional health strategies, which incorporate plants as medicines, foods, or both – can play an important role in individual well-being. However, at the same time, migrant populations’ traditional knowledge of such practices may be under a state of greater threat of decline due to factors such as limited access to the plant materials and physical isolation from the homeland, which serves as the primary living reservoir for this knowledge. Methods In this study, we conducted a medical ethnobotanical survey focusing on a comparison of local medicinal food and health strategies with members of two Asian immigrant populations in metro-Atlanta: Chinese and Taiwanese. Snowball sampling techniques were employed to recruit 83 study participants, 57 of which were included in the final analysis. Semi-structured interview techniques were used to question participants about their beliefs and usage of the yin yang system, usage of Chinese herbs and medicinal foods, preference and usage of Eastern and Western medicines, and gardening for medicinal foods. Results and conclusion Comparison of the two groups demonstrated a remarkable difference in health strategies concerning medicinal plant use, including statistically significant differences in beliefs concerning yin and yang, uses of Eastern versus Western medicine, and gardening for medicinal foods. Domestic health strategies in the form of medicinal foods play an important role in local health practices, especially among the Taiwanese participants. The collective desire for the use of both Eastern and Western medicine by both groups highlights the important role that cultural competency training will play in preparing allopathic health practitioners to serve increasingly diverse patient populations in the US. PMID:23981857

  14. Evaluation of stream water quality in Atlanta, Georgia, and the surrounding region (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Kandell, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    A water-quality index (WQI) was developed from historical data (1986-1995) for streams in the Atlanta Region and augmented with 'new' and generally more comprehensive biweekly data on four small urban streams, representing an industrial area, a developed medium-density residential area and developing and developed low-density residential areas. Parameter WQIs were derived from percentile ranks of individual water-quality parameter values for each site by normalizing the constituent ranks for values from all sites in the area for a base period, i.e. 1990-1995. WQIs were developed primarily for nutrient-related parameters due to data availability. Site WQIs, which were computed by averaging the parameter WQIs, range from 0.2 (good quality) to 0.8 (poor quality), and increased downstream of known nutrient sources. Also, annual site WQI decreases from 1986 to 1995 at most long-term monitoring sites. Annual site WQI for individual parameters correlated with annual hydrological characteristics, particularly runoff, precipitation quantity, and water yield, reflecting the effect of dilution on parameter values. The WQIs of the four small urban streams were evaluated for the core-nutrient-related parameters, parameters for specific dissolved trace metal concentrations and sediment characteristics, and a species diversity index for the macro-invertebrate taxa. The site WQI for the core-nutrient-related parameters used in the retrospective analysis was, as expected, the worst for the industrial area and the best for the low-density residential areas. However, macro-invertebrate data indicate that although the species at the medium-density residential site were diverse, the taxa at the site were for species tolerant of degraded water quality. Furthermore, although a species-diversity index indicates no substantial difference between the two low-density residential areas, the number for macro-invertebrates for the developing area was much less than that for the developed area

  15. High Resolution Orthoimagery = Orthorectified Metro Areas: 2000 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — High resolution orthorectified images combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An orthoimage is a...

  16. Air quality inside subway metro indoor environment worldwide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Hao, Jinliang

    2017-10-01

    The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure. Commuters' exposure to various air pollutants in metro carriages may cause perceivable health risk as reported by many environmental health studies. This review summarizes significant findings in the literature on air quality inside metro indoor environment, including pollutant concentration levels, chemical species, related sources and health risk assessment. More than 160 relevant studies performed across over 20 countries were carefully reviewed. These comprised more than 2000 individual measurement trips. Particulate matters, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls and airborne bacteria have been identified as the primary air pollutants inside metro system. On this basis, future work could focus on investigating the chronic health risks of exposure to various air pollutants other than PM, and/or further developing advanced air purification unit to improve metro in-station air quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  18. Responses of urban heat island in Atlanta to different land-use scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peng; Weng, Qihao

    2017-06-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect changes heat and water cycles in urban areas, and has been accused of elevating energy consumption, deteriorating living environment, and increasing mortality rates. Understanding various UHI effects necessitates a systematic modeling approach. A major problem in UHI simulations is that urban areas were either considered to have only one category of land use/cover or outdated in land use/cover patterns due to the lack of high resolution data. Therefore, this study aims at integrating up-to-date remotely sensed land use/cover data with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF/UCM)/Urban Canopy Model modeling systems to simulate surface temperature patterns in Atlanta, Georgia. In addition, three land-use scenarios, i.e., spontaneous scenario (SS), concentrated scenario (CS), and local policy scenario (LPS), were designed and incorporated into the modeling. Five numerical experiments were conducted by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the impact of urbanization-induced land-cover changes on temperature patterns. Land use and land-cover patterns under all three scenarios suggested that urban growth would continue through in-filling development and outward expansion. Compared to temperature simulations in 2011, temperature maps corresponding to the three urban growth scenarios showed warmer and cooler temperature patterns outside and inside the urban core, respectively. Analysis of the mean diurnal temperature cycle suggested that the highest temperature difference of 3.9 K was observed between 2011 and the LPS, and occurred around 22:00 local time. Overall, the simulations showed different UHI effects respond to the land-use scenarios in the summer. It is recommended for urban managers and policy makers to reflect on the potential impacts of alternative urban growth policies on thermal environment.

  19. An urban metabolism and ecological footprint assessment of Metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennie; Kissinger, Meidad; Rees, William E

    2013-07-30

    As the world urbanizes, the role of cities in determining sustainability outcomes grows in importance. Cities are the dominant form of human habitat, and most of the world's resources are either directly or indirectly consumed in cities. Sustainable city analysis and management requires understanding the demands a city places on a wider geographical area and its ecological resource base. We present a detailed, integrated urban metabolism of residential consumption and ecological footprint analysis of the Vancouver metropolitan region for the year 2006. Our overall goal is to demonstrate the application of a bottom-up ecological footprint analysis using an urban metabolism framework at a metropolitan, regional scale. Our specific objectives are: a) to quantify energy and material consumption using locally generated data and b) to relate these data to global ecological carrying capacity. Although water is the largest material flow through Metro Vancouver (424,860,000 m(3)), it has the smallest ecological footprint (23,100 gha). Food (2,636,850 tonnes) contributes the largest component to the ecological footprint (4,514,400 gha) which includes crop and grazing land as well as carbon sinks required to sequester emissions from food production and distribution. Transportation fuels (3,339,000 m(3)) associated with motor vehicle operation and passenger air travel comprises the second largest material flow through the region and the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions (7,577,000 tonnes). Transportation also accounts for the second largest component of the EF (2,323,200 gha). Buildings account for the largest electricity flow (17,515,150 MWh) and constitute the third largest component of the EF (1,779,240 gha). Consumables (2,400,000 tonnes) comprise the fourth largest component of the EF (1,414,440 gha). Metro Vancouver's total Ecological Footprint in 2006 was 10,071,670 gha, an area approximately 36 times larger than the region itself. The EFA reveals that

  20. Structural Monitoring of Metro Infrastructure during Shield Tunneling Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shield tunneling construction of metro infrastructure will continuously disturb the soils. The ground surface will be subjected to uplift or subsidence due to the deep excavation and the extrusion and consolidation of the soils. Implementation of the simultaneous monitoring with the shield tunnel construction will provide an effective reference in controlling the shield driving, while how to design and implement a safe, economic, and effective structural monitoring system for metro infrastructure is of great importance and necessity. This paper presents the general architecture of the shield construction of metro tunnels as well as the procedure of the artificial ground freezing construction of the metro-tunnel cross-passages. The design principles for metro infrastructure monitoring of the shield tunnel intervals in the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are introduced. The detailed monitoring items and the specified alarming indices for construction monitoring of the shield tunneling are addressed, and the measured settlement variations at different monitoring locations are also presented.

  1. Structural monitoring of metro infrastructure during shield tunneling construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, L; Ye, X W; Ming, G; Dong, X B

    2014-01-01

    Shield tunneling construction of metro infrastructure will continuously disturb the soils. The ground surface will be subjected to uplift or subsidence due to the deep excavation and the extrusion and consolidation of the soils. Implementation of the simultaneous monitoring with the shield tunnel construction will provide an effective reference in controlling the shield driving, while how to design and implement a safe, economic, and effective structural monitoring system for metro infrastructure is of great importance and necessity. This paper presents the general architecture of the shield construction of metro tunnels as well as the procedure of the artificial ground freezing construction of the metro-tunnel cross-passages. The design principles for metro infrastructure monitoring of the shield tunnel intervals in the Hangzhou Metro Line 1 are introduced. The detailed monitoring items and the specified alarming indices for construction monitoring of the shield tunneling are addressed, and the measured settlement variations at different monitoring locations are also presented.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrate Loads Using SWAT in an Urban Watershed of Metropolitan Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoghooghi, Nahal; Radcliffe, David E; Habteselassie, Mussie Y; Jeong, Jaehak

    2017-05-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) can be a source of nitrogen (N) pollution in both surface and ground waters. In metropolitan Atlanta, GA, >26% of homes are on OWTSs. In a previous article, we used the Soil Water Assessment Tool to model the effect of OWTSs on stream flow in the Big Haynes Creek Watershed in metropolitan Atlanta. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of OWTSs, including failing systems, on nitrate as N (NO-N) load in the same watershed. Big Haynes Creek has a drainage area of 44 km with mainly urban land use (67%), and most of the homes use OWTSs. A USGS gauge station where stream flow was measured daily and NO-N concentrations were measured monthly was used as the outlet. The model was simulated for 12 yr. Overall, the model showed satisfactory daily stream flow and NO-N loads with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of 0.62 and 0.58 for the calibration period and 0.67 and 0.33 for the validation period at the outlet of the Big Haynes Watershed. Onsite wastewater treatment systems caused an average increase in NO-N load of 23% at the watershed scale and 29% at the outlet of a subbasin with the highest density of OWTSs. Failing OWTSs were estimated to be 1% of the total systems and did not have a large impact on stream flow or NO-N load. The NO-N load was 74% of the total N load in the watershed, indicating the important effect of OWTSs on stream loads in this urban watershed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Barómetro industrial LEON 50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Álvarez Martínez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El Barómetro indusrial LEON 50 es un trabajo de investigación que tiene como objetivo esencial identificar características patrimoniales, financieras y económicas de una muestra de empresas que actúan dentro de la industria leonesa. El soporte de este estudio empírico es la información contable anual auditada que depositan en el Registro Mercantil las empresas integrantes de la muestra, recogida básicamente en el balance de situación, la cuenta de pérdidas y ganacias y el cuadro de finaciación referidos al bienio 2001-02. En esencia, el Barómetro Industrial LEON 50 pretende ser un avance en el análisis, diagnóstico y mejor conocimiento de la industria regional, aportando una visión actualizada sobre estrategias y pautas de actuación empresarial que serán objeto de observación en períodos

  4. Comparison of research productivity between metro and non-metro cities in a biomedical journal from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kvs Hari; Aravinda, K

    2013-04-01

    The research productivity of a place depends on doctors, patients and available infrastructure to carry research activities. We aimed to study the publishing trends and research productivity of metro and non-metro cities in the Journal of the Association of Physi cians of India (JAPI). Bibliometric analysis of research articles published in JAPI between 2000 and 2011was undertaken. The four types of articles (original articles including brief reports, case reports, correspondence and pictorial image) were studied for research productivity. They were analyzed according to subspecialty, publication times and type of research work from both places. Comparison between groups was done using Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney U test. Descriptive statistics were used and a P < 0.05 was considered significant. Of a total of 2977 articles, 1798 were available for analysis. Metros published 46% (825/1798) and non-metros 54% (973/1798). Original articles and case reports constituted 3/4(th) of the published literature from both places. Pictorial images were seen more from non-metro cities (P = 0.03). Mumbai and Delhi were leading from the metros, whereas Varanasi and Chandigarh were leading from the non-metro places. Endocrinology, Neurology, Cardiology and Infectious Diseases constituted the top four subspecialties from both places. Neurology articles were published more from non-metros (P = 0.03). The timelines from submission to publication varied between 12 and 15 months, and were lesser for articles from the metros (P = 0.01). Metros and non-metro cities are comparable in publishing trends and research productivity. Places with post-graduate institutes contribute majority of the research articles. Faster publication timelines from metros indicate better manuscript content and preparation.

  5. Social Support and Social Network Ties among the Homeless in a Downtown Atlanta Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzes, Donald C.; Crimmins, Timothy J.; Yarbrough, Johanna; Parker, Josie

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a typology of social support with 3 categories of social networks to investigate social ties and their benefits for homeless people. Data were derived from a 2-year long series of participant observations of homeless or precariously housed people who came regularly to a downtown Atlanta public park. The findings are as follows:…

  6. Describing computed tomography findings in acute necrotizing pancreatitis with the Atlanta classification - an interobserver agreement study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Marc G. H.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Bollen, Thomas L.; van Leeuwen, Maarten S.; Lameris, Johan S.; van der Jagt, Eric J.; Strijk, Simon P.; Buskens, Erik; Freeny, Patrick C.; Gooszen, Hein G.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The 1992 Atlanta classification is a clinically based classification system that defines the severity and complications of acute pancreatitis. A study was under taken to assess the interobserver agreement of categorizing peripancreatic collections on computed tomography (CT) using the At

  7. Evaluation of an Intervention to Reduce Playground Hazards in Atlanta Child-Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Jeffrey J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Revisits 58 child care centers in Atlanta (Georgia) that had received interventions alerting directors to playground safety hazards. Comparison with 71 control centers randomly selected found averages of 9.4 hazards at intervention center playgrounds and 8.0 hazards at control centers. These results indicate the ineffectiveness of the…

  8. Underlying Factors Related to the Atlanta Cheating Scandal: An Autoethnographic Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Emma Mumphery

    2012-01-01

    In this study I used autoethnography to analyze fifty years of African-American educational history in Georgia. The impetus for the study was the Atlanta cheating scandal, widely interpreted as a character problem for individual teachers and administrators. As a lifelong resident of Georgia, a student, a public school teacher, and a parent, it…

  9. PREFACE TO SPECIAL SECTION: SOUTHERN OXIDANTS STUDY 1999 ATLANTA SUPERSITE PROJECT (SOS3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atlanta Supersites Project consisted of a one-month intensive field program to compare advanced methods for measurement of PM2.5 mass, chemical composition, including single particle composition in real-time, and aerosol precursor species. The project was the first of EPA's ...

  10. Newcastle disease B1 vaccine strain in wild rock pigeons in Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    From June to October of 2012, samples were collected from wild Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) in urban neighborhoods of Atlanta, Georgia to ascertain the prevalence of pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 (PPMV-1). PPMV-1 strains are a subset of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) commonly isolated fro...

  11. Counseling Psychology from Greyston to Atlanta: On the Road to Armageddon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinthall, Norman A.

    1990-01-01

    Briefly describes the model for counseling psychology developed during the Greyston Conference of 1964 and compares it with the current view from the Atlanta Conference. Suggests that the shift of counseling psychology from schools, colleges, and career development toward a medical model of clinical treatment may eliminate an independent…

  12. Continuous wet denuder measurements of atmospheric nitric and nitrous acids during the 1999 Atlanta Supersite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genfa, Z.; Slanina, J.; Boring, C.B.; Jongejan, A.C.; Purnendu, K.D.

    2003-01-01

    Two different measurement methods for atmospheric nitric and nitrous acid during the Atlanta Supersite study are described and compared. Both approaches combined wet denuder collection coupled to ion chromatographic analysis. One of these utilized a rotating wet annular denuder maintained indoor wit

  13. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Constitution Road Drum Superfund...

  14. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Constitution Road...

  15. Enhanced metro MSTP and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangcheng; Qiao, Yang

    2005-02-01

    With the large-scale application of metro MSTP in recent two years, a lot of problems have emerged inevitably. Some more advanced technologies or mechanisms are needed to deal with the application problems of current version MSTP. RPR and MPLS become new focus of enhanced MSTP"s features and the combination of them will boost maturity and further development of enhanced metro MSTP. The MSTP embedded with RPR and MPLS not only find a solution for perfect transport of TDM service, but also improve the support ability for data traffic and bandwidth utilization. With the help of enhanced MSTP, it"s easy for network carriers to provide a reliable, cost-effective, flexible and competitive transport infrastructure delivering various advanced services. RPR firstly solves the conflict between the transport efficiency and QoS of packet service via some mechanisms such as dual counter-rotating ringlet, statistical multiplexing, bandwidth sharing, topology discovery, fairness control etc. Secondly, RPR guarantees the QoS of subscriber by strict service classification and priority. Thirdly, RPR can provide the carrier-class protection within 50ms. On the other hand, MPLS can solve the lack of VLAN ID by LSP labeling and in addition it offers VPN service for different customers then enhances the SLA. Most of all, MPLS provide cross-networking ability, end-to-end service configuration and QoS guarantee, traffic engineering and network optimization. Enhanced MSTP will be applied in convergence or access layer of metro network first. It could have the function of RPR and MPLS at the same time, the reconciliation sub-layer should adopts GFP or LAPS encapsulation, the mapping granularity can be based on VC-12/VC3/VC4-Xc/v and the LCAS should be supported when the transmission channels are configured by virtual concatenation. Enhanced MSTP can be used to build either a single ring network or multi-ring network for improving the ability and quality of Ethernet transportation and

  16. Metro de Washington EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weese, Harry

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the works involved in the first stage of the Washington Underground (Subway system which was begun in 1969 and scheduled for completion in 1983 and is the most modern metropolitan railway in North America. Lines have double track and will carry three million passengers daily. Different construction methods have been used throughout: tunnel formed try digging a trench then roofed and covered, excavated tunnel and elevated structures. Stations features answer to the strictest demands, provided with closed circuit television, air conditioning, noise dampening Systems, special access ways, fire protection Systems and automatic traffic control. Special attention is given to the two bridges over the Pentagon and over the Anacostia, pointing out their differences and the elevated structure at the National Airport.

    Se describen en este articulo los trabajos de la primera fase del Metro de Washington que, iniciado en el año 1969 será, a su terminación en el año 1983, el más moderno sistema de ferrocarril metropolitano de Norte América. Es de doble carril y servirá para tres millones de usuarios. Se han empleado distintos sistemas de obra en su realización: túnel artificial realizado mediante una zanja que después se cubre; túnel perforado, y estructuras aéreas. Las características de las estaciones responden a las mayores exigencias, pues tienen circuito cerrado de televisión, aire acondicionado, sistemas para atenuar el ruido, accesos especiales, sistema de protección contra el fuego y control automático del Metro. Se estudian de un modo particular: los dos puentes sobre el Pentágono y el Anacostia, señalando sus diferencias y la estructura aérea del Aeropuerto Nacional.

  17. Latinobarómetro 1997: Principales resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael CRESPO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El latinobarómetro es quizá la encuesta de opinión pública más importante que, cada año, analiza conjuntamente la realidad latinoamericana y española y que, además, permite la comparación de indicadores entre 18 países. Lo que se nos presenta a continuación son comentarios a los principales resultados extraídos en 1997, comparados con los obtenidos el año anterior, sobre aspectos como el desarrollo político e institucional y el estado de la democracia, junto a otras valoraciones de la realidad económica; ofreciéndonos, con ello, una clara descripción de la evolución de la opinión pública en estos países. Palabras clave: Latinobarómetro, opinión pública.ABSTRACT: The "latin-barometer" is perhaps the most important public opinion survey which analysies the latinamerican and the spanish situation together each year. Moreover it allows the comparition of indicators between eighteen countries. This paper shows the main results obtained during 1997. These results are compared with wihic were obtained on 1996. It comparies issues such as the instituctional and political development and the conditios of democracy; it linked to other valuations of the economic situation. These data offer us a clear description about the evoluction of public opinion in these countries.

  18. Latinobarómetro 1997: Principales resultados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael CRESPO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El latinobarómetro es quizá la encuesta de opinión pública más importante que, cada año, analiza conjuntamente la realidad latinoamericana y española y que, además, permite la comparación de indicadores entre 18 países. Lo que se nos presenta a continuación son comentarios a los principales resultados extraídos en 1997, comparados con los obtenidos el año anterior, sobre aspectos como el desarrollo político e institucional y el estado de la democracia, junto a otras valoraciones de la realidad económica; ofreciéndonos, con ello, una clara descripción de la evolución de la opinión pública en estos países. Palabras clave: Latinobarómetro, opinión pública.ABSTRACT: The "latin-barometer" is perhaps the most important public opinion survey which analysies the latinamerican and the spanish situation together each year. Moreover it allows the comparition of indicators between eighteen countries. This paper shows the main results obtained during 1997. These results are compared with wihic were obtained on 1996. It comparies issues such as the instituctional and political development and the conditios of democracy; it linked to other valuations of the economic situation. These data offer us a clear description about the evoluction of public opinion in these countries.

  19. Projecting Future Urbanization with Prescott College's Spatial Growth Model to Promote Environmental Sustainability and Smart Growth, A Case Study in Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Limaye, Ashutosh; Johnson, Hoyt; Quattrochi, Dale; Lapenta, William; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    Planning is an integral element of good management and necessary to anticipate events not merely respond to them. Projecting the quantity and spatial distribution of urban growth is essential to effectively plan for the delivery of city services and to evaluate potential environmental impacts. The major drivers of growth in large urban areas are increasing population, employment opportunities, and quality of life attractors such as a favorable climate and recreation opportunities. The spatial distribution of urban growth is dictated by the amount and location of developable land, topography, energy and water resources, transportation network, climate change, and the existing land use configuration. The Atlanta region is growing very rapidly both in population and the consumption of forestland or low-density residential development. Air pollution and water availability are significant ongoing environmental issues. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model (SGM) was used to make growth projections for the metropolitan Atlanta region to 2010,2020 and 2030 and results used for environmental assessment in both business as usual and smart growth scenarios. The Prescott SGM is a tool that uses an ESRI ArcView extension and can be applied at the parcel level or more coarse spatial scales and can accommodate a wide range of user inputs to develop any number of growth rules each of which can be weighted depending on growth assumptions. These projections were used in conjunction with meteorological and air quality models to evaluate future environmental impacts. This presentation will focus on the application of the SGM to the 13-County Atlanta Regional Commission planning jurisdiction as a case study. The SGM will be described, including how rule sets are developed and the decision process for allocation of future development to available land use categories. Data inputs required to effectively run the model will be discussed. Spatial growth projections for ten, twenty, and thirty

  20. Projecting Future Urbanization with Prescott College's Spatial Growth Model to Promote Environmental Sustainability and Smart Growth, A Case Study in Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Limaye, Ashutosh; Johnson, Hoyt; Quattrochi, Dale; Lapenta, William; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    Planning is an integral element of good management and necessary to anticipate events not merely respond to them. Projecting the quantity and spatial distribution of urban growth is essential to effectively plan for the delivery of city services and to evaluate potential environmental impacts. The major drivers of growth in large urban areas are increasing population, employment opportunities, and quality of life attractors such as a favorable climate and recreation opportunities. The spatial distribution of urban growth is dictated by the amount and location of developable land, topography, energy and water resources, transportation network, climate change, and the existing land use configuration. The Atlanta region is growing very rapidly both in population and the consumption of forestland or low-density residential development. Air pollution and water availability are significant ongoing environmental issues. The Prescott Spatial Growth Model (SGM) was used to make growth projections for the metropolitan Atlanta region to 2010,2020 and 2030 and results used for environmental assessment in both business as usual and smart growth scenarios. The Prescott SGM is a tool that uses an ESRI ArcView extension and can be applied at the parcel level or more coarse spatial scales and can accommodate a wide range of user inputs to develop any number of growth rules each of which can be weighted depending on growth assumptions. These projections were used in conjunction with meteorological and air quality models to evaluate future environmental impacts. This presentation will focus on the application of the SGM to the 13-County Atlanta Regional Commission planning jurisdiction as a case study. The SGM will be described, including how rule sets are developed and the decision process for allocation of future development to available land use categories. Data inputs required to effectively run the model will be discussed. Spatial growth projections for ten, twenty, and thirty

  1. Los Microacelerómetros en la Actualidad Los Microacelerómetros en la Actualidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Antonio Aguilera Cortés

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el estado del arte de las diversas clases de acelerómetros fabricados en la tecnología MEMS (Sistemas Microelectromecánicos. Ésta tecnología permite la existencia de acelerómetros de menor costo, tamaño pequeño, alta sensibilidad y mínimo consumo de potencia con importantes aplicaciones en la industria automotriz, militar y de consumo. This paper presents the state of the art of the diverse classes of accelerometers fabricated inMEMS technology (Microelectromechanical Systems. This technology allows the existence of accelerometers at smaller cost and size, high sensitivity and minimum power consumption, with important applications in the automotive, military and of consumer sectors.

  2. As Relações entre Área e Perímetro na Geometria Plana: o papel dos observáveis e das regulações na construção da explicação Relations between Area and Perimeter in Plane Geometry: the role of observables and regulations in the construction of explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensino da geometria plana nas séries finais do Ensino Fundamental é, muitas vezes, desprovido de sentido. Os professores optam por práticas pedagógicas que se fundamentam em algoritmos, sem preocuparem-se com os processos de pensamento que estão envolvidos na construção do pensamento geométrico. Essa pesquisa vale-se da Epistemologia Genética para investigar como adolescentes e adultos, que freqüentaram a escola e obtiveram êxito na aprendizagem de geometria, elaboram explicações a propósito de problemas que envolvem o cálculo da área e do perímetro de figuras planas. Os dados indicam que a totalidade dos entrevistados é capaz de realizar o cálculo através do algoritmo, mas muito poucos apresentam explicações elaboradas. Os modelos explicativos são os mais variados e dirigem-se de um pensamento baseado exclusivamente na percepção até a explicação lógico-matemática dos conceitos envolvidos. Palavras-chave: Ensino de Geometria. Modelos Explicativos. Jean Piaget. Epistemologia Genética.The teaching of plane geometry in elementary school is often lacking in meaning. Teachers choose teaching practices based on algorithms, without concern for the thinking processes involved in the construction of geometric thinking. This study is based on Genetic Epistemology to investigate how adolescents and adults who attended school, and were successful in learning geometry, construct explanations about problems involving the calculation of the area and the perimeter of plane figures. The data show that the interviewees are capable of doing the calculation with the algorithm, but very few show elaborated explanations. The explanatory models are the most varied, ranging from thinking based solely on perception to logical-mathematical explanations of the concepts involved. Keywords: Teaching of Geometry. Explanatory Models. Jean Piaget. Genetic Epistemology.

  3. Automatic generalization of metro maps based on dynamic segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A metro map is usually optimized for the readability of connections and transportation networks structure.In order to assure good readability and meet aesthetic considerations,a set of principles for good metro map layout are proposed.According to these principles,a new methodology based on dynamic segmentation is presented to produce the metro maps automatically.Firstly,routes are constructed according to the line attribute similarity and geometry continuity.Then a set of cartographic generalization methods about the shape,angle,length,and topology are presented for these routes.This method is validated by Beijing metro plan map.From the experiment results,it can be concluded that this new method is more effective than the static segmentation method to produce metro maps with better readability for route plans.

  4. Summary of Needs and Opportunities from the 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholders Meeting: Atlanta, Georgia -- March 16-18, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-05-01

    This summary report outlines needs and issues for increasing energy efficiency of new and existing U.S homes, as identified at the U.S Department of Energy Building America program Spring 2011 stakeholder meeting in Atlanta, Georgia.

  5. EPA Provides $2.3 Million to Two Universities in Atlanta to Protect Air Quality in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced $8.5 million in research funding to 12 universities to protect air quality from the current and future challenges associated with the impacts of climate change.

  6. Generating route choice sets with operation information on metro networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the metro system has advanced into an efficient transport system and become the mainstay of urban passenger transport in many mega-cities. Passenger flow is the foundation of making and coordinating operation plans for the metro system, and therefore, a variety of studies were conducted on transit assignment models. Nevertheless route choice sets of passengers also play a paramount role in flow estimation and demand prediction. This paper first discusses the main route constraints of which the train schedule is the most important, that distinguish rail networks from road networks. Then, a two-step approach to generate route choice set in a metro network is proposed. Particularly, the improved approach introduces a route filtering with train operational information based on the conventional method. An initial numerical test shows that the proposed approach gives more reasonable route choice sets for scheduled metro networks, and, consequently, obtains more accurate results from passenger flow assignment. Recommendations for possible opportunities to apply this approach to metro operations are also provided, including its integration into a metro passenger flow assignment and simulation system in practice to help metro authorities provide more precise guidance information for passengers to travel.

  7. Desenvolvimento de um piranômetro fotovoltaico

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, Luiz Abelardo Dantas

    2008-01-01

    Nesse trabalho foi desenvolvido e testado um piranômetro utilizando um sensor óptico à base de silício cristalino, facilmente encontrado no mercado. O sensor foi envolvido por uma estrutura de PVC com a finalidade de minimizar os efeitos térmicos e das intempéries sobre suas medidas de irradiância solar. Um difusor, também à base de PVC, foi incorporado ao piranômetro. O protótipo foi calibrado com um piranômetro comercial Eppley que serviu como padrão. Ambos os instrumentos fo...

  8. Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water

  9. DC switchgear for the Beijing Metro line 15; Gleichstromschaltanlagen fuer die Metro Peking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinge, Ralf [Tianjin BB Electric JV. Ltd. (China); Walter, Mike [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The new DC switchgear of type TracFeed {sup registered} TDx is intended for the use in traction power supply sys-tems of DC 750 V and DC 1500 V rated voltage. It is a continuously further developed version of a switchgear unit that has been successfully used since a number of years and is of compact, air-insulated and type-tested design. After it has been used in various applications in Germany this switchgear unit will for the fi rst time be employed in a large scale in the Beijing Metro line 15 project with 21 substations. (orig.)

  10. UNDERSTANDING THE INTERNATIONAL CONSENSUS FOR ACUTE PANCREATITIS: CLASSIFICATION OF ATLANTA 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    de SOUZA, Gleim Dias; SOUZA, Luciana Rodrigues Queiroz; CUENCA, Ronaldo Máfia; JERÔNIMO, Bárbara Stephane de Medeiros; de SOUZA, Guilherme Medeiros; VILELA, Vinícius Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are widely used due to its image quality and ability to study pancreatic and peripancreatic morphology. The understanding of the various subtypes of the disease and identification of possible complications requires a familiarity with the terminology, which allows effective communication between the different members of the multidisciplinary team. Aim: Demonstrate the terminology and parameters to identify the different classifications and findings of the disease based on the international consensus for acute pancreatitis ( Atlanta Classification 2012). Methods: Search and analysis of articles in the "CAPES Portal de Periódicos with headings "acute pancreatitis" and "Atlanta Review". Results: Were selected 23 articles containing radiological descriptions, management or statistical data related to pathology. Additional statistical data were obtained from Datasus and Population Census 2010. The radiological diagnostic criterion adopted was the Radiology American College system. The "acute pancreatitis - 2012 Rating: Review Atlanta classification and definitions for international consensus" tries to eliminate inconsistency and divergence from the determination of uniformity to the radiological findings, especially the terminology related to fluid collections. More broadly as "pancreatic abscess" and "phlegmon" went into disuse and the evolution of the collection of patient fluids can be described as "acute peripancreatic collections", "acute necrotic collections", "pseudocyst" and "necrosis pancreatic walled or isolated". Conclusion: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance represent the best techniques with sequential images available for diagnosis. Standardization of the terminology is critical and should improve the management of patients with multiple professionals care, risk stratification and adequate treatment. PMID:27759788

  11. The revised Atlanta criteria 2012 altered the classiifcation, severity assessment and management of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Huang; Hong-Ping Qu; Yun-Feng Zheng; Xu-Wei Song; Lei Li; Zhi-Wei Xu; En-Qiang Mao; Er-Zhen Chen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Atlanta criteria for acute pancreatitis (AP) has been revised recently. This study was to evaluate its practical value in classiifcation of AP, the severity assessment and management. METHODS: The clinical features, severity classiifcation, out-come and risk factors for mortality of 3212 AP patients who had been admitted in Ruijin Hospital from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed based on the revised Atlanta criteria (RAC) and the original Atlanta criteria (OAC). RESULTS: Compared to the OAC group, the incidence of se-vere acute pancreatitis (SAP) was decreased by approximately one half (13.9% vs 28.2%) in the RAC group. The RAC present-ed a lower sensitivity but higher speciifcity, and its predictive value for severity and poor outcome was higher than those of the OAC. The proportion of SAP diagnosis and ICU admission in the early phase in the RAC group was signiifcantly lower than that in the OAC group (P CONCLUSIONS: The RAC showed a higher predictive value for severity and poorer outcome than the OAC. However, the RAC resulted in fewer ICU admissions in the early phase due to its lower sensitivity for diagnosis of SAP. Among SAP cases, older age, high CTSI, renal and cardiovascular failure, com-plications of acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis were independent risk factors for mortality.

  12. The revised Atlanta criteria 2012 altered the classiifcation, severity assessment and management of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Huang; Hong-Ping Qu; Yun-Feng Zheng; Xu-Wei Song; Lei Li; Zhi-Wei Xu; En-Qiang Mao; Er-Zhen Chen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Atlanta criteria for acute pancreatitis (AP) has been revised recently. This study was to evaluate its practical value in classiifcation of AP, the severity assessment and management. METHODS: The clinical features, severity classiifcation, out-come and risk factors for mortality of 3212 AP patients who had been admitted in Ruijin Hospital from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed based on the revised Atlanta criteria (RAC) and the original Atlanta criteria (OAC). RESULTS: Compared to the OAC group, the incidence of se-vere acute pancreatitis (SAP) was decreased by approximately one half (13.9% vs 28.2%) in the RAC group. The RAC present-ed a lower sensitivity but higher speciifcity, and its predictive value for severity and poor outcome was higher than those of the OAC. The proportion of SAP diagnosis and ICU admission in the early phase in the RAC group was signiifcantly lower than that in the OAC group (P CONCLUSIONS: The RAC showed a higher predictive value for severity and poorer outcome than the OAC. However, the RAC resulted in fewer ICU admissions in the early phase due to its lower sensitivity for diagnosis of SAP. Among SAP cases, older age, high CTSI, renal and cardiovascular failure, com-plications of acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis were independent risk factors for mortality.

  13. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Water Quality in the City of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N. E.

    2009-05-01

    A long-term stream water-quality monitoring network was established in the City of Atlanta (COA) during 2003 to assess baseline water-quality conditions and the effects of urbanization on stream water quality. Routine hydrologically-based manual stream sampling, including several concurrent manual point and equal width increment sampling, was conducted approximately 12 times per year at 21 stations, with drainage areas ranging from 3.7 to 232 km2. Eleven of the stations are real-time (RT) water-quality stations having continuous measures of stream stage/discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity, and automatic samplers for stormwater collection. Samples were analyzed for field parameters, and a broad suite of water-quality and sediment-related constituents. This paper summarizes an evaluation of field parameters and concentrations of major ions, minor and trace metals, nutrient species (nitrogen and phosphorus), and coliform bacteria among stations and with respect to watershed characteristics and plausible sources from 2003 through September 2007. The concentrations of most constituents in the COA streams are statistically higher than those of two nearby reference streams. Concentrations are statistically different among stations for several constituents, despite high variability both within and among stations. The combination of routine manual sampling, automatic sampling during stormflows, and real-time water-quality monitoring provided sufficient information about the variability of urban stream water quality to develop hypotheses for causes of water-quality differences among COA streams. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations of most individual samples at each station exceeded Georgia's water-quality standard for any water-usage class. High chloride concentrations occur at three stations and are hypothesized to be associated with discharges of chlorinated combined sewer overflows, drainage of swimming pool(s), and

  14. Evaluation of water quality parameters for monitoring natural, urban, and agricultural areas in the Brazilian Cerrado Avaliação de parâmetros de qualidade de água para monitoramento de áreas naturais, urbanas e agrícolas no Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Heloisa de Freitas Muniz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazil's Federal District (FD has seen steep population growth in recent years, and this has increased demand for high-quality water. AIM: The present work aims to evaluate the quality of surface water from two water bodies in the FD at six sampling points, three of which are in the Sobradinho River (the receiving body of a sewage treatment plant effluent and three in the Jardim River (located in an agricultural region. METHODS: Analyses were carried out every thirty days, for twelve months, covering rainy and dry seasons. Parameters were analyzed such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, main ions, total and fecal coliforms (E. coli in water. Ecotoxicological evaluation was also performed, using the micro-crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. RESULTS: Data of physical and chemical determinations showed DO, conductivity, Cl-, NO3-, SO4(2- and Na+ to be important in indicating contamination by urban effluents. On the subject of biological parameters - E. coli and ecotoxicological evaluation - the former was seen to be more effective in the urban area. However, in the countryside, the assay with C. dubia proved to be the most sensitive, although less than ideal, because the organism is very sensitive to low water hardness. CONCLUSIONS: The fecal coliform indicator (E. coli was the most effective one for comparing water quality in the two basins, mainly for the urbanized one, while ecotoxicity assays with C. dubia were harmed by the natural chemical composition of the water.INTRODUÇÃO: O Distrito Federal (DF tem apresentado grande crescimento populacional nos últimos anos, o que vem ocasionando aumento da necessidade por água de qualidade, tanto pelas cidades quanto pela área rural. OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água superficial de dois corpos hídricos no DF em seis pontos de amostragem, três localizados no Ribeirão Sobradinho (corpo receptor de

  15. A Study on the Radio Coverage in Underground Stations of the New Copenhagen Metro System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millan, Maria del Carmen de la O; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mikkelsen, Niels Michael

    2013-01-01

    , and hence radio coverage, was proposed for a distributed antenna system in each of two distinctly different types of underground stations. In this paper, we describe the considerations for the design, and specifically the modelling and analysis of the underground stations by way of a commercial ray......In connection with the extension of the Copenhagen Metro system, architects and wireless operators met early in the design phase to plan the radio coverage inside the public areas of the metro transport system. Based on common best practice, an initial design for the antenna installations......-tracing tool. Radio coverage results are given for different designs, including different number and types of antennas, their configuration and placement, as well as the dependency on frequency and construction materials and presence of trains on the station platforms. In a practical case like this...

  16. Research on construction management innovation system of metro in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yan; Dong Jianjun; Cheng Hu

    2009-01-01

    Construction management innovation system of metro in China is put forward in this paper. Guidelines, objec-tive system, new management ideas and contents of this construction management innovation system are set forth particu-larly. The construction management innovation system of metro can meet needs of building harmouious and economized society and realizing sustainable development in China, it is also an important part of science & technology innovation system.

  17. Can Market Forces Clean The Air In Metro Manila?

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Frances J. Corpuz

    1999-01-01

    Metro Manila, like many cities in Southeast Asia, is badly affected by poor air quality. Legislation has failed to combat the problem due to inadequate regulatory enforcement and industry's cavalier attitude towards pollution. However a recent economic study has found that a solution to this crisis could be provided by taxation and other similar economic instruments. The study drew on a wide range of research and information to get an overview of the air pollution situation in Metro Manila. T...

  18. Spatial and temporal variability in nutrient concentrations in surface waters of the Chattahoochee River basin near Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Buell, G.R.; Frick, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Nutrient concentrations from the early 1970s through 1995 were evaluated at several sites along the Chattahoochee River and its tributaries near Atlanta, to determine general patterns and processes controlling nutrient concentrations in the river. A spatial analysis was conducted on data collected in 1994 and 1995 from an intensive nutrient study of the Chattahoochee River and its tributaries by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division. The 1994-1995 data show step increases in ammonium (NH4-N), nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3-N), and total-phosphorus (Tot-P) concentrations in the river. The step increases occur downstream of two wastewater treatment facilities (WWTFs) and Peachtree Creek, a small tributary inflow with degraded water quality draining a predominantly urban and industrial area. Median NO2 + NO3-N and Tot-P concentrations in the mainstem increase downstream of these inputs from 0.5 to 1 mg 1-1 and from 0.04 to 0.13 mg 1-1, respectively. NH4-N concentrations were typically low with 95% of the 2575 observations less than 0.2 mg 1-1 throughout the river system, except some high values (>1 mg 1-1) in some tributaries, particularly near the central part of Atlanta. High NH4-N concentrations are attributed to sewage discharge as they also are associated with high biological oxygen demand and faecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Nutrient concentrations vary temporally. An assessment of four sites, two mainstem and two tributaries, from 1970 to 1995 indicates a progressive increase and variability in NO2 + NO3-N concentrations during the period. The progressive increase in NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and their variability is similar to that reported for surface waters throughout the world and for which increased fertilizer usage has been attributed. Tot-P concentrations increase at mainstem sites through the middle to late 1980s and decrease markedly thereafter, due to improvements to WWTFs and a 1990 phosphate

  19. Prácticas de Física: Resistencia de un voltímetro

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Bernabeu Pastor, José Guillermo; Vera Guarinos, Jenaro; Pastor Antón, Carlos; Martín García, Agapito

    1988-01-01

    El objetivo de esta práctica es determinar la resistencia interna de un voltímetro. Para ello se utilizan varias resistencias de valor conocido. El voltímetro es un aparato que sirve para medir la diferencia de potencial entre dos puntos de un circuito. Los voltímetros de aguja se basan en el mismo principio que el amperímetro de aguja, pues ambos se pueden construir mediante un galvanómetro de cuadro móvil, pero en el caso del voltímetro se monta en serie con el galvanómetro una resistencia ...

  20. Growth Patterns of Subway/Metro Systems Tracked by Degree Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Whitney, Daniel E

    2012-01-01

    Urban transportation systems grow over time as city populations grow and move and their transportation needs evolve. Typical network growth models, such as preferential attachment, grow the network node by node whereas rail and metro systems grow by adding entire lines with all their nodes. The objective of this paper is to see if any canonical regular network forms such as stars or grids capture the growth patterns of urban metro systems for which we have historical data in terms of old maps. Data from these maps reveal that the systems' Pearson degree correlation grows increasingly from initially negative values toward positive values over time and in some cases becomes decidedly positive. We have derived closed form expressions for degree correlation and clustering coefficient for a variety of canonical forms that might be similar to metro systems. Of all those examined, only a few types patterned after a wide area network (WAN) with a "core-periphery" structure show similar positive-trending degree correl...

  1. Atributos químicos de solos sob diferentes usos em perímetro irrigado no semiárido de Pernambuco Soil chemical properties under different uses in an irrigated area in the semi arid region of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Mattos Corrêa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solos desenvolvidos em ambiente de clima semi-árido podem apresentar, naturalmente, acúmulo de sais que comprometem seu uso agrícola, o que pode ser incrementado pelo manejo inadequado da irrigação. Dependendo do uso, a degradação destes solos pode ocorrer com maior ou menor intensidade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar usos do solo utilizando atributos químicos em um perímetro irrigado na região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil. Os usos do solo foram separados em áreas com culturas de ciclo curto (C, com fruticultura (F, com pastagem (P, áreas descartadas (D e áreas com vegetação nativa (V. Coletaram-se amostras de solo deformadas nas camadas de 0-10, 10-30 e 30-60 cm, e indeformadas nas duas primeiras camadas para as determinações químicas e de densidade do solo, respectivamente. Os indicadores pH e condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação, pH do solo, P disponível, C orgânico total, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ e Na+, CTC, soma de bases (SB, percentagem de saturação por bases (V %, percentagem de Na trocável e estoque de C foram submetidos à análise multivariada, pela técnica de análise de componentes principais, e agrupamento pelo método Tocher. Os usos relacionados a sistemas produtivos apresentaram-se diferentes quanto à qualidade química do solo em relação aos atributos analisados do uso V; entre os usos relacionados a sistemas produtivos, C e D apresentaram qualidade química mais semelhante, o mesmo ocorrendo para os usos C e P. Em relação ao uso V, os usos C, D, P e F apresentaram, nas três camadas analisadas, maiores valores dos atributos pHs, pH do extrato de saturação, condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação, Ca e Mg trocáveis, SB, V % e P disponível. Os usos F e P apresentaram o menor teor de C orgânico total. Os usos C, D e P apresentaram maiores valores de condutividade elétrica do extrato saturado em comparação com os usos F e V, indicando o início de um processo de

  2. Job performance in the mountain metros

    OpenAIRE

    Mark C. Snead; Kate Watkins

    2012-01-01

    This issue of the Rocky Mountain Economist explores the labor market performance of the mountain state metropolitan areas, including recent industry trends and comparisons to state and national job performance.

  3. Exploiting Satellite Remote-Sensing Data in Fine Particulate Matter Characterization for Serving the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN): The HELIX-Atlanta Experience and NPOESS Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Qualters, Judith R.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the U.S. National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) led a project in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects were conducted to develop methods to better characterize exposure; link health and environmental datasets; and analyze spatial/temporal relationships. This paper describes and demonstrates different techniques for surfacing daily environmental hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM(sub 2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the CDC's pilot study of HELIX-Atlanta. It describes a methodology for estimating ground-level continuous PM(sub 2.5) concentrations using spatial surfacing techniques and leveraging NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM(sub 2.5) from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM(sub 2.5) estimates derived from NASA's MODIS data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate exposure PM(sub 2.5) estimates. The paper has shown that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM(sub 2.5), may provide a more complete daily representation of PM(sub 2.5), than either data set alone would allow, and can reduce the errors in the PM(sub 2.5) estimated surfaces. Future work in this area should focus on combining MODIS column measurements with profile information provided by satellites like the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The Visible Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Aerosol

  4. Medidas de viscosidad: viscosímetro. Ley de Stokes

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Miret Marí, Juan José; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Caballero Caballero, María Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Guión de la pŕactica de Física de primero del grado de Óptica y Optometría "Medidas de viscosidad: Viscosímetro. Ley de Stokes" Objetivos - Medir la viscosidad de un líquido problema con el viscosímetro. - Señalar la ventaja de la determinación de magnitudes relativas. - Medir la viscosidad de un líquido problema aplicando la ley de Stokes.

  5. Acelerômetro a fibra óptica bimodal

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Avila de Castro

    1994-01-01

    Sensores interferométricos a fibra óptica vêm sendo largamente utilizados em aplicações que demandam elevado desempenho. Este trabalho apresenta um novo sensor interferométrico a fibra bimodal com núcleo elíptico que, numa configuração particular, pode ser convenientemente utilizado como acelerômetro. Testes elásticos e dinâmicos foram realizados de forma a caracterizarem-se parâmetros importantes desse sensor, tais como: sensibilidade estática, fator de escala, deriva, faixa dinâmica e freqü...

  6. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K.; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37–48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m3 water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region. PMID:27551204

  7. Using synoptic weather types to predict visitor attendance at Atlanta and Indianapolis zoological parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David R.

