International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szereszewski, A; Sym, A
2015-01-01
The standard method of separation of variables in PDEs called the Stäckel–Robertson–Eisenhart (SRE) approach originated in the papers by Robertson (1928 Math. Ann. 98 749–52) and Eisenhart (1934 Ann. Math. 35 284–305) on separability of variables in the Schrödinger equation defined on a pseudo-Riemannian space equipped with orthogonal coordinates, which in turn were based on the purely classical mechanics results by Paul Stäckel (1891, Habilitation Thesis, Halle). These still fundamental results have been further extended in diverse directions by e.g. Havas (1975 J. Math. Phys. 16 1461–8; J. Math. Phys. 16 2476–89) or Koornwinder (1980 Lecture Notes in Mathematics 810 (Berlin: Springer) pp 240–63). The involved separability is always ordinary (factor R = 1) and regular (maximum number of independent parameters in separation equations). A different approach to separation of variables was initiated by Gaston Darboux (1878 Ann. Sci. E.N.S. 7 275–348) which has been almost completely forgotten in today’s research on the subject. Darboux’s paper was devoted to the so-called R-separability of variables in the standard Laplace equation. At the outset he did not make any specific assumption about the separation equations (this is in sharp contrast to the SRE approach). After impressive calculations Darboux obtained a complete solution of the problem. He found not only eleven cases of ordinary separability Eisenhart (1934 Ann. Math. 35 284–305) but also Darboux–Moutard–cyclidic metrics (Bôcher 1894 Ueber die Reihenentwickelungen der Potentialtheorie (Leipzig: Teubner)) and non-regularly separable Dupin-cyclidic metrics as well. In our previous paper Darboux’s approach was extended to the case of the stationary Schrödinger equation on Riemannian spaces admitting orthogonal coordinates. In particular the class of isothermic metrics was defined (isothermicity of the metric is a necessary condition for its R-separability). An important sub
Extending cosmology: the metric approach
Mendoza, S.
2012-01-01
Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keshav Kumar
Full Text Available Bacteria cells are protected from osmotic and environmental stresses by an exoskeleton-like polymeric structure called peptidoglycan (PG or murein sacculus. This structure is fundamental for bacteria's viability and thus, the mechanisms underlying cell wall assembly and how it is modulated serve as targets for many of our most successful antibiotics. Therefore, it is now more important than ever to understand the genetics and structural chemistry of the bacterial cell walls in order to find new and effective methods of blocking it for the treatment of disease. In the last decades, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have been demonstrated to provide the required resolution and sensitivity to characterize the fine chemical structure of PG. However, the large volume of data sets that can be produced by these instruments today are difficult to handle without a proper data analysis workflow. Here, we present PG-metrics, a chemometric based pipeline that allows fast and easy classification of bacteria according to their muropeptide chromatographic profiles and identification of the subjacent PG chemical variability between e.g. bacterial species, growth conditions and, mutant libraries. The pipeline is successfully validated here using PG samples from different bacterial species and mutants in cell wall proteins. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that PG-metrics pipeline is a valuable bioanalytical tool that can lead us to cell wall classification and biomarker discovery.
Metric approach to quantum constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brody, Dorje C; Hughston, Lane P; Gustavsson, Anna C T
2009-01-01
A framework for deriving equations of motion for constrained quantum systems is introduced and a procedure for its implementation is outlined. In special cases, the proposed new method, which takes advantage of the fact that the space of pure states in quantum mechanics has both a symplectic structure and a metric structure, reduces to a quantum analogue of the Dirac theory of constraints in classical mechanics. Explicit examples involving spin-1/2 particles are worked out in detail: in the first example, our approach coincides with a quantum version of the Dirac formalism, while the second example illustrates how a situation that cannot be treated by Dirac's approach can nevertheless be dealt with in the present scheme.
Real variables with basic metric space topology
Ash, Robert B
2009-01-01
Designed for a first course in real variables, this text presents the fundamentals for more advanced mathematical work, particularly in the areas of complex variables, measure theory, differential equations, functional analysis, and probability. Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics, it is also appropriate for students of engineering, physics, and economics who seek an understanding of real analysis.The author encourages an intuitive approach to problem solving and offers concrete examples, diagrams, and geometric or physical interpretations of results. Deta
Software metrics a rigorous and practical approach
Fenton, Norman
2014-01-01
A Framework for Managing, Measuring, and Predicting Attributes of Software Development Products and ProcessesReflecting the immense progress in the development and use of software metrics in the past decades, Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to software metrics. Like its popular predecessors, this third edition discusses important issues, explains essential concepts, and offers new approaches for tackling long-standing problems.New to the Third EditionThis edition contains new material relevant
Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.
1992-01-01
A variable-metric (VM) crystal is one in which the spacing between the crystalline planes changes with position in the crystal. This variation can be either parallel to the crystalline planes or perpendicular to the crystalline planes of interest and can be produced by either introducing a thermal gradient in the crystal or by growing a crystal made of two or more elements and changing the relative percentages of the two elements as the crystal is grown. A series of experiments were performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the principle of the variable-metric crystal and its potential use in synchrotron beam lines. One of the most useful applications of the VM crystal is to increase the number of photons per unit bandwidth in a diffracted beam without losing any of the overall intensity. In a normal synchrotron beam line that uses a two-crystal monochromator, the bandwidth of the diffracted photon beam is determined by the vertical opening angle of the beam which is typically 0.10--0.30 mrad or 20--60 arcsec. When the VM crystal approach is applied, the bandwidth of the beam can be made as narrow as the rocking curve of the diffracting crystal, which is typically 0.005--0.050 mrad or 1--10 arcsec. Thus a very large increase of photons per unit bandwidth (or per unit energy) can be achieved through the use of VM crystals. When the VM principle is used with bent crystals, new kinds of x-ray optical elements can be generated that can focus and defocus x-ray beams much like simple lenses where the focal length of the lens can be changed to match its application. Thus both large magnifications and large demagnifications can be achieved as well as parallel beams with narrow bandwidths
Recursive form of general limited memory variable metric methods
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan
2013-01-01
Roč. 49, č. 2 (2013), s. 224-235 ISSN 0023-5954 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : unconstrained optimization * large scale optimization * limited memory methods * variable metric updates * recursive matrix formulation * algorithms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013 http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/143365
A practical approach to determine dose metrics for nanomaterials.
Delmaar, Christiaan J E; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Oomen, Agnes G; Chen, Jingwen; de Jong, Wim H; Sips, Adriënne J A M; Wang, Zhuang; Park, Margriet V D Z
2015-05-01
Traditionally, administered mass is used to describe doses of conventional chemical substances in toxicity studies. For deriving toxic doses of nanomaterials, mass and chemical composition alone may not adequately describe the dose, because particles with the same chemical composition can have completely different toxic mass doses depending on properties such as particle size. Other dose metrics such as particle number, volume, or surface area have been suggested, but consensus is lacking. The discussion regarding the most adequate dose metric for nanomaterials clearly needs a systematic, unbiased approach to determine the most appropriate dose metric for nanomaterials. In the present study, the authors propose such an approach and apply it to results from in vitro and in vivo experiments with silver and silica nanomaterials. The proposed approach is shown to provide a convenient tool to systematically investigate and interpret dose metrics of nanomaterials. Recommendations for study designs aimed at investigating dose metrics are provided. © 2015 SETAC.
A Metrics Approach for Collaborative Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristian CIUREA
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This article presents different types of collaborative systems, their structure and classification. This paper defines the concept of virtual campus as a collaborative system. It builds architecture for virtual campus oriented on collaborative training processes. It analyses the quality characteristics of collaborative systems and propose techniques for metrics construction and validation in order to evaluate them. The article analyzes different ways to increase the efficiency and the performance level in collaborative banking systems.
An Overview of Heart Rate Variability Metrics and Norms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fred Shaffer
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Healthy biological systems exhibit complex patterns of variability that can be described by mathematical chaos. Heart rate variability (HRV consists of changes in the time intervals between consecutive heartbeats called interbeat intervals (IBIs. A healthy heart is not a metronome. The oscillations of a healthy heart are complex and constantly changing, which allow the cardiovascular system to rapidly adjust to sudden physical and psychological challenges to homeostasis. This article briefly reviews current perspectives on the mechanisms that generate 24 h, short-term (~5 min, and ultra-short-term (<5 min HRV, the importance of HRV, and its implications for health and performance. The authors provide an overview of widely-used HRV time-domain, frequency-domain, and non-linear metrics. Time-domain indices quantify the amount of HRV observed during monitoring periods that may range from ~2 min to 24 h. Frequency-domain values calculate the absolute or relative amount of signal energy within component bands. Non-linear measurements quantify the unpredictability and complexity of a series of IBIs. The authors survey published normative values for clinical, healthy, and optimal performance populations. They stress the importance of measurement context, including recording period length, subject age, and sex, on baseline HRV values. They caution that 24 h, short-term, and ultra-short-term normative values are not interchangeable. They encourage professionals to supplement published norms with findings from their own specialized populations. Finally, the authors provide an overview of HRV assessment strategies for clinical and optimal performance interventions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazareth, J. L.
1979-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: OCOPTR and DRVOCR are computer programs designed to find minima of non-linear differentiable functions f: R n →R with n dimensional domains. OCOPTR requires that the user only provide function values (i.e. it is a derivative-free routine). DRVOCR requires the user to supply both function and gradient information. 2 - Method of solution: OCOPTR and DRVOCR use the variable metric (or quasi-Newton) method of Davidon (1975). For OCOPTR, the derivatives are estimated by finite differences along a suitable set of linearly independent directions. For DRVOCR, the derivatives are user- supplied. Some features of the codes are the storage of the approximation to the inverse Hessian matrix in lower trapezoidal factored form and the use of an optimally-conditioned updating method. Linear equality constraints are permitted subject to the initial Hessian factor being chosen correctly. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The functions to which the routine is applied are assumed to be differentiable. The routine also requires (n 2 /2) + 0(n) storage locations where n is the problem dimension
Metric approach for sound propagation in nematic liquid crystals
Pereira, E.; Fumeron, S.; Moraes, F.
2013-02-01
In the eikonal approach, we describe sound propagation near topological defects of nematic liquid crystals as geodesics of a non-Euclidian manifold endowed with an effective metric tensor. The relation between the acoustics of the medium and this geometrical description is given by Fermat's principle. We calculate the ray trajectories and propose a diffraction experiment to retrieve information about the elastic constants.
Temporal variability of daily personal magnetic field exposure metrics in pregnant women.
Lewis, Ryan C; Evenson, Kelly R; Savitz, David A; Meeker, John D
2015-01-01
Recent epidemiology studies of power-frequency magnetic fields and reproductive health have characterized exposures using data collected from personal exposure monitors over a single day, possibly resulting in exposure misclassification due to temporal variability in daily personal magnetic field exposure metrics, but relevant data in adults are limited. We assessed the temporal variability of daily central tendency (time-weighted average, median) and peak (upper percentiles, maximum) personal magnetic field exposure metrics over 7 consecutive days in 100 pregnant women. When exposure was modeled as a continuous variable, central tendency metrics had substantial reliability, whereas peak metrics had fair (maximum) to moderate (upper percentiles) reliability. The predictive ability of a single-day metric to accurately classify participants into exposure categories based on a weeklong metric depended on the selected exposure threshold, with sensitivity decreasing with increasing exposure threshold. Consistent with the continuous measures analysis, sensitivity was higher for central tendency metrics than for peak metrics. If there is interest in peak metrics, more than 1 day of measurement is needed over the window of disease susceptibility to minimize measurement error, but 1 day may be sufficient for central tendency metrics.
Robustness Metrics: Consolidating the multiple approaches to quantify Robustness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Göhler, Simon Moritz; Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.
2016-01-01
robustness metrics; 3) Functional expectancy and dispersion robustness metrics; and 4) Probability of conformance robustness metrics. The goal was to give a comprehensive overview of robustness metrics and guidance to scholars and practitioners to understand the different types of robustness metrics...
A Novel Metric Online Monocular SLAM Approach for Indoor Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongfei Li
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Monocular SLAM has attracted more attention recently due to its flexibility and being economic. In this paper, a novel metric online direct monocular SLAM approach is proposed, which can obtain the metric reconstruction of the scene. In the proposed approach, a chessboard is utilized to provide initial depth map and scale correction information during the SLAM process. The involved chessboard provides the absolute scale of scene, and it is seen as a bridge between the camera visual coordinate and the world coordinate. The scene is reconstructed as a series of key frames with their poses and correlative semidense depth maps, using a highly accurate pose estimation achieved by direct grid point-based alignment. The estimated pose is coupled with depth map estimation calculated by filtering over a large number of pixelwise small-baseline stereo comparisons. In addition, this paper formulates the scale-drift model among key frames and the calibration chessboard is used to correct the accumulated pose error. At the end of this paper, several indoor experiments are conducted. The results suggest that the proposed approach is able to achieve higher reconstruction accuracy when compared with the traditional LSD-SLAM approach. And the approach can also run in real time on a commonly used computer.
Rawlings, Renata A; Shi, Hang; Yuan, Lo-Hua; Brehm, William; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Nelson, Patrick W
2011-12-01
Several metrics of glucose variability have been proposed to date, but an integrated approach that provides a complete and consistent assessment of glycemic variation is missing. As a consequence, and because of the tedious coding necessary during quantification, most investigators and clinicians have not yet adopted the use of multiple glucose variability metrics to evaluate glycemic variation. We compiled the most extensively used statistical techniques and glucose variability metrics, with adjustable hyper- and hypoglycemic limits and metric parameters, to create a user-friendly Continuous Glucose Monitoring Graphical User Interface for Diabetes Evaluation (CGM-GUIDE©). In addition, we introduce and demonstrate a novel transition density profile that emphasizes the dynamics of transitions between defined glucose states. Our combined dashboard of numerical statistics and graphical plots support the task of providing an integrated approach to describing glycemic variability. We integrated existing metrics, such as SD, area under the curve, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion, with novel metrics such as the slopes across critical transitions and the transition density profile to assess the severity and frequency of glucose transitions per day as they move between critical glycemic zones. By presenting the above-mentioned metrics and graphics in a concise aggregate format, CGM-GUIDE provides an easy to use tool to compare quantitative measures of glucose variability. This tool can be used by researchers and clinicians to develop new algorithms of insulin delivery for patients with diabetes and to better explore the link between glucose variability and chronic diabetes complications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuefei Guan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, two probabilistic prognosis updating schemes are compared. One is based on the classical Bayesian approach and the other is based on newly developed maximum relative entropy (MRE approach. The algorithm performance of the two models is evaluated using a set of recently developed prognostics-based metrics. Various uncertainties from measurements, modeling, and parameter estimations are integrated into the prognosis framework as random input variables for fatigue damage of materials. Measures of response variables are then used to update the statistical distributions of random variables and the prognosis results are updated using posterior distributions. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC technique is employed to provide the posterior samples for model updating in the framework. Experimental data are used to demonstrate the operation of the proposed probabilistic prognosis methodology. A set of prognostics-based metrics are employed to quantitatively evaluate the prognosis performance and compare the proposed entropy method with the classical Bayesian updating algorithm. In particular, model accuracy, precision, robustness and convergence are rigorously evaluated in addition to the qualitative visual comparison. Following this, potential development and improvement for the prognostics-based metrics are discussed in detail.
Temporal Variability of Daily Personal Magnetic Field Exposure Metrics in Pregnant Women
Lewis, Ryan C.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Savitz, David A.; Meeker, John D.
2014-01-01
Recent epidemiology studies of power-frequency magnetic fields and reproductive health have characterized exposures using data collected from personal exposure monitors over a single day, possibly resulting in exposure misclassification due to temporal variability in daily personal magnetic field exposure metrics, but relevant data in adults are limited. We assessed the temporal variability of daily central tendency (time-weighted average, median) and peak (upper percentiles, maximum) persona...
Shoaib, Syed Abu; Marshall, Lucy; Sharma, Ashish
2018-06-01
Every model to characterise a real world process is affected by uncertainty. Selecting a suitable model is a vital aspect of engineering planning and design. Observation or input errors make the prediction of modelled responses more uncertain. By way of a recently developed attribution metric, this study is aimed at developing a method for analysing variability in model inputs together with model structure variability to quantify their relative contributions in typical hydrological modelling applications. The Quantile Flow Deviation (QFD) metric is used to assess these alternate sources of uncertainty. The Australian Water Availability Project (AWAP) precipitation data for four different Australian catchments is used to analyse the impact of spatial rainfall variability on simulated streamflow variability via the QFD. The QFD metric attributes the variability in flow ensembles to uncertainty associated with the selection of a model structure and input time series. For the case study catchments, the relative contribution of input uncertainty due to rainfall is higher than that due to potential evapotranspiration, and overall input uncertainty is significant compared to model structure and parameter uncertainty. Overall, this study investigates the propagation of input uncertainty in a daily streamflow modelling scenario and demonstrates how input errors manifest across different streamflow magnitudes.
Rawlings, Renata A.; Shi, Hang; Yuan, Lo-Hua; Brehm, William; Pop-Busui, Rodica
2011-01-01
Abstract Background Several metrics of glucose variability have been proposed to date, but an integrated approach that provides a complete and consistent assessment of glycemic variation is missing. As a consequence, and because of the tedious coding necessary during quantification, most investigators and clinicians have not yet adopted the use of multiple glucose variability metrics to evaluate glycemic variation. Methods We compiled the most extensively used statistical techniques and glucose variability metrics, with adjustable hyper- and hypoglycemic limits and metric parameters, to create a user-friendly Continuous Glucose Monitoring Graphical User Interface for Diabetes Evaluation (CGM-GUIDE©). In addition, we introduce and demonstrate a novel transition density profile that emphasizes the dynamics of transitions between defined glucose states. Results Our combined dashboard of numerical statistics and graphical plots support the task of providing an integrated approach to describing glycemic variability. We integrated existing metrics, such as SD, area under the curve, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion, with novel metrics such as the slopes across critical transitions and the transition density profile to assess the severity and frequency of glucose transitions per day as they move between critical glycemic zones. Conclusions By presenting the above-mentioned metrics and graphics in a concise aggregate format, CGM-GUIDE provides an easy to use tool to compare quantitative measures of glucose variability. This tool can be used by researchers and clinicians to develop new algorithms of insulin delivery for patients with diabetes and to better explore the link between glucose variability and chronic diabetes complications. PMID:21932986
Video Analytics Evaluation: Survey of Datasets, Performance Metrics and Approaches
2014-09-01
people with different ethnicity and gender . Cur- rently we have four subjects, but more can be added in the future. • Lighting Variations. We consider...is however not a proper distance as the triangular inequality condition is not met. For this reason, the next metric should be preferred. • the...and Alan F. Smeaton and Georges Quenot, An Overview of the Goals, Tasks, Data, Evaluation Mechanisms and Metrics, Proceedings of TRECVID 2011, NIST, USA
KEELE, Minimization of Nonlinear Function with Linear Constraints, Variable Metric Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westley, G.W.
1975-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: KEELE is a linearly constrained nonlinear programming algorithm for locating a local minimum of a function of n variables with the variables subject to linear equality and/or inequality constraints. 2 - Method of solution: A variable metric procedure is used where the direction of search at each iteration is obtained by multiplying the negative of the gradient vector by a positive definite matrix which approximates the inverse of the matrix of second partial derivatives associated with the function. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Array dimensions limit the number of variables to 20 and the number of constraints to 50. These can be changed by the user
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowsary, F.; Pooladvand, K.; Pourshaghaghy, A.
2007-01-01
In this paper, an appropriate distribution of the heating elements' strengths in a radiation furnace is estimated using inverse methods so that a pre-specified temperature and heat flux distribution is attained on the design surface. Minimization of the sum of the squares of the error function is performed using the variable metric method (VMM), and the results are compared with those obtained by the conjugate gradient method (CGM) established previously in the literature. It is shown via test cases and a well-founded validation procedure that the VMM, when using a 'regularized' estimator, is more accurate and is able to reach at a higher quality final solution as compared to the CGM. The test cases used in this study were two-dimensional furnaces filled with an absorbing, emitting, and scattering gas
The application of simple metrics in the assessment of glycaemic variability.
Monnier, L; Colette, C; Owens, D R
2018-03-06
The assessment of glycaemic variability (GV) remains a subject of debate with many indices proposed to represent either short- (acute glucose fluctuations) or long-term GV (variations of HbA 1c ). For the assessment of short-term within-day GV, the coefficient of variation for glucose (%CV) defined as the standard deviation adjusted on the 24-h mean glucose concentration is easy to perform and with a threshold of 36%, recently adopted by the international consensus on use of continuous glucose monitoring, separating stable from labile glycaemic states. More complex metrics such as the Low Blood Glucose Index (LBGI) or High Blood Glucose Index (HBGI) allow the risk of hypo or hyperglycaemic episodes, respectively to be assessed although in clinical practice its application is limited due to the need for more complex computation. This also applies to other indices of short-term intraday GV including the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), Shlichtkrull's M-value and CONGA. GV is important clinically as exaggerated glucose fluctuations are associated with an enhanced risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes due primarily to hypoglycaemia. In contrast, there is at present no compelling evidence that elevated short-term GV is an independent risk factor of microvascular complications of diabetes. Concerning long-term GV there are numerous studies supporting its association with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular events. However, this association raises the question as to whether the impact of long-term variability is not simply the consequence of repeated exposure to short-term GV or ambient chronic hyperglycaemia. The renewed emphasis on glucose monitoring with the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring technologies can benefit from the introduction and application of simple metrics for describing GV along with supporting recommendations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
MetricForensics: A Multi-Level Approach for Mining Volatile Graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henderson, Keith [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Eliassi-Rad, Tina [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Faloutsos, Christos [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Akoglu, Leman [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Li, Lei [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Maruhashi, Koji [Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Prakash, B. Aditya [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tong, H [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2010-02-08
Advances in data collection and storage capacity have made it increasingly possible to collect highly volatile graph data for analysis. Existing graph analysis techniques are not appropriate for such data, especially in cases where streaming or near-real-time results are required. An example that has drawn significant research interest is the cyber-security domain, where internet communication traces are collected and real-time discovery of events, behaviors, patterns and anomalies is desired. We propose MetricForensics, a scalable framework for analysis of volatile graphs. MetricForensics combines a multi-level “drill down" approach, a collection of user-selected graph metrics and a collection of analysis techniques. At each successive level, more sophisticated metrics are computed and the graph is viewed at a finer temporal resolution. In this way, MetricForensics scales to highly volatile graphs by only allocating resources for computationally expensive analysis when an interesting event is discovered at a coarser resolution first. We test MetricForensics on three real-world graphs: an enterprise IP trace, a trace of legitimate and malicious network traffic from a research institution, and the MIT Reality Mining proximity sensor data. Our largest graph has »3M vertices and »32M edges, spanning 4:5 days. The results demonstrate the scalability and capability of MetricForensics in analyzing volatile graphs; and highlight four novel phenomena in such graphs: elbows, broken correlations, prolonged spikes, and strange stars.
Braithwaite, Susan S; Umpierrez, Guillermo E; Chase, J Geoffrey
2013-09-01
Group metrics are described to quantify blood glucose (BG) variability of hospitalized patients. The "multiplicative surrogate standard deviation" (MSSD) is the reverse-transformed group mean of the standard deviations (SDs) of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient. The "geometric group mean" (GGM) is the reverse-transformed group mean of the means of the logarithmically transformed BG data set of each patient. Before reverse transformation is performed, the mean of means and mean of SDs each has its own SD, which becomes a multiplicative standard deviation (MSD) after reverse transformation. Statistical predictions and comparisons of parametric or nonparametric tests remain valid after reverse transformation. A subset of a previously published BG data set of 20 critically ill patients from the first 72 h of treatment under the SPRINT protocol was transformed logarithmically. After rank ordering according to the SD of the logarithmically transformed BG data of each patient, the cohort was divided into two equal groups, those having lower or higher variability. For the entire cohort, the GGM was 106 (÷/× 1.07) mg/dl, and MSSD was 1.24 (÷/× 1.07). For the subgroups having lower and higher variability, respectively, the GGM did not differ, 104 (÷/× 1.07) versus 109 (÷/× 1.07) mg/dl, but the MSSD differed, 1.17 (÷/× 1.03) versus 1.31 (÷/× 1.05), p = .00004. By using the MSSD with its MSD, groups can be characterized and compared according to glycemic variability of individual patient members. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.
Bitner-Mathé, Blanche Christine; David, Jean Robert
2015-08-01
Thermal phenotypic plasticity of 5 metric thoracic traits (3 related to size and 2 to pigmentation) was investigated in Zaprionus indianus with an isofemale line design. Three of these traits are investigated for the first time in a drosophilid, i.e. thorax width and width of pigmented longitudinal white and black stripes. The reaction norms of white and black stripes were completely different: white stripes were insensitive to growth temperature while the black stripes exhibited a strong linear decrease with increasing temperatures. Thorax width exhibited a concave reaction norm, analogous but not identical to those of wing length and thorax length: the temperatures of maximum value were different, the highest being for thorax width. All traits exhibited a significant heritable variability and a low evolvability. Sexual dimorphism was very variable among traits, being nil for white stripes and thorax width, and around 1.13 for black stripes. The ratio thorax length to thorax width (an elongation index) was always >1, showing that males have a more rounded thorax at all temperatures. Black stripes revealed a significant increase of sexual dimorphism with increasing temperature. Shape indices, i.e. ratios between size traits all exhibited a linear decrease with temperature, the least sensitive being the elongation index. All these results illustrate the complexity of developmental processes but also the analytical strength of biometrical plasticity studies in an eco-devo perspective.
Integrated Metrics for Improving the Life Cycle Approach to Assessing Product System Sustainability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wesley Ingwersen
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Life cycle approaches are critical for identifying and reducing environmental burdens of products. While these methods can indicate potential environmental impacts of a product, current Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methods fail to integrate the multiple impacts of a system into unified measures of social, economic or environmental performance related to sustainability. Integrated metrics that combine multiple aspects of system performance based on a common scientific or economic principle have proven to be valuable for sustainability evaluation. In this work, we propose methods of adapting four integrated metrics for use with LCAs of product systems: ecological footprint, emergy, green net value added, and Fisher information. These metrics provide information on the full product system in land, energy, monetary equivalents, and as a unitless information index; each bundled with one or more indicators for reporting. When used together and for relative comparison, integrated metrics provide a broader coverage of sustainability aspects from multiple theoretical perspectives that is more likely to illuminate potential issues than individual impact indicators. These integrated metrics are recommended for use in combination with traditional indicators used in LCA. Future work will test and demonstrate the value of using these integrated metrics and combinations to assess product system sustainability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chia-Kuang Tsai
Full Text Available Dementia is the supreme worldwide burden for welfare and the health care system in the 21st century. The early identification and control of the modifiable risk factors of dementia are important. Global-cognitive health (GCH metrics, encompassing controllable cardiovascular health (CVH and non-CVH risk factors of dementia, is a newly developed approach to assess the risk of cognitive impairment. The components of ideal GCH metrics includes better education, non-obesity, normal blood pressure, no smoking, no depression, ideal physical activity, good social integration, normal glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, and normal hearing. This study focuses on the association between ideal GCH metrics and the cognitive function in young adults by investigating the Third Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III database, which has not been reported previously. A total of 1243 participants aged 17 to 39 years were recruited in this study. Cognitive functioning was evaluated by the simple reaction time test (SRTT, symbol-digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Participants with significantly higher scores of GCH metrics had better cognitive performance (p for trend <0.01 in three cognitive tests. Moreover, better education, ideal physical activity, good social integration and normal glycated hemoglobin were the optimistic components of ideal GCH metrics associated with better cognitive performance after adjusting for covariates (p < 0.05 in three cognitive tests. These findings emphasize the importance of a preventive strategy for modifiable dementia risk factors to enhance cognitive functioning during adulthood.
Generic metrics and quantitative approaches for system resilience as a function of time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henry, Devanandham; Emmanuel Ramirez-Marquez, Jose
2012-01-01
Resilience is generally understood as the ability of an entity to recover from an external disruptive event. In the system domain, a formal definition and quantification of the concept of resilience has been elusive. This paper proposes generic metrics and formulae for quantifying system resilience. The discussions and graphical examples illustrate that the quantitative model is aligned with the fundamental concept of resilience. Based on the approach presented it is possible to analyze resilience as a time dependent function in the context of systems. The paper describes the metrics of network and system resilience, time for resilience and total cost of resilience. Also the paper describes the key parameters necessary to analyze system resilience such as the following: disruptive events, component restoration and overall resilience strategy. A road network example is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed resilience metrics and how these analyses form the basis for developing effective resilience design strategies. The metrics described are generic enough to be implemented in a variety of applications as long as appropriate figures-of-merit and the necessary system parameters, system decomposition and component parameters are defined. - Highlights: ► Propose a graphical model for the understanding of the resilience process. ► Mathematical description of resilience as a function of time. ► Identification of necessary concepts to define and evaluate network resilience. ► Development of cost and time to recovery metrics based on resilience formulation.
Metric-based approach and tool for modeling the I and C system using Markov chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butenko, Valentyna; Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Odarushchenko, Elena; Butenko, Dmitriy
2015-01-01
Markov's chains (MC) are well-know and widely applied in dependability and performability analysis of safety-critical systems, because of the flexible representation of system components dependencies and synchronization. There are few radblocks for greater application of the MC: accounting the additional system components increases the model state-space and complicates analysis; the non-numerically sophisticated user may find it difficult to decide between the variety of numerical methods to determine the most suitable and accurate for their application. Thus obtaining the high accurate and trusted modeling results becomes a nontrivial task. In this paper, we present the metric-based approach for selection of the applicable solution approach, based on the analysis of MCs stiffness, decomposability, sparsity and fragmentedness. Using this selection procedure the modeler can provide the verification of earlier obtained results. The presented approach was implemented in utility MSMC, which supports the MC construction, metric-based analysis, recommendations shaping and model solution. The model can be exported to the wall-known off-the-shelf mathematical packages for verification. The paper presents the case study of the industrial NPP I and C system, manufactured by RPC Radiy. The paper shows an application of metric-based approach and MSMC fool for dependability and safety analysis of RTS, and procedure of results verification. (author)
Representation and Metrics Extraction from Feature Basis: An Object Oriented Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fausto Neri da Silva Vanin
2010-10-01
Full Text Available This tutorial presents an object oriented approach to data reading and metrics extraction from feature basis. Structural issues about basis are discussed first, then the Object Oriented Programming (OOP is aplied to modeling the main elements in this context. The model implementation is then discussed using C++ as programing language. To validate the proposed model, we apply on some feature basis from the University of Carolina, Irvine Machine Learning Database.
Spangler, Derek P; Williams, DeWayne P; Speller, Lassiter F; Brooks, Justin R; Thayer, Julian F
2018-03-01
The relationships between vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance can be elucidated with ex-Gaussian modeling-an approach that quantifies two different forms of intra-individual variability (IIV) in reaction time (RT). To this end, the current study examined relations of resting vmHRV to whole-distribution and ex-Gaussian IIV. Subjects (N = 83) completed a 5-minute baseline while vmHRV (root mean square of successive differences; RMSSD) was measured. Ex-Gaussian (sigma, tau) and whole-distribution (standard deviation) estimates of IIV were derived from reaction times on a Stroop task. Resting vmHRV was found to be inversely related to tau (exponential IIV) but not to sigma (Gaussian IIV) or the whole-distribution standard deviation of RTs. Findings suggest that individuals with high vmHRV can better prevent attentional lapses but not difficulties with motor control. These findings inform the differential relationships of cardiac vagal control to the cognitive processes underlying human performance. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Madison, Guy
2014-03-01
Timing performance becomes less precise for longer intervals, which makes it difficult to achieve simultaneity in synchronisation with a rhythm. The metrical structure of music, characterised by hierarchical levels of binary or ternary subdivisions of time, may function to increase precision by providing additional timing information when the subdivisions are explicit. This hypothesis was tested by comparing synchronisation performance across different numbers of metrical levels conveyed by loudness of sounds, such that the slowest level was loudest and the fastest was softest. Fifteen participants moved their hand with one of 9 inter-beat intervals (IBIs) ranging from 524 to 3,125 ms in 4 metrical level (ML) conditions ranging from 1 (one movement for each sound) to 4 (one movement for every 8th sound). The lowest relative variability (SD/IBI<1.5%) was obtained for the 3 longest IBIs (1600-3,125 ms) and MLs 3-4, significantly less than the smallest value (4-5% at 524-1024 ms) for any ML 1 condition in which all sounds are identical. Asynchronies were also more negative with higher ML. In conclusion, metrical subdivision provides information that facilitates temporal performance, which suggests an underlying neural multi-level mechanism capable of integrating information across levels. © 2013.
Mahajan, Ruhi; Viangteeravat, Teeradache; Akbilgic, Oguz
2017-12-01
A timely diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) is crucial to evade a life-threatening event. This paper presents a novel probabilistic symbol pattern recognition (PSPR) approach to detect CHF in subjects from their cardiac interbeat (R-R) intervals. PSPR discretizes each continuous R-R interval time series by mapping them onto an eight-symbol alphabet and then models the pattern transition behavior in the symbolic representation of the series. The PSPR-based analysis of the discretized series from 107 subjects (69 normal and 38 CHF subjects) yielded discernible features to distinguish normal subjects and subjects with CHF. In addition to PSPR features, we also extracted features using the time-domain heart rate variability measures such as average and standard deviation of R-R intervals. An ensemble of bagged decision trees was used to classify two groups resulting in a five-fold cross-validation accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of 98.1%, 100%, and 94.7%, respectively. However, a 20% holdout validation yielded an accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of 99.5%, 100%, and 98.57%, respectively. Results from this study suggest that features obtained with the combination of PSPR and long-term heart rate variability measures can be used in developing automated CHF diagnosis tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
New exposure-based metric approach for evaluating O3 risk to North American aspen forests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Percy, K.E.; Nosal, M.; Heilman, W.; Dann, T.; Sober, J.; Legge, A.H.; Karnosky, D.F.
2007-01-01
The United States and Canada currently use exposure-based metrics to protect vegetation from O 3 . Using 5 years (1999-2003) of co-measured O 3 , meteorology and growth response, we have developed exposure-based regression models that predict Populus tremuloides growth change within the North American ambient air quality context. The models comprised growing season fourth-highest daily maximum 8-h average O 3 concentration, growing degree days, and wind speed. They had high statistical significance, high goodness of fit, include 95% confidence intervals for tree growth change, and are simple to use. Averaged across a wide range of clonal sensitivity, historical 2001-2003 growth change over most of the 26 M ha P. tremuloides distribution was estimated to have ranged from no impact (0%) to strong negative impacts (-31%). With four aspen clones responding negatively (one responded positively) to O 3 , the growing season fourth-highest daily maximum 8-h average O 3 concentration performed much better than growing season SUM06, AOT40 or maximum 1 h average O 3 concentration metrics as a single indicator of aspen stem cross-sectional area growth. - A new exposure-based metric approach to predict O 3 risk to North American aspen forests has been developed
Eutrophication Modeling Using Variable Chlorophyll Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdolabadi, H.; Sarang, A.; Ardestani, M.; Mahjoobi, E.
2016-01-01
In this study, eutrophication was investigated in Lake Ontario to identify the interactions among effective drivers. The complexity of such phenomenon was modeled using a system dynamics approach based on a consideration of constant and variable stoichiometric ratios. The system dynamics approach is a powerful tool for developing object-oriented models to simulate complex phenomena that involve feedback effects. Utilizing stoichiometric ratios is a method for converting the concentrations of state variables. During the physical segmentation of the model, Lake Ontario was divided into two layers, i.e., the epilimnion and hypolimnion, and differential equations were developed for each layer. The model structure included 16 state variables related to phytoplankton, herbivorous zooplankton, carnivorous zooplankton, ammonium, nitrate, dissolved phosphorus, and particulate and dissolved carbon in the epilimnion and hypolimnion during a time horizon of one year. The results of several tests to verify the model, close to 1 Nash-Sutcliff coefficient (0.98), the data correlation coefficient (0.98), and lower standard errors (0.96), have indicated well-suited model’s efficiency. The results revealed that there were significant differences in the concentrations of the state variables in constant and variable stoichiometry simulations. Consequently, the consideration of variable stoichiometric ratios in algae and nutrient concentration simulations may be applied in future modeling studies to enhance the accuracy of the results and reduce the likelihood of inefficient control policies.
Wang, Chao; Ding, Mingzhou; Kluger, Benzi M
2014-03-01
Cognitive fatigability is conventionally quantified as the increase over time in either mean reaction time (RT) or error rate from two or more time periods during sustained performance of a prolonged cognitive task. There is evidence indicating that these mean performance measures may not sufficiently reflect the response characteristics of cognitive fatigue. We hypothesized that changes in intraindividual variability over time would be a more sensitive and ecologically meaningful metric for investigations of fatigability of cognitive performance. To test the hypothesis fifteen young adults were recruited. Trait fatigue perceptions in various domains were assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Index (MFI). Behavioral data were then recorded during performance of a three-hour continuous cued Stroop task. Results showed that intraindividual variability, as quantified by the coefficient of variation of RT, increased linearly over the course of three hours and demonstrated a significantly greater effect size than mean RT or accuracy. Change in intraindividual RT variability over time was significantly correlated with relevant subscores of the MFI including reduced activity, reduced motivation and mental fatigue. While change in mean RT over time was also correlated with reduced motivation and mental fatigue, these correlations were significantly smaller than those associated with intraindividual RT variability. RT distribution analysis using an ex-Gaussian model further revealed that change in intraindividual variability over time reflects an increase in the exponential component of variance and may reflect attentional lapses or other breakdowns in cognitive control. These results suggest that intraindividual variability and its change over time provide important metrics for measuring cognitive fatigability and may prove useful for inferring the underlying neuronal mechanisms of both perceptions of fatigue and objective changes in performance. Copyright © 2014
He, R.; Jin, Y.; Daniele, Z.; Kandelous, M. M.; Kent, E. R.
2016-12-01
The pistachio and almond acreage in California has been rapidly growing in the past 10 years, raising concerns about competition for limited water resources in California. A robust and cost-effective mapping of crop water use, mostly evapotranspiration (ET), by orchards, is needed for improved farm-level irrigation management and regional water planning. METRIC™, a satellite-based surface energy balance approach, has been widely used to map field-scale crop ET, mostly over row crops. We here aim to apply METRIC with Landsat satellite observations over California's orchards and evaluate the ET estimates by comparing with field measurements in South San Joaquin Valley, California. Reference ET of grass (ETo) from California Irrigation Management Information system (CIMIS) stations was used to estimate daily ET of commercial almond and pistachio orchards. Our comparisons showed that METRIC-Landsat ET daily estimates agreed well with ET measured by the eddy covariance and surface renewal stations, with a RMSE of 1.25 and a correlation coefficient of 0.84 for the pistachio orchard. A slight high bias of satellite based ET estimates was found for both pistachio and almond orchards. We also found time series of NDVI was highly correlated with ET temporal dynamics within each field, but the correlation was reduced to 0.56 when all fields were pooled together. Net radiation, however, remained highly correlated with ET across all the fields. The METRIC ET was able to distinguish the differences in ET among salt- and non-salt affected pistachio orchards, e.g., mean daily ET during growing season in salt-affected orchards was lower than that of non-salt affected one by 0.87 mm/day. The remote sensing based ET estimate will support a variety of state and local interests in water use and management, for both planning and regulatory/compliance purposes, and provide the farmers observation-based guidance for site-specific and time-sensitive irrigation management.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimmelmeier, H.; Font, J.A.; Mueller, E.
2001-01-01
The numerical simulation of hydrodynamic processes in general relativity is a highly complex problem. In order to reduce the complexity of the gravitational field equations, Wilson and coworkers have proposed an approximation scheme, where the 3-metric γ ij is chosen to be conformally flat. In this approximation the Einstein equations reduce to a set of 5 coupled elliptic equations. In this paper we present an axisymmetric general relativistic hydrodynamic code which utilizes this approach together with high-resolution shock-capturing schemes to solve the hydrodynamic equations. We report on tests and preliminary applications of the code to rotating neutron stars and supernova core collapse in axisymmetry. The code promises good applicability to handle a variety of relativistic astrophysical situations, and is prepared to provide information about gravitational radiation from rotating gravitational collapse. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ishak Altun
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We provide sufficient conditions for the existence of a unique common fixed point for a pair of mappings T,S:X→X, where X is a nonempty set endowed with a certain metric. Moreover, a numerical algorithm is presented in order to approximate such solution. Our approach is different to the usual used methods in the literature.
Helmer, K G; Chou, M-C; Preciado, R I; Gimi, B; Rollins, N K; Song, A; Turner, J; Mori, S
2016-02-27
It is now common for magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) based multi-site trials to include diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) as part of the protocol. It is also common for these sites to possess MR scanners of different manufacturers, different software and hardware, and different software licenses. These differences mean that scanners may not be able to acquire data with the same number of gradient amplitude values and number of available gradient directions. Variability can also occur in achievable b-values and minimum echo times. The challenge of a multi-site study then, is to create a common protocol by understanding and then minimizing the effects of scanner variability and identifying reliable and accurate diffusion metrics. This study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two diffusion metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA) using two common analyses (region-of-interest and mean-bin value of whole brain histograms). The goal of the study was to identify sources of variability in diffusion-sensitized imaging and their influence on commonly reported metrics. The results demonstrate that the site, vendor, field strength, and echo time all contribute to variability in FA and MD, though to different extent. We conclude that characterization of the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time is a worthwhile step in the construction of multi-center trials.
Prognostics and Condition-Based Maintenance: A New Approach to Precursive Metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarrell, Donald B.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Bond, Leonard J.
2004-01-01
The assumptions used in the design basis of process equipment have always been as much art as science. The usually imprecise boundaries of the equipments' operational envelope provide opportunities for two major improvements in the operations and maintenance (O and M) of process machinery: (a) the actual versus intended machine environment can be understood and brought into much better alignment and (b) the end goal can define O and M strategies in terms of life cycle and economic management of plant assets.Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have performed experiments aimed at understanding and controlling aging of both safety-specific nuclear plant components and the infrastructure that supports essential plant processes. In this paper we examine the development of aging precursor metrics and their correlation with degradation rate and projected machinery failure.Degradation-specific correlations have been developed at PNNL that will allow accurate physics-based diagnostic and prognostic determinations to be derived from a new view of condition-based maintenance. This view, founded in root cause analysis, is focused on quantifying the primary stressor(s) responsible for degradation in the component of interest and formulating a deterministic relationship between the stressor intensity and the resulting degradation rate. This precursive relationship between the performance, degradation, and underlying stressor set is used to gain a first-principles approach to prognostic determinations. A holistic infrastructure approach, as applied through a conditions-based maintenance framework, will allow intelligent, automated diagnostic and prognostic programming to provide O and M practitioners with an understanding of the condition of their machinery today and an assurance of its operational state tomorrow
Prognostics and Condition Based Maintenance: A New Approach to Precursive Metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarrell, Donald B.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Bond, Leonard J.
2002-01-01
Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have examined the necessity for understanding and controlling the aging process of both safety-specific plant components and the infrastructure that supports these processes. In this paper we examine the preliminary development of aging precursor metrics and their correlation with degradation rate and projected machine failure. Degradation specific correlations are currently being developed at PNNL that will allow accurate physics-based diagnostic and prognostic determinations to be derived from a new view of condition based maintenance. This view, founded in root cause analysis, is focused on quantifying the primary stressor(s) responsible for degradation in the component of interest. The derivative relationship between the performance, degradation and the underlying stressor set is used to gain a first principles approach to prognostic determinations. The assumptions used for the design basis of process equipment have always been as much art as science and for this reason have been misused or relegated into obscurity in all but the nuclear industry. The ability to successfully link degradation and expected equipment life to stressor intensity level is valuable in that it quantifies the degree of machine stress for a given production level. This allows two major improvements in the O and M of process machinery: (1) the actual versus intended machine environment can be understood and brought into much better alignment, and (2) the end goal can define operations and maintenance strategies in terms of life cycle and economic management of plant assets. A holistic infrastructure approach, as applied through a CBM framework, will allow intelligent, automated diagnostic and prognostic programs to provide O and M practitioners with an understanding of the condition of their machinery today and an assurance of its operational state tomorrow
FACTORS AND METRICS THAT INFLUENCE FRANCHISEE PERFORMANCE: AN APPROACH BASED ON BRAZILIAN FRANCHISES
Aguiar, Helder de Souza; Consoni, Flavia
2017-01-01
The article searches to map the manager’s decisions in order to understand what has been the franchisor system for choose regarding to characteristics, and what the metrics has been adopted to measure the performance Though 15 interviews with Brazilian franchise there was confirmation that revenue is the main metric used by national franchises to measure performance, although other indicators are also used in a complementary way. In addition, two other factors were cited by the interviewees a...
Helmer, K. G.; Chou, M-C.; Preciado, R. I.; Gimi, B.; Rollins, N. K.; Song, A.; Turner, J.; Mori, S.
2016-01-01
MRI-based multi-site trials now routinely include some form of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in their protocol. These studies can include data originating from scanners built by different vendors, each with their own set of unique protocol restrictions, including restrictions on the number of available gradient directions, whether an externally-generated list of gradient directions can be used, and restrictions on the echo time (TE). One challenge of multi-site studies is to create a common imaging protocol that will result in a reliable and accurate set of diffusion metrics. The present study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two common metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA). We have shown in earlier work that ROI metrics and the mean of MD and FA histograms are not sufficiently sensitive for use in site characterization. Here we use the distance between whole brain histograms of FA and MD to investigate within- and between-site effects. We concluded that the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time could influence the results in multi-center trials and that histogram distance is sensitive metrics for each of these variables. PMID:27350723
Helmer, K G; Chou, M-C; Preciado, R I; Gimi, B; Rollins, N K; Song, A; Turner, J; Mori, S
2016-02-27
MRI-based multi-site trials now routinely include some form of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in their protocol. These studies can include data originating from scanners built by different vendors, each with their own set of unique protocol restrictions, including restrictions on the number of available gradient directions, whether an externally-generated list of gradient directions can be used, and restrictions on the echo time (TE). One challenge of multi-site studies is to create a common imaging protocol that will result in a reliable and accurate set of diffusion metrics. The present study describes the effect of site, scanner vendor, field strength, and TE on two common metrics: the first moment of the diffusion tensor field (mean diffusivity, MD), and the fractional anisotropy (FA). We have shown in earlier work that ROI metrics and the mean of MD and FA histograms are not sufficiently sensitive for use in site characterization. Here we use the distance between whole brain histograms of FA and MD to investigate within- and between-site effects. We concluded that the variability of DTI metrics due to site, vendor, field strength, and echo time could influence the results in multi-center trials and that histogram distance is sensitive metrics for each of these variables.
Resilience Metrics for the Electric Power System: A Performance-Based Approach.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Castillo, Andrea R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva-Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-02-01
Grid resilience is a concept related to a power system's ability to continue operating and delivering power even in the event that low probability, high-consequence disruptions such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and cyber-attacks occur. Grid resilience objectives focus on managing and, ideally, minimizing potential consequences that occur as a result of these disruptions. Currently, no formal grid resilience definitions, metrics, or analysis methods have been universally accepted. This document describes an effort to develop and describe grid resilience metrics and analysis methods. The metrics and methods described herein extend upon the Resilience Analysis Process (RAP) developed by Watson et al. for the 2015 Quadrennial Energy Review. The extension allows for both outputs from system models and for historical data to serve as the basis for creating grid resilience metrics and informing grid resilience planning and response decision-making. This document describes the grid resilience metrics and analysis methods. Demonstration of the metrics and methods is shown through a set of illustrative use cases.
Cosmology of f(R) gravity in the metric variational approach
Li, Baojiu; Barrow, John D.
2007-04-01
We consider the cosmologies that arise in a subclass of f(R) gravity with f(R)=R+μ2n+2/(-R)n and n∈(-1,0) in the metric (as opposed to the Palatini) variational approach to deriving the gravitational field equations. The calculations of the isotropic and homogeneous cosmological models are undertaken in the Jordan frame and at both the background and the perturbation levels. For the former, we also discuss the connection to the Einstein frame in which the extra degree of freedom in the theory is associated with a scalar field sharing some of the properties of a “chameleon” field. For the latter, we derive the cosmological perturbation equations in general theories of f(R) gravity in covariant form and implement them numerically to calculate the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and matter power spectra of the cosmological model. The CMB power is shown to reduce at low l’s, and the matter power spectrum is almost scale independent at small scales, thus having a similar shape to that in standard general relativity. These are in stark contrast with what was found in the Palatini f(R) gravity, where the CMB power is largely amplified at low l’s and the matter spectrum is strongly scale dependent at small scales. These features make the present model more adaptable than that arising from the Palatini f(R) field equations, and none of the data on background evolution, CMB power spectrum, or matter power spectrum currently rule it out.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campbell, D.; Tippett, Ch.; Côté, G.; Roberge, G.; Archambault, E.
2016-07-01
An approach for presenting citation data in a condensed and intuitive manner which will allow for their reliable interpretation by policy analysts even in cases where the number of peer-reviewed publications produced by a given entity remains small is presented. The approach is described using country level data in Agronomy & Agriculture (2004–2013), an area of specialisation for many developing countries with a small output size. Four citation impact metrics, and a synthesis graph that we call the distributional micro-charts of relative citation counts, are considered in building our “preferred” presentation layout. These metrics include two indicators that have long been used by Science-Metrix in its bibliometric reports, the Average of Relative Citations (ARC) and the percentage of publications in the 10% most cited publications in the database (HCP), as well as two newer metrics, the Median of Relative Citations (MRC) and the Relative Integration Score (RIS). The findings reveal that the proposed approach combining the MRC and HCP with the distributional micro-charts effectively allows to better qualify the citation impact of entities in terms of central location, density of the upper citation tail and overall distribution than Science-Metrix former approach based on the ARC and HCP. This is especially true of cases with small population sizes where a strong presence of outliers (denoted by strong HCP scores) can have a significant effect on the central location of the citation data when estimated with an average. (Author)
Senay, Gabriel B.; Budde, Michael E.; Verdin, James P.