    2016-02-01

    Defining an ideal "tourism climate" has been an often-visited research topic where explanations have evolved from global- to location-specific indices tailored to tourists' recreational behavior. Unfortunately, as indices become increasingly specific, they are less translatable across geographies because they may only apply to specific activities, locales, climates, or populations. A key need in the future development of weather and climate indices for tourism has been a translatable, meteorologically based index capturing the generalized ambient atmospheric conditions yet considering local climatology. To address this need, this paper tests the applicability of the spatial synoptic classification (SSC) as a tool to predict visitor attendance response in the tourism, recreation, and leisure (TRL) sector across different climate regimes. Daily attendance data is paired with the prevailing synoptic weather condition at Atlanta and Indianapolis zoological parks from September 2001 to June 2011, to review potential impacts ambient atmospheric conditions may have on visitor attendances. Results indicate that "dry moderate" conditions are most associated with high levels of attendance and "moist polar" synoptic conditions are most associated with low levels of attendance at both zoological parks. Comparing visitor response at these zoo locations, visitors in Indianapolis showed lower levels of tolerance to synoptic conditions which were not "ideal." Visitors in Indianapolis also displayed more aversion to "polar" synoptic regimes while visitors in Atlanta displayed more tolerance to "moist tropical" synoptic regimes. Using a comprehensive atmospheric measure such as the SSC may be a key to broadening application when assessing tourism climates across diverse geographies.

  8. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37-48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m(3) water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region.

  9. Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Malformations in Atlanta, Georgia, 1986–2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mitchel; Correa, Adolfo; Reller, Mark D.; Mahle, William T.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Siffel, Csaba; Marcus, Michele; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2009-01-01

    Associations between ambient air pollution levels during weeks 3–7 of pregnancy and risks of cardiovascular malformations were investigated among the cohort of pregnancies reaching at least 20 weeks’ gestation that were conceived during January 1, 1986–March 12, 2003, in Atlanta, Georgia. Surveillance records obtained from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, which conducts active, population-based surveillance on this cohort, were reviewed to classify cardiovascular malformations. Ambient 8-hour maximum ozone and 24-hour average carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with an average aerodynamic diameter of <10 μm (PM10), and sulfur dioxide measurements were obtained from centrally located stationary monitors. Temporal associations between these pollutants and daily risks of secundum atrial septal defect, aortic coarctation, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, valvar pulmonary stenosis, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, muscular ventricular septal defect, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, conotruncal defects, left ventricular outflow tract defect, and right ventricular outflow defect were modeled by using Poisson generalized linear models. A statistically significant association was observed between PM10 and patent ductus arteriosus (for an interquartile range increase in PM10 levels, risk ratio = 1.60, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.31). Of the 60 associations examined in the primary analysis, no other significant associations were observed. PMID:19258486

  10. Parâmetros demográficos de Micoureus demerarae (Didelphidae, Marsupialia em áreas contíguas de manguezal e terra firme, Bragança, Pará, Brasil Demographic parameters of Micoureus demerarae (Didelphidae, Marsupialia in contiguous mangrove and terra firme areas, in Bragança, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A. G. Andrade

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou alguns variáveis populacionais da espécie Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905, que incluem: densidade, recrutamento e sobrevivência. Sendo que, os espécimes coletados foram obtidos em dois ecossistemas contíguos, manguezal e terra firme da denominada Fazenda das Salinas, a qual esta localizada próxima ao município de Bragança, no nordeste do Estado do Pará. Para tanto, foram abertas duas transecções em cada ambiente destinadas as coletas realizadas de novembro de 2002 a setembro de 2003. Os resultados definiram uma população aberta com distribuição uniforme para os indivíduos do manguezal e agregada para os da terra firme, além de evidente sazonalidade, com maior proporção de machos na terra firme. O período reprodutivo foi o parâmetro mais importante para a flutuação populacional no início da estação seca. Os impactos ambientais sobre os parâmetros da dinâmica populacional de M. demerarae parecem ser determinantes na manutenção dessas populações da Fazenda das Salinas.This study investigated some aspects of the population dynamics of Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905, such as: density, recruitment, and survivorship in two contiguous ecosystems, mangal and terra firme at the Fazenda das Salinas in the northeast of the state of Pará. One transect in each system was used for fieldwork. Data collection was carried out from November 2002 to September 2003. The following population parameters were estimated: density, recruitment, and survivorship. The results defined an open population with an even distribution for individuals from mangal and a clumped one for individuals from terra firme, and the evident seasonality with higher proportion of males in the terra firme. The reproductive period was the most important parameter to the population fluctuation in the beginning of the dry season. The environmental impacts over the population dynamics parameters of M. demerarae seem to be determinant for

  11. Meteorological detrending of primary and secondary pollutant concentrations: Method application and evaluation using long-term (2000-2012) data in Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lucas R. F.; Holmes, Heather A.; Mulholland, James A.; Russell, Armistead G.

    2015-10-01

    The effectiveness of air pollution regulations and controls are evaluated based on measured air pollutant concentrations. Air pollution levels, however, are highly sensitive to both emissions and meteorological fluctuations. Therefore, an assessment of the change in air pollutant levels due to emissions controls must account for these meteorological fluctuations. Two empirical methods to quantify the impact of meteorology on pollutant levels are discussed and applied to the 13-year time period between 2000 and 2012 in Atlanta, GA. The methods employ Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filters and linear regressions to detrended pollutant signals into long-term, seasonal, weekly, short-term, and white-noise components. The methods differ in how changes in weekly and holiday emissions are accounted for. Both can provide meteorological adjustments on a daily basis for future use in acute health analyses. The meteorological impact on daily signals of ozone, NOx, CO, SO2, PM2.5, and PM species are quantified. Analyses show that the substantial decreases in seasonal averages of NOx and SO2 correspond with controls implemented in the metropolitan Atlanta area. Detrending allows for the impacts of some controls to be observed with averaging times of as little as 3 months. Annual average concentrations of NOx, SO2, and CO have all fallen by at least 50% since 2000. Reductions in NOx levels, however, do not lead to uniform reductions in ozone. While average detrended summer average maximum daily average 8 h ozone (MDA8h O3) levels fell by 4% (2.2 ± 2 ppb) between 2000 and 2012, winter averages have increased by 12% (3.8 ± 1.4 ppb), providing further evidence that high ozone levels are NOx-limited and lower ozone concentrations are NOx-inhibited. High ozone days (with MDA8h O3 greater than 60 ppb) decreased both in number and in magnitude over the study period.

  12. Measuring the Noise Caused by Tehran Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Abbas Pour

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common and important sources of noise in the residential environments are vehicles such as airplanes and subways. Trafficking of vehicles in streets and highways, psychologically, have damaging impacts on people living close to such areas. The development and expansion of the trading and industrial units is another factor that causes more and more exposure to noise.We have aimed at measuring the noises caused by vibration of subways of the Line of Karaj-Tehran-Mehrshahr and its effect on its surrounding area.To study this effect we designed a mathematical model and put the information of this subway line in the mentioned model. Then we analyzed the findings.This model demonstrated that we can control the harsh noise of the subway by reducing the speed of the train to 60Km/h in some points and increase in other parts to 130Km/h.

  13. Metro Plaza za fasadom Rotermanna / Viktoria Jürmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürmann, Viktoria

    2008-01-01

    Pandi nurgakivi Tallinnas Viru väljaku äärde rajatavale büroohoonele Metro Plaza. Säilitatakse vana fassaad, mille tõttu kujuneb hoone Viru väljaku ja Mere puiestee poolsel küljel kaetud galerii jalakäijatele. Projekteerisid Raivo Kotov ja Kaur Stöör

  14. Metro Plaza za fasadom Rotermanna / Viktoria Jürmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürmann, Viktoria

    2008-01-01

    Pandi nurgakivi Tallinnas Viru väljaku äärde rajatavale büroohoonele Metro Plaza. Säilitatakse vana fassaad, mille tõttu kujuneb hoone Viru väljaku ja Mere puiestee poolsel küljel kaetud galerii jalakäijatele. Projekteerisid Raivo Kotov ja Kaur Stöör

  15. Metro manila transport and traffic management plan (1993-1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cal, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988, former President Corazon Aquino created the Presidential Task Force on Traffic Management to formulate plans and programs to improve the traffic situation in Metro Manila and to address the emerging problem of air pollution and concern on renewable energy sources for transportation. The Task Force formulated the Metro Manila Traffic Improvement Plan (TRIP) which was approved by President Aquino for implementation. TRIP called for the development of a mass urban transport system, which included the expansion of the light rail transit system and the construction and improvement of the Metro Manila road network. Culled mainly from the TRIP proposals, the Updated Transport and Traffic Management Plan for Metro Manila (1993-1998) was developed through interagency discussions, public consultations, data collation and research work. This plan is directed towards the development of a more responsive public transport system, expansion of road network capacity, and improvement of traffic management and enforcement. Constraints may be present along the way but opportunities and potentials exist for the deliverance of daily commuters struggling to make a living.

  16. Racial Equity and Opportunity in Metro Boston Job Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    People of color make up a vital and growing part of Metro Boston's workforce, yet they face substantial challenges in obtaining employment (especially in faster-growing and higher-paying sectors), in reaching locations of rapid job growth, and in earning a livable income. Latinos and blacks face the greatest hurdles, yet certain Asian populations…

  17. Impact of PON deployment on metro networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirrier, Julien; Herviou, Fabrice; Barboule, Hélène; Moignard, Maryse

    2009-01-01

    FTTH or FTTC, depending on countries and areas, will be the key technology for operators to differentiate themselves from competitors and win market share. Such a disruptive evolution of the access network should be supported by a significant re-design of the higher network layers. In the present paper, the required features of these new WDM networks are presented. Capacity and cost are the two obvious drivers. But versatility will be crucial to cope with an uncertain context (tedious prediction of traffic, regulation and services) and with very diverse population densities. Finally we also address how PON could benefit from mature WDM technologies to ease the global network design.

  18. Baseline Prevalence of Birth Defects Associated with Congenital Zika Virus Infection - Massachusetts, North Carolina, and Atlanta, Georgia, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, Janet D; Mai, Cara T; Petersen, Emily E; Liberman, Rebecca F; Forestieri, Nina E; Stevens, Alissa C; Delaney, Augustina; Dawson, April L; Ellington, Sascha R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Dunn, Julie E; Higgins, Cathleen A; Meyer, Robert E; Williams, Tonya; Polen, Kara N D; Newsome, Kim; Reynolds, Megan; Isenburg, Jennifer; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meaney-Delman, Dana M; Moore, Cynthia A; Boyle, Coleen A; Honein, Margaret A

    2017-03-03

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013-2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) (3). These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). Brain abnormalities or microcephaly were the most frequently recorded (1.50 per 1,000), followed by neural tube defects and other early brain malformations(†) (0.88), eye abnormalities without mention of a brain abnormality (0.31), and other consequences of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction without mention of brain or eye abnormalities (0.17). During January 15-September 22, 2016, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) reported 26 infants and fetuses with these same defects among 442 completed pregnancies (58.8 per 1,000) born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (2). Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.

  19. 78 FR 28940 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Atlanta to Charlotte Portion of the Southeast High Speed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Southeast High Speed Rail Corridor AGENCY: Federal Rail Administration (FRA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... between Atlanta, GA and Charlotte, NC, along the Southeast High-Speed Rail Corridor (SEHSR) as designated by the USDOT. The Study is being advanced consistent with the federal High-Speed Intercity...

  20. 78 FR 54234 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity PBR, Inc. d/b/a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 26--Atlanta, Georgia, Authorization of Production Activity PBR, Inc. d/b/a SKAPS Industries (Polypropylene Geotextiles), Athens, Georgia On April 8,...

  1. 77 FR 46685 - In the Matter of: Steven Neal Greenoe, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate #54450-056, USP Atlanta...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security In the Matter of: Steven Neal Greenoe, Currently Incarcerated at: Inmate... Neal Greenoe, with last known addresses at: Currently incarcerated at: Inmate 54450-056, USP Atlanta, U...

  2. International Year of Astronomy (IYA): A Boost to Astronomy Education in Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazine, Angela R.; Albin, E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) activities at Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, GA (USA). The global focus of IYA was to celebrate astronomy and its cultural / scientific contributions, which correlate with the 400th anniversary of Galileo's first look at the heavens with a small telescope. Our planetarium and observatory utilized this opportunity to increase astronomy awareness and education locally. A plethora of special events were organized including two planetarium productions about Galileo and the telescope, special displays in the exhibit hall, two astronaut lectures, a children's workshop with Galileoscopes, and even a Galileo impersonator. Such IYA-related programs increased our overall annual attendance while at the same time served to re-introduce our local audience to astronomy in a creative way.

  3. Possibility Of Generating Significant Storm Surge On The Western Seaboard Of Metro Manila, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, J. K. B.; Santiago, J. T.; Tablazon, J. P.; Dasallas, L. L.; Goting, P. G.; Lagmay, A. M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Philippines, located in the Northwestern Pacific Typhoon gateway to Asia, is considered one of the most susceptible to tropical cyclone related hazards. One of the most disastrous effects of tropical cyclones is storm surge. With Metro Manila being a coastal area and the most populous region in the country, with approximately 12.8 million people residing in it, it is of great interest to determine the possibility of generating significant level of storm surge in the country's capital. The necessity to determine the storm surge susceptibility was brought upon by the effect of Typhoon Haiyan on eastern Visayas in 2013, where more than 6,000 people died and resulted to about 2.86 billion dollars' worth of damages. To achieve the objectives, the actual tracks and wind speed of historical typhoon (JMA data since 1951) was mapped for the Philippines. The simulated wind speed map shows that the maximum winds are mostly experienced on the eastern side of the country; with a considerable decrease in wind intensity as the typhoon reaches the western seaboard due to land surface. The Haiyan-strength wind speed is then applied to the actual historical typhoon tracks to determine the hypothetical values of wind speed as a typhoon with Haiyan intensity reached Metro Manila. Results show that, if a typhoon with a Haiyan-like intensity is to traverse tracks like those of Rita 1978, Collen 1992, Sybil 1995, Bebinca 2000 and Xangsane 2000, there is a huge possibility of generating storm surge height of 3.9 to 5.6 m in the western seaboard of Metro Manila, even after considering the diminishing effect of surface friction.

  4. Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX)-Atlanta: A CDC-NASA Joint Environmental Public Health Tracking Collaborative Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeff; Crosson, Bill; Estes, Maury; Limaye, Ashutosh; Quattrochi, Dale; Rickman, Doug

    2008-01-01

    HELIX-Atlanta was developed to support current and future state and local EPHT programs to implement data linking demonstration projects which could be part of the CDC EPHT Network. HELIX-Atlanta is a pilot linking project in Atlanta for CDC to learn about the challenges the states will encounter. NASA/MSFC and the CDC are partners in linking environmental and health data to enhance public health surveillance. The use of NASA technology creates value added geospatial products from existing environmental data sources to facilitate public health linkages. Proving the feasibility of the approach is the main objective

  5. Medida de densidades con el picnómetro y de tensión superficial con el estalagmómetro

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Miret Marí, Juan José; Caballero Caballero, María Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Guión de la práctica de Física de primero de grado de Óptica y Optometría "MEDIDA DE DENSIDADES CON EL PICNÓMETRO Y DE TENSIÓN SUPERFICIAL CON EL ESTALAGMÓMETRO" Objetivos: Medir densidades de sólidos y líquidos. Medir la tensión superficial de un líquido problema con el estalagmómetro.

  6. Study on influence of ground settlement in bored metro tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jiang-hua; ZHANG Zhi-hong

    2006-01-01

    At present the bored construction method is one of the main construction methods of metro and tunnel construction in China. The empirical estimated formulas of tunnel ground surface settlement using the bored construction method were obtained,combining the mechanical stimulant calculated result of tunnel model of different embedded depth, different cross section and different construction method and the actual measurement data of Beijing metro construction. According to the regressed analysis of calculated data, the calculated equations of ground surface settlement value and settlement range of tunnel section under the condition of different embedded depth, different cross section and different construction method were gained. Among them there are some empirical formulas can apply to the construction design ofmetro tunnel directly.

  7. Understanding Household Demand for Water: The Metro Manila Case

    OpenAIRE

    David, Cristina C; Arlene B. Inocencio

    1998-01-01

    Widespread water shortages in Metro Manila have made the urban water problem a central policy issue. President Ramos recently called a "Water Summit Meeting" and directed all concerned agencies to develop a short- and medium-term strategy for addressing the impending water crisis. In Congress, the Water Crisis Act was passed which empowered the President to contract new water supply projects expeditiously, bypassing the normal bidding procedures. About $7 million is being spent to develop an ...

  8. Guangzhou Metro - a Chinese challenge in mass transit railways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Qingquan; He Qiguang [Guangzhou Metro Corporation (GMC) (China); Pankow, R.; Rosocha, A. [Hamburg-Consult GmbH (Germany). HHA Dept.; Schulze, J.; Christ, W. [Siemens Ltd. (China)

    1998-11-01

    On 28 June 1997 the fifth Metro in China was opened. Following Beijing, Hong Kong, Tianjin and Shanghai, in Guangzhou (Canton) one of the most advanced metro systems in the world has commenced initial stage trial operations. The new service is on Line 1, with a initially reduced performance in service and availability of technical subsystems at the beginning. The new Metro is expected to be fully operational in July 1999. The realisation of this challenging project, which utilises advanced management methods, is on time and in accordance with established objectives. Trains and major E and M systems installed in stations and tunnels are financed by the German Government and manufactured and supplied by a German Consortium of Siemens and ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation (Adtranz) under the leadership of Siemens. The first train arrived at Huangpu port of Guangzhou on 10 April 1997. Due to a comprehensive pre-commissioning already undertaken in Germany the remaining commissioning in Guangzhou could be reduced to a minimum. Just two and a half months after arrival the first train was taken into restricted passenger service. This Initial Stage operation covers a 5.4 km long part of Line 1 with five stations. Service will be increased in steps as more trains and technical systems become available. The project is managed jointly by local Chinese and Western experts. A major role is played by Siemens with the Overall Project Management for all E and M equipment aspects. In addition to focussing on excellent technical performance, great emphasis was also placed on training personnel to manage, operate and maintain a safe, reliable and customer friendly Metro system. Design and preparation of training as well as training itself was executed by an international team of training experts under the responsibility of Hamburg-Consult, a subsidiary of HHA (Hamburger Hochbahn AG), Germany. Valuable input was provided by MTRC in Hong Kong, particularly in support of management and

  9. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Yi Chen; Fung-Chang Sung; Mei-Lien Chen; I-Fang Mao; Chung-Yen Lu

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS) in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ozone (O3), airborne particulate ...

  10. Applying the metro map to software development management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirregoitia, Amaia; Dolado, J. Javier; Presedo, Concepción

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents MetroMap, a new graphical representation model for controlling and managing the software development process. Metromap uses metaphors and visual representation techniques to explore several key indicators in order to support problem detection and resolution. The resulting visualization addresses diverse management tasks, such as tracking of deviations from the plan, analysis of patterns of failure detection and correction, overall assessment of change management policies, and estimation of product quality. The proposed visualization uses a metaphor with a metro map along with various interactive techniques to represent information concerning the software development process and to deal efficiently with multivariate visual queries. Finally, the paper shows the implementation of the tool in JavaFX with data of a real project and the results of testing the tool with the aforementioned data and users attempting several information retrieval tasks. The conclusion shows the results of analyzing user response time and efficiency using the MetroMap visualization system. The utility of the tool was positively evaluated.

  11. Meeting explosive growth requirements in the metro optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbemeyer, Alan; Finkenzeller, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The metro optical network growth continues so far unabated by the slowing economy. Main drivers for this are enterprise connectivity, triple play and high-bandwidth hungry internet applications. Every day more and more of the population is connected with a projection to have five (5) billion people connected by 2010 and an overall traffic increase of one-hundred fold by 2015. While key applications drive these deployments, it is the decrease in network cost that is the bandwidth enabler. Stagnant average revenue per user (ARPU) makes further reduction in the total cost of ownership key. As costs progress due to volume and technology maturity, prices drop and a stronger demand for bandwidth is generated in the market. Today the 10G Ethernet LAN PHY services drive this growth and the cost for 10G hardware continues to improve further enabling profitable growth. While 10G is the key transport technology today, there is a push to bring higher line rates into the metro deployments. 40G is currently undergoing a mass adoption in the long-haul core networks. The volumes in long-haul network deployments are driving down the costs making it a viable evolution path for the metro networks over time.

  12. Analysing accessibility effects in a continuous treatment framework: the case of Copenhagen metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    Metro where 6 metro stations were selected for analysis: Lergravsparken, Amagerbro, Islands Brygge, DR Byen, Bella Center, Sundby. The analysis focused on residents living within 1000 meters of the coming metro stations in 1996 – when the plans where approved, and 8 years before the opening. The paper...... apply adose-response approach under the assumption of weak unconfoundedness to first assessing the possible presence of residential selectivity and to estimate job accessibility effects of the metro. The paper analyzes residential immobility and wage employment, finding that proximity to a metro station...... increases the probability of residential immobility and the probability of wage employment after the metro opening. For commuting the paper apply a distinction between short and long commutes derived from the median commuting distance among the respondents. Results indicate that proximity to a metro station...

  13. Why does Bogota not have at least one metro line? And the reasons why it will probably not have one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar A. Alfonso Roa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the decision on the first metro line in Bogotá was first sketched out 75 years ago, the city still does not have it, but there is no academic reflection on the reasons for such delay. During this period, the physical and institutional capital dedicated to mobility has deteriorated to the point of capsizing the system of mass passenger transport. The result is visible in the substantial increase in unproductive travel time, traffic congestion, saturation of the fleet intended for collective mobility and personal insecurity to which users are exposed. This article supports the idea that in a metropolis of eight million people, with powerful infrastructure inflexibility, the layout of the priority metro line should be resolved in favor of connecting the most densely populated areas of the city, which would progressively solve investment lags and would provide increased ecological and financial sustainability of the system of mass transit.

  14. The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located near Houston, including 22,000 acres; the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center (Metro), and a Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Included within the program for each village are schools and commercial activities, as well as employment activities. The Woodlands is planned to be developed over a 26-year period (commenced in 1972) with an ultimate population of 150,000. Following a summary chapter, Chapter II presents background material on The Woodlands and results of the study are summarized. Chapter III describes the project team and its organizational structure. Chapter IV outlines and documents the methodology that was employed in developing, analyzing, and evaluating the case study. The next chapter describes and analyzes the conventional plan, documents the process by which energy-conserving methods were selected, and evaluates the application of these methods to the Metro Center Study area. Chapter VI discusses constraints to implementation and is followed by a final chapter that presents the general conclusions from the case study and suggests directions for further investigation.

  15. Escherichia coli bacteria density in relation to turbidity, streamflow characteristics, and season in the Chattahoochee River near Atlanta, Georgia, October 2000 through September 2008—Description, statistical analysis, and predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Water-based recreation—such as rafting, canoeing, and fishing—is popular among visitors to the Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area (CRNRA) in north Georgia. The CRNRA is a 48-mile reach of the Chattahoochee River upstream from Atlanta, Georgia, managed by the National Park Service (NPS). Historically, high densities of fecal-indicator bacteria have been documented in the Chattahoochee River and its tributaries at levels that commonly exceeded Georgia water-quality standards. In October 2000, the NPS partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State and local agencies, and non-governmental organizations to monitor Escherichia coli bacteria (E. coli) density and develop a system to alert river users when E. coli densities exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) single-sample beach criterion of 235 colonies (most probable number) per 100 milliliters (MPN/100 mL) of water. This program, called BacteriALERT, monitors E. coli density, turbidity, and water temperature at two sites on the Chattahoochee River upstream from Atlanta, Georgia. This report summarizes E. coli bacteria density and turbidity values in water samples collected between 2000 and 2008 as part of the BacteriALERT program; describes the relations between E. coli density and turbidity, streamflow characteristics, and season; and describes the regression analyses used to develop predictive models that estimate E. coli density in real time at both sampling sites.

  16. Volatility and Hygroscopicity of Atlanta CCN During New Particle Formation Events in Summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; Scheckman, J.; Williams, B. J.; Jiang, J.; McMurry, P. H.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-12-01

    New particle formation (NPF) has the potential to substantially impact the population of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) by both by altering their number concentrations and the hygroscopic properties. It is currently thought that while NPF proceeds via condensation of gas-phase sulfuric acid, subsequent growth must be dominated by the condensation of secondary organic species in order to reconcile field observations with theory1,2. This implies size-dependent aerosol composition with varying amounts of organic species, yet the impact of these organics on cloud droplet formation remains one of the largest sources of uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-climate interactions studies. Consequently, there is a need for in-situ, size-resolved field measurements of CCN to unravel these complex effects. // // We present a comprehensive characterization of aerosol and CCN sampled in Midtown Atlanta during the August 2009 Nucleation and CCN intensive campaign (NCCN) at the Jefferson Street monitoring site. A Droplet Measurement Technologies Continuous-Flow Stream-wise Thermal-Gradient Chamber was operated in spectrometer mode using Scanning Flow CCN Analysis (SFCA)3 to provide size-resolved CCN concentrations over a variety of particle sizes (20-50 nm) and supersaturations (0.3-2%) with high temporal resolution (~30 seconds/scan). Continuous measurements of the aerosol size distribution (1-1000 nm) and chemical composition were also made. The inferred hygroscopicity increased substantially during NPF from ~0.2-0.3 (consistent with soluble secondary organic species) to ~0.6-0.8, consistent with sulfate species or organic salts. This finding is contrary to previous work suggesting less-CCN-active aerosol during NPF4. During two special experiments, a volatility tandem differential mobility analyzer (VTDMA) was coupled with the CCN instrument to examine the volatility-dependence of the CCN hygroscopicity of 40-nm particles. Heating particles in the VTDMA was observed to increase their

  17. The effect of locations of central metro stations on real estate values. A case study of Thessaloniki, Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapi Xifilidou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost all of the most populated cities in the world have invested heavily on high capacity urban public transit systems. Apart from the direct economic benefits –travel time reduction, environmental benefits, some indirect benefits are the increase in real estate values (residential and commercial, improved accessibility and possible land use changes towards the development of an area. This study investigates the impact of the future central metro stations of Thessaloniki on real estate values. Real estate values can increase up to 11,3% at a distance shorter than 50 m and gradually decrease up to -14% for a distance greater than 500 m. A hedonic analysis is presented so as to determine the influence of metro stations to 52 commercial properties. The results of the investigation indicate that the changes in market are not necessarily connected or totally attributed to the construction of the metro stations. Instead interesting results show that in some cases common belief about the impact of urban public transit systems can be slightly different.

  18. Is Social Mobility Spatial? Characteristics of Immigrant Metros and Second Generation Outcomes: 1940–1970 and 1970–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin-White, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Research on immigrant and second generation outcomes has often examined their locations, following ideas that geographic dispersion facilitates social mobility, and that characteristics of the ethnic environment enable or constrain progress. I contend that second generation socioeconomic outcomes depend in part on the location choices and characteristics of a previous immigrant generation. Further, I suggest that this relationship reflects the changing geography of immigrants and labour markets, rather than geographically unfolding assimilation. Using the 1940, 1970, and 2000 Integrated Public Use Microdata Series files from the US Census, I regress second and 1.5 generation wage and educational outcomes in 1970 and 2000 on metro-area characteristics of a previous generation (1940 and 1970, respectively). Current labour market and second generation characteristics are included as controls and to facilitate interpretation. Characteristics of a previous immigrant generation’s location were more important for second generation outcomes in the 1940–1970 period, while current place characteristics become more significant by 2000. There is evidence of selection operating through the positive intergenerational effects of places where immigrants’ educational levels were high a generation ago. Metro-level immigrant concentration and manufacturing employment also have generally positive effects, although variations across generations and by nationality suggest their significance for social mobility is inadequately understood. The historical immigrant geographies of the US, and the ways in which metro labour market conditions intersect with immigrants’ locational choices, both within and between generations, are thus a critical piece of the economic and spatial assimilation puzzle.

  19. Health and treatment implications of food insufficiency among people living with HIV/AIDS, Atlanta, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Chauncey; Amaral, Christina; White, Denise; Kalichman, Moira O; Pope, Howard; Swetsze, Connie; Jones, Michel; Macy, Rene

    2010-07-01

    HIV/AIDS is concentrated among the inner-city poor and poverty may directly interfere with HIV treatment. This study examined food insufficiency in relation to HIV-related health and treatment. A sample of 344 men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Atlanta, Georgia completed measures of food security, health, and HIV disease progression and treatment. HIV treatment adherence was monitored using unannounced pill counts. Results showed that half of people living with HIV/AIDS in this study lacked sufficient food, and food insufficiency was associated with multiple indicators of poor health, including higher HIV viral loads, lower CD4 cell counts, and poorer treatment adherence. Adjusted analyses showed that food insufficiency predicted HIV treatment non-adherence over and above years of education, employment status, income, housing, depression, social support, and non-alcohol substance use. Hunger and food insecurity are prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS, and food insufficiency is closely related to multiple HIV-related health indicators, particularly medication adherence. Interventions that provide consistent and sustained meals to people living with HIV/AIDS are urgently needed.

  20. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Lodge, Atlanta, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Day's Lodge I-85 and Shallowford Road, NE Atlanta, Georgia is described. This system is one of eleven systems planned under this grant and was designed to provide for 81% of the total hot water demand. There are two separate systems, each serving one building of the lodge (total of 65 suites). The entire system contains only potable city water. The 1024 square feet of Grumman Sunstream Model 332 liquid flat plate collectors and the outside piping drains whenever the collector plates approach freezing or when power is interrupted. Solar heated water from the two above ground cement lined steel tanks (1000 gallon tank) is drawn into the electric domestic hot water (DHW) tanks as hot water is drawn. Electric resistance units in the DHW tanks top off the solar heated water, if needed, to reach thermostat setting. Operation of this system was begun in August, 1979. The solar components were partly funded ($18,042 of $36,084 cost) by the Department of Energy.

  1. Characterization of CCN and IN activity of bacterial isolates collected in Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, Sara; Waters, Samantha; Karthikeyan, Smruthi; Konstantinidis, Kostas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of CCN activity of bacteria, other than a few select types such as Pseudomonas syringae, is limited, especially when looked at in conjunction with corresponding IN activity. The link between these two points is especially important for bacteria as those that have high CCN activity are likely to form an aqueous phase required for immersion freezing. Given the high ice nucleation temperature of bacterial cells, especially in immersion mode, it is important to characterize the CCN and IN activity of many different bacterial strains. To this effect, we developed a droplet freezing assay (DFA) which consists of an aluminum cold plate, cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture, in order to observe immersion freezing of the collected bacteria. Here, we present the initial results on the CCN and IN activities of bacterial samples we have collected in Atlanta, GA. Bacterial strains were collected and isolated from rainwater samples taken from different storms throughout the year. We then characterized the CCN activity of each strain using a DMT Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter by exposing the aerosolized bacteria to supersaturations ranging from 0.05% to 0.6%. Additionally, using our new DFA, we characterized the IN activity of each bacterial strain at temperatures ranging from -20oC to 0oC. The combined CCN and IN activity gives us valuable information on how some uncharacterized bacteria contribute to warm and mixed-phase cloud formation in the atmosphere.

  2. Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects in Metropolitan Atlanta, 1998–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Mark D.; Strickland, Matthew J.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Mahle, William T.; Correa, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine an accurate estimate of the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) using current standard diagnostic modalities. Study design We obtained data on infants with CHD delivered during 1998–2005 identified by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program, an active, population-based birth defects surveillance system. Physiologic shunts in infancy and shunts associated with prematurity were excluded. Selected infant and maternal characteristics of the cases were compared with those of the overall birth cohort. Results From 1998–2005 there were 398 140 births, of which 3240 infants had CHD, for an overall prevalence of 81.4/10 000 births. The most common CHD were muscular ventricular septal defect, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, and secundum atrial septal defect, with prevalence of 27.5, 10.6, and 10.3/10 000 births, respectively. The prevalence of tetralogy of Fallot, the most common cyanotic CHD, was twice that of transposition of the great arteries (4.7 vs. 2.3/10 000 births). Many common CHD were associated with older maternal age and multiple-gestation pregnancy; several were found to vary by sex. Conclusion This study, using a standardized cardiac nomenclature and classification, provides current prevalence estimates of the various CHD subtypes. These estimates can be used to assess variations in prevalence across populations, time or space. PMID:18657826

  3. Commercial mosquito trap and gravid trap oviposition media evaluation, Atlanta, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Douglas A; Kelly, Rosmarie; Porter, Charles H; Wirtz, Robert A

    2004-09-01

    Field trials evaluating the effectiveness of selected gravid trap oviposition media and commercially available mosquito traps were conducted in southern Fulton County (Atlanta), GA, from June 9 to June 18 and June 24 to July 4, 2002, respectively. Total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the tests were compared using a Latin square design. For the gravid trap infusion media, significant differences were found for total number of mosquitoes collected where sod > or = hay > or = hay side-by-side diluted hay > dilute hay side-by-side hay > or = oak > diluted hay. Only Aedes albopictus (oak), Culex quinquefasciatus (sod and both concentrated hay infusions), and Culex restuans (sod) were captured in significantly greater numbers using a particular infusion. Significant differences for the total number of mosquitoes collected were also observed in the commercial mosquito traps such that the gravid trap > ultra violet up-draft > or = Mosquito Magnet Pro > or = omnidirectional Fay-Prince trap with CO2 > up-draft CDC-style with CO2 > or = CDC-style with CO2. Significant differences in numbers collected among traps were noted for several species, including Aedes vexans, Aedes albopictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, and Culex salinarius. Results from these field trap and infusion evaluations can enhance current surveillance efforts, especially for the primary vectors of West Nile virus and other arboviruses.

  4. Susceptibility to Heat-Related Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Heidari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification of populations susceptible to heat effects is critical for targeted prevention and more accurate risk assessment. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance (FEI may provide an objective indicator of heat morbidity. Data on daily ambient temperature and FEI emergency department (ED visits were collected in Atlanta, Georgia, USA during 1993–2012. Associations of warm-season same-day temperatures and FEI ED visits were estimated using Poisson generalized linear models. Analyses explored associations between FEI ED visits and various temperature metrics (maximum, minimum, average, and diurnal change in ambient temperature, apparent temperature, and heat index modeled using linear, quadratic, and cubic terms to allow for non-linear associations. Effect modification by potential determinants of heat susceptibility (sex; race; comorbid congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes; and neighborhood poverty and education levels was assessed via stratification. Higher warm-season ambient temperature was significantly associated with FEI ED visits, regardless of temperature metric used. Stratified analyses suggested heat-related risks for all populations, but particularly for males. This work highlights the utility of FEI as an indicator of heat morbidity, the health threat posed by warm-season temperatures, and the importance of considering susceptible populations in heat-health research.

  5. Metro Access Convergence for Broadband Future Low Energy Consumption Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M.T. Beleffi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In study the impact of the optical technologies and infrastructures on the reduction of the carbon footprint maintaining high level of broadband to the end user is discussed. Approach: Authors analyze the main energy consumers in Core, Metro and Access Networks as well as the topology and the performaces of the EU FP7 SARDANA Project, a long reach full optical metro access convergent network. This permit to have a clear and innovative view on the topic of the green networks comparing commercial and on the edge solutions for the critical access segment. Three scenarios have been assumed with different uplink bandwidths: unlimited uplink in the CO, limited uplink of 400 Gbit sec-1 and strong limitation of 100 Gbit sec-1. Additionally, three different sizes of the access network with 100, 1,000 and 10,000 subscribers connected to a single CO have been considered. Results: Increasing the number of users and reducing the uplink bandwidth, the difference in energy efficiency between TDM and PONs and P-t-P FTTH networks increases. Conclusion: Authors conclude that in general, a SARDANA like network provides very good energy efficiency for both limited and unlimited uplink and for small and large networks.

  6. Long-Term Deformation Monitoring of Metro-Tunnel Airshaft Excavation during Construction Stage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ran, L; Yi, T. H; Ye, X. W; Dong, X. B

    2012-01-01

    .... Owing to the complex geological condition, harsh construction situation, and immature computational methodology, construction of metro systems is often subjected to considerable sources of uncertainties...

  7. Time-series Analysis of Heat Waves and Emergency Department Visits in Atlanta, 1993 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    Heat waves are extreme weather events that have been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, there is limited knowledge of heat waves' impact on population morbidity, such as emergency department (ED) visits. We investigated associations between heat waves and ED visits for 17 outcomes in Atlanta over a 20-year period, 1993-2012. Associations were estimated using Poisson log-linear models controlling for continuous air temperature, dew-point temperature, day of week, holidays, and time trends. We defined heat waves as periods of consecutive days with temperatures beyond the 98th percentile of the temperature distribution over the period from 1945-2012. We considered six heat wave definitions using maximum, minimum, and average air temperatures and apparent temperatures. Associations by heat wave characteristics were examined. Among all outcome-heat wave combinations, associations were strongest between ED visits for acute renal failure and heat waves defined by maximum apparent temperature at lag 0 [relative risk (RR) = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.29], ED visits for ischemic stroke and heat waves defined by minimum temperature at lag 0 (RR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.17), and ED visits for intestinal infection and heat waves defined by average temperature at lag 1 (RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00-1.21). ED visits for all internal causes were associated with heat waves defined by maximum temperature at lag 1 (RR = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.04). Heat waves can confer additional risks of ED visits beyond those of daily air temperature, even in a region with high air-conditioning prevalence. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP44.

  8. Implementasi Program Pembinaan Napi di Lapas Kelas II B Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsidi Narsidi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap kesiapan sarana fisik dan nonfisik, jenis program pembinaan yang dilaksanakan, proses pelaksanaan program pembinaan, hasil, dan kemanfaatan program bagi narapidana di Lapas. Penelitian ini adalah jenis penelitian studi kasus dengan pendekatan kualitatif fenomenologis naturalistik. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui teknik observasi dan wawancara Teknik analisis data menggunakan model analisis interaktif dari Miles dan Huberman (1984. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan, bahwa Lapas Kelas II B Metro secara nonfisik masih memiliki kekurangan, baik kuantitas maupun kualitas. Proses pembinaan narapidana di Lapas belum banyak mengadopsi teori pembelajaran orang dewasa sehingga model pembelajarannya masih cenderung menggunakan model pembelajaran anak-anak (paedagogik. Secara umum dapat dikatakan bahwa pembinaan yang dilakukan Lapas dirasakan kemanfaatannya oleh narapidana.Namun, pembinaan yang dilakukan belum dapat memenuhi minat dan kebutuhan narapidana. Kata kunci: implementasi, program, pembinaan, narapidana.

  9. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yi; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Mao, I-Fang; Lu, Chung-Yen

    2016-12-02

    Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS) in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), ozone (O₃), airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO₂, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan's Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA). However, elevated PM10 and PM2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan's Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations.

  10. Urban policy engagement with social sustainability in metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Meg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of social sustainability in comparative theoretical context and as a challenge to the post-political interpretation of sustainability in policy practice at the urban and regional scales. Metro Vancouver provides a case study for improving our understanding of the meaning of social sustainability as a framework for social policy in that it is among the handful of cities around the world currently working to define and enact social sustainability in governance terms. Results of this participant research provide evidence that some cities are politically engaging alternative development pathways using the concept of social sustainability. For sustainable development to retain its promise as an alternative policy framework for cities, social sustainability must be at the forefront.

  11. EVA Metro Sedan electric-propulsion system: test and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimers, E.

    1979-09-01

    The procedure and results of the performance evaluation of the EVA Metro Sedan (car No. 1) variable speed dc chopper motor drive and its three speed automatic transmission are presented. The propulsion system for a battery powered vehicle manufactured by Electric Vehicle Associates, Valley View, Ohio, was removed from the vehicle, mounted on the programmable electric dynamometer test facility and evaluated with the aid of a hp 3052A Data Acquisition System. Performance data for the automatic transmission, the solid state dc motor speed controller, and the dc motor in the continuous and pulsating dc power mode, as derived on the dynamometer test facility, as well as the entire propulsion system are given. This concept and the system's components were evaluated in terms of commercial applicability, maintainability, and energy utility to establish a design base for the further development of this system or similar propulsion drives. The propulsion system of the EVA Metro Sedan is powered by sixteen 6-volt traction batteries, Type EV 106 (Exide Battery Mfg. Co.). A thyristor controlled cable form Pulsomatic Mark 10 controller, actuated by a foot throttle, controls the voltage applied to a dc series field motor, rated at 10 hp at 3800 rpm (Baldor Electric Co.). Gear speed reduction to the wheel is accomplished by the original equipment three speed automatic transmission with torque converter (Renault 12 Sedan). The brake consists of a power-assisted, hydraulic braking system with front wheel disk and rear drum. An ability to recuperate electric energy with subsequent storage in the battery power supply is not provided.

  12. 77 FR 43806 - Foreign-Trade Zone 26-Atlanta, GA; Application for Reorganization (Expansion of Service Area...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... the Board's regulations, Kathleen Boyce of the FTZ Staff is designated examiner to evaluate and... via www.trade.gov/ftz . For further information, contact Kathleen Boyce at Kathleen.Boyce@trade.gov...

  13. Elasticidad precio de la demanda y perfil de los usuarios de la parada “Pablo de Olavide" de Metro de Sevilla || Price Elasticity of Demand and Profile of “Pablo de Olavide" Metro Stop's Users of Seville Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Díaz, Alfredo G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo mostramos los resultados más relevantes obtenidos en un proceso de encuestación a 300 usuarios de la estación “Pablo de Olavide" del metro de Sevilla. El objetivo del trabajo es doble: por un lado, analizar el perfil del usuario (motivaciones por las que usan el metro, intermodalidad y flujos; mientras que, por otro lado, a partir de las disposiciones a pagar con respecto a posibles incrementos en el precio del servicio, estimamos parcialmente la elasticidad precio de la demanda para esta población objetivo tan concreta. El perfil tan específico de los usuarios de dicha parada así como las características propias del metro de Sevilla explican algunos de los resultados obtenidos esperando ayuden a los gestores y administradores de Metro de Sevilla en la toma de decisiones. || In this paper the most relevant results obtained in a survey conducted by 300 users of the “Pablo de Olavide" Seville metro stop are presented. The aim of the paper is twofold. On the one hand, the user profile is analysed: motivations for using the subway, intermodality and ows, whereas, on the other hand, the price elasticity of demand is partially computed by means of the willingness to pay for that specic user profile. In fact, both the particular user profile and Seville metro's characteristics explain some of the obtained results that hopefully will help managers of Seville Metro in making decisions.

  14. Topology Vulnerability Analysis and Measure of Urban Metro Network: The case of Nanjing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Deng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban metro network system is the most effective solution for relieving traffic congestion in large cities. With the development of metro, vulnerability analysis is a core process of metro safety management under the condition of network operation. In this paper, Nanjing planned metro network, in china, which was investigated and analyzed based on the graph theory complex network theory. The metro network topology characteristics and functional properties can be studied by Space L model. Several parameters were used to analyze and measure the topology vulnerability. The fraction of removed nodes is discussed and quantitatively compared in different protocols; meanwhile, the critical threshold of the fraction is 0.05-0.07. The study indicates that Nanjing planned metro network sharing some similar characteristics with those of scale-free network and small world network simultaneously; the metro network is robust against random attacks but vulnerable to malicious attacks; two parameters called global efficiency and average path length were proposed to measure the vulnerability of metro network. In the quantization of vulnerability, both betweens and degree need to be comprehensively considered, because parameter value and its influence are not absolutely positively correlated; In the end, a qualitative calculation method is proposed to calculate the node or vulnerability based on global efficiency and average path length.

  15. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...

  16. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and Metro system due to the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to the city centre of Copenhagen. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...

  17. Technical report. Graduate Student Focus on Diversity Workshop, 1999 SIAM Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, May 12, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1999-05-12

    The Third SIAM Graduate Student Focus on Diversity workshop was held May 12 at the Sheraton Atlanta Hotel on the first day of the 1999 SIAM Annual Meeting. The day-long workshop consisted of several different activities: eight technical talks by under-represented minority graduate students, a lively panel discussion concerning the benefits of undergraduate summer research programs, informal luncheon and pizza breaks to foster social interaction, and an evening forum with candid discussions of graduate school experiences from a minority graduate student perspective. These sessions were open to the entire SIAM community and served to highlight the progress, achievements, and aspirations of the workshop participants.

  18. American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT)-111th annual meeting. 17-20 March 2010, Atlanta, GA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veryard, Claire

    2010-05-01

    The 111th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, held in Atlanta, included topics covering disclosures of new data in the field of pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. This conference report highlights selected presentations on pharmacokinetic studies of several investigational drugs, including evatanepag (Pfizer Inc), AEG-33773 (Aegera Therapeutics Inc), JNJ-16269110 (Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development LLC), PF-3716539 (ViiV Healthcare), MK-0736 (Merck & Co Inc), a combination of Ginkgo biloba and cilostazol (Renexin SK Chemicals Co Ltd), PP-101 (Pacific Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd), ACT-178882 (Acetlion Ltd/Merck & Co Inc) and edoxaban (Daiichi Sankyo Co Ltd).

  19. Prediction of Severe Acute Pancreatitis Using a Decision Tree Model Based on the Revised Atlanta Classification of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Yang

    Full Text Available To develop a model for the early prediction of severe acute pancreatitis based on the revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis.Clinical data of 1308 patients with acute pancreatitis (AP were included in the retrospective study. A total of 603 patients who were admitted to the hospital within 36 hours of the onset of the disease were included at last according to the inclusion criteria. The clinical data were collected within 12 hours after admission. All the patients were classified as having mild acute pancreatitis (MAP, moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP based on the revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis. All the 603 patients were randomly divided into training group (402 cases and test group (201 cases. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were used to identify the independent risk factors for the development of SAP in the training group. Then the prediction model was constructed using the decision tree method, and this model was applied to the test group to evaluate its validity.The decision tree model was developed using creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and oxygenation index to predict SAP. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of SAP in the training group were 80.9% and 90.0%, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity in the test group were 88.6% and 90.4%, respectively.The decision tree model based on creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and oxygenation index is more likely to predict the occurrence of SAP.

  20. 77 FR 66471 - Methodology for Designation of Frontier and Remote Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... affecting rural hospitals and health care and coordinating activities within the Department that relate to...) consist of a dozen codes and uses the Office of Management and Budget's definition of metropolitan to... health status indicators within non-metro areas will not be apparent unless non-metro data are...

  1. Typhoon Haiyan-Induced Storm Surge Simulation in Metro Manila Using High-Resolution LiDAR Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge is the abnormal rise in sea water over and above astronomical tides due to a forthcoming storm. Developing an early warning system for storm surges is vital due to the high level of hazard they might cause. On 08 November 2013, Typhoon Haiyan generated storm surges that killed over 6,000 people in the central part of the Philippines. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology was tasked to create storm surge hazard maps for the country's coastal areas. The research project aims to generate storm surge hazard maps that can be used for disaster mitigation and planning. As part of the research, the team explored a scenario wherein a tropical cyclone hits the Metro Manila with strength as strong as Typhoon Haiyan. The area was chosen primarily for its political, economic and cultural significance as the country's capital. Using Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge model, FLO2D flooding software, LiDAR topographic data, and GIS technology, the effects of a Haiyan-induced tropical cyclone passing through Metro Manila was examined. The population affected, number of affected critical facilities, and potential evacuation sites were identified. The outputs of this study can be used by the authorities as basis for policies that involve disaster risk reduction and management.