2011-01-01
Evapotranspiration (ET) can be derived from satellite data using surface energy balance principles. METRIC (Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration) is one of the most widely used models available in the literature to estimate ET from satellite imagery. The Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model is much easier and less expensive to implement. The main purpose of this research was to present an enhanced version of the Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model and to evaluate its performance using the established METRIC model. In this study, SSEB and METRIC ET fractions were compared using 7 Landsat images acquired for south central Idaho during the 2003 growing season. The enhanced SSEB model compared well with the METRIC model output exhibiting an r2 improvement from 0.83 to 0.90 in less complex topography (elevation less than 2000 m) and with an improvement of r2 from 0.27 to 0.38 in more complex (mountain) areas with elevation greater than 2000 m. Independent evaluation showed that both models exhibited higher variation in complex topographic regions, although more with SSEB than with METRIC. The higher ET fraction variation in the complex mountainous regions highlighted the difficulty of capturing the radiation and heat transfer physics on steep slopes having variable aspect with the simple index model, and the need to conduct more research. However, the temporal consistency of the results suggests that the SSEB model can be used on a wide range of elevation (more successfully up 2000 m) to detect anomalies in space and time for water resources management and monitoring such as for drought early warning systems in data scarce regions. SSEB has a potential for operational agro-hydrologic applications to estimate ET with inputs of surface temperature, NDVI, DEM and reference ET.
Usability Metrics for Gamified E-learning Course: A Multilevel Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandra Sobodić
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of a gamified learning system for students of the master course on Web Design and Programming performed at the Faculty of Organization and Informatics. A new set of usability metrics was derived from web-based learning usability, user experience and instructional design literature and incorporated into the questionnaire which consists of three main categories: Usability, Educational Usability and User Experience. The main contribution of this paper is the development and validation of a questionnaire for measuring the usability of a gamified e-learning course from students’ perspective. Usability practitioners can use the developed metrics with confidence when evaluating the design of a gamified e-learning course in order to improve students’ engagement and motivation.
Motion of charged particle in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. A Jacobi-metric approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Praloy; Sk, Ripon; Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)
2017-11-15
The present work discusses motion of neutral and charged particles in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. The constant energy paths are derived in a variational principle framework using the Jacobi metric which is parameterized by conserved particle energy. Of particular interest is the case of particle charge and Reissner-Nordstroem black hole charge being of same sign, since this leads to a clash of opposing forces - gravitational (attractive) and Coulomb (repulsive). Our paper aims to complement the recent work of Pugliese et al. (Eur Phys J C 77:206. arXiv:1304.2940, 2017; Phys Rev D 88:024042. arXiv:1303.6250, 2013). The energy dependent Gaussian curvature (induced by the Jacobi metric) plays an important role in classifying the trajectories. (orig.)
Motion of charged particle in Reissner-Nordström spacetime: a Jacobi-metric approach
Das, Praloy; Sk, Ripon; Ghosh, Subir
2017-11-01
The present work discusses motion of neutral and charged particles in Reissner-Nordström spacetime. The constant energy paths are derived in a variational principle framework using the Jacobi metric which is parameterized by conserved particle energy. Of particular interest is the case of particle charge and Reissner-Nordström black hole charge being of same sign, since this leads to a clash of opposing forces—gravitational (attractive) and Coulomb (repulsive). Our paper aims to complement the recent work of Pugliese et al. (Eur Phys J C 77:206. arXiv:1304.2940, 2017; Phys Rev D 88:024042. arXiv:1303.6250, 2013). The energy dependent Gaussian curvature (induced by the Jacobi metric) plays an important role in classifying the trajectories.
Gene Variants Associated with Antisocial Behaviour: A Latent Variable Approach
Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.
2013-01-01
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods: Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a…
Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz; Martín de Blas, Daniel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.
2018-02-01
Loop quantum cosmology has recently been applied in order to extend the analysis of primordial perturbations to the Planck era and discuss the possible effects of quantum geometry on the cosmic microwave background. Two approaches to loop quantum cosmology with admissible ultraviolet behavior leading to predictions that are compatible with observations are the so-called hybrid and dressed metric approaches. In spite of their similarities and relations, we show in this work that the effective equations that they provide for the evolution of the tensor and scalar perturbations are somewhat different. When backreaction is neglected, the discrepancy appears only in the time-dependent mass term of the corresponding field equations. We explain the origin of this difference, arising from the distinct quantization procedures. Besides, given the privileged role that the big bounce plays in loop quantum cosmology, e.g. as a natural instant of time to set initial conditions for the perturbations, we also analyze the positivity of the time-dependent mass when this bounce occurs. We prove that the mass of the tensor perturbations is positive in the hybrid approach when the kinetic contribution to the energy density of the inflaton dominates over its potential, as well as for a considerably large sector of backgrounds around that situation, while this mass is always nonpositive in the dressed metric approach. Similar results are demonstrated for the scalar perturbations in a sector of background solutions that includes the kinetically dominated ones; namely, the mass then is positive for the hybrid approach, whereas it typically becomes negative in the dressed metric case. More precisely, this last statement is strictly valid when the potential is quadratic for values of the inflaton mass that are phenomenologically favored.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paolo Sckokai
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This article employs a nation-wide sample of supermarket scanner data to study product and brand competition in the Italian breakfast cereal market. A modified Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS, that includes Distance Metrics (DMs as proposed by Pinkse, Slade and Brett (2002, is estimated to study demand responses, substitution patterns, own-price and cross-price elasticities. Estimation results provide evidence of some degree of brand loyalty, while consumers do not seem loyal to the product type. Elasticity estimates point out the presence of patterns of substitution within products sharing the same brand and similar nutritional characteristics.
A metric space approach to the information capacity of spike trains
HOUGHTON, CONOR JAMES; GILLESPIE, JAMES
2010-01-01
PUBLISHED Classical information theory can be either discrete or continuous, corresponding to discrete or continuous random variables. However, although spike times in a spike train are described by continuous variables, the information content is usually calculated using discrete information theory. This is because the number of spikes, and hence, the number of variables, varies from spike train to spike train, making the continuous theory difficult to apply.It is possible to avoid ...
Wang, Lusheng; Yang, Yong; Lin, Guohui
Finding the closest object for a query in a database is a classical problem in computer science. For some modern biological applications, computing the similarity between two objects might be very time consuming. For example, it takes a long time to compute the edit distance between two whole chromosomes and the alignment cost of two 3D protein structures. In this paper, we study the nearest neighbor search problem in metric space, where the pair-wise distance between two objects in the database is known and we want to minimize the number of distances computed on-line between the query and objects in the database in order to find the closest object. We have designed two randomized approaches for indexing metric space databases, where objects are purely described by their distances with each other. Analysis and experiments show that our approaches only need to compute O(logn) objects in order to find the closest object, where n is the total number of objects in the database.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajesh Bahadur Thapa
2009-09-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the spatiotemporal pattern of urbanization in Kathmandu Valley using remote sensing and spatial metrics techniques. The study is based on 33-years of time series data compiled from satellite images. Along with new developments within the city fringes and rural villages in the valley, shifts in the natural environment and newly developed socioeconomic strains between residents are emerging. A highly dynamic spatial pattern of urbanization is observed in the valley. Urban built-up areas had a slow trend of growth in the 1960s and 1970s but have grown rapidly since the 1980s. The urbanization process has developed fragmented and heterogeneous land use combinations in the valley. However, the refill type of development process in the city core and immediate fringe areas has shown a decreasing trend in the neighborhood distances between land use patches, and an increasing trend towards physical connectedness, which indicates a higher probability of homogenous landscape development in the upcoming decades.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A general framework for probabilistic prognosis using maximum entropy approach, MRE, is proposed in this paper to include all available information and uncertainties...
Deng, Bai-chuan; Yun, Yong-huan; Liang, Yi-zeng; Yi, Lun-zhao
2014-10-07
In this study, a new optimization algorithm called the Variable Iterative Space Shrinkage Approach (VISSA) that is based on the idea of model population analysis (MPA) is proposed for variable selection. Unlike most of the existing optimization methods for variable selection, VISSA statistically evaluates the performance of variable space in each step of optimization. Weighted binary matrix sampling (WBMS) is proposed to generate sub-models that span the variable subspace. Two rules are highlighted during the optimization procedure. First, the variable space shrinks in each step. Second, the new variable space outperforms the previous one. The second rule, which is rarely satisfied in most of the existing methods, is the core of the VISSA strategy. Compared with some promising variable selection methods such as competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE) and iteratively retaining informative variables (IRIV), VISSA showed better prediction ability for the calibration of NIR data. In addition, VISSA is user-friendly; only a few insensitive parameters are needed, and the program terminates automatically without any additional conditions. The Matlab codes for implementing VISSA are freely available on the website: https://sourceforge.net/projects/multivariateanalysis/files/VISSA/.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dana Sulistiyo Kusumo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest to use smart devices’ drawing games for educational benefit. In Indonesia, our government classifies children age four to six years old as preschool children. Not all preschool children can use drawing games easily. Further, drawing games may not fulfill all Indonesia's preschool children’s drawing competencies. This research proposes to use Goal-Question Metric (GQM to investigate and evaluate interaction design patterns of preschool children in order to achieve the drawing competencies for preschool children in two drawing Android-based games: Belajar Menggambar (in English: Learn to Draw and Coret: Belajar Menggambar (in English: Scratch: Learn to Draw. We collected data from nine students of a preschool children education in a user research. The results show that GQM can assist to evaluate interaction design patterns in achieving the drawing competencies. Our approach can also yield interaction design patterns by comparing interaction design patterns in two drawing games used.
Hu, Bo; Kalfoglou, Yannis; Dupplaw, David; Alani, Harith; Lewis, Paul; Shadbolt, Nigel
2006-01-01
In the context of the Semantic Web, many ontology-related operations, e.g. ontology ranking, segmentation, alignment, articulation, reuse, evaluation, can be boiled down to one fundamental operation: computing the similarity and/or dissimilarity among ontological entities, and in some cases among ontologies themselves. In this paper, we review standard metrics for computing distance measures and we propose a series of semantic metrics. We give a formal account of semantic metrics drawn from a...
Burns, Douglas A.; Riva-Murray, Karen
2018-01-01
Simple screening approaches for the neurotoxicant methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems may be helpful in risk assessments of natural resources. We explored the development of such an approach in the Adirondack Mountains of New York, USA, a region with high levels of MeHg bioaccumulation. Thirty-six perennial streams broadly representative of 1st and 2nd order streams in the region were sampled during summer low flow and analyzed for several solutes and for Hg concentrations in fish. Several landscape and chemical metrics that are typically strongly related to MeHg concentrations in aquatic biota were explored for strength of association with fish Hg concentrations. Data analyses were based on site mean length-normalized and standardized Hg concentrations (assumed to be dominantly MeHg) in whole juvenile and adult Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus, Blacknose Dace Rhinichthys atratulus, and Central Mudminnow Umbra limi, as well as on multi-species z-scores. Surprisingly, none of the landscape metrics was related significantly to regional variation in fish Hg concentrations or to z-scores across the study streams. In contrast, several chemical metrics including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, sulfate concentrations (SO42−), pH, ultra-violet absorbance (UV254), and specific ultra-violet absorbance were significantly related to regional variation in fish Hg concentrations. A cluster analysis based on DOC, SO42−, and pH identified three distinct groups of streams: (1) high DOC, acidic streams, (2) moderate DOC, slightly acidic streams, and (3) low DOC circum-neutral streams with relatively high SO42−. Preliminary analysis indicated no significant difference in fish Hg z-scores between the moderate and high DOC groups, so these were combined for further analysis. The resulting two groups showed strong differences (p 6.9 mg/L, SO42− 0.31 cm−1 were tested as thresholds to identify Adirondack
Jung, E.; Yoon, H.
2016-12-01
Natural disasters are substantial source of social and economic damage around the globe. The amount of damage is larger when such catastrophe events happen in urbanized areas where the wealth is concentrated. Disasters cause losses in real estate assets, incurring additional cost of repair and maintenance of the properties. For this reason, natural hazard risk such as flooding and landslide is regarded as one of the important determinants of homebuyers' choice and preference. In this research, we aim to reveal whether the past records of flood affect real estate market values in Busan, Korea in 2014, under a hypothesis that homebuyers' perception of natural hazard is reflected on housing values, using the Mahalanobis-metric matching method. Unlike conventionally used hedonic pricing model to estimate capitalization of flood risk into the sales price of properties, the analytical method we adopt here enables inferring causal effects by efficiently controlling for observed/unobserved omitted variable bias. This matching approach pairs each inundated property (treatment variable) with a non-inundated property (control variable) with the closest Mahalanobis distance between them, and comparing their effects on residential property sales price (outcome variable). As a result, we expect price discounts for inundated properties larger than the one for comparable non-inundated properties. This research will be valuable in establishing the mitigation policies of future climate change to relieve the possible negative economic consequences from the disaster by estimating how people perceive and respond to natural hazard. This work was supported by the Korea Environmental Industry and Technology Institute (KEITI) under Grant (No. 2014-001-310007).
Russell, J. L.; Sarmiento, J. L.
2017-12-01
The Southern Ocean is central to the climate's response to increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases as it ventilates a large fraction of the global ocean volume. Global coupled climate models and earth system models, however, vary widely in their simulations of the Southern Ocean and its role in, and response to, the ongoing anthropogenic forcing. Due to its complex water-mass structure and dynamics, Southern Ocean carbon and heat uptake depend on a combination of winds, eddies, mixing, buoyancy fluxes and topography. Understanding how the ocean carries heat and carbon into its interior and how the observed wind changes are affecting this uptake is essential to accurately projecting transient climate sensitivity. Observationally-based metrics are critical for discerning processes and mechanisms, and for validating and comparing climate models. As the community shifts toward Earth system models with explicit carbon simulations, more direct observations of important biogeochemical parameters, like those obtained from the biogeochemically-sensored floats that are part of the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling project, are essential. One goal of future observing systems should be to create observationally-based benchmarks that will lead to reducing uncertainties in climate projections, and especially uncertainties related to oceanic heat and carbon uptake.
A Metrics-Based Approach to Intrusion Detection System Evaluation for Distributed Real-Time Systems
2002-04-01
Based Approach to Intrusion Detection System Evaluation for Distributed Real - Time Systems Authors: G. A. Fink, B. L. Chappell, T. G. Turner, and...Distributed, Security. 1 Introduction Processing and cost requirements are driving future naval combat platforms to use distributed, real - time systems of...distributed, real - time systems . As these systems grow more complex, the timing requirements do not diminish; indeed, they may become more constrained
Assessment of multi-version NPP I and C systems safety. Metric-based approach, technique and tool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Volkovoy, Andrey; Bakhmach, Eugenii; Siora, Alexander; Duzhyi, Vyacheslav
2011-01-01
The challenges related to problem of assessment of actual diversity level and evaluation of diversity-oriented NPP I and C systems safety are analyzed. There are risks of inaccurate assessment and problems of insufficient decreasing probability of CCFs. CCF probability of safety-critical systems may be essentially decreased due to application of several different types of diversity (multi-diversity). Different diversity types of FPGA-based NPP I and C systems, general approach and stages of diversity and safety assessment as a whole are described. Objectives of the report are: (a) analysis of the challenges caused by use of diversity approach in NPP I and C systems in context of FPGA and other modern technologies application; (b) development of multi-version NPP I and C systems assessment technique and tool based on check-list and metric-oriented approach; (c) case-study of the technique: assessment of multi-version FPGA-based NPP I and C developed by use of Radiy TM Platform. (author)
Control approach development for variable recruitment artificial muscles
Jenkins, Tyler E.; Chapman, Edward M.; Bryant, Matthew
2016-04-01
This study characterizes hybrid control approaches for the variable recruitment of fluidic artificial muscles with double acting (antagonistic) actuation. Fluidic artificial muscle actuators have been explored by researchers due to their natural compliance, high force-to-weight ratio, and low cost of fabrication. Previous studies have attempted to improve system efficiency of the actuators through variable recruitment, i.e. using discrete changes in the number of active actuators. While current variable recruitment research utilizes manual valve switching, this paper details the current development of an online variable recruitment control scheme. By continuously controlling applied pressure and discretely controlling the number of active actuators, operation in the lowest possible recruitment state is ensured and working fluid consumption is minimized. Results provide insight into switching control scheme effects on working fluids, fabrication material choices, actuator modeling, and controller development decisions.
2004-06-01
18 EBO Cognitive or Memetic input type ..................................................................... 18 Unanticipated EBO generated... Memetic Effects Based COA.................................................................................... 23 Policy...41 Belief systems or Memetic Content Metrics
A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Eunyoung, E-mail: eykim@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 215 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Wonkyong, E-mail: wksong79@gmail.com [Suwon Research Institute, 145 Gwanggyo-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dongkun, E-mail: dklee7@snu.ac.kr [Department of Landscape Architecture and Rural System Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanakro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)
2013-09-15
Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should
Gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour: a latent variable approach.
Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Pakstis, Andrew J; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Leckman, James F
2013-10-01
The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a 15-year follow-up of a randomized trial of a prenatal and infancy nurse-home visitation programme in Elmira, New York. We then investigated, via a novel latent variable approach, 450 informative genetic polymorphisms in 71 genes previously associated with antisocial behaviour, drug use, affiliative behaviours and stress response in 241 consenting individuals for whom DNA was available. Haplotype and Pathway analyses were also performed. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight genes contributed to the latent genetic variable that in turn accounted for 16.0% of the variance within the latent antisocial phenotype. The number of risk alleles was linearly related to the latent antisocial variable scores. Haplotypes that included the putative risk alleles for all eight genes were also associated with higher latent antisocial variable scores. In addition, 33 SNPs from 63 of the remaining genes were also significant when added to the final model. Many of these genes interact on a molecular level, forming molecular networks. The results support a role for genes related to dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, opioid and cholinergic signalling as well as stress response pathways in mediating susceptibility to antisocial behaviour. This preliminary study supports use of relevant behavioural indicators and latent variable approaches to study the potential 'co-action' of gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour. It also underscores the cumulative relevance of common genetic variants for understanding the aetiology of complex behaviour. If replicated in future studies, this approach may allow the identification of a
Bayesian approach to errors-in-variables in regression models
Rozliman, Nur Aainaa; Ibrahim, Adriana Irawati Nur; Yunus, Rossita Mohammad
2017-05-01
In many applications and experiments, data sets are often contaminated with error or mismeasured covariates. When at least one of the covariates in a model is measured with error, Errors-in-Variables (EIV) model can be used. Measurement error, when not corrected, would cause misleading statistical inferences and analysis. Therefore, our goal is to examine the relationship of the outcome variable and the unobserved exposure variable given the observed mismeasured surrogate by applying the Bayesian formulation to the EIV model. We shall extend the flexible parametric method proposed by Hossain and Gustafson (2009) to another nonlinear regression model which is the Poisson regression model. We shall then illustrate the application of this approach via a simulation study using Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Copeland, Alex; Brown, C. Titus
2011-10-13
DOE JGI's Alex Copeland on "DOE JGI Quality Metrics" and Michigan State University's C. Titus Brown on "Approaches to Scaling and Improving Metagenome Assembly" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.
Estimating variability in functional images using a synthetic resampling approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maitra, R.; O'Sullivan, F.
1996-01-01
Functional imaging of biologic parameters like in vivo tissue metabolism is made possible by Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Many techniques, such as mixture analysis, have been suggested for extracting such images from dynamic sequences of reconstructed PET scans. Methods for assessing the variability in these functional images are of scientific interest. The nonlinearity of the methods used in the mixture analysis approach makes analytic formulae for estimating variability intractable. The usual resampling approach is infeasible because of the prohibitive computational effort in simulating a number of sinogram. datasets, applying image reconstruction, and generating parametric images for each replication. Here we introduce an approach that approximates the distribution of the reconstructed PET images by a Gaussian random field and generates synthetic realizations in the imaging domain. This eliminates the reconstruction steps in generating each simulated functional image and is therefore practical. Results of experiments done to evaluate the approach on a model one-dimensional problem are very encouraging. Post-processing of the estimated variances is seen to improve the accuracy of the estimation method. Mixture analysis is used to estimate functional images; however, the suggested approach is general enough to extend to other parametric imaging methods
Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Rios, Camilo; Cortez-Conradis, David; Favila, Rafael; Moreno-Jimenez, Sergio
2014-06-01
Histological behavior of glioblastoma multiforme suggests it would benefit more from a global rather than regional evaluation. A global (whole-brain) calculation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived tensor metrics offers a valid method to detect the integrity of white matter structures without missing infiltrated brain areas not seen in conventional sequences. In this study we calculated a predictive model of brain infiltration in patients with glioblastoma using global tensor metrics. Retrospective, case and control study; 11 global DTI-derived tensor metrics were calculated in 27 patients with glioblastoma multiforme and 34 controls: mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, pure isotropic diffusion, pure anisotropic diffusion, the total magnitude of the diffusion tensor, linear tensor, planar tensor, spherical tensor, relative anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity. The multivariate discriminant analysis of these variables (including age) with a diagnostic test evaluation was performed. The simultaneous analysis of 732 measures from 12 continuous variables in 61 subjects revealed one discriminant model that significantly differentiated normal brains and brains with glioblastoma: Wilks' λ = 0.324, χ(2) (3) = 38.907, p tensor and linear tensor. These metrics might be clinically applied for diagnosis, follow-up, and the study of other neurological diseases.
Inverse Ising problem in continuous time: A latent variable approach
Donner, Christian; Opper, Manfred
2017-12-01
We consider the inverse Ising problem: the inference of network couplings from observed spin trajectories for a model with continuous time Glauber dynamics. By introducing two sets of auxiliary latent random variables we render the likelihood into a form which allows for simple iterative inference algorithms with analytical updates. The variables are (1) Poisson variables to linearize an exponential term which is typical for point process likelihoods and (2) Pólya-Gamma variables, which make the likelihood quadratic in the coupling parameters. Using the augmented likelihood, we derive an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain the maximum likelihood estimate of network parameters. Using a third set of latent variables we extend the EM algorithm to sparse couplings via L1 regularization. Finally, we develop an efficient approximate Bayesian inference algorithm using a variational approach. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithms on data simulated from an Ising model. For data which are simulated from a more biologically plausible network with spiking neurons, we show that the Ising model captures well the low order statistics of the data and how the Ising couplings are related to the underlying synaptic structure of the simulated network.
A new approach for modelling variability in residential construction projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehrdad Arashpour
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The construction industry is plagued by long cycle times caused by variability in the supply chain. Variations or undesirable situations are the result of factors such as non-standard practices, work site accidents, inclement weather conditions and faults in design. This paper uses a new approach for modelling variability in construction by linking relative variability indicators to processes. Mass homebuilding sector was chosen as the scope of the analysis because data is readily available. Numerous simulation experiments were designed by varying size of capacity buffers in front of trade contractors, availability of trade contractors, and level of variability in homebuilding processes. The measurements were shown to lead to an accurate determination of relationships between these factors and production parameters. The variability indicator was found to dramatically affect the tangible performance measures such as home completion rates. This study provides for future analysis of the production homebuilding sector, which may lead to improvements in performance and a faster product delivery to homebuyers.
A new approach for modelling variability in residential construction projects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehrdad Arashpour
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The construction industry is plagued by long cycle times caused by variability in the supply chain. Variations or undesirable situations are the result of factors such as non-standard practices, work site accidents, inclement weather conditions and faults in design. This paper uses a new approach for modelling variability in construction by linking relative variability indicators to processes. Mass homebuilding sector was chosen as the scope of the analysis because data is readily available. Numerous simulation experiments were designed by varying size of capacity buffers in front of trade contractors, availability of trade contractors, and level of variability in homebuilding processes. The measurements were shown to lead to an accurate determination of relationships between these factors and production parameters. The variability indicator was found to dramatically affect the tangible performance measures such as home completion rates. This study provides for future analysis of the production homebuilding sector, which may lead to improvements in performance and a faster product delivery to homebuyers.
Tarle, Stephanie J; Alderson, R Matt; Patros, Connor H G; Lea, Sarah E; Hudec, Kristen L; Arrington, Elaine F
2017-05-01
Despite promising findings in extant research that suggest impaired working memory (WM) serves as a central neurocognitive deficit or candidate endophenotype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), findings from translational research have been relatively underwhelming. This study aimed to explicate previous equivocal findings by systematically examining the effect of methodological variability on WM performance estimates across experimental and clinical WM measures. Age-matched boys (ages 8-12 years) with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) ADHD completed 1 experimental (phonological) and 2 clinical (digit span, letter-number sequencing) WM measures. The use of partial scoring procedures, administration of greater trial numbers, and high central executive demands yielded moderate-to-large between-groups effect sizes. Moreover, the combination of these best-case procedures, compared to worst-case procedures (i.e., absolute scoring, administration of few trials, use of discontinue rules, and low central executive demands), resulted in a 12.5% increase in correct group classification. Collectively, these findings explain inconsistent ADHD-related WM deficits in previous reports, and highlight the need for revised clinical measures that utilize best-case procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
A Geometric Approach to Visualization of Variability in Functional Data
Xie, Weiyi; Kurtek, Sebastian; Bharath, Karthik; Sun, Ying
2016-01-01
observed variation in functional data into three main components: amplitude, phase, and vertical translation. We then construct separate displays for each component, using the geometry and metric of each representation space, based on a novel definition
A variable resolution right TIN approach for gridded oceanographic data
Marks, David; Elmore, Paul; Blain, Cheryl Ann; Bourgeois, Brian; Petry, Frederick; Ferrini, Vicki
2017-12-01
Many oceanographic applications require multi resolution representation of gridded data such as for bathymetric data. Although triangular irregular networks (TINs) allow for variable resolution, they do not provide a gridded structure. Right TINs (RTINs) are compatible with a gridded structure. We explored the use of two approaches for RTINs termed top-down and bottom-up implementations. We illustrate why the latter is most appropriate for gridded data and describe for this technique how the data can be thinned. While both the top-down and bottom-up approaches accurately preserve the surface morphology of any given region, the top-down method of vertex placement can fail to match the actual vertex locations of the underlying grid in many instances, resulting in obscured topology/bathymetry. Finally we describe the use of the bottom-up approach and data thinning in two applications. The first is to provide thinned, variable resolution bathymetry data for tests of storm surge and inundation modeling, in particular hurricane Katrina. Secondly we consider the use of the approach for an application to an oceanographic data grid of 3-D ocean temperature.
Bellet, Aurelien; Sebban, Marc
2015-01-01
Similarity between objects plays an important role in both human cognitive processes and artificial systems for recognition and categorization. How to appropriately measure such similarities for a given task is crucial to the performance of many machine learning, pattern recognition and data mining methods. This book is devoted to metric learning, a set of techniques to automatically learn similarity and distance functions from data that has attracted a lot of interest in machine learning and related fields in the past ten years. In this book, we provide a thorough review of the metric learnin
A Novel Approach to model EPIC variable background
Marelli, M.; De Luca, A.; Salvetti, D.; Belfiore, A.
2017-10-01
One of the main aim of the EXTraS (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) project is to characterise the variability of serendipitous XMM-Newton sources within each single observation. Unfortunately, 164 Ms out of the 774 Ms of cumulative exposure considered (21%) are badly affected by soft proton flares, hampering any classical analysis of field sources. De facto, the latest releases of the 3XMM catalog, as well as most of the analysis in literature, simply exclude these 'high background' periods from analysis. We implemented a novel SAS-indipendent approach to produce background-subtracted light curves, which allows to treat the case of very faint sources and very bright proton flares. EXTraS light curves of 3XMM-DR5 sources will be soon released to the community, together with new tools we are developing.
Metrics for Probabilistic Geometries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tosi, Alessandra; Hauberg, Søren; Vellido, Alfredo
2014-01-01
the distribution over mappings is given by a Gaussian process. We treat the corresponding latent variable model as a Riemannian manifold and we use the expectation of the metric under the Gaussian process prior to define interpolating paths and measure distance between latent points. We show how distances...
Adaptive metric kernel regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan
2000-01-01
Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...
Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan
1998-01-01
Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression...... by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...
Integrated variable projection approach (IVAPA) for parallel magnetic resonance imaging.
Zhang, Qiao; Sheng, Jinhua
2012-10-01
Parallel magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) is a fast method which requires algorithms for the reconstructing image from a small number of measured k-space lines. The accurate estimation of the coil sensitivity functions is still a challenging problem in parallel imaging. The joint estimation of the coil sensitivity functions and the desired image has recently been proposed to improve the situation by iteratively optimizing both the coil sensitivity functions and the image reconstruction. It regards both the coil sensitivities and the desired images as unknowns to be solved for jointly. In this paper, we propose an integrated variable projection approach (IVAPA) for pMRI, which integrates two individual processing steps (coil sensitivity estimation and image reconstruction) into a single processing step to improve the accuracy of the coil sensitivity estimation using the variable projection approach. The method is demonstrated to be able to give an optimal solution with considerably reduced artifacts for high reduction factors and a low number of auto-calibration signal (ACS) lines, and our implementation has a fast convergence rate. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using a set of in vivo experiment data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
S-variable approach to LMI-based robust control
Ebihara, Yoshio; Arzelier, Denis
2015-01-01
This book shows how the use of S-variables (SVs) in enhancing the range of problems that can be addressed with the already-versatile linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach to control can, in many cases, be put on a more unified, methodical footing. Beginning with the fundamentals of the SV approach, the text shows how the basic idea can be used for each problem (and when it should not be employed at all). The specific adaptations of the method necessitated by each problem are also detailed. The problems dealt with in the book have the common traits that: analytic closed-form solutions are not available; and LMIs can be applied to produce numerical solutions with a certain amount of conservatism. Typical examples are robustness analysis of linear systems affected by parametric uncertainties and the synthesis of a linear controller satisfying multiple, often conflicting, design specifications. For problems in which LMI methods produce conservative results, the SV approach is shown to achieve greater accuracy...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harper, A.F.A.; Digby, R.B.; Thong, S.P.; Lacey, F.
1978-04-01
In April 1978 a meeting of senior metrication officers convened by the Commonwealth Science Council of the Commonwealth Secretariat, was held in London. The participants were drawn from Australia, Bangladesh, Britain, Canada, Ghana, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Trinidad and Tobago. Among other things, the meeting resolved to develop a set of guidelines to assist countries to change to SI and to compile such guidelines in the form of a working manual
Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Blackwell, Martin; Cardenas, Laura; Collins, Adrian; Dungait, Jennifer; Eisler, Mark; Hawkins, Jane; Misselbrook, Tom; Mcauliffe, Graham; Mcfadzean, Jamie; Murray, Phil; Orr, Robert; Jordana Rivero, M.; Wu, Lianhai; Lee, Michael
2017-04-01
data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health for 2 years (April 2011 to March 2013). Since April 2013, the platform has been progressively modified across three distinct ca. 22 ha farmlets with the underlying principle being to improve the sustainability (economic, social and environmental) by comparing contrasting pasture-based systems (permanent pasture, grass and clover swards, and reseeding of high quality germplasm on a regular cycle). This modification or transitional period ended in July 2015, when the platform assumed full post-baseline status. In this paper, we summarise the sustainability trade-off metrics developed to compare the three systems, together with the farm platform data collections used to create them; collections that can be viewed as 'big data' when considered in their entirety. We concentrate on the baseline and transitional periods and discuss the potential innovations to optimise grazing livestock systems utilising an experimental farm platform approach.
The productivity of mental health care: an instrumental variable approach.
Lu, Mingshan
1999-06-01
BACKGROUND: Like many other medical technologies and treatments, there is a lack of reliable evidence on treatment effectiveness of mental health care. Increasingly, data from non-experimental settings are being used to study the effect of treatment. However, as in a number of studies using non-experimental data, a simple regression of outcome on treatment shows a puzzling negative and significant impact of mental health care on the improvement of mental health status, even after including a large number of potential control variables. The central problem in interpreting evidence from real-world or non-experimental settings is, therefore, the potential "selection bias" problem in observational data set. In other words, the choice/quantity of mental health care may be correlated with other variables, particularly unobserved variables, that influence outcome and this may lead to a bias in the estimate of the effect of care in conventional models. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This paper addresses the issue of estimating treatment effects using an observational data set. The information in a mental health data set obtained from two waves of data in Puerto Rico is explored. The results using conventional models - in which the potential selection bias is not controlled - and that from instrumental variable (IV) models - which is what was proposed in this study to correct for the contaminated estimation from conventional models - are compared. METHODS: Treatment effectiveness is estimated in a production function framework. Effectiveness is measured as the improvement in mental health status. To control for the potential selection bias problem, IV approaches are employed. The essence of the IV method is to use one or more instruments, which are observable factors that influence treatment but do not directly affect patient outcomes, to isolate the effect of treatment variation that is independent of unobserved patient characteristics. The data used in this study are the first (1992
Bradley, Paul S; Ade, Jack D
2018-01-18
Time-motion analysis is a valuable data-collection technique used to quantify the physical match performance of elite soccer players. For over 40 years researchers have adopted a 'traditional' approach when evaluating match demands by simply reporting the distance covered or time spent along a motion continuum of walking through to sprinting. This methodology quantifies physical metrics in isolation without integrating other factors and this ultimately leads to a one-dimensional insight into match performance. Thus, this commentary proposes a novel 'integrated' approach that focuses on a sensitive physical metric such as high-intensity running but contextualizes this in relation to key tactical activities for each position and collectively for the team. In the example presented, the 'integrated' model clearly unveils the unique high-intensity profile that exists due to distinct tactical roles, rather than one-dimensional 'blind' distances produced by 'traditional' models. Intuitively this innovative concept may aid the coaches understanding of the physical performance in relation to the tactical roles and instructions given to the players. Additionally, it will enable practitioners to more effectively translate match metrics into training and testing protocols. This innovative model may well aid advances in other team sports that incorporate similar intermittent movements with tactical purpose. Evidence of the merits and application of this new concept are needed before the scientific community accepts this model as it may well add complexity to an area that conceivably needs simplicity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia
1976-03-01
The existence of extended Kerr metric sources of perfect fluid is taken as work-hypothesis to investigate the structure of the boundaries which derive from Boyer's surface condition. We find closed spheroidal configurations which hide an internal cavity as well as toroidal configurations; however, both the boundary of the internal cavity and the tori touch the ring singularity. We judge this feature non-physical and conclude that Boyer's condition is not sufficient to completely define a well behaved physical source.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, Michael R.; Karp, Robert L.; Lukic, Sergio; Reinbacher, Rene
2008-01-01
We develop numerical methods for approximating Ricci flat metrics on Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in projective spaces. Our approach is based on finding balanced metrics and builds on recent theoretical work by Donaldson. We illustrate our methods in detail for a one parameter family of quintics. We also suggest several ways to extend our results
STATUS SOSIAL EKONOMI DAN FERTILITAS: A Latent Variable Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suandi -
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The main problems faced by developing countries including Indonesia are not onlyeconomic problems that tend to harm, but still met the high fertility rate. The purpose ofwriting to find out the relationship between socioeconomic status to the level of fertilitythrough the "A Latent Variable Approach." The study adopts the approach of fertility oneconomic development. Economic development based on the theories of Malthus: anincrease in "income" is slower than the increase in births (fertility and is the root ofpeople falling into poverty. However, Becker made linkage model or the influence ofchildren income and price. According to Becker, viewed from the aspect of demand thatthe price of children is greater than the income effect.The study shows that (1 level of education correlates positively on income andnegatively affect fertility, (2 age structure of women (control contraceptives adverselyaffect fertility. That is, the older the age, the level of individual productivity and lowerfertility or declining, and (3 husband's employment status correlated positively to theearnings (income. Through a permanent factor income or household income referred toas a negative influence on fertility. There are differences in value orientation of childrenbetween advanced society (rich with a backward society (the poor. The poor, forexample, the value of children is more production of goods. That is, children born moreemphasis on aspects of the number or the number of children owned (quantity, numberof children born by the poor is expected to help their parents at the age of retirement orno longer productive so that the child is expected to assist them in economic, security,and social security (insurance, while the developed (rich children are moreconsumption value or quality of the child.
Richter, Craig G; Thompson, William H; Bosman, Conrado A; Fries, Pascal
2015-07-01
The quantification of covariance between neuronal activities (functional connectivity) requires the observation of correlated changes and therefore multiple observations. The strength of such neuronal correlations may itself undergo moment-by-moment fluctuations, which might e.g. lead to fluctuations in single-trial metrics such as reaction time (RT), or may co-fluctuate with the correlation between activity in other brain areas. Yet, quantifying the relation between moment-by-moment co-fluctuations in neuronal correlations is precluded by the fact that neuronal correlations are not defined per single observation. The proposed solution quantifies this relation by first calculating neuronal correlations for all leave-one-out subsamples (i.e. the jackknife replications of all observations) and then correlating these values. Because the correlation is calculated between jackknife replications, we address this approach as jackknife correlation (JC). First, we demonstrate the equivalence of JC to conventional correlation for simulated paired data that are defined per observation and therefore allow the calculation of conventional correlation. While the JC recovers the conventional correlation precisely, alternative approaches, like sorting-and-binning, result in detrimental effects of the analysis parameters. We then explore the case of relating two spectral correlation metrics, like coherence, that require multiple observation epochs, where the only viable alternative analysis approaches are based on some form of epoch subdivision, which results in reduced spectral resolution and poor spectral estimators. We show that JC outperforms these approaches, particularly for short epoch lengths, without sacrificing any spectral resolution. Finally, we note that the JC can be applied to relate fluctuations in any smooth metric that is not defined on single observations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Engineering performance metrics
Delozier, R.; Snyder, N.
1993-03-01
Implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to engineering work required the development of a system of metrics which would serve as a meaningful management tool for evaluating effectiveness in accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. A team effort was chartered with the goal of developing a system of engineering performance metrics which would measure customer satisfaction, quality, cost effectiveness, and timeliness. The approach to developing this system involved normal systems design phases including, conceptual design, detailed design, implementation, and integration. The lessons teamed from this effort will be explored in this paper. These lessons learned may provide a starting point for other large engineering organizations seeking to institute a performance measurement system accomplishing project objectives and in achieving improved customer satisfaction. To facilitate this effort, a team was chartered to assist in the development of the metrics system. This team, consisting of customers and Engineering staff members, was utilized to ensure that the needs and views of the customers were considered in the development of performance measurements. The development of a system of metrics is no different than the development of any type of system. It includes the steps of defining performance measurement requirements, measurement process conceptual design, performance measurement and reporting system detailed design, and system implementation and integration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falck, Christian von; Rodt, Thomas; Waldeck, Stephan; Hartung, Dagmar; Meyer, Bernhard; Wacker, Frank; Shin, Hoen-oh
2012-01-01
Objectives: To assess the feasibility of an objective approach for the evaluation of low-contrast detectability in multidetector computed-tomography (MDCT) by combining a virtual phantom containing simulated lesions with an image quality metric. Materials and methods: A low-contrast phantom containing hypodense spheric lesions (−20 HU) was scanned on a 64-slice MDCT scanner at 4 different dose levels (25, 50, 100, 200 mAs). In addition, virtual round hypodense low-contrast lesions (20 HU object contrast) based on real CT data were inserted into the lesion-free section of the datasets. The sliding-thin-slab algorithm was applied to the image data with an increasing slice-thickness from 1 to 15 slices. For each dataset containing simulated lesions a lesion-free counterpart was reconstructed and post-processed in the same manner. The low-contrast performance of all datasets containing virtual lesions was determined using a full-reference image quality metric (modified multiscale structural similarity index, MS-SSIM*). The results were validated against a reader-study of the real lesions. Results: For all dose levels and lesion sizes there was no statistically significant difference between the low-contrast performance as determined by the image quality metric when compared to the reader study (p < 0.05). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.72, 0.82, 0.90 and 0.84 for lesion diameters of 4 mm, 5 mm, 8 mm and 10 mm, respectively. The use of the sliding-thin-slab algorithm improves lesion detectability by a factor ranging from 1.15 to 2.69 when compared with the original axial slice (0.625 mm). Conclusion: The combination of a virtual phantom and a full-reference image quality metric enables a systematic, automated and objective evaluation of low-contrast detectability in MDCT datasets and correlates well with the judgment of human readers.
How to get rid of W: a latent variables approach to modelling spatially lagged variables
Folmer, H.; Oud, J.
2008-01-01
In this paper we propose a structural equation model (SEM) with latent variables to model spatial dependence. Rather than using the spatial weights matrix W, we propose to use latent variables to represent spatial dependence and spillover effects, of which the observed spatially lagged variables are
How to get rid of W : a latent variables approach to modelling spatially lagged variables
Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan
2008-01-01
In this paper we propose a structural equation model (SEM) with latent variables to model spatial dependence. Rather than using the spatial weights matrix W, we propose to use latent variables to represent spatial dependence and spillover effects, of which the observed spatially lagged variables are
Selman, Delon; And Others
1976-01-01
The relationships among measures of quantitative thinking in first through fifth grade children assigned either to an experimental math program emphasizing tactile, manipulative, or individual activity in learning metric and decimal concepts, or to a control group, were examined. Tables are presented and conclusions discussed. (Author/JKS)
A Geometric Approach to Visualization of Variability in Functional Data
Xie, Weiyi
2016-12-19
We propose a new method for the construction and visualization of boxplot-type displays for functional data. We use a recent functional data analysis framework, based on a representation of functions called square-root slope functions, to decompose observed variation in functional data into three main components: amplitude, phase, and vertical translation. We then construct separate displays for each component, using the geometry and metric of each representation space, based on a novel definition of the median, the two quartiles, and extreme observations. The outlyingness of functional data is a very complex concept. Thus, we propose to identify outliers based on any of the three main components after decomposition. We provide a variety of visualization tools for the proposed boxplot-type displays including surface plots. We evaluate the proposed method using extensive simulations and then focus our attention on three real data applications including exploratory data analysis of sea surface temperature functions, electrocardiogram functions and growth curves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor
2014-01-01
Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations
An automated approach for finding variable-constant pairing bugs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lawall, Julia; Lo, David
2010-01-01
program-analysis and data-mining based approach to identify the uses of named constants and to identify anomalies in these uses. We have applied our approach to a recent version of the Linux kernel and have found a number of bugs affecting both correctness and software maintenance. Many of these bugs...... have been validated by the Linux developers....
In search of control variables : A systems approach
Dalenoort, GJ
1997-01-01
Motor processes cannot be modeled by a single (unified) model. Instead, a number of models at different levels of description are needed. The concepts of control and control variable only make sense at the functional level. A clear distinction must be made between external models and internal
An algebraic geometric approach to separation of variables
Schöbel, Konrad
2015-01-01
Konrad Schöbel aims to lay the foundations for a consequent algebraic geometric treatment of variable separation, which is one of the oldest and most powerful methods to construct exact solutions for the fundamental equations in classical and quantum physics. The present work reveals a surprising algebraic geometric structure behind the famous list of separation coordinates, bringing together a great range of mathematics and mathematical physics, from the late 19th century theory of separation of variables to modern moduli space theory, Stasheff polytopes and operads. "I am particularly impressed by his mastery of a variety of techniques and his ability to show clearly how they interact to produce his results.” (Jim Stasheff) Contents The Foundation: The Algebraic Integrability Conditions The Proof of Concept: A Complete Solution for the 3-Sphere The Generalisation: A Solution for Spheres of Arbitrary Dimension The Perspectives: Applications and Generalisations Target Groups Scientists in the fie...
Empirical Information Metrics for Prediction Power and Experiment Planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Lee
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In principle, information theory could provide useful metrics for statistical inference. In practice this is impeded by divergent assumptions: Information theory assumes the joint distribution of variables of interest is known, whereas in statistical inference it is hidden and is the goal of inference. To integrate these approaches we note a common theme they share, namely the measurement of prediction power. We generalize this concept as an information metric, subject to several requirements: Calculation of the metric must be objective or model-free; unbiased; convergent; probabilistically bounded; and low in computational complexity. Unfortunately, widely used model selection metrics such as Maximum Likelihood, the Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion do not necessarily meet all these requirements. We define four distinct empirical information metrics measured via sampling, with explicit Law of Large Numbers convergence guarantees, which meet these requirements: Ie, the empirical information, a measure of average prediction power; Ib, the overfitting bias information, which measures selection bias in the modeling procedure; Ip, the potential information, which measures the total remaining information in the observations not yet discovered by the model; and Im, the model information, which measures the model’s extrapolation prediction power. Finally, we show that Ip + Ie, Ip + Im, and Ie — Im are fixed constants for a given observed dataset (i.e. prediction target, independent of the model, and thus represent a fundamental subdivision of the total information contained in the observations. We discuss the application of these metrics to modeling and experiment planning.
Deng, Chenhui; Plan, Elodie L; Karlsson, Mats O
2016-06-01
Parameter variation in pharmacometric analysis studies can be characterized as within subject parameter variability (WSV) in pharmacometric models. WSV has previously been successfully modeled using inter-occasion variability (IOV), but also stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In this study, two approaches, dynamic inter-occasion variability (dIOV) and adapted stochastic differential equations, were proposed to investigate WSV in pharmacometric count data analysis. These approaches were applied to published count models for seizure counts and Likert pain scores. Both approaches improved the model fits significantly. In addition, stochastic simulation and estimation were used to explore further the capability of the two approaches to diagnose and improve models where existing WSV is not recognized. The results of simulations confirmed the gain in introducing WSV as dIOV and SDEs when parameters vary randomly over time. Further, the approaches were also informative as diagnostics of model misspecification, when parameters changed systematically over time but this was not recognized in the structural model. The proposed approaches in this study offer strategies to characterize WSV and are not restricted to count data.
A Variable Flow Modelling Approach To Military End Strength Planning
2016-12-01
function. The MLRPS is more complex than the variable flow model as it has to cater for a force structure that is much larger than just the MT branch...essential positions in a Ship’s complement, or by the biggest current deficit in forecast end strength. The model can be adjusted to cater for any of these...is unlikely that the RAN will be able to cater for such an increase in hires, so this scenario is not likely to solve their problem. Each transition
Thermodynamic approach to the inelastic state variable theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dashner, P.A.
1978-06-01
A continuum model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for the inelastic state variable theory of Hart. The model is based on the existence of a free energy function and the assumption that a strained material element recalls two other local configurations which are, in some specified manner, descriptive of prior deformation. A precise formulation of these material hypotheses within the classical thermodynamical framework leads to the recovery of a generalized elastic law and the specification of evolutionary laws for the remembered configurations which are frame invariant and formally valid for finite strains. Moreover, the precise structure of Hart's theory is recovered when strains are assumed to be small
Variability in personality expression across contexts: a social network approach.
Clifton, Allan
2014-04-01
The current research investigated how the contextual expression of personality differs across interpersonal relationships. Two related studies were conducted with college samples (Study 1: N = 52, 38 female; Study 2: N = 111, 72 female). Participants in each study completed a five-factor measure of personality and constructed a social network detailing their 30 most important relationships. Participants used a brief Five-Factor Model scale to rate their personality as they experience it when with each person in their social network. Multiple informants selected from each social network then rated the target participant's personality (Study 1: N = 227, Study 2: N = 777). Contextual personality ratings demonstrated incremental validity beyond standard global self-report in predicting specific informants' perceptions. Variability in these contextualized personality ratings was predicted by the position of the other individuals within the social network. Across both studies, participants reported being more extraverted and neurotic, and less conscientious, with more central members of their social networks. Dyadic social network-based assessments of personality provide incremental validity in understanding personality, revealing dynamic patterns of personality variability unobservable with standard assessment techniques. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Zhihao; Chen Jingling
2011-01-01
In this work we study metrics of quantum states, which are natural generalizations of the usual trace metric and Bures metric. Some useful properties of the metrics are proved, such as the joint convexity and contractivity under quantum operations. Our result has a potential application in studying the geometry of quantum states as well as the entanglement detection.
New variable separation approach: application to nonlinear diffusion equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shunli; Lou, S Y; Qu Changzheng
2003-01-01
The concept of the derivative-dependent functional separable solution (DDFSS), as a generalization to the functional separable solution, is proposed. As an application, it is used to discuss the generalized nonlinear diffusion equations based on the generalized conditional symmetry approach. As a consequence, a complete list of canonical forms for such equations which admit the DDFSS is obtained and some exact solutions to the resulting equations are described
A thermodynamic approach to fatigue damage accumulation under variable loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naderi, M.; Khonsari, M.M.
2010-01-01
We put forward a general procedure for assessment of damage evolution based on the concept of entropy production. The procedure is applicable to both constant- and variable amplitude loading. The results of a series of bending fatigue tests under both two-stage and three-stage loadings are reported to investigate the validity of the proposed methodology. Also presented are the results of experiments involving bending, torsion, and tension-compression fatigue tests with Al 6061-T6 and SS 304 specimens. It is shown that, within the range of parameters tested, the evolution of fatigue damage for these materials in terms of entropy production is independent of load, frequency, size, loading sequence and loading history. Furthermore, entropy production fractions of individual amplitudes sums to unity.
Characteristics of quantum open systems: free random variables approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gudowska-Nowak, E.; Papp, G.; Brickmann, J.
1998-01-01
Random Matrix Theory provides an interesting tool for modelling a number of phenomena where noises (fluctuations) play a prominent role. Various applications range from the theory of mesoscopic systems in nuclear and atomic physics to biophysical models, like Hopfield-type models of neural networks and protein folding. Random Matrix Theory is also used to study dissipative systems with broken time-reversal invariance providing a setup for analysis of dynamic processes in condensed, disordered media. In the paper we use the Random Matrix Theory (RMT) within the formalism of Free Random Variables (alias Blue's functions), which allows to characterize spectral properties of non-Hermitean ''Hamiltonians''. The relevance of using the Blue's function method is discussed in connection with application of non-Hermitean operators in various problems of physical chemistry. (author)
A condition metric for Eucalyptus woodland derived from expert evaluations.
Sinclair, Steve J; Bruce, Matthew J; Griffioen, Peter; Dodd, Amanda; White, Matthew D
2018-02-01
The evaluation of ecosystem quality is important for land-management and land-use planning. Evaluation is unavoidably subjective, and robust metrics must be based on consensus and the structured use of observations. We devised a transparent and repeatable process for building and testing ecosystem metrics based on expert data. We gathered quantitative evaluation data on the quality of hypothetical grassy woodland sites from experts. We used these data to train a model (an ensemble of 30 bagged regression trees) capable of predicting the perceived quality of similar hypothetical woodlands based on a set of 13 site variables as inputs (e.g., cover of shrubs, richness of native forbs). These variables can be measured at any site and the model implemented in a spreadsheet as a metric of woodland quality. We also investigated the number of experts required to produce an opinion data set sufficient for the construction of a metric. The model produced evaluations similar to those provided by experts, as shown by assessing the model's quality scores of expert-evaluated test sites not used to train the model. We applied the metric to 13 woodland conservation reserves and asked managers of these sites to independently evaluate their quality. To assess metric performance, we compared the model's evaluation of site quality with the managers' evaluations through multidimensional scaling. The metric performed relatively well, plotting close to the center of the space defined by the evaluators. Given the method provides data-driven consensus and repeatability, which no single human evaluator can provide, we suggest it is a valuable tool for evaluating ecosystem quality in real-world contexts. We believe our approach is applicable to any ecosystem. © 2017 State of Victoria.
Separable metrics and radiating stars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the junction condition relating the pressure to heat flux at the boundary of an accelerating and expanding spherically symmetric radiating star. We transform the junction condition to an ordinary differential equation by making a separability assumption on the metric functions in the space–time variables.
Gaba, Yaé Ulrich
2017-01-01
In this paper, we discuss recent results about generalized metric spaces and fixed point theory. We introduce the notion of $\\eta$-cone metric spaces, give some topological properties and prove some fixed point theorems for contractive type maps on these spaces. In particular we show that theses $\\eta$-cone metric spaces are natural generalizations of both cone metric spaces and metric type spaces.
Invariant metrics for Hamiltonian systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangarajan, G.; Dragt, A.J.; Neri, F.
1991-05-01
In this paper, invariant metrics are constructed for Hamiltonian systems. These metrics give rise to norms on the space of homeogeneous polynomials of phase-space variables. For an accelerator lattice described by a Hamiltonian, these norms characterize the nonlinear content of the lattice. Therefore, the performance of the lattice can be improved by minimizing the norm as a function of parameters describing the beam-line elements in the lattice. A four-fold increase in the dynamic aperture of a model FODO cell is obtained using this procedure. 7 refs
Generalization of Vaidya's radiation metric
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gleiser, R J; Kozameh, C N [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina). Instituto de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica
1981-11-01
In this paper it is shown that if Vaidya's radiation metric is considered from the point of view of kinetic theory in general relativity, the corresponding phase space distribution function can be generalized in a particular way. The new family of spherically symmetric radiation metrics obtained contains Vaidya's as a limiting situation. The Einstein field equations are solved in a ''comoving'' coordinate system. Two arbitrary functions of a single variable are introduced in the process of solving these equations. Particular examples considered are a stationary solution, a nonvacuum solution depending on a single parameter, and several limiting situations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Günther Klonner
Full Text Available The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value, habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt, and propagule pressure (frequency were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties.
Active Metric Learning for Supervised Classification
Kumaran, Krishnan; Papageorgiou, Dimitri; Chang, Yutong; Li, Minhan; Takáč, Martin
2018-01-01
Clustering and classification critically rely on distance metrics that provide meaningful comparisons between data points. We present mixed-integer optimization approaches to find optimal distance metrics that generalize the Mahalanobis metric extensively studied in the literature. Additionally, we generalize and improve upon leading methods by removing reliance on pre-designated "target neighbors," "triplets," and "similarity pairs." Another salient feature of our method is its ability to en...
Contrasting Various Metrics for Measuring Tropical Cyclone Activity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jia-Yuh Yu Ping-Gin Chiu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Popular metrics used for measuring the tropical cyclone (TC activity, including NTC (number of tropical cyclones, TCD (tropical cyclone days, ACE (accumulated cyclone energy, PDI (power dissipation index, along with two newly proposed indices: RACE (revised accumulated cyclone energy and RPDI (revised power dissipation index, are compared using the JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center best-track data of TC over the western North Pacific basin. Our study shows that, while the above metrics have demonstrated various degrees of discrepancies, but in practical terms, they are all able to produce meaningful temporal and spatial changes in response to climate variability. Compared with the conventional ACE and PDI, RACE and RPDI seem to provide a more precise estimate of the total TC activity, especially in projecting the upswing trend of TC activity over the past few decades, simply because of a better approach in estimating TC wind energy. However, we would argue that there is still no need to find a ¡§universal¡¨ or ¡§best¡¨ metric for TC activity because different metrics are designed to stratify different aspects of TC activity, and whether the selected metric is appropriate or not should be determined solely by the purpose of study. Except for magnitude difference, the analysis results seem insensitive to the choice of the best-track datasets.
On the Integrity of Online Testing for Introductory Statistics Courses: A Latent Variable Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alan Fask
2015-04-01
Full Text Available There has been a remarkable growth in distance learning courses in higher education. Despite indications that distance learning courses are more vulnerable to cheating behavior than traditional courses, there has been little research studying whether online exams facilitate a relatively greater level of cheating. This article examines this issue by developing an approach using a latent variable to measure student cheating. This latent variable is linked to both known student mastery related variables and variables unrelated to student mastery. Grade scores from a proctored final exam and an unproctored final exam are used to test for increased cheating behavior in the unproctored exam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liberles David A
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The exchange of nucleotides at synonymous sites in a gene encoding a protein is believed to have little impact on the fitness of a host organism. This should be especially true for synonymous transitions, where a pyrimidine nucleotide is replaced by another pyrimidine, or a purine is replaced by another purine. This suggests that transition redundant exchange (TREx processes at the third position of conserved two-fold codon systems might offer the best approximation for a neutral molecular clock, serving to examine, within coding regions, theories that require neutrality, determine whether transition rate constants differ within genes in a single lineage, and correlate dates of events recorded in genomes with dates in the geological and paleontological records. To date, TREx analysis of the yeast genome has recognized correlated duplications that established a new metabolic strategies in fungi, and supported analyses of functional change in aromatases in pigs. TREx dating has limitations, however. Multiple transitions at synonymous sites may cause equilibration and loss of information. Further, to be useful to correlate events in the genomic record, different genes within a genome must suffer transitions at similar rates. Results A formalism to analyze divergence at two fold redundant codon systems is presented. This formalism exploits two-state approach-to-equilibrium kinetics from chemistry. This formalism captures, in a single equation, the possibility of multiple substitutions at individual sites, avoiding any need to "correct" for these. The formalism also connects specific rate constants for transitions to specific approximations in an underlying evolutionary model, including assumptions that transition rate constants are invariant at different sites, in different genes, in different lineages, and at different times. Therefore, the formalism supports analyses that evaluate these approximations. Transitions at synonymous
The Matrix model, a driven state variables approach to non-equilibrium thermodynamics
Jongschaap, R.J.J.
2001-01-01
One of the new approaches in non-equilibrium thermodynamics is the so-called matrix model of Jongschaap. In this paper some features of this model are discussed. We indicate the differences with the more common approach based upon internal variables and the more sophisticated Hamiltonian and GENERIC
Complexity Metrics for Workflow Nets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.
2009-01-01
analysts have difficulties grasping the dynamics implied by a process model. Recent empirical studies show that people make numerous errors when modeling complex business processes, e.g., about 20 percent of the EPCs in the SAP reference model have design flaws resulting in potential deadlocks, livelocks......, etc. It seems obvious that the complexity of the model contributes to design errors and a lack of understanding. It is not easy to measure complexity, however. This paper presents three complexity metrics that have been implemented in the process analysis tool ProM. The metrics are defined...... for a subclass of Petri nets named Workflow nets, but the results can easily be applied to other languages. To demonstrate the applicability of these metrics, we have applied our approach and tool to 262 relatively complex Protos models made in the context of various student projects. This allows us to validate...
METRIC context unit architecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simpson, R.O.
1988-01-01
METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.
Learning Global-Local Distance Metrics for Signature-Based Biometric Cryptosystems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George S. Eskander Ekladious
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Biometric traits, such as fingerprints, faces and signatures have been employed in bio-cryptosystems to secure cryptographic keys within digital security schemes. Reliable implementations of these systems employ error correction codes formulated as simple distance thresholds, although they may not effectively model the complex variability of behavioral biometrics like signatures. In this paper, a Global-Local Distance Metric (GLDM framework is proposed to learn cost-effective distance metrics, which reduce within-class variability and augment between-class variability, so that simple error correction thresholds of bio-cryptosystems provide high classification accuracy. First, a large number of samples from a development dataset are used to train a global distance metric that differentiates within-class from between-class samples of the population. Then, once user-specific samples are available for enrollment, the global metric is tuned to a local user-specific one. Proof-of-concept experiments on two reference offline signature databases confirm the viability of the proposed approach. Distance metrics are produced based on concise signature representations consisting of about 20 features and a single prototype. A signature-based bio-cryptosystem is designed using the produced metrics and has shown average classification error rates of about 7% and 17% for the PUCPR and the GPDS-300 databases, respectively. This level of performance is comparable to that obtained with complex state-of-the-art classifiers.
Chernozhukov, Victor; Hansen, Christian; Spindler, Martin
2016-01-01
In this article the package High-dimensional Metrics (\\texttt{hdm}) is introduced. It is a collection of statistical methods for estimation and quantification of uncertainty in high-dimensional approximately sparse models. It focuses on providing confidence intervals and significance testing for (possibly many) low-dimensional subcomponents of the high-dimensional parameter vector. Efficient estimators and uniformly valid confidence intervals for regression coefficients on target variables (e...
Metric diffusion along foliations
Walczak, Szymon M
2017-01-01
Up-to-date research in metric diffusion along compact foliations is presented in this book. Beginning with fundamentals from the optimal transportation theory and the theory of foliations; this book moves on to cover Wasserstein distance, Kantorovich Duality Theorem, and the metrization of the weak topology by the Wasserstein distance. Metric diffusion is defined, the topology of the metric space is studied and the limits of diffused metrics along compact foliations are discussed. Essentials on foliations, holonomy, heat diffusion, and compact foliations are detailed and vital technical lemmas are proved to aide understanding. Graduate students and researchers in geometry, topology and dynamics of foliations and laminations will find this supplement useful as it presents facts about the metric diffusion along non-compact foliation and provides a full description of the limit for metrics diffused along foliation with at least one compact leaf on the two dimensions.
Chistyakov, Vyacheslav
2015-01-01
Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...
Improved installation approach for variable spring setting on a pipe yet to be insulated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, H.H.; Chitnis, S.S.; Rencher, D.
1993-01-01
This paper provides an approach in setting of variable spring supports for noninsulated or partially insulated piping systems so that resetting these supports is not required when the insulation is fully installed. This approach shows a method of deriving the spring coldload setting tolerance values that can be readily utilized by craft personnel. This method is based on the percentage of the weight of the insulation compared to the total weight of the pipe and the applicable tolerance. Use of these setting tolerances eliminates reverification of the original cold-load settings, for the majority of variable springs when the insulation is fully installed
Prognostic Performance Metrics
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter presents several performance metrics for offline evaluation of prognostics algorithms. A brief overview of different methods employed for performance...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kihong Kim
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Various kinds of metrics used for the quantitative evaluation of scholarly journals are reviewed. The impact factor and related metrics including the immediacy index and the aggregate impact factor, which are provided by the Journal Citation Reports, are explained in detail. The Eigenfactor score and the article influence score are also reviewed. In addition, journal metrics such as CiteScore, Source Normalized Impact per Paper, SCImago Journal Rank, h-index, and g-index are discussed. Limitations and problems that these metrics have are pointed out. We should be cautious to rely on those quantitative measures too much when we evaluate journals or researchers.
A cross-scale approach to understand drought-induced variability of sagebrush ecosystem productivity
Assal, T.; Anderson, P. J.
2016-12-01
Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) mortality has recently been reported in the Upper Green River Basin (Wyoming, USA) of the sagebrush steppe of western North America. Numerous causes have been suggested, but recent drought (2012-13) is the likely mechanism of mortality in this water-limited ecosystem which provides critical habitat for many species of wildlife. An understanding of the variability in patterns of productivity with respect to climate is essential to exploit landscape scale remote sensing for detection of subtle changes associated with mortality in this sparse, uniformly vegetated ecosystem. We used the standardized precipitation index to characterize drought conditions and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery (250-m resolution) to characterize broad characteristics of growing season productivity. We calculated per-pixel growing season anomalies over a 16-year period (2000-2015) to identify the spatial and temporal variability in productivity. Metrics derived from Landsat satellite imagery (30-m resolution) were used to further investigate trends within anomalous areas at local scales. We found evidence to support an initial hypothesis that antecedent winter drought was most important in explaining reduced productivity. The results indicate drought effects were inconsistent over space and time. MODIS derived productivity deviated by more than four standard deviations in heavily impacted areas, but was well within the interannual variability in other areas. Growing season anomalies highlighted dramatic declines in productivity during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. However, large negative anomalies persisted in other areas during the 2014 growing season, indicating lag effects of drought. We are further investigating if the reduction in productivity is mediated by local biophysical properties. Our analysis identified spatially explicit patterns of ecosystem properties altered by severe drought which are consistent with
Rockcastle, Siobhan
2013-01-01
Daylight is a dynamic source of illumination in architectural space, creating diverse and ephemeral configurations of light and shadow within the built environment. Perceptual qualities of daylight, such as contrast and temporal variability, are essential to our understanding of both material and visual effects in architecture. Although spatial contrast and light variability are fundamental to the visual experience of architecture, architects still rely primarily on intuition to evaluate their designs because there are few metrics that address these factors. Through an analysis of contemporary
Area Regge calculus and discontinuous metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wainwright, Chris; Williams, Ruth M
2004-01-01
Taking the triangle areas as independent variables in the theory of Regge calculus can lead to ambiguities in the edge lengths, which can be interpreted as discontinuities in the metric. We construct solutions to area Regge calculus using a triangulated lattice and find that on a spacelike or timelike hypersurface no such discontinuity can arise. On a null hypersurface however, we can have such a situation and the resulting metric can be interpreted as a so-called refractive wave
Emerging adulthood features and criteria for adulthood : Variable- and person-centered approaches
Tagliabue, Semira; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Lanz, Margherita
Reaching adulthood is the aim of the transition to adulthood; however, emerging adults differently define both adulthood and the transitional period they are living. Variable-centered and person-centered approaches were integrated in the present paper to investigate if the criteria used to define
Preßler, Anna-Lena; Könen, Tanja; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Krajewski, Kristin
2014-01-01
The aim of the present study was to empirically disentangle the interdependencies of the impact of nonverbal intelligence, working memory capacities, and phonological processing skills on early reading decoding and spelling within a latent variable approach. In a sample of 127 children, these cognitive preconditions were assessed before the onset…
Pek, Jolynn; Losardo, Diane; Bauer, Daniel J.
2011-01-01
Compared to parametric models, nonparametric and semiparametric approaches to modeling nonlinearity between latent variables have the advantage of recovering global relationships of unknown functional form. Bauer (2005) proposed an indirect application of finite mixtures of structural equation models where latent components are estimated in the…
Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Park, Ji Sook; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis
2017-01-01
Purpose: We aimed to outline the latent variables approach for measuring nonverbal executive function (EF) skills in school-age children, and to examine the relationship between nonverbal EF skills and language performance in this age group. Method: Seventy-one typically developing children, ages 8 through 11, participated in the study. Three EF…
2003-03-01
within the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) software suite (version 5.x). With this capability, one can set cost targets or time...not allow the user to vary more than one decision variable. This limitation of the ACEIT approach thus hinders a holistic view when attempting to
Muntinga, D.; Bernritter, S.
2017-01-01
Het merk staat steeds meer centraal in de organisatie. Het is daarom essentieel om de gezondheid, prestaties en ontwikkelingen van het merk te meten. Het is echter een uitdaging om de juiste brand metrics te selecteren. Een enorme hoeveelheid metrics vraagt de aandacht van merkbeheerders. Maar welke
Privacy Metrics and Boundaries
L-F. Pau (Louis-François)
2005-01-01
textabstractThis paper aims at defining a set of privacy metrics (quantitative and qualitative) in the case of the relation between a privacy protector ,and an information gatherer .The aims with such metrics are: -to allow to assess and compare different user scenarios and their differences; for
Graev metrics on free products and HNN extensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Slutsky, Konstantin
2014-01-01
We give a construction of two-sided invariant metrics on free products (possibly with amalgamation) of groups with two-sided invariant metrics and, under certain conditions, on HNN extensions of such groups. Our approach is similar to the Graev's construction of metrics on free groups over pointed...
Group field theory with noncommutative metric variables.
Baratin, Aristide; Oriti, Daniele
2010-11-26
We introduce a dual formulation of group field theories as a type of noncommutative field theories, making their simplicial geometry manifest. For Ooguri-type models, the Feynman amplitudes are simplicial path integrals for BF theories. We give a new definition of the Barrett-Crane model for gravity by imposing the simplicity constraints directly at the level of the group field theory action.
Feingold, Alan; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M
2014-03-01
Assessments of substance use behaviors often include categorical variables that are frequently related to other measures using logistic regression or chi-square analysis. When the categorical variable is latent (e.g., extracted from a latent class analysis [LCA]), classification of observations is often used to create an observed nominal variable from the latent one for use in a subsequent analysis. However, recent simulation studies have found that this classical 3-step analysis championed by the pioneers of LCA produces underestimates of the associations of latent classes with other variables. Two preferable but underused alternatives for examining such linkages-each of which is most appropriate under certain conditions-are (a) 3-step analysis, which corrects the underestimation bias of the classical approach, and (b) 1-step analysis. The purpose of this article is to dissuade researchers from conducting classical 3-step analysis and to promote the use of the 2 newer approaches that are described and compared. In addition, the applications of these newer models-for use when the independent, the dependent, or both categorical variables are latent-are illustrated through substantive analyses relating classes of substance abusers to classes of intimate partner aggressors.
Fixed point theory in metric type spaces
Agarwal, Ravi P; O’Regan, Donal; Roldán-López-de-Hierro, Antonio Francisco
2015-01-01
Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this volume presents a self-contained account of the theory, techniques and results in metric type spaces (in particular in G-metric spaces); that is, the text approaches this important area of fixed point analysis beginning from the basic ideas of metric space topology. The text is structured so that it leads the reader from preliminaries and historical notes on metric spaces (in particular G-metric spaces) and on mappings, to Banach type contraction theorems in metric type spaces, fixed point theory in partially ordered G-metric spaces, fixed point theory for expansive mappings in metric type spaces, generalizations, present results and techniques in a very general abstract setting and framework. Fixed point theory is one of the major research areas in nonlinear analysis. This is partly due to the fact that in many real world problems fixed point theory is the basic mathematical tool used to establish the existence of solutions to problems which arise natur...
Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E
2009-03-01
We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk.
A New Metric for Land-Atmosphere Coupling Strength: Applications on Observations and Modeling
Tang, Q.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.; Phillips, T. J.; Santanello, J. A., Jr.; Cook, D. R.; Riihimaki, L.; Gaustad, K.
2017-12-01
A new metric is proposed to quantify the land-atmosphere (LA) coupling strength and is elaborated by correlating the surface evaporative fraction and impacting land and atmosphere variables (e.g., soil moisture, vegetation, and radiation). Based upon multiple linear regression, this approach simultaneously considers multiple factors and thus represents complex LA coupling mechanisms better than existing single variable metrics. The standardized regression coefficients quantify the relative contributions from individual drivers in a consistent manner, avoiding the potential inconsistency in relative influence of conventional metrics. Moreover, the unique expendable feature of the new method allows us to verify and explore potentially important coupling mechanisms. Our observation-based application of the new metric shows moderate coupling with large spatial variations at the U.S. Southern Great Plains. The relative importance of soil moisture vs. vegetation varies by location. We also show that LA coupling strength is generally underestimated by single variable methods due to their incompleteness. We also apply this new metric to evaluate the representation of LA coupling in the Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy (ACME) V1 Contiguous United States (CONUS) regionally refined model (RRM). This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734201
Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics
Petri, Michael
The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.
Jin, Zhonghai; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Loukachine, Constantin; Charlock, Thomas P.; Young, David; Noeel, Stefan
2011-01-01
The radiative kernel approach provides a simple way to separate the radiative response to different climate parameters and to decompose the feedback into radiative and climate response components. Using CERES/MODIS/Geostationary data, we calculated and analyzed the solar spectral reflectance kernels for various climate parameters on zonal, regional, and global spatial scales. The kernel linearity is tested. Errors in the kernel due to nonlinearity can vary strongly depending on climate parameter, wavelength, surface, and solar elevation; they are large in some absorption bands for some parameters but are negligible in most conditions. The spectral kernels are used to calculate the radiative responses to different climate parameter changes in different latitudes. The results show that the radiative response in high latitudes is sensitive to the coverage of snow and sea ice. The radiative response in low latitudes is contributed mainly by cloud property changes, especially cloud fraction and optical depth. The large cloud height effect is confined to absorption bands, while the cloud particle size effect is found mainly in the near infrared. The kernel approach, which is based on calculations using CERES retrievals, is then tested by direct comparison with spectral measurements from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) (a different instrument on a different spacecraft). The monthly mean interannual variability of spectral reflectance based on the kernel technique is consistent with satellite observations over the ocean, but not over land, where both model and data have large uncertainty. RMS errors in kernel ]derived monthly global mean reflectance over the ocean compared to observations are about 0.001, and the sampling error is likely a major component.
Metrics for image segmentation
Rees, Gareth; Greenway, Phil; Morray, Denise
1998-07-01
An important challenge in mapping image-processing techniques onto applications is the lack of quantitative performance measures. From a systems engineering perspective these are essential if system level requirements are to be decomposed into sub-system requirements which can be understood in terms of algorithm selection and performance optimization. Nowhere in computer vision is this more evident than in the area of image segmentation. This is a vigorous and innovative research activity, but even after nearly two decades of progress, it remains almost impossible to answer the question 'what would the performance of this segmentation algorithm be under these new conditions?' To begin to address this shortcoming, we have devised a well-principled metric for assessing the relative performance of two segmentation algorithms. This allows meaningful objective comparisons to be made between their outputs. It also estimates the absolute performance of an algorithm given ground truth. Our approach is an information theoretic one. In this paper, we describe the theory and motivation of our method, and present practical results obtained from a range of state of the art segmentation methods. We demonstrate that it is possible to measure the objective performance of these algorithms, and to use the information so gained to provide clues about how their performance might be improved.
A Quantitative Approach to Variables Affecting Production of Short Films in Turkey
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vedat Akman
2011-08-01
Full Text Available This study aims to explore the influence of various variables affecting the production of migration themed short films in Turkey. We proceeded to our analysis using descriptive statistics to describe the main futures of the sample data quantitatively. Due to non-uniformity of the data available, we were unable to use inductive statistics. Our basic sample statistical results indicated that short film producers prefered to produce short films on domestic migration theme rather than international. Gender and university seemed on surface as significant determinants to the production of migration themed short films in Turkey. We also looked at the demografic variables to provide more insights into our quantitative approach.
Metric learning for DNA microarray data analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Masao; Seto, Masao
2009-01-01
In many microarray studies, gene set selection is an important preliminary step for subsequent main task such as tumor classification, cancer subtype identification, etc. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using metric learning as an alternative to gene set selection. We develop a simple metric learning algorithm aiming to use it for microarray data analysis. Exploiting a property of the algorithm, we introduce a novel approach for extending the metric learning to be adaptive. We apply the algorithm to previously studied microarray data on malignant lymphoma subtype identification.
Novel Harmonic Regularization Approach for Variable Selection in Cox’s Proportional Hazards Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ge-Jin Chu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Variable selection is an important issue in regression and a number of variable selection methods have been proposed involving nonconvex penalty functions. In this paper, we investigate a novel harmonic regularization method, which can approximate nonconvex Lq (1/2approach, which can produce solutions that closely approximate those for the convex loss function and the nonconvex regularization. Simulation results based on the artificial datasets and four real microarray gene expression datasets, such as real diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DCBCL, the lung cancer, and the AML datasets, show that the harmonic regularization method can be more accurate for variable selection than existing Lasso series methods.
Schweizer, B
2005-01-01
Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Olson, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Sanders, Johnnie
2002-01-01
.... We have developed the Tracker Performance Metric (TPM) specifically for this purpose. It was designed to measure the output performance, on a frame-by-frame basis, using its output position and quality...
Evaluating and Estimating the WCET Criticality Metric
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jordan, Alexander
2014-01-01
a programmer (or compiler) from targeting optimizations the right way. A possible resort is to use a metric that targets WCET and which can be efficiently computed for all code parts of a program. Similar to dynamic profiling techniques, which execute code with input that is typically expected...... for the application, based on WCET analysis we can indicate how critical a code fragment is, in relation to the worst-case bound. Computing such a metric on top of static analysis, incurs a certain overhead though, which increases with the complexity of the underlying WCET analysis. We present our approach...... to estimate the Criticality metric, by relaxing the precision of WCET analysis. Through this, we can reduce analysis time by orders of magnitude, while only introducing minor error. To evaluate our estimation approach and share our garnered experience using the metric, we evaluate real-time programs, which...
R Package multiPIM: A Causal Inference Approach to Variable Importance Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan J Ritter
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We describe the R package multiPIM, including statistical background, functionality and user options. The package is for variable importance analysis, and is meant primarily for analyzing data from exploratory epidemiological studies, though it could certainly be applied in other areas as well. The approach taken to variable importance comes from the causal inference field, and is different from approaches taken in other R packages. By default, multiPIM uses a double robust targeted maximum likelihood estimator (TMLE of a parameter akin to the attributable risk. Several regression methods/machine learning algorithms are available for estimating the nuisance parameters of the models, including super learner, a meta-learner which combines several different algorithms into one. We describe a simulation in which the double robust TMLE is compared to the graphical computation estimator. We also provide example analyses using two data sets which are included with the package.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Many software and IT projects fail in completing theirs objectives because different causes of which the management of the projects has a high weight. In order to have successfully projects, lessons learned have to be used, historical data to be collected and metrics and indicators have to be computed and used to compare them with past projects and avoid failure to happen. This paper presents some metrics that can be used for the IT project management.
Mass Customization Measurements Metrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn
2014-01-01
A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....
Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Simon
2011-01-01
We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here `almost every' is with respect to Haar measure...... of the coefficients of the homogeneous part when the number of variables is at least two (singly metric case), and with respect to the Haar measure of all coefficients for any number of variables (doubly metric case). As consequences, we derive zero-one laws in the spirit of the Khintchine-Groshev Theorem and zero...
Metric inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation in positive characteristic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, S.
We obtain asymptotic formulae for the number of solutions to systems of inhomogeneous linear Diophantine inequalities over the field of formal Laurent series with coefficients from a finite fields, which are valid for almost every such system. Here 'almost every' is with respect to Haar measure...... of the coefficients of the homogeneous part when the number of variables is at least two (singly metric case), and with respect to the Haar measure of all coefficients for any number of variables (doubly metric case). As consequences, we derive zero-one laws in the spirit of the Khintchine--Groshev Theorem and zero...
Classroom reconstruction of the Schwarzschild metric
Kassner, Klaus
2015-01-01
A promising way to introduce general relativity in the classroom is to study the physical implications of certain given metrics, such as the Schwarzschild one. This involves lower mathematical expenditure than an approach focusing on differential geometry in its full glory and permits to emphasize physical aspects before attacking the field equations. Even so, in terms of motivation, lacking justification of the metric employed may pose an obstacle. The paper discusses how to establish the we...
Garcia-Diaz, Antón; Leborán, Víctor; Fdez-Vidal, Xosé R; Pardo, Xosé M
2012-06-12
A hierarchical definition of optical variability is proposed that links physical magnitudes to visual saliency and yields a more reductionist interpretation than previous approaches. This definition is shown to be grounded on the classical efficient coding hypothesis. Moreover, we propose that a major goal of contextual adaptation mechanisms is to ensure the invariance of the behavior that the contribution of an image point to optical variability elicits in the visual system. This hypothesis and the necessary assumptions are tested through the comparison with human fixations and state-of-the-art approaches to saliency in three open access eye-tracking datasets, including one devoted to images with faces, as well as in a novel experiment using hyperspectral representations of surface reflectance. The results on faces yield a significant reduction of the potential strength of semantic influences compared to previous works. The results on hyperspectral images support the assumptions to estimate optical variability. As well, the proposed approach explains quantitative results related to a visual illusion observed for images of corners, which does not involve eye movements.
The Structure of Character Strengths: Variable- and Person-Centered Approaches
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Małgorzata Najderska
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This article examines the structure of character strengths (Peterson and Seligman, 2004 following both variable-centered and person-centered approaches. We used the International Personality Item Pool-Values in Action (IPIP-VIA questionnaire. The IPIP-VIA measures 24 character strengths and consists of 213 direct and reversed items. The present study was conducted in a heterogeneous group of N = 908 Poles (aged 18–78, M = 28.58. It was part of a validation project of a Polish version of the IPIP-VIA questionnaire. The variable-centered approach was used to examine the structure of character strengths on both the scale and item levels. The scale-level results indicated a four-factor structure that can be interpreted based on four of the five personality traits from the Big Five theory (excluding neuroticism. The item-level analysis suggested a slightly different and limited set of character strengths (17 not 24. After conducting a second-order analysis, a four-factor structure emerged, and three of the factors could be interpreted as being consistent with the scale-level factors. Three character strength profiles were found using the person-centered approach. Two of them were consistent with alpha and beta personality metatraits. The structure of character strengths can be described by using categories from the Five Factor Model of personality and metatraits. They form factors similar to some personality traits and occur in similar constellations as metatraits. The main contributions of this paper are: (1 the validation of IPIP-VIA conducted in variable-centered approach in a new research group (Poles using a different measurement instrument; (2 introducing the person-centered approach to the study of the structure of character strengths.
Harrigan, George G; Harrison, Jay M
2012-01-01
New transgenic (GM) crops are subjected to extensive safety assessments that include compositional comparisons with conventional counterparts as a cornerstone of the process. The influence of germplasm, location, environment, and agronomic treatments on compositional variability is, however, often obscured in these pair-wise comparisons. Furthermore, classical statistical significance testing can often provide an incomplete and over-simplified summary of highly responsive variables such as crop composition. In order to more clearly describe the influence of the numerous sources of compositional variation we present an introduction to two alternative but complementary approaches to data analysis and interpretation. These include i) exploratory data analysis (EDA) with its emphasis on visualization and graphics-based approaches and ii) Bayesian statistical methodology that provides easily interpretable and meaningful evaluations of data in terms of probability distributions. The EDA case-studies include analyses of herbicide-tolerant GM soybean and insect-protected GM maize and soybean. Bayesian approaches are presented in an analysis of herbicide-tolerant GM soybean. Advantages of these approaches over classical frequentist significance testing include the more direct interpretation of results in terms of probabilities pertaining to quantities of interest and no confusion over the application of corrections for multiple comparisons. It is concluded that a standardized framework for these methodologies could provide specific advantages through enhanced clarity of presentation and interpretation in comparative assessments of crop composition.
Optimal speech motor control and token-to-token variability: a Bayesian modeling approach.
Patri, Jean-François; Diard, Julien; Perrier, Pascal
2015-12-01
The remarkable capacity of the speech motor system to adapt to various speech conditions is due to an excess of degrees of freedom, which enables producing similar acoustical properties with different sets of control strategies. To explain how the central nervous system selects one of the possible strategies, a common approach, in line with optimal motor control theories, is to model speech motor planning as the solution of an optimality problem based on cost functions. Despite the success of this approach, one of its drawbacks is the intrinsic contradiction between the concept of optimality and the observed experimental intra-speaker token-to-token variability. The present paper proposes an alternative approach by formulating feedforward optimal control in a probabilistic Bayesian modeling framework. This is illustrated by controlling a biomechanical model of the vocal tract for speech production and by comparing it with an existing optimal control model (GEPPETO). The essential elements of this optimal control model are presented first. From them the Bayesian model is constructed in a progressive way. Performance of the Bayesian model is evaluated based on computer simulations and compared to the optimal control model. This approach is shown to be appropriate for solving the speech planning problem while accounting for variability in a principled way.
Metrical and dynamical aspects in complex analysis
2017-01-01
The central theme of this reference book is the metric geometry of complex analysis in several variables. Bridging a gap in the current literature, the text focuses on the fine behavior of the Kobayashi metric of complex manifolds and its relationships to dynamical systems, hyperbolicity in the sense of Gromov and operator theory, all very active areas of research. The modern points of view expressed in these notes, collected here for the first time, will be of interest to academics working in the fields of several complex variables and metric geometry. The different topics are treated coherently and include expository presentations of the relevant tools, techniques and objects, which will be particularly useful for graduate and PhD students specializing in the area.
Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig
2017-01-01
This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.
Deep Transfer Metric Learning.
Junlin Hu; Jiwen Lu; Yap-Peng Tan; Jie Zhou
2016-12-01
Conventional metric learning methods usually assume that the training and test samples are captured in similar scenarios so that their distributions are assumed to be the same. This assumption does not hold in many real visual recognition applications, especially when samples are captured across different data sets. In this paper, we propose a new deep transfer metric learning (DTML) method to learn a set of hierarchical nonlinear transformations for cross-domain visual recognition by transferring discriminative knowledge from the labeled source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Specifically, our DTML learns a deep metric network by maximizing the inter-class variations and minimizing the intra-class variations, and minimizing the distribution divergence between the source domain and the target domain at the top layer of the network. To better exploit the discriminative information from the source domain, we further develop a deeply supervised transfer metric learning (DSTML) method by including an additional objective on DTML, where the output of both the hidden layers and the top layer are optimized jointly. To preserve the local manifold of input data points in the metric space, we present two new methods, DTML with autoencoder regularization and DSTML with autoencoder regularization. Experimental results on face verification, person re-identification, and handwritten digit recognition validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daisy Pires Noronha
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Apresentam-se alguns conceitos e considerações fundamentais dos estudos métricos da informação e os principais métodos e técnicas utilizadas, como a bibliometria, cienciometria, informetria, webmetria, patentometria e biblioteconometria. Discute-se o ciclo de comunicação científica, destacando-se os principais indicadores de input (insumo e output (produto, assim como, a importância da publicação dos resultados da pesquisa científica e do processo de avaliação pelos pares. Comentam-se algumas características e aplicações das leis bibliométricas e de outros recursos utilizados nos estudos métricos da informação.Concepts and basic considerations about metric studies of information, and the main methods and techniques, such as bibliometrics, scientometrics, informetrics,webmetrics, patentometrics and librametrics are presented. The scholarly communication cycle, specially the main input (resources and output (product indicators, as well as the importance of the publication of scientific research results and the peer review process are discussed. Some characteristics and applications of bibliometric laws, and the resources used for metrics studies of information arecommented.
Approaches for developing a sizing method for stand-alone PV systems with variable demand
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Posadillo, R. [Grupo de Investigacion en Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, E.P.S., Universidad de Cordoba, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Lopez Luque, R. [Grupo de Investigacion de Fisica para las Energias y Recursos Renovables, Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada. Edificio C2 Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)
2008-05-15
Accurate sizing is one of the most important aspects to take into consideration when designing a stand-alone photovoltaic system (SAPV). Various methods, which differ in terms of their simplicity or reliability, have been developed for this purpose. Analytical methods, which seek functional relationships between variables of interest to the sizing problem, are one of these approaches. A series of rational considerations are presented in this paper with the aim of shedding light upon the basic principles and results of various sizing methods proposed by different authors. These considerations set the basis for a new analytical method that has been designed for systems with variable monthly energy demands. Following previous approaches, the method proposed is based on the concept of loss of load probability (LLP) - a parameter that is used to characterize system design. The method includes information on the standard deviation of loss of load probability ({sigma}{sub LLP}) and on two new parameters: annual number of system failures (f) and standard deviation of annual number of failures ({sigma}{sub f}). The method proves useful for sizing a PV system in a reliable manner and serves to explain the discrepancies found in the research on systems with LLP<10{sup -2}. We demonstrate that reliability depends not only on the sizing variables and on the distribution function of solar radiation, but on the minimum value as well, which in a given location and with a monthly average clearness index, achieves total solar radiation on the receiver surface. (author)
Study The role of latent variables in lost working days by Structural Equation Modeling Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meysam Heydari
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Based on estimations, each year about 250 million work-related injuries and many temporary or permanent disabilities occur which most are preventable. Oil and Gas industries are among industries with high incidence of injuries in the world. The aim of this study has investigated the role and effect of different risk management variables on lost working days (LWD in the seismic projects. Methods: This study was a retrospective, cross-sectional and systematic analysis, which was carried out on occupational accidents between 2008-2015(an 8 years period in different seismic projects for oilfield exploration at Dana Energy (Iranian Seismic Company. The preliminary sample size of the study were 487accidents. A systems analysis approach were applied by using root case analysis (RCA and structural equation modeling (SEM. Tools for the data analysis were included, SPSS23 and AMOS23 software. Results: The mean of lost working days (LWD, was calculated 49.57, the final model of structural equation modeling showed that latent variables of, safety and health training factor(-0.33, risk assessment factor(-0.55 and risk control factor (-0.61 as direct causes significantly affected of lost working days (LWD in the seismic industries (p< 0.05. Conclusion: The finding of present study revealed that combination of variables affected in lost working days (LWD. Therefore,the role of these variables in accidents should be investigated and suitable programs should be considered for them.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dirk Temme
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Integrated choice and latent variable (ICLV models represent a promising new class of models which merge classic choice models with the structural equation approach (SEM for latent variables. Despite their conceptual appeal, applications of ICLV models in marketing remain rare. We extend previous ICLV applications by first estimating a multinomial choice model and, second, by estimating hierarchical relations between latent variables. An empirical study on travel mode choice clearly demonstrates the value of ICLV models to enhance the understanding of choice processes. In addition to the usually studied directly observable variables such as travel time, we show how abstract motivations such as power and hedonism as well as attitudes such as a desire for flexibility impact on travel mode choice. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to estimate such a complex ICLV model with the widely available structural equation modeling package Mplus. This finding is likely to encourage more widespread application of this appealing model class in the marketing field.
Evans, Wiley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Winsor, Peter; Statscewich, Hank; Whitledge, Terry E.
2013-01-01
northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) shelf experiences carbonate system variability on seasonal and annual time scales, but little information exists to resolve higher frequency variability in this region. To resolve this variability using platforms-of-opportunity, we present multiple linear regression (MLR) models constructed from hydrographic data collected along the Northeast Pacific Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) Seward Line. The empirical algorithms predict dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) using observations of nitrate (NO3-), temperature, salinity and pressure from the surface to 500 m, with R2s > 0.97 and RMSE values of 11 µmol kg-1 for DIC and 9 µmol kg-1 for TA. We applied these relationships to high-resolution NO3- data sets collected during a novel 20 h glider flight and a GLOBEC mesoscale SeaSoar survey. Results from the glider flight demonstrated time/space along-isopycnal variability of aragonite saturations (Ωarag) associated with a dicothermal layer (a cold near-surface layer found in high latitude oceans) that rivaled changes seen vertically through the thermocline. The SeaSoar survey captured the uplift to aragonite saturation horizon (depth where Ωarag = 1) shoaled to a previously unseen depth in the northern GOA. This work is similar to recent studies aimed at predicting the carbonate system in continental margin settings, albeit demonstrates that a NO3--based approach can be applied to high-latitude data collected from platforms capable of high-frequency measurements.
MEANINGFUL VARIABILITY: A SOCIOLINGUISTICALLY-GROUNDED APPROACH TO VARIATION IN OPTIMALITY THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Antonio Cutillas Espinosa
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Most approaches to variability in Optimality Theory have attempted to make variation possible within the OT framework, i.e. to reformulate constraints and rankings to accommodate variable and gradient linguistic facts. Sociolinguists have attempted to apply these theoretical advances to the study of language variation, with an emphasis on language-interna1 variables (Auger 2001, Cardoso 2001. Little attention has been paid to the array of externa1 factors that influence the patterning of variation. In this paper, we argue that some variation pattems-specially those that are socially meaningful- are actually the result of a three-grarnmar system. G, is the standard grammar, which has to be available to the speaker to obtain these variation patterns. G; is the vernacular grammar, which the speaker is likely to have acquired in his local community. Finally, G, is an intergrammar, which is used by the speaker as his 'default' constraint set. G is a continuous ranking (Boersma & Hayes 2001 and domination relations are consciously altered by the speakers to shape the appropriate and variable linguistic output. We illustrate this model with analyses of English and Spanish.
Sensitivity analysis on uncertainty variables affecting the NPP's LUEC with probabilistic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nuryanti; Akhmad Hidayatno; Erlinda Muslim
2013-01-01
One thing that is quite crucial to be reviewed prior to any investment decision on the nuclear power plant (NPP) project is the calculation of project economic, including calculation of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC). Infrastructure projects such as NPP’s project are vulnerable to a number of uncertainty variables. Information on the uncertainty variables which makes LUEC’s value quite sensitive due to the changes of them is necessary in order the cost overrun can be avoided. Therefore this study aimed to do the sensitivity analysis on variables that affect LUEC with probabilistic approaches. This analysis was done by using Monte Carlo technique that simulate the relationship between the uncertainty variables and visible impact on LUEC. The sensitivity analysis result shows the significant changes on LUEC value of AP1000 and OPR due to the sensitivity of investment cost and capacity factors. While LUEC changes due to sensitivity of U 3 O 8 ’s price looks not quite significant. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott
2012-03-01
Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.
McCarty, James; Parrinello, Michele
2017-11-01
In this paper, we combine two powerful computational techniques, well-tempered metadynamics and time-lagged independent component analysis. The aim is to develop a new tool for studying rare events and exploring complex free energy landscapes. Metadynamics is a well-established and widely used enhanced sampling method whose efficiency depends on an appropriate choice of collective variables. Often the initial choice is not optimal leading to slow convergence. However by analyzing the dynamics generated in one such run with a time-lagged independent component analysis and the techniques recently developed in the area of conformational dynamics, we obtain much more efficient collective variables that are also better capable of illuminating the physics of the system. We demonstrate the power of this approach in two paradigmatic examples.
Blums, Angela
The present study examines instructional approaches and cognitive factors involved in elementary school children's thinking and learning the Control of Variables Strategy (CVS), a critical aspect of scientific reasoning. Previous research has identified several features related to effective instruction of CVS, including using a guided learning approach, the use of self-reflective questions, and learning in individual and group contexts. The current study examined the roles of procedural and conceptual instruction in learning CVS and investigated the role of executive function in the learning process. Additionally, this study examined how learning to identify variables is a part of the CVS process. In two studies (individual and classroom experiments), 139 third, fourth, and fifth grade students participated in hands-on and paper and pencil CVS learning activities and, in each study, were assigned to either a procedural instruction, conceptual instruction, or control (no instruction) group. Participants also completed a series of executive function tasks. The study was carried out with two parts--Study 1 used an individual context and Study 2 was carried out in a group setting. Results indicated that procedural and conceptual instruction were more effective than no instruction, and the ability to identify variables was identified as a key piece to the CVS process. Executive function predicted ability to identify variables and predicted success on CVS tasks. Developmental differences were present, in that older children outperformed younger children on CVS tasks, and that conceptual instruction was slightly more effective for older children. Some differences between individual and group instruction were found, with those in the individual context showing some advantage over the those in the group setting in learning CVS concepts. Conceptual implications about scientific thinking and practical implications in science education are discussed.
Stisen, S.; Demirel, C.; Koch, J.
2017-12-01
Evaluation of performance is an integral part of model development and calibration as well as it is of paramount importance when communicating modelling results to stakeholders and the scientific community. There exists a comprehensive and well tested toolbox of metrics to assess temporal model performance in the hydrological modelling community. On the contrary, the experience to evaluate spatial performance is not corresponding to the grand availability of spatial observations readily available and to the sophisticate model codes simulating the spatial variability of complex hydrological processes. This study aims at making a contribution towards advancing spatial pattern oriented model evaluation for distributed hydrological models. This is achieved by introducing a novel spatial performance metric which provides robust pattern performance during model calibration. The promoted SPAtial EFficiency (spaef) metric reflects three equally weighted components: correlation, coefficient of variation and histogram overlap. This multi-component approach is necessary in order to adequately compare spatial patterns. spaef, its three components individually and two alternative spatial performance metrics, i.e. connectivity analysis and fractions skill score, are tested in a spatial pattern oriented model calibration of a catchment model in Denmark. The calibration is constrained by a remote sensing based spatial pattern of evapotranspiration and discharge timeseries at two stations. Our results stress that stand-alone metrics tend to fail to provide holistic pattern information to the optimizer which underlines the importance of multi-component metrics. The three spaef components are independent which allows them to complement each other in a meaningful way. This study promotes the use of bias insensitive metrics which allow comparing variables which are related but may differ in unit in order to optimally exploit spatial observations made available by remote sensing
Robustness of climate metrics under climate policy ambiguity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekholm, Tommi; Lindroos, Tomi J.; Savolainen, Ilkka
2013-01-01
Highlights: • We assess the economic impacts of using different climate metrics. • The setting is cost-efficient scenarios for three interpretations of the 2C target. • With each target setting, the optimal metric is different. • Therefore policy ambiguity prevents the selection of an optimal metric. • Robust metric values that perform well with multiple policy targets however exist. -- Abstract: A wide array of alternatives has been proposed as the common metrics with which to compare the climate impacts of different emission types. Different physical and economic metrics and their parameterizations give diverse weights between e.g. CH 4 and CO 2 , and fixing the metric from one perspective makes it sub-optimal from another. As the aims of global climate policy involve some degree of ambiguity, it is not possible to determine a metric that would be optimal and consistent with all policy aims. This paper evaluates the cost implications of using predetermined metrics in cost-efficient mitigation scenarios. Three formulations of the 2 °C target, including both deterministic and stochastic approaches, shared a wide range of metric values for CH 4 with which the mitigation costs are only slightly above the cost-optimal levels. Therefore, although ambiguity in current policy might prevent us from selecting an optimal metric, it can be possible to select robust metric values that perform well with multiple policy targets
Squeezing more information out of time variable gravity data with a temporal decomposition approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Bordoni, A.; Aoudia, A.
2012-01-01
an explorative approach based on a suitable time series decomposition, which does not rely on predefined time signatures. The comparison and validation against the fitting approach commonly used in GRACE literature shows a very good agreement for what concerns trends and periodic signals on one side......A measure of the Earth's gravity contains contributions from solid Earth as well as climate-related phenomena, that cannot be easily distinguished both in time and space. After more than 7years, the GRACE gravity data available now support more elaborate analysis on the time series. We propose...... used to assess the possibility of finding evidence of meaningful geophysical signals different from hydrology over Africa in GRACE data. In this case we conclude that hydrological phenomena are dominant and so time variable gravity data in Africa can be directly used to calibrate hydrological models....