  2. Emission inventory of evaporative emissions of VOCs in four metro cities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; née Som Majumdar, Dipanjali

    2010-01-01

    High concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air of urban areas stress the need for the control of VOC emissions due to the toxic and carcinogenic nature of many VOCs commonly encountered in urban air. Emission inventories are an essential tool in the management of local air quality, which provide a listing of sources of air pollutant emissions within a specific area over a specified period of time. This study intended to provide a level IV emission inventory as par the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) definition for evaporative VOC emissions in the metro cities of India namely Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. The vehicular evaporative emissions are found to be the largest contributor to the total evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons followed by evaporative losses related to petrol loading and unloading activities. Besides vehicle-related activities, other major sources contributing to evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons are surface coating, dry cleaning, graphical art applications, printing (newspaper and computer), and the use of consumer products. Various specific preventive measures are also recommended for reducing the emissions.

  3. Confiabilidade intra e interexaminadores e erro da medição no uso do goniômetro e inclinômetro digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolline Maciel dos Santos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A amplitude de movimento articular (ADM é um importante componente avaliado durante o exame físico; porém, para que essa mensuração possa ser utilizada, é necessário que ela seja confiável e que suas propriedades de medida sejam conhecidas. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a confiabilidade inter e intraexaminadores das medidas realizadas pelo goniômetro e inclinômetro na avaliação da ADM de flexão e extensão de joelho e cotovelo, e determinar o erro padrão da medição (EPM dos instrumentos em questão. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada ADM de flexão e extensão de cotovelo e joelho, bilateralmente, de uma amostra de indivíduos jovens saudáveis do gênero masculino, com faixa etária entre 18 e 30 anos, utilizando um inclinômetro digital e um goniômetro universal. RESULTADOS: A confiabilidade interexaminador variou de pequena a muito alta para os dois instrumentos, apresentando CCI de 0,24 a 0,96 para as medidas feitas com o goniômetro, e de 0,02 a 0,98 para o inclinômetro. O único movimento que obteve confiabilidade muito alta para ambos os aparelhos e examinadores foi a flexão de joelho. O EPM determinado por meio da goniometria e inclinometria variou entre 0,21 e 12,75 graus. CONCLUSÃO: O inclinômetro digital apresenta melhores índices de confiabilidade que o goniômetro para as medidas de ADM. Apenas quatro medidas obtiveram CCI alto e EPM abaixo de dois graus, e, assim, foram consideradas apropriadas para serem utilizadas clinicamente, todas essas realizadas com o inclinômetro.

  4. How Can I Trust You if You Don’t Know Who You Are? The Consequences of a Fluid Identity on Cross-Racial Organizing between African American Women and Latinas in Atlanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisa González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scholarship in the area of cross-racial organizing between Latina/o and African Americans has increased substantially over the past ten years. Within that literature, scholars have identified many reasons why cross-racial coalitions both succeed and fail. Among the factors most often cited is the issue of trust. Despite the recognition of the crucial role trust plays in cross-racial organizing, little attention has been paid to what contributes to actually building trust between African Americans and Latina/o. I argue that one factor contributing to the distrust of Latinas among African American women involved in cross-racial organizing in Atlanta is the perceived discrepancy between Latinas’ own asserted identity and the identity assigned to them by African American women organizers. Using data gathered from six years of participant observation and forty interviews conducted with African American women and Latinas organizing in Georgia, I discuss the consequences of identity construction for cross-racial organizing. I find that within cross-racial organizing spaces in Atlanta, perceived racial identities are used by African American women as proxies for determining Latina organizers’ commitment to social justice and, correspondingly, how much individual Latinas can be trusted. Specifically, I find that African American respondents view Latina identity as optional and potentially white. Latina respondents, on the other hand, assert strong identities and contend that their perceived “optional” identities are a function of what Anzaldúa calls a mestiza consciousness or the straddeling of multiple identities. I argue that understanding how these identities are assigned and asserted by Latinas and African American women is a crucial and often-overlooked component to building trust, and by extension, to building sustainable cross-racial coalitions.

  5. King County Metro Battery Electric Bus Demonstration: Preliminary Project Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The U.S. Federal Transit Administration (FTA) funds a variety of research projects that support the commercialization of zero-emission bus technology. To evaluate projects funded through these programs, FTA has enlisted the help of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct third-party evaluations of the technologies deployed under the FTA programs. NREL works with the selected agencies to evaluate the performance of the zero-emission buses compared to baseline conventional buses in similar service. The evaluation effort will advance the knowledge base of zero-emission technologies in transit bus applications and provide 'lessons learned' to aid other fleets in incrementally introducing next generation zero-emission buses into their operations. This report provides preliminary performance evaluation results from a demonstration of three zero-emission battery electric buses at King County Metro in King County, Washington. NREL developed this preliminary results report to quickly disseminate evaluation results to stakeholders. Detailed evaluation results will be published in future reports.

  6. Indoor Air Quality in the Metro System in North Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution is an increasing health concern, especially in enclosed environments such as underground subway stations because of increased global usage by urban populations. This study measured the indoor air quality of underground platforms at 10 metro stations of the Taipei Rapid Transit system (TRTS in Taiwan, including humidity, temperature, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, formaldehyde (HCHO, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, ozone (O3, airborne particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, bacteria and fungi. Results showed that the CO2, CO and HCHO levels met the stipulated standards as regulated by Taiwan’s Indoor Air Quality Management Act (TIAQMA. However, elevated PM10 and PM2.5 levels were measured at most stations. TVOCs and bacterial concentrations at some stations measured in summer were higher than the regulated standards stipulated by Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration. Further studies should be conducted to reduce particulate matters, TVOCs and bacteria in the air of subway stations.

  7. El programa de mano Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. James F. Willis García-Talavera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es el primero de una serie de artículos que analizan, desde una perspectiva multidisciplinar, la trayectoria de una de las principales productoras y distribuidoras de Hollywood, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, durante sus llamados “años dorados” (1931-1941, utilizando el programa de mano como fuente primaria de la investigación. Tras un minucioso estudio, el programa de mano se revela como un peculiar método de publicidad cinematográfica que, rebasando los límites de su función originaria, se puede convertir en modelo de expresión artística, coyuntural elemento propagandístico, archivo visual de imágenes perdidas o auténtico objeto de culto para coleccionistas.ABSTRACT: This is the first of a series of articles which analyze, from an interdisciplinary perspective, the course of one of Hollywood´s main producers and distributors, MGM, during the so-called Golden Years (1931/1941 using the program as a primary source of investigation. After a detailed study, the program reveals itself as a peculiar method of cinema advertising which, exceeding the limits of its original function, can become a model of art expression, structural advertising element, a visual file of lost images or real cult object for collectors.

  8. Um Termômetro para as Macro-Prudenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Kanczuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvemos um modelo com fricções no crédito tanto para firmas como famílias. Crédito às firmas é tratado como nos modelos de acelerador financeiro (e.g. Bernanke e Gilchrist (1999. Os juros sobre os recursos emprestados às famílias dependem de seu endividamento, como em Curdia e Woodford (2010. O modelo é estimado para o Brasil, utilizado para estudar os episódios de desaceleração, e para a extração dos prêmios de financiamento (destilados a partir de dados não financeiros, os quais são comparados com informações sobre crédito às pessoas físicas e jurídicas. Dessa forma, o obtém-se um termômetro para mensurar como medidas prudenciais sobre o crédito afetam atividade e inflação.

  9. Construcción de un densímetro operado magnéticamente

    OpenAIRE

    PINZÓN, JORGE A.; Blanco, Luis H.

    2010-01-01

    Se diseñó y construyó un densímetro operado magnéticamente, el cual permite determinar la densidad de una solución con precisión hasta la quinta cifra decimal. En el diseno se tuvo en cuenta la posibilidad de poder armar y desarmar fácilmente las diferentes piezas que constituyen el densímetro, con el objeto de cambiar la bobina principal y asi aumentar el rango de las densidades que se pueden medir. La calibración del densímetro se realizó mediante anillos de platino y soluciones de cloruro ...

  10. Food Insecurity and Food Access in U.S. Metro Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.; Li, J.

    2015-01-01

    Household food insecurity in the United States has reached its highest levels to date. As public and private initiatives have emerged to help improve diets by fostering access to food, the availability of more food stores may result in lower levels of food insecurity. In this article, we assess the

  11. ASTHMA, ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS, AND HYPERTENSION AMONG ARAB AMERICANS IN THE METRO DETROIT AREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of environmental risk factors in asthma etiology has been well-documented, and certain environmental risk factors have also been associated with hypertension. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between hypertension and asthma. This study...

  12. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. (Dept. of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Influencia de los parámetros de proceso, en el comportamiento del parámetro vibración absoluta en turbinas de vapor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado en turbinas de vapor de pequeña capacidad de generación de las centrales termoeléctricas cubanas, relacionadas con la influencia estadística entre parámetros de proceso de la turbina, respecto al parámetro vibración absoluta, medidos en las chumaceras de la turbina. Se utilizan las bases de datos de los sistemas de monitoreado on-line de la turbina. Se exponen las relaciones existentes entre los principales parámetros seleccionados para este estudio.This work show the study in small steam turbine capacity of generation in cubans thermoelectric power station to relative with statistical influence between steam process parameters regarding absolute vibration parameter, in the steam housing measurements. Themselves use database as steam on-line monitoring systems. Expose the existing relation between the principal selection parameters for this study.

  14. Modeling the Effect of Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems on Nitrate Load Using SWAT in an Urban Watershed of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (OWTSs) can be a source of nitrate (NO3-) contamination in both surface and ground waters as a result of failing or high density systems. In metropolitan Atlanta, more than 26% of homes are on OWTS and this percentage is expected to increase wi...

  15. A system's view of metro and regional optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cedric F.; Way, Winston I.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in fiber optic communications have been rejuvenated after the glut of the overcapacity at the turn of the century. The boom of video-centric network applications finally resulted in another wave of vast build-outs of broadband access networks such as FTTH, DOCSIS 3.0 and WI-FI systems, which in turn also drove up the bandwidth demands in metro and regional WDM networks. These new developments have rekindled research interests on technologies not only to meet the surging demand, but also to upgrade legacy network infrastructures in an evolutionary manner without disrupting existing services and incurring significant capital penalties. Standard bodies such as IEEE, ITU and OIF have formed task forces to ratify 100Gb/s interface standards. Thanks to the seemingly unlimited bandwidth in single-mode fibers, advances in optical networks has traditionally been fueled by more capable physical components such as more powerful laser, cleaner and wider bandwidth optical amplifier, faster modulator and photo-detectors, etc. In the meanwhile, the mainstream modulation technique for fiber optic communication systems has remained the most rudimentary form of on-off keying (OOK) and direct power detection for a very long period of time because spectral efficiency had never been a concern. This scenario, however, is no longer valid as demand for bandwidth is pushing the limit of current of current WDM technologies. In terms of spectral use, all the 100-GHz ITU grids in the C-band have been populated with 10Gb/s wavelengths in most of the WDM transport networks, and we are exhausting the power and bandwidth offered on existing fiber plant EDFAs. Beyond 10Gb/s, increasing the transmission to 40Gb/s by brute force OOK approach incurs significant penalties due to chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. With conventional modulation schemes, transmission impairments at 40Gb/s speed and above already become such difficult challenges that the efforts to manage these

  16. Correlation of climatic factors and dengue incidence in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Glenn L Sia

    2008-06-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in Metro Manila, Philippines. Increasing dengue incidence has been attributed to climate change; however, contradicting reports show inconclusive relationships between dengue and climatic factors. This study investigates temperature and rainfall as climatic factors affecting dengue incidence in Metro Manila from 1996 to 2005. Monthly dengue incidence and climatic data for Metro Manila were collected over a 10-y period (1996-2005). Climatic factors temperature and rainfall were linked with dengue incidence through regression analysis. A predictive model equation plots dengue incidence (Y) versus rainfall (X), which suggests that rainfall is significantly correlated to dengue incidence (r2 = 0.377, p 0.05). Evidence shows dengue incidence in Metro Manila varies with changing rainfall patterns. Intensified surveillance and control of mosquitoes during periods with high rainfall are recommended.

  17. Interim Evaluation Results from New Flyer/Allison Hybrid Buses at King County Metro: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric articulated transit buses operated by King County Metro.

  18. Recent Advances of Multi-Channel Transmission in Metro Access Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.J.; Thiele; L.E.; Nelson; B.; Eichenbaum; S.K.; Das

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the concept of coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (CWDM) for metro networks. After reviewing the requirements on components such as lasers and fiber, we propose different architectures for a flexible upgrade of existing CWDM systems.

  19. EPA, 12 Private Entities Agree to Remove Contamination and Conduct Study at Metro Container Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILADELPHIA (October 21, 2015) -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 12 private entities have agreed to settle on actions that will lead to increased environmental protection at the Metro Container Superfund Site in Trainer, Delaware Co.,

  20. Calibrating R-LINE model results with observational data to develop annual mobile source air pollutant fields at fine spatial resolution: Application in Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xinxin; Russell, Armistead G.; Sampath, Poornima; Mulholland, James A.; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Yunhee; D'Onofrio, David

    2016-12-01

    The Research LINE-source (R-LINE) dispersion model for near-surface releases is a dispersion model developed to estimate the impacts of line sources, such as automobiles, on primary air pollutant levels. In a multiyear application in Atlanta, R-LINE simulations overestimated concentrations and spatial gradients compared to measurements. In this study we present a computationally efficient procedure for calculating annual average spatial fields and develop an approach for calibrating R-LINE concentrations with observational data. Simulated hourly concentrations of PM2.5, CO and NOx from mobile sources at 250 m resolution in the 20-county Atlanta area based on average diurnal emission profiles and meteorological categories were used to estimate annual averages. Compared to mobile source PM2.5 impacts estimated by chemical mass balance with gas constraints (CMB-GC), a source apportionment model based on PM2.5 speciation measurements, R-LINE estimates of traffic-generated PM2.5 impacts were found to be higher by a factor of 1.8 on average across all sites. Compared to observations of daily 1 h maximum CO and NOx, R-LINE estimates were higher by factors of 1.3 and 4.2 on average, respectively. Annual averages estimated by R-LINE were calibrated by regression with observations from 2002 to 2011 at multiple sites for daily 1 h maximum CO and NOx and with measurement-based mobile source impacts estimated by CMB-GC for PM2.5. The calibration reduced normalized mean bias (NMB) from 29% to 0.3% for PM2.5, from 22% to -1% for CO, and from 303% to 49% for NOx. Cross-validation analysis (withholding sites one at a time) leads to NMB of 13%, 1%, and 69% for PM2.5, CO, and NOx, respectively. The observation-calibrated R-LINE annual average spatial fields were compared with pollutant fields from observation-blended, 12 km resolution Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model fields for CO and NOx, with Pearson correlation R2 values of 0.55 for CO and 0.54 for NOx found. The

  1. A metro-access integrated network with all-optical virtual private network function using DPSK/ASK modulation format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Leng, Lufeng; Su, Yikai

    2008-11-01

    All-optical virtual private network (VPN), which offers dedicated optical channels to connect users within a VPN group, is considered a promising approach to efficient internetworking with low latency and enhanced security implemented in the physical layer. On the other hand, time-division multiplexed (TDM) / wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) network architecture based on a feeder-ring with access-tree topology, is considered a pragmatic migration scenario from current TDM-PONs to future WDM-PONs and a potential convergence scheme for access and metropolitan networks, due to its efficiently shared hardware and bandwidth resources. All-optical VPN internetworking in such a metro-access integrated structure is expected to cover a wider service area and therefore is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a TDM/WDM metro-access integrated network supporting all-optical VPN internetworking among ONUs in different sub- PONs based on orthogonal differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) / amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation format. In each ONU, no laser but a single Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is needed for the upstream and VPN signal generation, which is cost-effective. Experiments and simulations are performed to verify its feasibility as a potential solution to the future access service.

  2. Analisis Framing Pemberitaan Metro TV Mengenai Kasus Ambalat dan Dampaknya bagi Hub. Bilateral Indonesia dengan Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Husain

    2012-01-01

    This research discusses about what the agendas and that the effects of Metro TV's News of teritory conflict of Ambalat in context of the bilateral relationship between Indonesia and Malaysia. Metro TV also makes a moral judgement which can encourage Indonesia to save their rights and wealth from Malaysia's claims. Therefore, the relationship between Indonesia and Malaysia is getting disharmony, weather in political, socio-cultural or religious relationship.

  3. Analisis Framing Pemberitaan Metro TV Mengenai kasus Ambalat & dampaknya bagi Hubungan Bilateral Indonesi DGN Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Husain

    2012-01-01

    This research discusses about the agendas and what the effects of Metro TV's news of teritory conflict of Ambalant in context of the billateral relationship between and Malaysia. Metro TV also makes a moral judgement which can encourage Indonesian to save their rights and wealth from Malaysia Claims. Therefore, the relationship between Indonesia and Malaysia is getting disharmony, weather in political, socio-cultural or religius relationshp

  4. Evaluating accessibility to Bangkok Metro Systems using multi-dimensional criteria across user groups

    OpenAIRE

    Duangporn Prasertsubpakij; Vilas Nitivattananon

    2012-01-01

    Metro systems act as fast and efficient transport systems for many modern metropolises; however, enhancing higher usage of such systems often conflicts with providing suitable accessibility options. The traditional approach of metro accessibility studies seems to be an ineffective measure to gage sustainable access in which the equal rights of all users are taken into account. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) transportation has increasingly relied on the role of two mass rapid transport syst...

  5. METRO Group正式启用第二代RFID技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    全球最大的零售商之一METRO Group在其遍布德国的全部“Cash & Carry”品牌批发商店正式启用了Intermec的第二代RFID技术。从4月1日起,METRO Group的供应商已经可以向该公司付运带有第二代RFID标签的货盘。

  6. Digital Non-Linear Equalization for Flexible Capacity Ultradense WDM Channels for Metro Core Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Zhang, Xu; Larsen, Knud J.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that digital non-linear equalization allows for using independent tunable DFB lasers spaced at 12.5 GHz for ultradense WDM PM-QPSK flexible capacity channels for metro core networking.......We experimentally demonstrate that digital non-linear equalization allows for using independent tunable DFB lasers spaced at 12.5 GHz for ultradense WDM PM-QPSK flexible capacity channels for metro core networking....

  7. Occurrence and Determination of Haloacetic Acids in Metro Manila Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene B. Rodriguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Haloacetic acids are found in chlorinated water with high organic matter content. An analytical method based on a US EPA method for measuring these compounds in water is described. The optimized method used diethyl ether as extraction solvent with sulphuric acid-methanol as esterification agent and subsequent detection by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Evaluation of this method showed that it was linear in the concentration range of 10 to 150 µg L-1 and the method detection limits were from 17 to 57 µg L-1. Although the method demonstrated low recoveries (16 to 43%, it is useful in the quantitative determination of monochloroacetic acid as well as the qualitative determination of other haloacetic acids in water. Drinking water samples taken from different areas in Metro Manila serviced by the local treatment plants were analysed using the method. Monochloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid, and bromochloroacetic acid were detected in these samples. Monochloroacetic acid was quantified and found in concentrations ranging from 19 to 157 µg L-1. In most of the water samples, the concentration of monochloroacetic acid exceeded the US EPA maximum allowable total concentration of 60 µg L-1 for the five haloacetic acids (monochloro-, dichloro-, trichloro-, monobromo-, and dibromoacetic acids in drinking water. This initial study established the occurrence of potentially harmful haloacetic acids in the local drinking water supplies.

  8. Asthma, environmental risk factors, and hypertension among Arab Americans in metro Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Markey; Nriagu, Jerome; Hammad, Adnan; Savoie, Kathryn; Jamil, Hikmet

    2010-10-01

    Asthma and obesity-related health problems disproportionately impact low-income ethnic minority communities residing in urban areas. Environmental risk factors, particularly those related to housing and indoor air, may impact the development or exacerbation of asthma. There is increasing evidence to suggest a link between obesity-related health problems and asthma. Previous studies have also reported that immigrant status may influence myriad risk factors and health outcomes among immigrant populations. The Arab American Environmental Health Project (AAEHP) was the first study to explore environmental health problems among Arab Americans. This paper examined whether hypertensive status modified the relationship between environmental risk factors and asthma among Arab Americans in metro Detroit. An environmental risk index (ERI) was used to quantify household environmental risk factors associated with asthma. Physician diagnosed hypertension was self-reported, and asthma status was determined using responses to a validated symptoms checklist and self-reported diagnosis by a physician. Hypertension significantly modified the relationship between ERI and asthma in this study population. The positive association between household environmental risk factors and asthma was stronger among participants diagnosed with hypertension. Effect modification of the relationship between environmental risk factors and asthma could have serious implications among high-risk communities. However, further research is needed to elucidate the relationships between hypertension, environmental risk factors, and asthma.

  9. Toward a Better Understanding of Non-Addicted, Methamphetamine-Using, Men who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Brian J

    2010-05-14

    Methamphetamine use has increasingly become linked with sexual risk behaviors among men have sex with men (MSM). Yet, the majority of research has been done with methamphetamine dependent MSM or with samples in which addiction to the substance was not evaluated. Furthermore, research with methamphetamine-using MSM in the Southern U.S. is lacking. In this study, focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted in order to understand the motives, context, and other facilitators and barriers of methamphetamine use among non-addicted MSM residing in Atlanta. Participants included 30 non-addicted, methamphetamine-using MSM and 16 local mental and public health officials. Findings from the first of this two-phase formative research project will result in the initial development of a community-tested, culturally-specific social marketing campaign and an individual-based intervention based in HIV-testing facilities.

  10. PM emissions measurements of in-service commercial aircraft engines during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.; Raper, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the results of the physical characterization of aircraft engine PM emission measurements conducted during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Engine exit plane PM emissions were sampled from on-wing engines on several in-service commercial transport aircraft from the fleet of Delta Airlines. The size distributions were lognormal in nature with a single mode. The geometric mean diameter was found to increase with increasing engine thrust, ranging from 15 nm at idle to 40 nm at takeoff. PM number- and mass-based emission indices were observed to be higher at the idle conditions (4% and 7%), lowest at 15%-30% thrust, and then increase with increasing thrust. Emissions measurements were also conducted during an advected plume study where over 300 exhaust plumes generated by a broad mix of commercial transports were sampled 100-350 m downwind from aircraft operational runways during normal airport operations. The range of values measured at take-off for the different engine types in terms of PM number-based emission index was between 7 × 1015-9 × 1017 particles/kg fuel burned, and that for PM mass-based emission index was 0.1-0.6 g/kg fuel burned. PM characteristics of aircraft engine specific exhaust were found to evolve over time as the exhaust plume expands, dilutes with ambient air, and cools. The data from these measurements will enhance the emissions inventory development for a subset of engines operating in the commercial fleet and improve/validate current environmental impact predictive tools with real world aircraft engine specific PM emissions inputs.

  11. Building America Case Study: Ground Source Heat Pump Research, TaC Studios Residence, Atlanta, Georigia (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed-humid climate. This home serves as a residence and home office for the firm's owners, as well as a demonstration of their design approach to potential and current clients. Southface believes the home demonstrates current best practices for the mixed-humid climate, including a building envelope featuring advanced air sealing details and low density spray foam insulation, glazing that exceeds ENERGY STAR requirements, and a high performance heating and cooling system. Construction quality and execution was a high priority for TaC Studios and was ensured by a third party review process. Post construction testing showed that the project met stated goals for envelope performance, an air infiltration rate of 2.15 ACH50. The homeowner's wished to further validate whole house energy savings through the project's involvement with Building America and this long-term monitoring effort. As a Building America test home, this home was evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and the efficiency and operation of the ground source heat pump and associated systems. Given that the home includes many non-typical end use loads including a home office, pool, landscape water feature, and other luxury features not accounted for in Building America modeling tools, these end uses were separately monitored to determine their impact on overall energy consumption.

  12. Fiches pratiques: Domino gastronomique; Ticket de metro; Articles definis et indefinis; Texte en scenes (Practical Ideas: Gastronomic Dominos; Metro Ticket; Definite and Indefinite Articles; Text on Stage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriou, Marianthi; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four language classroom activities are described, including a food game, a culture and language activity based on a Paris Metro ticket, an exercise in the use of definite and indefinite articles using a film poster, and a classroom adaptation of a fairy tale for dramatic oral presentation. (MSE)

  13. Fiches pratiques: Domino gastronomique; Ticket de metro; Articles definis et indefinis; Texte en scenes (Practical Ideas: Gastronomic Dominos; Metro Ticket; Definite and Indefinite Articles; Text on Stage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriou, Marianthi; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four language classroom activities are described, including a food game, a culture and language activity based on a Paris Metro ticket, an exercise in the use of definite and indefinite articles using a film poster, and a classroom adaptation of a fairy tale for dramatic oral presentation. (MSE)

  14. Noise assessment inside the second-line of the Greater Cairo Underground Metro

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mostafa E Aly

    2005-02-01

    Underground metro trains, which connect different terminals of big crowded cities, are the best means of public transportation. The metro is environmentally friendly because the trains are electrically driven and so do not emit chemical air-pollutants. The number of people using the Greater Cairo Underground Metro approaches two million per day, beside about one thousand workers in the different activities related to the metro. Metro users and workers complain about the high noise levels emitted by metro units travelling in the tunnels, especially at the turns, the entrance of tunnels and at stations while braking. Exposure to high noise levels for a long time causes many health hazards: either auditory, such as temporary and permanent hearing loss, or extra-auditory such as effects on the cardiovascular system, blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, central nervous system. Noise also leads to stress problems such as lack of concentration, leading to accidents. Noise has adverse effects on psychological, biological, immunological and hormonal systems of the body. Due to the above mentioned reasons, suggestion has been made to start this research to assess and diagnose these problems, and to find the proper methods for early detection and proper management of these health hazards; in addition to the engineering solutions for the noise problem. Measurements of noise levels have been made inside the units while travelling and outside the units at the stations platforms to evaluate the noise problem and to suggest some kind of solutions to the problem. The calculations of different noise indices have been made and compared with international criteria and national laws. The comparison shows that the noise levels are clearly unacceptable, for indices $L_{1},L_{99},$ and LNP, both inside the metro units and outside the units at station platforms along the passage.

  15. Factores que influyen en el coeficiente de estabilidad: diámetro y longitud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cervantes Haro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar si el diámetro y la longitud de los implantes dentales son factores determinantes de la estabilidad primaria. Material y métodos: Se colocaron 17 implantes unitarios OIN de la casa Osseolife® Implant System de diámetros 3,75, 4,25 y 5,0 mm y longitudes de 10 y 11,5 mm. El coeficiente de estabilidad fue medido mediante el Osstell Mentor® durante la cirugía de colocación. Los resultados obtenidos fueron comparados en cuanto al diámetro y la longitud con el estadístico para muestras independientes t de Student. Resultados: El coeficiente de estabilidad mayor fue para los implantes de diámetro estrecho (3,75 mm y cortos (10 mm con un ISQ de 75,5 y 76,0 respectivamente. Para los otros diámetros y longitud los resultados fueron: Para los implantes de 4,25 mm y 5,0 mm obtuvieron un ISQ de 74,7, y 74,33, respectivamente, y para el implante denominado largo con longitud de 11,5 mm el coeficiente de estabilidad fue de 70,85. En ambos parámetros, objeto de estudio, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con p>0,05. Conclusiones: Tanto la longitud como el diámetro no son factores determinantes del coeficiente de estabilidad primaria.

  16. Investigation into the vibration of metro bogies induced by rail corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Liang; Li, Wei; Foo, Elbert; Wu, Lei; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    The current research of rail corrugation mainly focuses on the mechanisms of its formation and development. Compared with the root causes and development mechanisms, the wheel-rail impacts, the fatigue failure of vehicle-track parts, and the loss of ride comfort due to rail corrugation should also be taken into account. However, the influences of rail corrugation on vehicle and track vibration, and failure of vehicle and track structural parts are barely discussed in the literature. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the structural vibration of metro bogies caused by rail corrugation. Extensive experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of short-pitch rail corrugation on the vibration accelerations of metro bogies. A dynamic model of a metro vehicle coupled with a concrete track is established to study the influence of rail corrugation on the structural vibration of metro bogies. The field test results indicate that the short-pitch rail corrugation generates strong vibrations on the axle-boxes and the bogie frames, therefore, accelerates the fatigue failure of the bogie components. The numerical results show that short-pitch rail corrugation may largely reduce the fatigue life of the coil spring, and improving the damping value of the primary vertical dampers is likely to reduce the strong vibration induced by short-pitch rail corrugation. This research systematically studies the effect of rail corrugation on the vibration of metro bogies and proposes some remedies for mitigating strong vibrations of metro bogies and reducing the incidence of failure in primary coil springs, which would be helpful in developing new metro bogies and track maintenance procedures.

  17. Air quality impacts and health-benefit valuation of a low-emission technology for rail yard locomotives in Atlanta Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Boris; Bergin, Michael; Boylan, James; Huang, Yan; Bergin, Michelle; Russell, Armistead G

    2015-11-15

    One of the largest rail yard facilities in the Southeastern US, the Inman and Tilford yards, is located in the northwestern section of Atlanta, Georgia alongside other industries, schools, businesses, and dwellings. It is a significant source of fine particulate (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) (Galvis, Bergin, & Russell, 2013). We calculate 2011 PM2.5 and BC emissions from the rail yards and primary industrial and on-road mobile sources in the area and determine their impact on local air quality using Gaussian dispersion modeling. We determine the change in PM2.5 and BC concentrations that could be accomplished by upgrading traditional switcher locomotives used in these rail yards to a lower emitting technology and evaluate the health benefits for comparison with upgrade costs. Emissions from the rail yards were estimated using reported fuel consumption data (GAEPD, 2012b) and emission factors previously measured in the rail yards (Galvis et al., 2013). Model evaluation against 2011 monitoring data found agreement between measured and simulated concentrations. Model outputs indicate that the line-haul and switcher activities are responsible for increments in annual average concentrations of approximately 0.5±0.03 μg/m(3) (39%) and 0.7±0.04 μg/m(3) (56%) of BC, and for 1.0±0.1 μg/m(3) (7%) and 1.6±0.2 μg/m(3) (14%) of PM2.5 at two monitoring sites located north and south of the rail yards respectively. Upgrading the switcher locomotives at the yards with a lower emitting technology in this case "mother slug" units could decrease PM2.5 and BC emissions by about 9 and 3 t/year respectively. This will lower annual average PM2.5 concentrations between 0.3±0.1 μg/m(3) and 0.6±0.1 μg/m(3) and BC concentrations between 0.1±0.02 μg/m(3) and 0.2±0.03 μg/m(3) at monitoring sites north and south of the rail yards respectively, and would facilitate PM2.5 NAAQS attainment in the area. We estimate that health benefits of approximately 20 million dollars per year

  18. Desenvolvimento de um infiltrômetro de aspersão portátil Development of a portable sprinkler infiltrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorico Alves Sobrinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se, neste trabalho, um infiltrômetro de aspersão portátil, cujas características de precipitação relativas a diâmetro de gotas e energia cinética de impacto das gotas produzidas sobre solo, são semelhantes àquelas da chuva natural. Os resultados dos testes efetuados permitiram concluir-se que: o infiltrômetro desenvolvido permite aplicar-se água de forma não intermitente, numa área útil de 0,70 m²; a uniformidade de distribuição de água, expressa pelo coeficiente de uniformidade de Christiansen, apresentou valores entre 82 a 87%; a relação entre a energia cinética da chuva produzida pelo infiltrômetro e a energia cinética da chuva natural, situou-se acima de 90% para intensidades de precipitação de até 100 mm h-1.A portable sprinkler infiltrometer with precipitation characteristics of drop diameter and kinetic energy of impact, similar to that of natural rainfall, was developed. Testing showed that the developed infiltrometer allowed continuous water application in an area of 0.70 m² and the uniformity of water distribution, expressed by the Christiansen uniformity coefficient was between 82 and 87%. The ratio between the kinetic energy of rainfall simulated by the infiltrometer and the kinetic energy of natural rainfall was more than 90% for precipitation intensities of up to 100 mm h-1.

  19. Determinants of property damage recovery time amongst households affected by an extreme flood event in Metro Manila, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Paolo Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the factors that influence household recovery following an extreme flood event, measured in terms of the length of time to repair, rebuild or replace damaged private property. Data was obtained through a survey of 400 households in Marikina City in Metro Manila, Philippines. Results from the empirical analysis indicated that household income, access to credit (borrowing, the use of a flood alarm system, access to safe shelter, membership in a community organisation, adoption of disaster-specific anticipatory measures and adoption of general preventive measures significantly reduced the time it took for affected households to recover from property damage. Evacuation, relief aid, type of housing, education, household size and frequency of flooding in the area did not have significant effects.

  20. Avaliação da amplitude articular do joelho: correlação entre as medidas realizadas com o goniômetro universal e no dinamômetro isocinético

    OpenAIRE

    Batista,LH; Camargo, PR; Aiello,GV; Oishi,J; Salvini,TF

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O instrumento mais utilizado pelos terapeutas para mensuração da amplitude de movimento (ADM) articular é o goniômetro universal. No entanto, há carência de estudos que analisem a confiabilidade das medidas da ADM do joelho realizadas no dinamômetro isocinético. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a correlação entre as medidas de ADM na articulação do joelho, realizadas com o goniômetro universal e no dinamômetro isocinético. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 38 voluntários...

  1. FIDEDIGNIDADE DA CORRIDA DE 1000 METROS PARA ESPAÇO REDUZIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia do Rosso Krug

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer a fidedignidade do teste de corrida de 1000 metros, padronizado por KLISSOURAS (1973, para espaço reduzido. A amostra foi constituída aleatoriamente de 240 escolares, sendo 120 escolares de cada sexo, e 30 escolares por idade e sexo, nas faixas etárias de 9 a 12 anos, matriculados nas escolas da rede municipal de ensino, da zona urbana, da cidade de Pelotas, RS. O peso corporal foi medido através de uma balança de alavanca e a estatura pelo estadiômetro. Utilizou-se o teste de corrida de 1000 metros, padronizado por KLISSOURAS (1973, para medir a potência aeróbica. Obteve-se correlação positiva significativa entre os resultados do teste de corrida de 1000 metros realizados em pista de atletismo com o de espaço reduzido (configuração oval. Conclui-se que na falta da pista de atletismo, pode-se realizar o teste de corrida de 1000 metros em espaço reduzido (configuração oval.

  2. POLA PENYEBAB KEMATIAN MELALUI PENINGKATAN SISTEM REGISTRASI KEMATIAN DI KOTA METRO TAHUN 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamria Pangaribuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statistics of mortality is an apart of vital registration system. Registraction system ie. fertility,mortality, merriage and migration. Age spesific by cause of death and age spesifics death rate are keyindicators of health status in population. Cause of data data is more effectif from mortality registrationsystem. In this system, every mortality is recorded by medic about cause of death. The MortalityRegistration Strengthening System Project will be developed mortality registration system comprehensifillyboth death even and cause of death. Objection: to determine cause of death in Metro City from MortalityRegistration System. Every mortality in Metro City was recorded by cause of death in MCCD based onICD 10. The source information to fill MCCD was medical record (mortality cases in health facility andautopsi verbal questionnaire (mortality cases at home. Autopsy verbal was collected by nurses andparamedics then the doctors was resumed and cause of death code in MCCD. The analyses data wasUnderlying causes of death based on 1CD 10. There are 613 mortality in Metro City in 2007, included 9still births. The place of mortality most at home (70% and 30% only in health facility. The main cause ofdeath in Metro City is stroke (25%. The mortality was rised by increasing of age. There are transition ofepidemiology in Metro City, communicable diseases turn to non communicable diseases as cause of death.Keywords: Mortality, Cause Of Death, Registration System

  3. Metro Profile: Bowling Green, Ky.: Cars, College and Caves

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Bowling Green metropolitan statistical area has shared in the relative prosperity of this part of Kentucky, thanks largely to the auto sector, tourism and Western Kentucky University. Stability in the housing market has also helped.

  4. Multímetro como sistema de medición alternativo en las valoraciones potenciométricas

    OpenAIRE

    José de Jesús Pérez-Saavedra; Sonia Rincón-Arce; Miguel Ángel Cisneros-Valladares

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, experimentalmente se demuestra que las valoraciones potenciométricas usuales en química analítica (acido-base, redox, complejométricas y de halogenuros) pueden llevarse a cabo utilizando como sistema indicador de punto de equivalencia, un multímetro en vez del potenciómetro, mediante la prueba estadística de t de Student; y se posibilita con esto que los laboratorios de docencia se puedan equipar mejor y a bajo costo, con multímetros en vez de potenciómetros.

  5. Construcción de un densímetro operado magnéticamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Pinzón

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó y construyó un densímetro operado magnéticamente, el cual permite determinar la densidad de una solución con precisión hasta la quinta cifra decimal. En el diseno se tuvo en cuenta la posibilidad de poder armar y desarmar fácilmente las diferentes piezas que constituyen el densímetro, con el objeto de cambiar la bobina principal y asi aumentar el rango de las densidades que se pueden medir. La calibración del densímetro se realizó mediante anillos de platino y soluciones de cloruro de sodio. Igualmente, se diseñó, construyó y montó un sistema para el control de temperatura, el cual no presentó desviaciones mayores de 10,006°C a 25°C.

  6. Numerical modeling and monitoring analysis of Heroísmo station, Metro do Porto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, P.; Sousa, T.; Silva, P.

    2007-01-01

    Metro do Porto is a major light rail infrastructure built in the city of Porto and surrounding municipalities. In Porto's downtown, classified by UNESCO as World Heritage, the metro was built underground. From a technical point of view, one of the most challenging underground metro stations due...... to the geomechanical unique heterogeneous characteristics of the granite rock mass in the Heroísmo station. This station was the first to be built. To better understand the behaviour and interaction of the structures with the surrounding rock masses numerical models were carried out. The geomechanical properties...... of the granite formations were given by the designer and also obtained through the software GEOPAT. The models' outputs were compared with the monitored results in order to validate the structural behaviour of the underground station....

  7. Desenvolvimento de um infiltrômetro de aspersão portátil

    OpenAIRE

    ALVES SOBRINHO, Teodorico; Ferreira, Paulo A.; Fernando F. Pruski

    2002-01-01

    Desenvolveu-se, neste trabalho, um infiltrômetro de aspersão portátil, cujas características de precipitação relativas a diâmetro de gotas e energia cinética de impacto das gotas produzidas sobre solo, são semelhantes àquelas da chuva natural. Os resultados dos testes efetuados permitiram concluir-se que: o infiltrômetro desenvolvido permite aplicar-se água de forma não intermitente, numa área útil de 0,70 m²; a uniformidade de distribuição de água, expressa pelo coeficiente de uniformidade d...

  8. Desarrollo de un Efecto de Sonido controlado mediante un acelerómetro

    OpenAIRE

    Naami, Amnay

    2015-01-01

    En este TFG se propone un nuevo procedimiento para accionar un efecto de sonido wah-wah basado en el uso de un acelerómetro que detecta el movimiento del pie del músico, sin necesidad de accionar directamente una plataforma. El efecto de sonido estaría formado por el acelerómetro, un circuito de detección de la señal del acelerómetro y generación de una señal de control que actúa sobre un filtro controlado por tensión (VCF) y el propio VCF, cuya frecuencia de corte depende de la señal d...

  9. Atlanta : A Mega Logistics Center in the Piedmont Atlantic Megaregion (PAM)

    OpenAIRE

    DABLANC, Laetitia; Ross, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at spatial patterns of freight and logistics activities and the planning and policy issues associated with them. Two important characteristics of the geography of the logistics industry are analyzed: (1) "Logistics sprawl", i.e. the spatial deconcentration of logistics facilities and distribution centers in metropolitan areas, and (2) the polarization of logistics activities, i.e. the concentration of logistics activities in very large metropolitan areas. The paper focuses on...

  10. Correlación de parámetros geotécnicos con parámetros de un modelo hidrológico superficial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andres Caro Camargo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la relación entre parámetros geotécnicos básicos y parámetros del modelo hidrológico de Thomas para balance hídrico de cuencas hidrográficas rurales. Esta relación funciona como una aplicación metodológica de calibración, herramienta útil en modelos distribuidos como es el caso de IBER, que representa un sistema distribuido de simulación numérica para flujo no permanente en lámina libre. Se realizó una exploración en 25 puntos (en 15 subcuencas de la cuenca de Rio de Piedras (Boyacá, obteniendo muestras de suelo a las cuales se les realizó caracterización geotécnica mediante ensayos de laboratorio.

  11. Effect of the restricted use of phosphate detergent and upgraded wastewater-treatment facilities of water quality in the Chattahoochee River near Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, D.J.; Frick, E.A.; Buell, G.R.; DeVivo, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Data compiled for the six largest waste-water treatment facilities in Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, indicate about an 83-percent reduction in the phosphorus load discharged to the Chattahoochee River from 1988 to 1993 because of restricted use of phosphate detergents and upgraded treatment of municipal wastewater. This reduction resulted in about a 54-percent decrease in the phosphorus load in the Chattahoochee River downstream of Atlanta during this time period. Phosphorus loads in animal manure and fertilizers applied to the land (nonpoint sources) are greater than loads discharged to the Chattahoochee River from wastewater-treatment facilities (point sources). However, only a fraction of the phosphorus applied to the land enters the surface waters and is bioavailable. Even though nonpoint sources of land applied phosphorus potentially are important sources to surface waters, point-source inputs from wastewater effluent are far greater. Phosphorus concentrations in wastewater effluent from three cities of Atlanta waste-water treatment facilities need to be reduced by about an additional 31 percent by 1996 to comply with Georgia Department of Natural Resources Environmental Protection Division regulations.

  12. Seasonal characterization of submicron aerosol chemical composition and organic aerosol sources in the southeastern United States: Atlanta, Georgia,and Look Rock, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Sri; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S.; Bairai, Solomon T.; Mueller, Stephen; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Knipping, Eladio M.; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-04-01

    A year-long near-real-time characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was conducted at an urban (Atlanta, Georgia, in 2012) and rural (Look Rock, Tennessee, in 2013) site in the southeastern US using the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) collocated with established air-monitoring network measurements. Seasonal variations in organic aerosol (OA) and inorganic aerosol species are attributed to meteorological conditions as well as anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in this region. The highest concentrations of NR-PM1 were observed during winter and fall seasons at the urban site and during spring and summer at the rural site. Across all seasons and at both sites, NR-PM1 was composed largely of OA (up to 76 %) and sulfate (up to 31 %). Six distinct OA sources were resolved by positive matrix factorization applied to the ACSM organic mass spectral data collected from the two sites over the 1 year of near-continuous measurements at each site: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA), isoprene-derived epoxydiols (IEPOX) OA (IEPOX-OA) and 91Fac (a factor dominated by a distinct ion at m/z 91 fragment ion previously observed in biogenic influenced areas). LV-OOA was observed throughout the year at both sites and contributed up to 66 % of total OA mass. HOA was observed during the entire year only at the urban site (on average 21 % of OA mass). BBOA (15-33 % of OA mass) was observed during winter and fall, likely dominated by local residential wood burning emission. Although SV-OOA contributes quite significantly ( ˜ 27 %), it was observed only at the urban site during colder seasons. IEPOX-OA was a major component (27-41 %) of OA at both sites, particularly in spring and summer. An ion fragment at m/z 75 is well correlated with the m/z 82 ion associated with the aerosol mass spectrum of IEPOX-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The

  13. Relación entre la Deseabilidad Social y los parámetros del Modelo Logístico de tres parámetros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Abal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la relación de los parámetros a , b y c del modelo logístico de tres parámetros y la tendencia de los individuos a atribuirse a sí mismo cualidades socialmente deseables. Participaron 1592 personas que respondieron las escalas Perseverancia y Distorsión del Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ. Se aplicó el ML3p a los ítems de perseverancia mediante el programa MULTILOG. Previamente se debieron eliminar 3 reactivos para cumplir con la condición de unidimensionalidad requerida por el modelo. Como la escala Likert de los ítems de perseverancia tiene 5 de alternativas se contemplaron diferentes procedimientos para establecer 4 condiciones de dicotomización de los datos. Los parámetros de los ítems se estimaron el procedimiento de Máxima Verosimilitud Marginal a Posteriori. El ajuste del ML3p fue adecuado para los 9 ítems analizados. Considerando las diferentes condiciones de dicotomización se identificaron entre 3 y 5 ítems de cuya respuesta clave se asoció a mayores niveles de Distorsión. Sin embargo, los resultados obtenidos no permiten concluir que la respuesta influida por la deseabilidad social repercuta sobre alguno de los parámetros estudiados. Se discuten las limitaciones del presente estudio y se comentan otras líneas de investigación que pueden guiar a futuros estudios.

  14. Comparación interlaboratorial de cronómetros 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fallas-Cordero

    2015-09-01

    En este trabajo se describe y presentan los resultados de una comparación de cronómetros que se llevó a cabo en Costa Rica, entre marzo del 2014 hasta octubre del mismo año, por el Laboratorio Metrológico de Variables Eléctricas (LMVE del Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE, como INM designado en Costa Rica para Electricidad, Magnetismo, Tiempo y Frecuencia. La comparación involucró 6 laboratorios participantes y un cronómetro patrón viajero.

  15. The Legend of the Old Shoemaker and the Metro Customer Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The legend of the old shoemaker and the Metro customer card tells how an old shoemaker was persuaded by his relatives to apply for a customer card at the Metro Cash & Carry store so that they could use the card for their own needs. Thus they ran up a big debt that the old man was unable to repay. This legend is an example of a transition legend about losers in the tansition process who were unable to develop the necessary skills and adjust themsleves to life under the new systemsystem

  16. Optimización de una cadena de suministros hospitalarios incorporando parámetros difusos

    OpenAIRE

    Kees, María Celeste; Cragno, María Constanza; Moreno, Marta Susana; Bandoni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es determinar la estructura óptima de una cadena de suministro de insumos hospitalarios. Para ello se plantea un modelo mixto entero lineal determinístico cuyos objetivos de optimización son tanto la minimización de los costos generales como la minimización de los tiempos de envío. Debido a la presencia de incertidumbre en algunos parámetros del problema, se presenta una segunda formulación multiobjetivo en la que se incorporan parámetros difusos a través de una m...

  17. Tension in In a Station of a Metro to Explore the Energy in Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳虹

    2013-01-01

    Pound’s poem In a Station of a Metro is a masterpiece of imagism. Pound once talked about the energy in language, and American scholar Allen Tate told us that the meaning of poetry is its tension. Based on those two notions, this essay focuses on that how the tension in In a Station of a Metro presented and those tensions form harmony, fully releasing the energy in language in Pound’s hand, enabling readers being fascinated for generations in that way.