Crowdsourcing metrics of digital collections
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tuula Pääkkönen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In the National Library of Finland (NLF there are millions of digitized newspaper and journal pages, which are openly available via the public website http://digi.kansalliskirjasto.fi. To serve users better, last year the front end was completely overhauled with its main aim in crowdsourcing features, e.g., by giving end-users the opportunity to create digital clippings and a personal scrapbook from the digital collections. But how can you know whether crowdsourcing has had an impact? How much crowdsourcing functionalities have been used so far? Did crowdsourcing work? In this paper the statistics and metrics of a recent crowdsourcing effort are analysed across the different digitized material types (newspapers, journals, ephemera. The subjects, categories and keywords given by the users are analysed to see which topics are the most appealing. Some notable public uses of the crowdsourced article clippings are highlighted. These metrics give us indications on how the end-users, based on their own interests, are investigating and using the digital collections. Therefore, the suggested metrics illustrate the versatility of the information needs of the users, varying from citizen science to research purposes. By analysing the user patterns, we can respond to the new needs of the users by making minor changes to accommodate the most active participants, while still making the service more approachable for those who are trying out the functionalities for the first time. Participation in the clippings and annotations can enrich the materials in unexpected ways and can possibly pave the way for opportunities of using crowdsourcing more also in research contexts. This creates more opportunities for the goals of open science since source data becomes available, making it possible for researchers to reach out to the general public for help. In the long term, utilizing, for example, text mining methods can allow these different end-user segments to
Shuler, Robert
2018-04-01
The goal of this paper is to take a completely fresh approach to metric gravity, in which the metric principle is strictly adhered to but its properties in local space-time are derived from conservation principles, not inferred from a global field equation. The global field strength variation then gains some flexibility, but only in the regime of very strong fields (2nd-order terms) whose measurement is now being contemplated. So doing provides a family of similar gravities, differing only in strong fields, which could be developed into meaningful verification targets for strong fields after the manner in which far-field variations were used in the 20th century. General Relativity (GR) is shown to be a member of the family and this is demonstrated by deriving the Schwarzschild metric exactly from a suitable field strength assumption. The method of doing so is interesting in itself because it involves only one differential equation rather than the usual four. Exact static symmetric field solutions are also given for one pedagogical alternative based on potential, and one theoretical alternative based on inertia, and the prospects of experimentally differentiating these are analyzed. Whether the method overturns the conventional wisdom that GR is the only metric theory of gravity and that alternatives must introduce additional interactions and fields is somewhat semantical, depending on whether one views the field strength assumption as a field and whether the assumption that produces GR is considered unique in some way. It is of course possible to have other fields, and the local space-time principle can be applied to field gravities which usually are weak-field approximations having only time dilation, giving them the spatial factor and promoting them to full metric theories. Though usually pedagogical, some of them are interesting from a quantum gravity perspective. Cases are noted where mass measurement errors, or distributions of dark matter, can cause one
An analytical approach to separate climate and human contributions to basin streamflow variability
Li, Changbin; Wang, Liuming; Wanrui, Wang; Qi, Jiaguo; Linshan, Yang; Zhang, Yuan; Lei, Wu; Cui, Xia; Wang, Peng
2018-04-01
Climate variability and anthropogenic regulations are two interwoven factors in the ecohydrologic system across large basins. Understanding the roles that these two factors play under various hydrologic conditions is of great significance for basin hydrology and sustainable water utilization. In this study, we present an analytical approach based on coupling water balance method and Budyko hypothesis to derive effectiveness coefficients (ECs) of climate change, as a way to disentangle contributions of it and human activities to the variability of river discharges under different hydro-transitional situations. The climate dominated streamflow change (ΔQc) by EC approach was compared with those deduced by the elasticity method and sensitivity index. The results suggest that the EC approach is valid and applicable for hydrologic study at large basin scale. Analyses of various scenarios revealed that contributions of climate change and human activities to river discharge variation differed among the regions of the study area. Over the past several decades, climate change dominated hydro-transitions from dry to wet, while human activities played key roles in the reduction of streamflow during wet to dry periods. Remarkable decline of discharge in upstream was mainly due to human interventions, although climate contributed more to runoff increasing during dry periods in the semi-arid downstream. Induced effectiveness on streamflow changes indicated a contribution ratio of 49% for climate and 51% for human activities at the basin scale from 1956 to 2015. The mathematic derivation based simple approach, together with the case example of temporal segmentation and spatial zoning, could help people understand variation of river discharge with more details at a large basin scale under the background of climate change and human regulations.
Metric integration architecture for product development
Sieger, David B.
1997-06-01
Present-day product development endeavors utilize the concurrent engineering philosophy as a logical means for incorporating a variety of viewpoints into the design of products. Since this approach provides no explicit procedural provisions, it is necessary to establish at least a mental coupling with a known design process model. The central feature of all such models is the management and transformation of information. While these models assist in structuring the design process, characterizing the basic flow of operations that are involved, they provide no guidance facilities. The significance of this feature, and the role it plays in the time required to develop products, is increasing in importance due to the inherent process dynamics, system/component complexities, and competitive forces. The methodology presented in this paper involves the use of a hierarchical system structure, discrete event system specification (DEVS), and multidimensional state variable based metrics. This approach is unique in its capability to quantify designer's actions throughout product development, provide recommendations about subsequent activity selection, and coordinate distributed activities of designers and/or design teams across all design stages. Conceptual design tool implementation results are used to demonstrate the utility of this technique in improving the incremental decision making process.
Tice, Bradley S.
Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English language with the intention that it may be used in second language instruction. Stress is defined by its physical and acoustical correlates, and the principles of…
Decision Analysis for Metric Selection on a Clinical Quality Scorecard.
Guth, Rebecca M; Storey, Patricia E; Vitale, Michael; Markan-Aurora, Sumita; Gordon, Randolph; Prevost, Traci Q; Dunagan, Wm Claiborne; Woeltje, Keith F
2016-09-01
Clinical quality scorecards are used by health care institutions to monitor clinical performance and drive quality improvement. Because of the rapid proliferation of quality metrics in health care, BJC HealthCare found it increasingly difficult to select the most impactful scorecard metrics while still monitoring metrics for regulatory purposes. A 7-step measure selection process was implemented incorporating Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis, which is a systematic process that considers key criteria that must be satisfied in order to make the best decision. The decision analysis process evaluates what metrics will most appropriately fulfill these criteria, as well as identifies potential risks associated with a particular metric in order to identify threats to its implementation. Using this process, a list of 750 potential metrics was narrowed to 25 that were selected for scorecard inclusion. This decision analysis process created a more transparent, reproducible approach for selecting quality metrics for clinical quality scorecards. © The Author(s) 2015.
Fatigue Crack Propagation Under Variable Amplitude Loading Analyses Based on Plastic Energy Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofiane Maachou
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Plasticity effects at the crack tip had been recognized as “motor” of crack propagation, the growth of cracks is related to the existence of a crack tip plastic zone, whose formation and intensification is accompanied by energy dissipation. In the actual state of knowledge fatigue crack propagation is modeled using crack closure concept. The fatigue crack growth behavior under constant amplitude and variable amplitude loading of the aluminum alloy 2024 T351 are analyzed using in terms energy parameters. In the case of VAL (variable amplitude loading tests, the evolution of the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is shown similar with that observed under constant amplitude loading. A linear relationship between the crack growth rate and the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is obtained at high growth rates. For lower growth rates values, the relationship between crack growth rate and hysteretic energy dissipated per block can represented by a power law. In this paper, an analysis of fatigue crack propagation under variable amplitude loading based on energetic approach is proposed.
First, Matthew R.; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H.; Riley, Scott C.; Drake, Lisa A.
2018-03-01
Variable fluorescence fluorometry, an analytical approach that estimates the fluorescence yield of chlorophyll a (F0, a proximal measure of algal concentration) and photochemical yield (FV/FM, an indicator of the physiological status of algae) was evaluated as a means to rapidly assess photoautotrophs. Specifically, it was used to gauge the efficacy of ballast water treatment designed to reduce the transport and delivery of potentially invasive organisms. A phytoflagellate, Tetraselmis spp. (10-12 μm) and mixed communities of ambient protists were examined in both laboratory experiments and large-scale field trials simulating 5-d hold times in mock ballast tanks. In laboratory incubations, ambient organisms held in the dark exhibited declining F0 and FV/FM measurements relative to organisms held under lighted conditions. In field experiments, increases and decreases in F0 and FV/FM over the tank hold time corresponded to those of microscope counts of organisms in two of three trials. In the third trial, concentrations of organisms ≥ 10 and protists) increased while F0 and FV/FM decreased. Rapid and sensitive, variable fluorescence fluorometry is appropriate for detecting changes in organism concentrations and physiological status in samples dominated by microalgae. Changes in the heterotrophic community, which may become more prevalent in light-limited ballast tanks, would not be detected via variable fluorescence fluorometry, however.
Ockey, Gary
2011-01-01
Drawing on current theories in personality, second-language (L2) oral ability, and psychometrics, this study investigates the extent to which self-consciousness and assertiveness are explanatory variables of L2 oral ability. Three hundred sixty first-year Japanese university students who were studying English as a foreign language participated in…
Software Quality Assurance Metrics
McRae, Kalindra A.
2004-01-01
Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is a planned and systematic set of activities that ensures conformance of software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards and procedures. In software development, software quality means meeting requirements and a degree of excellence and refinement of a project or product. Software Quality is a set of attributes of a software product by which its quality is described and evaluated. The set of attributes includes functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability, and portability. Software Metrics help us understand the technical process that is used to develop a product. The process is measured to improve it and the product is measured to increase quality throughout the life cycle of software. Software Metrics are measurements of the quality of software. Software is measured to indicate the quality of the product, to assess the productivity of the people who produce the product, to assess the benefits derived from new software engineering methods and tools, to form a baseline for estimation, and to help justify requests for new tools or additional training. Any part of the software development can be measured. If Software Metrics are implemented in software development, it can save time, money, and allow the organization to identify the caused of defects which have the greatest effect on software development. The summer of 2004, I worked with Cynthia Calhoun and Frank Robinson in the Software Assurance/Risk Management department. My task was to research and collect, compile, and analyze SQA Metrics that have been used in other projects that are not currently being used by the SA team and report them to the Software Assurance team to see if any metrics can be implemented in their software assurance life cycle process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delphine eSarafian
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Limitations of current methods: The assessment of human variability in various compartments of daily energy expenditure (EE under standardized conditions is well defined at rest (as basal metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding, and currently under validation for assessing the energy cost of low-intensity dynamic work. However, because physical activities of daily life consist of a combination of both dynamic and isometric work, there is also a need to develop standardized tests for assessing human variability in the energy cost of low-intensity isometric work.Experimental objectives: Development of an approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis by incorporating a protocol of intermittent leg press exercise of varying low-intensity isometric loads with measurements of EE by indirect calorimetry. Results: EE was measured in the seated position with the subject at rest or while intermittently pressing both legs against a press-platform at 5 low-intensity isometric loads (+5, +10, + 15, +20 and +25 kg force, each consisting of a succession of 8 cycles of press (30 s and rest (30 s. EE, integrated over each 8-min period of the intermittent leg press exercise, was found to increase linearly across the 5 isometric loads with a correlation coefficient (r > 0.9 for each individual. The slope of this EE-Load relationship, which provides the energy cost of this standardized isometric exercise expressed per kg force applied intermittently (30 s in every min, was found to show good repeatability when assessed in subjects who repeated the same experimental protocol on 3 separate days: its low intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV of ~ 10% contrasted with its much higher inter-individual CV of 35%; the latter being mass-independent but partly explained by height. Conclusion: This standardized approach to study isometric thermogenesis opens up a new avenue for research in EE phenotyping and metabolic predisposition to obesity
Variable system: An alternative approach for the analysis of mediated moderation.
Kwan, Joyce Lok Yin; Chan, Wai
2018-06-01
Mediated moderation (meMO) occurs when the moderation effect of the moderator (W) on the relationship between the independent variable (X) and the dependent variable (Y) is transmitted through a mediator (M). To examine this process empirically, 2 different model specifications (Type I meMO and Type II meMO) have been proposed in the literature. However, both specifications are found to be problematic, either conceptually or statistically. For example, it can be shown that each type of meMO model is statistically equivalent to a particular form of moderated mediation (moME), another process that examines the condition when the indirect effect from X to Y through M varies as a function of W. Consequently, it is difficult for one to differentiate these 2 processes mathematically. This study therefore has 2 objectives. First, we attempt to differentiate moME and meMO by proposing an alternative specification for meMO. Conceptually, this alternative specification is intuitively meaningful and interpretable, and, statistically, it offers meMO a unique representation that is no longer identical to its moME counterpart. Second, using structural equation modeling, we propose an integrated approach for the analysis of meMO as well as for other general types of conditional path models. VS, a computer software program that implements the proposed approach, has been developed to facilitate the analysis of conditional path models for applied researchers. Real examples are considered to illustrate how the proposed approach works in practice and to compare its performance against the traditional methods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannetti, B.F.; Almeida, C.M.V.B.; Bonilla, S.H.
2010-01-01
The quality and the power of human activities affect the external environment in different ways that can be measured and evaluated by means of several approaches and indicators. While the scientific community has been publishing several proposals for sustainable development indicators, there is still no consensus regarding the best approach to the use of these indicators and their reliability to measure sustainability. It is important, therefore, to question the effectiveness of sustainable development indicators in an effort to continue in the search for sustainability. This paper compares the results obtained with emergy accounting with five global Sustainability Metrics (SMs) proposed in the literature to verify if metrics are communicating coherent and similar information to guide decision makers towards sustainable development. Results obtained using emergy indices are discussed with the aid of emergy ternary diagrams. Metrics are confronted with emergy results, and the degree of variability among them is analyzed using a correlation matrix created for the Mercosur nations. The contrast of results clearly shows that metrics arrive at different interpretations about the sustainability of the nations studied, but also that some metrics may be grouped and used more prudently. Mercosur is presented as a case study to highlight and explain the discrepancies and similarities among Sustainability Metrics, and to expose the extent of emergy accounting.
Shih, Joanna H; Greer, Matthew D; Turkbey, Baris
2018-03-16
To point out the problems with Cohen kappa statistic and to explore alternative metrics to determine interobserver agreement on lesion detection when locations are not prespecified. Use of kappa and two alternative methods, namely index of specific agreement (ISA) and modified kappa, for measuring interobserver agreement on the location of detected lesions are presented. These indices of agreement are illustrated by application to a retrospective multireader study in which nine readers detected and scored prostate cancer lesions in 163 consecutive patients (n = 110 cases, n = 53 controls) using the guideline of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed modified kappa, which properly corrects for the amount of agreement by chance, is shown to be approximately equivalent to the ISA. In the prostate cancer data, average kappa, modified kappa, and ISA equaled 30%, 55%, and 57%, respectively, for all lesions and 20%, 87%, and 87%, respectively, for index lesions. The application of kappa could result in a substantial downward bias in reader agreement on lesion detection when locations are not prespecified. ISA is recommended for assessment of reader agreement on lesion detection. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Seeley, Saren H; Yanez, Betina; Stanton, Annette L; Hoyt, Michael A
2017-08-01
Expressing and understanding one's own emotional responses to negative events, particularly those that challenge the attainment of important life goals, is thought to confer physiological benefit. Individual preferences and/or abilities in approaching emotions might condition the efficacy of interventions designed to encourage written emotional processing (EP). This study examines the physiological impact (as indexed by heart rate variability (HRV)) of an emotional processing writing (EPW) task as well as the moderating influence of a dispositional preference for coping through emotional approach (EP and emotional expression (EE)), in response to a laboratory stress task designed to challenge an important life goal. Participants (n = 98) were randomly assigned to either EPW or fact control writing (FCW) following the stress task. Regression analyses revealed a significant dispositional EP by condition interaction, such that high EP participants in the EPW condition demonstrated higher HRV after writing compared to low EP participants. No significant main effects of condition or EE coping were observed. These findings suggest that EPW interventions may be best suited for those with preference or ability to process emotions related to a stressor or might require adaptation for those who less often cope through emotional approach.
Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piekos, Caroline; Pierog, Olivia; Fenech, Naiman; Krauze, Tomasz; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Wykretowicz, Andrzej
2018-05-01
We compared classic ECG-derived versus a mobile approach to heart rate variability (HRV) measurement. 29 young adult healthy volunteers underwent a simultaneous recording of heart rate using an ECG and a chest heart rate monitor at supine rest, during mental stress and active standing. Mean RR interval, Standard Deviation of Normal-to-Normal (SDNN) of RR intervals, and Root Mean Square of the Successive Differences (RMSSD) between RR intervals were computed in 168 pairs of 5-minute epochs by in-house software on a PC (only sinus beats) and by mobile application "ELITEHRV" on a smartphone (no beat type identification). ECG analysis showed that 33.9% of the recordings contained at least one non-sinus beat or artefact, the mobile app did not report this. The mean RR intervals were significantly longer (p = 0.0378), while SDNN (p = 0.0001) and RMSSD (p = 0.0199) were smaller for the mobile approach. Measures of identical HRV parameters by ECG-based and mobile approaches are not equivalent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Analysis of optically variable devices using a photometric light-field approach
Soukup, Daniel; Å tolc, Svorad; Huber-Mörk, Reinhold
2015-03-01
Diffractive Optically Variable Image Devices (DOVIDs), sometimes loosely referred to as holograms, are popular security features for protecting banknotes, ID cards, or other security documents. Inspection, authentication, as well as forensic analysis of these security features are still demanding tasks requiring special hardware tools and expert knowledge. Existing equipment for such analyses is based either on a microscopic analysis of the grating structure or a point-wise projection and recording of the diffraction patterns. We investigated approaches for an examination of DOVID security features based on sampling the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of DOVIDs using photometric stereo- and light-field-based methods. Our approach is demonstrated on the practical task of automated discrimination between genuine and counterfeited DOVIDs on banknotes. For this purpose, we propose a tailored feature descriptor which is robust against several expected sources of inaccuracy but still specific enough for the given task. The suggested approach is analyzed from both theoretical as well as practical viewpoints and w.r.t. analysis based on photometric stereo and light fields. We show that especially the photometric method provides a reliable and robust tool for revealing DOVID behavior and authenticity.
Validation of Metrics as Error Predictors
Mendling, Jan
In this chapter, we test the validity of metrics that were defined in the previous chapter for predicting errors in EPC business process models. In Section 5.1, we provide an overview of how the analysis data is generated. Section 5.2 describes the sample of EPCs from practice that we use for the analysis. Here we discuss a disaggregation by the EPC model group and by error as well as a correlation analysis between metrics and error. Based on this sample, we calculate a logistic regression model for predicting error probability with the metrics as input variables in Section 5.3. In Section 5.4, we then test the regression function for an independent sample of EPC models from textbooks as a cross-validation. Section 5.5 summarizes the findings.
Henseler, Jorg; Chin, Wynne W.
2010-01-01
In social and business sciences, the importance of the analysis of interaction effects between manifest as well as latent variables steadily increases. Researchers using partial least squares (PLS) to analyze interaction effects between latent variables need an overview of the available approaches as well as their suitability. This article…
Enterprise Sustainment Metrics
2015-06-19
are negatively impacting KPIs” (Parmenter, 2010: 31). In the current state, the Air Force’s AA and PBL metrics are once again split . AA does...must have the authority to “take immediate action to rectify situations that are negatively impacting KPIs” (Parmenter, 2010: 31). 3. Measuring...highest profitability and shareholder value for each company” (2014: 273). By systematically diagraming a process, either through a swim lane flowchart
Variable speed wind turbine control by discrete-time sliding mode approach.
Torchani, Borhen; Sellami, Anis; Garcia, Germain
2016-05-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a new design variable speed wind turbine control by discrete-time sliding mode approach. This methodology is designed for linear saturated system. The saturation constraint is reported on inputs vector. To this end, the back stepping design procedure is followed to construct a suitable sliding manifold that guarantees the attainment of a stabilization control objective. It is well known that the mechanisms are investigated in term of the most proposed assumptions to deal with the damping, shaft stiffness and inertia effect of the gear. The objectives are to synthesize robust controllers that maximize the energy extracted from wind, while reducing mechanical loads and rotor speed tracking combined with an electromagnetic torque. Simulation results of the proposed scheme are presented. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Some issues in the loop variable approach to open strings and an extension to closed strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sathiapalan, B.
1994-01-01
Some issues in the loop variable renormalization group approach to gauge-invariant equations for the free fields of the open string are discussed. It had been shown in an earlier paper that this leads to a simple form of the gauge transformation law. We discuss in some detail some of the curious features encountered there. The theory looks a little like a massless theory in one higher dimension that can be dimensionally reduced to give a massive theory. We discuss the origin of some constraints that are needed for gauge invariance and also for reducing the set of fields to that of standard string theory. The mechanism of gauge invariance and the connection with the Virasoro algebra is a little different from the usual story and is discussed. It is also shown that these results can be extended in a straightforward manner to closed strings. (orig.)
A state variable approach to the BESSY II local beam-position-feedback system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilpatrick, J.D.; Khan, S.; Kraemer, D.
1996-01-01
At the BESSY II facility, stability of the electron beam position and angle near insertion devices (IDs) is of utmost importance. Disturbances due to ground motion could result in unwanted broad-bandwidth beam-jitter which decreases the electron (and resultant photon) beam's effective brightness. Therefore, feedback techniques must be used. Operating over a frequency range of 100-Hz, a local feedback system will correct these beam-trajectory errors using the four bumps around IDs. This paper reviews how the state-variable feedback approach can be applied to real-time correction of these beam position and angle errors. A frequency-domain solution showing beam jitter reduction is presented. Finally, this paper reports results of a beam-feedback test at BESSY I
Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Ranuzzi, Giovanni; De Maria, Beatrice; Baselli, Giuseppe
2017-09-01
We propose a multiscale complexity (MSC) method assessing irregularity in assigned frequency bands and being appropriate for analyzing the short time series. It is grounded on the identification of the coefficients of an autoregressive model, on the computation of the mean position of the poles generating the components of the power spectral density in an assigned frequency band, and on the assessment of its distance from the unit circle in the complex plane. The MSC method was tested on simulations and applied to the short heart period (HP) variability series recorded during graded head-up tilt in 17 subjects (age from 21 to 54 years, median = 28 years, 7 females) and during paced breathing protocols in 19 subjects (age from 27 to 35 years, median = 31 years, 11 females) to assess the contribution of time scales typical of the cardiac autonomic control, namely in low frequency (LF, from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF, from 0.15 to 0.5 Hz) bands to the complexity of the cardiac regulation. The proposed MSC technique was compared to a traditional model-free multiscale method grounded on information theory, i.e., multiscale entropy (MSE). The approach suggests that the reduction of HP variability complexity observed during graded head-up tilt is due to a regularization of the HP fluctuations in LF band via a possible intervention of sympathetic control and the decrement of HP variability complexity observed during slow breathing is the result of the regularization of the HP variations in both LF and HF bands, thus implying the action of physiological mechanisms working at time scales even different from that of respiration. MSE did not distinguish experimental conditions at time scales larger than 1. Over a short time series MSC allows a more insightful association between cardiac control complexity and physiological mechanisms modulating cardiac rhythm compared to a more traditional tool such as MSE.
Variable Pitch Approach for Performance Improving of Straight-Bladed VAWT at Rated Tip Speed Ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhenzhou Zhao
2018-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new variable pitch (VP approach to increase the peak power coefficient of the straight-bladed vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT, by widening the azimuthal angle band of the blade with the highest aerodynamic torque, instead of increasing the highest torque. The new VP-approach provides a curve of pitch angle designed for the blade operating at the rated tip speed ratio (TSR corresponding to the peak power coefficient of the fixed pitch (FP-VAWT. The effects of the new approach are exploited by using the double multiple stream tubes (DMST model and Prandtl’s mathematics to evaluate the blade tip loss. The research describes the effects from six aspects, including the lift, drag, angle of attack (AoA, resultant velocity, torque, and power output, through a comparison between VP-VAWTs and FP-VAWTs working at four TSRs: 4, 4.5, 5, and 5.5. Compared with the FP-blade, the VP-blade has a wider azimuthal zone with the maximum AoA, lift, drag, and torque in the upwind half-cycle, and yields the two new larger maximum values in the downwind half-cycle. The power distribution in the swept area of the turbine changes from an arched shape of the FP-VAWT into the rectangular shape of the VP-VAWT. The new VP-approach markedly widens the highest-performance zone of the blade in a revolution, and ultimately achieves an 18.9% growth of the peak power coefficient of the VAWT at the optimum TSR. Besides achieving this growth, the new pitching method will enhance the performance at TSRs that are higher than current optimal values, and an increase of torque is also generated.
Thali, Michael J; Braun, Marcel; Buck, Ursula; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Vock, Peter; Sonnenschein, Martin; Dirnhofer, Richard
2005-03-01
Until today, most of the documentation of forensic relevant medical findings is limited to traditional 2D photography, 2D conventional radiographs, sketches and verbal description. There are still some limitations of the classic documentation in forensic science especially if a 3D documentation is necessary. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate new 3D real data based geo-metric technology approaches. This paper present approaches to a 3D geo-metric documentation of injuries on the body surface and internal injuries in the living and deceased cases. Using modern imaging methods such as photogrammetry, optical surface and radiological CT/MRI scanning in combination it could be demonstrated that a real, full 3D data based individual documentation of the body surface and internal structures is possible in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Using the data merging/fusing and animation possibilities, it is possible to answer reconstructive questions of the dynamic development of patterned injuries (morphologic imprints) and to evaluate the possibility, that they are matchable or linkable to suspected injury-causing instruments. For the first time, to our knowledge, the method of optical and radiological 3D scanning was used to document the forensic relevant injuries of human body in combination with vehicle damages. By this complementary documentation approach, individual forensic real data based analysis and animation were possible linking body injuries to vehicle deformations or damages. These data allow conclusions to be drawn for automobile accident research, optimization of vehicle safety (pedestrian and passenger) and for further development of crash dummies. Real 3D data based documentation opens a new horizon for scientific reconstruction and animation by bringing added value and a real quality improvement in forensic science.
A hybrid approach to fault diagnosis of roller bearings under variable speed conditions
Wang, Yanxue; Yang, Lin; Xiang, Jiawei; Yang, Jianwei; He, Shuilong
2017-12-01
Rolling element bearings are one of the main elements in rotating machines, whose failure may lead to a fatal breakdown and significant economic losses. Conventional vibration-based diagnostic methods are based on the stationary assumption, thus they are not applicable to the diagnosis of bearings working under varying speeds. This constraint limits the bearing diagnosis to the industrial application significantly. A hybrid approach to fault diagnosis of roller bearings under variable speed conditions is proposed in this work, based on computed order tracking (COT) and variational mode decomposition (VMD)-based time frequency representation (VTFR). COT is utilized to resample the non-stationary vibration signal in the angular domain, while VMD is used to decompose the resampled signal into a number of band-limited intrinsic mode functions (BLIMFs). A VTFR is then constructed based on the estimated instantaneous frequency and instantaneous amplitude of each BLIMF. Moreover, the Gini index and time-frequency kurtosis are both proposed to quantitatively measure the sparsity and concentration measurement of time-frequency representation, respectively. The effectiveness of the VTFR for extracting nonlinear components has been verified by a bat signal. Results of this numerical simulation also show the sparsity and concentration of the VTFR are better than those of short-time Fourier transform, continuous wavelet transform, Hilbert-Huang transform and Wigner-Ville distribution techniques. Several experimental results have further demonstrated that the proposed method can well detect bearing faults under variable speed conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murat Selim Çepni
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Several studies worldwide have been developed that seek to explain the occurrence of traffic accidents from different perspectives. The analyses have addressed legal perspectives, technical attributes of vehicles and infrastructure as well as the psychological, behavioral and socio-economic components of the road system users. Recently, some analysis techniques based on the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS have been used, which allow the generation of spatial distribution maps, models and risk estimates from a spatial perspective. Sometimes analyses of traffic accidents are performed using quantitative statistical techniques, which place significant importance on the evolution of accidents. Studies such as those in references have shown that conventional statistical models are sometimes inadequate to model the frequency of traffic accidents, as they may provide erroneous inferences. GIS approach has been used to explore different spatial and temporal visualization technologies to reveal accident patterns and significant factors relating to vehicle crashes, or as a management system for accident analysis and the determination of hot spots. This paper examines the relationship between urban road accidents and variables related to road infrastructure, environment and traffic volumes. Some accident-prone sections in the city of Kocaeli are specifically identified by GIS tools. Urban road accidents in Kocaeli are a serious problem and it is believed that accidents can be related to infrastructure characteristics. The study aimed to establish the relationship between urban road accidents and the road infrastructure variables and revealed some possible accident prone locations for the period of 2013 and 2015 in Kocaeli city
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kori Blankenship
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Reference ecological conditions offer important context for land managers as they assess the condition of their landscapes and provide benchmarks for desired future conditions. State-and-transition simulation models (STSMs are commonly used to estimate reference conditions that can be used to evaluate current ecosystem conditions and to guide land management decisions and activities. The LANDFIRE program created more than 1,000 STSMs and used them to assess departure from a mean reference value for ecosystems in the United States. While the mean provides a useful benchmark, land managers and researchers are often interested in the range of variability around the mean. This range, frequently referred to as the historical range of variability (HRV, offers model users improved understanding of ecosystem function, more information with which to evaluate ecosystem change and potentially greater flexibility in management options. We developed a method for using LANDFIRE STSMs to estimate the HRV around the mean reference condition for each model state in ecosystems by varying the fire probabilities. The approach is flexible and can be adapted for use in a variety of ecosystems. HRV analysis can be combined with other information to help guide complex land management decisions.
A Synergetic Approach to Describe the Stability and Variability of Motor Behavior
Witte, Kersttn; Bock, Holger; Storb, Ulrich; Blaser, Peter
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian physiologist and biomechanist Bernstein developed his cyclograms, in which he showed in the non-repetition of the same movement under constant conditions. We can also observe this phenomenon when we analyze several cyclic sports movements. For example, we investigated the trajectories of single joints and segments of the body in breaststroke, walking, and running. The problem of the stability and variability of movement, and the relation between the two, cannot be satisfactorily tackled by means of linear methods. Thus, several authors (Turvey, 1977; Kugler et al., 1980; Haken et al., 1985; Schöner et al., 1986; Mitra et al., 1997; Kay et al., 1991; Ganz et al., 1996; Schöllhorn, 1999) use nonlinear models to describe human movement. These models and approaches have shown that nonlinear theories of complex systems provide a new understanding of the stability and variability of motor control. The purpose of this chapter is a presentation of a common synergetic model of motor behavior and its application to foot tapping, walking, and running.
Symmetries of the dual metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baleanu, D.
1998-01-01
The geometric duality between the metric g μν and a Killing tensor K μν is studied. The conditions were found when the symmetries of the metric g μν and the dual metric K μν are the same. Dual spinning space was constructed without introduction of torsion. The general results are applied to the case of Kerr-Newmann metric
Accuracy and precision in the calculation of phenology metrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ferreira, Ana Sofia; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian
2014-01-01
a phenology metric is first determined from a noise- and gap-free time series, and again once it has been modified. We show that precision is a greater concern than accuracy for many of these metrics, an important point that has been hereto overlooked in the literature. The variability in precision between...... phenology metrics is substantial, but it can be improved by the use of preprocessing techniques (e.g., gap-filling or smoothing). Furthermore, there are important differences in the inherent variability of the metrics that may be crucial in the interpretation of studies based upon them. Of the considered......Phytoplankton phenology (the timing of seasonal events) is a commonly used indicator for evaluating responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. However, phenological metrics are vulnerable to observation-(bloom amplitude, missing data, and observational noise) and analysis-related (temporal...
Patrick, Christopher J; Yuan, Lester L
2017-07-01
Flow alteration is widespread in streams, but current understanding of the effects of differences in flow characteristics on stream biological communities is incomplete. We tested hypotheses about the effect of variation in hydrology on stream communities by using generalized additive models to relate watershed information to the values of different flow metrics at gauged sites. Flow models accounted for 54-80% of the spatial variation in flow metric values among gauged sites. We then used these models to predict flow metrics in 842 ungauged stream sites in the mid-Atlantic United States that were sampled for fish, macroinvertebrates, and environmental covariates. Fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages were characterized in terms of a suite of metrics that quantified aspects of community composition, diversity, and functional traits that were expected to be associated with differences in flow characteristics. We related modeled flow metrics to biological metrics in a series of stressor-response models. Our analyses identified both drying and base flow instability as explaining 30-50% of the observed variability in fish and invertebrate community composition. Variations in community composition were related to variations in the prevalence of dispersal traits in invertebrates and trophic guilds in fish. The results demonstrate that we can use statistical models to predict hydrologic conditions at bioassessment sites, which, in turn, we can use to estimate relationships between flow conditions and biological characteristics. This analysis provides an approach to quantify the effects of spatial variation in flow metrics using readily available biomonitoring data. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.
Kerr metric in cosmological background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaidya, P C [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Mathematics
1977-06-01
A metric satisfying Einstein's equation is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a nomogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.
Business model metrics : An open repository
Heikkila, M.; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.; Heikkila, J.; Solaimani, S.; Janssen, W.
2015-01-01
Development of successful business models has become a necessity in turbulent business environments, but compared to research on business modeling tools, attention to the role of metrics in designing business models in literature is limited. Building on existing approaches to business models and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Jinzhong, E-mail: jyang4@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy A.; Reed, Valerie K.; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Tereffe, Welela; Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang, Lifei; Balter, Peter; Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Dong, Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States)
2014-05-01
Purpose: To develop a new approach for interobserver variability analysis. Methods and Materials: Eight radiation oncologists specializing in breast cancer radiation therapy delineated a patient's left breast “from scratch” and from a template that was generated using deformable image registration. Three of the radiation oncologists had previously received training in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus contouring for breast cancer atlas. The simultaneous truth and performance level estimation algorithm was applied to the 8 contours delineated “from scratch” to produce a group consensus contour. Individual Jaccard scores were fitted to a beta distribution model. We also applied this analysis to 2 or more patients, which were contoured by 9 breast radiation oncologists from 8 institutions. Results: The beta distribution model had a mean of 86.2%, standard deviation (SD) of ±5.9%, a skewness of −0.7, and excess kurtosis of 0.55, exemplifying broad interobserver variability. The 3 RTOG-trained physicians had higher agreement scores than average, indicating that their contours were close to the group consensus contour. One physician had high sensitivity but lower specificity than the others, which implies that this physician tended to contour a structure larger than those of the others. Two other physicians had low sensitivity but specificity similar to the others, which implies that they tended to contour a structure smaller than the others. With this information, they could adjust their contouring practice to be more consistent with others if desired. When contouring from the template, the beta distribution model had a mean of 92.3%, SD ± 3.4%, skewness of −0.79, and excess kurtosis of 0.83, which indicated a much better consistency among individual contours. Similar results were obtained for the analysis of 2 additional patients. Conclusions: The proposed statistical approach was able to measure interobserver variability quantitatively
Fernandes, José Antonio
2013-02-01
A multi-species approach to fisheries management requires taking into account the interactions between species in order to improve recruitment forecasting of the fish species. Recent advances in Bayesian networks direct the learning of models with several interrelated variables to be forecasted simultaneously. These models are known as multi-dimensional Bayesian network classifiers (MDBNs). Pre-processing steps are critical for the posterior learning of the model in these kinds of domains. Therefore, in the present study, a set of \\'state-of-the-art\\' uni-dimensional pre-processing methods, within the categories of missing data imputation, feature discretization and feature subset selection, are adapted to be used with MDBNs. A framework that includes the proposed multi-dimensional supervised pre-processing methods, coupled with a MDBN classifier, is tested with synthetic datasets and the real domain of fish recruitment forecasting. The correctly forecasting of three fish species (anchovy, sardine and hake) simultaneously is doubled (from 17.3% to 29.5%) using the multi-dimensional approach in comparison to mono-species models. The probability assessments also show high improvement reducing the average error (estimated by means of Brier score) from 0.35 to 0.27. Finally, these differences are superior to the forecasting of species by pairs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Muñoz, Joel; Alcaide, Daniel; Ocaña, Jordi
2016-05-30
The 2010 US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency regulatory approaches to establish bioequivalence in highly variable drugs are both based on linearly scaling the bioequivalence limits, both take a 'scaled average bioequivalence' approach. The present paper corroborates previous work suggesting that none of them adequately controls type I error or consumer's risk, so they result in invalid test procedures in the neighbourhood of a within-subject coefficient of variation osf 30% for the reference (R) formulation. The problem is particularly serious in the US Food and Drug Administration regulation, but it is also appreciable in the European Medicines Agency one. For the partially replicated TRR/RTR/RRT and the replicated TRTR/RTRT crossover designs, we quantify these type I error problems by means of a simulation study, discuss their possible causes and propose straightforward improvements on both regulatory procedures that improve their type I error control while maintaining an adequate power. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Penny, Robert D., E-mail: robert.d.penny@leidos.com [Leidos Inc., 10260 Campus Point Road, San Diego, CA (United States); Crowley, Tanya M.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Mandell, Myron J.; Guo, Yanlin; Haas, Eric B.; Knize, Duane J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Ranta, Dale; Shyffer, Ryan [Leidos Inc., 10260 Campus Point Road, San Diego, CA (United States); Labov, Simon; Nelson, Karl; Seilhan, Brandon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Valentine, John D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2015-06-01
A novel approach and algorithm have been developed to rapidly detect and localize both moving and static radiological/nuclear (R/N) sources from an airborne platform. Current aerial systems with radiological sensors are limited in their ability to compensate for variable naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) background. The proposed approach suppresses the effects of NORM background by incorporating additional information to segment the survey area into regions over which the background is likely to be uniform. The method produces pixelated Source Activity Maps (SAMs) of both target and background radionuclide activity over the survey area. The task of producing the SAMs requires (1) the development of a forward model which describes the transformation of radionuclide activity to detector measurements and (2) the solution of the associated inverse problem. The inverse problem is ill-posed as there are typically fewer measurements than unknowns. In addition the measurements are subject to Poisson statistical noise. The Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization (MLEM) algorithm is used to solve the inverse problem as it is well suited for under-determined problems corrupted by Poisson noise. A priori terrain information is incorporated to segment the reconstruction space into regions within which we constrain NORM background activity to be uniform. Descriptions of the algorithm and examples of performance with and without segmentation on simulated data are presented.
Lloret-Linares, Célia; Daali, Youssef; Chevret, Sylvie; Nieto, Isabelle; Molière, Fanny; Courtet, Philippe; Galtier, Florence; Richieri, Raphaëlle-Marie; Morange, Sophie; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; El-Hage, Wissam; Desmidt, Thomas; Haesebaert, Frédéric; Vignaud, Philippe; Holtzmann, Jerôme; Cracowski, Jean-Luc; Leboyer, Marion; Yrondi, Antoine; Calvas, Fabienne; Yon, Liova; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Doumy, Olivier; Heron, Kyle; Montange, Damien; Davani, Siamak; Déglon, Julien; Besson, Marie; Desmeules, Jules; Haffen, Emmanuel; Bellivier, Frank
2017-11-07
It is well known that the standard doses of a given drug may not have equivalent effects in all patients. To date, the management of depression remains mainly empirical and often poorly evaluated. The development of a personalized medicine in psychiatry may reduce treatment failure, intolerance or resistance, and hence the burden and costs of mood depressive disorders. The Geneva Cocktail Phenotypic approach presents several advantages including the "in vivo" measure of different cytochromes and transporter P-gp activities, their simultaneous determination in a single test, avoiding the influence of variability over time on phenotyping results, the administration of low dose substrates, a limited sampling strategy with an analytical method developed on DBS analysis. The goal of this project is to explore the relationship between the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME), assessed by a phenotypic approach, and the concentrations of Venlafaxine (VLX) + O-demethyl-venlafaxine (ODV), the efficacy and tolerance of VLX. This study is a multicentre prospective non-randomized open trial. Eligible patients present a major depressive episode, MADRS over or equal to 20, treatment with VLX regardless of the dose during at least 4 weeks. The Phenotype Visit includes VLX and ODV concentration measurement. Following the oral absorption of low doses of omeprazole, midazolam, dextromethorphan, and fexofenadine, drug metabolizing enzymes activity is assessed by specific metabolite/probe concentration ratios from a sample taken 2 h after cocktail administration for CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP2D6; and by the determination of the limited area under the curve from the capillary blood samples taken 2-3 and 6 h after cocktail administration for CYP2C19 and P-gp. Two follow-up visits will take place between 25 and 40 days and 50-70 days after inclusion. They include assessment of efficacy, tolerance and observance. Eleven french centres are involved in recruitment, expected to be
The dynamics of metric-affine gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitagliano, Vincenzo; Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Liberati, Stefano
2011-01-01
Highlights: → The role and the dynamics of the connection in metric-affine theories is explored. → The most general second order action does not lead to a dynamical connection. → Including higher order invariants excites new degrees of freedom in the connection. → f(R) actions are also discussed and shown to be a non- representative class. - Abstract: Metric-affine theories of gravity provide an interesting alternative to general relativity: in such an approach, the metric and the affine (not necessarily symmetric) connection are independent quantities. Furthermore, the action should include covariant derivatives of the matter fields, with the covariant derivative naturally defined using the independent connection. As a result, in metric-affine theories a direct coupling involving matter and connection is also present. The role and the dynamics of the connection in such theories is explored. We employ power counting in order to construct the action and search for the minimal requirements it should satisfy for the connection to be dynamical. We find that for the most general action containing lower order invariants of the curvature and the torsion the independent connection does not carry any dynamics. It actually reduces to the role of an auxiliary field and can be completely eliminated algebraically in favour of the metric and the matter field, introducing extra interactions with respect to general relativity. However, we also show that including higher order terms in the action radically changes this picture and excites new degrees of freedom in the connection, making it (or parts of it) dynamical. Constructing actions that constitute exceptions to this rule requires significant fine tuned and/or extra a priori constraints on the connection. We also consider f(R) actions as a particular example in order to show that they constitute a distinct class of metric-affine theories with special properties, and as such they cannot be used as representative toy
Observable traces of non-metricity: New constraints on metric-affine gravity
Delhom-Latorre, Adrià; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Ronco, Michele
2018-05-01
Relaxing the Riemannian condition to incorporate geometric quantities such as torsion and non-metricity may allow to explore new physics associated with defects in a hypothetical space-time microstructure. Here we show that non-metricity produces observable effects in quantum fields in the form of 4-fermion contact interactions, thereby allowing us to constrain the scale of non-metricity to be greater than 1 TeV by using results on Bahbah scattering. Our analysis is carried out in the framework of a wide class of theories of gravity in the metric-affine approach. The bound obtained represents an improvement of several orders of magnitude to previous experimental constraints.
Learning Low-Dimensional Metrics
Jain, Lalit; Mason, Blake; Nowak, Robert
2017-01-01
This paper investigates the theoretical foundations of metric learning, focused on three key questions that are not fully addressed in prior work: 1) we consider learning general low-dimensional (low-rank) metrics as well as sparse metrics; 2) we develop upper and lower (minimax)bounds on the generalization error; 3) we quantify the sample complexity of metric learning in terms of the dimension of the feature space and the dimension/rank of the underlying metric;4) we also bound the accuracy ...
SOCIAL METRICS APPLIED TO SMART TOURISM
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O. Cervantes
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We present a strategy to make productive use of semantically-related social data, from a user-centered semantic network, in order to help users (tourists and citizens in general to discover cultural heritage, points of interest and available services in a smart city. This data can be used to personalize recommendations in a smart tourism application. Our approach is based on flow centrality metrics typically used in social network analysis: flow betweenness, flow closeness and eccentricity. These metrics are useful to discover relevant nodes within the network yielding nodes that can be interpreted as suggestions (venues or services to users. We describe the semantic network built on graph model, as well as social metrics algorithms used to produce recommendations. We also present challenges and results from a prototypical implementation applied to the case study of the City of Puebla, Mexico.
Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment
O'Neill, R. V.; Riitters, K.H.; Wickham, J.D.; Jones, K.B.
1999-01-01
The combination of remote imagery data, geographic information systems software, and landscape ecology theory provides a unique basis for monitoring and assessing large-scale ecological systems. The unique feature of the work has been the need to develop and interpret quantitative measures of spatial pattern-the landscape indices. This article reviews what is known about the statistical properties of these pattern metrics and suggests some additional metrics based on island biogeography, percolation theory, hierarchy theory, and economic geography. Assessment applications of this approach have required interpreting the pattern metrics in terms of specific environmental endpoints, such as wildlife and water quality, and research into how to represent synergystic effects of many overlapping sources of stress.
Social Metrics Applied to Smart Tourism
Cervantes, O.; Gutiérrez, E.; Gutiérrez, F.; Sánchez, J. A.
2016-09-01
We present a strategy to make productive use of semantically-related social data, from a user-centered semantic network, in order to help users (tourists and citizens in general) to discover cultural heritage, points of interest and available services in a smart city. This data can be used to personalize recommendations in a smart tourism application. Our approach is based on flow centrality metrics typically used in social network analysis: flow betweenness, flow closeness and eccentricity. These metrics are useful to discover relevant nodes within the network yielding nodes that can be interpreted as suggestions (venues or services) to users. We describe the semantic network built on graph model, as well as social metrics algorithms used to produce recommendations. We also present challenges and results from a prototypical implementation applied to the case study of the City of Puebla, Mexico.
Metric Learning for Hyperspectral Image Segmentation
Bue, Brian D.; Thompson, David R.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Castano, Rebecca
2011-01-01
We present a metric learning approach to improve the performance of unsupervised hyperspectral image segmentation. Unsupervised spatial segmentation can assist both user visualization and automatic recognition of surface features. Analysts can use spatially-continuous segments to decrease noise levels and/or localize feature boundaries. However, existing segmentation methods use tasks-agnostic measures of similarity. Here we learn task-specific similarity measures from training data, improving segment fidelity to classes of interest. Multiclass Linear Discriminate Analysis produces a linear transform that optimally separates a labeled set of training classes. The defines a distance metric that generalized to a new scenes, enabling graph-based segmentation that emphasizes key spectral features. We describe tests based on data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) in which learned metrics improve segment homogeneity with respect to mineralogical classes.
A Metric on Phylogenetic Tree Shapes.
Colijn, C; Plazzotta, G
2018-01-01
The shapes of evolutionary trees are influenced by the nature of the evolutionary process but comparisons of trees from different processes are hindered by the challenge of completely describing tree shape. We present a full characterization of the shapes of rooted branching trees in a form that lends itself to natural tree comparisons. We use this characterization to define a metric, in the sense of a true distance function, on tree shapes. The metric distinguishes trees from random models known to produce different tree shapes. It separates trees derived from tropical versus USA influenza A sequences, which reflect the differing epidemiology of tropical and seasonal flu. We describe several metrics based on the same core characterization, and illustrate how to extend the metric to incorporate trees' branch lengths or other features such as overall imbalance. Our approach allows us to construct addition and multiplication on trees, and to create a convex metric on tree shapes which formally allows computation of average tree shapes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.
Performance metrics for the evaluation of hyperspectral chemical identification systems
Truslow, Eric; Golowich, Steven; Manolakis, Dimitris; Ingle, Vinay
2016-02-01
Remote sensing of chemical vapor plumes is a difficult but important task for many military and civilian applications. Hyperspectral sensors operating in the long-wave infrared regime have well-demonstrated detection capabilities. However, the identification of a plume's chemical constituents, based on a chemical library, is a multiple hypothesis testing problem which standard detection metrics do not fully describe. We propose using an additional performance metric for identification based on the so-called Dice index. Our approach partitions and weights a confusion matrix to develop both the standard detection metrics and identification metric. Using the proposed metrics, we demonstrate that the intuitive system design of a detector bank followed by an identifier is indeed justified when incorporating performance information beyond the standard detection metrics.
Atzori, A S; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A
2013-05-01
The economic efficiency of dairy farms is the main goal of farmers. The objective of this work was to use routinely available information at the dairy farm level to develop an index of profitability to rank dairy farms and to assist the decision-making process of farmers to increase the economic efficiency of the entire system. A stochastic modeling approach was used to study the relationships between inputs and profitability (i.e., income over feed cost; IOFC) of dairy cattle farms. The IOFC was calculated as: milk revenue + value of male calves + culling revenue - herd feed costs. Two databases were created. The first one was a development database, which was created from technical and economic variables collected in 135 dairy farms. The second one was a synthetic database (sDB) created from 5,000 synthetic dairy farms using the Monte Carlo technique and based on the characteristics of the development database data. The sDB was used to develop a ranking index as follows: (1) principal component analysis (PCA), excluding IOFC, was used to identify principal components (sPC); and (2) coefficient estimates of a multiple regression of the IOFC on the sPC were obtained. Then, the eigenvectors of the sPC were used to compute the principal component values for the original 135 dairy farms that were used with the multiple regression coefficient estimates to predict IOFC (dRI; ranking index from development database). The dRI was used to rank the original 135 dairy farms. The PCA explained 77.6% of the sDB variability and 4 sPC were selected. The sPC were associated with herd profile, milk quality and payment, poor management, and reproduction based on the significant variables of the sPC. The mean IOFC in the sDB was 0.1377 ± 0.0162 euros per liter of milk (€/L). The dRI explained 81% of the variability of the IOFC calculated for the 135 original farms. When the number of farms below and above 1 standard deviation (SD) of the dRI were calculated, we found that 21
Balzan, Mario V
2012-01-01
Relatively little information is available on environmental associations and the conservation of Odonata in the Maltese Islands. Aquatic habitats are normally spatio-temporally restricted, often located within predominantly rural landscapes, and are thereby susceptible to farmland water management practices, which may create additional pressure on water resources. This study investigates how odonate assemblage structure and diversity are associated with habitat variables of local breeding habitats and the surrounding agricultural landscapes. Standardized survey methodology for adult Odonata involved periodical counts over selected water-bodies (valley systems, semi-natural ponds, constructed agricultural reservoirs). Habitat variables relating to the type of water body, the floristic and physiognomic characteristics of vegetation, and the composition of the surrounding landscape, were studied and analyzed through a multivariate approach. Overall, odonate diversity was associated with a range of factors across multiple spatial scales, and was found to vary with time. Lentic water-bodies are probably of high conservation value, given that larval stages were mainly associated with this habitat category, and that all species were recorded in the adult stage in this habitat type. Comparatively, lentic and lotic seminatural waterbodies were more diverse than agricultural reservoirs and brackish habitats. Overall, different odonate groups were associated with different vegetation life-forms and height categories. The presence of the great reed, Arundo donax L., an invasive alien species that forms dense stands along several water-bodies within the Islands, seems to influence the abundance and/or occurrence of a number of species. At the landscape scale, roads and other ecologically disturbed ground, surface water-bodies, and landscape diversity were associated with particular components of the odonate assemblages. Findings from this study have several implications for the
Chernozhukov, Victor; Hansen, Chris; Spindler, Martin
2016-01-01
The package High-dimensional Metrics (\\Rpackage{hdm}) is an evolving collection of statistical methods for estimation and quantification of uncertainty in high-dimensional approximately sparse models. It focuses on providing confidence intervals and significance testing for (possibly many) low-dimensional subcomponents of the high-dimensional parameter vector. Efficient estimators and uniformly valid confidence intervals for regression coefficients on target variables (e.g., treatment or poli...
Metrics with vanishing quantum corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coley, A A; Hervik, S; Gibbons, G W; Pope, C N
2008-01-01
We investigate solutions of the classical Einstein or supergravity equations that solve any set of quantum corrected Einstein equations in which the Einstein tensor plus a multiple of the metric is equated to a symmetric conserved tensor T μν (g αβ , ∂ τ g αβ , ∂ τ ∂ σ g αβ , ...,) constructed from sums of terms, the involving contractions of the metric and powers of arbitrary covariant derivatives of the curvature tensor. A classical solution, such as an Einstein metric, is called universal if, when evaluated on that Einstein metric, T μν is a multiple of the metric. A Ricci flat classical solution is called strongly universal if, when evaluated on that Ricci flat metric, T μν vanishes. It is well known that pp-waves in four spacetime dimensions are strongly universal. We focus attention on a natural generalization; Einstein metrics with holonomy Sim(n - 2) in which all scalar invariants are zero or constant. In four dimensions we demonstrate that the generalized Ghanam-Thompson metric is weakly universal and that the Goldberg-Kerr metric is strongly universal; indeed, we show that universality extends to all four-dimensional Sim(2) Einstein metrics. We also discuss generalizations to higher dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Auditya Purwandini Sutarto
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The widespread implementation of advanced and complex systems requires predominantly operators’ cognitive functions and less importance of human manual control. On the other hand, most operators perform their cognitive functions below their peak cognitive capacity level due to fatigue, stress, and boredom. Thus, there is a need to improve their cognitive functions during work. The goal of this paper is to present a psychophysiology training approach derived from cardiovascular response named heart rate variability (HRV biofeedback. Description of resonant frequency biofeedback - a specific HRV training protocol - is discussed as well as its supported researches for the performance enhancement. HRV biofeedback training works by teaching people to recognize their involuntary HRV and to control patterns of this physiological response. The training is directed to increase HRV amplitude that promotes autonomic nervous system balance. This balance is associated with improved physiological functioning as well as psychological benefits. Most individuals can learn HRV biofeedback training easily which involves slowing the breathing rate (around six breaths/min to each individual’s resonant frequency at which the amplitude of HRV is maximized. Maximal control over HRV can be obtained in most people after approximately four sessions of training. Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of HRV biofeedback to the improvement of some cognitive functions in both simulated and real industrial operators.
Retention and Curve Number Variability in a Small Agricultural Catchment: The Probabilistic Approach
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Kazimierz Banasik
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The variability of the curve number (CN and the retention parameter (S of the Soil Conservation Service (SCS-CN method in a small agricultural, lowland watershed (23.4 km2 to the gauging station in central Poland has been assessed using the probabilistic approach: distribution fitting and confidence intervals (CIs. Empirical CNs and Ss were computed directly from recorded rainfall depths and direct runoff volumes. Two measures of the goodness of fit were used as selection criteria in the identification of the parent distribution function. The measures specified the generalized extreme value (GEV, normal and general logistic (GLO distributions for 100-CN and GLO, lognormal and GEV distributions for S. The characteristics estimated from theoretical distribution (median, quantiles were compared to the tabulated CN and to the antecedent runoff conditions of Hawkins and Hjelmfelt. The distribution fitting for the whole sample revealed a good agreement between the tabulated CN and the median and between the antecedent runoff conditions (ARCs of Hawkins and Hjelmfelt, which certified a good calibration of the model. However, the division of the CN sample due to heavy and moderate rainfall depths revealed a serious inconsistency between the parameters mentioned. This analysis proves that the application of the SCS-CN method should rely on deep insight into the probabilistic properties of CN and S.
A first approach to calculate BIOCLIM variables and climate zones for Antarctica
Wagner, Monika; Trutschnig, Wolfgang; Bathke, Arne C.; Ruprecht, Ulrike
2018-02-01
For testing the hypothesis that macroclimatological factors determine the occurrence, biodiversity, and species specificity of both symbiotic partners of Antarctic lecideoid lichens, we present a first approach for the computation of the full set of 19 BIOCLIM variables, as available at http://www.worldclim.org/ for all regions of the world with exception of Antarctica. Annual mean temperature (Bio 1) and annual precipitation (Bio 12) were chosen to define climate zones of the Antarctic continent and adjacent islands as required for ecological niche modeling (ENM). The zones are based on data for the years 2009-2015 which was obtained from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) database of the Ohio State University. For both temperature and precipitation, two separate zonings were specified; temperature values were divided into 12 zones (named 1 to 12) and precipitation values into five (named A to E). By combining these two partitions, we defined climate zonings where each geographical point can be uniquely assigned to exactly one zone, which allows an immediate explicit interpretation. The soundness of the newly calculated climate zones was tested by comparison with already published data, which used only three zones defined on climate information from the literature. The newly defined climate zones result in a more precise assignment of species distribution to the single habitats. This study provides the basis for a more detailed continental-wide ENM using a comprehensive dataset of lichen specimens which are located within 21 different climate regions.
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Julie Baussand
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Communication between distant sites often defines the biological role of a protein: amino acid long-range interactions are as important in binding specificity, allosteric regulation and conformational change as residues directly contacting the substrate. The maintaining of functional and structural coupling of long-range interacting residues requires coevolution of these residues. Networks of interaction between coevolved residues can be reconstructed, and from the networks, one can possibly derive insights into functional mechanisms for the protein family. We propose a combinatorial method for mapping conserved networks of amino acid interactions in a protein which is based on the analysis of a set of aligned sequences, the associated distance tree and the combinatorics of its subtrees. The degree of coevolution of all pairs of coevolved residues is identified numerically, and networks are reconstructed with a dedicated clustering algorithm. The method drops the constraints on high sequence divergence limiting the range of applicability of the statistical approaches previously proposed. We apply the method to four protein families where we show an accurate detection of functional networks and the possibility to treat sets of protein sequences of variable divergence.
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Marc A. Rosen
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The temperature response in the soil surrounding multiple boreholes is evaluated analytically and numerically. The assumption of constant heat flux along the borehole wall is examined by coupling the problem to the heat transfer problem inside the borehole and presenting a model with variable heat flux along the borehole length. In the analytical approach, a line source of heat with a finite length is used to model the conduction of heat in the soil surrounding the boreholes. In the numerical method, a finite volume method in a three dimensional meshed domain is used. In order to determine the heat flux boundary condition, the analytical quasi-three-dimensional solution to the heat transfer problem of the U-tube configuration inside the borehole is used. This solution takes into account the variation in heating strength along the borehole length due to the temperature variation of the fluid running in the U-tube. Thus, critical depths at which thermal interaction occurs can be determined. Finally, in order to examine the validity of the numerical method, a comparison is made with the results of line source method.
Fletcher, Jason M
2015-07-01
This paper provides some of the first evidence of peer effects in college enrollment decisions. There are several empirical challenges in assessing the influences of peers in this context, including the endogeneity of high school, shared group-level unobservables, and identifying policy-relevant parameters of social interactions models. This paper addresses these issues by using an instrumental variables/fixed effects approach that compares students in the same school but different grade-levels who are thus exposed to different sets of classmates. In particular, plausibly exogenous variation in peers' parents' college expectations are used as an instrument for peers' college choices. Preferred specifications indicate that increasing a student's exposure to college-going peers by ten percentage points is predicted to raise the student's probability of enrolling in college by 4 percentage points. This effect is roughly half the magnitude of growing up in a household with married parents (vs. an unmarried household). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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João C. O. Marra
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Vibratory phenomena have always surrounded human life. The need for more knowledge and domain of such phenomena increases more and more, especially in the modern society where the human-machine integration becomes closer day after day. In that context, this work deals with the development and practical implementation of a hybrid (passive-active/adaptive vibration control system over a metallic beam excited by a broadband signal and under variable temperature, between 5 and 35°C. Since temperature variations affect directly and considerably the performance of the passive control system, composed of a viscoelastic dynamic vibration neutralizer (also called a viscoelastic dynamic vibration absorber, the associative strategy of using an active-adaptive vibration control system (based on a feedforward approach with the use of the FXLMS algorithm working together with the passive one has shown to be a good option to compensate the neutralizer loss of performance and generally maintain the extended overall level of vibration control. As an additional gain, the association of both vibration control systems (passive and active-adaptive has improved the attenuation of vibration levels. Some key steps matured over years of research on this experimental setup are presented in this paper.
Sharp metric obstructions for quasi-Einstein metrics
Case, Jeffrey S.
2013-02-01
Using the tractor calculus to study smooth metric measure spaces, we adapt results of Gover and Nurowski to give sharp metric obstructions to the existence of quasi-Einstein metrics on suitably generic manifolds. We do this by introducing an analogue of the Weyl tractor W to the setting of smooth metric measure spaces. The obstructions we obtain can be realized as tensorial invariants which are polynomial in the Riemann curvature tensor and its divergence. By taking suitable limits of their tensorial forms, we then find obstructions to the existence of static potentials, generalizing to higher dimensions a result of Bartnik and Tod, and to the existence of potentials for gradient Ricci solitons.
Completion of a Dislocated Metric Space
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P. Sumati Kumari
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We provide a construction for the completion of a dislocated metric space (abbreviated d-metric space; we also prove that the completion of the metric associated with a d-metric coincides with the metric associated with the completion of the d-metric.
Metric adjusted skew information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Frank
2008-01-01
) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...
Assessing Software Quality Through Visualised Cohesion Metrics
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Timothy Shih
2001-05-01
Full Text Available Cohesion is one of the most important factors for software quality as well as maintainability, reliability and reusability. Module cohesion is defined as a quality attribute that seeks for measuring the singleness of the purpose of a module. The module of poor quality can be a serious obstacle to the system quality. In order to design a good software quality, software managers and engineers need to introduce cohesion metrics to measure and produce desirable software. A highly cohesion software is thought to be a desirable constructing. In this paper, we propose a function-oriented cohesion metrics based on the analysis of live variables, live span and the visualization of processing element dependency graph. We give six typical cohesion examples to be measured as our experiments and justification. Therefore, a well-defined, well-normalized, well-visualized and well-experimented cohesion metrics is proposed to indicate and thus enhance software cohesion strength. Furthermore, this cohesion metrics can be easily incorporated with software CASE tool to help software engineers to improve software quality.
Koch, Julian; Cüneyd Demirel, Mehmet; Stisen, Simon
2018-05-01
The process of model evaluation is not only an integral part of model development and calibration but also of paramount importance when communicating modelling results to the scientific community and stakeholders. The modelling community has a large and well-tested toolbox of metrics to evaluate temporal model performance. In contrast, spatial performance evaluation does not correspond to the grand availability of spatial observations readily available and to the sophisticate model codes simulating the spatial variability of complex hydrological processes. This study makes a contribution towards advancing spatial-pattern-oriented model calibration by rigorously testing a multiple-component performance metric. The promoted SPAtial EFficiency (SPAEF) metric reflects three equally weighted components: correlation, coefficient of variation and histogram overlap. This multiple-component approach is found to be advantageous in order to achieve the complex task of comparing spatial patterns. SPAEF, its three components individually and two alternative spatial performance metrics, i.e. connectivity analysis and fractions skill score, are applied in a spatial-pattern-oriented model calibration of a catchment model in Denmark. Results suggest the importance of multiple-component metrics because stand-alone metrics tend to fail to provide holistic pattern information. The three SPAEF components are found to be independent, which allows them to complement each other in a meaningful way. In order to optimally exploit spatial observations made available by remote sensing platforms, this study suggests applying bias insensitive metrics which further allow for a comparison of variables which are related but may differ in unit. This study applies SPAEF in the hydrological context using the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; version 5.8), but we see great potential across disciplines related to spatially distributed earth system modelling.
Fernandes, Kevin
This thesis is oriented toward developers, owners, operators and investors of renewable energy projects. With increasing demand of renewables, our energy dependence comes down to reducing costs associated with this sector so as to compete with the existing sources. One way of valuing investment potential is to determine and then compare the overall value derived by investing in a particular project. Several engineering and financial levers, one of which is operation and maintenance, affect this value. This thesis provides a useful visual aid to owners and operators by which they can operate and maintain their wind farm so as to achieve maximum value throughout its lifetime. All the necessary components that go into developing a business model of a wind farm project will be discussed. Finally, this tool is valid within the assumptions that are explicitly stated. Real world data and trends are used to provide a practical approach to the optimization.
Ciffroy, Philippe; Charlatchka, Rayna; Ferreira, Daniel; Marang, Laura
2013-07-01
The biotic ligand model (BLM) theoretically enables the derivation of environmental quality standards that are based on true bioavailable fractions of metals. Several physicochemical variables (especially pH, major cations, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved metal concentrations) must, however, be assigned to run the BLM, but they are highly variable in time and space in natural systems. This article describes probabilistic approaches for integrating such variability during the derivation of risk indexes. To describe each variable using a probability density function (PDF), several methods were combined to 1) treat censored data (i.e., data below the limit of detection), 2) incorporate the uncertainty of the solid-to-liquid partitioning of metals, and 3) detect outliers. From a probabilistic perspective, 2 alternative approaches that are based on log-normal and Γ distributions were tested to estimate the probability of the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) exceeding the predicted non-effect concentration (PNEC), i.e., p(PEC/PNEC>1). The probabilistic approach was tested on 4 real-case studies based on Cu-related data collected from stations on the Loire and Moselle rivers. The approach described in this article is based on BLM tools that are freely available for end-users (i.e., the Bio-Met software) and on accessible statistical data treatments. This approach could be used by stakeholders who are involved in risk assessments of metals for improving site-specific studies. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.
The metric system: An introduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lumley, S.M.
1995-05-01
On July 13, 1992, Deputy Director Duane Sewell restated the Laboratory`s policy on conversion to the metric system which was established in 1974. Sewell`s memo announced the Laboratory`s intention to continue metric conversion on a reasonable and cost effective basis. Copies of the 1974 and 1992 Administrative Memos are contained in the Appendix. There are three primary reasons behind the Laboratory`s conversion to the metric system. First, Public Law 100-418, passed in 1988, states that by the end of fiscal year 1992 the Federal Government must begin using metric units in grants, procurements, and other business transactions. Second, on July 25, 1991, President George Bush signed Executive Order 12770 which urged Federal agencies to expedite conversion to metric units. Third, the contract between the University of California and the Department of Energy calls for the Laboratory to convert to the metric system. Thus, conversion to the metric system is a legal requirement and a contractual mandate with the University of California. Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770 are discussed in more detail later in this section, but first they examine the reasons behind the nation`s conversion to the metric system. The second part of this report is on applying the metric system.
Attack-Resistant Trust Metrics
Levien, Raph
The Internet is an amazingly powerful tool for connecting people together, unmatched in human history. Yet, with that power comes great potential for spam and abuse. Trust metrics are an attempt to compute the set of which people are trustworthy and which are likely attackers. This chapter presents two specific trust metrics developed and deployed on the Advogato Website, which is a community blog for free software developers. This real-world experience demonstrates that the trust metrics fulfilled their goals, but that for good results, it is important to match the assumptions of the abstract trust metric computation to the real-world implementation.
The metric system: An introduction
Lumley, Susan M.
On 13 Jul. 1992, Deputy Director Duane Sewell restated the Laboratory's policy on conversion to the metric system which was established in 1974. Sewell's memo announced the Laboratory's intention to continue metric conversion on a reasonable and cost effective basis. Copies of the 1974 and 1992 Administrative Memos are contained in the Appendix. There are three primary reasons behind the Laboratory's conversion to the metric system. First, Public Law 100-418, passed in 1988, states that by the end of fiscal year 1992 the Federal Government must begin using metric units in grants, procurements, and other business transactions. Second, on 25 Jul. 1991, President George Bush signed Executive Order 12770 which urged Federal agencies to expedite conversion to metric units. Third, the contract between the University of California and the Department of Energy calls for the Laboratory to convert to the metric system. Thus, conversion to the metric system is a legal requirement and a contractual mandate with the University of California. Public Law 100-418 and Executive Order 12770 are discussed in more detail later in this section, but first they examine the reasons behind the nation's conversion to the metric system. The second part of this report is on applying the metric system.
Metric-adjusted skew information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank
2010-01-01
on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 ...We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....
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Isabel Garrido
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The class of metric spaces (X,d known as small-determined spaces, introduced by Garrido and Jaramillo, are properly defined by means of some type of real-valued Lipschitz functions on X. On the other hand, B-simple metric spaces introduced by Hejcman are defined in terms of some kind of bornologies of bounded subsets of X. In this note we present a common framework where both classes of metric spaces can be studied which allows us to see not only the relationships between them but also to obtain new internal characterizations of these metric properties.
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Vanessa Burholt
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential for environmental interventions to improve health and wellbeing has assumed particular importance in the face of unprecedented population ageing. However, presently observational environmental assessment tools are unsuitable for ‘all ages’. This article describes the development of the Older People’s External Residential Assessment Tool (OPERAT. Methods Potential items were identified through review and consultation with an Expert Advisory Group. Items were ranked according the importance ascribed to them by older people who responded to a survey distributed by 50+ forum in Wales (N = 545. 40 highly ranked items were selected for the OPERAT pilot. An observational assessment was conducted in 405 postcodes in Wales. Items validated with data from a survey of older residents (N = 500 in the postcode areas were selected for statistical modelling (Kendall’s Tau-b, p < .05. Data reduction techniques (exploratory factor analysis with Geomin rotation identified the underlying factor structure of OPERAT. Items were weighted (Thurstone scaling approach and scores calculated for each domain. Internal consistency: all items were tested for scale-domain total correlation (Spearman’s rank. Construct validity: correlation analysis examined the associations between domains and the extent to which participants enjoyed living in the area, felt that it was a desirable place to live, or felt safe at night or during the day (Spearman’s rank. Usability: analysis of variance compared mean OPERAT domain scores between neighbourhoods that were homogenous in terms of (a deprivation (quintiles of the Townsend Index and (b geographic settlement type. Inter-rater reliability: Krippendorff’s alpha was used to evaluate inter-rater consistency in ten postcode areas. Results A four factor model was selected as the best interpretable fit to the data. The domains were named Natural Elements, Incivilities and Nuisance
Software metrics: Software quality metrics for distributed systems. [reliability engineering
Post, J. V.
1981-01-01
Software quality metrics was extended to cover distributed computer systems. Emphasis is placed on studying embedded computer systems and on viewing them within a system life cycle. The hierarchy of quality factors, criteria, and metrics was maintained. New software quality factors were added, including survivability, expandability, and evolvability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Krauss
Full Text Available Interindividual variability in anatomical and physiological properties results in significant differences in drug pharmacokinetics. The consideration of such pharmacokinetic variability supports optimal drug efficacy and safety for each single individual, e.g. by identification of individual-specific dosings. One clear objective in clinical drug development is therefore a thorough characterization of the physiological sources of interindividual variability. In this work, we present a Bayesian population physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK approach for the mechanistically and physiologically realistic identification of interindividual variability. The consideration of a generic and highly detailed mechanistic PBPK model structure enables the integration of large amounts of prior physiological knowledge, which is then updated with new experimental data in a Bayesian framework. A covariate model integrates known relationships of physiological parameters to age, gender and body height. We further provide a framework for estimation of the a posteriori parameter dependency structure at the population level. The approach is demonstrated considering a cohort of healthy individuals and theophylline as an application example. The variability and co-variability of physiological parameters are specified within the population; respectively. Significant correlations are identified between population parameters and are applied for individual- and population-specific visual predictive checks of the pharmacokinetic behavior, which leads to improved results compared to present population approaches. In the future, the integration of a generic PBPK model into an hierarchical approach allows for extrapolations to other populations or drugs, while the Bayesian paradigm allows for an iterative application of the approach and thereby a continuous updating of physiological knowledge with new data. This will facilitate decision making e.g. from preclinical to
Importance of the macroeconomic variables for variance prediction: A GARCH-MIDAS approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asgharian, Hossein; Hou, Ai Jun; Javed, Farrukh
2013-01-01
This paper aims to examine the role of macroeconomic variables in forecasting the return volatility of the US stock market. We apply the GARCH-MIDAS (Mixed Data Sampling) model to examine whether information contained in macroeconomic variables can help to predict short-term and long-term compone......This paper aims to examine the role of macroeconomic variables in forecasting the return volatility of the US stock market. We apply the GARCH-MIDAS (Mixed Data Sampling) model to examine whether information contained in macroeconomic variables can help to predict short-term and long...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vojinovič Borut
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Financial development is correlated with several underlying regulatory variables (such as indicators of investor protection, market transparency variables for corporate governance growth and rules for capital market development, which are under the control of national legislators and EU directives. This paper provides estimates of the relationship between financial market development and corporate growth and assesses the impact of financial market integration on this relationship with reference to European Union (EU countries. The regression results obtained using this panel support the hypothesis that financial development promotes growth particularly in industries that are more financially dependent on external finance. For policy purposes, analyzing changes in these regulatory variables may be a more interesting exercise than analyzing integration of the financial systems themselves. Since assuming that EU countries will raise its regulatory and legal standards to the U.S. standards appears unrealistic, in this case we examine a scenario where EU countries raise their standards to the highest current EU standard.
Inflation with non-minimal coupling. Metric vs. Palatini formulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, F.; Demir, D.A.; Izmir Institute of Technology
2008-03-01
We analyze non-minimally coupled scalar field theories in metric (second-order) and Palatini (first-order) formalisms in a comparative fashion. After contrasting them in a general setup, we specialize to inflation and find that the two formalisms differ in their predictions for various cosmological parameters. The main reason is that dependencies on the non-minimal coupling parameter are different in the two formalisms. For successful inflation, the Palatini approach prefers a much larger value for the non-minimal coupling parameter than the Metric approach. Unlike the Metric formalism, in Palatini, the inflaton stays well below the Planck scale whereby providing a natural inflationary epoch. (orig.)
Thomas E. Dilts; Peter J. Weisberg; Camie M. Dencker; Jeanne C. Chambers
2015-01-01
We have three goals. (1) To develop a suite of functionally relevant climate variables for modelling vegetation distribution on arid and semi-arid landscapes of the Great Basin, USA. (2) To compare the predictive power of vegetation distribution models based on mechanistically proximate factors (water deficit variables) and factors that are more mechanistically removed...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
2014-01-01
Hedonic models in environmental valuation studies have grown in terms of number of transactions and number of explanatory variables. We focus on the practical challenge of model reduction, when aiming for reliable parsimonious models, sensitive to omitted variable bias and multicollinearity. We...
Tracy, Allison J.; Erkut, Sumru; Porche, Michelle V.; Kim, Jo; Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Ceder, Ineke; Garcia, Heidie Vazquez
2010-01-01
In this article, we operationalize identification of mixed racial and ethnic ancestry among adolescents as a latent variable to (a) account for measurement uncertainty, and (b) compare alternative wording formats for racial and ethnic self-categorization in surveys. Two latent variable models were fit to multiple mixed-ancestry indicator data from…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luiz Gustavo Martins da Silva
approach this analysis. It is expected that the discussion of these results would be useful for companies of the energy sector and for environmental agencies in Brazil, subsidizing decisions related to the management of fish passages already installed and to the construction of new facilities in the country.
Wang, Jun; Wang, Yang; Zeng, Hui
2016-01-01
A key issue to address in synthesizing spatial data with variable-support in spatial analysis and modeling is the change-of-support problem. We present an approach for solving the change-of-support and variable-support data fusion problems. This approach is based on geostatistical inverse modeling that explicitly accounts for differences in spatial support. The inverse model is applied here to produce both the best predictions of a target support and prediction uncertainties, based on one or more measurements, while honoring measurements. Spatial data covering large geographic areas often exhibit spatial nonstationarity and can lead to computational challenge due to the large data size. We developed a local-window geostatistical inverse modeling approach to accommodate these issues of spatial nonstationarity and alleviate computational burden. We conducted experiments using synthetic and real-world raster data. Synthetic data were generated and aggregated to multiple supports and downscaled back to the original support to analyze the accuracy of spatial predictions and the correctness of prediction uncertainties. Similar experiments were conducted for real-world raster data. Real-world data with variable-support were statistically fused to produce single-support predictions and associated uncertainties. The modeling results demonstrate that geostatistical inverse modeling can produce accurate predictions and associated prediction uncertainties. It is shown that the local-window geostatistical inverse modeling approach suggested offers a practical way to solve the well-known change-of-support problem and variable-support data fusion problem in spatial analysis and modeling.
Multimetric indices: How many metrics?
Multimetric indices (MMI’s) often include 5 to 15 metrics, each representing a different attribute of assemblage condition, such as species diversity, tolerant taxa, and nonnative taxa. Is there an optimal number of metrics for MMIs? To explore this question, I created 1000 9-met...
Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.
Tice, Bradley S.
Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…
High resolution metric imaging payload
Delclaud, Y.
2017-11-01
Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gibbons, Gary W. [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA U.K. (United Kingdom); Volkov, Mikhail S., E-mail: gwg1@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: volkov@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, LMPT CNRS—UMR 7350, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, Tours, 37200 France (France)
2017-05-01
We study solutions obtained via applying dualities and complexifications to the vacuum Weyl metrics generated by massive rods and by point masses. Rescaling them and extending to complex parameter values yields axially symmetric vacuum solutions containing singularities along circles that can be viewed as singular matter sources. These solutions have wormhole topology with several asymptotic regions interconnected by throats and their sources can be viewed as thin rings of negative tension encircling the throats. For a particular value of the ring tension the geometry becomes exactly flat although the topology remains non-trivial, so that the rings literally produce holes in flat space. To create a single ring wormhole of one metre radius one needs a negative energy equivalent to the mass of Jupiter. Further duality transformations dress the rings with the scalar field, either conventional or phantom. This gives rise to large classes of static, axially symmetric solutions, presumably including all previously known solutions for a gravity-coupled massless scalar field, as for example the spherically symmetric Bronnikov-Ellis wormholes with phantom scalar. The multi-wormholes contain infinite struts everywhere at the symmetry axes, apart from solutions with locally flat geometry.
Metric regularity and subdifferential calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, A D
2000-01-01
The theory of metric regularity is an extension of two classical results: the Lyusternik tangent space theorem and the Graves surjection theorem. Developments in non-smooth analysis in the 1980s and 1990s paved the way for a number of far-reaching extensions of these results. It was also well understood that the phenomena behind the results are of metric origin, not connected with any linear structure. At the same time it became clear that some basic hypotheses of the subdifferential calculus are closely connected with the metric regularity of certain set-valued maps. The survey is devoted to the metric theory of metric regularity and its connection with subdifferential calculus in Banach spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senechal, U.; Breitkopf, C. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik
2011-07-01
Temporal analysis of products (TAP) is a valuable tool for characterization of porous catalytic structures. Established TAP-modeling requires a spatially constant diffusion coefficient and neglect convective flows, which is only valid in Knudsen diffusion regime. Therefore in experiments, the number of molecules per pulse must be chosen accordingly. New approaches for variable process conditions are highly required. Thus, a new theoretical model is developed for estimating the number of molecules per pulse to meet these requirements under any conditions and at any time. The void volume is calculated as the biggest sphere fitting between three pellets. The total number of pulsed molecules is assumed to fill the first void volume at the inlet immediately. Molecule numbers from these calculations can be understood as maximum possible molecules at any time in the reactor to be in Knudsen diffusion regime, i.e., above the Knudsen number of 2. Moreover, a new methodology for generating a full three-dimensional geometrical representation of beds is presented and used for numerical simulations to investigate spatial effects. Based on a freely available open-source game physics engine library (BULLET), beds of arbitrary-sized pellets can be generated and transformed to CFD-usable geometry. In CFD-software (ANSYS CFX registered) a transient diffusive transport equation with time-dependent inlet boundary conditions is solved. Three different pellet diameters were investigated with 1e18 molecules per pulse, which is higher than the limit from the theoretical calculation. Spatial and temporal distributions of transported species show regions inside the reactor, where non-Knudsen conditions exist. From this results, the distance from inlet can be calculated where the theoretical pressure limit (Knudsen number equals 2) is obtained, i.e., from this point to the end of the reactor Knudsen regime can be assumed. Due to linear dependency of pressure and concentration (assuming ideal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Bassi
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Advancements in wind energy technologies have led wind turbines from fixed speed to variable speed operation. This paper introduces an innovative version of a variable-speed wind turbine based on a model predictive control (MPC approach. The proposed approach provides maximum power point tracking (MPPT, whose main objective is to capture the maximum wind energy in spite of the variable nature of the wind’s speed. The proposed MPC approach also reduces the constraints of the two main functional parts of the wind turbine: the full load and partial load segments. The pitch angle for full load and the rotating force for the partial load have been fixed concurrently in order to balance power generation as well as to reduce the operations of the pitch angle. A mathematical analysis of the proposed system using state-space approach is introduced. The simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK show that the performance of the wind turbine with the MPC approach is improved compared to the traditional PID controller in both low and high wind speeds.
Senkel, Luise
2016-01-01
This edited book aims at presenting current research activities in the field of robust variable-structure systems. The scope equally comprises highlighting novel methodological aspects as well as presenting the use of variable-structure techniques in industrial applications including their efficient implementation on hardware for real-time control. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of control theory and nonlinear dynamics but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.
Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
2015-01-01
To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o
Comparative Study of Trace Metrics between Bibliometrics and Patentometrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fred Y. Ye
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To comprehensively evaluate the overall performance of a group or an individual in both bibliometrics and patentometrics. Design/methodology/approach: Trace metrics were applied to the top 30 universities in the 2014 Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU — computer sciences, the top 30 ESI highly cited papers in the computer sciences field in 2014, as well as the top 30 assignees and the top 30 most cited patents in the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER computer hardware and software category. Findings: We found that, by applying trace metrics, the research or marketing impact efficiency, at both group and individual levels, was clearly observed. Furthermore, trace metrics were more sensitive to the different publication-citation distributions than the average citation and h-index were. Research limitations: Trace metrics considered publications with zero citations as negative contributions. One should clarify how he/she evaluates a zero-citation paper or patent before applying trace metrics. Practical implications: Decision makers could regularly examinine the performance of their university/company by applying trace metrics and adjust their policies accordingly. Originality/value: Trace metrics could be applied both in bibliometrics and patentometrics and provide a comprehensive view. Moreover, the high sensitivity and unique impact efficiency view provided by trace metrics can facilitate decision makers in examining and adjusting their policies.
Supplementary Material for: A Geometric Approach to Visualization of Variability in Functional Data
Xie, Weiyi; Kurtek, Sebastian; Bharath, Karthik; Sun, Ying
2016-01-01
We propose a new method for the construction and visualization of boxplot-type displays for functional data. We use a recent functional data analysis framework, based on a representation of functions called square-root slope functions, to decompose observed variation in functional data into three main components: amplitude, phase, and vertical translation. We then construct separate displays for each component, using the geometry and metric of each representation space, based on a novel definition of the median, the two quartiles, and extreme observations. The outlyingness of functional data is a very complex concept. Thus, we propose to identify outliers based on any of the three main components after decomposition. We provide a variety of visualization tools for the proposed boxplot-type displays including surface plots. We evaluate the proposed method using extensive simulations and then focus our attention on three real data applications including exploratory data analysis of sea surface temperature functions, electrocardiogram functions and growth curves.
Candelas, Philip; de la Ossa, Xenia; McOrist, Jock
2017-12-01
Heterotic vacua of string theory are realised, at large radius, by a compact threefold with vanishing first Chern class together with a choice of stable holomorphic vector bundle. These form a wide class of potentially realistic four-dimensional vacua of string theory. Despite all their phenomenological promise, there is little understanding of the metric on the moduli space of these. What is sought is the analogue of special geometry for these vacua. The metric on the moduli space is important in phenomenology as it normalises D-terms and Yukawa couplings. It is also of interest in mathematics, since it generalises the metric, first found by Kobayashi, on the space of gauge field connections, to a more general context. Here we construct this metric, correct to first order in {α^{\\backprime}}, in two ways: first by postulating a metric that is invariant under background gauge transformations of the gauge field, and also by dimensionally reducing heterotic supergravity. These methods agree and the resulting metric is Kähler, as is required by supersymmetry. Checking the metric is Kähler is intricate and the anomaly cancellation equation for the H field plays an essential role. The Kähler potential nevertheless takes a remarkably simple form: it is the Kähler potential of special geometry with the Kähler form replaced by the {α^{\\backprime}}-corrected hermitian form.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pudil, Pavel; Somol, Petr
2008-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 4 (2008), s. 37-55 ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : variable selection * decision making Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/pudil-identifying%20the%20most%20informative%20variables%20for%20decision- making %20problems%20a%20survey%20of%20recent%20approaches%20and%20accompanying%20problems.pdf
Implications of Metric Choice for Common Applications of Readmission Metrics
Davies, Sheryl; Saynina, Olga; Schultz, Ellen; McDonald, Kathryn M; Baker, Laurence C
2013-01-01
Objective. To quantify the differential impact on hospital performance of three readmission metrics: all-cause readmission (ACR), 3M Potential Preventable Readmission (PPR), and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid 30-day readmission (CMS).
A Hybrid ICA-SVM Approach for Determining the Quality Variables at Fault in a Multivariate Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuehjen E. Shao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The monitoring of a multivariate process with the use of multivariate statistical process control (MSPC charts has received considerable attention. However, in practice, the use of MSPC chart typically encounters a difficulty. This difficult involves which quality variable or which set of the quality variables is responsible for the generation of the signal. This study proposes a hybrid scheme which is composed of independent component analysis (ICA and support vector machine (SVM to determine the fault quality variables when a step-change disturbance existed in a multivariate process. The proposed hybrid ICA-SVM scheme initially applies ICA to the Hotelling T2 MSPC chart to generate independent components (ICs. The hidden information of the fault quality variables can be identified in these ICs. The ICs are then served as the input variables of the classifier SVM for performing the classification process. The performance of various process designs is investigated and compared with the typical classification method. Using the proposed approach, the fault quality variables for a multivariate process can be accurately and reliably determined.
Issues in Benchmark Metric Selection
Crolotte, Alain
It is true that a metric can influence a benchmark but will esoteric metrics create more problems than they will solve? We answer this question affirmatively by examining the case of the TPC-D metric which used the much debated geometric mean for the single-stream test. We will show how a simple choice influenced the benchmark and its conduct and, to some extent, DBMS development. After examining other alternatives our conclusion is that the “real” measure for a decision-support benchmark is the arithmetic mean.
Background metric in supergravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoneya, T.
1978-01-01
In supergravity theories, we investigate the conformal anomaly of the path-integral determinant and the problem of fermion zero modes in the presence of a nontrivial background metric. Except in SO(3) -invariant supergravity, there are nonvanishing conformal anomalies. As a consequence, amplitudes around the nontrivial background metric contain unpredictable arbitrariness. The fermion zero modes which are explicitly constructed for the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric are interpreted as an indication of the supersymmetric multiplet structure of a black hole. The degree of degeneracy of a black hole is 2/sup 4n/ in SO(n) supergravity
Generalized Painleve-Gullstrand metrics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin Chunyu [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: l2891112@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Soo Chopin [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw
2009-02-02
An obstruction to the implementation of spatially flat Painleve-Gullstrand (PG) slicings is demonstrated, and explicitly discussed for Reissner-Nordstroem and Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter spacetimes. Generalizations of PG slicings which are not spatially flat but which remain regular at the horizons are introduced. These metrics can be obtained from standard spherically symmetric metrics by physical Lorentz boosts. With these generalized PG metrics, problematic contributions to the imaginary part of the action in the Parikh-Wilczek derivation of Hawking radiation due to the obstruction can be avoided.
Daylight metrics and energy savings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor
2009-12-31
The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.
Next-Generation Metrics: Responsible Metrics & Evaluation for Open Science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilsdon, J.; Bar-Ilan, J.; Peters, I.; Wouters, P.
2016-07-01
Metrics evoke a mixed reaction from the research community. A commitment to using data to inform decisions makes some enthusiastic about the prospect of granular, real-time analysis o of research and its wider impacts. Yet we only have to look at the blunt use of metrics such as journal impact factors, h-indices and grant income targets, to be reminded of the pitfalls. Some of the most precious qualities of academic culture resist simple quantification, and individual indicators often struggle to do justice to the richness and plurality of research. Too often, poorly designed evaluation criteria are “dominating minds, distorting behaviour and determining careers (Lawrence, 2007).” Metrics hold real power: they are constitutive of values, identities and livelihoods. How to exercise that power to more positive ends has been the focus of several recent and complementary initiatives, including the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA1), the Leiden Manifesto2 and The Metric Tide3 (a UK government review of the role of metrics in research management and assessment). Building on these initiatives, the European Commission, under its new Open Science Policy Platform4, is now looking to develop a framework for responsible metrics for research management and evaluation, which can be incorporated into the successor framework to Horizon 2020. (Author)
The Development of Verbal and Visual Working Memory Processes: A Latent Variable Approach
Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V.; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K.
2012-01-01
Working memory (WM) processing in children has been studied with different approaches, focusing on either the organizational structure of WM processing during development (factor analytic) or the influence of different task conditions on WM processing (experimental). The current study combined both approaches, aiming to distinguish verbal and…
Variability in University Students' Use of Technology: An "Approaches to Learning" Perspective
Mimirinis, Mike
2016-01-01
This study reports the results of a cross-case study analysis of how students' approaches to learning are demonstrated in blended learning environments. It was initially propositioned that approaches to learning as key determinants of the quality of student learning outcomes are demonstrated specifically in how students utilise technology in…
Jordan, Pascal; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Löwe, Bernd
To obtain predictors of suicidal ideation, which can also be used for an indirect assessment of suicidal ideation (SI). To create a classifier for SI based on variables of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and sociodemographic variables, and to obtain an upper bound on the best possible performance of a predictor based on those variables. From a consecutive sample of 9025 primary care patients, 6805 eligible patients (60% female; mean age = 51.5 years) participated. Advanced methods of machine learning were used to derive the prediction equation. Various classifiers were applied and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed as a performance measure. Classifiers based on methods of machine learning outperformed ordinary regression methods and achieved AUCs around 0.87. The key variables in the prediction equation comprised four items - namely feelings of depression/hopelessness, low self-esteem, worrying, and severe sleep disturbances. The generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) and the somatic symptom subscale (PHQ-15) did not enhance prediction substantially. In predicting suicidal ideation researchers should refrain from using ordinary regression tools. The relevant information is primarily captured by the depression subscale and should be incorporated in a nonlinear model. For clinical practice, a classification tree using only four items of the whole PHQ may be advocated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sums and Products of Jointly Distributed Random Variables: A Simplified Approach
Stein, Sheldon H.
2005-01-01
Three basic theorems concerning expected values and variances of sums and products of random variables play an important role in mathematical statistics and its applications in education, business, the social sciences, and the natural sciences. A solid understanding of these theorems requires that students be familiar with the proofs of these…
Nieto-Moreno, V.; Martínez-Ruiz, F.; Giralt, S.; Jimenéz-Espejo, F.; Gallego-Torres, D.; Rodrigo-Gámiz, M.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Ortega-Huertas, M.; de Lange, G.J.
2011-01-01
Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic basin, near the Alboran basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to
Bhaskar, Ankush; Ramesh, Durbha Sai; Vichare, Geeta; Koganti, Triven; Gurubaran, S.
2017-12-01
Identification and quantification of possible drivers of recent global temperature variability remains a challenging task. This important issue is addressed adopting a non-parametric information theory technique, the Transfer Entropy and its normalized variant. It distinctly quantifies actual information exchanged along with the directional flow of information between any two variables with no bearing on their common history or inputs, unlike correlation, mutual information etc. Measurements of greenhouse gases: CO2, CH4 and N2O; volcanic aerosols; solar activity: UV radiation, total solar irradiance ( TSI) and cosmic ray flux ( CR); El Niño Southern Oscillation ( ENSO) and Global Mean Temperature Anomaly ( GMTA) made during 1984-2005 are utilized to distinguish driving and responding signals of global temperature variability. Estimates of their relative contributions reveal that CO2 ({˜ } 24 %), CH4 ({˜ } 19 %) and volcanic aerosols ({˜ }23 %) are the primary contributors to the observed variations in GMTA. While, UV ({˜ } 9 %) and ENSO ({˜ } 12 %) act as secondary drivers of variations in the GMTA, the remaining play a marginal role in the observed recent global temperature variability. Interestingly, ENSO and GMTA mutually drive each other at varied time lags. This study assists future modelling efforts in climate science.
Metrics for measuring distances in configuration spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi, Ali; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Schaefer, Bastian; Mohr, Stephan; Goedecker, Stefan; Lill, Markus A.
2013-01-01
In order to characterize molecular structures we introduce configurational fingerprint vectors which are counterparts of quantities used experimentally to identify structures. The Euclidean distance between the configurational fingerprint vectors satisfies the properties of a metric and can therefore safely be used to measure dissimilarities between configurations in the high dimensional configuration space. In particular we show that these metrics are a perfect and computationally cheap replacement for the root-mean-square distance (RMSD) when one has to decide whether two noise contaminated configurations are identical or not. We introduce a Monte Carlo approach to obtain the global minimum of the RMSD between configurations, which is obtained from a global minimization over all translations, rotations, and permutations of atomic indices
Metric-Aware Secure Service Orchestration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriele Costa
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Secure orchestration is an important concern in the internet of service. Next to providing the required functionality the composite services must also provide a reasonable level of security in order to protect sensitive data. Thus, the orchestrator has a need to check whether the complex service is able to satisfy certain properties. Some properties are expressed with metrics for precise definition of requirements. Thus, the problem is to analyse the values of metrics for a complex business process. In this paper we extend our previous work on analysis of secure orchestration with quantifiable properties. We show how to define, verify and enforce quantitative security requirements in one framework with other security properties. The proposed approach should help to select the most suitable service architecture and guarantee fulfilment of the declared security requirements.
Zimmerman, Marianna
1975-01-01
Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gu NY
2008-12-01
Full Text Available There are limited studies on quantifying the impact of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation on patient medication adherence. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation services on medication adherence in a large managed care organization. Methods: We analyzed data from a patient satisfaction survey of 6,916 patients who had used pharmacist consultation services in Kaiser Permanente Southern California from 1993 to 1996. We compared treating patient satisfaction as exogenous, in a single-equation probit model, with a bivariate probit model where patient satisfaction was treated as endogenous. Different sets of instrumental variables were employed, including measures of patients' emotional well-being and patients' propensity to fill their prescriptions at a non-Kaiser Permanente (KP pharmacy. The Smith-Blundell test was used to test whether patient satisfaction was endogenous. Over-identification tests were used to test the validity of the instrumental variables. The Staiger-Stock weak instrument test was used to evaluate the explanatory power of the instrumental variables. Results: All tests indicated that the instrumental variables method was valid and the instrumental variables used have significant explanatory power. The single equation probit model indicated that the effect of patient satisfaction with pharmacist consultation was significant (p<0.010. However, the bivariate probit models revealed that the marginal effect of pharmacist consultation on medication adherence was significantly greater than the single equation probit. The effect increased from 7% to 30% (p<0.010 after controlling for endogeneity bias. Conclusion: After appropriate adjustment for endogeneity bias, patients satisfied with their pharmacy services are substantially more likely to adhere to their medication. The results have important policy implications given the increasing focus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joachim Almquist
Full Text Available The last decade has seen a rapid development of experimental techniques that allow data collection from individual cells. These techniques have enabled the discovery and characterization of variability within a population of genetically identical cells. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME modeling is an established framework for studying variability between individuals in a population, frequently used in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but its potential for studies of cell-to-cell variability in molecular cell biology is yet to be exploited. Here we take advantage of this novel application of NLME modeling to study cell-to-cell variability in the dynamic behavior of the yeast transcription repressor Mig1. In particular, we investigate a recently discovered phenomenon where Mig1 during a short and transient period exits the nucleus when cells experience a shift from high to intermediate levels of extracellular glucose. A phenomenological model based on ordinary differential equations describing the transient dynamics of nuclear Mig1 is introduced, and according to the NLME methodology the parameters of this model are in turn modeled by a multivariate probability distribution. Using time-lapse microscopy data from nearly 200 cells, we estimate this parameter distribution according to the approach of maximizing the population likelihood. Based on the estimated distribution, parameter values for individual cells are furthermore characterized and the resulting Mig1 dynamics are compared to the single cell times-series data. The proposed NLME framework is also compared to the intuitive but limited standard two-stage (STS approach. We demonstrate that the latter may overestimate variabilities by up to almost five fold. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of the inferred population model are used to predict the distribution of key characteristics of the Mig1 transient response. We find that with decreasing levels of post-shift glucose, the transient
Experiential space is hardly metric
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal; Lukavský, Jiří
2008-01-01
Roč. 2008, č. 37 (2008), s. 58-58 ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception. 24.08-28.08.2008, Utrecht] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1676 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : visual space perception * metric and non-metric perceptual judgments * ecological validity Subject RIV: AN - Psychology
Coverage Metrics for Model Checking
Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.
Phantom metrics with Killing spinors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W.A. Sabra
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We study metric solutions of Einstein–anti-Maxwell theory admitting Killing spinors. The analogue of the IWP metric which admits a space-like Killing vector is found and is expressed in terms of a complex function satisfying the wave equation in flat (2+1-dimensional space–time. As examples, electric and magnetic Kasner spaces are constructed by allowing the solution to depend only on the time coordinate. Euclidean solutions are also presented.
A framework for quantification of groundwater dynamics - concepts and hydro(geo-)logical metrics
Haaf, Ezra; Heudorfer, Benedikt; Stahl, Kerstin; Barthel, Roland
2017-04-01
Fluctuation patterns in groundwater hydrographs are generally assumed to contain information on aquifer characteristics, climate and environmental controls. However, attempts to disentangle this information and map the dominant controls have been few. This is due to the substantial heterogeneity and complexity of groundwater systems, which is reflected in the abundance of morphologies of groundwater time series. To describe the structure and shape of hydrographs, descriptive terms like "slow"/ "fast" or "flashy"/ "inert" are frequently used, which are subjective, irreproducible and limited. This lack of objective and refined concepts limit approaches for regionalization of hydrogeological characteristics as well as our understanding of dominant processes controlling groundwater dynamics. Therefore, we propose a novel framework for groundwater hydrograph characterization in an attempt to categorize morphologies explicitly and quantitatively based on perceptual concepts of aspects of the dynamics. This quantitative framework is inspired by the existing and operational eco-hydrological classification frameworks for streamflow. The need for a new framework for groundwater systems is justified by the fundamental differences between the state variable groundwater head and the flow variable streamflow. Conceptually, we extracted exemplars of specific dynamic patterns, attributing descriptive terms for means of systematisation. Metrics, primarily taken from streamflow literature, were subsequently adapted to groundwater and assigned to the described patterns for means of quantification. In this study, we focused on the particularities of groundwater as a state variable. Furthermore, we investigated the descriptive skill of individual metrics as well as their usefulness for groundwater hydrographs. The ensemble of categorized metrics result in a framework, which can be used to describe and quantify groundwater dynamics. It is a promising tool for the setup of a successful
Fernandes, José Antonio; Lozano, Jose A.; Iñ za, Iñ aki; Irigoien, Xabier; Pé rez, Aritz; Rodrí guez, Juan Diego
2013-01-01
A multi-species approach to fisheries management requires taking into account the interactions between species in order to improve recruitment forecasting of the fish species. Recent advances in Bayesian networks direct the learning of models
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Among various approaches for implementing prognostic algorithms data-driven algorithms are popular in the industry due to their intuitive nature and relatively fast...
Vacuum structure for indefinite-metric quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabuffo, I.; Vitiello, G.
1978-01-01
An approach to indefinite-metric QFT is presented in which the fundamental state of the theory is constructed by taking advantage of the existence of infinitely many unitarily inequivalent representations of the commutation relations. Use of the metric operator eta is avoided. Physical states are positive normed states. The probabilistic interpretation of the norms is fully recovered. An application to a simple model is given. Considerations on the statistical aspects of the construction conclude the paper
Second order elastic metrics on the shape space of curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp
2015-01-01
Second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular unparametrized planar curves have several desirable completeness properties not present in lower order metrics, but numerics are still largely missing. In this paper, we present algorithms to numerically solve the initial and boundary value......, due to its generality, it could be applied to more general spaces of mapping. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by analyzing a collection of shapes representing physical objects....
Mazumder, Sonal; Pavurala, Naresh; Manda, Prashanth; Xu, Xiaoming; Cruz, Celia N; Krishnaiah, Yellela S R
2017-07-15
The present investigation was carried out to understand the impact of formulation and process variables on the quality of oral disintegrating films (ODF) using Quality by Design (QbD) approach. Lamotrigine (LMT) was used as a model drug. Formulation variable was plasticizer to film former ratio and process variables were drying temperature, air flow rate in the drying chamber, drying time and wet coat thickness of the film. A Definitive Screening Design of Experiments (DoE) was used to identify and classify the critical formulation and process variables impacting critical quality attributes (CQA). A total of 14 laboratory-scale DoE formulations were prepared and evaluated for mechanical properties (%elongation at break, yield stress, Young's modulus, folding endurance) and other CQA (dry thickness, disintegration time, dissolution rate, moisture content, moisture uptake, drug assay and drug content uniformity). The main factors affecting mechanical properties were plasticizer to film former ratio and drying temperature. Dissolution rate was found to be sensitive to air flow rate during drying and plasticizer to film former ratio. Data were analyzed for elucidating interactions between different variables, rank ordering the critical materials attributes (CMA) and critical process parameters (CPP), and for providing a predictive model for the process. Results suggested that plasticizer to film former ratio and process controls on drying are critical to manufacture LMT ODF with the desired CQA. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Culture, intangibles and metrics in environmental management.