  18. Control de los movimientos de un robot usando un acelerómetro y nios ii

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Játiva, Pablo Geovanny; Bastidas Carrillo, Segundo Jeancarlos; Ponguillo Intriago, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Este proyecto esta basado en el desarrollo e implementación de un control remoto para manejar los movimientos de un robot LEGO MINDSTORM NXT usando un acelerómetro ADXL345 incorporado en la tarjeta de desarrollo DE0-NANO y el procesador NIOS II. En este trabajo se abordan de forma general conceptos sobre protocolos de comunicación SPI, el protocolo usado por el robot, además de las características principales de la tarjeta DE0 NANO, de la FPGA Cyclone IV, del acelerómetro ADXL345 y del robot ...

  19. Bancos para ler e conversar : parâmetros de projeto para sistema de design generativo

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cláudia Vettoretti

    2010-01-01

    Esta dissertação trata do apoio ergonomico durante atividades de conversa e leitura em bancos públicos quando o corpo assume variadas posturas. São estruturados parâmetros de projeto associados a dimensionamentos antropométricos relacionados a posturas observadas. Os parâmetros são incorporados à estratégia procedural para geração de formas utilizando modelo geométrico com regras de combinação. O procedimento é testado no software Rhinoceros (Grasshopper) gerando designs alternativos de banco...

  20. Automatización de un lisímetro de pesada

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El desconocimiento de las necesidades de agua de los cultivos no tradicionales, es una de las principales preocupaciones de los productores de estos cultivos. Sin embargo; una alternativa es el uso del lisímetro, el cual es utilizado para determinar la lámina de agua requerida por el cultivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue automatizar el registro de las variables de peso y potencial mátrico, y la operación del sistema de riego en un lisímetro de pesada, a partir de una báscula con indicador ...

  1. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY SAVING AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY ISSUES DURING OPERATION OF THE METRO ROLLING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Donchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Nowadays a problem of significant power consumption of the rolling stock during its operation is a current issue. In connection with staged electricity rates increase further development of the rail electric transport, including metro rolling stock is impossible without a use of modern energy saving solutions and energy-efficient systems. To solve the specified problem it is necessary to carry out analysis of measures and determine prospective directions in energy saving and increase of energy efficiency on the metro rolling stock. Methodology. Using methods of scientific analysis, generalization, comparative analysis, forecasting and using results of experimental studies, the authors determined main ways for reduction of energy consumption during operation of the metro rolling stock. Energy cost analysis for metro rolling stock of the public utility (PU «Kiev Metro» was carried out. A great number of research works of native and foreign authors concerning the above mentioned problem were analyzed. Findings. Principal directions in energy saving and increase of energy efficiency of the metro rolling stock are implementation of recuperation systems, energy storage systems and energy-efficient control systems. It was determined that implementation of recuperation and energy storage systems helps to save a considerable amount of energy, consumed for traction, but it involves substantial investments. It is pointed out that in current complicated conditions of economic development of Ukraine, use of energy-efficient control systems is a perspective direction in energy saving. Main advantage of this direction is the economic effect obtaining without significant investments. Originality. For the first time was performed potential assessment for energy saving as a result of energy-efficient control systems use at type routine rolling stock operation modes on sections «Khreschatik –Teatralnaya – Khreschatik» and «Shulyavskaya

  2. Characteristics and chemical compositions of particulate matter collected at the selected metro stations of Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Li; Hu, Yunjie; Hu, Qingqing [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin, Jun [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, Chunlin; Chen, Jianmin [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Lina [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Fu, Hongbo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2014-10-15

    A campaign was conducted to assess and compare the air quality at the different metro platforms at Shanghai City, focusing on particulate matter (PM) levels, chemical compositions, morphology and mineralogy, as well as species of iron. Our results indicated that the average PM{sub 2.5} concentrations for the three metro lines were 177.7 μg/m{sup 3}, 105.7 μg/m{sup 3} and 82.5 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, and the average PM{sub 1} concentrations for the three lines were 122.3 μg/m{sup 3}, 84.1 μg/m{sup 3} and 59.6 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Sr, Ba and Pb concentrations in all of the sampling sites were significantly higher than that in the urban ambient air, implicating that these trace metals may be associated with the metro systems working. Individual airborne dusts were studied for morphology and mineralogy characteristics. The results revealed that the presence of most individual particles were with no definite shape and most of them were with a large metal content. Furthermore, Fe-rich particles had significantly higher abundance in the metro systems, which were more frequently encountered in the underground lines than the aboveground line. The 2D distribution map of an interested Fe-rich particle showed an uneven Fe distribution, implying that a hollow or core of other substance exists in the particle center during the formation process. Cluster analysis revealed that Fe-rich particles were possibly a mixture of Fe species. Fitting of X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure spectra (XANES) showed the main iron species within the particles collected from the three contrasting metro lines of Shanghai to be hematite, magnetite, iron-metal and mineral Fe. Hematite and mineral Fe were all found in three lines, while magnetite only existed in aboveground metro line. Iron-metal was determined in both the older and younger underground lines, based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. As diverse Fe species have different physical

  3. UPAYA MENINGKATKAN MOTIVASI BELAJAR SISWA MELALUI LAYANAN PENGUASAAN KONTEN DI SMP NEGERI 1 METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Pranoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian difokuskan pada : Upaya meningkatkan motivasi belajar melalui layanan penguasaan konten peserta didik kelas VII.4 SMP Negeri 1 Metro Semester Ganjil Tabun Pelajaran 2012/2013. Rumusan masalahnnya adalab, apakab layanan penguasaan konten dapat meningkatkan motivasi belajar peserta didik kelas VII.4 SMP N egeri 1 Metro Semester Ganjil Tabun Pelajaran 20 12/20 13, bagaimana aktivitas dan respon peserta didik kelas VIl.4 SMP Negeri 1 Metro Semester Ganjil Tabun Pelajaran 2012/2013 terhadap layanan penguasaan konten dalam meningkatkan motivasi belajar. Tujuan yang hendak dicapai oleh peneliti, yaitu ingin mengetabui hasil pelaksanaan layanan penguasaan konten dalam meningkatkan motivasi belajar peserta didik kelas VII.4 SMP Negeri 1 Metro Semester Ganjil Tabun Pelajaran 2011/2013, layanan penguasaan konten dapat meningkatkan motivasi belajar peserta didik kelas VIT.4 SMP Negeri 1 Metro Semester Ganjil Tahun Pelajaran 2012/2013. Respon peserta didik kelas VII.4 SMP Negeri 1 Metro Semester Ganjil Tabun Pelajaran 201212013 terhadap layanan penguasaan konten dalam meningkatkan motivasi belajar.Desain penelitian menggunakan action research yang diterapkan dalam layanan bimbingan konseling (penelitian tindak layanan. Subjek dalam penelitian ini, peneliti mengambil peserta didik kelas VII.4 SMP Negeri 1 Metro Semester Ganjil Tabun Pelajaran 2012/2013. Dari 24 peserta didik terdapat 10 peserta didik yang mengalami kurangnya motivasi belajar 41,66%. Metode yang digunakan dalam pengumpulan data dengan metode observasi dan catatan lapangan. Analisis data yang digunakan yaitu analisis data kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Uji validitas dilakukan melalui penilaian pakar/ahli yaitu guru bimbingan konseling SMP Negeri 1 Metro, ternan sejawat yaitu dilakukan diskusi instrument dengan ternan mahasiswa FKIP dengan program studi bimbingan konseling. Hasil dari penelitian ini, maka dapat disimpulkan babwa hasil yang diperoleh melalui pelaksanaan layanan pengusaan

  4. New Horizons at Pluto: An Overview of Educational Activities / Outreach at Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Edward F.; Harris, R. Scott

    2015-11-01

    We report on educational activities and associated outreach at Fernbank Science Center (Atlanta, GA) in conjunction with the July 2015 New Horizons spacecraft encounter at Pluto. On encounter day, a public lecture about the dwarf planet was presented by Georgia’s NASA Solar System ambassador to kick off the arrival of the space probe at Pluto. In the months following the flyby, we presented a program called “Exploring New Horizons” in the Science Center’s Zeiss planetarium. This program is a digital full-dome presentation about the discovery of Pluto and its subsequent exploration - including an overview of the New Horizons mission. Since NASA continues to receive data from the probe, a brief update (tribute) is included at the end of each planetarium program that features the latest imagery and data from the dwarf planet. We anticipate running the planetarium program throughout the fall semester of 2015. With Pluto visible in the early evening autumn sky, observations are possible with Center’s 0.9 m telescope, which is open for public viewing on clear Thursday and Friday nights following the planetarium program. Although Pluto is somewhat faint through the telescope's eyepiece, it is visible and clearly identified within the surrounding starfield. Intermittent post-encounter lectures ("Messages from the Outer Solar System") have been given on Friday evenings as well. Finally, due to the continued interest in Pluto, we have developed a new outreach program about dwarf planets in general, geared towards 4th - 6th students.

  5. Green roof adoption in atlanta, georgia: the effects of building characteristics and subsidies on net private, public, and social benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jeffrey D; Lamsal, Madhur; Colson, Greg

    2013-10-01

    This research draws on and expands previous studies that have quantified the costs and benefits associated with conventional roofs versus green roofs. Using parameters from those studies to define alternative scenarios, we estimate from a private, public, and social perspective the costs and benefits of installing and maintaining an extensive green roof in Atlanta, GA. Results indicate net private benefits are a decreasing function of roof size and vary considerably across scenarios. In contrast, net public benefits are highly stable across scenarios, ranging from $32.49 to $32.90 m(-2). In addition, we evaluate two alternative subsidy regimes: (i) a general subsidy provided to every building that adopts a green roof and (ii) a targeted subsidy provided only to buildings for which net private benefits are negative but net public benefits are positive. In 6 of the 12 general subsidy scenarios the optimal public policy is not to offer a subsidy; in 5 scenarios the optimal subsidy rate is between $20 and $27 m(-2); and in 1 scenario the optimal rate is $5 m(-2). The optimal rate with a targeted subsidy is between $20 and $27 m(-2) in 11 scenarios and no subsidy is optimal in the twelfth. In most scenarios, a significant portion of net public benefits are generated by buildings for which net private benefits are positive. This suggests a policy focused on information dissemination and technical assistance may be more cost-effective than direct subsidy payments.

  6. Commercial aircraft engine emissions characterization of in-use aircraft at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Scott C; Jayne, John T; Lobo, Prem; Onasch, Timothy B; Fleming, Gregg; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2008-03-15

    The emissions from in-use commercial aircraft engines have been analyzed for selected gas-phase species and particulate characteristics using continuous extractive sampling 1-2 min downwind from operational taxi- and runways at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Using the aircraft tail numbers, 376 plumes were associated with specific engine models. In general, for takeoff plumes, the measured NOx emission index is lower (approximately 18%) than that predicted by engine certification data corrected for ambient conditions. These results are an in-service observation of the practice of "reduced thrust takeoff". The CO emission index observed in ground idle plumes was greater (up to 100%) than predicted by engine certification data for the 7% thrust condition. Significant differences are observed in the emissions of black carbon and particle number among different engine models/technologies. The presence of a mode at approximately 65 nm (mobility diameter) associated with takeoff plumes and a smaller mode at approximately 25 nm associated with idle plumes has been observed. An anticorrelation between particle mass loading and particle number concentration is observed.

  7. Climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic factors associated with West Nile virus incidence in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockaby, Graeme; Noori, Navideh; Morse, Wayde; Zipperer, Wayne; Kalin, Latif; Governo, Robin; Sawant, Rajesh; Ricker, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    The integrated effects of the many risk factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) incidence are complex and not well understood. We studied an array of risk factors in and around Atlanta, GA, that have been shown to be linked with WNV in other locations. This array was comprehensive and included climate and meteorological metrics, vegetation characteristics, land use / land cover analyses, and socioeconomic factors. Data on mosquito abundance and WNV mosquito infection rates were obtained for 58 sites and covered 2009-2011, a period following the combined storm water - sewer overflow remediation in that city. Risk factors were compared to mosquito abundance and the WNV vector index (VI) using regression analyses individually and in combination. Lagged climate variables, including soil moisture and temperature, were significantly correlated (positively) with vector index as were forest patch size and percent pine composition of patches (both negatively). Socioeconomic factors that were most highly correlated (positively) with the VI included the proportion of low income households and homes built before 1960 and housing density. The model selected through stepwise regression that related risk factors to the VI included (in the order of decreasing influence) proportion of houses built before 1960, percent of pine in patches, and proportion of low income households.

  8. Tracking the association between metro-railway construction works and PM levels in an urban Mediterranean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A; Kelessis, A

    2016-10-15

    Metro-railways are considered to be a sustainable means of public transportation, as they contribute substantially to the reduction of air pollutant emissions through the decrease in the number of cars and heavy vehicles circulating in the road network. However, the works related to their construction may pose an extra burden in air quality status and consequently in public health. In the present study, we studied the possible effects of the metro-railway construction works in Thessaloniki, Greece, on public health through 2 well-established air quality indices, namely the PI and DAQI. The analysis suggested that there were excess high levels of PM10 measured in the close vicinity of the construction-sites during the period studied (2008-2014). These concentrations are likely to have originated from local construction sources rather than transport or continental secondary dust sources and might have an adverse health impact, as according to the PI index, the majority of days in the construction sites were grouped as "low pollution" or "moderate pollution", while a small percentage of days (1.84%) were suggested to be unhealthy for the most vulnerable groups of the population. Similarly, the DAQI index revealed that the vast majority of days were grouped as "poor" air quality, while 5.50% of the days reflected the most oppressive conditions for public health, as they were characterized as "very poor" air quality. Given the need of reaching a compromise between future transportation sustainability and public health during the construction works, the feasibility of appropriate measures in the area should be examined.

  9. The Effects of Facilitation Training Provided Correctional Officers Stationed at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megathlin, William Latimer

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 80 hours of facilitation training on the communication of empathy, respect, and genuineness; the dimension of authoritarianism; the interpersonal areas of inclusion, control, and affection; attitude ratings; and the personality factors of anxiety, alert poise, extraversion, and independence of…

  10. Conference on Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures, 18-21 November 1975, Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    and forth and to the right and left in relacion to the area of interest and indexing approximately 0.050 inch increments along the canopy edge. During...in the K calculation is related to the Poisson ratio for the material and will be no greater than approxima’- ly 10%. A striking feature in all tests

  11. Skilled Metro Workers Get Highest Payoffs for Using a Computer at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmin, Lorin D.

    2000-01-01

    Workers who use computers on the job receive higher wages, reflecting both computer-specific and broader skills. This accounts for a small portion of the metro-nonmetro wage gap. The payoff for using a computer on the job is higher for college graduates and more-experienced workers than their counterparts and is higher for rural than urban…

  12. Hybrid Decision-making Method for Emergency Response System of Unattended Train Operation Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suitable selection of the emergency alternatives is a critical issue in emergency response system of Unattended Train Operation (UTO metro system of China. However, there is no available method for dispatcher group in Operating Control Center (OCC to evaluate the decision under emergency situation. It was found that the emergency decision making in UTO metro system is relative with the preferences and the importance of multi-dispatcher in emergency. Regarding these factors, this paper presents a hybrid method to determinate the priority weights of emergency alternatives, which aggregates the preference matrix by constructing the emergency response task model based on the Weighted Ordered Weighted Averaging (WOWA operator. This calculation approach derives the importance weights depending on the dispatcher emergency tasks and integrates it into the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA operator weights based on a fuzzy membership relation. A case from train fire is given to demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of the proposed methods for Group Multi-Criteria Decision Making (GMCDM in emergency management of UTO metro system. The innovation of this research is paving the way for a systematic emergency decision-making solution which connects the automatic metro emergency response system with the GMCDM theory.

  13. Selected Private Higher Educational Institutions in Metro Manila: A DEA Efficiency Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Maria Corazon Gwendolyn N.; Cabana, Emilyn

    2009-01-01

    This paper measures the technical efficiency of 16 selected colleges and universities in Metro Manila, Philippines, using academic data for the SY 2001-2005. Using the data envelopment analysis (DEA), on average, schools posted 0.807 index score and need additional 19.3% efficiency growth to be efficient. Overall, there are top four efficient…

  14. VARIABILIDAD DEL PARÁMETRO DE RUGOSIDAD SOBRE UNA COBERTURA VEGETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Gassmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La longitud de rugosidad es un parámetro de escala característico de la capa de superficie, utilizado en estudios micrometeorológicos, de contaminación urbana, de potencial eólico o en los modelos dinámicos de pronóstico del tiempo y el clima. Experimentalmente este parámetro se determina a partir de datos observacionales del perfil de viento bajo condiciones neutrales de estabilidad atmosférica. Sin embargo, existen evidencias de una dependencia del mismo con los cambios en la estabilidad. Utilizando datos observados sobre una superficie con cobertura vegetal y bajo las hipótesis de la teoría de la semejanza de Monin-Obukhov, se estudió la variabilidad del parámetro de rugosidad con la estabilidad atmosférica. Se obtuvieron expresiones empíricas que permitieron estimar esa longitud en función de un parámetro de estabilidad. Se encontraron variaciones en su magnitud de hasta dos órdenes bajo condiciones estables, mientras que en condiciones inestables su variabilidad fue pequeña. Por otra parte, se estudió el impacto que producen las parametrizaciones obtenidas al aplicarlas en un preprocesador meteorológico para un modelo de difusión de contaminantes. Los resultados obtenidos tendrían un impacto directo en el campo de velocidades cercano a superficie

  15. METRO-APEX Volume 19.1: City Manager and County Administrative Officer's Manual. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. COMEX Research Project.

    The City Manager and County Administrative Officer's Manual is one of a set of twenty-one manuals used in METRO-APEX 1974, a computerized college and professional level, computer-supported, role-play, simulation exercise of a community with "normal" problems. Stress is placed on environmental quality considerations. APEX 1974 is an…

  16. The Copenhagen Traffic Model and its Application in the Metro City Ring Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuk, Goran; Overgård, Christian Hansen; Fox, J.

    2009-01-01

    In June 2007, the Danish Parliament passed an act to finance the construction of the Metro City Ring in Copenhagen. The assessment project is based on the passenger patronage forecasts for 2015 from the Copenhagen traffic model. In this paper we show how the model forecasts for this particular...... infrastructure project can be explained through detailed knowledge of model structure and model validation....

  17. Network planning study of the metro-optical-network-oriented 3G application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Xu, Rong; Lin, Jin Tong

    2005-02-01

    To compare with the 2G mobile communication, 3G technologies can supply the perfect service scope and performance. 3G is the trend of the mobile communication. So now to build the transmission network, it is needed to consider how the transmission network to support the 3G applications. For the 3G network architecture, it include the 2 part: Utran access network and core network. So the metro optical network should consider how to build the network to adapt the 3G applications. Include the metro core and access layer. In the metro core, we should consider the network should evolved towards the Mesh architecture with ASON function to realize the fast protection and restoration, quick end-to-end service provision, and high capacity cross-connect matrix etc. In the access layer, the network should have the ability to access the 3G services such as ATM interface with IMA function. In addition, the traffic grooming should be provided to improve the bandwidth utility. In this paper, first we present the MCC network situation, the network planning model will be introduced. Then we present the topology architecture, node capacity and traffic forecast. At last, based on our analysis, we will give a total solution to MCC to build their metro optical network toward to the mesh network with the consideration of 3G services.

  18. Combining mobile terrestrial laser scanning geometric and radiometric data to eliminate accessories in circular metro tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kai; Cheng, Xiaojun; Ju, Qiaoqiao

    2016-07-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is a noninvasive technique to monitor surface conditions and morphological characteristics of structures and has been successfully introduced to the regular inspection and maintenance of metro tunnels. To accurately analyze the deformation and structural conditions of a metro tunnel, nonliner points (e.g., outliers and accessories) should be detected and eliminated. Nevertheless, the accessories are attached very closely to the liner and cannot be thoroughly eliminated by three-dimensional (3D) geometric information. This study proposes to separate the liner and accessories by combining TLS geometric and radiometric information. A refitted mobile Faro Focus3D X330 system is used for data collection of a new-built metro tunnel in Hangzhou, China. The results show that the corrected intensity data are an effective physical criterion and a complementary data source to remove accessories that cannot be eliminated by geometric data. After the removal of accessories by geometric and radiometric data, the remaining liner points can accurately reflect the actual structural and deformation conditions of metro tunnels.

  19. El hex??metro ??ureo en lat??n : (datos para su estudio)

    OpenAIRE

    Enr??quez L??pez, Seraf??n

    1988-01-01

    La tesis doctoral consiste en un estudio del hex??metro ??ureo a lo largo de toda la producci??n latina conservada hasta comienzos del siglo V despu??s de Cristo, o, m??s exactamente, a la recopilaci??n, organizaci??n y an??lisis de materiales indispensables para dicho estudio.

  20. Efecto del fuego en el crecimiento en diámetro de eucalyptus camaldulensis dehnh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Rodríguez Trejo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento se llevó a cabo en el Eucaliptetum de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Su objetivo fue determinar el efecto del fuego en el crecimiento en diámetro de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, en plantaciones. Se usó un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron quema prescrita de baja intensidad y testigo. Los datos se analizaron mediante análisis de covarianza, utilizando Proc Mixed de SAS®. La variable dependiente fue el incremento en diámetro con corteza entre los años 2000 y 2001. La covariable fue el diámetro de los árboles al momento de aplicar los tratamientos. El incremento anual en diámetro fue de 0.30 cm en el control, exhibiendo diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p=0.0492 con el tratamiento de quema, con un valor de 0.48 cm.

  1. Parámetros inmunitaríos en camarones juveniles lv en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con white spot syndrom virus

    OpenAIRE

    Montesdeoca, Bélgica Mercedes; Ibarra, Eulalia; Rodríguez, Jenny

    2002-01-01

    Parámetros inmunitarios en camarones juveniles LV en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con White Spot Syndrom Virus Parámetros inmunitarios en camarones juveniles LV en piscinas camaroneras infectadas con White Spot Syndrom Virus

  2. “Because He Misses His Normal Life Back Home”: Masculinity and Sexual Behavior Among Mexican Migrants in Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Nyhus, Christina M.; Yount, Kathryn M.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2009-01-01

    Context Labor migration presents an important HIV risk context. Effective health promotion begins with understanding cultural and structural influences on sexual risk. Methods This paper presents the quantitative results from a mixed-methods study carried out in 1999 among Mexican migrant men (N=187) in Atlanta, Georgia. The instrument included questions on several domains: Demographic and sexual history, migration motivations, substance use, social support, leisure time practices, and ideas about masculinity, sexuality, and marriage. We created six multivariate regressions to test the association between each of these domains and men's number of partners. Results Greater number of partners was associated with being younger, having fewer years of formal education, and owning a home in Mexico (Model 1); taking more trips to Mexico (Model 2); feeling sex wasn't tied to emotional intimacy and power (Model 3); having a larger social network and fewer frequency of contact with network members (Model 4); having a sex worker as a partner (Model 5); and going out dancing and stripclubs on weekends (Model 6). Conclusion Emergent visions of marriage that include shared sexual intimacy and emotional intimacy and power imply a reorganization of marital sexuality; yet, only those men who emphasize emotional companionship and equity have fewer extramarital sexual partners. An individual-level intervention may be insufficient to transform men's ideas about manhood; programs must acknowledge and target migrant men's social networks and the spaces in which sexual risk may occur. Multilevel strategies, such as the development of more health-enhancing community spaces, active discussions regarding masculinity, and the promotion of safer sexual practices should form part of comprehensive efforts to reduce sexual risk among migrant men. PMID:19291125

  3. Oxidative potential of PM2.5 during Atlanta rush hour: Measurements of in-vehicle dithiothreitol (DTT) activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Heidi; Weber, Rodney; Bergin, Michael; Greenwald, Roby; Golan, Rachel; Russell, Armistead G.; Verma, Vishal; Sarnat, Jeremy A.

    2017-09-01

    Although exposure to traffic emissions is frequently associated with negative health impacts, few studies have measured air pollution directly in-vehicle, and limited measurements of daily commuter exposure exist. This research, part of the Atlanta Commuter Exposures (ACE) Study, assesses on-roadway in-cabin particulate pollution (PM2.5) collected from scripted rush hour commutes on highways and on non-highway side streets. Water-soluble extracts from PM2.5 filters were analyzed for oxidative potential of water-soluble species using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, and results suggest that there may be substantial gas-phase DTT activity in fresh emissions. We measured DTTv activities (i.e., DTT activity normalized to the sampled air volume) that were on average two times higher than comparable measurements collected by stationary roadside monitoring sites. Although some of this difference may be attributable to positive artifacts due to relatively brief (2-h) quartz filter sampling durations, the current findings provide some indication that commuters encounter notably higher exposure to redox-active PM2.5 in the on-road environment. Strong correlations are observed between water-soluble DTT activity and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), specifically for the 'semivolatile' WSOC component (measured as the difference between denuded and non-denuded filters). Although potential for artifacts when measuring DTT activity of fresh emissions using filter-based methods is considerable, these results suggest that semivolatile organic species are important contributors to DTT activity, at least in environments where ambient PM2.5 is dominated by vehicular sources.

  4. Statistical analysis of several terminal area traffic collision hazard factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetenik, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    An 11 hr sample of air traffic, comprising 584 tracks recorded at Atlanta during peak periods of August 1967, is analyzed to examine the statistical characteristics of range-guard intrusions and airspace conflicts in a terminal area. The number of intrusions (of an imaginary 3-naut mile, 500-ft range guard surrounding each aircraft) and number of conflicts (of the projected airspace for two aircraft) for a track exhibit Poisson variations with track duration. The hourly rate of intrusions follows the gas model square-law variation with traffic density, but the hourly conflict rate, contrary to the gas model, decreases with greater traffic density.

  5. Phosphorus availability in the central area of the Argentine Pampean region. 1: Relationship between soil parameters, adsorption processes and wheat, soybean and corn yields in different soil and management environments Disponibilidad de fósforo en el área central de la Región Pampeana Argentina. 1: Relación entre los parámetros edáficos, los procesos de adsorción y los rendimientos de trigo, soja y maíz en diferentes ambientes de suelo y de manejo del cultivo Disponibilidade de fósforo na área central da Pampa Argentina. 1: Relação entre parâmetros do solo, processos de adsorção e rendimentos de trigo, soja e milho em diferentes ambientes de solo e manejo da cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín M. Silva Rossi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Retention of phosphorus in the soil solid phase is a complex process, caused by a combination of physical and chemical mechanisms that determine pools of compounds with different degrees of solubility. The amount of P available in a given pool can be associated with the adsorption maximum proposed by the Langmuir isotherm model, and with the energy with which it is retained. The aims of this work were: i to evaluate the impact of the fertilization history and soil type on phosphorus adsorption parameters, and ii to analyze the effect of soil properties, mainly the phosphorus adsorption parameters, on the yield of wheat, soybean and corn crops. In this study we established that the Bray & Kurtz 1 extractant is insufficiently sensitive for assessing changes in the nutrient availability when phosphorous concentrations are relatively low. The amount of phosphorus retained in the labile pool and its retention energy, however, are sensitive indicators of the availability of this nutrient. These indexes explain most of the variations in crop yields, and are determined more by P fertilization management than by soil type.La retención de fósforo en la fase sólida del suelo es un proceso complejo que es causada por una combinación de varios mecanismos físicos y químicos, que determinarán reservorios de compuestos con diferente grado de solubilidad. La cantidad de P disponible en un reservorio dado se puede asociar al máximo de adsorción propuesto por el modelo de isoterma de Langmuir y a la energía con la que está retenida en la fase sólida. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: i evaluar el impacto de la historia de fertilización y el tipo de suelo en los parámetros de adsorción de fósforo, y ii analizar el efecto de las propiedades del suelo, principalmente los parámetros de adsorción de fósforo, en el rendimiento de los cultivos de trigo, soja y maíz. En este estudio se estableció la baja sensibilidad del extractante Bray y Kurtz 1

  6. Response of carrying capacity of piles induced by adjacent Metro tunneling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-jie; DENG Fei-huang; WU Jia-jia; LIU Jian; WANG Fu-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Construction of tunnels in urban areas requires assessment of the impact of tunneling on the stability and integrity of existing pile foundations. We have focused our attention to the analysis of the carrying capacity of pile foundations provided by the impact of construction of urban tunnels on adjacent pile foundations, under the engineering background of the construction of the # 2 Line of the Guangzhou subway. It is carried out using a fast Lagrangian analysis of a continuum in a 3D numerical code, which is an elastoplastic three-dimensional finite difference model, to simulate the response of piles under the entire process of metro tun-neling (deactivation of soil element and activation of the lining). The adjacent stratum around the tunnel is classified into three re-gions: Zone Ⅰ(upper adjacent stratum of tunnel), Zone Ⅱ (45°-upper-lateral adjacent stratum of tunnel) and Zone Ⅲ (lateral adjacent stratum of tunnel). In each region one typical pile is chosen to be calculated and analyzed in detail. Numerical simulations are mainly conducted at three points of each pile shaft: the side-friction force of the pile, the tip resistance of the pile and the axial loading of the pile. A contrasting analysis has been conducted both in the response of typical piles in different regions and from computer calculated values with site monitoring values. The results of numerical simulations show that the impact on carrying ca-pacity of the piles lies mainly in the impact of construction of urban tunnels on the side-friction forces and the tip resistance of piles. The impact differs considerably among the different strata zones where the pile tips are located. The complicated rules of side-friction force and tip resistance of piles has resulted in complicated rules of pile axial loading thus, in the end, it impacts the carrying capacity of pile-foundations. It is necessary to take positive measures, such as stratum grouting stabilization or foundation underpinning, ete

  7. Dissatisfaction with Democracy: Evidence from the Latinobarómetro 2005 Insatisfacción con la Democracia: Evidencia de Latinobarómetro 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. L. Berry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Data for 17 Latin American countries collected by Latinobarómetro 2005 reveal that dissatisfaction with democracy is a sign of progress. Political stability and increased governmental effectiveness enable the better-educated leftish young to express their feelings without fear of repression and violence, which is particularly notable in countries least connected into the global economy, where inequality remains high. Dissatisfaction is thus an indicator of political modernization running ahead of progress in the economic sphere. Datos de 17 países Latinoamericanos recolectados por Latinobarómetro 2005 revelan que la insatisfacción con la democracia es un signo de progreso. La  estabilidad política y la mejor efectividad gubernamental permite a los jovenes de izquierda mejor educados a expresar sus sentimientos sin el temor de represión y violencia, que es particularmente notable en países que están menos conectados en la economía global, donde la desigualdad permanece alta. La insatisfacción es por tanto un indicador de la modernización política que va adelante del progreso en la esfera económica.

  8. Prácticas de Física: Equivalente en agua de un calorímetro

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez,Augusto; Bernabeu, Guillermo; Vera Guarinos, Jenaro; Pastor Antón, Carlos; Martín García, Agapito

    1988-01-01

    Esta práctica de laboratorio tiene como objetivo el cálculo del equivalente en agua de un calorímetro con su error, familiarizarse con el uso del mismo y del termómetro. Para el desarrollo de esta práctica se dispone de un calorímetro lleno de agua en el que se ha colocado una resistencia interna. Se hace circular una corriente por la resistencia, de manera que la potencia que disipa la resistencia se convierte en potencia calorífica, por efecto Joule, calentando por un lado el agua en el int...

  9. Hub Identification of the Metro Manila Road Network Using PageRank

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to identify the different node hubs of a road network using PageRank for preparation for possible random terrorist attacks. The robustness of a road network against such attack is crucial to be studied because it may cripple its connectivity by simply shutting down these hubs. We show the important hubs in a road network based on network structure and propose a model for robustness analysis. By identifying important hubs in a road network, possible preparation schemes may be done earlier to mitigate random terrorist attacks, including defense reinforcement and transportation security. A case study of the Metro Manila road network is also presented. The case study shows that the most important hubs in the Metro Manila road network are near airports, piers, major highways and expressways

  10. Research on Integrated Monitoring and Prevention System for Stray Current in Metro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威; 严旭

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the influencing factors and harmfulness of stray current, and discussing the existing problems of monitoring and prevention system for stray current, the integrated monitoring and prevention system for stray current in metro was developed. A net system of distributed computers for monitoring was set up. It can monitor the distribution of stray current in metro and the corrosion of the metal structure in the whole line. According to the situation of monitoring it can also control the drainage of its tank to reach the best effect and eliminate the negative effect of polarity drainage. By using the new type unilateral electric device, the problem of burning the rail by electric arc can be avoided. The unilateral electric device can be connected with the monitoring net system directly to realize the monitor in line and improve the reliability of the device.

  11. Parámetros de programación del implante coclear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isela Banda González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La programación de un paciente con implante coclear resulta un proceso inicialmente estandarizado, pero que debe individualizarse para cada caso. En la mayoría de las ocasiones, dicho proceso implica el establecimiento de parámetros comunes. Sin embargo, existe un porcentaje de usuarios en los que por alguna circunstancia no es posible establecer niveles adecuados de estimulación, por lo que el médico audiólogo tiene que realizar ajustes en parámetros especiales, como cambio de estrategia, tasa de estimulación, ancho de pulso, entre otros, con el fin de obtener un desempeño auditivo de acuerdo a lo esperado.

  12. Lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte.: desenvolvimento e calibração

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A evapotranspiração de plantas frutíferas foi medida a partir da instalação e calibração de um lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte. O equipamento, composto por caçamba metálica em aço carbono, possui arquitetura circular com área de 5,72 m² e massa total de 10,5 toneladas. Uma muda de coqueiro anão-verde foi transplantada para o lisímetro e mantida sob as mesmas condições de solo e adubação do campo experimental. Na automação do processo foi utilizado o mecanismo de alívio de carga baseado e...

  13. A densidade e a evolução do densímetro

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Bruno de Moura; Melo Filho,João Massena; Afonso,Júlio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho passa em revista o conceito de densidade e descreve o densímetro, instrumento destinado a medir a densidade de líquidos puros ou soluções sem o auxílio de uma balança. A concepção do densímetro se baseia no princípio de Arquimedes (flutuabilidade). O emprego desse instrumento ganhou impulso a partir do século XVII. Duas versões foram propostas: os de volume constante e os de peso constante. O formato básico praticamente não mudou em mais de 250 anos. A evolução mais perceptível ...

  14. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  15. Volcanoes magnify Metro Manila’s southwest monsoon rains and lethal floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mahar Amante Lagmay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many volcanoes worldwide are located near populated cities that experience monsoon seasons, characterised by shifting winds each year. Because of the severity of flood impact to large populations, it is worthy of investigation in the Philippines and elsewhere to better understand the phenomenon for possible hazard mitigating solutions, if any. During the monsoon season, the change in flow direction of winds brings moist warm air to cross the mountains and volcanoes in western Philippines and cause lift into the atmosphere, which normally leads to heavy rains and floods. Heavy southwest monsoon rains from 18-21 August 2013 flooded Metro Manila (population of 12 million and its suburbs paralyzing the nation’s capital for an entire week. Called the 2013 Habagat event, it was a repeat of the 2012 Habagat or extreme southwest monsoon weather from 6-9 August, which delivered record rains in the mega city. In both the 2012 and 2013 Habagat events, cyclones, the usual suspects for the delivery of heavy rains, were passing northeast of the Philippine archipelago, respectively, and enhanced the southwest monsoon. Analysis of Doppler data, rainfall measurements, and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model simulations show that two large stratovolcanoes, Natib and Mariveles, across from Manila Bay and approximately 70 km west of Metro Manila, played a substantial role in delivering extreme rains and consequent floods to Metro Manila. The study highlights how volcanoes, with their shape and height create an orographic effect and dispersive tail of rain clouds which constitutes a significant flood hazard to large communities like Metro Manila.

  16. Evaluating accessibility to Bangkok Metro Systems using multi-dimensional criteria across user groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Prasertsubpakij

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Metro systems act as fast and efficient transport systems for many modern metropolises; however, enhancing higher usage of such systems often conflicts with providing suitable accessibility options. The traditional approach of metro accessibility studies seems to be an ineffective measure to gage sustainable access in which the equal rights of all users are taken into account. Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR transportation has increasingly relied on the role of two mass rapid transport systems publicly called “BTS Skytrain” and “MRT Subway”, due to limited availability of land and massive road congestion; however, access to such transit arguably treats some vulnerable groups, especially women, the elderly and disabled people unfairly. This study constructs a multi-dimensional assessment of accessibility considerations to scrutinize how user groups access metro services based on BMR empirical case. 600 individual passengers at various stations were asked to rate the questionnaire that simultaneously considers accessibility aspects of spatial, feeder connectivity, temporal, comfort/safety, psychosocial and other dimensions. It was interestingly found by user disaggregated accessibility model that the lower the accessibility perceptions—related uncomfortable and unsafe environment conditions, the greater the equitable access to services, as illustrated by MRT — Hua Lumphong and MRT — Petchaburi stations. The study suggests that, to balance the access priorities of groups on services, policy actions should emphasize acceptably safe access for individuals, cost efficient feeder services connecting the metro lines, socioeconomic influences and time allocation. Insightful discussions on integrated approach balancing different dimensions of accessibility and recommendations would contribute to accessibility-based knowledge and potential propensity to use the public transits towards transport sustainability.

  17. La Responsabilidad del Estado y su adecuación a parámetros interamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Navarrete-Frías

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizarán los criterios que han elaborado la doctrina y la jurisprudencia nacionales e internacionales respecto de la adecuación de la responsabilidad del Estado a parámetros que ha determinado el sistema interamericano de derechos humanos, con el fin de evidenciar la disposición del sistema judicial colombiano para cumplir con los deberes de respeto y garantía a estos derechos.

  18. USO DO IRRIGÂMETRO PARA ESTIMAR A EVAPOTRANSPIRAÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIA COM BASE NO MÉTODO DO LISÍMETRO DE LENÇOL FREÁTICO CONSTANTE

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o Irrigâmetro para estimar a evapotranspiração de referência (ET0) e comparar os métodos de FAO-Penman-Monteith, FAO-Penman Modificado, FAO-Radiação, Hargreaves-Samani e Tanque Classe A, em relação ao método do lisímetro de lençol freático constante. Os dados de evapotranspiração de referência (ET0), obtidos com o Irrigâmetro e com os demais métodos, foram comparados com os valores medidos no lisímetro de lençol freático constante, operando com Irrigâ...

  19. METRO: reconstruction of the trajectories of meteoroids using the BRAMS interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédric, Tétard; Hervé, Lamy; de Keyser, Johan; Michel, Anciaux; Stijn, Calders; Emmanuel, Gamby; Picar Antonio, Martinez; Sylvain, Ranvier; Cis, Verbeeck

    2016-04-01

    METRO is the acronym for MEteor TRajectories and Origins. It is an interdisciplinary project with a collaboration between several scientific institutes and also with radio amateurs. The METRO project focuses on radio meteor observations and what we can learned from them. For that purposes, the dataset from the BRAMS network are used. BRAMS (Belgian RAdio Meteor Stations) relies on forward scattering of radio waves emitted by a beacon in Dourbes off meteor ionization trails and received at 30 stations across Belgium. One of the main goal of METRO is to determine the trajectories of meteors in the sky. For some meteors, it is possible to retrieve meteor speed. Adding these two informations, we can trace back the orbit of the meteoroids. We present here the results of a method developed by Jones et al (1998) applied on the interferometric system based in Humain (Belgium). It consists in a 5 antennas configuration (two orthogonal sets of three aligned antennas with one central antenna common to the two sets). It allows the retrieval of the direction of arrival of the signal without ambiguity and with an accuracy of the order of 1°. The results obtained are then validated using a drone. Finally, we present the way to obtain the full trajectory using this information and three additional BRAMS stations. Jones, J., Webster, A.R., Hocking, W.K., An improved interferometer design for use with meteor radars, Radio Science, Vol 33, 1998.

  20. Ergonomics and design in a ischial support proposal for the Medellin metro, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz Zapata, Luz Mercedes; Valencia Escobar, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    This project, developed by the Design Studies Research Group at the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB), presents a design proposal focused on human factors for ischial support for the stations of the Medellín Metro. An initial pilot scheme was developed on Platform 'A' of San Antonio - the most important transfer station. The methodology of the Ergonomics Research Division at UPB constituted the basis of the project. This methodology observes, analyses and draws conclusions of the conditions that optimize the User-Product-Context nexus, and in doing so defines design requirements which, in this proposal, centered on the needs of the users of the Medellín Metro. The Experimental Morphology Research Division provided technical support in the form of modelling, production and structural testing of the object. The proposal includes thematic units, themes and priority components for analysis and application in the design process. In addition, the project generates certain activities and moments that future designers can develop in a parallel manner, coherent with the vision of ergonomics. The methodology focused on the requirements of the users and took into account the existing space (the Metro System), thus establishing relationships of use that were coherent with the principles of ergonomics and design.

  1. Beber e dirigir: características de condutores com bafômetro positivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Ribeiro Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O beber e dirigir não foi suficientemente estudado no Brasil até agora. OBJETIVO: Apresentar dados do primeiro levantamento sobre o comportamento do beber e dirigir de um estado do Brasil. MÉTODO: Foram conduzidas 1.799 entrevistas anônimas com motoristas em postos de checagem de sobriedade em 10 cidades, representando as 10 regiões geográficas do estado de Minas Gerais. Desses motoristas, 1.209 (67,2% responderam a um questionário estruturado e aceitaram o teste do bafômetro. RESULTADOS: Vinte por cento dos motoristas estavam dirigindo com níveis de alcoolemia acima do limite legal. A análise de regressão logística, controlada por sexo, foi utilizada para predizer bafômetro positivo. Essa análise mostrou chance aumentada de bafômetro positivo para condutor com idade acima de 31 anos que tem frequência de consumo de álcool de, pelo menos, um a dois dias na semana e para quem não usa o cinto de segurança. CONCLUSÃO: Estudos localizados com metodologia similares realizados em postos de checagem da sobriedade podem monitorar o comportamento dos condutores e os riscos no trânsito e direcionar políticas públicas sobre o beber e dirigir.

  2. Future Scenarios for Software-Defined Metro and Access Networks and Software-Defined Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Muciaccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, architectures, devices, and components in telecommunication networks have been challenged by evolutionary and revolutionary factors which are drastically changing the traffic features. Most of these changes imply the need for major re-configurability and programmability not only in data-centers and core networks, but also in the metro-access segment. In a wide variety of contexts, this necessity has been addressed by the proposed introduction of the innovative paradigm of software-defined networks (SDNs. Several solutions inspired by the SDN model have been recently proposed also for metro and access networks, where the adoption of a new generation of software-defined reconfigurable integrated photonic devices is highly desirable. In this paper, we review the possible future application scenarios for software-defined metro and access networks and software-defined photonics (SDP, on the base of analytics, statistics, and surveys. This work describes the reasons underpinning the presented radical change of paradigm and summarizes the most significant solutions proposed in literature, with a specific emphasis to physical-layer reconfigurable networks and a focus on both architectures and devices.

  3. HUBUNGAN TINGKAT PENGETAHUAN KANKER PAYUDARA MAHASISWI AKPER DHARMA WACANA METRO TERHADAP PERILAKU MELAKUKAN SADARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immawati Immawati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Data about breast cancer in Indonesia continues to grow, even attack teenagers. Breast cancer is a malignancy that originates from cells in the breast. Breast cancer primarily affects women. Patients usually come in an advanced stage because of ignorance of breast cancer due to never check the condition of the breast regularly. Behavior of breast self-examination/BSE aims to prevent breast cancer as early detection. This study was to measure correlation between knowledge level of breast cancer student of Akper Dharma Wacana Metro and behavior of doing breast self-examination as early detection of breast cancer. Likert scale questionnaire analysis with cross sectional approach with chi square test. The subjects are level I, II and III student Akper Dharma Wacana Metro which amounted to 196 respondents, with each level I (68 respondents, level II (62 respondents, and level III (66 people. Result of research from 196 respondents on bivariate analysis got value p  value more than alpha 0,05. Conclusion is no significant correlation between knowledge level of breast cancer student Akper Dharma Wacana Metro to behavior of breast self-examination as early detection of breast cancer

  4. A constrained multinomial Probit route choice model in the metro network: Formulation, estimation and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Wei, Heng; Zheng, Kangning

    2017-01-01

    Considering that metro network expansion brings us with more alternative routes, it is attractive to integrate the impacts of routes set and the interdependency among alternative routes on route choice probability into route choice modeling. Therefore, the formulation, estimation and application of a constrained multinomial probit (CMNP) route choice model in the metro network are carried out in this paper. The utility function is formulated as three components: the compensatory component is a function of influencing factors; the non-compensatory component measures the impacts of routes set on utility; following a multivariate normal distribution, the covariance of error component is structured into three parts, representing the correlation among routes, the transfer variance of route, and the unobserved variance respectively. Considering multidimensional integrals of the multivariate normal probability density function, the CMNP model is rewritten as Hierarchical Bayes formula and M-H sampling algorithm based Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach is constructed to estimate all parameters. Based on Guangzhou Metro data, reliable estimation results are gained. Furthermore, the proposed CMNP model also shows a good forecasting performance for the route choice probabilities calculation and a good application performance for transfer flow volume prediction. PMID:28591188

  5. 城市轨道交通周围金属地埋管道的排流与监测%Discharging Current and Monitoring of Mental Underground Pipeline Around Metro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙向琨

    2013-01-01

    研究目的:我国近些年大力发展城市轨道交通建设,线路穿越城市密集区域,与天然气、石油、化工等金属主干管道交叉,由轨道交通直流供电系统产生的杂散电流对这些金属管道的腐蚀问题也引起了各方的重视.本文将对城市轨道交通周围金属地埋管道的监测与阴极排流保护进行讨论分析.研究结论:如今金属地埋管道与轨道交通线路交叉、并行的问题越来越多,各个管线单位应与地铁公司相互配合:(1)地铁设计运营方面需加强对杂散电流总量的控制,做好内部系统的监测与排流,使其控制在一定范围不影响外部系统;(2)各管道及其他金属结构产权单位及运营商应该做好自身管道的绝缘及阴极保护,对平行或交越地铁区域,可通过增加监测点、增厚防腐蚀涂层、牺牲阳极排流等手段进行防护.%Research purposes: With the rapid development of the metro in China in recent years, the metro track passes the city populated area, with crossing the mental natural gas pipe, the mental petroleum pipe and the mental chemical pipe. These mental pipes will be corrosive because of the stray current produced by the AC power supply system of the metro. This paper discusses and analyzes the monitoring of the mental pipelines around the metro and the protection of discharging the current cathodically. Research conclusions: Now the problems caused by the pipeline crossing and paralleling with the metro track become more and more, so the pipeline operators should cooperate with the metro operator. (1) The metro designer and operator of the metro should control the total volume of the stray current, monitor the internal system and discharge the current to make the stray current in the certain range with on impact on the external system. (2) The pipeline operators should insulate and cathodically protect the pipeline. In the area where the pipeline crosses or parallels with the metro track

  6. Application of Wireless Communication System in Metro%无线通信系统在地铁中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志坚

    2015-01-01

    在二十世纪,地铁/轻轨无线通信系统作为运输与通信高度结合的产物,并且逐渐成为地铁、轻轨运营的关键和重要组成部分,凭借通信系统可以提高运输效率,同时可以保证行车的安全性。对于地铁/轻轨无线通信系统来说,其组成主要包括:无线集群通信、光纤传输、中继器加漏泄同轴电缆传输、无线寻呼引入,以及蜂窝电话引入等子系统。从隶属关系来看,地铁/轻轨无线通信可以划归为移动通信范畴,同时具有限定空间、限定场强覆盖范围、技术要求高、专用性强等特点。%The wireless communication system of metro and light rail is a product of the highly integration of transport and communication in the 20th century, and it has gradually become the key and the important part of the operation of metro and light rail. With communication system, it can improve the efficiency of transportation and guarantee the safety of driving. The wireless communication system of metro and light rail mainly includes wireless communications, optical fiber transmission, coaxial cable transmission of the refueling, spilling and drainage of the repeater, wireless paging import, cell phone import and other subsystems. In the view of membership function, metro and light rail wireless communication can be characterized as mobile communication, at the same time, it has many characteristics, such as definitive space, definitive coverage area of field intensity range, high technical requirements, high specificity and so on.

  7. Seasonal characterization of submicron aerosol chemical composition and organic aerosol sources in the southeastern United States: Atlanta, Georgia and Look Rock, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Budisulistiorini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A yearlong near-real-time characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 was conducted at an urban (Atlanta, Georgia and rural (Look Rock, Tennessee site in the southeastern US using the Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM collocated with established air-monitoring network measurements. Seasonal variations in organic aerosol (OA and inorganic aerosol species are attributed to meteorological conditions as well as anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in this region. The highest concentrations of NR-PM1 were observed during winter and fall seasons at the urban site and during spring and summer at the rural site. Across all seasons and at both sites, NR-PM1 was composed largely of OA (50–76 % and inorganic sulfate (12–31 %. Six distinct OA sources were resolved by positive matrix factorization applied to the ACSM organic mass spectral data collected from the two sites over the one year of near-continuous measurements at each site: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, biomass burning OA (BBOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, low-volatility oxygenated OA (OOA, isoprene-derived epoxydiol (IEPOX OA (IEPOX-OA, and 91Fac OA (a factor dominated by a distinct ion at m/z 91 fragment ion previously observed in biogenic influenced areas. LV-OOA was observed throughout the year at both sites and contributed 30–66 % of total OA mass. HOA was also observed during the entire year only at the urban site (15–24 % of OA mass. BBOA (15–33 % of OA mass was observed during winter and fall, likely dominated by local residential wood burning emission. Although SV-OOA contributes quite significantly (∼ 27 %, it was observed only at the urban site during colder seasons. IEPOX-OA was a major component (27–41 % of OA at both sites, particularly in spring and summer. An ion fragment at m/z 75 is proposed as an additional marker for IEPOX-OA, as it is shown to correlate well with the m/z 82 ion shown to be associated with the aerosol mass

  8. Solar heating and cooling experiment for a school in Atlanta: performance report. [George A. Towns Elementary School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    This report documents the performance, and conclusions therefrom, of a 13 month period of monitoring the performance of the experimental solar heating and cooling system installed in the George A. Towns Elementary School, Atlanta, Georgia. The solar collector system involves 10,360 ft/sup 2/ of PPG ''Baseline'' flat-plate collectors with an ALCOA selective coating, augmented by 10,800 square feet of aluminized Mylar reflectors. Three 15,000 gallon steel storage tanks, a 100-ton Arkla absorption chiller together with its cooling tower, a collector gravity drain system with a 1,600 gallon holding tank and a collector nitrogen purge system, six pumps and 26 pneumatic control valves were installed and interfaced with the pre-existing gas furnace and distribution system. In the winter heating mode, the solar energy is stored in all three tanks, total capacity of 45,000 gallons, between design temperatures of 105/sup 0/ to 140/sup 0/F. As soon as Tank 1 is brought up to 140/sup 0/F, the control valves isolate it from the collector loop, and the hot water from the collectors is used to charge Tanks 2 and then Tank 3. Water can be drawn from Tank 1 to heat the school while Tanks 2 and 3 are being charged. As a consequence of the flexibility provided by the three tanks, compared to a single tank of equivalent capacity, the thermal lag in the system is reduced. A variable speed pump, in response to sensors at the inlet and outlet of the collectors, modulates the flow of water through each collector from a maximum of .5 gpm to a minimum of .1 gpm, attempting to maintain a temperature rise of about 10/sup 0/F. In the summer cooling mode, storage tanks 2 and 3 are designed to store hot water at temperatures between 180/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/F, and tank 1 is used to store chilled water. (WHK)

  9. Capitalización anticipada del metro de Santiago en el precio de las viviendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Agostini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En general, las viviendas que por su ubicación muestran mejores accesos tienen un valor de mercado superior respecto a viviendas de características similares con peores accesos. Esta diferencia se debe a los menores costos de transporte hacia los principales mercados laborales y comerciales de una ciudad. Por esta razón, las inversiones en infraestructura pública de transporte, como por ejemplo la construcción de una nueva línea de metro, se capitalizan total o parcialmente en el precio de los terrenos y de las viviendas. Este trabajo estudia empíricamente el grado de capitalización en el precio de las viviendas que tuvo la construcción de la nueva línea 4 del metro en la ciudad de Santiago. En particular, dado que la nueva línea entra en operación en diciembre de 2005, se estima el grado de capitalización anticipada en el precio de las viviendas ocurrido en el momento del anuncio de la construcción de la nueva línea 4 y en el momento del anuncio de la ingeniería básica que determinó la ubicación de las estaciones. Con una base de datos única, que contiene todas las transacciones de compra y venta de viviendas realizadas en el Gran Santiago entre Diciembre de 2000 y Marzo de 2004. Los resultados muestran que el valor promedio de los departamentos aumentó entre 3.3% y 4.4% en consecuencia del anuncio de construcción y entre 4.5% y 5.7% después del conocimiento de la ubicación de las estaciones. Este aumento no se distribuye en forma uniforme, sino que depende de la distancia a la estación de metro más cercana. Un efecto indirecto de esta capitalización es que la recaudación del impuesto a las propiedades aumentaría si se reavalúan las propiedades de acuerdo a su aumento de valor. Este efecto no es despreciable en magnitud y podría representar al menos entre 14 y 20% de la inversión de la nueva línea de metro, lo cual abre una discusión interesante respecto a la forma de financiar la expansión de la red de metro.

  10. Exposición «espacios e ilusiones» en el museo superior de arte, Atlanta - EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scogin, Mack

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available This Exhibit, carried out under the auspices of several cultural organizations of the city of Atlanta, intends to offer a distorted vision of space at the same time as it is real. It has been designed as a labyrinth of rooms in which various special effects are set up, such as: mirrors, lights, sound, shadow, movements, etc. Among the different rooms, the following stand out: the illuminated room, with shadows that appear and disappear on its walls; the perspective room, where the length of the vestibule can be easily mistaken; the nature room, where different animal species are seen by T.V., etc.

    Esta Exposición, realizada bajo los auspicios de varias organizaciones culturales de la ciudad de Atlanta, pretende ofrecer una visión distorsionada del espacio a la vez que real. Se ha concebido como un laberinto de salas en las que existen diversos efectos especiales tales como: espejos, luces, sonidos, sombras, movimientos, etc. Entre las diversas salas destacan: la Iluminada, en cuyos muros aparecen y desaparecen sombras; la de perspectiva, en la que se equivoca fácilmente la longitud del vestíbulo; la de la naturaleza, en la que mediante T.V. se ven distintas especies de animales; etc.

  11. Finding urban waste management solutions and policies: Waste-to-energy development and livelihood support system in Payatas, Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrona, Kevin Roy; Yu, Jeong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    One of the potential solutions in social and environmental sustainability in municipal solid waste management (MSW) in Metro Manila is to combine community-based recycling and sound landfill management strategies. The marriage of the two puts importance on recycling as a source of livelihood while proper landfill management aims to improve the aesthetic and environmental quality of disposal facilities in urban areas. To do this, a social mapping of wastepickers, junkshops and local recycling practices needs to be undertaken and at the same time assess strategies of the national and local governments vis-à-vis existing laws on municipal solid waste. The case of Payatas controlled disposal facility was taken as a pilot study because it represents the general condition of disposal sites in Metro Manila and the social landscape that it currently has. In addition, a waste-to-energy (WTE) project has been established in Payatas to produce electricity from methane gas. Preliminary interviews with wastepickers show that development interventions in disposal sites such as WTE pose no opposition from host communities for as long as alternative livelihood opportunities are provided. Regulating the flow of wastepickers into the landfill has advantages like improved income and security. Felt needs were also articulated like provision of financial support or capital for junkshop operation and skills training. Overall, a smooth relationship between the local government and community associations pays well in a transitioning landfill management scheme such as Payatas.

  12. Analysis and Application of Noise Reduction in Metro Cooling Tower%地铁冷却塔消声降噪分析及应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗定鑫

    2016-01-01

    由于部分敏感区域的声环境质量标准与冷却塔产品的国家标准存在差异性,容易引起二类声环境区噪声超标,本文以广佛地铁某站点冷却塔降噪方案及广州地铁六号线某站点冷却塔降噪方案为实例,从冷却塔设计及设置、冷却塔增设消声围蔽、冷却塔噪声源消声治理等方面进行研究,并结合治理效果对城市冷却塔消声治理提出建议。%Because of the diversity between environmental quality standard for noise and cooling tower′s national standard in some susceptible area , the second category of acoustic environment noise will be over standard easi-ly.This paper , taking cooling tower noise reduction scheme in a metro station of GuangZhou Metro Line 6 and Guangfo Line as an example , studies the design and placement of cooling tower , the addition of noise reduction en-closure , noise silencing governance , etc.Furthermore , combined with the treatment effect , it put forward sugges-tions for the control of the cooling tower noise elimination .

  13. Optimal Energy Management, Location and Size for Stationary Energy Storage System in a Metro Line Based on Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Xia; Huaixin Chen; Zhongping Yang; Fei Lin; Bin Wang(Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China)

    2015-01-01

    The installation of stationary super-capacitor energy storage system (ESS) in metro systems can recycle the vehicle braking energy and improve the pantograph voltage profile. This paper aims to optimize the energy management, location, and size of stationary super-capacitor ESSes simultaneously and obtain the best economic efficiency and voltage profile of metro systems. Firstly, the simulation platform of an urban rail power supply system, which includes trains and super-capacitor energy sto...

  14. Risk identification and risk mitigation during metro station construction by enlarging shield tunnel combined with cut-and-cover method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Constructing a metro station by enlarging shield tunnels combined with a mining/cut-and-cover method provides a new method to solve the contradictions of construction time limits of shield tunnels and stations. As a new-style construction method, there are several specific risks involved in the construction process. Based on the test section of Sanyuanqiao station on Beijing metro line 10, and combined with the existing methods of risk identification at present, including a review of world-wide operational ...

  15. Performance assessment of flexible time-wavelength routing for a self-aggregating transparent Metro-access interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieckowski, M.; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Turkiewicz, J. P.;

    2009-01-01

    A time-WDM architecture with on-the-fly wavelength routing and traffic self-aggregation is proposed. Metro-accesss ligthpaths are established using ONUs with reflective modulators. Simulations results show the advantages of the proposed architecture......A time-WDM architecture with on-the-fly wavelength routing and traffic self-aggregation is proposed. Metro-accesss ligthpaths are established using ONUs with reflective modulators. Simulations results show the advantages of the proposed architecture...

  16. Performance assessment of flexible time-wavelength routing for a self-aggregating transparent Metro-access interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieckowski, M.; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Turkiewicz, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    A time-WDM architecture with on-the-fly wavelength routing and traffic self-aggregation is proposed. Metro-accesss ligthpaths are established using ONUs with reflective modulators. Simulations results show the advantages of the proposed architecture......A time-WDM architecture with on-the-fly wavelength routing and traffic self-aggregation is proposed. Metro-accesss ligthpaths are established using ONUs with reflective modulators. Simulations results show the advantages of the proposed architecture...

  17. Sand as thermoluminescent dosimeter to therapeutic doses Arena como dosímetro termoluminiscente para dosis terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Salcedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the characteristic thermoluminiscent of sand coming from Coveñas beaches, for its use as therapeutic dose dosimeter. The selected samples, annealed at 400oC during 1 hour, were irradiated to different doses using an unit of 60Co Theratron 780C in air to ambient temperature. The reading was carried out in a Harshaw TLD 4500. The main dosimetric properties of the material (glow curve, response reproducibility, reutilization, linearity and thermal decay have been studied in detail. The glow curve of the sand samples presents a peaks TL at about 145◦C. The results show that the material has a linear response to the dose from 50 cGy until 1000 cGy. The studied sand samples can be used as thermoluminescent dosimeters for applications in different areas. The importance of this work is that the sand is a natural substance available in large quantities, low cost and can be used in clinical physics to evaluate the dose received by the patient during medical treatment.Este trabajo describe las características termoluminiscentes de arena proveniente de las playas de Coveñas para su uso como dosímetro en dosis terapéuticas. Las muestras seleccionadas, tratadas térmicamente a 400◦C por una hora, fueron irradiadas a diferentes dosis usando una unidad de 60Co Theratron 780C en aire a temperatura ambiente. La lectura se realizó en un Harshaw TLD 4500. Las principales propiedades dosimétricas del material (curva de brillo, reproducibilidad de la respuesta, reutilización, linealidad y decaimiento térmico han sido estudiadas en detalle. La curva de brillo de las muestras de arena presenta un pico TL alrededor de los 145◦C. Los resultados muestran que el material tiene una respuesta lineal con la dosis desde 50 cGy hasta 1000 cGy. Las muestras de arena estudiadas se pueden utilizar como dos´ımetros termoluminiscentes para aplicaciones en diferentes áreas. La importancia de este trabajo radica en que la arena es una sustancia

  18. A Study of School Leaders and How They Impact Classroom Use of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a principal's personality type and a school's classroom use of technology. Myers Briggs Type Indicator data was collected from 48 principals in a large suburban district in the Metro Atlanta area, as well as, observational data documenting student use of technology. The Georgia…

  19. Urban Sustainability and Public Health: Throwing the Bath Water Out and Not the Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the affect of urbanization on community health. It exams urbanization trends in the Atlanta metro area and includes information on impervious surfaces, air quality, mitigation strategies, spatial growth modeling, land use, public health surveillance and different data collection methods.

  20. Going Under: The Metro and the Search for Oneself in Julio Cortázar's "The Pursuer"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia E. Reagan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Johnny's metaphysical experience on the metro in Julio Cortázar's "The Pursuer" catalyzes his perception. The metro incident and the ensuing commentary propel all the elements of the narrative. The metro facilitates the development of Johnny's character; relates his character to Charlie Parker; aids our comprehension of the relationship between the metro and Johnny's music; and establishes the metaphysical difference between Johnny and Bruno. The subway is also physical space in which Cortázar reveals a view of time perception in which chronological time succumbs to subjective time. Johnny's metacognitive search for the yonder marks a change in Cortázar's narrative preoccupations and anticipates Rayuela in both technique and content. The function of the metro in "The Pursuer" is related to travel in literature as well as in other Cortázar stories. The underground journey represented by the metro prompts the reader to join Cortázar's difficult search for heightened perception which begins below the surface. This search leads him to the postulation that art can open doors that lead to the más allá .

  1. Influence of septic systems on stream base flow in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin near Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2014-01-01

    Septic systems were identified at 241,733 locations in a 2,539-square-mile (mi2) study area that includes all or parts of 12 counties in the Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, area. Septic system percolation may locally be an important component of streamflow in small drainage basins where it augments natural groundwater recharge, especially during extreme low-flow conditions. The amount of groundwater reaching streams depends on how much is intercepted by plants or infiltrates to deeper parts of the groundwater system that flows beyond a basin divide and does not discharge into streams within a basin. The potential maximum percolation from septic systems in the study area is 62 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), of which 52 ft3/s is in the Chattahoochee River Basin and 10 ft3/s is in the Flint River Basin. These maximum percolation rates represent 0.4 to 5.7 percent of daily mean streamflow during the 2011–12 period at the farthest downstream gaging site (station 02338000) on the Chattahoochee River, and 0.5 to 179 percent of daily mean streamflow at the farthest downstream gaging site on the Flint River (02344350). To determine the difference in base flow between basins having different septic system densities, hydrograph separation analysis was completed using daily mean streamflow data at streamgaging stations at Level Creek (site 02334578), with a drainage basin having relatively high septic system density of 101 systems per square mile, and Woodall Creek (site 02336313), with a drainage basin having relatively low septic system density of 18 systems per square mile. Results indicated that base-flow yield during 2011–12 was higher at the Level Creek site, with a median of 0.47 cubic feet per second per square mile ([ft3/s]/mi2), compared to a median of 0.16 (ft3/s)/mi2, at the Woodall Creek site. At the less urbanized Level Creek site, there are 515 septic systems with a daily maximum percolation rate of 0.14 ft3/s, accounting for 11 percent of the base flow in

  2. Boas Goes to Atlanta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    Sharing an antiracist agenda, Boas and Du Bois were struggling to institutionalize their arguments by furthering research to counter scientific racism and by participating in public discussions to promote their ideas...

  3. Novo método para calcular o diâmetro médio de agregados de solos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. de JONG van LIER

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao calcular o diâmetro médio ponderado (DMP ou o diâmetro médio geométrico (DMG de uma amostra de solo, ponderam-se o diâmetro médio aritmético (no caso do DMP ou o logarítmico (no caso do DMG de cada classe pela massa de agregados nela retida. A média aritmética de cada classe, multiplicada pela massa de agregados retidos na respectiva classe, apenas é correta, quando ocorrer uma distribuição simétrica de massa de agregados dentro de cada classe, o que é muito pouco provável. O objetivo deste trabalho, desenvolvido no final de 1996 no Departamento de Solos da UFRGS, Porto Alegre, é propor um novo método para o cálculo do diâmetro médio dos agregados, presumindo ser a distribuição dentro de cada classe semelhante à distribuição dos agregados de toda a amostra. Essa proposta pressupõe ser o diâmetro médio da classe mais bem estimado por aquele diâmetro que divide os agregados contidos nela em duas partes de massa igual. Para isso foi apresentado um procedimento de cálculo, e o diâmetro médio assim encontrado foi denominado "diâmetro médio ajustado" (DMA. Para testar o método, utilizaram-se dados existentes de vários solos, condições de manejo do solo e rotações de culturas. Considerando os resultados, justifica-se a utilização do parâmetro DMA no lugar do DMP ou DMG, por representar mais corretamente o diâmetro médio dos agregados de uma amostra de solo.

  4. An Analysis of Causal Factors of Burnout among School Counselors in a Large Urban School System in the Greater Atlanta, Georgia Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Beatrice R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between school counselor participants' perceived levels of job burnout, as measured by Lee's 2007 Counselor Burnout Inventory (CBI) with the assignment of non-counseling duties, as measured by Scarborough's 2005 School Counselors Activity Rating Scale (SCARS) and the alignment of their…

  5. Uma exposição acidental aos raios X de um difratômetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valverde N.J. de L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As mãos de três trabalhadores foram irradiadas acidentalmente numa indústria em Camaçari, Estado da Bahia, Brasil. O diagnóstico clínico de radiodermite aguda foi possível, antes mesmo da confirmação dosimétrica da ocorrência, em virtude das manifestações cutâneas exibidas, precedidas por um eritema, e também pelas histórias ocupacionais. As avaliações das doses recebidas pelos acidentados, usando-se restituições com dosímetros termoluminescentes, tiveram boa correlação com as doses estimadas em função das manifestações clínicas. A causa imediata do acidente foi a má manutenção do equipamento que levou a sua janela posterior a ficar permanentemente aberta, porém foram fatores contributórios importantes a falta de informação dos empregados sobre os possíveis efeitos biológicos das radiações ionizantes e o não seguimento dos procedimentos operacionais corretos. A descrição deste acidente é importante, face ao grande número de difratômetros existentes em laboratórios, universidades, centros de pesquisa e indústrias. Tais aparelhos são considerados "virtualmente isentos de risco ocupacional", o que não é verdadeiro, como comprova a ocorrência que descrevemos. A evolução médica dos pacientes tem sido satisfatória, especialmente em virtude da baixa energia do feixe de raios X do difratômetro e, em conseqüência, da sua pequena penetração tissular.

  6. Novo tipo de evaporímetro terrestre A new type of evaporimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino N. Tosello

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho descreve-se um novo tipo de evaporímetro, cujo princípio de funcionamento está baseado em leis físicas que regem o fenômeno de tensão superficial. Neste tipo de evaporímetro a medida da evaporação é feita por processo volumétrieo, dispensando o emprego de mecanismos de precisão e dispendiosos. Foi feita uma análise matemática do princípio de funcionamento do novo evaporímetro, demonstrando-se oferecer exatidão plenamente satisfatória para propósitos práticos. São dados suficientes detalhes construtivos, de instalação e operação, a fim de permitir que pessoas e entidades interessadas possam reproduzi-lo e comprovar as vantagens de seu emprêgo.In this paper is described a new type of evaporimeter, the principle of operation of which is based on physical laws governing the surface tension phenomenon. The measurement of evaporation in, the new evaporimeter, described as Evaporimeter IA-58, is made by simple volumetric procedure, thus avoiding the use of precise and expensive mechanisms. A mathematical analysis of the principle of operation is made, and proves that the new evaporimeter can offer satisfactory xeaults for practical use. The operation of the new evaporimeter is very simple, since only volumetric measurements are made, with a graduated cylinder of 1000 ml, both of the added water to restore the water level to the same initial level and the outflown or excess water. It is believed that enough details are given to allow the understanding of the construction, installation and operation of the new evaporimeter, bo that interested persons or organizations could have the model reproduced and verify the advantage of its use.

  7. Parâmetros para avaliação do estado nutricional de ferro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva Adriana A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do estado nutricional de ferro em indivíduos e populações tem sido alvo de muitas pesquisas científicas, uma vez que existem algumas questões ainda indefinidas. Através de um levantamento bibliográfico, mediante consulta às bases de dados Medline, Lilacs e Dedalus, foram selecionadas publicações científicas em português e inglês, no período de 1972 a 1998, que se referiam aos parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos utilizados na avaliação do estado nutricional de ferro. Os parâmetros disponíveis refletem os três diferentes estágios da carência de ferro, a qual se manifesta de forma gradual e progressiva no organismo, até o desenvolvimento da anemia ferropriva. De forma geral, não possuem boa sensibilidade e especificidade quando considerados isoladamente, apresentando vantagens e limitações que devem ser examinadas no momento da escolha. No sentido de se aumentar a sensibilidade e a especificidade do diagnóstico do estado nutricional de ferro, têm-se utilizado combinações dos diferentes parâmetros disponíveis, considerando-se a contribuição de cada um, de acordo com as características dos indivíduos estudados, as facilidades metodológicas e o custo do processo.

  8. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure inside the metro tube infrastructure in Warszawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryz, Krzysztof; Karpowicz, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    Antennas from various wireless communications systems [e.g. mobile phones base transceiver stations (BTS) and handsets used by passengers, public Internet access, staff radiophone transmitters used between engine-drivers and traffic operators] emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) are used inside underground metro public transportation. Frequency-selective exposimetric investigations of RF-EMR exposure inside the metro infrastructure in Warsaw (inside metro cars passing between stations and on platforms) were performed. The statistical parameters of exposure to the E-field were analyzed for each frequency range and for a total value (representing the wide-band result of measurements of complex exposure). The recorded exposimetric profiles showed the dominant RF-EMR sources: handsets and BTS of mobile communication systems (GSM 900 and UMTS 2100) and local wireless Internet access (WiFi 2G). Investigations showed that the GSM 900 system is the dominant source of exposure - BTS (incessantly active) on platforms, and handsets - used by passengers present nearby during the tube drive. The recorded E-field varies between sources (for BTS were: medians - 0.22 V/m and 75th percentile - 0.37 V/m; and for handsets: medians - 0.28 V/m and 75th percentile - 0.47 V/m). Maximum levels (peaks) of exposure recorded from mobile handsets exceeded 10 V/m (upper limit of used exposimeters). Broadband measurements of E-field, including the dominant signal emitted by staff radiophones (151 MHz), showed that the level of this exposure of engine-drivers does not exceed 2.5 V/m.

  9. Evaluation of stray current corrosion resistance of concrete in metro construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shucai YANG; Xu YANG

    2008-01-01

    By simulation tests of concrete specimens in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution and seawater, and based on micro mechanism analysis, this paper evaluates the stray current corrosion resistance of concrete specimens of dif-ferent mixture ratios, and reaches a conclusion that the capability to resist stray current corrosion of optimally designed concrete mixed with good-quality fly ash and powdered slag is increased by over 5 times more than the reference concrete with the same water to binder ratio, and the service life of such kind of concrete meets the basic requirement of a metro project.

  10. El color, en el programa de mano de la Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. James F. Willis García-Talavera

    2002-01-01

    La estandarización de formatos de programas de mano, practicada por Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer al final de la década de los treinta, trajo consigo la arrolladora llegada del color, como carácter peculiar e inseparable del nuevo modelo, origen del matiz de opinión que, a partir de ese momento, generarían los nuevos ejemplares e ingrediente esencial en la obtención del pretendido impacto visual. Esa transformación del programa de mano supuso el ascenso de un punto en la escala de iconocidad gráfica –i...

  11. Study of Ezra Pound’s Imagist Poetry through In a Station of the Metro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳

    2015-01-01

    <正>Ezra Pound is one of the best American poets in the 20th Century and a major representative of art critics and imagist poets.He launched the campaign of"imagism",which shaped the influential"imagism"and triggered a revolution of modern poetry.Through a classic imagist work,In a Station of the Metro by Pound,we can have a glimpse of elegance of imagist poetry and feel the energy and charm revealed by the juxtaposition of

  12. Influencia de los parámetros nutricionalesen cirugía de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Furelos, Luis Angel; Yáñez Calvo, J.; Hernández Blanco, M.; Ferreiros Domínguez, O.; Pedrós Cuadrillero, L.

    1997-01-01

    Bajo la hipótesis de que los parámetros nutricionales influyen en el desarrollo perioperatorio de la cirugía de cadera realizamos un estudio prospectivo observacional de tipo clínico sobre 100 pacientes con una edad media de 76 años. Realizamos una evaluación clínica al ingreso: talla, peso, pliegue cutáneo, circunferencia braquial y muscular. Medición de proteínas plasmáticas y linfocitos totales al ingreso, en el postoperatorio y cada 7 días. Definimos los pacientes según los...

  13. Obesidad abdominal, parámetro antropométrico predictivo de alteraciones del metabolismo.

    OpenAIRE

    Maricel Castellanos González; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez; Alain F. Morejón Giraldoni; Yudeni Colls Cañizares

    2011-01-01

    Fundamento: La medida del perímetro de la cintura como valoración indirecta de obesidad abdominal se presenta como un elemento esencial en la valoración clínica de la obesidad. El vínculo entre obesidad abdominal e insulinoresistencia se propone como el eje central de la fisiopatología del síndrome metabólico y sus complicaciones. Objetivo: Determinar si los individuos con obesidad abdominal presentan cambios relacionados con los factores que forman parte del síndrome metabólico superiores a ...

  14. PARÂMETROS HEMODINÂMICOS DE ATLETAS ADULTOS MASCULINOS DE ANDEBOL

    OpenAIRE

    NUNES, Volmar

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os parâmetros hemodinâmicos de atletas adultos do sexo masculino de alto nível da modalidade de Andebol. Estudou-se 16 atletas pertencentes a Seleção Brasileira de Andebol, que preparava-se para os Jogos Pan-Americanos em setembro de 1994, na cidade de Santa Maria (RS). Os atletas foram avaliados no Setor de Fisiologia do Exercício do LAPEM/CEFD/UFSM, os quais foram submetidos ao protocolo do teste de Bruce para esteira rolante, onde obteve-se o consumo ...

  15. EL USO DE Enterococcus faecium MEJORA PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS EN POLLOS DE ENGORDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Chavez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de probióticos se ha asociado con mejoras en algunos parámetros productivos como la conversión alimenticia y la ganancia de peso vivo, lo que se ve reflejado en el desarrollo y salud de las aves. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de la inclusión de cepas probióticas en la alimentación de pollos de engorde sobre parámetros productivos de importancia económica. Se utilizaron 180 pollos machos (Cobb de un día de edad, alimentados con cinco dietas: dieta comercial con y sin la adición de antibióticos, y a esta última se le adicionó una de tres diferentes cepas probióticas (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus o Enterococcus faecium en el agua de bebida (108 UFC/ml durante 42 días. Se evaluaron parámetros zootécnicos: consumo de alimento, peso corporal, conversón alimenticia (CA y ganancia de peso (GDP; e indicadores productivos: supervivencia, factor de eficiencia americana (FEA, índice productivo (IP, eficiencia europea (EE y eficiencia alimenticia (EA. El diseño estadístico utilizado fue de bloques al azar. La inclusión de probióticos, específicamente E. faecium, mejoró parámetros productivos (P < 0,05 como peso (2.730 g, conversión (1,55, GDP (53,59 g/día, FEA (172, IP (393, EE (400 y EA (63,11%. Por todo lo anterior, la utilización de probióticos, especialmente E. faecium, puede ser considerada como factor promotor de crecimiento durante todo el ciclo de producción del ave debido a que demostró tener efectos positivos, tanto en el desempeño productivo, como en el rendimiento económico del lote.

  16. Estimación de parámetros y clasificación de datos :

    OpenAIRE

    Agnelli, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Tesis (Doctor en Matemática)--Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, 2011. En esta tesis se proponen principalmente dos tipos de aplicaciones biomédicas para las cuales hemos empleado diferentes herramientas matemáticas y por lo cual el trabajo está dividido en dos partes. En la primera parte nos hemos abocado a la detección de tumores. El objetivo aquí fue estimar la localización, tamaño y parámetros térmicos asociados a un tumor utilizando como info...

  17. Piezocomposites metal-cerámica como elementos activos en acelerómetros

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa, Pilar; Villegas, Marina; Pons Rovira, José Luis; Fernández Lozano, José Francisco; Bengochea, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    [ES] Los materiales cerámicos piezoeléctricos presentan un número importante y en continuo aumento de aplicaciones. Entre éstas su utilización como elementos activos en el diseño de acelerómetros posibilita el control de vibraciones en la industria del transporte, aerospacial, robótica e ingeniería civil entre otras. Entre los múltiples diseños como material compuesto destaca, gracias a sus elevados coeficientes de carga efectivos, el denominado tipo címbalo. En este trabajo se compr...

  18. Obesidad abdominal, parámetro antropométrico predictivo de alteraciones del metabolismo.

    OpenAIRE

    Maricel Castellanos González; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez; Alain F. Morejón Giraldoni; Yudeni Colls Cañizares

    2011-01-01

    Fundamento: La medida del perímetro de la cintura como valoración indirecta de obesidad abdominal se presenta como un elemento esencial en la valoración clínica de la obesidad. El vínculo entre obesidad abdominal e insulinoresistencia se propone como el eje central de la fisiopatología del síndrome metabólico y sus complicaciones. Objetivo: Determinar si los individuos con obesidad abdominal presentan cambios relacionados con los factores que forman parte del síndrome metabólico superiores a ...

  19. Antonio Palacios y el ferrocarril metropolitano. Patrimonio Industrial en el Metro de Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Abengozar, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Antonio Palacios Ramilo, relevante arquitecto de la 1ª mitad del siglo XX, responsable de emblemáticos edificios del centro de la capital (Círculo de Bellas Artes, Palacio de Correos...), es también autor de otro tipo de arquitectura mucho menos conocida. En su calidad de arquitecto oficial de la Compañía Metropolitana Alfonso XIII, diseñó no sólo las estaciones, bocas y templetes del metro de Madrid, sino también toda una serie de edificios auxiliares entre los que destacan las centrales y s...

  20. Digital non-linear equalization for flexible capacity ultradense WDM channels for metro core networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Zhang, Xu; Larsen, Knud J; Zibar, Darko; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2011-12-12

    An experimental demonstration of Ultradense WDM with advanced digital signal processing is presented. The scheme proposed allows the use of independent tunable DFB lasers spaced at 12.5 GHz for ultradense WDM PM-QPSK flexible capacity channels for metro core networking. To allocate extremely closed carriers, we demonstrate that a digital non-linear equalization allow to mitigate inter-channel interference and improve overall system performance in terms of OSNR. Evaluation of the algorithm and comparison with an ultradense WDM system with coherent carriers generated from a single laser are also reported. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  1. Digital non-linear equalization for flexible capacity ultradense WDM channels for metro core networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Zhang, Xu; Larsen, Knud J.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental demonstration of Ultradense WDM with advanced digital signal processing is presented. The scheme proposed allows the use of independent tunable DFB lasers spaced at 12.5 GHz for ultradense WDM PM-QPSK flexible capacity channels for metro core networking. To allocate extremely closed...... carriers, we demonstrate that a digital non-linear equalization allow to mitigate inter-channel interference and improve overall system performance in terms of OSNR. Evaluation of the algorithm and comparison with an ultradense WDM system with coherent carriers generated from a single laser are also...

  2. Lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte.: desenvolvimento e calibração A large-scale weighting lysimeter. part I: development and calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. M. de S. Campeche

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A evapotranspiração de plantas frutíferas foi medida a partir da instalação e calibração de um lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte. O equipamento, composto por caçamba metálica em aço carbono, possui arquitetura circular com área de 5,72 m² e massa total de 10,5 toneladas. Uma muda de coqueiro anão-verde foi transplantada para o lisímetro e mantida sob as mesmas condições de solo e adubação do campo experimental. Na automação do processo foi utilizado o mecanismo de alívio de carga baseado em sistemas de alavancas e contrapesos, apoiado em uma célula de carga com capacidade de 200 kg e precisão de 0,02% de sua capacidade. Os dados de saída da célula de carga foram armazenados em um coletor automático de dados tipo data logger. A relação entre a variação de massa e a voltagem da célula de carga do lisímetro é descrita adequadamente por modelo linear com mínima histerese. A metodologia empregada na instalação e na calibração do lisímetro foi adequada, obtendo-se um coeficiente de determinação de 0,99 na equação de calibração. Os resultados ainda indicam que o lisímetro de pesagem pode ser utilizado com êxito na determinação de evapotranspiração de plantas frutíferas de grande porte.The objectives of present study were to develop and to calibrate a large-scale weighing lysimeter in order to estimate evapotranspiration of fruit plants. The equipment consisted of a metallic bucket (steel carbon of circular design with total area of 5.72 m² and total mass of 10.5 t. A seedling of dwarf-green coconut palm was transplanted in lysimeter and maintained under same fertilization conditions of experimental field. For automation of the process, a mechanism of load relief based on systems of levers and counterbalances was used, leaning in a load cell with capacity of 200 kg and precision of 0.02% of its capacity. The output data of load cell were stored in an automatic data acquisition system. The

  3. 2007 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) LiDAR: Northwest Oregon and Portland Metro Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) and the Oregon...

  4. 2007 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) LiDAR: Northwest Oregon and Portland Metro Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) and the Oregon...

  5. Understanding household energy consumption patterns: When 'West Is Best' in Metro Manila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahakian, Marlyne D., E-mail: marlyne.sahakian@graduateinstitute.c [Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Development Studies, 20 rue Rothschild, 1207 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-02-15

    This paper addresses the topic of energy and development through a multi-disciplinary and systemic approach that combines environmental considerations with a social understanding of consumption. The focus is on electricity usage in the home and specifically lighting and cooling. Set in the urban mega-polis of Metro Manila, the Philippines, energy consumption is first placed in its biophysical perspective: the energy sources and electricity grid are presented, in relation to the Philippines as well as the region. The research findings then explore the social and cultural drivers behind household electricity consumption, revealing in several examples the strong influence of globalization-understood here as the flow of people, remittances, images and ideas. Policy recommendations are provided, based on the research results, with concluding remarks relevant to other similar contexts. - Research highlights: {yields}Metro Manila household electricity consumption is environmentally significant. {yields}The meaning given to electricity services varies by socio-economic group. {yields}Structural conditions, such as building type, can lock-in energy consumption. {yields}Global flows-people, ideas, remittances-influence local consumption patterns. {yields}Social networks, rather than the individual consumer, can influence change.

  6. Smoke movement in a tunnel of a running metro train on fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丹; 田红旗; 郑晋丽; 颜鑫

    2015-01-01

    Research on the distribution of smoke in tunnels is significant for the fire emergency rescue after an operating metro train catches fire. A dynamic grid technique was adopted to research the law of smoke flow diffusion inside the tunnel when the bottom of a metro train was on fire and to compare the effect of longitudinal ventilation modes on the smoke motion when the burning train stopped. Research results show that the slipstream curves around the train obtained by numerical simulation are consistent with experimental data. When the train decelerates, the smoke flow first extends to the tail of the train. With the decrease of the train’s speed, the smoke flow diffuses to the head of the train. After the train stops, the slipstream around the train formed in the process of train operation plays a leading role in the smoke diffusion in the tunnel. The smoke flow quickly diffuses to the domain in front of the train. After forward mechanical ventilation is provided, the smoke flow inside the tunnel continues to diffuse downstream. When reverse mechanical ventilation operates, the smoke in front of the train flows back rapidly and diffuses to the rear of the train.

  7. Study on rail corrugation of a metro tangential track with Cologne-egg type fasteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X. L.; Chen, G. X.; Yang, H. G.; Zhang, Q.; Ouyang, H.; Zhu, M. H.

    2016-03-01

    In Chinese metro lines, rail corrugation on both tangential and tight curved tracks with Cologne-egg type fasteners is very severe. Based on the viewpoint of friction-induced vibration causing rail corrugation, the rail corrugation on a tangential track with Cologne-egg type fasteners is studied in this paper. A vibration model of an elastic multiple-wheelset-track system with Cologne-egg type fasteners is established. Both the complex eigenvalue analysis and the transient dynamic analysis are performed to study the stability and the dynamic performance of the wheelset-track system. The simulation results show that a low rail support stiffness value is responsible for rail corrugation on the tangential track. When the Cologne-egg fasteners characterised by a lower stiffness value are replaced with the DTVI2 fasteners characterised by a higher stiffness value, rail corrugation disappears. However, rail corrugation on tight curved tracks cannot be suppressed using the same replacement. The above conclusions are consistent with the corrugation occurrences in actual metro tracks.

  8. Evaluation of Bogie Frame Safety of Shanghai Metro Line 1 by 3D FEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiongyao, Xie; Guolong, Jin; Rulu, Wang

    2010-05-01

    The vehicle bogies of Shanghai metro line 1 began to crack just in the third year after the trains operated. More than 50 cracks occurred in the succeeding six year during the train operation. This paper evaluated the safety of the motorized bogies. First, the loading conditions imposed on the vehicle structure were calculated based on the measured data in service of the train, and compared with the original design load. Then, this paper calculated simulated the stress of the vehicle bogie by 3D FEM, and presented the distribution of every stress concentration point in Goodman fatigue diagram. The computational locations of the strength less than the safety are agreed with where cracks have happened. Finally, this paper calculated the fatigue life of the motor bracket of the bogie through S-N curve based on revised Miner theory. In conclusion, this paper think that the bogie cracks of Shanghai metro line 1 are contributed by the overburden fatigue load, and ignoring the lateral vibration load in the design of the vehicle bogie is the important cause that bogie cracks occurred far earlier than in the designed time.

  9. Status of forensic odontology in metro and in tier 2 city in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Parul; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Verma, Poonam; Subha, G; Khare, Abhishek

    2013-07-01

    Dentist can play a significant role in identifying the victims or perpetrators of crime as well as in disasters. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic science as well as dental and related evidences can help a dental practitioner in assisting the civil agencies in such cases. To evaluate the awareness and knowledge of forensic odontology among dentists in a metropolitan and a tier 2 city. Seven hundred and seventy four dentists were included in this survey. Questionnaire was designed to assess the knowledge, aptitude, and status of practice of forensic odontology. Data was analyzed by comparing overall awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in metro and tier 2 city as well as between the different groups. Apart from the source of knowledge, no significant differences were seen in respondents of metropolitan and tier 2 city. Significantly higher proportion of subjects in metro reported journals as source of knowledge (P odontology in routine practice; hence, steps must be taken to educate the dental practitioners about its clinical applications.

  10. El barco como cronotopo en El Metro de Donato Ndongo-Bidyogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ténon Koné

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los estudiosos reconocen que las migraciones se han convertido en un desafío fundamental de la vida política, social e imaginaria de varias sociedades del mundo. A las migraciones Sud-Sud, se añaden las migraciones hacia Europa que captan todavía más la atención de los medios de comunicación. Si la migración está bien difundida en el mundo, el símbolo de las embarcaciones de fortuna sobrecargadas despierta recuerdos dolorosos (la esclavización arabo-occidental en el caso particular del migrante negro africano poscolonial. En El Metro (2007, Donato Ndongo utiliza esa imagen para mostrar el peligro, la precariedad de los migrantes clandestinos en el mar. Evidence suggests that the question of migrations nowadays has become a major challenge of political, social and imaginary life of many societies in the World.In addition to South-South migrations, the migrations from Africa to Europe are which mass media pay more attention. If the migration is widespread in the World, the symbol of the present boat people awakes painful memories (arabo-occidental slavery in the particular case of the Black African postcolonial migrant. In El Metro (2007, Donato Ndongo uses that image to show the danger, the insecurity of clandestine migrants to sea.

  11. Parâmetros reprodutivos do curimbatá no rio Mogi-Guaçu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Ormanezi Ramos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de obter informações sobre parâmetros da biologia reprodutiva da população de curimbatá, visando ao gerenciamento da espécie voltado para sua conservação, foram realizadas coletas mensais de peixes no período de fevereiro de 2003 a setembro de 2004 em dois pontos do rio Mogi-Guaçu. Foram capturados 176 fêmeas e 140 machos. Os parâmetros analisados foram relação peso-comprimento, fator de condição (K, índice gonadossomático (IGS, proporção sexual e abundância relativa. Os indivíduos adultos de curimbatá do rio Mogi-Guaçu têm crescimento alométrico negativo. Os maiores valores do fator de condição (K e de IGS ocorreram durante o período reprodutivo, quando a proporção sexual foi de 1:1. O período de reprodução de curimbatá ocorre entre os meses de outubro e janeiro, com picos em novembro e dezembro. Os machos de curimbatá apresentam antecipação da maturação gonadal em relação às fêmeas.

  12. La ampliación del Metro en la periferia de Madrid (1999-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Á Alonso-Neira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de población y empleo en la metrópoli de Madrid implica un aumento de la movilidad y de su complejidad. Este trabajo analiza cómo influye esta situación en el planeamiento de los transportes públicos del gobierno de Madrid, cuyo principal esfuerzo inversor se ha centrado desde 1999 en la ampliación de la red de Metro hacia los municipios que rodean la ciudad. El análisis de la eficiencia de estas ampliaciones ofrece los siguientes resultados: i el menor coste de la inversión de metro ligero ha permitido reducir los problemas financieros de los gobiernos madrileños; y ii la demanda por los nuevos servicios de transporte aumenta durante los primeros años, aunque desciende posteriormente. Estas conclusiones sugieren la complejidad de las decisiones económicas y políticas de estas ampliaciones, adaptadas a la evolución policéntrica y dispersa de Madrid.

  13. Food group intake patterns and nutrient intake vary across low-income Hispanic and African American preschool children in Atlanta: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvo Deborah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food group intake patterns of low income Hispanic and African American preschool children are not well documented. The aim of this study was to perform a food group intake analysis of low income minority preschool children and evaluate how macronutrient and micronutrient intake compares to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI. Methods A cross sectional study design using three-day food diaries analyzed by dietary analysis software (Nutrient Database System for Research was used. Children were recruited from well-child clinics at Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta at Hughes Spalding and North Dekalb Grady Satellite Clinic, Atlanta, GA. Low-income, African American and Hispanic preschool age children (n = 291 were enrolled. A total of 105 completed and returned the 3-day food diaries. Chi-squared tests were used to assess demographic variables. The mean percentage of intake per day of specific food groups and sub-groups were obtained (servings of given food group/total daily servings. Food intake data and proportion of children meeting DRIs for macro- and micronutrients were stratified by race/ethnicity, nutritional status, and caloric intake, and were compared using t-tests. Regression models controlling for age, BMI and sex were obtained to assess the effect of total caloric intake upon the proportional intake of each studied food group. Results The mean age of African American children was 2.24 ± 1.07 years and Hispanic children 2.84 ± 1.12 years. African Americans consumed more kcal/kg/day than Hispanics (124.7 ± 51 vs. 96.9 ± 33, p  Conclusions Food group intake patterns among low-income children differ by ethnic group. There is a need for more research to guide program design and target nutritional interventions for this population.

  14. Evaluación de parámetros biomecánicos del lanzamiento de jabalina en lanzadores de diferente nivel de rendimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, J.; G. Brizuela; Ramón, V.

    2000-01-01

    Mediante análisis cinemático y utilizando como muestra a lanzadores agrupados en función de la marca conseguida (grupo internacional: atletas con marca superior a los 80 metros; y grupo nacional: atletas con marca inferior a 80 metros) el objetivo del estudio se centró en determinar si alguno de los parámetros utilizados para evaluar la eficacia del gesto establece diferencias entre uno y otro grupo de lanzadores. Los resultados muestran que algunos de dichos parámetros cinemát...

  15. Sex trafficking and health care in Metro Manila: identifying social determinants to inform an effective health system response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy P; Alpert, Elaine J; Ahn, Roy; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; Wolferstan, Nadya; Castor, Judith Palmer; McGahan, Anita M; Burke, Thomas F

    2010-12-15

    This social science case study examines the sex trafficking of women and girls in Metro Manila through a public health lens. Through key informant interviews with 51 health care and anti-trafficking stakeholders in Metro Manila, this study reports on observations about sex trafficking in Metro Manila that provide insight into understanding of risk factors for sex trafficking at multiple levels of the social environment: individual (for example, childhood abuse), socio-cultural (for example, gender inequality and a "culture of migration"), and macro (for example, profound poverty caused, inter alia, by environmental degradation disrupting traditional forms of labor). It describes how local health systems currently assist sex-trafficking victims, and provides a series of recommendations, ranging from prevention to policy, for how health care might play a larger role in promoting the health and human rights of this vulnerable population.

  16. DINAMÔMETRO PARA IMPLEMENTOS À TRAÇÃO ANIMAL A DYNAMOMETER FOR ANIMAL TRACTION EQUIPMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério de Araújo Almeida; José Geraldo da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Um dinamômetro foi desenvolvido, a partir de um cilindro hidráulico, para coletar dados referentes ao esforço necessário à tração, na avaliação de desempenho de equipamentos à tração animal. O dinamômetro mostrou-se prático e eficiente.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Dinamômetro; esforço de tração; tração animal.