Satterfield, Terre; Gregory, Robin; Klain, Sarah; Roberts, Mere; Chan, Kai M
2013-03-15
The demand for better representation of cultural considerations in environmental management is increasingly evident. As two cases in point, ecosystem service approaches increasingly include cultural services, and resource planners recognize indigenous constituents and the cultural knowledge they hold as key to good environmental management. Accordingly, collaborations between anthropologists, planners, decision makers and biodiversity experts about the subject of culture are increasingly common-but also commonly fraught. Those whose expertise is culture often engage in such collaborations because they worry a practitioner from 'elsewhere' will employ a 'measure of culture' that is poorly or naively conceived. Those from an economic or biophysical training must grapple with the intangible properties of culture as they intersect with economic, biological or other material measures. This paper seeks to assist those who engage in collaborations to characterize cultural benefits or impacts relevant to decision-making in three ways; by: (i) considering the likely mindset of would-be collaborators; (ii) providing examples of tested approaches that might enable innovation; and (iii) characterizing the kinds of obstacles that are in principle solvable through methodological alternatives. We accomplish these tasks in part by examining three cases wherein culture was a critical variable in environmental decision making: risk management in New Zealand associated with Māori concerns about genetically modified organisms; cultural services to assist marine planning in coastal British Columbia; and a decision-making process involving a local First Nation about water flows in a regulated river in western Canada. We examine how 'culture' came to be manifest in each case, drawing from ethnographic and cultural-models interviews and using subjective metrics (recommended by theories of judgment and decision making) to express cultural concerns. We conclude that the characterization of
A Parallel Approach in Computing Correlation Immunity up to Six Variables
2015-07-24
failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 23 JUL 2015 2. REPORT TYPE...second step, we specify that a condition hold across all assignments of values to the variables chosen in the first step. For pedagogical reasons, we could...table of the function whose correlation immunity is currently being computed. When this circuit is used in exhaustive enumeration, the Function
Implementation of upper limit calculation for a poisson variable by bayesian approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Yongsheng
2008-01-01
The calculation of Bayesian confidence upper limit for a Poisson variable including both signal and background with and without systematic uncertainties has been formulated. A Fortran 77 routine, BPULE, has been developed to implement the calculation. The routine can account for systematic uncertainties in the background expectation and signal efficiency. The systematic uncertainties may be separately parameterized by a Gaussian, Log-Gaussian or flat probability density function (pdf). Some technical details of BPULE have been discussed. (authors)
Forejt, Martin; Brázdová, Zuzana Derflerová; Novák, Jan; Zlámal, Filip; Forbelská, Marie; Bienert, Petr; Mořkovská, Petra; Zavřelová, Miroslava; Pohořalá, Aneta; Jurášková, Miluše; Salah, Nabil; Bienertová-Vašků, Julie
2017-12-01
It is known that total energy intake and its distribution during the day influences human anthropometric characteristics. However, possible association between variability in total energy intake and obesity has thus far remained unexamined. This study was designed to establish the influence of energy intake variability of each daily meal on the anthropometric characteristics of obesity. A total of 521 individuals of Czech Caucasian origin aged 16–73 years (390 women and 131 men) were included in the study, 7-day food records were completed by all study subjects and selected anthropometric characteristics were measured. The interquartile range (IQR) of energy intake was assessed individually for each meal of the day (as a marker of energy intake variability) and subsequently correlated with body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (%BF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (cW). Four distinct models were created using multiple logistic regression analysis and backward stepwise logistic regression. The most precise results, based on the area under the curve (AUC), were observed in case of the %BF model (AUC=0.895) and cW model (AUC=0.839). According to the %BF model, age (p<0.001) and IQR-lunch (p<0.05) seem to play an important prediction role for obesity. Likewise, according to the cW model, age (p<0.001), IQR-breakfast (p<0.05) and IQR-dinner (p <0.05) predispose patients to the development of obesity. The results of our study show that higher variability in the energy intake of key daily meals may increase the likelihood of obesity development. Based on the obtained results, it is necessary to emphasize the regularity in meals intake for maintaining proper body composition. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017
Economies of scale in the Korean district heating system: A variable cost function approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Sun-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Sil; Yoo, Seung-Hoon
2016-01-01
This paper aims to investigate the cost efficiency of South Korea’s district heating (DH) system by using a variable cost function and cost-share equation. We employ a seemingly unrelated regression model, with quarterly time-series data from the Korea District Heating Corporation (KDHC)—a public utility that covers about 59% of the DH system market in South Korea—over the 1987–2011 period. The explanatory variables are price of labor, price of material, capital cost, and production level. The results indicate that economies of scale are present and statistically significant. Thus, expansion of its DH business would allow KDHC to obtain substantial economies of scale. According to our forecasts vis-à-vis scale economies, the KDHC will enjoy cost efficiency for some time yet. To ensure a socially efficient supply of DH, it is recommended that the KDHC expand its business proactively. With regard to informing policy or regulations, our empirical results could play a significant role in decision-making processes. - Highlights: • We examine economies of scale in the South Korean district heating sector. • We focus on Korea District Heating Corporation (KDHC), a public utility. • We estimate a translog cost function, using a variable cost function. • We found economies of scale to be present and statistically significant. • KDHC will enjoy cost efficiency and expanding its supply is socially efficient.
Vidal, Anthony; Wu, Will; Nakajima, Mimi; Becker, James
2017-09-19
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of focus of attention cues on movement coordination and coordination variability in the lower extremity. Twenty participants performed the standing long jump under both internal and external focus of attention conditions. A modified vector coding technique was used to evaluate the influence of attentional focus cues on lower extremity coordination patterns and coordination variability during the jumps. Participants jumped significantly further under an external focus of attention condition compared with an internal focus of attention condition (p = .035, effect size = .29). Focus of attention also influenced coordination between the ankle and knee, F(6, 19) = 2.87, p = .012, effect size = .388, with participants primarily using their knees under the internal focus of attention, and using both their ankles and knees under the external focus of attention. Attentional focus cues did not influence ankle-knee, F(1, 19) = 0.02, p = .98, effect size = .02, or hip-knee, F(1, 19) = 5.00, p = .49, effect size = .16, coordination variability. Results suggest that while attentional focus may not directly influence movement coordination condition, there is still a change in movement strategy resulting in greater jump distances following an external focus of attention.
Psychological variables implied in the therapeutic effect of ayahuasca: A contextual approach.
Franquesa, Alba; Sainz-Cort, Alberto; Gandy, Sam; Soler, Joaquim; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel; Bouso, José Carlos
2018-04-04
Ayahuasca is a psychedelic decoction originating from Amazonia. The ayahuasca-induced introspective experience has been shown to have potential benefits in the treatment of several pathologies, to protect mental health and to improve neuropsychological functions and creativity, and boost mindfulness. The underlying psychological processes related to the use of ayahuasca in a psychotherapeutic context are not yet well described in the scientific literature, but there is some evidence to suggest that psychological variables described in psychotherapies could be useful in explaining the therapeutic effects of the brew. In this study we explore the link between ayahuasca use and Decentering, Values and Self, comparing subjects without experience of ayahuasca (n = 41) with subjects with experience (n = 81). Results confirm that ayahuasca users scored higher than non-users in Decentering and Positive self, but not in Valued living, Life fulfillment, Self in social relations, Self in close relations and General self. Scores in Decentering were higher in the more experienced subjects (more than 15 occasions) than in those with less experience (less than 15 occasions). Our results show that psychological process variables may explain the outcomes in ayahuasca psychotherapy. The introduction of these variables is warranted in future ayahuasca therapeutic studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A New Statistical Approach to the Optical Spectral Variability in Blazars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose A. Acosta-Pulido
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We present a spectral variability study of a sample of about 25 bright blazars, based on optical spectroscopy. Observations cover the period from the end of 2008 to mid 2015, with an approximately monthly cadence. Emission lines have been identified and measured in the spectra, which permits us to classify the sources into BL Lac-type or FSRQs, according to the commonly used EW limit. We have obtained synthetic photometry and produced colour-magnitude diagrams which show different trends associated with the object classes: generally, BL Lacs tend to become bluer when brighter and FSRQs become redder when brighter, although several objects exhibit both trends, depending on brightness. We have also applied a pattern recognition algorithm to obtain the minimum number of physical components which can explain the variability of the optical spectrum. We have used NMF (Non-Negative Matrix Factorization instead of PCA (Principal Component Analysis to avoid un-realistic negative components. For most targets we found that 2 or 3 meta-components are enough to explain the observed spectral variability.
Krüger, Melanie; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas
2017-01-01
In recent years, theory-building in motor neuroscience and our understanding of the synergistic control of the redundant human motor system has significantly profited from the emergence of a range of different mathematical approaches to analyze the structure of movement variability. Approaches such as the Uncontrolled Manifold method or the Noise-Tolerance-Covariance decomposition method allow to detect and interpret changes in movement coordination due to e.g., learning, external task constraints or disease, by analyzing the structure of within-subject, inter-trial movement variability. Whereas, for cyclical movements (e.g., locomotion), mathematical approaches exist to investigate the propagation of movement variability in time (e.g., time series analysis), similar approaches are missing for discrete, goal-directed movements, such as reaching. Here, we propose canonical correlation analysis as a suitable method to analyze the propagation of within-subject variability across different time points during the execution of discrete movements. While similar analyses have already been applied for discrete movements with only one degree of freedom (DoF; e.g., Pearson's product-moment correlation), canonical correlation analysis allows to evaluate the coupling of inter-trial variability across different time points along the movement trajectory for multiple DoF-effector systems, such as the arm. The theoretical analysis is illustrated by empirical data from a study on reaching movements under normal and disturbed proprioception. The results show increased movement duration, decreased movement amplitude, as well as altered movement coordination under ischemia, which results in a reduced complexity of movement control. Movement endpoint variability is not increased under ischemia. This suggests that healthy adults are able to immediately and efficiently adjust the control of complex reaching movements to compensate for the loss of proprioceptive information. Further, it is
Using principal component analysis for selecting network behavioral anomaly metrics
Gregorio-de Souza, Ian; Berk, Vincent; Barsamian, Alex
2010-04-01
This work addresses new approaches to behavioral analysis of networks and hosts for the purposes of security monitoring and anomaly detection. Most commonly used approaches simply implement anomaly detectors for one, or a few, simple metrics and those metrics can exhibit unacceptable false alarm rates. For instance, the anomaly score of network communication is defined as the reciprocal of the likelihood that a given host uses a particular protocol (or destination);this definition may result in an unrealistically high threshold for alerting to avoid being flooded by false positives. We demonstrate that selecting and adapting the metrics and thresholds, on a host-by-host or protocol-by-protocol basis can be done by established multivariate analyses such as PCA. We will show how to determine one or more metrics, for each network host, that records the highest available amount of information regarding the baseline behavior, and shows relevant deviances reliably. We describe the methodology used to pick from a large selection of available metrics, and illustrate a method for comparing the resulting classifiers. Using our approach we are able to reduce the resources required to properly identify misbehaving hosts, protocols, or networks, by dedicating system resources to only those metrics that actually matter in detecting network deviations.
Hu, Yong; Olguin, Hernan; Gutheil, Eva
2017-05-01
A spray flamelet/progress variable approach is developed for use in spray combustion with partly pre-vaporised liquid fuel, where a laminar spray flamelet library accounts for evaporation within the laminar flame structures. For this purpose, the standard spray flamelet formulation for pure evaporating liquid fuel and oxidiser is extended by a chemical reaction progress variable in both the turbulent spray flame model and the laminar spray flame structures, in order to account for the effect of pre-vaporised liquid fuel for instance through use of a pilot flame. This new approach is combined with a transported joint probability density function (PDF) method for the simulation of a turbulent piloted ethanol/air spray flame, and the extension requires the formulation of a joint three-variate PDF depending on the gas phase mixture fraction, the chemical reaction progress variable, and gas enthalpy. The molecular mixing is modelled with the extended interaction-by-exchange-with-the-mean (IEM) model, where source terms account for spray evaporation and heat exchange due to evaporation as well as the chemical reaction rate for the chemical reaction progress variable. This is the first formulation using a spray flamelet model considering both evaporation and partly pre-vaporised liquid fuel within the laminar spray flamelets. Results with this new formulation show good agreement with the experimental data provided by A.R. Masri, Sydney, Australia. The analysis of the Lagrangian statistics of the gas temperature and the OH mass fraction indicates that partially premixed combustion prevails near the nozzle exit of the spray, whereas further downstream, the non-premixed flame is promoted towards the inner rich-side of the spray jet since the pilot flame heats up the premixed inner spray zone. In summary, the simulation with the new formulation considering the reaction progress variable shows good performance, greatly improving the standard formulation, and it provides new
Relevance of motion-related assessment metrics in laparoscopic surgery.
Oropesa, Ignacio; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Lamata, Pablo; Rodrigues, Sharon P; Enciso, Silvia; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Gómez, Enrique J
2013-06-01
Motion metrics have become an important source of information when addressing the assessment of surgical expertise. However, their direct relationship with the different surgical skills has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relevance of motion-related metrics in the evaluation processes of basic psychomotor laparoscopic skills and their correlation with the different abilities sought to measure. A framework for task definition and metric analysis is proposed. An explorative survey was first conducted with a board of experts to identify metrics to assess basic psychomotor skills. Based on the output of that survey, 3 novel tasks for surgical assessment were designed. Face and construct validation was performed, with focus on motion-related metrics. Tasks were performed by 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts). Movements of the laparoscopic instruments were registered with the TrEndo tracking system and analyzed. Time, path length, and depth showed construct validity for all 3 tasks. Motion smoothness and idle time also showed validity for tasks involving bimanual coordination and tasks requiring a more tactical approach, respectively. Additionally, motion smoothness and average speed showed a high internal consistency, proving them to be the most task-independent of all the metrics analyzed. Motion metrics are complementary and valid for assessing basic psychomotor skills, and their relevance depends on the skill being evaluated. A larger clinical implementation, combined with quality performance information, will give more insight on the relevance of the results shown in this study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorena Olmos-Pérez
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The high mortality of cephalopod early stages is the main bottleneck to grow them from paralarvae to adults in culture conditions, probably because the inadequacy of the diet that results in malnutrition. Since visual analysis of digestive tract contents of paralarvae provides little evidence of diet composition, the use of molecular tools, particularly next generation sequencing (NGS platforms, offers an alternative to understand prey preferences and nutrient requirements of wild paralarvae. In this work, we aimed to determine the diet of paralarvae of the loliginid squid Alloteuthis media and to enhance the knowledge of the diet of recently hatched Octopus vulgaris paralarvae collected in different areas and seasons in an upwelling area (NW Spain. DNA from the dissected digestive glands of 32 A. media and 64 O. vulgaris paralarvae was amplified with universal primers for the mitochondrial gene COI, and specific primers targeting the mitochondrial gene 16S gene of arthropods and the mitochondrial gene 16S of Chordata. Following high-throughput DNA sequencing with the MiSeq run (Illumina, up to 4,124,464 reads were obtained and 234,090 reads of prey were successfully identified in 96.87 and 81.25% of octopus and squid paralarvae, respectively. Overall, we identified 122 Molecular Taxonomic Units (MOTUs belonging to several taxa of decapods, copepods, euphausiids, amphipods, echinoderms, molluscs, and hydroids. Redundancy analysis (RDA showed seasonal and spatial variability in the diet of O. vulgaris and spatial variability in A. media diet. General Additive Models (GAM of the most frequently detected prey families of O. vulgaris revealed seasonal variability of the presence of copepods (family Paracalanidae and ophiuroids (family Euryalidae, spatial variability in presence of crabs (family Pilumnidae and preference in small individual octopus paralarvae for cladocerans (family Sididae and ophiuroids. No statistically significant variation in
Advanced spatial metrics analysis in cellular automata land use and cover change modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamyatin, Alexander; Cabral, Pedro
2011-01-01
This paper proposes an approach for a more effective definition of cellular automata transition rules for landscape change modeling using an advanced spatial metrics analysis. This approach considers a four-stage methodology based on: (i) the search for the appropriate spatial metrics with minimal correlations; (ii) the selection of the appropriate neighborhood size; (iii) the selection of the appropriate technique for spatial metrics application; and (iv) the analysis of the contribution level of each spatial metric for joint use. The case study uses an initial set of 7 spatial metrics of which 4 are selected for modeling. Results show a better model performance when compared to modeling without any spatial metrics or with the initial set of 7 metrics.
Scalar-metric and scalar-metric-torsion gravitational theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldersley, S.J.
1977-01-01
The techniques of dimensional analysis and of the theory of tensorial concomitants are employed to study field equations in gravitational theories which incorporate scalar fields of the Brans-Dicke type. Within the context of scalar-metric gravitational theories, a uniqueness theorem for the geometric (or gravitational) part of the field equations is proven and a Lagrangian is determined which is uniquely specified by dimensional analysis. Within the context of scalar-metric-torsion gravitational theories a uniqueness theorem for field Lagrangians is presented and the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are given. Finally, an example of a scalar-metric-torsion theory is presented which is similar in many respects to the Brans-Dicke theory and the Einstein-Cartan theory
Andrić, N.; Vogt, K.; Matenco, L.; Cvetković, V.; Cloetingh, S.; Gerya, T.
The relationship between magma generation and the tectonic evolution of orogens during subduction and subsequent collision requires self-consistent numerical modelling approaches predicting volumes and compositions of the produced magmatic rocks. Here, we use a 2D magmatic-thermomechanical numerical
A new Approach to Variable-Topology Shape Design Using a Constraint on the Perimeter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haber, R.B; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Jog, C.S.
1996-01-01
the number of holes in the optimal design and to establish their characteristic length scale. Finite element procedures based on this approach generate practical designs that are convergent with respect to grid refinement. Thus, an arbitrary level of geometric resolution can be achieved, so single...
Upper limit for Poisson variable incorporating systematic uncertainties by Bayesian approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Yongsheng
2007-01-01
To calculate the upper limit for the Poisson observable at given confidence level with inclusion of systematic uncertainties in background expectation and signal efficiency, formulations have been established along the line of Bayesian approach. A FORTRAN program, BPULE, has been developed to implement the upper limit calculation
An evaluation of non-metric cranial traits used to estimate ancestry in a South African sample.
L'Abbé, E N; Van Rooyen, C; Nawrocki, S P; Becker, P J
2011-06-15
Establishing ancestry from a skeleton for forensic purposes has been shown to be difficult. The purpose of this paper is to address the application of thirteen non-metric traits to estimate ancestry in three South African groups, namely White, Black and "Coloured". In doing so, the frequency distribution of thirteen non-metric traits among South Africans are presented; the relationship of these non-metric traits with ancestry, sex, age at death are evaluated; and Kappa statistics are utilized to assess the inter and intra-rater reliability. Crania of 520 known individuals were obtained from four skeletal samples in South Africa: the Pretoria Bone Collection, the Raymond A. Dart Collection, the Kirsten Collection and the Student Bone Collection from the University of the Free State. Average age at death was 51, with an age range between 18 and 90. Thirteen commonly used non-metric traits from the face and jaw were scored; definition and illustrations were taken from Hefner, Bass and Hauser and De Stephano. Frequency distributions, ordinal regression and Cohen's Kappa statistics were performed as a means to assess population variation and repeatability. Frequency distributions were highly variable among South Africans. Twelve of the 13 variables had a statistically significant relationship with ancestry. Sex significantly affected only one variable, inter-orbital breadth, and age at death affected two (anterior nasal spine and alveolar prognathism). The interaction of ancestry and sex independently affected three variables (nasal bone contour, nasal breadth, and interorbital breadth). Seven traits had moderate to excellent repeatability, while poor scoring consistency was noted for six variables. Difficulties in repeating several of the trait scores may require either a need for refinement of the definitions, or these character states may not adequately describe the observable morphology in the population. The application of the traditional experience-based approach
Christiansen, Bo
2015-04-01
Linear regression methods are without doubt the most used approaches to describe and predict data in the physical sciences. They are often good first order approximations and they are in general easier to apply and interpret than more advanced methods. However, even the properties of univariate regression can lead to debate over the appropriateness of various models as witnessed by the recent discussion about climate reconstruction methods. Before linear regression is applied important choices have to be made regarding the origins of the noise terms and regarding which of the two variables under consideration that should be treated as the independent variable. These decisions are often not easy to make but they may have a considerable impact on the results. We seek to give a unified probabilistic - Bayesian with flat priors - treatment of univariate linear regression and prediction by taking, as starting point, the general errors-in-variables model (Christiansen, J. Clim., 27, 2014-2031, 2014). Other versions of linear regression can be obtained as limits of this model. We derive the likelihood of the model parameters and predictands of the general errors-in-variables model by marginalizing over the nuisance parameters. The resulting likelihood is relatively simple and easy to analyze and calculate. The well known unidentifiability of the errors-in-variables model is manifested as the absence of a well-defined maximum in the likelihood. However, this does not mean that probabilistic inference can not be made; the marginal likelihoods of model parameters and the predictands have, in general, well-defined maxima. We also include a probabilistic version of classical calibration and show how it is related to the errors-in-variables model. The results are illustrated by an example from the coupling between the lower stratosphere and the troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere winter.
Santos, José António; Galante-Oliveira, Susana; Barroso, Carlos
2011-03-01
The current work presents an innovative statistical approach to model ordinal variables in environmental monitoring studies. An ordinal variable has values that can only be compared as "less", "equal" or "greater" and it is not possible to have information about the size of the difference between two particular values. The example of ordinal variable under this study is the vas deferens sequence (VDS) used in imposex (superimposition of male sexual characters onto prosobranch females) field assessment programmes for monitoring tributyltin (TBT) pollution. The statistical methodology presented here is the ordered logit regression model. It assumes that the VDS is an ordinal variable whose values match up a process of imposex development that can be considered continuous in both biological and statistical senses and can be described by a latent non-observable continuous variable. This model was applied to the case study of Nucella lapillus imposex monitoring surveys conducted in the Portuguese coast between 2003 and 2008 to evaluate the temporal evolution of TBT pollution in this country. In order to produce more reliable conclusions, the proposed model includes covariates that may influence the imposex response besides TBT (e.g. the shell size). The model also provides an analysis of the environmental risk associated to TBT pollution by estimating the probability of the occurrence of females with VDS ≥ 2 in each year, according to OSPAR criteria. We consider that the proposed application of this statistical methodology has a great potential in environmental monitoring whenever there is the need to model variables that can only be assessed through an ordinal scale of values.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Martín-Puertas
2010-12-01
Full Text Available A combination of marine (Alboran Sea cores, ODP 976 and TTR 300 G and terrestrial (Zoñar Lake, Andalucia, Spain geochemical proxies provides a high-resolution reconstruction of climate variability and human influence in the southwestern Mediterranean region for the last 4000 years at inter-centennial resolution. Proxies respond to changes in precipitation rather than temperature alone. Our combined terrestrial and marine archive documents a succession of dry and wet periods coherent with the North Atlantic climate signal. A dry period occurred prior to 2.7 cal ka BP – synchronously to the global aridity crisis of the third-millennium BC – and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1.4–0.7 cal ka BP. Wetter conditions prevailed from 2.7 to 1.4 cal ka BP. Hydrological signatures during the Little Ice Age are highly variable but consistent with more humidity than the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, Pb anomalies in sediments at the end of the Bronze Age suggest anthropogenic pollution earlier than the Roman Empire development in the Iberian Peninsula. The Late Holocene climate evolution of the in the study area confirms the see-saw pattern between the eastern and western Mediterranean regions and the higher influence of the North Atlantic dynamics in the western Mediterranean.
What variables are important in predicting bovine viral diarrhea virus? A random forest approach.
Machado, Gustavo; Mendoza, Mariana Recamonde; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo
2015-07-24
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle, and the virus is found worldwide. A better understanding of the disease associated factors is a crucial step towards the definition of strategies for control and eradication. In this study we trained a random forest (RF) prediction model and performed variable importance analysis to identify factors associated with BVDV occurrence. In addition, we assessed the influence of features selection on RF performance and evaluated its predictive power relative to other popular classifiers and to logistic regression. We found that RF classification model resulted in an average error rate of 32.03% for the negative class (negative for BVDV) and 36.78% for the positive class (positive for BVDV).The RF model presented area under the ROC curve equal to 0.702. Variable importance analysis revealed that important predictors of BVDV occurrence were: a) who inseminates the animals, b) number of neighboring farms that have cattle and c) rectal palpation performed routinely. Our results suggest that the use of machine learning algorithms, especially RF, is a promising methodology for the analysis of cross-sectional studies, presenting a satisfactory predictive power and the ability to identify predictors that represent potential risk factors for BVDV investigation. We examined classical predictors and found some new and hard to control practices that may lead to the spread of this disease within and among farms, mainly regarding poor or neglected reproduction management, which should be considered for disease control and eradication.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Lei
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of variable structure control for nonlinear systems with uncertainty and time delays under persistent disturbance by using the optimal sliding mode surface approach. Through functional transformation, the original time-delay system is transformed into a delay-free one. The approximating sequence method is applied to solve the nonlinear optimal sliding mode surface problem which is reduced to a linear two-point boundary value problem of approximating sequences. The optimal sliding mode surface is obtained from the convergent solutions by solving a Riccati equation, a Sylvester equation, and the state and adjoint vector differential equations of approximating sequences. Then, the variable structure disturbance rejection control is presented by adopting an exponential trending law, where the state and control memory terms are designed to compensate the state and control delays, a feedforward control term is designed to reject the disturbance, and an adjoint compensator is designed to compensate the effects generated by the nonlinearity and the uncertainty. Furthermore, an observer is constructed to make the feedforward term physically realizable, and thus the dynamical observer-based dynamical variable structure disturbance rejection control law is produced. Finally, simulations are demonstrated to verify the effectiveness of the presented controller and the simplicity of the proposed approach.
Regge calculus from discontinuous metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khatsymovsky, V.M.
2003-01-01
Regge calculus is considered as a particular case of the more general system where the linklengths of any two neighbouring 4-tetrahedra do not necessarily coincide on their common face. This system is treated as that one described by metric discontinuous on the faces. In the superspace of all discontinuous metrics the Regge calculus metrics form some hypersurface defined by continuity conditions. Quantum theory of the discontinuous metric system is assumed to be fixed somehow in the form of quantum measure on (the space of functionals on) the superspace. The problem of reducing this measure to the Regge hypersurface is addressed. The quantum Regge calculus measure is defined from a discontinuous metric measure by inserting the δ-function-like phase factor. The requirement that continuity conditions be imposed in a 'face-independent' way fixes this factor uniquely. The term 'face-independent' means that this factor depends only on the (hyper)plane spanned by the face, not on it's form and size. This requirement seems to be natural from the viewpoint of existence of the well-defined continuum limit maximally free of lattice artefacts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Nieto-Moreno
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Climate variability in the western Mediterranean is reconstructed for the last 4000 yr using marine sediments recovered in the west Algerian-Balearic Basin, near the Alboran Basin. Fluctuations in chemical and mineralogical sediment composition as well as grain size distribution are linked to fluvial-eolian oscillations, changes in redox conditions and paleocurrent intensity. Multivariate analyses allowed us to characterize three main groups of geochemical and mineralogical proxies determining the sedimentary record of this region. These three statistical groups were applied to reconstruct paleoclimate conditions at high resolution during the Late Holocene. An increase in riverine input (fluvial-derived elements – Rb/Al, Ba/Al, REE/Al, Si/Al, Ti/Al, Mg/Al and K/Al ratios, and a decrease in Saharan eolian input (Zr/Al ratio depict the Roman Humid Period and the Little Ice Age, while drier environmental conditions are recognized during the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, faster bottom currents and more energetic hydrodynamic conditions for the former periods are evidenced by enhanced sortable silt (10-63 μm and quartz content, and by better oxygenated bottom waters – as reflected by decreasing redox-sensitive elements (V/Al, Cr/Al, Ni/Al and Zn/Al ratios. In contrast, opposite paleoceanographic conditions are distinguished during the latter periods, i.e. the Late Bronze Age-Iron Age, the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Although no Ba excess was registered, other paleoproductivity indicators (total organic carbon content, Br/Al ratio, and organometallic ligands such as U and Cu display the highest values during the Roman Humid Period, and together with increasing preservation of organic matter, this period exhibits by far the most intense productivity of the last 4000 yr. Fluctuations in detrital input into the basin as the main process managing deposition, reflected by the
Variability and conservation of structural domains in divide-and-conquer approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiegand, Thomas [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Gardiennet, Carole [CNRS, Université de Lorraine, CRM2, UMR 7036 (France); Cadalbert, Riccardo [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Lacabanne, Denis; Kunert, Britta; Terradot, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.terradot@ibcp.fr; Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, Bases Moléculaires et Structurales des Systèmes Infectieux, Labex Ecofect, UMR 5086 CNRS (France); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)
2016-06-15
The use of protein building blocks for the structure determination of multidomain proteins and protein–protein complexes, also known as the “divide and conquer” approach, is an important strategy for obtaining protein structures. Atomic-resolution X-ray or NMR data of the individual domains are combined with lower-resolution electron microscopy maps or X-ray data of the full-length protein or the protein complex. Doing so, it is often assumed that the individual domain structures remain invariant in the context of the superstructure. In this work, we show the potentials and limitations of NMR to validate this approach at the example of the dodecameric DnaB helicase from Helicobacter pylori. We investigate how sequentially assigned spectra, as well as unassigned spectral fingerprints can be used to indicate the conservation of individual domains, and also to highlight conformational differences.
Auditya Purwandini Sutarto; Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab; Nora Mat Zin
2010-01-01
The widespread implementation of advanced and complex systems requires predominantly operators’ cognitive functions and less importance of human manual control. On the other hand, most operators perform their cognitive functions below their peak cognitive capacity level due to fatigue, stress, and boredom. Thus, there is a need to improve their cognitive functions during work. The goal of this paper is to present a psychophysiology training approach derived from cardiovascular response ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, C.-K.; Liao, T.-L.; Yan, J.-J.
2009-01-01
On the basis of variable structure control (VSC), an active queue management (AQM) controller is presented for a class of TCP communication networks. In the TCP/IP networks, the packet drop probability is limited between 0 and 1. Therefore, we modeled TCP/AQM as a rate-based non-linear system with a saturated input. The objective of the VSC-based AQM controller is to achieve the desired queue size and to guarantee the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop TCP non-linear system with saturated input. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed control law are then validated for different network scenarios through numerical simulations in both MATLAB and Network Simulator-2 (NS-2). Both sets of simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme outperforms other AQM schemes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, C.-K. [Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liao, T.-L. [Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: tlliao@mail.ncku.edu; Yan, J.-J. [Department of Computer and Communication, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (China)
2009-04-15
On the basis of variable structure control (VSC), an active queue management (AQM) controller is presented for a class of TCP communication networks. In the TCP/IP networks, the packet drop probability is limited between 0 and 1. Therefore, we modeled TCP/AQM as a rate-based non-linear system with a saturated input. The objective of the VSC-based AQM controller is to achieve the desired queue size and to guarantee the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop TCP non-linear system with saturated input. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed control law are then validated for different network scenarios through numerical simulations in both MATLAB and Network Simulator-2 (NS-2). Both sets of simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme outperforms other AQM schemes.
A coupled approach for the three-dimensional simulation of pipe leakage in variably saturated soil
Peche, Aaron; Graf, Thomas; Fuchs, Lothar; Neuweiler, Insa
2017-12-01
In urban water pipe networks, pipe leakage may lead to subsurface contamination or to reduced waste water treatment efficiency. The quantification of pipe leakage is challenging due to inaccessibility and unknown hydraulic properties of the soil. A novel physically-based model for three-dimensional numerical simulation of pipe leakage in variably saturated soil is presented. We describe the newly implemented coupling between the pipe flow simulator HYSTEM-EXTRAN and the groundwater flow simulator OpenGeoSys and its validation. We further describe a novel upscaling of leakage using transfer functions derived from numerical simulations. This upscaling enables the simulation of numerous pipe defects with the benefit of reduced computation times. Finally, we investigate the response of leakage to different time-dependent pipe flow events and conclude that larger pipe flow volume and duration lead to larger leakage while the peak position in time has a small effect on leakage.
Symmetries of Taub-NUT dual metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baleanu, D.; Codoban, S.
1998-01-01
Recently geometric duality was analyzed for a metric which admits Killing tensors. An interesting example arises when the manifold has Killing-Yano tensors. The symmetries of the dual metrics in the case of Taub-NUT metric are investigated. Generic and non-generic symmetries of dual Taub-NUT metric are analyzed
Intraindividual variability in inhibitory function in adults with ADHD--an ex-Gaussian approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dennis Gmehlin
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit disorder (ADHD is commonly associated with inhibitory dysfunction contributing to typical behavioral symptoms like impulsivity or hyperactivity. However, some studies analyzing intraindividual variability (IIV of reaction times in children with ADHD (cADHD question a predominance of inhibitory deficits. IIV is a measure of the stability of information processing and provides evidence that longer reaction times (RT in inhibitory tasks in cADHD are due to only a few prolonged responses which may indicate deficits in sustained attention rather than inhibitory dysfunction. We wanted to find out, whether a slowing in inhibitory functioning in adults with ADHD (aADHD is due to isolated slow responses. METHODS: Computing classical RT measures (mean RT, SD, ex-Gaussian parameters of IIV (which allow a better separation of reaction time (mu, variability (sigma and abnormally slow responses (tau than classical measures as well as errors of omission and commission, we examined response inhibition in a well-established GoNogo task in a sample of aADHD subjects without medication and healthy controls matched for age, gender and education. RESULTS: We did not find higher numbers of commission errors in aADHD, while the number of omissions was significantly increased compared with controls. In contrast to increased mean RT, the distributional parameter mu did not document a significant slowing in aADHD. However, subjects with aADHD were characterized by increased IIV throughout the entire RT distribution as indicated by the parameters sigma and tau as well as the SD of reaction time. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between tau and the number of omission errors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings question a primacy of inhibitory deficits in aADHD and provide evidence for attentional dysfunction. The present findings may have theoretical implications for etiological models of ADHD as well as more practical implications for
An accurate metric for the spacetime around rotating neutron stars
Pappas, George
2017-04-01
The problem of having an accurate description of the spacetime around rotating neutron stars is of great astrophysical interest. For astrophysical applications, one needs to have a metric that captures all the properties of the spacetime around a rotating neutron star. Furthermore, an accurate appropriately parametrized metric, I.e. a metric that is given in terms of parameters that are directly related to the physical structure of the neutron star, could be used to solve the inverse problem, which is to infer the properties of the structure of a neutron star from astrophysical observations. In this work, we present such an approximate stationary and axisymmetric metric for the exterior of rotating neutron stars, which is constructed using the Ernst formalism and is parametrized by the relativistic multipole moments of the central object. This metric is given in terms of an expansion on the Weyl-Papapetrou coordinates with the multipole moments as free parameters and is shown to be extremely accurate in capturing the physical properties of a neutron star spacetime as they are calculated numerically in general relativity. Because the metric is given in terms of an expansion, the expressions are much simpler and easier to implement, in contrast to previous approaches. For the parametrization of the metric in general relativity, the recently discovered universal 3-hair relations are used to produce a three-parameter metric. Finally, a straightforward extension of this metric is given for scalar-tensor theories with a massless scalar field, which also admit a formulation in terms of an Ernst potential.
Landscape metrics for three-dimension urban pattern recognition
Liu, M.; Hu, Y.; Zhang, W.; Li, C.
2017-12-01
Understanding how landscape pattern determines population or ecosystem dynamics is crucial for managing our landscapes. Urban areas are becoming increasingly dominant social-ecological systems, so it is important to understand patterns of urbanization. Most studies of urban landscape pattern examine land-use maps in two dimensions because the acquisition of 3-dimensional information is difficult. We used Brista software based on Quickbird images and aerial photos to interpret the height of buildings, thus incorporating a 3-dimensional approach. We estimated the feasibility and accuracy of this approach. A total of 164,345 buildings in the Liaoning central urban agglomeration of China, which included seven cities, were measured. Twelve landscape metrics were proposed or chosen to describe the urban landscape patterns in 2- and 3-dimensional scales. The ecological and social meaning of landscape metrics were analyzed with multiple correlation analysis. The results showed that classification accuracy compared with field surveys was 87.6%, which means this method for interpreting building height was acceptable. The metrics effectively reflected the urban architecture in relation to number of buildings, area, height, 3-D shape and diversity aspects. We were able to describe the urban characteristics of each city with these metrics. The metrics also captured ecological and social meanings. The proposed landscape metrics provided a new method for urban landscape analysis in three dimensions.
Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Craig G. Rieger
2014-08-01
"Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaidya, P.C.; Patel, L.K.; Bhatt, P.V.
1976-01-01
Using Galilean time and retarded distance as coordinates the usual Kerr metric is expressed in form similar to the Newman-Unti-Tamburino (NUT) metric. The combined Kerr-NUT metric is then investigated. In addition to the Kerr and NUT solutions of Einstein's equations, three other types of solutions are derived. These are (i) the radiating Kerr solution, (ii) the radiating NUT solution satisfying Rsub(ik) = sigmaxisub(i)xisub(k), xisub(i)xisup(i) = 0, and (iii) the associated Kerr solution satisfying Rsub(ik) = 0. Solution (i) is distinct from and simpler than the one reported earlier by Vaidya and Patel (Phys. Rev.; D7:3590 (1973)). Solutions (ii) and (iii) gave line elements which have the axis of symmetry as a singular line. (author)
Model assessment using a multi-metric ranking technique
Fitzpatrick, P. J.; Lau, Y.; Alaka, G.; Marks, F.
2017-12-01
Validation comparisons of multiple models presents challenges when skill levels are similar, especially in regimes dominated by the climatological mean. Assessing skill separation will require advanced validation metrics and identifying adeptness in extreme events, but maintain simplicity for management decisions. Flexibility for operations is also an asset. This work postulates a weighted tally and consolidation technique which ranks results by multiple types of metrics. Variables include absolute error, bias, acceptable absolute error percentages, outlier metrics, model efficiency, Pearson correlation, Kendall's Tau, reliability Index, multiplicative gross error, and root mean squared differences. Other metrics, such as root mean square difference and rank correlation were also explored, but removed when the information was discovered to be generally duplicative to other metrics. While equal weights are applied, weights could be altered depending for preferred metrics. Two examples are shown comparing ocean models' currents and tropical cyclone products, including experimental products. The importance of using magnitude and direction for tropical cyclone track forecasts instead of distance, along-track, and cross-track are discussed. Tropical cyclone intensity and structure prediction are also assessed. Vector correlations are not included in the ranking process, but found useful in an independent context, and will be briefly reported.
Measures of agreement between computation and experiment:validation metrics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barone, Matthew Franklin; Oberkampf, William Louis
2005-08-01
With the increasing role of computational modeling in engineering design, performance estimation, and safety assessment, improved methods are needed for comparing computational results and experimental measurements. Traditional methods of graphically comparing computational and experimental results, though valuable, are essentially qualitative. Computable measures are needed that can quantitatively compare computational and experimental results over a range of input, or control, variables and sharpen assessment of computational accuracy. This type of measure has been recently referred to as a validation metric. We discuss various features that we believe should be incorporated in a validation metric and also features that should be excluded. We develop a new validation metric that is based on the statistical concept of confidence intervals. Using this fundamental concept, we construct two specific metrics: one that requires interpolation of experimental data and one that requires regression (curve fitting) of experimental data. We apply the metrics to three example problems: thermal decomposition of a polyurethane foam, a turbulent buoyant plume of helium, and compressibility effects on the growth rate of a turbulent free-shear layer. We discuss how the present metrics are easily interpretable for assessing computational model accuracy, as well as the impact of experimental measurement uncertainty on the accuracy assessment.
The uniqueness of the Fisher metric as information metric
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Le, Hong-Van
2017-01-01
Roč. 69, č. 4 (2017), s. 879-896 ISSN 0020-3157 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Chentsov’s theorem * mixed topology * monotonicity of the Fisher metric Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.049, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10463-016-0562-0
Thermodynamic metrics and optimal paths.
Sivak, David A; Crooks, Gavin E
2012-05-11
A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mather, Barry
2017-08-24
The increasing deployment of distribution-connected photovoltaic (DPV) systems requires utilities to complete complex interconnection studies. Relatively simple interconnection study methods worked well for low penetrations of photovoltaic systems, but more complicated quasi-static time-series (QSTS) analysis is required to make better interconnection decisions as DPV penetration levels increase. Tools and methods must be developed to support this. This paper presents a variable-time-step solver for QSTS analysis that significantly shortens the computational time and effort to complete a detailed analysis of the operation of a distribution circuit with many DPV systems. Specifically, it demonstrates that the proposed variable-time-step solver can reduce the required computational time by as much as 84% without introducing any important errors to metrics, such as the highest and lowest voltage occurring on the feeder, number of voltage regulator tap operations, and total amount of losses realized in the distribution circuit during a 1-yr period. Further improvement in computational speed is possible with the introduction of only modest errors in these metrics, such as a 91 percent reduction with less than 5 percent error when predicting voltage regulator operations.
Value of the Company and Marketing Metrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
André Luiz Ramos
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Thinking marketing strategies from a resource-based perspective (Barney, 1991, proposing assets as either tangible, organizational and human, and from Constantin and Luch’s vision (1994, where strategic resources can be tanbigle or intangible, internal or external to the firm, raises a research approach on Marketing and Finance. According to Srivastava, Shervani and Fahey (1998 there are 3 market assets types, which generate firm value. Firm value can be measured by discounted cashflow, compromising marketing activities with value generation forcasts (Anderson, 1982; Day, Fahey, 1988; Doyle, 2000; Rust et al., 2004a. The economic value of marketing strategies and marketing metrics are calling strategy researchers’ and marketing managers’ attention, making clear the need for building a bridge able to articulate marketing and finance form a strategic perspective. This article proposes an analytical framework based on different scientific approaches envolving risk and return promoted by marketing strategies and points out advances concerning both methodological approaches and marketing strategies and its impact on firm metrics and value, usgin Srinivasan and Hanssens (2009 as a start point.
Fermionization of chiral string determinants in factorizable metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iengo, R.; Ivanov, B.
1987-11-01
We use fermionization, defined as a change of variables in the functional integration, to find chiral determinants of the string integrand in any holomorphically factorizable metric. In this way we derive and generalize the formulae proposed by Knizhnik and clarify their relation to those of Eguchi, Ooguri and Verlinde, Verlinde. (author). 20 refs
Prediction of water temperature metrics using spatial modelling in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Water temperature regime dynamics should be viewed regionally, where regional divisions have an inherent underpinning by an understanding of natural thermal variability. The aim of this research was to link key water temperature metrics to readily-mapped environmental surrogates, and to produce spatial images of ...
Technical Privacy Metrics: a Systematic Survey
Wagner, Isabel; Eckhoff, David
2018-01-01
The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version The goal of privacy metrics is to measure the degree of privacy enjoyed by users in a system and the amount of protection offered by privacy-enhancing technologies. In this way, privacy metrics contribute to improving user privacy in the digital world. The diversity and complexity of privacy metrics in the literature makes an informed choice of metrics challenging. As a result, instead of using existing metrics, n...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bessem Samet
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In 2005, Mustafa and Sims (2006 introduced and studied a new class of generalized metric spaces, which are called G-metric spaces, as a generalization of metric spaces. We establish some useful propositions to show that many fixed point theorems on (nonsymmetric G-metric spaces given recently by many authors follow directly from well-known theorems on metric spaces. Our technique can be easily extended to other results as shown in application.
DLA Energy Biofuel Feedstock Metrics Study
2012-12-11
moderately/highly in- vasive Metric 2: Genetically modified organism ( GMO ) hazard, Yes/No and Hazard Category Metric 3: Species hybridization...4– biofuel distribution Stage # 5– biofuel use Metric 1: State inva- siveness ranking Yes Minimal Minimal No No Metric 2: GMO hazard Yes...may utilize GMO microbial or microalgae species across the applicable biofuel life cycles (stages 1–3). The following consequence Metrics 4–6 then
The long-term variability of cosmic ray protons in the heliosphere: A modeling approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.S. Potgieter
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Galactic cosmic rays are charged particles created in our galaxy and beyond. They propagate through interstellar space to eventually reach the heliosphere and Earth. Their transport in the heliosphere is subjected to four modulation processes: diffusion, convection, adiabatic energy changes and particle drifts. Time-dependent changes, caused by solar activity which varies from minimum to maximum every ∼11 years, are reflected in cosmic ray observations at and near Earth and along spacecraft trajectories. Using a time-dependent compound numerical model, the time variation of cosmic ray protons in the heliosphere is studied. It is shown that the modeling approach is successful and can be used to study long-term modulation cycles.
Morawetz, Carmen; Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; Heekeren, Hauke R
2017-04-01
The experience of emotions and their cognitive control are based upon neural responses in prefrontal and subcortical regions and could be affected by personality and temperamental traits. Previous studies established an association between activity in reappraisal-related brain regions (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus and amygdala) and emotion regulation success. Given these relationships, we aimed to further elucidate how individual differences in emotion regulation skills relate to brain activity within the emotion regulation network on the one hand, and personality/temperamental traits on the other. We directly examined the relationship between personality and temperamental traits, emotion regulation success and its underlying neuronal network in a large sample (N = 82) using an explicit emotion regulation task and functional MRI (fMRI). We applied a multimethodological analysis approach, combing standard activation-based analyses with structural equation modeling. First, we found that successful downregulation is predicted by activity in key regions related to emotion processing. Second, the individual ability to successfully upregulate emotions is strongly associated with the ability to identify feelings, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Third, the successful downregulation of emotion is modulated by openness to experience and habitual use of reappraisal. Fourth, the ability to regulate emotions is best predicted by a combination of brain activity and personality as well temperamental traits. Using a multimethodological analysis approach, we provide a first step toward a causal model of individual differences in emotion regulation ability by linking biological systems underlying emotion regulation with descriptive constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
An Object-Based Approach to Evaluation of Climate Variability Projections and Predictions
Ammann, C. M.; Brown, B.; Kalb, C. P.; Bullock, R.
2017-12-01
Evaluations of the performance of earth system model predictions and projections are of critical importance to enhance usefulness of these products. Such evaluations need to address specific concerns depending on the system and decisions of interest; hence, evaluation tools must be tailored to inform about specific issues. Traditional approaches that summarize grid-based comparisons of analyses and models, or between current and future climate, often do not reveal important information about the models' performance (e.g., spatial or temporal displacements; the reason behind a poor score) and are unable to accommodate these specific information needs. For example, summary statistics such as the correlation coefficient or the mean-squared error provide minimal information to developers, users, and decision makers regarding what is "right" and "wrong" with a model. New spatial and temporal-spatial object-based tools from the field of weather forecast verification (where comparisons typically focus on much finer temporal and spatial scales) have been adapted to more completely answer some of the important earth system model evaluation questions. In particular, the Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) tool and its temporal (three-dimensional) extension (MODE-TD) have been adapted for these evaluations. More specifically, these tools can be used to address spatial and temporal displacements in projections of El Nino-related precipitation and/or temperature anomalies, ITCZ-associated precipitation areas, atmospheric rivers, seasonal sea-ice extent, and other features of interest. Examples of several applications of these tools in a climate context will be presented, using output of the CESM large ensemble. In general, these tools provide diagnostic information about model performance - accounting for spatial, temporal, and intensity differences - that cannot be achieved using traditional (scalar) model comparison approaches. Thus, they can provide more
Kim, HyungGoo R.; Pitkow, Xaq; Angelaki, Dora E.
2016-01-01
Sensory input reflects events that occur in the environment, but multiple events may be confounded in sensory signals. For example, under many natural viewing conditions, retinal image motion reflects some combination of self-motion and movement of objects in the world. To estimate one stimulus event and ignore others, the brain can perform marginalization operations, but the neural bases of these operations are poorly understood. Using computational modeling, we examine how multisensory signals may be processed to estimate the direction of self-motion (i.e., heading) and to marginalize out effects of object motion. Multisensory neurons represent heading based on both visual and vestibular inputs and come in two basic types: “congruent” and “opposite” cells. Congruent cells have matched heading tuning for visual and vestibular cues and have been linked to perceptual benefits of cue integration during heading discrimination. Opposite cells have mismatched visual and vestibular heading preferences and are ill-suited for cue integration. We show that decoding a mixed population of congruent and opposite cells substantially reduces errors in heading estimation caused by object motion. In addition, we present a general formulation of an optimal linear decoding scheme that approximates marginalization and can be implemented biologically by simple reinforcement learning mechanisms. We also show that neural response correlations induced by task-irrelevant variables may greatly exceed intrinsic noise correlations. Overall, our findings suggest a general computational strategy by which neurons with mismatched tuning for two different sensory cues may be decoded to perform marginalization operations that dissociate possible causes of sensory inputs. PMID:27334948
Fodder Biomass Monitoring in Sahelian Rangelands Using Phenological Metrics from FAPAR Time Series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdoul Aziz Diouf
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Timely monitoring of plant biomass is critical for the management of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands. The estimation of annual biomass production in the Sahel is based on a simple relationship between satellite annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and in situ biomass data. This study proposes a new methodology using multi-linear models between phenological metrics from the SPOT-VEGETATION time series of Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR and in situ biomass. A model with three variables—large seasonal integral (LINTG, length of growing season, and end of season decreasing rate—performed best (MAE = 605 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.68 across Sahelian ecosystems in Senegal (data for the period 1999–2013. A model with annual maximum (PEAK and start date of season showed similar performances (MAE = 625 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.64, allowing a timely estimation of forage availability. The subdivision of the study area in ecoregions increased overall accuracy (MAE = 489.21 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.77, indicating that a relation between metrics and ecosystem properties exists. LINTG was the main explanatory variable for woody rangelands with high leaf biomass, whereas for areas dominated by herbaceous vegetation, it was the PEAK metric. The proposed approach outperformed the established biomass NDVI-based product (MAE = 818 kg·DM/ha and R2 = 0.51 and should improve the operational monitoring of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands.