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DOS PARÂMETROS DE SOLUBILIDADE DE HANSEN DO PARACETAMOL E DE ÓLEOS ESSENCIAIS

    OpenAIRE

    GLICIANE RAMOS AZEVEDO

    2013-01-01

    Os parâmetros de solubilidade de Hansen baseiam-se na teoria de que a energia coesiva total pode ser dividida em três componentes individuais: forças de dispersão, energias polares e ligações de hidrogênio. São parâmetros utilizados, geralmente, para avaliar a compatibilidade e solubilidade entre materiais. Para determinação desses parâmetros, utilizou-se a metodologia de Hansen, uma técnica fácil, de baixo custo e que não requer conhecer as características físico-químicas das substâncias. Te...

  18. Gradiômetros supercondutores acoplados a SQUIDs e sua aplicação em biomagnetismo.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carlos Oliveira Bruno

    1990-01-01

    O objetivo desta tese foi o estudo da detecção de campos magnéticos fracos através da utilização de gradiômetros supercondutores acoplados à SQUIDs e sua aplicação ao biomagnetismo. Um novo modelo teórico para descrição do gradiômetro foi desenvolvido com a obtenção da sua função de transferência espacial. Através desta função de transferência a atuação do gradiômetro sobre os sinais detectados pode ser quantificada. Além disso, foi desenvolvido para a medida experimental da função de transfe...

  19. Orientação sexual nos parâmetros curriculares nacionais Sexual Orientation at the National Curriculum Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELENA ALTMANN

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A sexualidade é atualmente vista como um problema de saúde pública, sendo a escola local privilegiado de implementação de políticas públicas que promovam a saúde de crianças e adolescentes. Assim, ela foi constituída, de acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs, em tema transversal, a fim de disseminar-se por todo campo pedagógico e irradiar seus efeitos em domínios os mais heterogêneos, dentre outros, na Educação Física. Esta pesquisa analisou o dispositivo da sexualidade nos PCNs, buscando identificar a concepção de sexualidade ali presente, a singularidade histórica desta proposta e seus possíveis efeitos na escola e, mais especificamente, na Educação Física.Today, sexuality is considered a matter of public health, and the school is a privileged place for the implementation of public policies that promote children's and adolescents' health. Thus, it has been established, in agreement with the National Curriculum Parameters (PCNs, as a transversal theme in order to disseminate itself throughout the whole pedagogical field and to broaden its effects in a wide range of different areas, including Physical Education. This research analyzes the requirements of sexuality in the PCNs with the aim of identifying the use of the sexuality concept, the historical uniqueness of this proposal and its possible effects at schools, more specifically through Physical Education.

  20. Instalação, calibração e funcionamento de um lisímetro de pesagem Instalation, calibration and operation of a weighing lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Carvalho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo construir, instalar, calibrar e avaliar a sensibilidade de um lisímetro de pesagem com célula de carga, instalado em Seropédica - RJ, a fim de determinar a evapotranspiração de referência (ETo. O lisímetro, com dimensões de 1,0 m x 1,0 m e 0,7 m de profundidade, foi construído com chapas de aço galvanizado e instalado sobre estrutura metálica montada sobre barras transversais, a fim de concentrar toda a massa do conjunto sobre uma célula de carga localizada no centro do sistema. Após o preenchimento do lisímetro com solo, foi realizada a calibração do mesmo por meio de análise de regressão linear, e toda a área foi plantada com grama-batatais. O conjunto lisimétrico instalado mostrou-se adequado para a estimativa da ETo, apresentando erro-padrão de estimativa da regressão de 0,278 kg ou 0,278 mm, além de responder às variações dos principais elementos meteorológicos que influenciam na ETo.The objective of this work was to construct, install, calibrate and evaluate a weighing lysimeter with load cell, in order to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETo for the Seropédica region - RJ. The lysimeter, which has the dimensions of 1.0 m x 1.0 m and 0.7 m in depth, was built with galvanized steel and installed over a metallic structure mounted over transversal bars, in order to concentrate all the assembly mass over a load cell localized in the center of the system. The lysimeter was filled with the same soil layers of the local soil. Then a calibration was carried out by means of a linear regression analysis and the whole lysimeter area was planted with Bahia grass. The lysimeter system demonstrated to be suitable for estimating ETo, yielding a standard error of the linear regression of 0.278 kg or 0.278 mm. In addition, it displayed satisfactorily the variation of the main meteorological elements that influence in ETo.

  1. Determinación de los parámetros de funcionamiento de bombas y motores hidráulicos

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Pérez Sobrevilla; Pedro Paneque Rondón; Héctor de las Cuevas Milán

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta el manual de usuario del software Performance Curves para la determinación teórica y rápida de los parámetros de funcionamiento de las máquinas hidráulicas (bombas y motores), evitando la tediosa y lenta evaluación experimental e incrementando la eficiencia de la actividad con la menor cantidad de personal. El software posibilita determinar los parámetros adecuados de los regímenes óptimos de trabajo de la máquina hidráulica, las relaciones entre la eficiencia de la bomba y del ...

  2. Diferentes aferições do diâmetro abdominal sagital e do perímetro da cintura na predição do HOMA-IR Mediciones distintas del diámetro abdominal sagital y del perímetro de la cintura en la predicción del HOMA-IR Different measurements of the sagittal abdominal diameter and waist perimeter in the prediction of HOMA-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A correlação entre aumento de gordura visceral e de resistência à insulina coloca o diâmetro abdominal sagital e o perímetro da cintura como instrumentos potenciais para a predição de resistência à insulina. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a reprodutibilidade de diferentes aferições do diâmetro abdominal sagital e do perímetro da cintura e analisar o poder discriminante dos mesmos para predizer resistência à insulina. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 190 homens adultos. O diâmetro abdominal sagital (menor cintura, maior diâmetro abdominal, nível umbilical e ponto médio entre as cristas ilíacas e o perímetro da cintura (nível umbilical, menor cintura, imediatamente acima da crista ilíaca e ponto médio entre a crista ilíaca e a última costela foram aferidos em quatro locais diferentes. A resistência à insulina foi avaliada pelo índice HOMA-IR. RESULTADOS: Todas as medidas apresentaram correlação intraclasse de 0,986-0,999. Tanto o diâmetro abdominal sagital aferido na menor cintura (r=0,482 e AUC=0,739±0,049 como o perímetro da cintura aferido no ponto médio entre a última costela e a crista ilíaca (r=0,464 e AUC=0,746±0,05 apresentaram maiores correlações com o HOMA-IR, bem como um melhor poder discriminante para o HOMA-IR segundo a análise ROC (pFUNDAMENTO: La correlación entre aumento de la grasa visceral y de la resistencia a la insulina pone el diámetro abdominal sagital y el perímetro de la cintura como los instrumentos potenciales para la predicción de resistencia a la insulina. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la reproductibilidad de distintas mediciones del diámetro abdominal sagital y del perímetro de la cintura y analizar el poder discriminante de las mismas para predecir resistencia a la insulina. MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron a 190 varones adultos. El diámetro abdominal sagital (menor cintura, mayor diámetro abdominal, nivel umbilical y punto promedio entre las crestas ilíacas y el perímetro de la cintura (nivel

  3. Análise do diâmetro transverso do processo odontoide com uso da tomografia computadorizada

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Kazuo Soejima; Carlos Henrique Maçaneiro; Rodrigo Fetter Lauffer; Marco Antônio Rodacki

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: o diâmetro reduzido do odontoide é um desafio para o cirurgião no planejamento pré-operatório e escolha na fixação da fratura com um ou dois parafusos. OBJETIVO: analisar a medida do diâmetro transverso (DT) do processo odontoide por meio da tomografia computadorizada para o planejamento pré-operatório da osteossíntese com um ou dois parafusos. MÉTODOS: foram analisadas 79 tomografias computadorizadas cervicais de pacientes adultos, sem deformidades congênitas ou queixas de dor em...

  4. Modelo para la estimación de tres parámetros ruminales biológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Vargas Villamil; Juan Ku Vera; Felipe Vargas Villamil; Salvador Medina Peralta

    2004-01-01

    Se describe un modelo dinámico, mecanístico y determinístico (Turix v1.0) que es útil como base de una función de regresión durante el ajuste de tres parámetros, relacionado con un sistema cerrado de crecimiento bacteriano ruminal. Los parámetros estimados por el modelo son: kM, SmL describe el comportamiento del proceso de asimilación del sustrato microbiano, kLM describe el comportamiento del proceso de crecimiento bacteriano a partir de un metabolito intermedio, y YPAGV, SF describe el ren...

  5. El estudio de los parámetros por medio de tecnologías híbridas

    OpenAIRE

    Basurto, Eduardo; Gallardo, Aurora

    2011-01-01

    Los estudiantes de enseñanza media se enfrentan al uso e interpretación de los parámetros en funciones polinomiales, lugares geométricos y expresiones algebraicas. Este hecho conduce a la necesidad de diferenciar los parámetros de otro tipo de literales como variables o incógnitas. Esta investigación indaga sobre la influencia que pueden tener dos entornos tecnológicos sobre la comprensión de la polisemia de las literales, bajo el telón de fondo de los Modelos Teóricos Locales y de la Aproxim...

  6. PARÁMETROS INERCIALES PARA EL MODELADO BIOMECÁNICO DEL CUERPO HUMANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gutiérrez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN

    El presente trabajo expone una visión general de los parámetros inerciales necesarios para el modelado biomecánico del cuerpo humano desde una perspectiva biomecánica, realizando un análisis retrospectivo, situación actual así como tendencias futuras en este ámbito. El modelado del cuerpo humano implica la determinación de una serie de puntos anatómicos y segmentos interconectados, que deben ser complementados con información inercial como es la masa segmentaria, el vector posición del centro de gravedad, los ejes de un sistema de referencia local segmentario, así como los momentos de inercia. La obtención de estos parámetros inerciales se considera imprescindible para el análisis biomecánico ya que permiten obtener algunas variables consideradas como básicas en cualquier análisis cuantitativo del movimiento, como son el centro de gravedad (CG tanto segmentario como corporal, el momento de inercia (I y el momento angular (H segmentario y corporal.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Biomecánica, parámetros inerciales. .

     

    ABSTRACT

    This work gives a general view of the inertial parameters needed for the biomechanical modelling of the human body from the biomechanical point of view, making an analysis of the past, present situations and future tendencies in this subject. Human body modelling needs to determine several anatomical points and interconnected segments, which should be complemented with inertial information such as the segmentary mass, centre of gravity position vector, axes of the local segmentary reference system, and also the moments of inertia. The process of obtaining this inertial parameters is essential for biomechanical analysis since it enables us to obtain several basic variables needed in any quantitative analysis of movement, for example

  7. Environmental impact assessment using a utility-based recursive evidential reasoning approach for structural flood mitigation measures in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Amaguchi, Hideo

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) has created significant awareness on the role of environmentally sound projects in sustainable development. In view of the recent studies on the effects of climate change, the Philippine government has given high priority to the construction of flood control structures to alleviate the destructive effects of unmitigated floods, especially in highly urbanized areas like Metro Manila. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively carried out to maximize or optimize the potential benefits that can be derived from structural flood mitigation measures (SFMMs). A utility-based environmental assessment approach may significantly aid flood managers and decision-makers in planning for effective and environmentally sound SFMM projects. This study proposes a utility-based assessment approach using the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique, coupled with the evidential reasoning approach, to rationally and systematically evaluate the ecological and socio-economic impacts of 4 planned SFMM projects (i.e. 2 river channel improvements and 2 new open channels) in Metro Manila. Results show that the overall environmental effects of each of the planned SFMM projects are positive, which indicate that the utility of the positive impacts would generally outweigh the negative impacts. The results also imply that the planned river channel improvements will yield higher environmental benefits over the planned open channels. This study was able to present a clear and rational approach in the examination of overall environmental effects of SFMMs, which provides valuable insights that can be used by decision-makers and policy makers to improve the EIA practice and evaluation of projects in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-Cost Hybrid ROADM Architectures for Scalable C/DWDM Metro Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md; Halima, Elbiaze

    2016-01-01

    be introduced to merge CWDM and DWDM traffic at the optical layer. This ensures two advantages: reduced initial investment and scalability for deploying DWDM channels in the future. This article presents various ROADM architectures, and explores the novel optical node architecture of hybrid C/DWDM networks......CWDM networks have proven to be a promising first-step metro and access network architecture, offering a significant cost advantage over DWDM due to the lower cost of lasers and the filters used in CWDM modules. If demand grows beyond the capacity covered by CWDM channels, DWDM network elements can......, consisting of CWDM, hybrid C/DWDM, and junction nodes connecting two rings. Evaluation has shown that the hybrid ROADM architecture is superior to other conventional ROADM architectures in terms of scalability and the initial cost of optical nodes and networks....

  9. Flood Hazards in Metro Manila: Recognizing Commonalities, Differences, and Courses of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doracie B. Zoleta-Nantes

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the vulnerability to flood hazards of different urban groups in Metro Manila, the Philippines. It contextualizes and finds similarities and differences in the physical, social, economic and institutional manifestations of severe flood hazards to three groups of people in the mega-city. They are the street children and residents of wealthy neighborhoods and urban poor settlements. It explicates a set of issues that needs to be confronted and a list of appropriate actions that can be taken to initiate a pro-active stance in dealing with the causes and consequences of flood hazards at the local scale. This is necessary for future development planning and hazard mitigation purposes.

  10. A Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Estimation of Dwelling Times of Panama Metro Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Berbey Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow modeling and station dwelling time estimation are significant elements for railway mass transit planning, but system operators usually have limited information to model the passenger flow. In this paper, an artificial-intelligence technique known as fuzzy logic is applied for the estimation of the elements of the origin-destination matrix and the dwelling time of stations in a railway transport system. The fuzzy inference engine used in the algorithm is based in the principle of maximum entropy. The approach considers passengers’ preferences to assign a level of congestion in each car of the train in function of the properties of the station platforms. This approach is implemented to estimate the passenger flow and dwelling times of the recently opened Line 1 of the Panama Metro. The dwelling times obtained from the simulation are compared to real measurements to validate the approach.

  11. La estandarización del modelo de programa de mano Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. James F. Willis García-Talavera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La exhaustiva renovación practicada en el diseño del típico programa de mano Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, en las postrimerías de la década de los treinta, rompió definitivamente con los tradicionales conceptos anteriores. Esa estandarización de formatos supuso la instauración definitiva del margen blanco, el predominio de los colores vivos y los contrastes acusados, así como la abundancia de primeros planos de los actores protagonistas entre las figuras representadas. Este artículo analiza dicha transformación a través de diferentes teorías sobre la representatividad, simbolismo, separación, valoración y elocuencia de ese peculiar objeto publicitario.

  12. NRZ versus RZ over Absolute Added Correlative coding in optical metro-access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Nhat, Nguyen; Elsherif, Mohamed A.; Le Minh, Hoa; Malekmohammadi, Amin

    2017-03-01

    This paper comparatively investigates the transmission performance of absolute added correlative coding (AACC) using non-return-to-zero (NRZ) and return-to-zero (RZ) pulse shapes with a binary intensity modulation direct detection receiver in 40 Gb/s optical metro-access networks operating at 1550 nm. It is shown that, for AACC transmission, the NRZ impulse shaping is superior in comparison to RZ in spectral efficiency, dispersion tolerance, residual dispersion and self-phase modulation (SPM) tolerance. However, RZ-AACC experiences a 1-2 dB advantage in receiver sensitivity over NRZ-AACC for back-to-back configuration as well as after 300-km single-mode fiber delivery.

  13. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  14. Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Payman; Wen, Ke; Xu, Junjie; Bergman, Keren

    2016-05-30

    The emergence of cloud computing and big data has rapidly increased the deployment of small and mid-sized data centers. Enterprises and cloud providers require an agile network among these data centers to empower application reliability and flexible scalability. We present a software-defined inter data center network to enable on-demand scale out of data centers on a metro-scale optical network. The architecture consists of a combined space/wavelength switching platform and a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) control plane equipped with a wavelength and routing assignment module. It enables establishing transparent and bandwidth-selective connections from L2/L3 switches, on-demand. The architecture is evaluated in a testbed consisting of 3 data centers, 5-25 km apart. We successfully demonstrated end-to-end bulk data transfer and Virtual Machine (VM) migrations across data centers with less than 100 ms connection setup time and close to full link capacity utilization.

  15. Monitorización del acceso vascular: parámetros convencionales frente a flujo intraacceso

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Vanessa Fernández Martínez; Yanina Arregui Arias; Rocío Pérez Díaz; Laura Pérez Valencia; Francisco Orenes Bernabé; Josefa Laura García Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Mantener la permeabilidad de los accesos vasculares es un objetivo capital en el paciente en hemodiálisis. Los parámetros clásicos de monitorización del acceso vascular son en general tardíos para la detección de estenosis. El cálculo del flujo intraacceso es un método de segunda generación que permite conocer el flujo sanguíneo máximo del acceso así como detectar estenosis ante una disminución del mismo. El objetivo de este estudio es valorar la eficacia de la medición y vigilancia del flujo...

  16. Cryptococcus neoformans en excretas de palomas del perímetro urbano de Cali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Dary Caicedo B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En el perímetro urbano de Santiago de Cali, Colombia, se realizó un estudio con excretas de palomas, con el fin de establecer la presencia de Cryptococcus neoformans; para aislar el hongo se utilizó agar semilla de girasol. Se analizó si la presencia del hongo se relacionaba con factores como la cantidad de excretas, el tipo de nido, el número de palomas y el pH. De 119 muestras, 59 (49.6% presentaron la levadura. Todos los aislamientos correspondieron a C. neoformans var neoformans. Se estableció que la levadura tiene una amplia distribución en la ciudad y que hay mayor probabilidad de encontrarla en excretas acumuladas (p

  17. Bacteriological and parasitological assessment of currencies obtained in selected markets of Metro Manila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Lo Sia Su

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the bacterial and parasitic contamination of coins and paper bills obtained in selected public markets of Metro Manila. Methods: Money collected from the markets was assessed through culture, microscopy, and biochemical tests. Results: Results showed that the prevalence of bacterial contamination (70.00% was higher than that of parasitic contamination (11.67%. Paper bills were more contaminated with bacteria and parasites compared with coins examined. Money with low denominations had more bacterial and parasitic contamination. Conclusions: Findings indicated that money could be a potential vehicle for the transmission of diseases. There is a need to safeguard oneself from the possible sources of infection that one can get even from money circulating in the market systems.

  18. PERAN MEDIA RELATIONS TERHADAP KEBERHASILAN PROGRAM PROVOCATIVE PROACTIVE DI PT MEDIA TELEVISI INDONESIA (METRO TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sanjaya

    2013-09-01

    information from the data collected through the company's internal analysis of the results of in-depth interviews and field observations regarding activities in the company. The results showed that duties and functions of public relations are as a motor for better co-operation with external and internal parties relating to Provocative Proactive program. The PR and Promotion Departments were turned out to help the success of the PP program, in addition to various roles and hardworks of the Producer and the creative team. Based on the observations, the role of Metro TVs PR and Promotion Departments in conducting media relations through cooperation with the media both print and electronic media in an effort to have Provocative Proactive widely known by the public is through cooperation with various mass media, implementation of mass media selection strategies, and introducing Provocative Proactive Program broadly.

  19. Desenvolvimento de um espectrômetro nuclear digital de radiação gama.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Valadares Leite

    2006-01-01

    O método nuclear gamaespectrométrico vem ganhando espaço em diversas aplicações como fornecer a informação médica em um paciente ou de uma galáxia distante, detectar radioatividade para fins de segurança e medir a concentração de radioelementos em um mineral ou rocha. Esta dissertação apresenta um projeto e implementação de um espectrômetro gama digital conectado a um conjunto detector contendo cristal cintilador de iodeto de sódio dopado com tálio. O hardware é baseado em um dispositivo lógi...

  20. High performance fly ash mixed concrete in underground construction of Delhi metro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, R.; Gupta, A.K.; Garg, R.; Gopalkrishnan, E. [DMRC, New Delhi (India)

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes the comprehensive concrete durability studies carried out for deciding the specifications for the MCIA contract for construction of 4 km of underground metro from Vishwa Vidyalaya station to Kashmere Gate station in India. The study involved adiabatic concrete temperature measurement tests to know the heat generation and temperature rising properties inside concrete mass. The paper describes the background for selection of fly ash as a part replacement up to 30% of cement in concrete including determination of specification, identification of source, collection and transportation by bulk carrier and transfer to storage silo at the concrete batching plant. Control of temperature of concrete during production and after placement requires detailed arrangements for cooling aggregates and water at batching plant and thermal insulation along with curing to the concrete placed at site. Fully tanked membrane waterproofing and special waterproofing details at construction joints also contribute towards achieving the high performance durable concrete structure. 3 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  2. EL TRABAJO INFORMAL DE LOS VAGONEROS EN EL METRO DE LA CIUDAD DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Ramírez Cárdenas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on analysis of the decisions made by peddlers to continue working on the streets, specifically selling apocryphal items. Those decisions are based on the working conditions in the informal sector. To collect data, the participant observation was used, as buyers; 8 interviews with vendors, aged over 25, were conducted. These sellers are engaged in the sale of pirate compact discs (CDs inside the wagons of the Sistema de Transporte Colectivo (STC Metro Line 8 in Mexico City. The results show that economic income, financial compensation, the working day and the satisfaction of working in the informal sector makes those people keep on working within the framework of informality.

  3. Determinação do parâmetro de solubilidade de poliuretanos de PBLH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Eder M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O parâmetro de solubilidade de poliuretanos segmentados foi determinado através de ensaios de inchamento no equilíbrio, tratando-se os dados pela teoria de Flory-Rehner. O segmento flexível dos poliuretanos foi constituído por blocos de oligobutadieno e o segmento rígido foi formado pela reação entre di-isocianato de tolileno e os extensores de cadeia 1,3-propanodiol; 1,4-butanodiol; 1,6-hexanodiol e 2, 2'-di-hidroxi-isopropil N, N'anilina. O teor em segmento rígido para os polímeros provenientes dos extensores alifáticos ficou na faixa de 25,1% a 28,3%, enquanto que, nos polímeros estendidos com o extensor aromático, foi de 32,6%.

  4. Influencia de los parámetros de proceso, en el comportamiento del parámetro vibración absoluta en turbinas de vapor. // Influence of process parameters of the behaviour of absolute vibration parameters in steam turbine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Torre Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo muestra el estudio realizado en turbinas de vapor de pequeña capacidad de generación de las centralestermoeléctricas cubanas, relacionadas con la influencia estadística entre parámetros de proceso de la turbina, respecto alparámetro vibración absoluta, medidos en las chumaceras de la turbina. Se utilizan las bases de datos de los sistemas demonitoreado on-line de la turbina. Se exponen las relaciones existentes entre los principales parámetros seleccionados paraeste estudio.Palabras claves: Monitorado on-line, Monitorado de la condición, Parámetros de proceso, Vibraciónabsoluta, Turbinas de vapor.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThis work show the estudy in small steam turbine capacity of generation in cubans thermoelectric power station to relative withstatistical influence between steam process parameters regarding absolute vibration parameter, in the steam housing measurements.Themselves use database as steam on-line monitoring systems. Expose the existing relation between the principal selection parametersfor this study.Key Words: On.line monitoring, Condition monitoring, Process parameters, Absolute vibration, SteamTurbine.

  5. Piezocomposites metal-cerámica como elementos activos en acelerómetros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa, P.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric ceramic materials have an important number of applications that is continuing increasing. One of these applications is as driving element in the design of an accelerometer. They may be used in monitoring vibration for the automobile and aeroespacial industries and robotic or civil engineering. The cymbal transducer is a good candidate for accelerometer applications due to its high effective piezoelectric charge coefficients. In this work it is shown that changes in the geometry and size of the caps improve the performance of the sensor. The sensitivity of the cymbal accelerometer increases with decreasing cap size. The mechanical vibration response of the cymbal is studied and different properties, like resonant frequency, electromechanical coupling coefficient, and fastest response time are compared.

    Los materiales cerámicos piezoeléctricos presentan un número importante y en continuo aumento de aplicaciones. Entre éstas su utilización como elementos activos en el diseño de acelerómetros posibilita el control de vibraciones en la industria del transporte, aerospacial, robótica e ingeniería civil entre otras. Entre los múltiples diseños como material compuesto destaca, gracias a sus elevados coeficientes de carga efectivos, el denominado tipo címbalo. En este trabajo se comprueba que modificando la geometría y el tamaño de las cápsulas se optimiza el comportamiento del sensor. Concretamente una disminución en el tamaño de las cápsulas se traduce en un aumento de la sensibilidad del acelerómetro. También se muestran los espectros de impedancia y se comparan distintas propiedades como son la frecuencia de resonancia, coeficiente de acoplo electromecánico y tiempo mínimo de respuesta.

  6. ANÁLISE DE PARÂMETROS OPERATIVOS DO SISTEMA HIDROTÉRMICO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Viana Lisboa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available 10.12957/cadest.2010.15735Neste trabalho será apresentada uma análise compreensiva das condições operativas do parque gerador brasileiro com um número crescente de usinas hidrelétricas com menor capacidade de regularização e uma maior penetração de usinas eólicas e de usinas termelétricas movidas a bagaço de cana de açúcar. Os fatores de participação térmicos adotados no modelo MELP são parâmetros utilizados para definição dos limites de geração média anual de usinas termelétricas nas condições de hidrologia média e crítica. Estes parâmetros são função da configuração do sistema e de dados econômicos como o custo de operação de usinas termelétricas. Será feita uma análise das possíveis alterações dos valores destes fatores ao longo do horizonte de planejamento até 2019, utilizando o programa NEWAVE. Resultados de simulações obtidos com o MELP levando em consideração a característica sazonal da geração serão mostrados e discutidos.

  7. Status of forensic odontology in metro and in tier 2 city in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Khare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentist can play a significant role in identifying the victims or perpetrators of crime as well as in disasters. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic science as well as dental and related evidences can help a dental practitioner in assisting the civil agencies in such cases. Aim: To evaluate the awareness and knowledge of forensic odontology among dentists in a metropolitan and a tier 2 city. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred and seventy four dentists were included in this survey. Questionnaire was designed to assess the knowledge, aptitude, and status of practice of forensic odontology. Data was analyzed by comparing overall awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in metro and tier 2 city as well as between the different groups. Results: Apart from the source of knowledge, no significant differences were seen in respondents of metropolitan and tier 2 city. Significantly higher proportion of subjects in metro reported journals as source of knowledge (P < 0.001, whereas it was newspaper in tier 2 city (P = 0.001. On comparing the mean scores of knowledge (k, aptitude (a, and practice (p among different study groups, it was found that all the three scores were highest for practitioner cum academician (PA group (k - 2.37, a - 0.69, P - 0.17. Knowledge scores were minimum for pure practitioner (PP group (1.98, and attitude and practice scores of pure academician (A group were minimum (a - 0.53, P - 0.06. Conclusion: Respondents had low knowledge about the applications of forensic odontology in routine practice; hence, steps must be taken to educate the dental practitioners about its clinical applications.

  8. Particulate matter concentration and chemical composition in the metro system of Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, C; Marcovecchio, F; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2015-06-01

    Air quality at the main station of the metro system of Rome (Termini hub) has been characterized by the point of view of particulate matter (PM) concentration and chemical composition. Indoor air in different environments (underground train platform and shopping center, metro carriages with and without air conditioning system) has been studied and compared with outdoor air at a nearby urban site. Air quality at the railway station, located outdoor at surface level, has been also considered for comparison. PM chemical characterization included ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, macro-elements, and the bio-accessible and residual fractions of micro- and trace elements. Train platform and carriages without air conditioning resulted to be the most polluted environments, with indoor/outdoor ratio up to two orders of magnitude for many components. PM mass concentration was determined on filter membranes by the gravimetric procedure as well as from the optical particle counter (OPC) number concentration measurements. The OPC results, taken with the original calibration factor, were below 40 % of the value obtained by the gravimetric measurements. Only a chemical and morphological characterization of the collected dust could lead to a reconciliation of the results yielded by the two methods. Macro-components were used to estimate the strength of the main macro-sources. The most significant contribution is confirmed to derive from wheels, rails, and brakes abrasion; from soil re-suspension (over 50 % at the subway platform); and from organics (about 25 %). The increase in the concentration of elements was mostly due to the residual fraction, but also the bio-accessible fraction showed a remarkable enrichment, particularly in the case of Ba, Zn, Cd, and Ni.

  9. Logical optical line terminal technologies towards flexible and highly reliable metro- and access-integrated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoru; Sato, Takehiro; Yamanaka, Naoaki

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, flexible and highly reliable metro and access integrated networks with network virtualization and software defined networking technologies will be presented. Logical optical line terminal (L-OLT) technologies and active optical distribution networks (ODNs) are the key to introduce flexibility and high reliability into the metro and access integrated networks. In the Elastic Lambda Aggregation Network (EλAN) project which was started in 2012, a concept of the programmable optical line terminal (P-OLT) has been proposed. A role of the P-OLT is providing multiple network services that have different protocols and quality of service requirements by single OLT box. Accommodated services will be Internet access, mobile front-haul/back-haul, data-center access, and leased line. L-OLTs are configured within the P-OLT box to support the functions required for each network service. Multiple P-OLTs and programmable optical network units (P-ONUs) are connected by the active ODN. Optical access paths which have flexible capacity are set on the ODN to provide network services from L-OLT to logical ONUs (L-ONUs). The L-OLT to L-ONU path on the active ODN provides a logical connection. Therefore, introducing virtualization technologies becomes possible. One example is moving an L-OLT from one P-OLT to another P-OLT like a virtual machine. This movement is called L-OLT migration. The L-OLT migration provides flexible and reliable network functions such as energy saving by aggregating L-OLTs to a limited number of P-OLTs, and network wide optical access path restoration. Other L-OLT virtualization technologies and experimental results will be also discussed in the paper.

  10. 75 FR 52780 - Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ...The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated nine additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 1706. The new counties are (1) Shelby County in Tennessee as part of the Gulf Coast HIDTA, (2) Navajo County in Arizona as part of the Southwest Border HIDTA--Arizona Region, (3) Jefferson County in New York as part of the New York/New Jersey HIDTA, (4) Mecklenburg, Gaston, Union Buncombe, Henderson, and McDowell Counties in North Carolina as part of the Atlanta HIDTA.

  11. Siim Nestor soovitab : uute eesti plaatide esitlusõhtud! Metro Luminal. Lu : K. Metsatöll / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Rockansambli Metro Luminal plaadi "Reboot" esitlusest Tartu Sadamateatris 9. dets. ja Rock Café's Tallinnas 10. dets.(kaasa teeb DJ Sing). Popansambli Lu:k albumist "Raadiomaja valvelauas" ja ansambli 10. aastapäeva tähistamisest 10. dets. Tallinnas Kunstiakadeemia saalis. Ansambli Metsatöll albumi "Hiiekoda" esitlusest 11.dets. Rock Café's Tallinnas

  12. Optimal Energy Management, Location and Size for Stationary Energy Storage System in a Metro Line Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The installation of stationary super-capacitor energy storage system (ESS in metro systems can recycle the vehicle braking energy and improve the pantograph voltage profile. This paper aims to optimize the energy management, location, and size of stationary super-capacitor ESSes simultaneously and obtain the best economic efficiency and voltage profile of metro systems. Firstly, the simulation platform of an urban rail power supply system, which includes trains and super-capacitor energy storage systems, is established. Then, two evaluation functions from the perspectives of economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation are put forward. Ultimately, a novel optimization method that combines genetic algorithms and a simulation platform of urban rail power supply system is proposed, which can obtain the best energy management strategy, location, and size for ESSes simultaneously. With actual parameters of a Chinese metro line applied in the simulation comparison, certain optimal scheme of ESSes’ energy management strategy, location, and size obtained by a novel optimization method can achieve much better performance of metro systems from the perspectives of two evaluation functions. The simulation result shows that with the increase of weight coefficient, the optimal energy management strategy, locations and size of ESSes appear certain regularities, and the best compromise between economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation can be obtained by a novel optimization method, which can provide a valuable reference to subway company.

  13. Rational Formations of a Metro Train Improve Its Efficiencies of Both Traction Energy Utilization and Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on simulations of passenger transports of two representative types of metro trains in China, this study analyzes efficiencies of energy consumption and passenger transport of a metro train in the effect of its target speed, formation scale (FS (i.e., length and mass of the formation, relative traction capacity (RTC (i.e., ratio of the motoring cars to all its cars, and so forth. It is found that increasing energy cost efficiency of a metro train with decreasing its target speed is evidently accelerated with reducing its RTC below 0.50 at the expense of obviously lowering its passenger transport efficiency. Moreover, if the passenger capacity of the train is sufficiently utilized, increasing its FS for the same RTC is easy to have its passenger transport efficiency improved significantly even for a meanwhile much decreased target speed with consuming energy less intensively. Therefore, metro trains in peak hours may take comparatively big FSs, relatively high target speeds, and RTCs over 0.50 to meet usually urgent and large-scale travel demands in such time. In contrast, trains in nonpeak hours ought to have small FSs, relatively low target speeds, and RTCs smaller than 0.50 for mainly avoiding energy waste.

  14. Jet grout strut for deep station boxes of the north/south metro line Amsterdam: Design and back analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfgaauw, S.; Buykx, S.M.; Bosch, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The new North/South metro line in Amsterdam contains several stations, some of which with an excavation depth of 30 m below surface. The design of these station boxes is very much determined by the adjacent historic buildings, high water table and the relatively soft soil. A lot of effort is put

  15. 78 FR 66779 - CTS Automotive LLC, a Subsidiary of CTS Corporation Including On-Site Leased Workers From Metro...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration CTS Automotive LLC, a Subsidiary of CTS Corporation Including On- Site... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on September 5, 2013, applicable to workers of CTS Automotive LLC, a subsidiary of CTS Corporation, including on-site leased workers from Metro Staff, Inc., and Aerotek,...

  16. Siim Nestor soovitab : uute eesti plaatide esitlusõhtud! Metro Luminal. Lu : K. Metsatöll / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Rockansambli Metro Luminal plaadi "Reboot" esitlusest Tartu Sadamateatris 9. dets. ja Rock Café's Tallinnas 10. dets.(kaasa teeb DJ Sing). Popansambli Lu:k albumist "Raadiomaja valvelauas" ja ansambli 10. aastapäeva tähistamisest 10. dets. Tallinnas Kunstiakadeemia saalis. Ansambli Metsatöll albumi "Hiiekoda" esitlusest 11.dets. Rock Café's Tallinnas

  17. Desempenho do tensiômetro com diferentes sistemas de leitura Tensiometer performance with different reading systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro dos Santos Brito

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O tensiômetro é o instrumento mais utilizado no campo para medida do potencial mátrico da água, pelo que a avaliação dos seus diferentes sistemas de leitura é muito importante. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes sistemas de leitura do tensiômetro tradicional em campo e justifica-se porque vai indicar a situação na qual cada sistema deve ou não ser utilizado. Foi realizado um experimento em delineamento inteiramente aleatório e em esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 x 11, ou seja, três sistemas de leitura do tensiômetro (manômetro de mercúrio, vacuômetro de Bourdon e tensímetro digital com transdutor de pressão, duas profundidades de instalação (0,2 e 1,0 m, dois horários de leitura (manhã e tarde e 11 leituras, com quatro repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, e as médias foram contrastadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5 %. Os sistemas também foram analisados com base nos indicadores estatísticos índice de concordância de Willmott, erro máximo, erro absoluto médio, raiz quadrada do erro médio normalizado, coeficiente de determinação, coeficiente de massa residual e eficiência, adotando-se o tensiômetro com manômetro de mercúrio como referência. Concluiu-se que: (a o vacuômetro de Bourdon é mais exato e eficiente que o tensímetro digital e, na ausência do manômetro de mercúrio, deve ser preferido para a medida do potencial mátrico da água no solo; (b sempre que o vacuômetro de Bourdon for instalado ao longo do comprimento do tensiômetro sob determinada carga hidráulica, esta deve ser considerada no cálculo do potencial mátrico; e (c o tensímetro digital superestimou os valores de potencial mátrico em comparação ao manômetro de mercúrio e vacuômetro de Bourdon.The tensiometer is the most used instrument in the field to determine the soil water matric potential, so that the evaluation of its reading systems is very important. The purpose of this study was to

  18. Epilithic and aerophilic diatoms in the artificial environment of Kungsträdgården metro station, Stockholm, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Magnus, Ivarsson; Lundberg, Johannes;

    2013-01-01

    found growing on the rock walls of Kungsträdgården metro station. The results show the diatom flora in Kungsträdgården to be dominated by e.g. Diadesmis contenta, Diadesmis perpusilla, Pinnularia appendiculata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia sinuata and Diploneis ovalis. One species, Caloneis cf...

  19. The Sense of Place behind Segregating Practices: An Ethnographic Approach to the Symbolic Partitioning of Metro Manila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The literature on cities in the developing world equates segregation with the proliferation of enclaves and slums and tends to overlook how the people associated with those places are further segregated in public spaces and enclaves. To account for the symbolic partitioning of Metro Manila, I document the segregating practices of the residents of…

  20. On Rainfall Modification by Major Urban Areas. Part 1; Observations from Space-borne Rain Radar on TRMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Pierce, Harold; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study represents one of the first published attempts to identify rainfall modification by urban areas using satellite-based rainfall measurements. Data from the first space-based rain-radar, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, are employed. Analysis of the data enables identification of rainfall patterns around Atlanta, Montgomery, Nashville, San Antonio, Waco, and Dallas during the warm season. Results reveal an average increase of -28% in monthly rainfall rates within 30-60 kilometers downwind of the metropolis with a modest increase of 5.6% over the metropolis. Portions of the downwind area exhibit increases as high as 51%. The percentage chances are relative to an upwind CONTROL area. It was also found that maximum rainfall rates in the downwind impact area can exceed the mean value in the upwind CONTROL area by 48%-116%. The maximum value was generally found at an average distance of 39 km from the edge of the urban center or 64 km from the center of the city. These results are consistent with METROMEX studies of St. Louis almost two decades ago and more recent studies near Atlanta. Future work will investi(yate hypothesized factors causing rainfall modification by urban areas. Additional work is also needed to provide more robust validation of space-based rain estimates near major urban areas. Such research has implications for urban planning, water resource management, and understanding human impact on the environment.

  1. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  2. Penetrômetro de impacto stolf - programa computacional de dados em EXCEL-VBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubismar Stolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Há dois principais tipos de penetrômetro, o estático e o dinâmico. No primeiro, uma haste com uma ponta cônica é introduzida contínua e lentamente (quase estático, registrando-se concomitantemente a força de reação que é igual à resistência do solo. No segundo, utiliza-se a mesma haste. Contudo, esta é introduzida por meio da promoção de uma massa de impacto em queda livre. Dessa forma, a teoria pode ser tratada pela dinâmica newtoniana para obtenção da resistência. O objetivo do programa é proporcionar uma ferramenta rápida, facilitadora da computação de dados de resistência do solo, para esse último penetrômetro, resultando tabelas e gráficos já no formato científico. Desenvolvido em linguagem de programação Visual Basic Aplication (VBA, escolheu-se o aplicativo Excel como interface com o usuário pela sua popularidade. É constituído por quatro planilhas, duasauxiliares, sendo duas delas essenciais, Plan1 e 2: Plan1 - dados de entrada (número de impactos e profundidade. Concomitante à digitação, a tabela de resistência é confeccionada com o respectivo gráfico, podendo tabelar 40 perfis. Plan2 - cumpre função especial de equalizar, ou seja, padronizar a profundidade em camadas constantes, permitindo unificar todos os perfis em uma única tabela. Para tal, escolhe-se uma espessura de camada (exemplo: 5 cm; em seguida, o programa coleta os dados de resistência (MPa da Plan1 e interpola os valores para a profundidade de 5 em 5 cm. Após realizar esse procedimento para todas as tabelas da Plan1, o programa gera, na Plan2, uma única tabela com todos os perfis, a média geral e os respectivos gráficos. É possível selecionar os perfis; por exemplo, apenas os medidos na linha ou entrelinha de plantio e eliminar perfis a critério do usuário. Como objetivo complementar, descreve-se a evolução do projeto "Penetrômetro de impacto", iniciado em 1982, cuja técnica passou a ser adotada no meio cient

  3. VARIACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS FISICOQUIMICOS DURANTE UN PROCESO DE COMPOSTAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Farias Camero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se llevaron a cabo dos procesos de compostaje a partir de residuos lignocelulósicos de rosas durante 165 días aproximadamente. En uno de los procesos la descomposición del material fue realizada sólo por microorganismos (compostaje directo y en el otro fuera de los microorganismos se adicionaron lombrices de tierra Eisenia foetida (compostaje indirecto. El compostaje directo fue realizado en un sistema de compostación denominado "camas" y el proceso indirecto se desarrolló en la etapa inicial en un sistema de "panelas" siendo trasladado posteriormente a una cama. Los dos procesos se manejaron con adiciones de cal, NH4NO3 (20%N y microorganismos. Se tomaron muestras periódicas en diferentes lugares de las pilas y se midió semanalmente la temperatura. En cada una de las muestras se determinaron los siguientes parámetros fisicoquímicos: % humedad, color, pH en relaciones muestra: agua 1:5 y 1:10, cenizas, materia orgánica. Cíe libre de cenizas, carbono, nitrógeno y relación C/N. En el extracto acuoso se determinaron el contenido de carbono orgánico total y nitrógeno, la relación C/N y el porcentaje de hidrosolubles y se hizo un ensayo de germinación en el que se calculó el porcentaje de semillas de berro (Lepidium sativum que germinaron en el extracto. La variación de los parámetros en cada uno de los procesos permifió establecer que los mayores cambios en el material se llevan a cabo durante las etapas iniciales del proceso (fases termófila y mesófila, siendo la presencia de microorganismos el factor limitante de la dinámica del proceso; así mismo la adición de lombrices de tierra no aceleró la mineralización de la materia orgánica. A nivel metodológico se estableció que la determinación del color no es un parámetro efectivo para evaluar el estado de madurez del compost y que, medidas de la temperatura y el porcentaje de germinación pueden realizarse rutinariamente para determinar el avance del proceso. Para

  4. ZONEAMENTO GEOAMBIENTAL DO PERÍMETRO URBANO DE SANTA MARIA – RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Fonseca Pires

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho de pesquisa tem por objetivo a caracterização geoambiental da paisagem, através da elaboração de Zoneamento Geoambiental do Perímetro Urbano de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. O perímetro urbano, cujos limites foram definidos pela municipalidade, possui uma área de 13.092 ha e engloba as áreas urbanas e as de possível urbanização. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida tendo como referencial teórico a análise sistêmica, utilizando-se da paisagem como categoria de análise, e como instrumental metodológico a utilização de geotecnologias, especialmente de SIGs. O tratamento metodológico segue a proposta metodológica desenvolvida pelo LAGEOLAM/UFSM, com algumas adaptações. Os atributos utilizados na análise geoambiental compreendem as características climáticas, o substrato geológico, a hidrologia, a geomorfologia, as feições superficiais e o uso e ocupação do solo. A espacialização destes componentes da paisagem, exceto as informações climáticas, através da elaboração de mapas temáticos, e a posterior integração, por meio de uma representação de síntese, foi realizada no software Spring 4.3.3, que permitiu a manipulação de dados de diferentes fontes. Como produto final estabeleceu-se uma hierarquia composta por nove unidades geoambientais, seis subunidades e quatro feições. A elaboração do zoneamento geoambiental, através do estudo integrado da paisagem, constitui numa importante ferramenta no gerenciamento dos recursos da área.

  5. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Water, Air Emissions, and Cost Impacts of Air-Cooled Microturbines for Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power Systems: A Case Study in the Atlanta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Ann James

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pace of urbanization means that cities and global organizations are looking for ways to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP systems have the potential to improve the energy generation efficiency of a city or urban region by providing energy for heating, cooling, and electricity simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to estimate the water consumption for energy generation use, carbon dioxide (CO2 and NOx emissions, and economic impact of implementing CCHP systems for five generic building types within the Atlanta metropolitan region, under various operational scenarios following the building thermal (heating and cooling demands. Operating the CCHP system to follow the hourly thermal demand reduces CO2 emissions for most building types both with and without net metering. The system can be economically beneficial for all building types depending on the price of natural gas, the implementation of net metering, and the cost structure assumed for the CCHP system. The greatest reduction in water consumption for energy production and NOx emissions occurs when there is net metering and when the system is operated to meet the maximum yearly thermal demand, although this scenario also results in an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and, in some cases, cost. CCHP systems are more economical for medium office, large office, and multifamily residential buildings.

  7. HIV sexual transmission risks in the context of clinical care: a prospective study of behavioural correlates of HIV suppression in a community sample, Atlanta, GA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth C Kalichman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiretroviral therapy (ART improves the health of people living with HIV and has the potential to reduce HIV infectiousness, thereby preventing HIV transmission. However, the success of ART for HIV prevention hinges on sustained ART adherence and avoiding sexually transmitted infections (STI. Objectives: To determine the sexual behaviours and HIV transmission risks of individuals with suppressed and unsuppressed HIV replication (i.e., viral load. Methods: Assessed HIV sexual transmission risks among individuals with clinically determined suppressed and unsuppressed HIV. Participants were 760 men and 280 women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, USA, who completed behavioural assessments, 28-daily prospective sexual behaviour diaries, one-month prospective unannounced pill counts for ART adherence, urine screening for illicit drug use and medical record chart abstraction for HIV viral load. Results: Individuals with unsuppressed HIV demonstrated a constellation of behavioural risks for transmitting HIV to uninfected sex partners that included symptoms of STI and substance use. In addition, 15% of participants with suppressed HIV had recent STI symptoms/diagnoses, indicating significant risks for sexual infectiousness despite their HIV suppression in blood plasma. Overall, 38% of participants were at risk for elevated sexual infectiousness and just as many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse with non-HIV-infected partners. Conclusions: Implementation strategies for using HIV treatments as HIV prevention requires enhanced behavioural interventions that extend beyond ART to address substance use and sexual health that will otherwise undermine the potential preventive impact of early ART.

  8. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  9. Analysis of pilot warning indicator performance in terminal area traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetenik, J. R.; Lange, W. R.; Thompson, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    Three pilot warning indicator concepts for collision hazard avoidance are analyzed using computer fast-time simulation. A hazard measure is defined based on a 1/2-g maximum horizontal acceleration, a maximum climb or dive angle of 10 deg for each aircraft, and a 20-sec warning time, through escape completion. The traffic model is based on flight tracks recorded in the Atlanta terminal area over an 11 hr period during August 1967. The basic PWI concept studied alarms on range to flashing beacons mounted on intruder aircraft as a function of relative azimuth and elevation. The alarm-hazard epoch ratio is about 17/1 to maintain the missed-alarm rate below 10%. Beacon vignetting or range-rate discrimination are shown to reduce the false-alarm rate by about 75%.

  10. Disdrómetro óptico de bajo costo para la determinación del tamaño y velocidad de las gotas de lluvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Falcón

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El tamaño y la velocidad de caída de las gotas de lluvia es un factor importante para estudiar la erosión de los suelos. Los pluviómetros no permiten medir directamente estas magnitudes. Para superar estas limitaciones se emplean los disdrómetros que sirven además para calibrar los radares meteorológicos. Se diseña y construye un disdrómetro óptico de bajo costo, que puede emplearse como medidor universal de precipitaciones. El disdrómetro se elabora con dos LED IR333C como optocopladores infrarrojos de 940 nanómetros, junto a un amplificador operacional TL82 y un pulsador LM555. Se obtuvieron resultados preliminares para varios eventos de precipitación, logrando medir un tamaño medio de 1,6 ± 0,25mm de diámetro, alcanzando una velocidad media de 5,4 ± 1,8 m/s. El disdrómetro elaborado mostró su efectividad para cálculos pluviométricos y cinemáticos de los eventos de precipitación en la estaciones de Valencia (Carabobo, Venezuela durante las primeras lluvias del periodo lluvioso de julio de 2012.

  11. Parâmetros astrofísicos de estrelas gigantes do aglomerado globular 47 Tucanae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Brito, A.; Barbuy, B.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados globulares são considerados laboratórios astrofísicos para a verificação da teoria de evolução estelar, bem como a trajetória químio-dinâmica das galáxias hospedeiras. Em particular, 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) configura-se como um dos mais extensivamente estudados aglomerados globulares da Galáxia devido a relativa proximidade ao Sol (R¤ = 4.5 kpc) e alta latitute galáctica (b = -44°,89). Neste trabalho, apresentamos a velocidade radial heliocêntrica e os parâmetros atmosféricos (Teff, logg, [Fe/H]) de 5 estrelas gigantes do aglomerado globular 47 Tucanae. Os espectros foram obtidos pelo espectrógrafo UVES (Ultaviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph) de alta resolução (R = 60000) e alta razão sinal-ruído (S/N > 200), acoplado ao telescópio de 8,2m Kueyen do VLT (Very Large Telescope). Nós encontramos = -22,43 +/- 3,97 km/s, [Fe/H] ~ -0.7, 1,2 aglomerados globulares ricos em metais. Trabalho financiado pela FAPESP e pelo CNPq.

  12. Puentes tipo Compac 200 colgantes de 39 y 66 metros de luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Otálora Torres

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available En algunas vías colombianas se han venido utilizando puentes metálicos desarmables tipo COMPAC 200 que para luces mayores a 40 metros. se refuerzan colgándolos de cables. Este tipo de utilización no es como el diseño original, sin embargo, la práctica ha demostrado que funcionan, sobretodo cuando se presentan necesidades como comunicar urgentemente entre sí diferentes regiones. Por ejemplo, cuando ha habido la ruptura de un puente permanente en una carretera ya construida y se hace necesario dar una solución rápida y eficaz para el pronto restablecimiento de las comunicaciones viales de la región. El caso desarrollado en el presente trabajo trata el estudio de los puentes Compact 200 de las siguientes longitudes: 39m y 66m. Se hizo una generación de modelos de cada uno de los puentes utilizando el programa COSMOS/M.

  13. El color, en el programa de mano de la Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. James F. Willis García-Talavera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La estandarización de formatos de programas de mano, practicada por Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer al final de la década de los treinta, trajo consigo la arrolladora llegada del color, como carácter peculiar e inseparable del nuevo modelo, origen del matiz de opinión que, a partir de ese momento, generarían los nuevos ejemplares e ingrediente esencial en la obtención del pretendido impacto visual. Esa transformación del programa de mano supuso el ascenso de un punto en la escala de iconocidad gráfica –inversamente proporcional al grado de abstracción– diseñada por Abraham Moles.ABSTRACT: The standarization of programs carried out by MGM at the end of the 30´brought about the overwhelming arrival of colour as a peculiar characteristic inseparable from the new model, origin of the nuance of opinion which, from that moment, would generate the new models and ingredients essential in the obtaining of the alledged visual impact. That transformation of the program meant the raise of one point in the graphic icon scale, inversely proportional to the degree of abstraction designed by Abraham Moles.

  14. ESTIMACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS INVARIANTES PARA UN MOTOR DE INDUCCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADOLFO ANDRÉS JARAMILLO-MATTA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra un algoritmo que implementa una nueva técnica de estimación de parámetros invariantes para el motor de inducción trifásico con rotor de jaula de ardilla, para dos de los modelos de comportamiento más utilizados: modelo de jaula sencilla y modelo de doble jaula sin pérdidas en el entrehierro. Esta técnica parte únicamente de los datos proporcionados por el fabricante y disminuye de manera considerable los errores identificados con otras técnicas. Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con los datos experimentales de un motor de inducción trifásico de 100  hp de potencia, y muestran diferencias muy marcadas entre el comportamiento obtenido con el modelo de jaula sencilla y el obtenido con el modelo de doble jaula. Esta diferencia puede afectar el desempeño de aplicaciones que incluyen motores de inducción tales como: sistemas de control, análisis, simulación y emulación de los accionamientos eléctricos, entre otros.

  15. Concentrations and identification of culturable airborne fungi in underground stations of the Seoul metro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Jang, Soojin; Park, Wha Me; Park, Jae Bum

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the culturable airborne fungi (CAF) concentrations in the underground subway stations of Seoul, Korea at two time points. This study measured the CAF concentrations in enclosed environments at 16 underground stations of the Seoul Metro in 2006 and 2013 and investigated the effects of various environmental factors, including the presence of platform screen doors, temperature, relative humidity, and number of passengers. CAF concentrations at the stations in 2006 were significantly higher than that at the same stations in 2013 (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between CAF concentration and relative humidity (r = 0.311, p < 0.05). Geotrichum and Penicillium were the predominant genera. The CAF concentrations in stations with an operating supply air were significantly higher than that in stations with no supply air (p < 0.001). Therefore, it is recommended that special attention be given to stations with clean supplied air to improve the indoor air quality of these subway stations.

  16. Aspectos socioculturales del programa de mano Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer: la cinefilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jimmy Willi García-Talavera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El programa de mano Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer representó, durante más de cuatro decenios, el reflejo socio-cultural de una etapa de la historia de España, en la que varias generaciones recurrían al séptimo arte como método sencillo de evadirse de una serie de problemas que implicaban a toda una sociedad. Por determinadas circunstancias, este objeto restringido, en principio, a funciones eminentemente publicitarias se convirtió en un auténtico generador de ilusión que, a su vez, fue el origen de verdaderas pasiones coleccionistas y de, lo que es más importante, incondicionales y duraderas aficiones al cine.ABSTRACT: The MGM program represented, for more than 4 decades, the socio-cultural reflexion of an era in the Spanish History, in which, several generations recurred the movies as a simple method of evasion from a series of problems implying a whole society. Due to certain circumstances, this object, restricted to eminently advertising functions, became an authentic generator of illusions which at the same time, was the origin of collectors truly passion and, more important, unconditional and lasting cinema fondness.

  17. Los gasómetros del Zollverein: historia de una recuperación singular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Tartás

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Por su rotundidad formal y gran volumen, los mal llamados gasómetros (no son medidores sino depósitos de gas han devenido fácilmente en iconos o hitos asociados a la memoria del lugar defendidos por  asociaciones ciudadanas y particulares. Tras una breve introducción analizando la situación actual y sus problemas de mantenimiento y pervivencia, en este trabajo se realiza un recorrido por su evolución y desarrollo histórico. Ello lleva a plantear la cuestión de la estrategias de conservación, considerándose imprescindible el estudio caso a caso, atendiendo a su estado, situación y relación con las comunidades de su entorno. Como ejemplo, el área de Zollverein en la cuenca del Ruhr ofrece un interesante conjunto de elementos sobrevivientes y recuperados que muestran diversas soluciones llevadas a la práctica.

  18. STRATEGI PRAGMATIK BAHASA HUMOR DALAM ACARA “MARIO TEGUH GOLDEN WAYS” DI METRO TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enie Hendrajati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech humor in MTGW program is assumed as a "good practice" of pragmatic strategy to entertain, inspire and motivate audience. The focus and objective of this study is to get a description of the pragmatic strategy of harmonizing word choice, sentence, and humorous language in MTGW program. How pragmatic strategies have implications for the use of words, sentences, and language styles so that the audience feel entertained and laughed. This research uses desciptive qualitative approach. Data in the form of humorous languages is collected by listening and recording. The method of analysis is padan and agih. The word data, sentence, and style of the humorous language are linked and compared to other words, sentences, and language styles in terms of humorous sense between sentences produced and comparator sentences. As a result, the pragmatic strategy MT uses in the MTGW program on Metro TV is to harmonize between lingual units of words, sentences, and language styles with humor and courtesy. MT uses a locusive and illocusive strategy with humorous tones and politeness in choosing, organizing and producing every word, sentence, and style of humor. Through the choice of words, sentences, and language style, the MT uses pragmatic strategies in conveying his message as a motivator and the perlocutionary effect is that the audience becomes interested or entertained.

  19. A robust localized soft sensor for particulate matter modeling in Seoul metro systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2016-03-15

    Developing accurate soft sensors to predict and monitor the indoor air quality (IAQ) of hazardous pollutants that accumulate in underground metro systems is of key importance. The just-in-time (JIT) learning technique possesses a local feature that can track the variations in the dynamic process more effectively, which is different from the traditional soft sensor modeling methods, such as partial least squares (PLS), which models the process in an offline and global way. In this study, a robust soft sensor that combined the JIT learning technique with a least squares support vector regression (LSSVR) method, named JIT-LSSVR, was derived in order to improve the prediction performance of a PM2.5 soft sensor in a subway station. Additionally, in order to eliminate the adverse effects caused by the outliers in the process variables, an outlier detection step was integrated into the JIT-LSSVR modeling procedure. The performance evaluation results demonstrated that the proposed robust JIT-LSSVR soft sensor has the capability to model nonlinear and dynamic subway systems. The root mean square error of the JIT-LSSVR soft sensor was improved by 55% in comparison with that of the LSSVR soft sensor.

  20. Defining Robust Recovery Solutions for Preserving Service Quality during Rail/Metro Systems Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca D'Acierno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a sensitivity analysis for evaluating the effectiveness of recovery solutions in the case of disturbed rail operations. Indeed, when failures or breakdowns occur during daily service, new strategies have to be implemented so as to react appropriately and re-establish ordinary conditions as rapidly as possible. In this context, the use of rail simulation is vital: for each intervention strategy it provides the evaluation of interactions and performance analysis prior to actually implementing the corrective action. However, in most cases, simulation tasks are deterministic and fail to allow for the stochastic distribution of train performance and delays. Hence, the strategies adopted might not be robust enough to ensure effectiveness of the intervention. We therefore propose an off-line procedure for disruption management based on a microscopic and stochastic rail simulation which considers both service operation and travel demand. An application in the case of a real metro line in Naples (Italy shows the benefits of the proposed approach in terms of service quality.

  1. Splitting Travel Time Based on AFC Data: Estimating Walking, Waiting, Transfer, and In-Vehicle Travel Times in Metro System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The walking, waiting, transfer, and delayed in-vehicle travel times mainly contribute to route’s travel time reliability in the metro system. The automatic fare collection (AFC system provides huge amounts of smart card records which can be used to estimate all these times distributions. A new estimation model based on Bayesian inference formulation is proposed in this paper by integrating the probability measurement of the OD pair with only one effective route, in which all kinds of times follow the truncated normal distributions. Then, Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is designed to estimate all parameters endogenously. Finally, based on AFC data in Guangzhou Metro, the estimations show that all parameters can be estimated endogenously and identifiably. Meanwhile, the truncated property of the travel time is significant and the threshold tested by the surveyed data is reliable. Furthermore, the superiority of the proposed model over the existing model in estimation and forecasting accuracy is also demonstrated.

  2. Instalação, calibração e funcionamento de um lisímetro de pesagem

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo construir, instalar, calibrar e avaliar a sensibilidade de um lisímetro de pesagem com célula de carga, instalado em Seropédica - RJ, a fim de determinar a evapotranspiração de referência (ETo). O lisímetro, com dimensões de 1,0 m x 1,0 m e 0,7 m de profundidade, foi construído com chapas de aço galvanizado e instalado sobre estrutura metálica montada sobre barras transversais, a fim de concentrar toda a massa do conjunto sobre uma célula de carga localizada n...

  3. Performance Evaluation of Different QoS Models for Connecting Telephone Exchange Centers over Metro Ethernet Networks

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    Ghasem Mirjalily

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent large deployment of high-speed metro Ethernet networks creates opportunity to connect legacy telephone exchange centers and cellular telephone base stations to the core telephony network. The success of data and legacy voice services convergence shall depend on whether it can provide the customer with the required QoS or not. Packet-base telephony service requires stringent bounds on end-to-end packet delay, jitter, and loss. New protocols such as MPLS and Diffserv are realized due to the major advantages associated with them such as QoS. This paper studies the performance of connecting telephone exchange centers over a metro Ethernet network using MPLS and DiffServ QoS model. We will implement some simulations to evaluate the performance in terms of delay, jitter and loss.

  4. REGRESIÓN BAYESIANA LINEAL PARA CALIBRAR LOS PARÁMETROS DE UN MODELO DE HORNO DE ARCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesser James Marulanda Durango

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento presenta la calibración de los parámetros de un modelo de horno de arco eléctrico, que tiene en cuenta la naturaleza no lineal y la impedancia variable que exhibe este tipo de carga. A partir de la ecuación diferencial no lineal que describe la característica estática voltaje-corriente del arco eléctrico, se establece una ecuación equivalente lineal que facilita el ajuste de las constantes del modelo, usando mediciones reales de voltaje y de corriente tomadas en la etapa más crítica de la operación del horno. Se muestra el procedimiento de ajuste de los parámetros del modelo usando regresión Bayesiana Lineal. Se presenta a través de gráficas, la relación entre los parámetros del modelo de la etapa determinista y el comportamiento de la varianza de las funciones de densidad de probabilidad Gaussianas a posterior con el número de datos usados para la calibración del modelo. La validación de los resultados obtenidos se realiza simulando el modelo con los parámetros estimados para luego comparar éstos con mediciones reales. Se ha utilizado un medidor de Flicker que cumple con el estándar CEI IEC 61000-4-15 para determinar la Sensación Instantánea de Flicker (IFL de las fluctuaciones presentes en las formas de onda reales y simuladas de las corrientes del arco eléctrico. Adicionalmente, se presenta en una gráfica el contenido armónico real y simulado de las corrientes de fase generadas en el horno.

  5. Espermocultivo: crecimiento bacteriano del eyaculado y su relación con los parámetros seminales

    OpenAIRE

    Puerta Suárez,Jenniffer; Villegas Castaño, Aracelly; Serna Quintana,Gabriel J; Martínez,Alonso; Romero Palacio,Johanna; Giraldo,Mariluz; Cadavid,Ángela; Cardona Maya,Walter

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: En el semen, algunos microorganismos pueden encontrar las condiciones óptimas para sobrevivir, ocasionando daños a los espermatozoides y desencadenando procesos de infertilidad o infecciones del tracto reproductivo. Entender el papel de los microorganismos aislados en el semen, contribuye a mejorar el diagnóstico de casos de infertilidad donde la única causa aparente son los procesos infecciosos. Objetivo: Describir y correlacionar los parámetros seminales y el crecimiento bacte...

  6. Gestão escolar: os parâmetros sócio-antropológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Augusta Limonta Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como tema central abordar a gestão escolar sob os parâmetros da sócio-antropologia. Por meio de um resgate histórico evidencia-se a necessidade de uma gestão escolar que valorize o macro (administrativo e burocrático e o micro (subjetivo e afetivo, a fim de dialogar com a dimensão cultural e cotidiana da escola.

  7. Metro Vehicle Braking Control and Longitudinal Impact%地铁车辆制动控制与纵向冲击

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超

    2015-01-01

    主要介绍了地铁车辆的两个评价指标:稳定性和舒适度。列车纵向冲动是列车运行质量的关键影响因素,分析了列车减速度和纵向冲击率对于稳定性和舒适度的影响。研究地铁列车制动减速度与列车冲击率之间的关系,提出了针对地铁制动系统空气制动和复合制动的制动控制方法,通过优化制动控制策略提高了稳定性和舒适度。%This paper introduces two evaluation indexes of metro vehicles which mainly refer to stability and comfort.The longitudinal impact of train is a key influencing factor.This paper analyses the effect of train deceleration rate and longitudinal impact on the stabili-ty and comfort,studies the relationship between braking deceleration rate and impact for the metro vehicles and then proposes the bra-king controlling method of air braking and composite braking for metro braking system.The optimization of braking control is able to improve the stability and comfort.

  8. Shallow shear-wave velocity profiles and site response characteristics from microtremor array measurements in Metro Manila, the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutas, Rhommel; Yamanaka, Hiroaki

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the outcome of reconnaissance surveys in metropolitan Manila (Metro Manilla), the Philippines, with the aim of mapping shallow shear-wave velocity structures. Metro Manila is a seismically active and densely populated region that is in need of detailed investigation of the subsurface structures, to assess local site effects in seismic hazard estimation. We conducted microtremor array observations and used the spatial autocorrelation method to estimate the shear-wave profiles at 32 sites in major geological settings in Metro Manila. We applied a hybrid genetic simulated annealing algorithm to invert phase velocity data from the spatial autocorrelation method to generate shear-wave velocity models near the global best-fit solution. The comparison between the inferred shear-wave velocity profiles and PS logging showed good agreement in terms of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves and site responses. Then, we utilised the inferred shear-wave velocity profiles to compute the site amplifications with reference to the motion in engineering bedrock. Subsequently, the site amplifications have been grouped, based on NEHRP site classes. The amplification factor has also been compared with the average shear-wave velocity of the upper 30m at each site, to produce a power-law regression equation that can be used as a starting basis for further site-effects evaluation in the metropolis.

  9. Soldadura TIG de espumas de aluminio. Análisis de los parámetros operacionales de espumado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portolés, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the influence of main parameters that take part during TIG welding process are analyzed. Some of these parameters belong to the welding process, as for example the welding speed, intensity and voltage while others are from the material and tooling features, as for example foaming material and tooling design. The result of this work shows a strong dependence on these parameters of the TIG welding process for metallic foams.

    En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de los principales parámetros que intervienen en el proceso de soldadura TIG. Algunos de estos parámetros pertenecen al proceso de soldadura, velocidad de soldadura, intensidad y tensión, mientras otros son propios de las características del material y el utillaje, material precursor y forma de implementar la instalación de ensayo. El resultado de este trabajo muestra una fuerte dependencia de estos parámetros con el proceso de soldadura TIG para las espumas metálicas de aluminio.

  10. de parámetros de medidas en la aplicación para el tratamiento de fobias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Plaza Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se propone medir los signos vitales del paciente en un ambiente relajado y comparar estos resultados con los signos vitales medidos bajo un ambiente virtual que produzca fobia, mediante el uso de equipos de realidad virtual y ambientes de alturas y espacios cerrados. Al final de esta investigación se determina si el ambiente virtual tiene alguna influencia en los cambios sicológicos vistos a través de los signos vitales de temperatura, frecuencia cardiaca y frecuencia fundamental de la voz. Hay algunos parámetros, como la frecuencia cardiaca media, energía de la voz y duración de la voz, que no permiten distinguir la reacción de la persona en ambiente virtual y ambiente de reposo. Algunos otros parámetros como la temperatura, la variabilidad cardiaca y la frecuencia fundamental de la voz permiten distinguir el estado de reposo y ambiente virtual. Solamente los parámetros de temperatura y frecuencia fundamental de la voz son útiles para ambiente virtual de alturas.

  11. MetroHealth Care Plus: Effects Of A Prepared Safety Net On Quality Of Care In A Medicaid Expansion Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebul, Randall D; Love, Thomas E; Einstadter, Douglas; Petrulis, Alice S; Corlett, John R

    2015-07-01

    Studies of Medicaid expansion have produced conflicting results about whether the expansion is having a positive impact on health and the cost and efficiency of care delivery. To explore the issue further, we examined MetroHealth Care Plus, a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) waiver program in Ohio composed of three safety-net organizations that enrolled 28,295 uninsured poor patients in closed-panel care during 2013. All participating organizations used electronic health records and patient-centered medical homes, publicly reported performance in a regional health improvement collaborative, and accepted a budget-neutral cap approved by CMS. We compared changes between 2012 and 2013 in achieving quality standards for diabetes and hypertension among 3,437 MetroHealth Care Plus enrollees to changes among 1,150 patients with the same conditions who remained uninsured in both years. Compared to continuously uninsured patients with diabetes, MetroHealth Care Plus enrollees with diabetes improved significantly more on composite standards of care and intermediate outcomes. Among enrollees with hypertension, blood pressure control improvements were insignificantly larger than those in the continuously uninsured group with hypertension. Across all 28,295 enrollees, 2013 total costs of care were 28.7 percent below the budget cap, providing cause for optimism that a prepared safety net can meet the challenges of Medicaid expansion. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Determining the Optimal Layout Design for Public Bicycle System within the Attractive Scope of a Metro Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public bicycle acts as a seamless feeder mode in combination with the citywide public transit, as well as a competitor for the inner-city short trips. The primary objective of this study is to address the layout planning of public bicycle system within the attracted scope of a metro station. Based on the land use function, population, and bicycle mode share, bicycle rental stations are divided into three types, namely, the metro station, district station, and resident station, and later the quantity of bicycle facilities in each rental station is estimated. Then, the service stations are selected from these bicycle rental stations to provide the service of periodical bicycle redistribution. An improved immune algorithm is proposed to determine the number and locations of service stations and the optimal route options for the implement of redistributing strategy. Finally, a case study of Nanjing Tianyin Road metro station is conducted to illustrate the proposed model and clarify some of its implementation details.

  13. Research on Classification of Risk Sectors of Shield Tunnels in Beijing Metro%北京地铁盾构隧道安全风险组段划分方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志勇; 江玉生; 江华; 钱丹丹; 谭雪

    2012-01-01

    To control risk during shield construction, a new thought was put forward that is: dividing a shield tunnel into different sectors, and then determining main shield construction parameters' controlling range of these sectors. Further, aiming at the stratum conditions and shield construction environment characteristics in Beijing area, the classification method of shield tunnel risk sectors in Beijing Metro was established, that is to divide shield tunnels of Beijing Metro into 18 risk sectors, and any shield tunnel of Beijing metro could be composed of one or several of the 18 sectors. Combining with the actual shield tunnel section between Huangcun Railway Station to Yihezhuang Station of Line Daxing in Beijing Metro, the classification method of sectors and main shield construction parameters' controlling range of different sectors was introduced in this paper. As a result, this research provides a new method for risk controlling and a new thought for risk management during shield constructions.%针对盾构施工过程中的安全风险控制问题,提出将盾构隧道划分为不同的组段,然后确定各个组段内的主要盾构施工参数的控制范围,从而控制盾构施工过程中的安全风险的新思想.建立了北京地铁盾构隧道安全风险组段划分方法,该方法根据北京地区地层和盾构施工环境的特点将北京地铁盾构隧道划分为18种安全风险组段,北京地铁任何一个盾构隧道都是由这18种组段中的一种或几种组段组合而成.结合北京地铁大兴线01标黄村火车站站一义和庄站盾构区间工程实例介绍了组段划分的方法和各个组段内主要盾构施工参数的控制范围.研究工作为盾构施工过程中的安全风险控制提供了新方法,为盾构施工风险管理提供了新思路.

  14. Determinação do parâmetro de crioscopia para leite UHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanerli Beloti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Por apresentar prolongada vida útil e facilidade de estocagem, o leite Ultra Alta Temperatura (UAT é o leite fluido mais consumido no Brasil. O processamento térmico ao qual o leite UHT é submetido provoca alterações na estrutura micelar da caseína favorecendo a precipitação proteica e a gelatinização; por isso, a legislação vigente autoriza a adição de estabilizantes (citrato e/ou fosfatos de sódio na quantidade de até 0,1%. A adição de estabilizantes ao leite UHT é a razão pela qual não se inclui o índice crioscópico e a densidade como parâmetros de qualidade para o leite UHT. A avaliação do índice crioscópico é a prova de eleição para detecção de fraudes por adição de água ao leite, no entanto a adição de estabilizantes interfere nos seus resultados. O presente estudo teve como objetivo aferir as alterações promovidas por estabilizantes no ponto de congelamento e densidade em amostras de leite pasteurizado adicionado de citrato de sódio ou fosfatos de sódio, para sugerir padrões de crioscopia e densidade para o leite UHT. Para avaliar as alterações provocadas pela adição dos estabilizantes no leite, 16 alíquotas de leite foram preparadas em nove repetições, com diferentes concentrações (0%, 0,001%, 0,01%, 0,05%, 0,075%, 0,1%, 0,125% e 0,15% de citrato de sódio chamado de substância 1 e da substância 2: um mix comercial de mono, di e tri fosfato de sódio. As alíquotas foram submetidas à prova da densidade e crioscopia. Como esperado a adição de estabilizantes reduziu o ponto de congelamento do leite. A concentração de 0,1% de citrato e do mix comercial provocou uma redução média da crioscopia do leite de –0,021°H (±0,001 e –0,017°H (±0,002, respectivamente. Em relação à densidade, a adição dos estabilizantes não provocou alterações significativas. Considerando que as indústrias de leite UHT usualmente adicionam o limite máximo de 0,1% de estabilizantes para

  15. Trends in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, hearing loss, intellectual disability, and vision impairment, metropolitan atlanta, 1991-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Van Naarden Braun

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, cerebral palsy (CP, hearing loss (HL, intellectual disability (ID, and vision impairment (VI over a 15-20 year time period, with specific focus on concurrent changes in ASD and ID prevalence. We used data from a population-based developmental disabilities surveillance program for 8-year-olds in metropolitan Atlanta. From 1991-2010, prevalence estimates of ID and HL were stable with slight increases in VI prevalence. CP prevalence was constant from 1993-2010. The average annual increase in ASD prevalence was 9.3% per year from 1996-2010, with a 269% increase from 4.2 per 1,000 in 1996 to 15.5 per 1,000 in 2010. From 2000-2010, the prevalence of ID without ASD was stable; during the same time, the prevalence of ASD with and without co-occurring ID increased by an average of 6.6% and 9.6% per year, respectively. ASD prevalence increases were found among both males and females, and among nearly all racial/ethnic subgroups and levels of intellectual ability. Average annual prevalence estimates from 1991-2010 underscore the significant community resources needed to provide early intervention and ongoing supports for children with ID (13.0 per 1,000, CP, (3.5 per 1,000, HL (1.4 per 1,000 and VI (1.3 in 1,000, with a growing urgency for children with ASD.

  16. A comparison of HAART outcomes between the US military HIV Natural History Study (NHS and HIV Atlanta Veterans Affairs Cohort Study (HAVACS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Guest

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Department of Defense (DoD and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA provide comprehensive HIV treatment and care to their beneficiaries with open access and few costs to the patient. Individuals who receive HIV care in the VA have higher rates of substance abuse, homelessness and unemployment than individuals who receive HIV care in the DoD. A comparison between individuals receiving HIV treatment and care from the DoD and the VA provides an opportunity to explore the impact of individual-level characteristics on clinical outcomes within two healthcare systems that are optimized for clinic retention and medication adherence. METHODS: Data were collected on 1065 patients from the HIV Atlanta VA Cohort Study (HAVACS and 1199 patients from the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS. Patients were eligible if they had an HIV diagnosis and began HAART between January 1, 1996 and June 30, 2010. The analysis examined the survival from HAART initiation to all-cause mortality or an AIDS event. RESULTS: Although there was substantial between-cohort heterogeneity and the 12-year survival of participants in NHS was significantly higher than in HAVACS in crude analyses, this survival disparity was reduced from 21.5% to 1.6% (mortality only and 26.8% to 4.1% (combined mortality or AIDS when controlling for clinical and demographic variables. CONCLUSION: We assessed the clinical outcomes for individuals with HIV from two very similar government-sponsored healthcare systems that reduced or eliminated many barriers associated with accessing treatment and care. After controlling for clinical and demographic variables, both 12-year survival and AIDS-free survival rates were similar for the two study cohorts who have open access to care and medication despite dramatic differences in socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics.

  17. Estimação do parâmetro "d " em modelos arfima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Suema Trevisan

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos ARFIMA caracterizam-se por sua longa dependência e por possuírem o parâmetro d do modelo ARIMA (grau de diferenciação assumindo valores fracionários. Quando no caso d Î (-0,5; 0,5, há estacionariedade. A longa dependência aparece quando d é positivo. Este trabalho visa testar e comparar duas metodologias para o processo de estimação de d, baseadas na função Periodograma e na função Periodograma Suavizado. Através de séries sintéticas geradas para este fim, foram realizadas simulações em quatro diferentes estruturas ARFIMA, a saber : (0,d,0, (1,d,0, (0,d,1, (1,d,1 para três possíveis valores de d, (0,0; 0,10; 0,25 e 0,40.ARFIMA models are characterized by both their long-range dependence and fractional values for the ARIMA model differencing parameter. Stationarity is achieved for d Î (-0.5, 0.5 and the long memory appears whether d is positive. This work tests and compares two methodologies for the differencing parameter estimation based on, respectively, Periodogram and Smoothed Periodogram functions. Through synthetic series generated to this purpose, simulations were ran to four different ARFIMA structures: (0,d,0, (1,d,0, (0,d,1, (1,d,1 and three values of d (0,0; 0,10; 0,25 and 0,40.

  18. La compilación de programas de mano Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. James F. Willis García-Talavera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El programa de mano Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer ha representado durante años el reflejo socio-cultural de una etapa de la historia de España, convirtiéndose en un auténtico generador de ilusión que propició el comienzo de grandes pasiones compiladoras. El coleccionismo de programas de mano, una práctica que en épocas pasadas fue menospreciada, degradada y vituperada, ha adquirido la consideración social necesaria para ser asimilado a otras vertientes mejor ponderadas. Este hábito compilatorio no debe ser entendido, por tanto, como la mera afición a coleccionar programas de mano ya que ésta implica el desarrollo de una técnica específica para su ordenación, análisis y estudio, en la mayoría de los casos, siguiendo el método científico.ABSTRACT: The MGM program has represented for many years the socio-cultural reflexion of an era in the history of Spain, becoming an authentic generator of illusions which encouraged the beginning of big compilling passions. Program collecting, a practice despised in the past, degraded and vituperated has acquired the necessary social consideration to be assimilated by other vertients better considered. This complling habit mustn´t be understood as a mere interest in collecting since this implies the development of an specific tecnique for its classification, analysis and study, following in most cases the scientific method.

  19. Personalidad Resistente en Carreras de Fondo: comparativa entre ultra fondo y diez kilómetros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de la Vega

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La Personalidad Resistente es una característica individual que permite hacer frente a los estímulos estresores de la vida y convertirlos en oportunidades de crecimiento (Kobasa, 1979; Maddi, 2006. Sus tres componentes: Compromiso, Control y Desafío pueden proteger a los deportistas contra las impredecibles situaciones de las carreras de fondo. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar por primera vez los niveles de personalidad resistente de dos grupos de corredores de fondo, así como determinar si existe una relación entre los niveles de personalidad resistente y el rendimiento deportivo. 130 voluntarios (69 corredores de ultrafondo y 61 corredores participantes de una prueba de 10.06 kilómetros con un rango de edad de 20 a 56 años (M = 35.4, DT = 7.3, quienes completaron el día de la competición la Escala de Personalidad Resistente en Maratonianos (EPRM (Jaenes, Godoy y Román, 2008. El análisis de comparación de medias, reveló que no existieron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos de corredores de fondo (Z = .280, p = .77, así mismo las mejores marcas en la prueba de ultra fondo fueron independientes de los niveles de personalidad resistente (r = -.072, p = .30, aquellos corredores que completaron el recorrido de ultrafondo no presentaron niveles mayores de personalidad resistente que los deportistas que abandonaron (p =. 78. Los resultados sugieren que un nivel elevado de personalidad resistente forma parte de las características psicológicas de los corredores de fondo. Por otra parte un nivel elevado de personalidad resistente no tuvo influencia sobre el rendimiento obtenido en una carrera de ultrafondo.

  20. Cuantificación de inmunoglobulinas mediante el espectrofotómetro Shimadzu 160-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Leonor Paradoa Pérez

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la adaptación al espectrofotómetro Shimadzu 160-A para cuantificar inmunoglobulinas (IgG, IgA e IgM por el método turbidimétrico Fixed time para sistemas Hitachi. El control de calidad se realizó con productos de referencia nacionales e internacionales para precisión y exactitud. Los resultados de las medias (IgG = 12,31, IgA = 2,13 e IgM = 1,38 y desviaciones estándar (IgG = 0,3885, IgA = 0,155 e IgM = 0,129 muestran una dispersión pequeña, y aseguran la validez de nuestro trabajo. Con este estudio se abre la posibilidad de realizar dicha técnica mediante un método rápido y eficaz en un equipo mucho menos costoso que el Hitachi y ampliamente difundido en Cuba.The fixed time turbidimetric procedure for Hitachi system was adapted to the spectrophotometer Shimadzu 160-A. The quality control was carried out with products of national and international reference to check precision and accuracy. The results of the means (IgG=12.31, IgA=2.13 and IgM = 1.38 and standard deviations (IgG=0.3885, IgA=0.155 and IgM=0.129 show a little dispersion and ensure the validity of our method. With this study, it is possible to put into practice this technique by a fast and efficient method in an equipment that is widely used in Cuba and much cheaper than the Hitachi.

  1. EVOLUCIÓN DE PARÁMETROS FISICOQUÍMICOS DE QUESILLO HUILENSE, EN ALMACENAMIENTO REFRIGERADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIKA TATIANA CORTÉS-MACÍAS

    Full Text Available Se estudió la evolución de los parámetros físico-químicos que pueden afectar la estabilidad y por tanto la decisión de compra o consumo de quesillo huilense, elaborado y empacado de forma artesanal y semi-industrializado y almacenado en refrigeración. 50 quesillos de 250 g elaborados y empacados artesanalmente en hojas de plátano conformaron los tratamientos T1 y T3 y 25 quesillos empacados al vacío elaborados de forma semindustrial el tratamiento T2; todas las muestras se transportaron en termos de poliestireno expandido el mismo día de su producción hasta el laboratorio, cinco quesillos de cada tratamiento fueron destinados a ensayos de caracterización el mismo día de su arribo al laboratorio (0 días, midiendo humedad, actividad de agua, pH, acidez titulable, textura y color y el resto fueron analizados en lotes de 5 quesillos a los 5, 10, 15 y 20 días de almacenamiento refrigerado (4°C±1. Los atributos de calidad en quesillo huilense evolucionaron de manera similar a otros tipos de quesos frescos en función del tiempo de almacenamiento; los cambios más notorios son el cambio en el color superficial que se torna blanco crema y un ligero incremento en la dureza; estos cambios no deben ser razón para decidir rechazo por parte del consumidor.

  2. Inventory of forest and rangeland and detection of forest stress. [Manitou, Colorado, Atlanta, Georgia, and Black Hills test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Eucalyptus tree stands killed by low temperatures in December 1972 were outlined by image enhancement of two separate dates of ERTS-1 images (January 22, 1973-I.D. 1183-18175 and April 22, 1973-I.D. 1273-18183). Three stands larger than 500 meters in size were detected very accurately. In Colorado, range and grassland communities were analyzed by visual interpretation of color composite scene I.D. 1028-17135. It was found that mixtures of plant litter, amount and kind of bare soil, and plant foliage cover made classification of grasslands very difficult. Changes in forest land use were detected on areas as small as 5 acres when ERTS-1 color composite scene 1264-15445 (April 13, 1973) was compared with 1966 ASCS index mosaics (scale 1:60,000). Verification of the changes were made from RB-57 underflight CIR transparencies (scale 1:120,000).

  3. Report of the George A. Towns Elementary School solar heating and cooling project, Atlanta, Georgia. United States special format report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The design, construction, and performance analysis of an experimental solar heating and cooling system to accommodate a building of approximately 3,000 m/sup 2/ in area are described. The objectives of the experiment are to: make a significant contribution to solar design, technology, and acceptability; conduct an advanced experiment on an integrated large-scale solar heating and cooling system, determine its performance, reliability, and maintainability, and compare these actual results with predicted performance; identify subsystem interface problems that cannot adequately be predicted by theoretical analysis; operationally test major components and identify improvements required; and identify cost reducing materials and techniques which may improve the economic viability of solar heating and cooling systems. (WDM)

  4. Comparación de parámetros reproductivos de hembras bovinas Holstein y Simmental x Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Didier Burgos-Dávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia reproductiva es uno de los principales aspectos para tener en cuenta dentro de los programas ganaderos; su influencia positiva sobre la rentabilidad es razón suficiente para que los profesionales del sector agropecuario busquen continuamente alternativas que permitan mejorar los parámetros reproductivos, generando información de utilidad para los productores. El objetivo de la investigación fue comparar parámetros reproductivos de los grupos genéticos Holstein y su cruce con Simmental, con el fin de evaluar el desempeño de cada uno en la granja Tunguavita, del municipio de Paipa (Boyacá. El análisis comparativo de los grupos genéticos se realizó a partir de la información consignada en el software ganadero Interherd y se desarrolló estadísticamente mediante la prueba de Mann Whitney. Los resultados obtenidos para las razas Holstein y su cruce con Simmental en los siguientes parámetros reproductivos fueron: Intervalo entre partos (IEP, 484 y 448 días, respectivamente; intervalo entre parto y concepción (IPC, 204 y 168 días, respectivamente; número de servicios por concepción (SC, 2.5 y 2.1, respectivamente, y edad al momento del primer parto (EPP, 40.8 y 41.4 meses, respectivamente. Aunque el análisis estadístico arrojó que no existieron diferencias significativas, es conveniente notar la importancia económica que tiene el mejor desempeño de los animales Simmental x Holstein, superiores en todos los parámetros analizados, exceptuando la EPP. A su vez, la investigación permite recomendar la introducción de la raza Simmental en los hatos ganaderos, ya que tendrá influencia positiva sobre los parámetros reproductivos.

  5. 重庆市江津区柑橘产业发展现状与对策%Chongqing metro citrus industry development present situation and the countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何洪委; 代平

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigation and analysis of chongqing metro citrus industry development present situation, existing problems, and puts forward some countermeasures for development of citrus industry metro.%文章调查分析重庆市江津区柑橘产业发展现状、存在的问题,提出发展江津柑橘产业的对策。

  6. Tonometer calibration in Brasília, Brazil Calibragem de tonômetros em Brasília, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pires da Silva Abrão

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine calibration errors of Goldmann applanation tonometers in ophthalmic clinics of Brasília, Brazil, and correlate the findings with variables related to tonometers model and utilization. METHODS: Tonometers from ophthalmic clinics in Brasília, Brazil, were checked for calibration errors. A standard Goldmann applanation tonometer checking tool was used to asses the calibration error. Only one trained individual made all verifications, with a masked reading of the results. Data on the model, age, daily use, frequency of calibration checking and the nature of the ophthalmic department - private or public - were collected and correlated with the observed errors. RESULTS: One hundred tonometers were checked for calibration. Forty seven percent (47/100 were out of 1 mmHg range at least at one point checking. Tonometers mounted to slit lamp, with less than 5 years, used in less than 20 patients daily, that had a calibration check on a yearly basis, and those from private office exhibit a lower rate of inaccuracy, but only the first variable was statistically significant. Sixty one percent of tonometers on public hospitals were out of calibration. CONCLUSION: Calibration of tonometers in the capital of Brazil is poor; those from general hospitals are worst, and this fact can lead to inaccurate detection and assessment of glaucoma patients, overall in the population under government assistance.OBJETIVOS: Determinar os erros de calibração dos tonômetros de aplanação de Goldmann em clínicas oftalmológicas de Brasília, Brasil, e correlacioná-los a variáveis relativas ao modelo e à utilização dos aparelhos. MÉTODOS: Tonômetros de clínicas oftalmológicas de Brasília tiveram a calibragem aferida usando um cilindro padrão fornecido pelo fabricante dos aparelhos. Todas as aferições foram realizadas por um só examinador previamente treinado e a leitura das medidas foi mascarada por um observador independente. As medidas

  7. Determinación de parámetros de fuga para fallas longitudinales, en conexiones domiciliarias y en uniones de tuberías en PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina González Barreto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Las fugas en tuberías y accesorios se relacionan con fugas en orificios. Sin embargo, cada tipo de fuga presenta una ecuación potencial en la cual varían los exponentes y los coeficientes de descarga, según el tipo de falla. También se conoce que el caudal de fuga generalmente está relacionado con el área de la falla; pero, muchas veces no es posible determinar este componente geométrico, razón por la cual la ecuación para el cálculo del caudal de fuga debe relacionarse con variables conocidas en la práctica como el diámetro de las tuberías o las longitudes de cada falla, objetivo de esta investigación./ In general, the pipes and fittings leaks are analyzed like an orifice leak. However, each kind of failure has a particular equation with variable discharge coefficient and exponent. The leak discharge is related with the failure area, but many times it is not possible to calculate this component. Hence, the leak equation must be related with known variables like the pipe diameter or characteristic length of a failure.

  8. Al2O3 sintered pellets as thermoluminescent dosimeters Pastillas sinterizadas de Al2O3 como dosímetros termoluminiscentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Osorio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Verification of the radiation doses received by the area exposed during medical treatment is essential for assessing any scheme radiotherapy. This workdescribes the characteristic thermoluminescent (TL of sintered Al2O3 pellets, for its use as dosimeter dose low. Sintered Al2O3 pellets under different calcinations with a diameter of 5 mm and a thickness of 1 mm, they were irradiated to different dose using an unit of60 Co Theratron 780Cr in air to ambient temperature. The reading was carried in a Harshaw TLD 4500. Themain dosimetric properties of the material (glow curve, response reproducibility, reutilization, linearity and fading have been studied in detail. The glowcurve of the thin sintered Al2O3 pellets presents an intense peak TL to about 165◦C, which can be used for dosimetry. The results show that the pellets canbe used in quality control programs as thermoluminescent dosimeter in therapeutic dose range. The importance of this work is that the aluminum oxide (α−Al2O3 is a promising alternative in TL materials used for dosimetry “in vivo” within quality control programs.La verificación de la dosis de radiación recibida por el área expuesta durante eltratamiento médico es esencial para la evaluación de cualquier régimen de radioterapia.Este trabajo describe las caracteríısticas termoluminiscentes (TLde pastillas sinterizadas de Al2O3, para su posible uso como dosímetro TL de baja dosis. Pastillas de Al2O3 sinterizadas bajo diferentes condiciones decalcinación, con un diámetro de 5 mm y un espesor de 1 mm, fueron irradiadasa diferentes dosis usando una unidad de 60Co Theratron 780Cr enaire a temperatura ambiente. La lectura se realizó en un Harshaw TLD 4500.Las principales propiedades dosimétricas del material (curva de brillo, reproducibilidadde la respuesta, reutilización, linealidad y decaimiento térmicohan sido estudiadas en detalle. La curva de brillo de las pastillas sinterizadasde Al2O3 presenta un intenso

  9. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMED STATE STRUCTURES OF THE KYIV METRO RUNNING TUNNELS ON A TRANSITION ZONE FROM SPONDYLOV’S CLAY TO BUCHATSKIY SANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the section of changes geotechnical conditions of spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sands may have significant structural deformation of running tunnels. It is necessary to identify the cause of deformities develop ways to minimize and based modeling and calculations to prove the effectiveness of measures to reduce deformation.Methodology. To solve the analysis problem of the stress-strain state (SSS of the system «structure array» it was conducted the numerical simulation using the finite element method (FEM. On the basis of the obtained results the graphs were constructed and the dependencies were determined. Findings. The presence of weak water-saturated soils in tray of the tunnel on an area of transition from spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sand causes significant increasing in strain construction of tunnels and general vibration liquefaction in soil basis. Also change the physical and mechanical characteristics of soils within the frames of tunnels influences on the level of strain state of most frames. Improved strain state settings of tunnels in areas of change soil characteristics of the array (especially at the bottom of casing can be achieved by chemical consolidation of weak soils. Composition of solutions for fixing the weak soils should be determined based on the study of grain size, porosity, and other parameters of physical and mechanical and physical and chemical characteristics of soils.Originality.The basic cause significant strain on transition zone from spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sands is found, that is explained by saturated phenomenon vibration liquefaction basis under the tunnel.Practical value.The approaches to reduce the strain in the construction of running tunnels in the transition zone from spondylov’s clay to buchatskiy sands are developed, as well as in the area ofthe station «Glybochytska»the Kyiv Metro.