Wave function of the Universe, preferred reference frame effects and metric signature transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghaffarnejad, Hossein
2015-01-01
Gravitational model of non-minimally coupled Brans Dicke (BD) scalar field 0 with dynamical unit time-like four vector field is used to study flat Robertson Walker (RW) cosmology in the presence of variable cosmological parameter V (ϕ) = Λϕ. Aim of the paper is to seek cosmological models which exhibit metric signature transition. The problem is studied in both classical and quantum cosmological approach with large values of BD parameter ω >> 1. Scale factor of RW metric is obtained as which describes nonsingular inflationary universe in Lorentzian signature sector. Euclidean signature sector of our solution describes a re-collapsing universe and is obtained from analytic continuation of the Lorentzian sector by exchanging . Dynamical vector field together with the BD scalar field are treated as fluid with time dependent barotropic index. They have regular (dark) matter dominance in the Euclidean (Lorentzian) sector. We solved Wheeler De Witt (WD) quantum wave equation of the cosmological system. Assuming a discrete non-zero ADM mass we obtained solutions of the WD equation as simple harmonic quantum Oscillator eigen functionals described by Hermite polynomials. Absolute values of these eigen functionals have nonzero values on the hypersurface in which metric field has signature degeneracy. Our eigen functionals describe nonzero probability of the space time with Lorentzian (Euclidean) signature for . Maximal probability corresponds to the ground state j = 0. (paper)
Socio-technical security metrics
Gollmann, D.; Herley, C.; Koenig, V.; Pieters, W.; Sasse, M.A.
2015-01-01
Report from Dagstuhl seminar 14491. This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14491 “Socio-Technical Security Metrics”. In the domain of safety, metrics inform many decisions, from the height of new dikes to the design of nuclear plants. We can state, for example, that
Leading Gainful Employment Metric Reporting
Powers, Kristina; MacPherson, Derek
2016-01-01
This chapter will address the importance of intercampus involvement in reporting of gainful employment student-level data that will be used in the calculation of gainful employment metrics by the U.S. Department of Education. The authors will discuss why building relationships within the institution is critical for effective gainful employment…
Gravity wave control on ESF day-to-day variability: An empirical approach
Aswathy, R. P.; Manju, G.
2017-06-01
irregularities lie below and above the curve. The model is validated with data from the years 2001 (high solar activity), 2004 (moderate solar activity), and 1995 (low solar activity) which have not been used in the model development. Presently, the model is developed for autumnal equinox season, but the model development will be undertaken for other seasons also in a future work so that the seasonal variability is also incorporated. This model thus holds the potential to be developed into a full-fledged model which can predict occurrence of nocturnal ionospheric irregularities. Globally, concerted efforts are underway to predict these ionospheric irregularities. Hence, this study is extremely important from the point of view of predicting communication and navigation outages.
Vastaranta, Mikko; Kankare, Ville; Holopainen, Markus; Yu, Xiaowei; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu
2012-01-01
The two main approaches to deriving forest variables from laser-scanning data are the statistical area-based approach (ABA) and individual tree detection (ITD). With ITD it is feasible to acquire single tree information, as in field measurements. Here, ITD was used for measuring training data for the ABA. In addition to automatic ITD (ITD auto), we tested a combination of ITD auto and visual interpretation (ITD visual). ITD visual had two stages: in the first, ITD auto was carried out and in the second, the results of the ITD auto were visually corrected by interpreting three-dimensional laser point clouds. The field data comprised 509 circular plots ( r = 10 m) that were divided equally for testing and training. ITD-derived forest variables were used for training the ABA and the accuracies of the k-most similar neighbor ( k-MSN) imputations were evaluated and compared with the ABA trained with traditional measurements. The root-mean-squared error (RMSE) in the mean volume was 24.8%, 25.9%, and 27.2% with the ABA trained with field measurements, ITD auto, and ITD visual, respectively. When ITD methods were applied in acquiring training data, the mean volume, basal area, and basal area-weighted mean diameter were underestimated in the ABA by 2.7-9.2%. This project constituted a pilot study for using ITD measurements as training data for the ABA. Further studies are needed to reduce the bias and to determine the accuracy obtained in imputation of species-specific variables. The method could be applied in areas with sparse road networks or when the costs of fieldwork must be minimized.
Gorji, Taha; Sertel, Elif; Tanik, Aysegul
2017-12-01
Soil management is an essential concern in protecting soil properties, in enhancing appropriate soil quality for plant growth and agricultural productivity, and in preventing soil erosion. Soil scientists and decision makers require accurate and well-distributed spatially continuous soil data across a region for risk assessment and for effectively monitoring and managing soils. Recently, spatial interpolation approaches have been utilized in various disciplines including soil sciences for analysing, predicting and mapping distribution and surface modelling of environmental factors such as soil properties. The study area selected in this research is Tuz Lake Basin in Turkey bearing ecological and economic importance. Fertile soil plays a significant role in agricultural activities, which is one of the main industries having great impact on economy of the region. Loss of trees and bushes due to intense agricultural activities in some parts of the basin lead to soil erosion. Besides, soil salinization due to both human-induced activities and natural factors has exacerbated its condition regarding agricultural land development. This study aims to compare capability of Local Polynomial Interpolation (LPI) and Radial Basis Functions (RBF) as two interpolation methods for mapping spatial pattern of soil properties including organic matter, phosphorus, lime and boron. Both LPI and RBF methods demonstrated promising results for predicting lime, organic matter, phosphorous and boron. Soil samples collected in the field were used for interpolation analysis in which approximately 80% of data was used for interpolation modelling whereas the remaining for validation of the predicted results. Relationship between validation points and their corresponding estimated values in the same location is examined by conducting linear regression analysis. Eight prediction maps generated from two different interpolation methods for soil organic matter, phosphorus, lime and boron parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinn, J.J.
1996-01-01
Geostatistical analysis of hydraulic head data is useful in producing unbiased contour plots of head estimates and relative errors. However, at most sites being characterized, monitoring wells are generally present at different densities, with clusters of wells in some areas and few wells elsewhere. The problem that arises when kriging data at different densities is in achieving adequate resolution of the grid while maintaining computational efficiency and working within software limitations. For the site considered, 113 data points were available over a 14-mi 2 study area, including 57 monitoring wells within an area of concern of 1.5 mi 2 . Variogram analyses of the data indicate a linear model with a negligible nugget effect. The geostatistical package used in the study allows a maximum grid of 100 by 100 cells. Two-dimensional kriging was performed for the entire study area with a 500-ft grid spacing, while the smaller zone was modeled separately with a 100-ft spacing. In this manner, grid cells for the dense area and the sparse area remained small relative to the well separation distances, and the maximum dimensions of the program were not exceeded. The spatial head results for the detailed zone were then nested into the regional output by use of a graphical, object-oriented database that performed the contouring of the geostatistical output. This study benefitted from the two-scale approach and from very fine geostatistical grid spacings relative to typical data separation distances. The combining of the sparse, regional results with those from the finer-resolution area of concern yielded contours that honored the actual data at every measurement location. The method applied in this study can also be used to generate reproducible, unbiased representations of other types of spatial data
Giuliani, Claudia; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Calamassi, Roberto; Calamai, Luca; Romoli, Riccardo; Fico, Gelsomina; Foggi, Bruno; Mariotti Lippi, Marta
2016-10-01
between this phytochemical approach and the traditional morphometrical analysis in studying the Helichrysum populations supports the validity of the VOC profile in solving taxonomic problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schauberger, Bernhard; Rolinski, Susanne; Müller, Christoph
2016-12-01
Variability of crop yields is detrimental for food security. Under climate change its amplitude is likely to increase, thus it is essential to understand the underlying causes and mechanisms. Crop models are the primary tool to project future changes in crop yields under climate change. A systematic overview of drivers and mechanisms of crop yield variability (YV) can thus inform crop model development and facilitate improved understanding of climate change impacts on crop yields. Yet there is a vast body of literature on crop physiology and YV, which makes a prioritization of mechanisms for implementation in models challenging. Therefore this paper takes on a novel approach to systematically mine and organize existing knowledge from the literature. The aim is to identify important mechanisms lacking in models, which can help to set priorities in model improvement. We structure knowledge from the literature in a semi-quantitative network. This network consists of complex interactions between growing conditions, plant physiology and crop yield. We utilize the resulting network structure to assign relative importance to causes of YV and related plant physiological processes. As expected, our findings confirm existing knowledge, in particular on the dominant role of temperature and precipitation, but also highlight other important drivers of YV. More importantly, our method allows for identifying the relevant physiological processes that transmit variability in growing conditions to variability in yield. We can identify explicit targets for the improvement of crop models. The network can additionally guide model development by outlining complex interactions between processes and by easily retrieving quantitative information for each of the 350 interactions. We show the validity of our network method as a structured, consistent and scalable dictionary of literature. The method can easily be applied to many other research fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilioli Gianni
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanistic models play an important role in many biological disciplines, and they can effectively contribute to evaluate the spatial-temporal evolution of mosquito populations, in the light of the increasing knowledge of the crucial driving role on vector dynamics played by meteo-climatic features as well as other physical-biological characteristics of the landscape. Methods In malaria eco-epidemiology landscape components (atmosphere, water bodies, land use interact with the epidemiological system (interacting populations of vector, human, and parasite. In the background of the eco-epidemiological approach, a mosquito population model is here proposed to evaluate the sensitivity of An. gambiae s.s. population to some peculiar thermal-pluviometric scenarios. The scenarios are obtained perturbing meteorological time series data referred to four Kenyan sites (Nairobi, Nyabondo, Kibwesi, and Malindi representing four different eco-epidemiological settings. Results Simulations highlight a strong dependence of mosquito population abundance on temperature variation with well-defined site-specific patterns. The upper extreme of thermal perturbation interval (+ 3°C gives rise to an increase in adult population abundance at Nairobi (+111% and Nyabondo (+61%, and a decrease at Kibwezi (-2% and Malindi (-36%. At the lower extreme perturbation (-3°C is observed a reduction in both immature and adult mosquito population in three sites (Nairobi -74%, Nyabondo -66%, Kibwezi -39%, and an increase in Malindi (+11%. A coherent non-linear pattern of population variation emerges. The maximum rate of variation is +30% population abundance for +1°C of temperature change, but also almost null and negative values are obtained. Mosquitoes are less sensitive to rainfall and both adults and immature populations display a positive quasi-linear response pattern to rainfall variation. Conclusions The non-linear temperature-dependent response is in
Influence of plant productivity over variability of soil respiration: a multi-scale approach
Curiel Yuste, J.
2009-04-01
general controlled by the seasonality of substrate supply by plants (via photosynthates translocation and/or litter) to soil. Although soil temperature and soil moisture exert a strong influence over the variation in SR, our results indicates that substrate supply by plant activity could exert a more important than previously expected role in the variability of soil respiration. 1. CREAF (Centre de Recerca Ecológica i Aplicacions Forestals), Unitat d'Ecofisiologia i Canvi Global CREAF-CEAB-CSIC, BELLATERRA (Barcelona), Spain (j.curiel@creaf.uab.es) 2. University of Antwerp (UA), Antwerp, Belgium (ivan.janssens@ua.ac.be) 3. Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria (michael.bahn@uibk.ac.at) 4. UMR Ecologie et Ecophysiologie Forestières, Centre INRA de Nancy, France (longdoz@nancy.inra.fr) 5. ESPM, University of Calicornia at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, US (baldocchi@nature.berkeley.edu) 6. The Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, USA (edavidson@whrc.org) 7. Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany (markus.reichstein@bgc-jena.mpg.de) 8. Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic (manuel@brno.cas.cz) 9. Università degli studi della Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy (arriga@unitus.it) 10. Laurence Berkeley lab, Berkeley, CA, USA (mstorn@lbl.gov) 11. Gembloux Agricultural University, Gembloux, Belgium (aubinet.m@fsagx.ac.be) 12. Fundacion CEAM(Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo), Valencia, Spain (arnaud@ceam.es) 13. Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Technische Universität Dresden, Pienner, Germany (gruenwald@forst.tu-dresden.de) 14. Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy (ilaria.inglima@unina2.it) 15. CNRS-CEFE Montpellier, France (Laurent.MISSON@cefe.cnrs.fr) 16. Agenzia Provinciale per l'Ambiente, Bolzano, Italy (leonar@inwind.it) 17. University of Helsinki Department of Forest Ecology, Helsinki, Finland (jukka
Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings
Michael, Trevor
Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation
Razafindrakoto, Hoby
2015-04-22
Finite-fault earthquake source inversion is an ill-posed inverse problem leading to non-unique solutions. In addition, various fault parametrizations and input data may have been used by different researchers for the same earthquake. Such variability leads to large intra-event variability in the inferred rupture models. One way to understand this problem is to develop robust metrics to quantify model variability. We propose a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) approach to compare rupture models quantitatively. We consider normalized squared and grey-scale metrics that reflect the variability in the location, intensity and geometry of the source parameters. We test the approach on two-dimensional random fields generated using a von Kármán autocorrelation function and varying its spectral parameters. The spread of points in the MDS solution indicates different levels of model variability. We observe that the normalized squared metric is insensitive to variability of spectral parameters, whereas the grey-scale metric is sensitive to small-scale changes in geometry. From this benchmark, we formulate a similarity scale to rank the rupture models. As case studies, we examine inverted models from the Source Inversion Validation (SIV) exercise and published models of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake, allowing us to test our approach for a case with a known reference model and one with an unknown true solution. The normalized squared and grey-scale metrics are respectively sensitive to the overall intensity and the extension of the three classes of slip (very large, large, and low). Additionally, we observe that a three-dimensional MDS configuration is preferable for models with large variability. We also find that the models for the Tohoku earthquake derived from tsunami data and their corresponding predictions cluster with a systematic deviation from other models. We demonstrate the stability of the MDS point-cloud using a number of realizations and jackknife tests, for
Razafindrakoto, Hoby; Mai, Paul Martin; Genton, Marc G.; Zhang, Ling; Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar
2015-01-01
Finite-fault earthquake source inversion is an ill-posed inverse problem leading to non-unique solutions. In addition, various fault parametrizations and input data may have been used by different researchers for the same earthquake. Such variability leads to large intra-event variability in the inferred rupture models. One way to understand this problem is to develop robust metrics to quantify model variability. We propose a Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) approach to compare rupture models quantitatively. We consider normalized squared and grey-scale metrics that reflect the variability in the location, intensity and geometry of the source parameters. We test the approach on two-dimensional random fields generated using a von Kármán autocorrelation function and varying its spectral parameters. The spread of points in the MDS solution indicates different levels of model variability. We observe that the normalized squared metric is insensitive to variability of spectral parameters, whereas the grey-scale metric is sensitive to small-scale changes in geometry. From this benchmark, we formulate a similarity scale to rank the rupture models. As case studies, we examine inverted models from the Source Inversion Validation (SIV) exercise and published models of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake, allowing us to test our approach for a case with a known reference model and one with an unknown true solution. The normalized squared and grey-scale metrics are respectively sensitive to the overall intensity and the extension of the three classes of slip (very large, large, and low). Additionally, we observe that a three-dimensional MDS configuration is preferable for models with large variability. We also find that the models for the Tohoku earthquake derived from tsunami data and their corresponding predictions cluster with a systematic deviation from other models. We demonstrate the stability of the MDS point-cloud using a number of realizations and jackknife tests, for
Rainbows without unicorns: metric structures in theories with modified dispersion relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lobo, Iarley P.; Loret, Niccolo; Nettel, Francisco
2017-01-01
Rainbow metrics are a widely used approach to the metric formalism for theories with modified dispersion relations. They have had a huge success in the quantum gravity phenomenology literature, since they allow one to introduce momentum-dependent space-time metrics into the description of systems with a modified dispersion relation. In this paper, we introduce the reader to some realizations of this general idea: the original rainbow metrics proposal, the momentum-space-inspired metric and a Finsler geometry approach. As the main result of this work we also present an alternative definition of a four-velocity dependent metric which allows one to handle the massless limit. This paper aims to highlight some of their properties and how to properly describe their relativistic realizations. (orig.)
Rainbows without unicorns: metric structures in theories with modified dispersion relations
Lobo, Iarley P.; Loret, Niccoló; Nettel, Francisco
2017-07-01
Rainbow metrics are a widely used approach to the metric formalism for theories with modified dispersion relations. They have had a huge success in the quantum gravity phenomenology literature, since they allow one to introduce momentum-dependent space-time metrics into the description of systems with a modified dispersion relation. In this paper, we introduce the reader to some realizations of this general idea: the original rainbow metrics proposal, the momentum-space-inspired metric and a Finsler geometry approach. As the main result of this work we also present an alternative definition of a four-velocity dependent metric which allows one to handle the massless limit. This paper aims to highlight some of their properties and how to properly describe their relativistic realizations.
Rainbows without unicorns: metric structures in theories with modified dispersion relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lobo, Iarley P. [Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); ICRANet, Pescara (Italy); CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasilia (Brazil); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); INFN Sezione Roma 1 (Italy); Loret, Niccolo [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Division of Theoretical Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); Nettel, Francisco [Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico (Mexico); INFN Sezione Roma 1 (Italy)
2017-07-15
Rainbow metrics are a widely used approach to the metric formalism for theories with modified dispersion relations. They have had a huge success in the quantum gravity phenomenology literature, since they allow one to introduce momentum-dependent space-time metrics into the description of systems with a modified dispersion relation. In this paper, we introduce the reader to some realizations of this general idea: the original rainbow metrics proposal, the momentum-space-inspired metric and a Finsler geometry approach. As the main result of this work we also present an alternative definition of a four-velocity dependent metric which allows one to handle the massless limit. This paper aims to highlight some of their properties and how to properly describe their relativistic realizations. (orig.)
Reliability of TMS metrics in patients with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury.
Potter-Baker, K A; Janini, D P; Frost, F S; Chabra, P; Varnerin, N; Cunningham, D A; Sankarasubramanian, V; Plow, E B
2016-11-01
Test-retest reliability analysis in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of neurophysiological metrics acquired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in individuals with chronic incomplete tetraplegia. Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. TMS metrics of corticospinal excitability, output, inhibition and motor map distribution were collected in muscles with a higher MRC grade and muscles with a lower MRC grade on the more affected side of the body. Metrics denoting upper limb function were also collected. All metrics were collected at two sessions separated by a minimum of two weeks. Reliability between sessions was determined using Spearman's correlation coefficients and concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs). We found that TMS metrics that were acquired in higher MRC grade muscles were approximately two times more reliable than those collected in lower MRC grade muscles. TMS metrics of motor map output, however, demonstrated poor reliability regardless of muscle choice (P=0.34; CCC=0.51). Correlation analysis indicated that patients with more baseline impairment and/or those in a more chronic phase of iSCI demonstrated greater variability of metrics. In iSCI, reliability of TMS metrics varies depending on the muscle grade of the tested muscle. Variability is also influenced by factors such as baseline motor function and time post SCI. Future studies that use TMS metrics in longitudinal study designs to understand functional recovery should be cautious as choice of muscle and clinical characteristics can influence reliability.
Group covariance and metrical theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, L.
1983-01-01
The a priori introduction of a Lie group of transformations into a physical theory has often proved to be useful; it usually serves to describe special simplified conditions before a general theory can be worked out. Newton's assumptions of absolute space and time are examples where the Euclidian group and translation group have been introduced. These groups were extended to the Galilei group and modified in the special theory of relativity to the Poincare group to describe physics under the given conditions covariantly in the simplest way. The criticism of the a priori character leads to the formulation of the general theory of relativity. The general metric theory does not really give preference to a particular invariance group - even the principle of equivalence can be adapted to a whole family of groups. The physical laws covariantly inserted into the metric space are however adapted to the Poincare group. 8 references
General relativity: An erfc metric
Plamondon, Réjean
2018-06-01
This paper proposes an erfc potential to incorporate in a symmetric metric. One key feature of this model is that it relies on the existence of an intrinsic physical constant σ, a star-specific proper length that scales all its surroundings. Based thereon, the new metric is used to study the space-time geometry of a static symmetric massive object, as seen from its interior. The analytical solutions to the Einstein equation are presented, highlighting the absence of singularities and discontinuities in such a model. The geodesics are derived in their second- and first-order differential formats. Recalling the slight impact of the new model on the classical general relativity tests in the solar system, a number of facts and open problems are briefly revisited on the basis of a heuristic definition of σ. A special attention is given to gravitational collapses and non-singular black holes.
Modeling nutrient in-stream processes at the watershed scale using Nutrient Spiralling metrics
Marcé, R.; Armengol, J.
2009-07-01
One of the fundamental problems of using large-scale biogeochemical models is the uncertainty involved in aggregating the components of fine-scale deterministic models in watershed applications, and in extrapolating the results of field-scale measurements to larger spatial scales. Although spatial or temporal lumping may reduce the problem, information obtained during fine-scale research may not apply to lumped categories. Thus, the use of knowledge gained through fine-scale studies to predict coarse-scale phenomena is not straightforward. In this study, we used the nutrient uptake metrics defined in the Nutrient Spiralling concept to formulate the equations governing total phosphorus in-stream fate in a deterministic, watershed-scale biogeochemical model. Once the model was calibrated, fitted phosphorus retention metrics where put in context of global patterns of phosphorus retention variability. For this purpose, we calculated power regressions between phosphorus retention metrics, streamflow, and phosphorus concentration in water using published data from 66 streams worldwide, including both pristine and nutrient enriched streams. Performance of the calibrated model confirmed that the Nutrient Spiralling formulation is a convenient simplification of the biogeochemical transformations involved in total phosphorus in-stream fate. Thus, this approach may be helpful even for customary deterministic applications working at short time steps. The calibrated phosphorus retention metrics were comparable to field estimates from the study watershed, and showed high coherence with global patterns of retention metrics from streams of the world. In this sense, the fitted phosphorus retention metrics were similar to field values measured in other nutrient enriched streams. Analysis of the bibliographical data supports the view that nutrient enriched streams have lower phosphorus retention efficiency than pristine streams, and that this efficiency loss is maintained in a wide
Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cowlin, Shannon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Munoz, David [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
2014-12-01
A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.
Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.
Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia
2017-09-01
Today digital sources supply a historically unprecedented component of human sensorimotor data, the consumption of which is correlated with poorly understood maladies such as Internet addiction disorder and Internet gaming disorder. Because both natural and digital sensorimotor data share common mathematical descriptions, one can quantify our informational sensorimotor needs using the signal processing metrics of entropy, noise, dimensionality, continuity, latency, and bandwidth. Such metrics describe in neutral terms the informational diet human brains require to self-calibrate, allowing individuals to maintain trusting relationships. With these metrics, we define the trust humans experience using the mathematical language of computational models, that is, as a primitive statistical algorithm processing finely grained sensorimotor data from neuromechanical interaction. This definition of neuromechanical trust implies that artificial sensorimotor inputs and interactions that attract low-level attention through frequent discontinuities and enhanced coherence will decalibrate a brain's representation of its world over the long term by violating the implicit statistical contract for which self-calibration evolved. Our hypersimplified mathematical understanding of human sensorimotor processing as multiscale, continuous-time vibratory interaction allows equally broad-brush descriptions of failure modes and solutions. For example, we model addiction in general as the result of homeostatic regulation gone awry in novel environments (sign reversal) and digital dependency as a sub-case in which the decalibration caused by digital sensorimotor data spurs yet more consumption of them. We predict that institutions can use these sensorimotor metrics to quantify media richness to improve employee well-being; that dyads and family-size groups will bond and heal best through low-latency, high-resolution multisensory interaction such as shared meals and reciprocated touch; and
Metric reconstruction from Weyl scalars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whiting, Bernard F; Price, Larry R [Department of Physics, PO Box 118440, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
2005-08-07
The Kerr geometry has remained an elusive world in which to explore physics and delve into the more esoteric implications of general relativity. Following the discovery, by Kerr in 1963, of the metric for a rotating black hole, the most major advance has been an understanding of its Weyl curvature perturbations based on Teukolsky's discovery of separable wave equations some ten years later. In the current research climate, where experiments across the globe are preparing for the first detection of gravitational waves, a more complete understanding than concerns just the Weyl curvature is now called for. To understand precisely how comparatively small masses move in response to the gravitational waves they emit, a formalism has been developed based on a description of the whole spacetime metric perturbation in the neighbourhood of the emission region. Presently, such a description is not available for the Kerr geometry. While there does exist a prescription for obtaining metric perturbations once curvature perturbations are known, it has become apparent that there are gaps in that formalism which are still waiting to be filled. The most serious gaps include gauge inflexibility, the inability to include sources-which are essential when the emitting masses are considered-and the failure to describe the l = 0 and 1 perturbation properties. Among these latter properties of the perturbed spacetime, arising from a point mass in orbit, are the perturbed mass and axial component of angular momentum, as well as the very elusive Carter constant for non-axial angular momentum. A status report is given on recent work which begins to repair these deficiencies in our current incomplete description of Kerr metric perturbations.
Metric reconstruction from Weyl scalars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whiting, Bernard F; Price, Larry R
2005-01-01
The Kerr geometry has remained an elusive world in which to explore physics and delve into the more esoteric implications of general relativity. Following the discovery, by Kerr in 1963, of the metric for a rotating black hole, the most major advance has been an understanding of its Weyl curvature perturbations based on Teukolsky's discovery of separable wave equations some ten years later. In the current research climate, where experiments across the globe are preparing for the first detection of gravitational waves, a more complete understanding than concerns just the Weyl curvature is now called for. To understand precisely how comparatively small masses move in response to the gravitational waves they emit, a formalism has been developed based on a description of the whole spacetime metric perturbation in the neighbourhood of the emission region. Presently, such a description is not available for the Kerr geometry. While there does exist a prescription for obtaining metric perturbations once curvature perturbations are known, it has become apparent that there are gaps in that formalism which are still waiting to be filled. The most serious gaps include gauge inflexibility, the inability to include sources-which are essential when the emitting masses are considered-and the failure to describe the l = 0 and 1 perturbation properties. Among these latter properties of the perturbed spacetime, arising from a point mass in orbit, are the perturbed mass and axial component of angular momentum, as well as the very elusive Carter constant for non-axial angular momentum. A status report is given on recent work which begins to repair these deficiencies in our current incomplete description of Kerr metric perturbations
Navarro-Fontestad, Carmen; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Fernández-Teruel, Carlos; Bermejo, Marival; Casabó, Vicente Germán
2012-01-01
The aim of the present work was to develop a new mathematical method for estimating the area under the curve (AUC) and its variability that could be applied in different preclinical experimental designs and amenable to be implemented in standard calculation worksheets. In order to assess the usefulness of the new approach, different experimental scenarios were studied and the results were compared with those obtained with commonly used software: WinNonlin® and Phoenix WinNonlin®. The results do not show statistical differences among the AUC values obtained by both procedures, but the new method appears to be a better estimator of the AUC standard error, measured as the coverage of 95% confidence interval. In this way, the new proposed method demonstrates to be as useful as WinNonlin® software when it was applicable. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sustainability Metrics: The San Luis Basin Project
Sustainability is about promoting humanly desirable dynamic regimes of the environment. Metrics: ecological footprint, net regional product, exergy, emergy, and Fisher Information. Adaptive management: (1) metrics assess problem, (2) specific problem identified, and (3) managemen...
Using latent variable approach to estimate China's economy-wide energy rebound effect over 1954–2010
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shao, Shuai; Huang, Tao; Yang, Lili
2014-01-01
The energy rebound effect has been a significant issue in China, which is undergoing economic transition, since it reflects the effectiveness of energy-saving policy relying on improved energy efficiency. Based on the IPAT equation and Brookes' explanation of the rebound effect, this paper develops an alternative estimation model of the rebound effect. By using the estimation model and latent variable approach, which is achieved through a time-varying coefficient state space model, we estimate China's economy-wide energy rebound effect over 1954–2010. The results show that the rebound effect evidently exists in China as a result of the annual average of 39.73% over 1954–2010. Before and after the implementation of China's reform and opening-up policy in 1978, the rebound effects are 47.24% and 37.32%, with a strong fluctuation and a circuitously downward trend, respectively, indicating that a stable political environment and the development of market economy system facilitate the effectiveness of energy-saving policy. Although the energy-saving effect of improving energy efficiency has been partly realised, there remains a large energy-saving potential in China. - Highlights: • We present an improved estimation methodology of economy-wide energy rebound effect. • We use the latent variable approach to estimate China's economy-wide rebound effect. • The rebound exists in China and varies before and after reform and opening-up. • After 1978, the average rebound is 37.32% with a circuitously downward trend. • Traditional Solow remainder method underestimates the rebound in most cases
Danilǎ, Bogdan; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mak, M. K.
2017-02-01
We consider the internal structure and the physical properties of specific classes of neutron, quark and Bose-Einstein condensate stars in the recently proposed hybrid metric-Palatini gravity theory, which is a combination of the metric and Palatini f (R ) formalisms. It turns out that the theory is very successful in accounting for the observed phenomenology, since it unifies local constraints at the Solar System level and the late-time cosmic acceleration, even if the scalar field is very light. In this paper, we derive the equilibrium equations for a spherically symmetric configuration (mass continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) in the framework of the scalar-tensor representation of the hybrid metric-Palatini theory, and we investigate their solutions numerically for different equations of state of neutron and quark matter, by adopting for the scalar field potential a Higgs-type form. It turns out that the scalar-tensor definition of the potential can be represented as an Clairaut differential equation, and provides an explicit form for f (R ) given by f (R )˜R +Λeff, where Λeff is an effective cosmological constant. Furthermore, stellar models, described by the stiff fluid, radiation-like, bag model and the Bose-Einstein condensate equations of state are explicitly constructed in both general relativity and hybrid metric-Palatini gravity, thus allowing an in-depth comparison between the predictions of these two gravitational theories. As a general result it turns out that for all the considered equations of state, hybrid gravity stars are more massive than their general relativistic counterparts. Furthermore, two classes of stellar models corresponding to two particular choices of the functional form of the scalar field (constant value, and logarithmic form, respectively) are also investigated. Interestingly enough, in the case of a constant scalar field the equation of state of the matter takes the form of the bag model equation of state describing
Metrics for Evaluation of Student Models
Pelanek, Radek
2015-01-01
Researchers use many different metrics for evaluation of performance of student models. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of commonly used metrics, to discuss properties, advantages, and disadvantages of different metrics, to summarize current practice in educational data mining, and to provide guidance for evaluation of student…
Context-dependent ATC complexity metric
Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Borst, C.
2015-01-01
Several studies have investigated Air Traffic Control (ATC) complexity metrics in a search for a metric that could best capture workload. These studies have shown how daunting the search for a universal workload metric (one that could be applied in different contexts: sectors, traffic patterns,
Croitoru, Anca; Apreutesei, Gabriela; Mastorakis, Nikos E.
2017-09-01
The subject of this paper belongs to the theory of approximate metrics [23]. An approximate metric on X is a real application defined on X × X that satisfies only a part of the metric axioms. In a recent paper [23], we introduced a new type of approximate metric, named C-metric, that is an application which satisfies only two metric axioms: symmetry and triangular inequality. The remarkable fact in a C-metric space is that a topological structure induced by the C-metric can be defined. The innovative idea of this paper is that we obtain some convergence properties of a C-metric space in the absence of a metric. In this paper we investigate C-metric spaces. The paper is divided into four sections. Section 1 is for Introduction. In Section 2 we recall some concepts and preliminary results. In Section 3 we present some properties of C-metric spaces, such as convergence properties, a canonical decomposition and a C-fixed point theorem. Finally, in Section 4 some conclusions are highlighted.
Network Community Detection on Metric Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suman Saha
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Community detection in a complex network is an important problem of much interest in recent years. In general, a community detection algorithm chooses an objective function and captures the communities of the network by optimizing the objective function, and then, one uses various heuristics to solve the optimization problem to extract the interesting communities for the user. In this article, we demonstrate the procedure to transform a graph into points of a metric space and develop the methods of community detection with the help of a metric defined for a pair of points. We have also studied and analyzed the community structure of the network therein. The results obtained with our approach are very competitive with most of the well-known algorithms in the literature, and this is justified over the large collection of datasets. On the other hand, it can be observed that time taken by our algorithm is quite less compared to other methods and justifies the theoretical findings.
Covariant electrodynamics in linear media: Optical metric
Thompson, Robert T.
2018-03-01
While the postulate of covariance of Maxwell's equations for all inertial observers led Einstein to special relativity, it was the further demand of general covariance—form invariance under general coordinate transformations, including between accelerating frames—that led to general relativity. Several lines of inquiry over the past two decades, notably the development of metamaterial-based transformation optics, has spurred a greater interest in the role of geometry and space-time covariance for electrodynamics in ponderable media. I develop a generally covariant, coordinate-free framework for electrodynamics in general dielectric media residing in curved background space-times. In particular, I derive a relation for the spatial medium parameters measured by an arbitrary timelike observer. In terms of those medium parameters I derive an explicit expression for the pseudo-Finslerian optical metric of birefringent media and show how it reduces to a pseudo-Riemannian optical metric for nonbirefringent media. This formulation provides a basis for a unified approach to ray and congruence tracing through media in curved space-times that may smoothly vary among positively refracting, negatively refracting, and vacuum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morice, Erwan
2014-01-01
Fracture in quasi-brittle materials, such as ceramics or concrete, can be represented schematically by series of events of nucleation and coalescence of micro-cracks. Modeling this process is an important challenge for the reliability and life prediction of concrete structures, in particular the prediction of the permeability of damaged structures. A multi-scale approach is proposed. The global behavior is modeled within the fracture mechanics framework and the local behavior is modeled by the discrete element method. An approach was developed to condense the non linear behavior of the mortar. A model reduction technic is used to extract the relevant information from the discrete elements method. To do so, the velocity field is partitioned into mode I, II, linear and non-linear components, each component being characterized by an intensity factor and a fixed spatial distribution. The response of the material is hence condensed in the evolution of the intensity factors, used as non-local variables. A model was also proposed to predict the behavior of the crack for proportional and non-proportional mixed mode I+II loadings. An experimental campaign was finally conducted to characterize the fatigue and fracture behavior of mortar. The results show that fatigue crack growth can be of significant importance. The experimental velocity field determined, in the crack tip region, by DIC, were analyzed using the same technic as that used for analyzing the fields obtained by the discrete element method showing consistent results. (author)
Disturbance metrics predict a wetland Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity
Stapanian, Martin A.; Mack, John; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian; Micacchion, Mick
2013-01-01
Indices of biological integrity of wetlands based on vascular plants (VIBIs) have been developed in many areas in the USA. Knowledge of the best predictors of VIBIs would enable management agencies to make better decisions regarding mitigation site selection and performance monitoring criteria. We use a novel statistical technique to develop predictive models for an established index of wetland vegetation integrity (Ohio VIBI), using as independent variables 20 indices and metrics of habitat quality, wetland disturbance, and buffer area land use from 149 wetlands in Ohio, USA. For emergent and forest wetlands, predictive models explained 61% and 54% of the variability, respectively, in Ohio VIBI scores. In both cases the most important predictor of Ohio VIBI score was a metric that assessed habitat alteration and development in the wetland. Of secondary importance as a predictor was a metric that assessed microtopography, interspersion, and quality of vegetation communities in the wetland. Metrics and indices assessing disturbance and land use of the buffer area were generally poor predictors of Ohio VIBI scores. Our results suggest that vegetation integrity of emergent and forest wetlands could be most directly enhanced by minimizing substrate and habitat disturbance within the wetland. Such efforts could include reducing or eliminating any practices that disturb the soil profile, such as nutrient enrichment from adjacent farm land, mowing, grazing, or cutting or removing woody plants.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. I. Meier
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Interannual variability of precipitation is traditionally described by fitting a probability model to yearly precipitation totals. There are three potential problems with this approach: a long record (at least 25–30 years is required in order to fit the model, years with missing rainfall data cannot be used, and the data need to be homogeneous, i.e., one has to assume stationarity. To overcome some of these limitations, we test an alternative methodology proposed by Eagleson (1978, based on the derived distribution (DD approach. It allows estimation of the probability density function (pdf of annual rainfall without requiring long records, provided that continuously gauged precipitation data are available to derive external storm properties. The DD approach combines marginal pdfs for storm depths and inter-arrival times to obtain an analytical formulation of the distribution of annual precipitation, under the simplifying assumptions of independence between events and independence between storm depth and time to the next storm. Because it is based on information about storms and not on annual totals, the DD can make use of information from years with incomplete data; more importantly, only a few years of rainfall measurements should suffice to estimate the parameters of the marginal pdfs, at least at locations where it rains with some regularity. For two temperate locations in different climates (Concepción, Chile, and Lugano, Switzerland, we randomly resample shortened time series to evaluate in detail the effects of record length on the DD, comparing the results with the traditional approach of fitting a normal (or lognormal distribution. Then, at the same two stations, we assess the biases introduced in the DD when using daily totalized rainfall, instead of continuously gauged data. Finally, for randomly selected periods between 3 and 15 years in length, we conduct full blind tests at 52 high-quality gauging stations in Switzerland
Piecewise linear manifolds: Einstein metrics and Ricci flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schrader, Robert
2016-01-01
This article provides an attempt to extend concepts from the theory of Riemannian manifolds to piecewise linear (p.l.) spaces. In particular we propose an analogue of the Ricci tensor, which we give the name of an Einstein vector field . On a given set of p.l. spaces we define and discuss (normalized) Einstein flows. p.l. Einstein metrics are defined and examples are provided. Criteria for flows to approach Einstein metrics are formulated. Second variations of the total scalar curvature at a specific Einstein space are calculated. (paper)
On characterizations of quasi-metric completeness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dag, H.; Romaguera, S.; Tirado, P.
2017-07-01
Hu proved in [4] that a metric space (X, d) is complete if and only if for any closed subspace C of (X, d), every Banach contraction on C has fixed point. Since then several authors have investigated the problem of characterizing the metric completeness by means of fixed point theorems. Recently this problem has been studied in the more general context of quasi-metric spaces for different notions of completeness. Here we present a characterization of a kind of completeness for quasi-metric spaces by means of a quasi-metric versions of Hu’s theorem. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens
2015-01-01
and found the MacAdam ellipses which are often interpreted as defining the metric tensor at their centres. An important question is whether it is possible to define colour coordinates such that the Euclidean distance in these coordinates correspond to human perception. Using cubic splines to represent......The space of colours is a fascinating space. It is a real vector space, but no matter what inner product you put on the space the resulting Euclidean distance does not correspond to human perception of difference between colours. In 1942 MacAdam performed the first experiments on colour matching...
Product Operations Status Summary Metrics
Takagi, Atsuya; Toole, Nicholas
2010-01-01
The Product Operations Status Summary Metrics (POSSUM) computer program provides a readable view into the state of the Phoenix Operations Product Generation Subsystem (OPGS) data pipeline. POSSUM provides a user interface that can search the data store, collect product metadata, and display the results in an easily-readable layout. It was designed with flexibility in mind for support in future missions. Flexibility over various data store hierarchies is provided through the disk-searching facilities of Marsviewer. This is a proven program that has been in operational use since the first day of the Phoenix mission.
Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation
Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas
2010-01-01
Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.
State of the art metrics for aspect oriented programming
Ghareb, Mazen Ismaeel; Allen, Gary
2018-04-01
The quality evaluation of software, e.g., defect measurement, gains significance with higher use of software applications. Metric measurements are considered as the primary indicator of imperfection prediction and software maintenance in various empirical studies of software products. However, there is no agreement on which metrics are compelling quality indicators for novel development approaches such as Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP). AOP intends to enhance programming quality, by providing new and novel constructs for the development of systems, for example, point cuts, advice and inter-type relationships. Hence, it is not evident if quality pointers for AOP can be derived from direct expansions of traditional OO measurements. Then again, investigations of AOP do regularly depend on established coupling measurements. Notwithstanding the late reception of AOP in empirical studies, coupling measurements have been adopted as useful markers of flaw inclination in this context. In this paper we will investigate the state of the art metrics for measurement of Aspect Oriented systems development.
Web metrics for library and information professionals
Stuart, David
2014-01-01
This is a practical guide to using web metrics to measure impact and demonstrate value. The web provides an opportunity to collect a host of different metrics, from those associated with social media accounts and websites to more traditional research outputs. This book is a clear guide for library and information professionals as to what web metrics are available and how to assess and use them to make informed decisions and demonstrate value. As individuals and organizations increasingly use the web in addition to traditional publishing avenues and formats, this book provides the tools to unlock web metrics and evaluate the impact of this content. The key topics covered include: bibliometrics, webometrics and web metrics; data collection tools; evaluating impact on the web; evaluating social media impact; investigating relationships between actors; exploring traditional publications in a new environment; web metrics and the web of data; the future of web metrics and the library and information professional.Th...
Metrics for aggregating the climate effects of different emissions: a unifying framework
Tol, R.S.J.; Berntsen, T.K.; O'Neill, B.C.; Fuglestvedt, J.S.; Shine, K.P.
2012-01-01
Multi-gas approaches to climate change policies require a metric establishing equivalences among emissions of various species. Climate scientists and economists have proposed four kinds of such metrics and debated their relative merits. We present a unifying framework that clarifies the
von Wulffen, M; Clark, P J; Macdonald, G A; Raj, A S; Kendall, B J; Powell, E E; Jones, M P; Holtmann, G
2016-07-01
Liver-related mortality varies across developed nations. To assess the relative role of various risk factors in relation to liver-related mortality in an ecological study approach. Data for liver-related mortality, prevalence data for hepatitis B and C, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), alcohol consumption per capita, Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM), overweight and obesity were extracted from peer-reviewed publications or WHO databases for different developed countries. As potential other risk-modifying factors, purchase power parity (PPP)-adjusted gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and health expenditure per capita were assessed. As an environmental 'hygiene factor', we also assessed the effect of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori. Only countries with a PPP-adjusted GDP greater than $20 000 and valid information for at least 8 risk modifiers were included. Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilised to quantify the contribution to the variability in liver-related mortality. The proportion of chronic liver diseases (CLD)-related mortality ranged from 0.73-2.40% [mean 1.56%, 95% CI (1.43-1.69)] of all deaths. Univariately, CLD-related mortality was significantly associated with Hepatitis B prevalence, alcohol consumption, PPP-adjusted GDP (all P < 0.05) and potentially H. pylori prevalence (P = 0.055). Other investigated factors, including hepatitis C, did not yield significance. Backward elimination suggested hepatitis B, alcohol consumption and PPP-adjusted GDP as risk factors (explaining 66.3% of the variability). Hepatitis B infection, alcohol consumption and GDP, but not hepatitis C or other factors, explain most of the variance of liver-related mortality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Metrics Evolution in an Energy Research and Development Program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixon, Brent
2011-01-01
All technology programs progress through three phases: Discovery, Definition, and Deployment. The form and application of program metrics needs to evolve with each phase. During the discovery phase, the program determines what is achievable. A set of tools is needed to define program goals, to analyze credible technical options, and to ensure that the options are compatible and meet the program objectives. A metrics system that scores the potential performance of technical options is part of this system of tools, supporting screening of concepts and aiding in the overall definition of objectives. During the definition phase, the program defines what specifically is wanted. What is achievable is translated into specific systems and specific technical options are selected and optimized. A metrics system can help with the identification of options for optimization and the selection of the option for deployment. During the deployment phase, the program shows that the selected system works. Demonstration projects are established and classical systems engineering is employed. During this phase, the metrics communicate system performance. This paper discusses an approach to metrics evolution within the Department of Energy's Nuclear Fuel Cycle R and D Program, which is working to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy.
Metric freeness and projectivity for classical and quantum normed modules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Helemskii, A Ya [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2013-07-31
In functional analysis, there are several diverse approaches to the notion of projective module. We show that a certain general categorical scheme contains all basic versions as special cases. In this scheme, the notion of free object comes to the foreground, and, in the best categories, projective objects are precisely retracts of free ones. We are especially interested in the so-called metric version of projectivity and characterize the metrically free classical and quantum (= operator) normed modules. Informally speaking, so-called extremal projectivity, which was known earlier, is interpreted as a kind of 'asymptotical metric projectivity'. In addition, we answer the following specific question in the geometry of normed spaces: what is the structure of metrically projective modules in the simplest case of normed spaces? We prove that metrically projective normed spaces are precisely the subspaces of l{sub 1}(M) (where M is a set) that are denoted by l{sub 1}{sup 0}(M) and consist of finitely supported functions. Thus, in this case, projectivity coincides with freeness. Bibliography: 28 titles.
METRIC EVALUATION PIPELINE FOR 3D MODELING OF URBAN SCENES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bosch
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.
Metric Evaluation Pipeline for 3d Modeling of Urban Scenes
Bosch, M.; Leichtman, A.; Chilcott, D.; Goldberg, H.; Brown, M.
2017-05-01
Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.
Nonlinear Semi-Supervised Metric Learning Via Multiple Kernels and Local Topology.
Li, Xin; Bai, Yanqin; Peng, Yaxin; Du, Shaoyi; Ying, Shihui
2018-03-01
Changing the metric on the data may change the data distribution, hence a good distance metric can promote the performance of learning algorithm. In this paper, we address the semi-supervised distance metric learning (ML) problem to obtain the best nonlinear metric for the data. First, we describe the nonlinear metric by the multiple kernel representation. By this approach, we project the data into a high dimensional space, where the data can be well represented by linear ML. Then, we reformulate the linear ML by a minimization problem on the positive definite matrix group. Finally, we develop a two-step algorithm for solving this model and design an intrinsic steepest descent algorithm to learn the positive definite metric matrix. Experimental results validate that our proposed method is effective and outperforms several state-of-the-art ML methods.
Environmental cost of using poor decision metrics to prioritize environmental projects.
Pannell, David J; Gibson, Fiona L
2016-04-01
Conservation decision makers commonly use project-scoring metrics that are inconsistent with theory on optimal ranking of projects. As a result, there may often be a loss of environmental benefits. We estimated the magnitudes of these losses for various metrics that deviate from theory in ways that are common in practice. These metrics included cases where relevant variables were omitted from the benefits metric, project costs were omitted, and benefits were calculated using a faulty functional form. We estimated distributions of parameters from 129 environmental projects from Australia, New Zealand, and Italy for which detailed analyses had been completed previously. The cost of using poor prioritization metrics (in terms of lost environmental values) was often high--up to 80% in the scenarios we examined. The cost in percentage terms was greater when the budget was smaller. The most costly errors were omitting information about environmental values (up to 31% loss of environmental values), omitting project costs (up to 35% loss), omitting the effectiveness of management actions (up to 9% loss), and using a weighted-additive decision metric for variables that should be multiplied (up to 23% loss). The latter 3 are errors that occur commonly in real-world decision metrics, in combination often reducing potential benefits from conservation investments by 30-50%. Uncertainty about parameter values also reduced the benefits from investments in conservation projects but often not by as much as faulty prioritization metrics. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.
Fransson, Boel A; Chen, Chi-Ya; Noyes, Julie A; Ragle, Claude A
2016-11-01
To determine the construct and concurrent validity of instrument motion metrics for laparoscopic skills assessment in virtual reality and augmented reality simulators. Evaluation study. Veterinarian students (novice, n = 14) and veterinarians (experienced, n = 11) with no or variable laparoscopic experience. Participants' minimally invasive surgery (MIS) experience was determined by hospital records of MIS procedures performed in the Teaching Hospital. Basic laparoscopic skills were assessed by 5 tasks using a physical box trainer. Each participant completed 2 tasks for assessments in each type of simulator (virtual reality: bowel handling and cutting; augmented reality: object positioning and a pericardial window model). Motion metrics such as instrument path length, angle or drift, and economy of motion of each simulator were recorded. None of the motion metrics in a virtual reality simulator showed correlation with experience, or to the basic laparoscopic skills score. All metrics in augmented reality were significantly correlated with experience (time, instrument path, and economy of movement), except for the hand dominance metric. The basic laparoscopic skills score was correlated to all performance metrics in augmented reality. The augmented reality motion metrics differed between American College of Veterinary Surgeons diplomates and residents, whereas basic laparoscopic skills score and virtual reality metrics did not. Our results provide construct validity and concurrent validity for motion analysis metrics for an augmented reality system, whereas a virtual reality system was validated only for the time score. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Parrish, Donna; Butryn, Ryan S.; Rizzo, Donna M.
2012-01-01
We developed a methodology to predict brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution using summer temperature metrics as predictor variables. Our analysis used long-term fish and hourly water temperature data from the Dog River, Vermont (USA). Commonly used metrics (e.g., mean, maximum, maximum 7-day maximum) tend to smooth the data so information on temperature variation is lost. Therefore, we developed a new set of metrics (called event metrics) to capture temperature variation by describing the frequency, area, duration, and magnitude of events that exceeded a user-defined temperature threshold. We used 16, 18, 20, and 22°C. We built linear discriminant models and tested and compared the event metrics against the commonly used metrics. Correct classification of the observations was 66% with event metrics and 87% with commonly used metrics. However, combined event and commonly used metrics correctly classified 92%. Of the four individual temperature thresholds, it was difficult to assess which threshold had the “best” accuracy. The 16°C threshold had slightly fewer misclassifications; however, the 20°C threshold had the fewest extreme misclassifications. Our method leveraged the volumes of existing long-term data and provided a simple, systematic, and adaptable framework for monitoring changes in fish distribution, specifically in the case of irregular, extreme temperature events.