  10. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  11. 西安地铁安全文化体系建设研究%Study on system constructions of safety culture in Xi' an metro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷斌; 曹振; 张宁

    2012-01-01

    通过论述北京、广州、上海三个城市地铁安全管理情况,总结国内地铁建设运营中的安全管理经验与存在不足,提出保证地铁建设运营安全不能仅仅依靠制度制定与检查监管,要完善安全管理体系,重视安全文化培育与建设,运用文化的理论和方法塑造共同安全的价值观,建立地铁安全文化体系新理念.重点以西安地铁建设为例,详细阐述了在地铁建设运营中用文化贯穿始终,以理念培育为核心,机构建立为基础,制度建设为根本,作为构建地铁企业的安全文化体系的主要作法,总结出地铁安全文化体系建设的经验,以期对国内其他城市的地铁建设运营管理工作提供借鉴和参考.%In this paper the current states of metro safety management in Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai were discussed respectively, then the experience and drawbacks of safety management in domestic metro construction and operation were drwwn from that. It was proposed that assurance of metro construction and operation safety in domestic city metros should not only rely on safety regulations and frequent inspection, but also complete the safety management system, pay attention to safety culture cultivation and development, shape common safety values with theories and methods of culture, and establish new understandings of metro safety culture system. After that, taking Xi' an metro construction case as an important example, it was explained that how to make the safety culture as the main line through the whole metro construction and operation process, shape the common safety values as the core of safety culture, setup safety offices as basis of culture system construction and formulate safety regulation as the fundamental element in our way of building safety culture systems in metro corporations. In the end, the key experience in metro safety culture system development was concluded, which can be provided as a reference case to the metro

  12. Parámetros hematológicos en pacientes opiaceodependientes Haemotologic parameters in opiate addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. del M. Verde Méndez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron los niveles de hemoglobina, hematocrito, hematíes, recuento de leucocitos, índices relacionados con la serie roja (VCM, HCM, CHCM, IDE, VPM, velocidad de sedimentación, hierro, parámetros relacionados con la captación y transporte de hierro (transferrina, ferritina, capacidad de fijación de hierro, índice de saturación de transferrina y plaquetas en muestras sanguíneas de opiaceodependientes y se compararon los resultados con los obtenidos en un grupo control. En general, para ambos sexos los niveles de hemoglobina, hematocrito, hierro y plaquetas fueron similares en el grupo control y en los opiaceodependientes. Las mujeres opiaceodependientes presentaron un recuento de hematíes y leucocitos superior e inferior respectivamente, que los correspondientes valores del grupo control. Se observó que en el total de pacientes opiaceodependientes, así como en los subgrupos de mujeres y hombres, los índices relacionados con la serie roja fueron superiores con respecto al grupo control. Los niveles de ferritina en opiaceodependientes varones fueron superiores a los encontrados en los controles, mientras que en las mujeres ocurrió lo contrario. Se observó que los hombres y mujeres opiaceodependientes incluidos en el programa de mantenimiento con metadona (PMM presentaron valores de hemoglobina, hematocrito, hematíes y recuento de leucocitos similares a los no incluidos, exceptuando los heroinómanos varones incluidos en el PMM que mostraron valores inferiores de hematocrito.Levels of haemoglobin, haematocrit, number of red cells and leukocytes, haematological index (MCV, MCH, MCHC, DEI, MPV, sedimentation rate, iron, parameter related to accumulation and transport of iron (transferrin, ferritin, iron binding capability, transferring saturation index and platelets were determined in blood samples of opiate addicts and they were compared with these results obtained in a control group. For both sexes, the levels of haemoglobin

  13. MODELAGEM FUZZY EM PARÂMETROS DE BEM-ESTAR HUMANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Schiassi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diante das preocupações com o ambiente de trabalho e consequentemente  com o bem-estar dos trabalhadores, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a utilização da modelagem matemática fuzzy, na avaliação da salubridade de trabalhadores agrícolas, relacionada ao ambiente térmico e acústico. Para tanto, foram consideradas como variáveis de entrada  do sistema,  o índice de bulbo úmido e termômetro de globo (IBUTG, °C e o nível de ruído (dB(A,  tendo como variável de saída o índice de bem-estar humano (IBEH. O método de inferência utilizado foi o de Mandani e na defuzificação, utilizou-se o método do centro de gravidade. Foram utilizadas 25 regras para representar estes dados, sendo que para cada regra foi atribuído peso igual a 1. Os resultados indicam que o modelo matemático teve uma metodologia satisfatória, podendo auxiliar na tomada de decisões e análises cotidianas.Palavra-chave: salubridade, ambiente de trabalho, sistemas inteligentes.FUZZY MODELING IN HUMAN WELL-BEINGPARAMETERS ABSTRACTGiven the concerns about the work environment and consequently the well-being of workers, this study aimed to evaluate the use of fuzzy mathematical modeling in assessing of the farm workers health, related to thermal and acoustic environment. So, were considered as input variables of the system, the wet bulb globe temperature index (WBGT, °C and noise level (dB (A, and the output variable was the human well-being index (HWBI. The inference method used was the Mandani and in the defuzzification, we used the center of gravity method. Twenty five rules have been used to represent these data, and for each rule were assigned a weight equal 1. The results indicate that the mathematical model has a satisfactory methodology to assist in the making decision and daily analysis.Keywords: salubrity, work environment, intelligent systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14583/2318-7670.v01n01a02

  14. Obesidad abdominal, parámetro antropométrico predictivo de alteraciones del metabolismo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Castellanos González

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La medida del perímetro de la cintura como valoración indirecta de obesidad abdominal se presenta como un elemento esencial en la valoración clínica de la obesidad. El vínculo entre obesidad abdominal e insulinoresistencia se propone como el eje central de la fisiopatología del síndrome metabólico y sus complicaciones. Objetivo: Determinar si los individuos con obesidad abdominal presentan cambios relacionados con los factores que forman parte del síndrome metabólico superiores a los observados en individuos sin obesidad abdominal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico comparativo con diseño de casos y controles con dos grupos, organizados a partir de una muestra de 98 personas de ambos sexos extraída al azar del universo constituido por una población de 510 trabajadores de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos, de septiembre a diciembre de 2005. A todos se le realizaron mediciones de la presión arterial, colesterol, HDL colesterol, glucemia en ayunas y triglicéridos. Resultados: El 30,6 % de los individuos presentó obesidad abdominal, predominando esta por encima de los 40 años y en féminas (83,3 %. El 53,3 %.de los obesos fueron hipertensos, igual porcentaje tuvo bajos valores de HDL y el 16,7 % mostró alteración de la glucemia. Conclusiones: La obesidad abdominal constituye un problema de salud en la población estudiada, incrementándose con la edad. Los individuos que presentan obesidad abdominal tienen un riesgo mayor de presentar alteraciones metabólicas, tales como bajos niveles de HDL colesterol, altos valores de triacilglicéridos y de colesterol total, así como alteraciones de la glucemia e hipertensión

  15. Analysis of the Dynamic Response of a Shield Tunnel in Soft Soil Under a Metro-Train Vibrating Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Fei-huang; MO Hai-hong; ZENG Qing-jun; YANG Xiao-jie

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the impact of an operating metro train on the structure of a shield tunnel lining and its soft foundation. An elastoplastic 3D dynamic finite difference model was established by using the FLAC3D numerical software. By fully considering the joints, the A-B-K segments and the soft stratum, the dynamic response of the shield tunnel buried in thick, soft soil under the vibrating load induced by a metro train was numerically simulated. The simulation result, for which the joint was considered, was compared with the result when the joint was not considered. The results show that an operating metro train induces a significant dynamic response in the structure of the lining of the shield tunnel and its soft foundation. The severe dynamic response zones of the lining structure are largely distributed in the range of the lower half of the segment-ring and the nearer to the bottom of the segment-ring, the more severe the response. Of two horizontally symmetric, corresponding places on the segment lining, the one near the joint is more severe in its dynamic response than that of the one far from the joint; the nearer the zone of the foundation soil to the lower half of the segment-ring, the more severe the dynamic response. The maximum shear strain of the foundation soil takes place near the joint between two normal segments at the bottom. The dynamic response influenced by joints is more severe than the response not influenced by joints, showing that the non-joint assumption is somewhat impractical.

  16. Application Analysis of Metro Communication System%地铁通信系统的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军锋; 赵景召

    2013-01-01

      主要对地铁通信系统组成,通信系统的传输技术中多业务传输平台(MSTP),弹性分组环技术(RPR),车地无线通信技术的实现、配套电源的远期负荷规划、地铁通信机房内的环境要求和环境控制等一系列问题进行了分析。随着通信技术的发展和城市轨道交通的快速建设,地铁通信网要用新型、可靠、经济的通信技术,来实现地铁通信业务的需求,这里也在地铁通信新技术应用和方案的选择做了部分分析。%This paper focuses its analysis on subway communication system, multi-service transport and resilient and packet ring in communication system transmission technology, the vehicle wireless communication technology, long-term load planning of the supporting power, environmental requirement and control of metro communication machine-room, and also a series of other problems. With the development of communication technology and the rapid construction of city rail transport, metro communication network should satisfy, the subway communications business needs with modcrn, reliable and economic communication technology. This paper also do some discussion on new metro communication technologies and scheme options.

  17. Empleo del penetrómetro para madera para el diagnóstico de la madera en servicio en edificios antiguos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaia, L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental technique applied in situ allows researchers to save time on diagnosis and minimize damage to the sound timber. Pilodyn testing may be a useful method of diagnosis of these structures. The case study is about an urban 19th century building in an historic area of Valencia, located very close to the original city foundation area. The building has brick bearing load walls, timber floors and a roof structure. A simplified diagnosis method of timber structures was performed: visual inspection carried out by qualified site surveyors using SDT, in this case the wood probing (Pilodyn. This method proved to be adequate to determine parameters and to obtain conclusions of the mechanical characteristics of the structural elements. A standardization proposal to use this instrumental may be developed in the future.Las técnicas instrumentales para ensayos in situ permiten a los expertos ahorrar tiempo en el diagnóstico y minimizar el daño que se produce en algunos casos a la madera sana, empleando técnicas tradicionales de diagnóstico. El empleo del Pilodyn para ensayos de penetración puede constituir un «método rápido» de diagnóstico de estas estructuras. Se presenta un caso de estudio de un edificio del siglo XIX construido en el centro histórico de Valencia. Los muros son de ladrillo y la estructura horizontal así como de la cubierta son de madera. Se ha realizado un método de diagnosis simplificado: inspección visual de la estructura y ensayos con Pilodyn. Este método resultó adecuado para determinar parámetros acerca de sus cualidades resistentes, abriendo una vía hacia una posible propuesta de normalización para el empleo de este instrumento.

  18. AJUSTE DE MODELOS NO LINEALES Y ESTIMACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS DE CRECIMIENTO EN BOVINOS TROPICARNE

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Domínguez-Viveros; J. Ángel Ortega-Gutiérrez; F. Alonso Rodríguez-Almeida; Rafael Núñez-Domínguez; Rodolfo Ramírez-Valverde; Agustín Ruiz-Flores

    2013-01-01

    El análisis del crecimiento con modelos de regresión no lineal (MNL) permite derivar parámetros (PC) e indicadores (IC) de crecimiento bajo condiciones específicas de producción que pueden ser considerados en los programas de mejoramiento genético. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron seleccionar y ajustar un MNL al crecimiento de bovinos Tropicarne criados en la vertiente del Golfo de México. Los MNL evaluados fueron Brody, Logístico, Bertalanffy y Gompertz. La información de crecimiento ana...

  19. Calibración preliminar de un espectrofluorímetro modular y multidisciplinar para la medida de colores fluorescentes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La medida y caracterización de colores fluorescentes en Ciencia del Color sigue siendo actualmente un reto en algunos aspectos. Así, ya no es habitual, debido al alto coste, encontrar en el mercado espectrofluorímetros bidireccionales, basados en 2 monocromadores, en empresas fabricantes de instrumentos convencionales de medida del color. En cambio, otras compañías con mayor oferta instrumental e...

  20. Estudio de sensibilidad de parámetros de modelos en flujos cavitantes en régimen no estacionario

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Cappa, E; Moll, Flavio; Coussirat Núñez, Miguel Gustavo; Gandolfo, Ernesto; Fontanals García, Alfred; Guardo Zabaleta, Alfredo de Jesús

    2014-01-01

    La cavitación es un complejo fenómeno físico que se presenta generalmente en flujos turbulentos afectado por varios factores, como la presión del sistema y la concentración de gases no condensables disueltos. Para analizar este comportamiento se han desarrollado modelos matemáticos, algunos de los cuales se encuentran dentro de software de simulaciones comerciales. Para ser aplicados, junto con modelos de turbulencia, deben fijarse cierto número de parámetros de calibración que...

  1. MEMBANGUN KESADARAN BERAWAL DARI PEMAHAMAN; RELASI PEMAHAMAN SEJARAH DENGAN KESADARAN SEJARAH MAHASISWA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN SEJARAH FKIP UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian Amboro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the relationship between students history mastery and historical conciousness. This study was an ex-postfacto research with correlational research design. The population of research was all students of History Education Study Program of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of Metro Muhammadiyah University. The sample was taken using disproportionate stratified random sampling. The instruments used to collect the data were test and questionnare. Techniques of analyzing data used were correlation analysis, simple regressions at significance level of 5%. The result of research showed that the hypotheses there are was a positive significant relationship between students history mastery and historical consciousness.

  2. EFECTO DE LA VISCOSIDAD DE SUSPENSIONES SOBRE EL FUNCIONAMIENTO DE HIDROCICLONES DE DIÁMETRO PEQUEÑO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. OSWALDO BUSTAMANTE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio experimental de clasificación de minerales en hidrociclones de diámetro pequeño, operando con suspensiones minerales de minerales arcillosos. Los resultados muestran que es posible diferenciar claramente el efecto de la viscosidad de las suspensiones a la entrada de los hidrociclones, con la densidad de las éstas y contrario a lo que se presume en la literatura clásica de hidrociclones, los efectos de estas dos variables no necesariamente generan los mismos resultados.

  3. Vilken underbar värld vi förstörde... : Historiebruk i postapokalyptisk fiktion, exemplet Metro 2033

    OpenAIRE

    Almroth, Klas

    2014-01-01

    Uppsatsen ämnar utforska hur den postapokalyptiska genren brukar historia. Detta görs genom en läsning av Dimitrij Gluchovskijs Metro 2033 (2009), utifrån Espmarks syn på dialogicitet och Aronssons historiebruksteoretiska tankar, där historiskt meningsskapande med olika syften blir till genom berättelser i former som större narrativ, metaforer, metonymier och symboler.Bakhtins kronotop används också, men med Aronssons fokus på dess spatiala sida. Uppsatsen föreslår att figuren kan användas fö...

  4. Modelos de demanda potencial de viajeros en redes de transporte público : aplicaciones en el Metro de Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Puebla, Javier; Cardozo, Osvaldo Daniel; García Palomares, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo propone una metodología basada en Sistemas de Información Geográfica para estimar la demanda de viajes en estaciones de redes de transporte público, tomando como ejemplo la red de metro de Madrid. Primero se emplea una serie de datos descriptivos para caracterizar la red, clasificar las estaciones y obtener una tipología de las mismas. Luego, con el objetivo de explicar y predecir los viajes (entradas a la red) se generan dos modelos: uno sencillo a partir de las tasas de penetra...

  5. Las TIC como parámetro de competitividad urbana: un escenario para las economías emergentes

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Carrera Portugal

    2010-01-01

    En este trabajo se lleva a cabo una aproximación inicial en torno a la importancia que se le confieren a las tecnologías de información y comunicación (tic) en las mediciones de competitividad urbana (índices y rankings), así como en reportes que hacen algunas revistas especializadas en torno a la capacidad de las metrópolis para incursionar en los intercambios de la economía global. Se analiza el papel que juegan las tic como parámetro o indicador en la medición de la competitividad urbana, ...

  6. Diámetro del conducto cístico y coledocolitiasis secundaria Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Oré de la Cruz, Ronald Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: en pacientes con sospecha de colédocolitiasis secundaria entre otras opciones se puede plantear la realización de colangiografía intraoperatoria transcístico para hacer el diagnóstico. Algunos cirujanos optan por no hacer efectivo este procedimiento si consideran que el conducto cístico no está dilatado Objetivo: Conocer la relación entre el diámetro del conducto cístico y la colédocolitiasis secundaria en los pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente en el hospital nacional Arz...

  7. Desenvolvimento de um circuito eletrônico experimental de anemômetro de fio quente

    OpenAIRE

    Eguti, Carlos César Aparecido [UNESP

    2005-01-01

    Anemômetros de fio quente são sensíveis instrumentos capazes de medir variações de velocidade nos mais diversos tipos de escoamentos, sejam eles gasosos ou líquidos. Um delicado filamento metálico é aquecido por uma corrente elétrica a qual gera calor por efeito Joule e transfere parte dessa energia para o escoamento incidente, sendo esta troca de calor proporcional a velocidade do fluído, definindo assim o princípio básico de funcionamento da anemometria de fio quente. Quando este filamento ...

  8. DESENVOLVIMENTO, AUTOMAÇÃO E DESEMPENHO DE UM CONSOLIDÔMETRO COM INTERFACE HOMEM-MÁQUINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Barboza da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio de consolidação preconiza a utilização de um consolidômetro. Esse equipamento, até então, não era produzido e comercializado no Brasil. Os modelos não automatizados disponíveis para importação, apesar da proposta de baixo custo, ainda são rústicos e necessitam de contínua calibração dos níveis de pressão durante a realização do ensaio. A exclusividade e intervenção de um técnico durante todo o ensaio, associada à precária coleta de dados nesses modelos, ainda são os principais fatores que têm inviabilizado a consolidação desse ensaio na ciência do solo brasileira. Como alternativa a esses problemas, este trabalho teve por objetivos desenvolver e automatizar um consolidômetro a partir de um Controlador Lógico Programável (CLP com interface homem-máquina (IHM. O equipamento é constituído de um gabinete de metal que aloja conjuntos de dispositivos pneumáticos, eletrônico-digital e atuadores de força e posição. O funcionamento de cada dispositivo de forma isolado ou conjugado é gerenciado por meio de um software em linguagem de programação ladder, que, a partir de um CLP com IHM incorporada, possibilita armazenar instruções e implementar funções. A interface entre o PC e o consolidômetro é feita pelo software CA-Linker, v 1.0, projetado especificamente para o equipamento. O uso do CLP com IHM incorporada permitiu o desenvolvimento e a automação do consolidômetro. O desempenho e a eficiência do conjunto de dispositivos (pneumáticos, eletrônico-digital e atuadores de força e pressão foram comprovados pelos excelentes resultados dos valores de deformação e pressão obtidos em função do tempo e, principalmente, do comportamento da curva de compressão, gerada pelos ensaios de compressão.

  9. Desenvolvimento de um penetrômetro manual eletrônico = Development of an electronic manual penetrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cesar Tieppo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O excesso de tráfego de máquinas pode causar compactação prejudicial ao desenvolvimento da cultura. Uma das maneiras de se obter um indicativo de compactação é a resistência do solo à penetração (RSP. Assim, desenvolveu-se um penetrômetro eletrônico, seguindo a norma S313.2 ASAE (1998, tendo a haste 0,0095 m de diâmetro e o cone de 30° com 0,01283 m de diâmetro na base. Para o desenvolvimento do penetrômetro, utilizou-se um sistema para aquisição de dados, sensor de distância, sensor de força e barras circulares de aço inox para confecção da haste e do cone. O aparelho armazena os dados coletados a campo em uma frequência de 4 Hz, sendo estes posteriormente transferidos para um microcomputador, via interface RS232. Por meio de uma planilha eletrônica, os dados podem ser processados de acordo com a necessidade do usuário. Os sensores apresentaram confiabilidade em sua utilização, os arquivos de dados gerados pelo aparelhoproporcionaram conforto e confiança no processamento de dados e os dados puderam ser reorganizados conforme a necessidade do usuário para, assim, evitar o erro de leitura pelo processo visual.Excess machine traffic can cause compaction that is harmful for crop growth. One way to obtain evidence of soil compaction is to check the mechanical resistance of soil. Thus, an electronic penetrometer was developed according to ASAE (1998 Standard S313.2, featuring a 9.53mm wide diving shaft and a 30° circular stainless steel cone with a 12.83 mm base diameter. The penetrometer was outfitted with a data acquisition system, distance and force sensors, and stainless steel circular bars to construct the diving shaft and cone. The device stores field data collected at a frequency of 4 Hz, which are later transferred onto a microcomputer via a RS232 interface. The collected data can be processed using an electronic spreadsheet according to user needs. The sensors proved reliable during use, and the data files

  10. Representación gráfica de parámetros urbanísticos

    OpenAIRE

    Ros McDonnell, Diego; Fuente Aragón, María Victoria de la; Jiménez Vicario, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    El planeamiento urbanístico persigue, entre otros fines, definir las características de la futura ciudad, para ello requiere el empleo de un nutrido grupo de conceptos teóricos básicos. Conceptos teóricos que tienen su correspondiente expresión gráfica en los planos de los proyectos de planeamiento urbano. La representación gráfica de dichos conceptos, generalmente denominados parámetros urbanísticos, suele variar de una figura de planeamiento a otra, incluso de planes con misma categoría e i...

  11. PROCEDIMIENTO DE CALIBRACIÓN EN TEMPERATURA Y FLUJO DE CALOR DE UN CALORÍMETRO DIFERENCIAL DE BARRIDO (DSC)

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo E. Reynoso; Claudio A. Danón

    2016-01-01

    El calorímetro diferencial de barrido no es un dispositivo de medición absoluta, por lo que su utilización requiere indispensable mente una calibración. En esta contribución se presenta un procedimiento de calibración para el cual s e consideraron las temperaturas y calores de fusión aceptados en la literatura de 5 materiales puros . S e prepararon 6 muestras de dife rentes masas para cada material y s e sometió cada una de ellas a ci clos de calentamiento ,...

  12. Impact of cascaded thin-film filters on metro networks employing NRZ, LPF-DB, and CSRZ formats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Wang; Weisheng Hu; Yikai Su; Zheng Zheng; Lufeng Leng; Benyuan Zhu; Peigang Hu; Wei Guo; Yaohui Jin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We studied the transmission performance of metro networks employing cascaded thin-film filters (TFFs)for three modulation formats including non-return-to-zero (NRZ), duobinary, and carrier-suppressed RZ (CSRZ). The effects caused by TFFs' dispersion and passband characteristics are investigated for 10- and 40-Gb/s signals, respectively. Simulation results show that the penalty resulted from dispersion can be partially compensated by the passband effects of the cascaded filters. CSRZ is shown to be a preferred format compared with NRZ and duobinary primarily originating from its good back-to-back performance.

  13. CARGA PARASITARIA Y SU POSIBLE EFECTO EN ALGUNOS PARÁMETROS MORFOMÉTRICOS DE Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Cyprinidontiformes: Goodeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    GÓMEZ NAVARRETE, ROSARIO AZUCENA

    2013-01-01

    Se analizaron bases de datos pertenecientes a dos poblaciones naturales del pez vivíparo Girardinichthys multiradiatus en el Estado de México, con datos morfométricos de los organismos, y parámetros de infección como son carga, prevalencia, abundancia, e intensidad de infección; mediante un Análisis de Componentes Principales (PCA), establecimos los datos morfométricos que presentaban el mayor peso estadístico y posteriormente determinamos las especies parásitas mas abundantes (Tylodelphys sp...

  14. Parámetros Hematológicos del oso hormiguero (Tamandua mexicana) de Vida Libre en Colombia -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán D Padilla-Cordero; César Rojano-Bolaño; E D Ramos-Espitia; G S Alvarez-Otero

    2014-01-01

    Se determinaron los parámetros hematológicos de 10 osos hormigueros (Tamandua mexicana) ingresados al Centro de Atención de Fauna Silvestre CAV-CVS e individuos de vida libre capturados los departamentos de Córdoba y Magdalena entre los años 2012 y 2014. Los animales fueron restringidos químicamente‚ utilizando una combinación anestésica consistente en Ketamina a dosis de 10 mg/kg‚ Midazolam 0‚3 mg/kg y Xilacina 0‚3 mg/kg. De cada individuo se obtuvo hasta 2 mL de sangre de la vena braquial‚ ...

  15. Parámetros de Transferencia de Materia en el Secado de Frutas Mass Transfer Parameters in Fruit Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Sebastião R.; Antônio R. S Costa

    2009-01-01

    Se desarrolló un modelo analítico para obtención de parámetros de transferencia de materia en el secado de frutas. El modelo considera la disminución del radio de las frutas durante el proceso de secado. Con el modelo matemático se predice simultánemente el coeficiente externo de transferencia de materia k m y la difusividad de agua en los frutos D AB. Para probar el modelo se obtuvo en forma expermental datos de masa de agua M A en la fruta versus el tiempo de secado t, además del radio inic...

  16. Displaying power, but altering identity : how Danish unions managed to organize the transnationalised Copenhagen Metro construction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke; Arnholtz, Jens

    Experiences from large-scale European construction projects with highly transnational labour forces have shown that national institutions and unions often are unsuccessful in including the transnational workers and companies in national IR systems. However, this article shows how Danish unions have...... been rather successful in organising the transnational construction project of a city metro ring in Copenhagen. This has happened despite a highly fragmented, transnational workforce and several of the sub-contracting firms initially trying actively to avoid the unionisation of their transnational...

  17. Prototipos de prueba de acelerómetro y conexión Bluetooth para terminales Android

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Gracia, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Los objetivos que persigue este PFC son los siguientes: +Estudio de la plataforma Android y el empleo del acelerómetro y opcionalmente el giroscopio para enviar ordenes a un robot móvil. + Realización y prueba de una aplicación que haga uso de tales recursos. + Elaboración de una memoria que pueda utilizarse con propósito docente. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería de Telecomunicación Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena

  18. Estimación del diámetro normal a partir del diámetro del tocón en plantaciones de Casuarina equisetifolia Forst. de la provincia Camagüey, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Benítez Naranjo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en plantaciones que se encuentran en la sabana serpentinosa de la provincia de Camagüey, Cuba, ubicadas en áreas de la localidad Las Cuabas de la Unidad Silvícola Camagüey pertenecientes a la Empresa Forestal Integral Camagüey. En este trabajo se desarrolló un modelo matemático partiendo de una muestra de 211 árboles de Casuarina equisetifolia Forst., que permite determinar el diámetro normal (d a partir del diámetro del tocón (dtoc, utilizándose 99 valores para el análisis de regresión y 112 para realizar la validación de la ecuación. Los datos fueron obtenidos de 10 parcelas temporales de muestreo de 500 m2 ubicadas en el área mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple, se procesaron mediante procedimientos de regresión. La ecuación logarítmica, seleccionada para la construcción de la tabla de estimación, estima los valores con gran precisión. Ln d = - 0.249 + 1.021 ´ Ln dtoc ± 0.07306

  19. Development of an aspheric 22-diopter 50-mm diameter magnifier Desenvolvimento de uma lupa asférica de 22 dioptrias de 50 mm de diâmetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Américo Bonatti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop in an interdisciplinary approach between ophthalmology and design areas an ergonomic +22-diopter 50-mm aspheric hand magnifier for low vision. METHODS: An aluminum cylinder was cut, processed using a lathe and carved to produce a ring that accommodated a 50-mm aspheric lens, with an external depression not to slide from the holder's fingers. A cylindrical steel bar was cut, processed using a lathe and carved in order to form an externally turned ring to be screwed into the internal thread of the aluminum ring, to maintain the lens in a steady position. Both rings were submitted to electrostatic painting with a dull black electrostatic Epoxi ink, except the lower border of the external ring, to indicate the correct side of the magnifier to face the material to be read. RESULTS: A 22-diopter 50-mm diameter aspheric lens magnifier with a black ring to be hold at its external circular depression was obtained in order to safely search the adequate reading focus with an inferior aluminum colored ring to face the object to be read and allow a less distorted reading. This is the first Brazilian high-magnification great-diameter magnifier for low vision that permits basically the focusing on an entire word, not only syllables, in order to allow a faster and more comfortable reading. CONCLUSIONS: By an interdisciplinary approach a 22-diopter 50-mm aspheric lens magnifier was developed with image and ergonomic characteristics such as to permit comfortable and adequate reading performance in cases of low vision.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver de modo interdisciplinar entre as áreas de oftalmologia e design uma lupa de mão ergonômica de +22 dioptrias de 50 mm de diâmetro asférica para baixa visão. MÉTODOS: Um cilindro de alumínio foi cortado, torneado e teve feita internamente uma rosca a fim de produzir um anel para acomodar uma lente asférica de 50 mm de diâmetro com uma depressão externa para não escorregar dos dedos do portador. Uma

  20. Mejora de la calidad de las medidas de ozono mediante un fotómetro UV de referencia Improvement of the quality of the ozone measurements by means of a standard reference photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernández Patier

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available La Directiva 92/72/CE hace referencia al método de análisis descrito en la UNE 77-221:2000 y a que los analizadores de ozono se deben calibrar con un fotómetro UV de referencia o con un patrón transferido.De la necesidad de desarrollar un procedimiento que asegure la calidad y la trazabilidad de las mediciones en España, el Área de Contaminación Atmosférica ha decidido implantar un fotómetro UV de referencia NIST como patrón de ozono.Teniendo en cuenta los procedimientos empleados por EPA y NIST, se ha desarrollado un procedimiento de verificación consistente en la realización de 6 comparaciones del Patrón Transferido frente al Fotómetro UV de Referencia NIST, en días diferentes, analizándose, como mínimo, 5 concentraciones de ozono diferentes. Cada comparación se inicia y se finaliza siempre con una concentración de 0 ppb de O3. De cada comparación se obtiene una regresión lineal.Una vez realizadas las 6 comparaciones se obtiene la Recta de calibración y se calcula la incertidumbre asociada al patrón transferido.Se ha realizado la verificación de 17 patrones transferidos de los que 11 son fotómetros UV, 2 son generadores de ozono y 4 son generadores de ozono de bancos de dilución.De los resultados se concluye que las incertidumbres de los generadores de ozono, en general, son mayores que las de los fotómetros UV, recomendándose estos últimos como patrones transferidos.Destacar que mediante la utilización de los patrones transferidos para la calibración de analizadores de ozono se garantiza tanto la calidad como la trazabilidad de los datos generados.The Directive 92/72/CE makes reference to the analysis method described in the UNE 77-221:2000 and to the fact that the ozone analyzers shall be calibrated with a UV reference photometer or with a transfer standard.From the need of developing a procedure that assure the quality and the trazability of the measurements in Spain, the Atmospheric Pollution Area has decided

  1. Cinemómetro piezoeléctrico de alta exactitud (VUAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Martínez, F. J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a portable computerized and low consumption, our system is called High Accuracy Piezoelectric Kinemometer measurement, herein VUAE. By the high accuracy obtained by VUAE it make able to use the VUAE to obtain references measurements of system for measuring Speeds in Vehicles. Therefore VUAE could be used how reference equipment to estimate the error of installed kinemometers. The VUAE was created with n (n≥2 pairs of ultrasonic transmitter-receiver, herein E-Rult. The transmitters used in the n couples E-Rult generate n ultrasonic barriers and receivers receive the echoes when the vehicle crosses the barriers. Digital processing of the echoes signals let us to obtain acceptable signals. Later, by mean of cross correlation technics is possible make a highly exact estimation of speed of the vehicle. The log of the moments of interception and the distance between each of the n ultrasounds allows for a highly exact estimation of speed of the vehicle. VUAE speed measurements were compared to a speed reference system based on piezoelectric cables.

    Se ha desarrollado un sistema electrónico computerizado, portátil y de bajo consumo, denominado Medidor de Velocidad de Vehículos por Ultrasonidos de Alta Exactitud, VUAE. La alta exactitud de la medida conseguida en el VUAE hace que pueda servir de medida de referencia de la velocidad de un vehículo circulando en carretera. Por tanto el VUAE puede usarse como medida de referencia que permita estimar el error de los cinemómetros comerciales. El VUAE está compuesto por n (n≥2 parejas de emisores y receptores piezoeléctricos de ultrasonidos, denominados E-Rult. Los emisores de las n parejas E-Rult generan n barreras de ultrasonidos, y los receptores piezoeléctricos captan la señal de los ecos cuando el vehículo atraviesa las barreras. Estos ecos se procesan digitalmente para conseguir se

  2. Obesidad abdominal, parámetro antropométrico predictivo de alteraciones del metabolismo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Castellanos González

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La medida del perímetro de la cintura como valoración indirecta de obesidad abdominal se presenta como un elemento esencial en la valoración clínica de la obesidad. El vínculo entre obesidad abdominal e insulinoresistencia se propone como el eje central de la fisiopatología del síndrome metabólico y sus complicaciones. Objetivo: Determinar si los individuos con obesidad abdominal presentan cambios relacionados con los factores que forman parte del síndrome metabólico superiores a los observados en individuos sin obesidad abdominal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico comparativo con diseño de casos y controles con dos grupos, organizados a partir de una muestra de 98 personas de ambos sexos extraída al azar del universo constituido por una población de 510 trabajadores de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos, de septiembre a diciembre de 2005. A todos se le realizaron mediciones de la presión arterial, colesterol, HDL colesterol, glucemia en ayunas y triglicéridos. Resultados: El 30,6 % de los individuos presentó obesidad abdominal, predominando esta por encima de los 40 años y en féminas (83,3 %. El 53,3 %.de los obesos fueron hipertensos, igual porcentaje tuvo bajos valores de HDL y el 16,7 % mostró alteración de la glucemia. Conclusiones: La obesidad abdominal constituye un problema de salud en la población estudiada, incrementándose con la edad. Los individuos que presentan obesidad abdominal tienen un riesgo mayor de presentar alteraciones metabólicas, tales como bajos niveles de HDL colesterol, altos valores de triacilglicéridos y de colesterol total, así como alteraciones de la glucemia e hipertensión.ABDOMINAL OBESITY, AN ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETER PREDICTING METABOLIC DISORDERS.Background: Waist circumference perimeter, as an indirect indicator of abdominal obesity, is commonly presented as an essential element in the clinical assessment of obesity. The link between abdominal

  3. PENGARUH PENERAPAN BELAJAR MANDIRI PADA MATERI EKOSISTEM TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN BERPIKIR KRITIS DAN KEMAMPUAN MEMECAHKAN MASALAH SISWA SMA DI KOTA METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Oka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know the effect of  alone learning to the critical thinking skill and problem solving ability in SMA Teladan 1 Metro. This research applied quasy experimental with non-equvalent control group design. The population of this research is allow students of class X SMA Teladan 1 Metro on academic year 2009/2010. The samples of this research were class XA as experimental (alone learning and class XB as control (conventional. The instrument of this research namely critical thinking and problem solving test. This research data are quantitative data consisted by score capacity critical thinking and problem solving ability to river ecosystem, collected on 15 january until 12 Juni 2010. Data were analysed by bilinear covariant statistical analysis (Ancova, continued with LSD test. The result of this research indicated that there were an effect of alone learning strategy toward the critical thinking skill and problem solving ability. Student with alone learning strategy having critical thinking higher 80,111% than conventional learning. Beside, student with alone learning strategy having 11,124% higher than convensional learning. Based on this research, the researcher suggest to the teacher that this strategy can implemented in biology learning.   Kata Kunci: Belajar Mandiri, Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Kemampuan Memecahkan Masalah.

  4. Determinación de los parámetros de funcionamiento de bombas y motores hidráulicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pérez Sobrevilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el manual de usuario del software "Performance Curves" para la determinación teórica y rápida de los parámetros de funcionamiento de las máquinas hidráulicas (bombas y motores, evitando la tediosa y lenta evaluación experimental e incrementando la eficiencia de la actividad con la menor cantidad de personal. El software posibilita determinar los parámetros adecuados de los regímenes óptimos de trabajo de la máquina hidráulica, las relaciones entre la eficiencia de la bomba y del motor hidráulico y un coeficiente adimensional de isogonalidad, que es un criterio de la semejanza cinemática de las máquinas hidráulicas rotatorias semejante geométricamente, así como una magnitud que caracteriza el régimen de trabajo de la máquina hidráulica dada. Las curvas de las eficiencias totales de la bomba y el motor hidráulico tienen el valor máximo para ciertos valores del coeficiente de isogonalidad, asegurando una precisión bastante alta, obteniéndose los valores máximos de la eficiencia de la máquina hidráulica.

  5. La sensibilidad de los parámetros en el mercado potencial y actual de una organización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Landa Bercebal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El sistema del mercado compuesto por el entorno, las organizaciones en competencia y los consumidores/compradores realizan una interacción permanente que se concreta en una trayectoria dinámica. Si el mercado se divide en mercado actual y mercado potencial, el cambio de los consumidores/compradores del uno al otro o simplemente la entrada al mercado actual de una organización cualquiera suponen también un proceso dinámico que depende de variables exógenas al sistema y del valor de los parámetros de ajuste, cuyo origen está en la manera de comportamiento de los individuos que componen el sistema estudiado. La sensibilidad y el estudio de esos valores de los parámetros requieren conocer la posible tendencia del sistema, así como el comportamiento del mismo, dependiendo de la región paramétrica en la que se encuentre.

  6. Conceptualización acerca del perímetro, área y volumen en tres alumnos universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelly E. Manotas Mercado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la conceptualización que tienen tres alumnos acerca del perímetro, área y volumen para determinar en qué estadio del desarrollo de la comprensión del proceso de medida, según Piaget, se encuentra cada uno de estos estudiantes. Se aplicó un cuestionario, en el primer semestre académico del 2007, a un grupo de alumnos de segundo semestre de Diseño Industrial. Los tres alumnos se seleccionaron porque presentaron dificultades en la comprensión de los temas tratados en la asignatura de Cálculo. Se encontró que los sujetos estudiados no se encuentran en el estadio superior de desarrollo de comprensión de la medida; esto es un obstáculo para la solución de problemas de cálculo, relacionados con perímetro, área y volumen.

  7. Research of Delivery Towing methods for Metro Vehicles%地铁车辆回送方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉砚磊; 何宝昌

    2012-01-01

    制动系统是城市轨道交通车辆的关键系统之一,其工作可靠性直接关系到列车的运行安全。回送试验是保证地铁车辆安全押运的重要环节,本文阐述了地铁车辆各个制动系统的回送工作原理、回送管路铺设和连接方法,并总结了地铁车辆在回送试验和押运过程中的注意事项。%As a critical system for urban rail transit vehicle, the brake system involves the reliable and safe operation of a train, and delivery towing testing is therefore a necessary step for the safe transportation of metro vehicles. This paper outlines the principles of various brake system used in metro cars, laying and connection of temporary brake pipes during the delivery towing operation, along with the precautions which should be taken for the transportation.

  8. Comparação entre a utilização de saliva e sangue para determinação do lactato mínimo em cicloergômetro e ergômetro de braço em mesa-tenistas

    OpenAIRE

    Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Papoti, Marcelo; Caputo, Fabrízio; Mendes, Olga de Castro; Denadai, Benedito Sergio [UNESP; Baldissera, Vilmar [UNESP; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a possibilidade de determinar o teste de lactato mínimo (TLM) com concentrações de sódio (Na+), potássio (K+) e lactato (LAC) na saliva em ergômetro de braço e cicloergômetro. Foram participantes deste estudo oito mesa-tenistas de nível internacional. Como estímulo anaeróbio no TLM em ambos os ergômetros foram utilizados testes máximos de 30 segundos. No ergômetro de braço isocinético (Cybex Ube 2432) foi aplicada a força máxima com rotação fixa em 102rpm e ...

  9. Wooded areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the management of wooded areas on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  10. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  11. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  12. Application performance evaluation on automatic fire alarm system of metro%地铁火灾自动报警系统使用效能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋立巍; 宋立丹; 赵海荣

    2009-01-01

    对地铁火灾自动报警系统使用效能评价进行了研究,提出了该系统使用效能的评价要求、评价指标体系、评价流程以及评分模型,为地铁火灾自动报警系统的使用效能评价工作提供了技术参考和指导.%Application performance evaluation on automatic fire alarm system in metro was studied. Requirements, evaluation index system, evaluation process and score model of application performance evaluation on automatic fire alarm system in metro were proposed. And it will provide technical reference and guidance on the application performance evaluation job on automatic fire alarm system in metro.

  13. Estimativas de parÃmetros genÃticos e identificaÃÃo de QTLs candidatos em cajueiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Herbeth Costa dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    O conhecimento sobre os parÃmetros genÃticos, a identificaÃÃo de locos de caracterÃsticas quantitativas (QTL) e a seleÃÃo assistida por marcadores tÃm grande importÃncia para o melhoramento genÃtico vegetal. Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar o potencial de produÃÃo de oitenta e quatro clones de cajueiro, estimar parÃmetros genÃticos e identificar QTLs associados à altura da planta, diÃmetro da copa, antracnose, mofo-preto, nÃmero de flores hermafroditas/panÃcula e peso da castanha. C...

  14. Estimativas de parÃmetros genÃticos e identificaÃÃo de QTLs candidatos em cajueiro.

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Herbeth Costa dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    O conhecimento sobre os parÃmetros genÃticos, a identificaÃÃo de locos de caracterÃsticas quantitativas (QTL) e a seleÃÃo assistida por marcadores tÃm grande importÃncia para o melhoramento genÃtico vegetal. Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar o potencial de produÃÃo de oitenta e quatro clones de cajueiro, estimar parÃmetros genÃticos e identificar QTLs associados à altura da planta, diÃmetro da copa, antracnose, mofo-preto, nÃmero de flores hermafroditas/panÃcula e peso da castanha. C...

  15. Rigid + Flexible Envelope Technology of Metro Deep Foundation%地铁深基坑刚性+柔性围护技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎小辉; 熊柯

    2012-01-01

    Metro deep foundation pit is an important key technology of the metro deep foundation construction, the paper briefly introduces the metro deep pit rigid + flexible envelope technology, including envelop structure design and principles of the foundation pit option selection. Key construction techniques, as well as the measurement and monitoring of the building envelope structure are also introduced.%地铁深基坑围护是地铁深基坑施工的重要技术关键,文章简要介绍地铁深基坑刚性+柔性围护技术,包括基坑围护结构的设计及原则,基坑方案选择,关键施工工艺以及围护结构的监控测量。

  16. Avaliação da eficiência do uso da energia elétrica no Perímetro Irrigado de Pirapora, MG

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros,Salomão de S.; Soares,Antônio A.; Márcio M. Ramos; Everardo C. Mantovani; Souza,José A. A. de

    2003-01-01

    Objetivou-se, através deste trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de uso de energia elétrica no Perímetro Irrigado de Pirapora, no período de 1999 a 2000. A demanda anual de água de irrigação para o perímetro foi simulada com base no balanço de água no solo, para condições de um manejo de irrigação ideal. O índice médio anual de consumo de energia no perímetro foi determinado com base no volume de água aplicado e no consumo de energia das estações de bombeamento. Com o volume de água simulado e o ín...

  17. Influences and Challenges to the Urban Development of Metro Manila%马尼拉大都会的发展与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael V. Tomeldan[菲; 纪雁(译); 沙永杰(译)

    2014-01-01

    对菲律宾首都马尼拉的城市演变、现状及未来城市发展所面临的挑战进行综合介绍和分析,主要包含两部分内容:一是马尼拉城市演变的5个阶段--16世纪中期被西班牙探险航行初次发现时的马尼拉、此后三百多年的西班牙殖民统治、至1898年成立亚洲第一个共和国、再到1901-1946的美国殖民时期以及当今的马尼拉大都会;二是从贫富差距与住房问题、自然灾害和城市环境问题几个方面分析马尼拉大都会未来发展面临的挑战及对策。%This article introduces the city evolution history of Manila, from Spaniards firstly discovered the Philippine archipelago in the 16th Century, which led to Spanish occupation of the Manila area for more than 3 centuries, to Philippine Republic declared in 1898, and immediately followed by American colonial period in the first half of the 20th century, till today’s Metropolitan Manila. It also il ustrates the future chal enges Metro Manila is facing in its urban development in terms of income gap, housing backlog, disaster risk and urban environment, and further about key improvements needed to retain Manila's status as the Philippines’ premier metropolis.

  18. Fluxômetro hidrodinámico em cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio Hidro-dynamic flowmeter in myocardial revascularization surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Biscegli Jatene

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação do fluxo pelas pontes de veia safena na cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio fornece uma informação segura do aporte sangüíneo ao miocárdio, bem como da perspectiva de perviabilidade destas anastomoses a longo prazo. Contudo, em nosso meio, a disponibilidade de fluxômetros eletrônicos, habitualmente utilizados, é, por vezes, difícil, sobretudo em função de seu custo e manutenção. O sistema desenvolvido consta de um conector para a linha arterial, com saída lateral, ligado a um tubo de Y. Uma das extremidades é conectada a um manómetro e a outra, à veia safena, ao término da anastomose distal. Como a saída lateral tem diâmetro conhecido, a queda da pressão, quando se liga o sistema para aveia safena, é proporcional ao fluxo. Uma tabela obtida por calibração prévia, permite conhecer, instantaneamente, o fluxo para a artéria tratada. Outra vantagem do sistema é a irrigação seletiva para a área tratada antes da realização da anastomose proximal, situação favorável quando existem áreas severamente isquémicas. Este sistema, em uso corrente em nosso Serviço, vem provando a sua eficiência, aliada à sua praticidade e ao custo irrelevante.Evaluation of blood flow in saphenous vein grafts during coronary surgery gives valuable information about myocardial perfusion and long-term by- pass patency as well. However, electronic flowmeter availability is a limiting factor because of costs and maintenance. A system was developed consisting of a connection to the arterial line, with a Y tube; one branch of the Y tube is connected to a manometer and the other one to the vein graft. Since the connection to the arterial line has a know diameter, pressure drop in the system is proportional to the flow in the graft. With previous calibration, a chart was constructed that allows instantaneous evaluation of the flow. Another advantage of the system is the selective perfusion of the area to be treated before

  19. On Rainfall Modification by Major Urban Areas. Part 1; Observations from Space-borne Rain Radar Aboard TRMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshell; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A novel approach is introduced to correlating urbanization and rainfall modification. This study represents one of the first published attempts (possibly the first) to identify and quantify rainfall modification by urban areas using satellite-based rainfall measurements. Previous investigations successfully used rain gauge networks and around-based radar to investigate this phenomenon but still encountered difficulties due to limited, specialized measurements and separation of topographic and other influences. Three years of mean monthly rainfall rates derived from the first space-based rainfall radar, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, are employed. Analysis of data at half-degree latitude resolution enables identification of rainfall patterns around major metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Montgomery, Nashville, San Antonio, Waco, and Dallas during the warm season. Preliminary results reveal an average increase of 5.6% in monthly rainfall rates (relative to a mean upwind CONTROL area) over the metropolis but an average increase of approx. 28%, in monthly rainfall rates within 30-60 kilometers downwind of the metropolis. Some portions of the downwind area exhibit increases as high as 51%. It was also found that maximum rainfall rates found in the downwind impact area exceeded the mean value in the upwind CONTROL area by 48%-116% and were generally found at an average distance of 39 km from the edge of the urban center or 64 km from the center of the city. These results are quite consistent studies of St. Louis (e.g' METROMEX) and Chicago almost two decades ago and more recent studies in the Atlanta and Mexico City areas.

  20. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol collected from Atlanta, Georgia, during 2014-2015 using the aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Croteau, Philip L.; Baumann, Karsten; Canonaco, Francesco; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Gold, Avram; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Surratt, Jason D.

    2017-10-01

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was redeployed at the Jefferson Street (JST) site in downtown Atlanta, Georgia (GA) for 1 year (March 20, 2014-February 08, 2015) to chemically characterize non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1) in near real-time and to assess whether organic aerosol (OA) types and amounts change from year-to-year. Submicron organic aerosol (OA) mass spectra were analyzed by season using multilinear engine (ME-2) to apportion OA subtypes to potential sources and chemical processes. A suite of real-time collocated measurements from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network was compared with ME-2 factor solutions to aid in the interpretation of OA subtypes during each season. OA tracers measured from high-volume filter samples using gas chromatography interfaced with electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) also aided in identifying OA sources. The initial application of ME-2 to the yearlong ACSM dataset revealed that OA source apportionment by season was required to better resolve sporadic OA types. Spring and fall OA mass spectral datasets were separated into finer periods to capture potential OA sources resulting from non-homogeneous emissions during transitioning periods. NR-PM1 was highest in summer (16.7 ± 8.4 μg m-3) and lowest in winter (8.0 ± 5.7 μg m-3), consistent with prior studies. OA dominated NR-PM1 mass (56-74% on average) in all seasons. Hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) from primary emissions was observed in all seasons, averaging 5-22% of total OA mass. Strong correlations of HOA with carbon monoxide (CO) (R = 0.71-0.88) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (R = 0.55-0.79) indicated that vehicular traffic was the likely source. Biomass burning OA (BBOA) was observed in all seasons, with lower contributions (2%) in summer and higher in colder seasons (averaging 8-20% of total OA mass). BBOA correlated strongly with levoglucosan (R = 0.78-0.95) during colder seasons