A Robust Optimization Approach for Improving Service Quality
Andreas C. Soteriou; Richard B. Chase
2000-01-01
Delivering high quality service during the service encounter is central to competitive advantage in service organizations. However, achieving such high quality while controlling for costs is a major challenge for service managers. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach for addressing this challenge. The approach entails developing a model linking service process operational variables to service quality metrics to provide guidelines for service resource allocation. The approach en...
Metrics for building performance assurance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koles, G.; Hitchcock, R.; Sherman, M.
1996-07-01
This report documents part of the work performed in phase I of a Laboratory Directors Research and Development (LDRD) funded project entitled Building Performance Assurances (BPA). The focus of the BPA effort is to transform the way buildings are built and operated in order to improve building performance by facilitating or providing tools, infrastructure, and information. The efforts described herein focus on the development of metrics with which to evaluate building performance and for which information and optimization tools need to be developed. The classes of building performance metrics reviewed are (1) Building Services (2) First Costs, (3) Operating Costs, (4) Maintenance Costs, and (5) Energy and Environmental Factors. The first category defines the direct benefits associated with buildings; the next three are different kinds of costs associated with providing those benefits; the last category includes concerns that are broader than direct costs and benefits to the building owner and building occupants. The level of detail of the various issues reflect the current state of knowledge in those scientific areas and the ability of the to determine that state of knowledge, rather than directly reflecting the importance of these issues; it intentionally does not specifically focus on energy issues. The report describes work in progress and is intended as a resource and can be used to indicate the areas needing more investigation. Other reports on BPA activities are also available.
A guide to phylogenetic metrics for conservation, community ecology and macroecology
Cadotte, Marc W.; Carvalho, Silvia B.; Davies, T. Jonathan; Ferrier, Simon; Fritz, Susanne A.; Grenyer, Rich; Helmus, Matthew R.; Jin, Lanna S.; Mooers, Arne O.; Pavoine, Sandrine; Purschke, Oliver; Redding, David W.; Rosauer, Dan F.; Winter, Marten; Mazel, Florent
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT The use of phylogenies in ecology is increasingly common and has broadened our understanding of biological diversity. Ecological sub‐disciplines, particularly conservation, community ecology and macroecology, all recognize the value of evolutionary relationships but the resulting development of phylogenetic approaches has led to a proliferation of phylogenetic diversity metrics. The use of many metrics across the sub‐disciplines hampers potential meta‐analyses, syntheses, and generalizations of existing results. Further, there is no guide for selecting the appropriate metric for a given question, and different metrics are frequently used to address similar questions. To improve the choice, application, and interpretation of phylo‐diversity metrics, we organize existing metrics by expanding on a unifying framework for phylogenetic information. Generally, questions about phylogenetic relationships within or between assemblages tend to ask three types of question: how much; how different; or how regular? We show that these questions reflect three dimensions of a phylogenetic tree: richness, divergence, and regularity. We classify 70 existing phylo‐diversity metrics based on their mathematical form within these three dimensions and identify ‘anchor’ representatives: for α‐diversity metrics these are PD (Faith's phylogenetic diversity), MPD (mean pairwise distance), and VPD (variation of pairwise distances). By analysing mathematical formulae and using simulations, we use this framework to identify metrics that mix dimensions, and we provide a guide to choosing and using the most appropriate metrics. We show that metric choice requires connecting the research question with the correct dimension of the framework and that there are logical approaches to selecting and interpreting metrics. The guide outlined herein will help researchers navigate the current jungle of indices. PMID:26785932
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Běták Emil
2014-04-01
Full Text Available For low-energy nuclear reactions well above the resonance region, but still below the pion threshold, statistical pre-equilibrium models (e.g., the exciton and the hybrid ones are a frequent tool for analysis of energy spectra and the cross sections of cluster emission. For α’s, two essentially distinct approaches are popular, namely the preformed one and the different versions of coalescence approaches, whereas only the latter group of models can be used for other types of cluster ejectiles. The original Iwamoto-Harada model of pre-equilibrium cluster emission was formulated using the overlap of the cluster and its constituent nucleons in momentum space. Transforming it into level or state densities is not a straigthforward task; however, physically the same model was presented at a conference on reaction models five years earlier. At that time, only the densities without spin were used. The introduction of spin variables into the exciton model enabled detailed calculation of the γ emission and its competition with nucleon channels, and – at the same time – it stimulated further developments of the model. However – to the best of our knowledge – no spin formulation has been presented for cluster emission till recently, when the first attempts have been reported, but restricted to the first emission only. We have updated this effort now and we are able to handle (using the same simplifications as in our previous work pre-equilibrium cluster emission with spin including all nuclei in the reaction chain.
Yang, Shiying; Yang, Siyu; Kraslawski, Andrzej; Qian, Yu
2013-12-17
Ecologically based life cycle assessment (Eco-LCA) is an appealing approach for the evaluation of resources utilization and environmental impacts of the process industries from an ecological scale. However, the aggregated metrics of Eco-LCA suffer from some drawbacks: the environmental impact metric has limited applicability; the resource utilization metric ignores indirect consumption; the renewability metric fails to address the quantitative distinction of resources availability; the productivity metric seems self-contradictory. In this paper, the existing Eco-LCA metrics are revised and extended for sustainability assessment of the energy and chemical processes. A new Eco-LCA metrics system is proposed, including four independent dimensions: environmental impact, resource utilization, resource availability, and economic effectiveness. An illustrative example of comparing assessment between a gas boiler and a solar boiler process provides insight into the features of the proposed approach.
Quantum metric spaces as a model for pregeometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, E.; Cespedes, J.; Verdaguer, E.
1992-01-01
A new arena for the dynamics of spacetime is proposed, in which the basic quantum variable is the two-point distance on a metric space. The scaling dimension (that is, the Kolmogorov capacity) in the neighborhood of each point then defines in a natural way a local concept of dimension. We study our model in the region of parameter space in which the resulting spacetime is not too different from a smooth manifold
Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logics: Expressiveness, Decidability, and Undecidability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin
2010-01-01
Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...... that MPNL is decidable in double exponential time and expressively complete with respect to a well-defined subfragment of the two-variable fragment FO2[N, =,...
Beckerman, Bernardo S; Jerrett, Michael; Serre, Marc; Martin, Randall V; Lee, Seung-Jae; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Ross, Zev; Su, Jason; Burnett, Richard T
2013-07-02
Airborne fine particulate matter exhibits spatiotemporal variability at multiple scales, which presents challenges to estimating exposures for health effects assessment. Here we created a model to predict ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) across the contiguous United States to be applied to health effects modeling. We developed a hybrid approach combining a land use regression model (LUR) selected with a machine learning method, and Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) interpolation of the LUR space-time residuals. The PM2.5 data set included 104,172 monthly observations at 1464 monitoring locations with approximately 10% of locations reserved for cross-validation. LUR models were based on remote sensing estimates of PM2.5, land use and traffic indicators. Normalized cross-validated R(2) values for LUR were 0.63 and 0.11 with and without remote sensing, respectively, suggesting remote sensing is a strong predictor of ground-level concentrations. In the models including the BME interpolation of the residuals, cross-validated R(2) were 0.79 for both configurations; the model without remotely sensed data described more fine-scale variation than the model including remote sensing. Our results suggest that our modeling framework can predict ground-level concentrations of PM2.5 at multiple scales over the contiguous U.S.
Burns, Darren K; Jones, Andrew P; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc
2017-05-01
There is a scarcity of quantitative research into the effect of FDI on population health in low and middle income countries (LMICs). This paper investigates the relationship using annual panel data from 85 LMICs between 1974 and 2012. When controlling for time trends, country fixed effects, correlation between repeated observations, relevant covariates, and endogeneity via a novel instrumental variable approach, we find FDI to have a beneficial effect on overall health, proxied by life expectancy. When investigating age-specific mortality rates, we find a stronger beneficial effect of FDI on adult mortality, yet no association with either infant or child mortality. Notably, FDI effects on health remain undetected in all models which do not control for endogeneity. Exploring the effect of sector-specific FDI on health in LMICs, we provide preliminary evidence of a weak inverse association between secondary (i.e. manufacturing) sector FDI and overall life expectancy. Our results thus suggest that FDI has provided an overall benefit to population health in LMICs, particularly in adults, yet investments into the secondary sector could be harmful to health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zohreh Bostaki
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In the contexture of a customer-driven goods or service design process, a well-timed update of customer’s requirements may not only serve as a necessity indicator to observe how things change over time, but also it incorporates the firms a better ground to interoperate different strategies to meet the future needs of its customer. This paper proposes a systematic methodology to deal with the customer needs’ dynamics, in terms of their relative weights, in the QFD. Compared with previous research, the contribution of this paper is fourfold. First, it applies some linguistic variables to get preferences of customers and experts to determine the relative importance of customer requirements (CRs and the relationships between customer requirements and engineering characteristics (ECs. Second, it proposes the implementation of a forecasting technique. Third, it describes more comprehensively on how future uncertainty in the weights of customer’s needs could be estimated and transmitted into the design attributes. Fourth, it proposes the implementation of a quantitative approach, which takes into account the decision maker’s attitude towards risk to optimize the QFD decision making analysis. Finally, a real-world application of QFD is provided to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed methodology.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Susanne; Christensen, Ulla; Lynch, John
2005-01-01
It is often of interest to assess how much of the effect of an exposure on a response is mediated through an intermediate variable. However, systematic approaches are lacking, other than assessment of a surrogate marker for the endpoint of a clinical trial. We review a measure of "proportion...... of several intermediate variables. Binary or categorical variables can be included directly through threshold models. We call this measure the mediation proportion, that is, the part of an exposure effect on outcome explained by a third, intermediate variable. Two examples illustrate the approach. The first...... example is a randomized clinical trial of the effects of interferon-alpha on visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration. In this example, the exposure, mediator and response are all binary. The second example is a common problem in social epidemiology-to find the proportion...
Independent variables in 3 + 1 Regge calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuckey, P.A.
1989-01-01
The space of metrics in 3+1 Regge calculus is discussed, and the problems of counting its dimensions, and of finding independent variables to parametrise the space, are addressed. The most general natural class of metrics is considered first, and bounds on its dimension are obtained, although no good parametrisations are found. The relationship between these metrics and those used in canonical Regge calculus is shown, and this leads to an interesting result via the Bianchi identities. A restricted class of metrics is then considered and independent variables, which parametrise these metrics and which may be computationally convenient, are given. The dimension of this space of metrics gives an improved lower bound for the dimension of the general space. (author)
Performance evaluation of objective quality metrics for HDR image compression
Valenzise, Giuseppe; De Simone, Francesca; Lauga, Paul; Dufaux, Frederic
2014-09-01
Due to the much larger luminance and contrast characteristics of high dynamic range (HDR) images, well-known objective quality metrics, widely used for the assessment of low dynamic range (LDR) content, cannot be directly applied to HDR images in order to predict their perceptual fidelity. To overcome this limitation, advanced fidelity metrics, such as the HDR-VDP, have been proposed to accurately predict visually significant differences. However, their complex calibration may make them difficult to use in practice. A simpler approach consists in computing arithmetic or structural fidelity metrics, such as PSNR and SSIM, on perceptually encoded luminance values but the performance of quality prediction in this case has not been clearly studied. In this paper, we aim at providing a better comprehension of the limits and the potentialities of this approach, by means of a subjective study. We compare the performance of HDR-VDP to that of PSNR and SSIM computed on perceptually encoded luminance values, when considering compressed HDR images. Our results show that these simpler metrics can be effectively employed to assess image fidelity for applications such as HDR image compression.
Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Cysarz, Dirk; Van Leeuwen, Peter; Takahashi, Anielle C. M.; Catai, Aparecida M.; Gnecchi-Ruscone, Tomaso
2015-01-01
Two diverse complexity metrics quantifying time irreversibility and local prediction, in connection with a surrogate data approach, were utilized to detect nonlinear dynamics in short heart period (HP) variability series recorded in fetuses, as a function of the gestational period, and in healthy humans, as a function of the magnitude of the orthostatic challenge. The metrics indicated the presence of two distinct types of nonlinear HP dynamics characterized by diverse ranges of time scales. These findings stress the need to render more specific the analysis of nonlinear components of HP dynamics by accounting for different temporal scales. PMID:25806002
Metrics for Business Process Models
Mendling, Jan
Up until now, there has been little research on why people introduce errors in real-world business process models. In a more general context, Simon [404] points to the limitations of cognitive capabilities and concludes that humans act rationally only to a certain extent. Concerning modeling errors, this argument would imply that human modelers lose track of the interrelations of large and complex models due to their limited cognitive capabilities and introduce errors that they would not insert in a small model. A recent study by Mendling et al. [275] explores in how far certain complexity metrics of business process models have the potential to serve as error determinants. The authors conclude that complexity indeed appears to have an impact on error probability. Before we can test such a hypothesis in a more general setting, we have to establish an understanding of how we can define determinants that drive error probability and how we can measure them.
Load Balancing Metric with Diversity for Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moad, Sofiane; Hansen, Morten Tranberg; Jurdak, Raja
2011-01-01
The expected number of transmission (ETX) represents a routing metric that considers the highly variable link qualities for a specific radio in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). To adapt to these differences, radio diversity is a recently explored solution for WSNs. In this paper, we propose...... an energy balancing metric which explores the diversity in link qualities present at different radios. The goal is to effectively use the energy of the network and therefore extend the network lifetime. The proposed metric takes into account the transmission and reception costs for a specific radio in order...... to choose an energy efficient radio. In addition, the metric uses the remaining energy of nodes in order to regulate the traffic so that critical nodes are avoided. We show by simulations that our metric can improve the network lifetime up to 20%....
Metrics for value creation in a sustainable knowledge society
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huovila, P., Email: pekka.huovila@vtt.fi
2012-06-15
This paper highlights the need to create potential value metrics for sustainable neighbourhoods, capable of working simultaneously at a variety of spatial scales for different stakeholders (multi-scalar reciprocity), moving from top-down imposed metrics towards bottom-up formulated ones. Metrics for Value Creation should be constituted using different approaches. One dimension is the built environment, where the present rating schemes focus on the environmental impact of the use of buildings, namely energy use. Another dimension is the corporate aspect, where triple bottom line reporting also emphasises environmental and social issues, but the discursive civic square environment risks domination by economic sustainability of the production and growth-oriented business environment. The third dimension is the city itself with its social networks, concerning indicators for employment and crime, for example. The fourth dimension aims to measure the quality of life of individual citizens, which is not easy to define. At present, all four approaches are used separately without interoperability between the systems. Current environmental rating schemes, such as BREEAM, CASBEE, Green Star, HQE, LEED, PromisE, etc. are able to structure the processes of setting objectives, monitoring the process and assessing the state of buildings by some simple indicators. Mostly they focus on resource use and environmental impacts, but also cover some performance parameters, such as indoor environmental quality or aspects of accessibility. However, they are not contributing to the objectives of value creation in a knowledge society. This paper discusses major limitations of current sustainability indicator sets and rating tools. Finally, it describes a new approach to value metrics for sustainable neighbourhoods, using the LivingLab approach. This is a user-centric multidisciplinary research approach and a user community-driven innovation based on real-life experiments. The benefits of
On Nakhleh's metric for reduced phylogenetic networks
Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente Feruglio, Gabriel Alejandro
2009-01-01
We prove that Nakhleh’s metric for reduced phylogenetic networks is also a metric on the classes of tree-child phylogenetic networks, semibinary tree-sibling time consistent phylogenetic networks, and multilabeled phylogenetic trees. We also prove that it separates distinguishable phylogenetic networks. In this way, it becomes the strongest dissimilarity measure for phylogenetic networks available so far. Furthermore, we propose a generalization of that metric that separates arbitrary phyl...
Generalized tolerance sensitivity and DEA metric sensitivity
Neralić, Luka; E. Wendell, Richard
2015-01-01
This paper considers the relationship between Tolerance sensitivity analysis in optimization and metric sensitivity analysis in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Herein, we extend the results on the generalized Tolerance framework proposed by Wendell and Chen and show how this framework includes DEA metric sensitivity as a special case. Further, we note how recent results in Tolerance sensitivity suggest some possible extensions of the results in DEA metric sensitivity.
The definitive guide to IT service metrics
McWhirter, Kurt
2012-01-01
Used just as they are, the metrics in this book will bring many benefits to both the IT department and the business as a whole. Details of the attributes of each metric are given, enabling you to make the right choices for your business. You may prefer and are encouraged to design and create your own metrics to bring even more value to your business - this book will show you how to do this, too.
Generalized tolerance sensitivity and DEA metric sensitivity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luka Neralić
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the relationship between Tolerance sensitivity analysis in optimization and metric sensitivity analysis in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Herein, we extend the results on the generalized Tolerance framework proposed by Wendell and Chen and show how this framework includes DEA metric sensitivity as a special case. Further, we note how recent results in Tolerance sensitivity suggest some possible extensions of the results in DEA metric sensitivity.
Common Metrics for Human-Robot Interaction
Steinfeld, Aaron; Lewis, Michael; Fong, Terrence; Scholtz, Jean; Schultz, Alan; Kaber, David; Goodrich, Michael
2006-01-01
This paper describes an effort to identify common metrics for task-oriented human-robot interaction (HRI). We begin by discussing the need for a toolkit of HRI metrics. We then describe the framework of our work and identify important biasing factors that must be taken into consideration. Finally, we present suggested common metrics for standardization and a case study. Preparation of a larger, more detailed toolkit is in progress.
Chaotic inflation with metric and matter perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldman, H.A.; Brandenberger, R.H.
1989-01-01
A perturbative scheme to analyze the evolution of both metric and scalar field perturbations in an expanding universe is developed. The scheme is applied to study chaotic inflation with initial metric and scalar field perturbations present. It is shown that initial gravitational perturbations with wavelength smaller than the Hubble radius rapidly decay. The metric simultaneously picks up small perturbations determined by the matter inhomogeneities. Both are frozen in once the wavelength exceeds the Hubble radius. (orig.)
Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sereno, Mauro
2003-01-01
Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity is discussed. I introduce a generalized approximate metric element, inclusive of both post-post-Newtonian contributions and a gravitomagnetic field. Following Fermat's principle and standard hypotheses, I derive the time delay function and deflection angle caused by an isolated mass distribution. Several astrophysical systems are considered. In most of the cases, the gravitomagnetic correction offers the best perspectives for an observational detection. Actual measurements distinguish only marginally different metric theories from each other
Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gavrilović Suzana
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment
Connection Setup Signaling Scheme with Flooding-Based Path Searching for Diverse-Metric Network
Kikuta, Ko; Ishii, Daisuke; Okamoto, Satoru; Oki, Eiji; Yamanaka, Naoaki
Connection setup on various computer networks is now achieved by GMPLS. This technology is based on the source-routing approach, which requires the source node to store metric information of the entire network prior to computing a route. Thus all metric information must be distributed to all network nodes and kept up-to-date. However, as metric information become more diverse and generalized, it is hard to update all information due to the huge update overhead. Emerging network services and applications require the network to support diverse metrics for achieving various communication qualities. Increasing the number of metrics supported by the network causes excessive processing of metric update messages. To reduce the number of metric update messages, another scheme is required. This paper proposes a connection setup scheme that uses flooding-based signaling rather than the distribution of metric information. The proposed scheme requires only flooding of signaling messages with requested metric information, no routing protocol is required. Evaluations confirm that the proposed scheme achieves connection establishment without excessive overhead. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme greatly reduces the number of control messages compared to the conventional scheme, while their blocking probabilities are comparable.
About the possibility of a generalized metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Ladik, J.
1991-10-01
The metric (the structure of the space-time) may be dependent on the properties of the object measuring it. The case of size dependence of the metric was examined. For this dependence the simplest possible form of the metric tensor has been constructed which fulfils the following requirements: there be two extremal characteristic scales; the metric be unique and the usual between them; the change be sudden in the neighbourhood of these scales; the size of the human body appear as a parameter (postulated on the basis of some philosophical arguments). Estimates have been made for the two extremal length scales according to existing observations. (author) 19 refs
Evaluation Metrics for Simulations of Tropical South America
Gallup, S.; Baker, I. T.; Denning, A. S.; Cheeseman, M.; Haynes, K. D.; Phillips, M.
2017-12-01
The evergreen broadleaf forest of the Amazon Basin is the largest rainforest on earth, and has teleconnections to global climate and carbon cycle characteristics. This region defies simple characterization, spanning large gradients in total rainfall and seasonal variability. Broadly, the region can be thought of as trending from light-limited in its wettest areas to water-limited near the ecotone, with individual landscapes possibly exhibiting the characteristics of either (or both) limitations during an annual cycle. A basin-scale classification of mean behavior has been elusive, and ecosystem response to seasonal cycles and anomalous drought events has resulted in some disagreement in the literature, to say the least. However, new observational platforms and instruments make characterization of the heterogeneity and variability more feasible.To evaluate simulations of ecophysiological function, we develop metrics that correlate various observational products with meteorological variables such as precipitation and radiation. Observations include eddy covariance fluxes, Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF, from GOME2 and OCO2), biomass and vegetation indices. We find that the modest correlation between SIF and precipitation decreases with increasing annual precipitation, although the relationship is not consistent between products. Biomass increases with increasing precipitation. Although vegetation indices are generally correlated with biomass and precipitation, they can saturate or experience retrieval issues during cloudy periods.Using these observational products and relationships, we develop a set of model evaluation metrics. These metrics are designed to call attention to models that get "the right answer only if it's for the right reason," and provide an opportunity for more critical evaluation of model physics. These metrics represent a testbed that can be applied to multiple models as a means to evaluate their performance in tropical South America.
A guide to calculating habitat-quality metrics to inform conservation of highly mobile species
Bieri, Joanna A.; Sample, Christine; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Earl, Julia E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Federico, Paula; Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Semmens, Darius J.; Skraber, T.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady J.
2018-01-01
Many metrics exist for quantifying the relative value of habitats and pathways used by highly mobile species. Properly selecting and applying such metrics requires substantial background in mathematics and understanding the relevant management arena. To address this multidimensional challenge, we demonstrate and compare three measurements of habitat quality: graph-, occupancy-, and demographic-based metrics. Each metric provides insights into system dynamics, at the expense of increasing amounts and complexity of data and models. Our descriptions and comparisons of diverse habitat-quality metrics provide means for practitioners to overcome the modeling challenges associated with management or conservation of such highly mobile species. Whereas previous guidance for applying habitat-quality metrics has been scattered in diversified tracks of literature, we have brought this information together into an approachable format including accessible descriptions and a modeling case study for a typical example that conservation professionals can adapt for their own decision contexts and focal populations.Considerations for Resource ManagersManagement objectives, proposed actions, data availability and quality, and model assumptions are all relevant considerations when applying and interpreting habitat-quality metrics.Graph-based metrics answer questions related to habitat centrality and connectivity, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify basic spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require the least data.Occupancy-based metrics answer questions about likelihood of persistence or colonization, are suitable for populations that undergo localized extinctions, quantify spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require a moderate amount of data.Demographic-based metrics answer questions about relative or absolute population size, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify demographic
Wild, Beate; Stadnitski, Tatjana; Wesche, Daniela; Stroe-Kunold, Esther; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph
2016-04-01
The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of the awakening salivary cortisol in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) using a time series design. We included ten AN inpatients, six with a very low BMI (high symptom severity, HSS group) and four patients with less severe symptoms (low symptom severity, LSS group). Patients collected salivary cortisol daily upon awakening. The number of collected saliva samples varied across patients between n=65 and n=229 (due to the different lengths of their inpatient stay). In addition, before retiring, the patients answered questions daily on the handheld regarding disorder-related psychosocial variables. The analysis of cortisol and diary data was conducted by using a time series approach. Time series showed that the awakening cortisol of the AN patients was elevated as compared to a control group. Cortisol measurements of patients with LSS essentially fluctuated in a stationary manner around a constant mean. The series of patients with HSS were generally less stable; four HSS patients showed a non-stationary cortisol awakening series. Antipsychotic medication did not change awakening cortisol in a specific way. The lagged dependencies between cortisol and depressive feelings became significant for four patients. Here, higher cortisol values were temporally associated with higher values of depressive feelings. Upon awakening, the cortisol of all AN patients was in the standard range but elevated as compared to healthy controls. Patients with HSS appeared to show less stable awakening cortisol time series compared to patients with LSS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Area of Concern: a new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics
Purpose: As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplac...
Steuer, J.J.; Bales, J.D.; Giddings, E.M.P.
2009-01-01
The relationships among urbanization, stream hydraulics, and aquatic biology were investigated across a gradient of urbanization in 30 small basins in eastern Wisconsin, USA. Simulation of hydraulic metrics with 1-dimensional unsteady flow models was an effective means for mechanistically coupling the effects of urbanization with stream ecological conditions (i.e., algae, invertebrates, and fish). Urbanization, characterized by household, road, and urban land density, was positively correlated with the lowest shear stress for 2 adjacent transects in a reach for the low-flow summer (p stress observed in our study is consistent with a higher concentration of water-column particulates available for filtration. The strength of correlations between hydraulic and biological metrics is related to the time period (annual, seasonal, or monthly) considered. The hydraulic modeling approach, whether based on hourly or daily flow data, allowed documentation of the effects of a spatially variable response within a reach, and the results suggest that stream response to urbanization varies with hydraulic habitat type. ?? North American Benthological Society.
Convexity and the Euclidean Metric of Space-Time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolaos Kalogeropoulos
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We address the reasons why the “Wick-rotated”, positive-definite, space-time metric obeys the Pythagorean theorem. An answer is proposed based on the convexity and smoothness properties of the functional spaces purporting to provide the kinematic framework of approaches to quantum gravity. We employ moduli of convexity and smoothness which are eventually extremized by Hilbert spaces. We point out the potential physical significance that functional analytical dualities play in this framework. Following the spirit of the variational principles employed in classical and quantum Physics, such Hilbert spaces dominate in a generalized functional integral approach. The metric of space-time is induced by the inner product of such Hilbert spaces.
Enhancing Authentication Models Characteristic Metrics via ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this work, we derive the universal characteristic metrics set for authentication models based on security, usability and design issues. We then compute the probability of the occurrence of each characteristic metrics in some single factor and multifactor authentication models in order to determine the effectiveness of these ...
Gravitational Metric Tensor Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The covariant and contravariant metric tensors exterior to a homogeneous spherical body rotating uniformly about a common φ axis with constant angular velocity ω is constructed. The constructed metric tensors in this gravitational field have seven non-zero distinct components.The Lagrangian for this gravitational field is ...
Invariant metric for nonlinear symplectic maps
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we construct an invariant metric in the space of homogeneous polynomials of a given degree (≥ 3). The homogeneous polynomials specify a nonlinear symplectic map which in turn represents a Hamiltonian system. By minimizing the norm constructed out of this metric as a function of system parameters, we ...
Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjorth, Poul G.
If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...
Metric solution of a spinning mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, H.
1982-01-01
Studies on a particular class of asymptotically flat and stationary metric solutions called the Kerr-Tomimatsu-Sato class are reviewed about its derivation and properties. For a further study, an almost complete list of the papers worked on the Tomimatsu-Sato metrics is given. (Auth.)
On Information Metrics for Spatial Coding.
Souza, Bryan C; Pavão, Rodrigo; Belchior, Hindiael; Tort, Adriano B L
2018-04-01
The hippocampal formation is involved in navigation, and its neuronal activity exhibits a variety of spatial correlates (e.g., place cells, grid cells). The quantification of the information encoded by spikes has been standard procedure to identify which cells have spatial correlates. For place cells, most of the established metrics derive from Shannon's mutual information (Shannon, 1948), and convey information rate in bits/s or bits/spike (Skaggs et al., 1993, 1996). Despite their widespread use, the performance of these metrics in relation to the original mutual information metric has never been investigated. In this work, using simulated and real data, we find that the current information metrics correlate less with the accuracy of spatial decoding than the original mutual information metric. We also find that the top informative cells may differ among metrics, and show a surrogate-based normalization that yields comparable spatial information estimates. Since different information metrics may identify different neuronal populations, we discuss current and alternative definitions of spatially informative cells, which affect the metric choice. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Validation of Metrics for Collaborative Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ion IVAN
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describe the new concepts of collaborative systems metrics validation. The paper define the quality characteristics of collaborative systems. There are proposed a metric to estimate the quality level of collaborative systems. There are performed measurements of collaborative systems quality using a specially designed software.
Validation of Metrics for Collaborative Systems
Ion IVAN; Cristian CIUREA
2008-01-01
This paper describe the new concepts of collaborative systems metrics validation. The paper define the quality characteristics of collaborative systems. There are proposed a metric to estimate the quality level of collaborative systems. There are performed measurements of collaborative systems quality using a specially designed software.
Software Power Metric Model: An Implementation | Akwukwuma ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... and the execution time (TIME) in each case was recorded. We then obtain the application functions point count. Our result shows that the proposed metric is computable, consistent in its use of unit, and is programming language independent. Keywords: Software attributes, Software power, measurement, Software metric, ...
Evaluating Multiple Object Tracking Performance: The CLEAR MOT Metrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernardin Keni
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous tracking of multiple persons in real-world environments is an active research field and several approaches have been proposed, based on a variety of features and algorithms. Recently, there has been a growing interest in organizing systematic evaluations to compare the various techniques. Unfortunately, the lack of common metrics for measuring the performance of multiple object trackers still makes it hard to compare their results. In this work, we introduce two intuitive and general metrics to allow for objective comparison of tracker characteristics, focusing on their precision in estimating object locations, their accuracy in recognizing object configurations and their ability to consistently label objects over time. These metrics have been extensively used in two large-scale international evaluations, the 2006 and 2007 CLEAR evaluations, to measure and compare the performance of multiple object trackers for a wide variety of tracking tasks. Selected performance results are presented and the advantages and drawbacks of the presented metrics are discussed based on the experience gained during the evaluations.
Resolving society's energy trilemma through the Energy Justice Metric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heffron, Raphael J.; McCauley, Darren; Sovacool, Benjamin K.
2015-01-01
Carbon dioxide emissions continue to increase to the detriment of society in many forms. One of the difficulties faced is the imbalance between the competing aims of economics, politics and the environment which form the trilemma of energy policy. This article advances that this energy trilemma can be resolved through energy justice. Energy justice develops the debate on energy policy to one that highlights cosmopolitanism, progresses thinking beyond economics and incorporates a new futuristic perspective. To capture these dynamics of energy justice, this research developed an Energy Justice Metric (EJM) that involves the calculation of several metrics: (1) a country (national) EJM; (2) an EJM for different energy infrastructure; and (3) an EJM which is incorporated into economic models that derive costs for energy infrastructure projects. An EJM is modeled for China, the European Union and the United States, and for different energy infrastructure in the United Kingdom. The EJM is plotted on a Ternary Phase Diagram which is used in the sciences for analyzing the relationship (trilemma) of three forms of matter. The development of an EJM can provide a tool for decision-making on energy policy and one that solves the energy trilemma with a just and equitable approach. - Highlights: • Energy justice advances energy policy with cosmopolitanism and new economic-thinking. • An Energy Justice Metric is developed and captures the dynamics of energy justice. • The Energy Justice Metric (EJM) compares countries, and energy infrastructure. • EJM provides an energy policy decision-making tool that is just and equitable.
MESUR: USAGE-BASED METRICS OF SCHOLARLY IMPACT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-01-30
The evaluation of scholarly communication items is now largely a matter of expert opinion or metrics derived from citation data. Both approaches can fail to take into account the myriad of factors that shape scholarly impact. Usage data has emerged as a promising complement to existing methods o fassessment but the formal groundwork to reliably and validly apply usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact is lacking. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded MESUR project constitutes a systematic effort to define, validate and cross-validate a range of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact by creating a semantic model of the scholarly communication process. The constructed model will serve as the basis of a creating a large-scale semantic network that seamlessly relates citation, bibliographic and usage data from a variety of sources. A subsequent program that uses the established semantic network as a reference data set will determine the characteristics and semantics of a variety of usage-based metrics of schlolarly impact. This paper outlines the architecture and methodology adopted by the MESUR project and its future direction.
Eldridge, Ronald C; Flanders, W Dana; Bostick, Roberd M; Fedirko, Veronika; Gross, Myron; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Goodman, Michael
2017-09-01
Since oxidative stress involves a variety of cellular changes, no single biomarker can serve as a complete measure of this complex biological process. The analytic technique of structural equation modeling (SEM) provides a possible solution to this problem by modelling a latent (unobserved) variable constructed from the covariance of multiple biomarkers. Using three pooled datasets, we modelled a latent oxidative stress variable from five biomarkers related to oxidative stress: F 2 -isoprostanes (FIP), fluorescent oxidation products, mitochondrial DNA copy number, γ-tocopherol (Gtoc) and C-reactive protein (CRP, an inflammation marker closely linked to oxidative stress). We validated the latent variable by assessing its relation to pro- and anti-oxidant exposures. FIP, Gtoc and CRP characterized the latent oxidative stress variable. Obesity, smoking, aspirin use and β-carotene were statistically significantly associated with oxidative stress in the theorized directions; the same exposures were weakly and inconsistently associated with the individual biomarkers. Our results suggest that using SEM with latent variables decreases the biomarker-specific variability, and may produce a better measure of oxidative stress than do single variables. This methodology can be applied to similar areas of research in which a single biomarker is not sufficient to fully describe a complex biological phenomenon.
Metrics for border management systems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duggan, Ruth Ann
2009-07-01
There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.
Relativistic sonic geometry for isothermal accretion in the Kerr metric
Arif Shaikh, Md
2018-03-01
We linearly perturb advective isothermal transonic accretion onto rotating astrophysical black holes to study the emergence of the relativistic acoustic spacetime and to investigate how the salient features of this spacetime is influenced by the spin angular momentum of the black hole. We have perturbed three different quantities—the velocity potential, the mass accretion rate and the relativistic Bernoulli’s constant to show that the acoustic metric obtained for these three cases are the same up to a conformal factor. By constructing the required causal structures, it has been demonstrated that the acoustic black holes are formed at the transonic points of the flow and the acoustic white holes are formed at the shock location. The corresponding acoustic surface gravity has been computed in terms of the relevant accretion variables and the background metric elements. We have performed a linear stability analysis of the background stationary flow.
The metrics of science and technology
Geisler, Eliezer
2000-01-01
Dr. Geisler's far-reaching, unique book provides an encyclopedic compilation of the key metrics to measure and evaluate the impact of science and technology on academia, industry, and government. Focusing on such items as economic measures, patents, peer review, and other criteria, and supported by an extensive review of the literature, Dr. Geisler gives a thorough analysis of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in metric design, and in the use of the specific metrics he cites. His book has already received prepublication attention, and will prove especially valuable for academics in technology management, engineering, and science policy; industrial R&D executives and policymakers; government science and technology policymakers; and scientists and managers in government research and technology institutions. Geisler maintains that the application of metrics to evaluate science and technology at all levels illustrates the variety of tools we currently possess. Each metric has its own unique strengths and...
Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Antonopoulos, Chrissi A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clements, Samuel L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorrissen, Willy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ruiz, Kathleen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, David L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, Chris [APQC, Houston, TX (United States); Varney, Jeff [APQC, Houston, TX (United States)
2014-07-01
A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.
Metrics for Polyphonic Sound Event Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annamaria Mesaros
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses various metrics proposed for evaluation of polyphonic sound event detection systems used in realistic situations where there are typically multiple sound sources active simultaneously. The system output in this case contains overlapping events, marked as multiple sounds detected as being active at the same time. The polyphonic system output requires a suitable procedure for evaluation against a reference. Metrics from neighboring fields such as speech recognition and speaker diarization can be used, but they need to be partially redefined to deal with the overlapping events. We present a review of the most common metrics in the field and the way they are adapted and interpreted in the polyphonic case. We discuss segment-based and event-based definitions of each metric and explain the consequences of instance-based and class-based averaging using a case study. In parallel, we provide a toolbox containing implementations of presented metrics.
Microservice scaling optimization based on metric collection in Kubernetes
Blažej, Aljaž
2017-01-01
As web applications become more complex and the number of internet users rises, so does the need to optimize the use of hardware supporting these applications. Optimization can be achieved with microservices, as they offer several advantages compared to the monolithic approach, such as better utilization of resources, scalability and isolation of different parts of an application. Another important part is collecting metrics, since they can be used for analysis and debugging as well as the ba...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Niels Christian; Blackburn, Alan
2005-01-01
In this paper, the moving-windows approach to calculation and analysis of spatial metrics is tested with particular focus on forest mapping. The influence of window size on average metrics values, agreement between values from different EO-based data sources and local variance of metrics values i...
Stein, Judith A; Nyamathi, Adeline; Ullman, Jodie B; Bentler, Peter M
2007-01-01
Studies among normative samples generally demonstrate a positive impact of marriage on health behaviors and other related attitudes. In this study, we examine the impact of marriage on HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and attitudes among impoverished, highly stressed, homeless couples, many with severe substance abuse problems. A multilevel analysis of 368 high-risk sexually intimate married and unmarried heterosexual couples assessed individual and couple-level effects on social support, substance use problems, HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived HIV/AIDS risk, needle-sharing, condom use, multiple sex partners, and HIV/AIDS testing. More variance was explained in the protective and risk variables by couple-level latent variable predictors than by individual latent variable predictors, although some gender effects were found (e.g., more alcohol problems among men). The couple-level variable of marriage predicted lower perceived risk, less deviant social support, and fewer sex partners but predicted more needle-sharing.
Towards Video Quality Metrics Based on Colour Fractal Geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Noël
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Vision is a complex process that integrates multiple aspects of an image: spatial frequencies, topology and colour. Unfortunately, so far, all these elements were independently took into consideration for the development of image and video quality metrics, therefore we propose an approach that blends together all of them. Our approach allows for the analysis of the complexity of colour images in the RGB colour space, based on the probabilistic algorithm for calculating the fractal dimension and lacunarity. Given that all the existing fractal approaches are defined only for gray-scale images, we extend them to the colour domain. We show how these two colour fractal features capture the multiple aspects that characterize the degradation of the video signal, based on the hypothesis that the quality degradation perceived by the user is directly proportional to the modification of the fractal complexity. We claim that the two colour fractal measures can objectively assess the quality of the video signal and they can be used as metrics for the user-perceived video quality degradation and we validated them through experimental results obtained for an MPEG-4 video streaming application; finally, the results are compared against the ones given by unanimously-accepted metrics and subjective tests.
Veiga, P.; Rubal, M.; Vieira, R.; Arenas, F.; Sousa-Pinto, I.
2013-03-01
Natural assemblages are variable in space and time; therefore, quantification of their variability is imperative to identify relevant scales for investigating natural or anthropogenic processes shaping these assemblages. We studied the variability of intertidal macroalgal assemblages on the North Portuguese coast, considering three spatial scales (from metres to 10 s of kilometres) following a hierarchical design. We tested the hypotheses that (1) spatial pattern will be invariant at all the studied scales and (2) spatial variability of macroalgal assemblages obtained by using species will be consistent with that obtained using functional groups. This was done considering as univariate variables: total biomass and number of taxa as well as biomass of the most important species and functional groups and as multivariate variables the structure of macroalgal assemblages, both considering species and functional groups. Most of the univariate results confirmed the first hypothesis except for the total number of taxa and foliose macroalgae that showed significant variability at the scale of site and area, respectively. In contrast, when multivariate patterns were examined, the first hypothesis was rejected except at the scale of 10 s of kilometres. Both uni- and multivariate results indicated that variation was larger at the smallest scale, and thus, small-scale processes seem to have more effect on spatial variability patterns. Macroalgal assemblages, both considering species and functional groups as surrogate, showed consistent spatial patterns, and therefore, the second hypothesis was confirmed. Consequently, functional groups may be considered a reliable biological surrogate to study changes on macroalgal assemblages at least along the investigated Portuguese coastline.
Black, R.W.; Moran, P.W.; Frankforter, J.D.
2011-01-01
Many streams within the United States are impaired due to nutrient enrichment, particularly in agricultural settings. The present study examines the response of benthic algal communities in agricultural and minimally disturbed sites from across the western United States to a suite of environmental factors, including nutrients, collected at multiple scales. The first objective was to identify the relative importance of nutrients, habitat and watershed features, and macroinvertebrate trophic structure to explain algal metrics derived from deposition and erosion habitats. The second objective was to determine if thresholds in total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) related to algal metrics could be identified and how these thresholds varied across metrics and habitats. Nutrient concentrations within the agricultural areas were elevated and greater than published threshold values. All algal metrics examined responded to nutrients as hypothesized. Although nutrients typically were the most important variables in explaining the variation in each of the algal metrics, environmental factors operating at multiple scales also were important. Calculated thresholds for TN or TP based on the algal metrics generated from samples collected from erosion and deposition habitats were not significantly different. Little variability in threshold values for each metric for TN and TP was observed. The consistency of the threshold values measured across multiple metrics and habitats suggest that the thresholds identified in this study are ecologically relevant. Additional work to characterize the relationship between algal metrics, physical and chemical features, and nuisance algal growth would be of benefit to the development of nutrient thresholds and criteria. ?? 2010 The Author(s).
Azarnoush, Hamed; Alzhrani, Gmaan; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Alotaibi, Fahad; Gelinas-Phaneuf, Nicholas; Pazos, Valérie; Choudhury, Nusrat; Fares, Jawad; DiRaddo, Robert; Del Maestro, Rolando F
2015-05-01
Virtual reality simulator technology together with novel metrics could advance our understanding of expert neurosurgical performance and modify and improve resident training and assessment. This pilot study introduces innovative metrics that can be measured by the state-of-the-art simulator to assess performance. Such metrics cannot be measured in an operating room and have not been used previously to assess performance. Three sets of performance metrics were assessed utilizing the NeuroTouch platform in six scenarios with simulated brain tumors having different visual and tactile characteristics. Tier 1 metrics included percentage of brain tumor resected and volume of simulated "normal" brain tissue removed. Tier 2 metrics included instrument tip path length, time taken to resect the brain tumor, pedal activation frequency, and sum of applied forces. Tier 3 metrics included sum of forces applied to different tumor regions and the force bandwidth derived from the force histogram. The results outlined are from a novice resident in the second year of training and an expert neurosurgeon. The three tiers of metrics obtained from the NeuroTouch simulator do encompass the wide variability of technical performance observed during novice/expert resections of simulated brain tumors and can be employed to quantify the safety, quality, and efficiency of technical performance during simulated brain tumor resection. Tier 3 metrics derived from force pyramids and force histograms may be particularly useful in assessing simulated brain tumor resections. Our pilot study demonstrates that the safety, quality, and efficiency of novice and expert operators can be measured using metrics derived from the NeuroTouch platform, helping to understand how specific operator performance is dependent on both psychomotor ability and cognitive input during multiple virtual reality brain tumor resections.
Partial rectangular metric spaces and fixed point theorems.
Shukla, Satish
2014-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of partial rectangular metric spaces as a generalization of rectangular metric and partial metric spaces. Some properties of partial rectangular metric spaces and some fixed point results for quasitype contraction in partial rectangular metric spaces are proved. Some examples are given to illustrate the observed results.
Measuring Information Security: Guidelines to Build Metrics
von Faber, Eberhard
Measuring information security is a genuine interest of security managers. With metrics they can develop their security organization's visibility and standing within the enterprise or public authority as a whole. Organizations using information technology need to use security metrics. Despite the clear demands and advantages, security metrics are often poorly developed or ineffective parameters are collected and analysed. This paper describes best practices for the development of security metrics. First attention is drawn to motivation showing both requirements and benefits. The main body of this paper lists things which need to be observed (characteristic of metrics), things which can be measured (how measurements can be conducted) and steps for the development and implementation of metrics (procedures and planning). Analysis and communication is also key when using security metrics. Examples are also given in order to develop a better understanding. The author wants to resume, continue and develop the discussion about a topic which is or increasingly will be a critical factor of success for any security managers in larger organizations.
Characterising risk - aggregated metrics: radiation and noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Passchier, W.
1998-01-01
The characterisation of risk is an important phase in the risk assessment - risk management process. From the multitude of risk attributes a few have to be selected to obtain a risk characteristic or profile that is useful for risk management decisions and implementation of protective measures. One way to reduce the number of attributes is aggregation. In the field of radiation protection such an aggregated metric is firmly established: effective dose. For protection against environmental noise the Health Council of the Netherlands recently proposed a set of aggregated metrics for noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. The presentation will discuss similarities and differences between these two metrics and practical limitations. The effective dose has proven its usefulness in designing radiation protection measures, which are related to the level of risk associated with the radiation practice in question, given that implicit judgements on radiation induced health effects are accepted. However, as the metric does not take into account the nature of radiation practice, it is less useful in policy discussions on the benefits and harm of radiation practices. With respect to the noise exposure metric, only one effect is targeted (annoyance), and the differences between sources are explicitly taken into account. This should make the metric useful in policy discussions with respect to physical planning and siting problems. The metric proposed has only significance on a population level, and can not be used as a predictor for individual risk. (author)
Energy functionals for Calabi-Yau metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Headrick, M; Nassar, A
2013-01-01
We identify a set of ''energy'' functionals on the space of metrics in a given Kähler class on a Calabi-Yau manifold, which are bounded below and minimized uniquely on the Ricci-flat metric in that class. Using these functionals, we recast the problem of numerically solving the Einstein equation as an optimization problem. We apply this strategy, using the ''algebraic'' metrics (metrics for which the Kähler potential is given in terms of a polynomial in the projective coordinates), to the Fermat quartic and to a one-parameter family of quintics that includes the Fermat and conifold quintics. We show that this method yields approximations to the Ricci-flat metric that are exponentially accurate in the degree of the polynomial (except at the conifold point, where the convergence is polynomial), and therefore orders of magnitude more accurate than the balanced metrics, previously studied as approximations to the Ricci-flat metric. The method is relatively fast and easy to implement. On the theoretical side, we also show that the functionals can be used to give a heuristic proof of Yau's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anabitarte, M.; Bellini, M.; Madriz Aguilar, Jose Edgar
2010-01-01
We extend to 5D an approach of a 4D non-perturbative formalism to study scalar metric fluctuations of a 5D Riemann-flat de Sitter background metric. In contrast with the results obtained in 4D, the spectrum of cosmological scalar metric fluctuations during inflation can be scale invariant and the background inflaton field can take sub-Planckian values. (orig.)
Winiwarter, Susanne; Middleton, Brian; Jones, Barry; Courtney, Paul; Lindmark, Bo; Page, Ken M.; Clark, Alan; Landqvist, Claire
2015-09-01
We demonstrate here a novel use of statistical tools to study intra- and inter-site assay variability of five early drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vitro assays over time. Firstly, a tool for process control is presented. It shows the overall assay variability but allows also the following of changes due to assay adjustments and can additionally highlight other, potentially unexpected variations. Secondly, we define the minimum discriminatory difference/ratio to support projects to understand how experimental values measured at different sites at a given time can be compared. Such discriminatory values are calculated for 3 month periods and followed over time for each assay. Again assay modifications, especially assay harmonization efforts, can be noted. Both the process control tool and the variability estimates are based on the results of control compounds tested every time an assay is run. Variability estimates for a limited set of project compounds were computed as well and found to be comparable. This analysis reinforces the need to consider assay variability in decision making, compound ranking and in silico modeling.
Mohrmann, Johannes; Wood, Robert; McGibbon, Jeremy; Eastman, Ryan; Luke, Edward
2018-01-01
Marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol particles affect the climate through their interaction with MBL clouds. Although both MBL clouds and aerosol particles have pronounced seasonal cycles, the factors controlling seasonal variability of MBL aerosol particle concentration are not well constrained. In this paper an aerosol budget is constructed representing the effects of wet deposition, free-tropospheric entrainment, primary surface sources, and advection on the MBL accumulation mode aerosol number concentration (Na). These terms are then parameterized, and by assuming that on seasonal time scales Na is in steady state, the budget equation is rearranged to form a diagnostic equation for Na based on observable variables. Using data primarily collected in the subtropical northeast Pacific during the MAGIC campaign (Marine ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) GPCI (GCSS Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison) Investigation of Clouds), estimates of both mean summer and winter Na concentrations are made using the simplified steady state model and seasonal mean observed variables. These are found to match well with the observed Na. To attribute the modeled difference between summer and winter aerosol concentrations to individual observed variables (e.g., precipitation rate and free-tropospheric aerosol number concentration), a local sensitivity analysis is combined with the seasonal difference in observed variables. This analysis shows that despite wintertime precipitation frequency being lower than summer, the higher winter precipitation rate accounted for approximately 60% of the modeled seasonal difference in Na, which emphasizes the importance of marine stratocumulus precipitation in determining MBL aerosol concentrations on longer time scales.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Pishbahar
2015-05-01
Full Text Available There are different ideas and opinions about the effects of macroeconomic variables on real and nominal variables. To answer the question of whether changes in macroeconomic variables as a political tool is useful over a business cycle, understanding the effect of macroeconomic variables on economic growth is important. In the present study, the Bayesian Vector autoregresive model and seasonality data for the years between 1991 and 2013 was used to determine the impact of monetary policy on value-added agriculture. Predicts of Vector autoregresive model are usually divertaed due to a lot of parameters in the model. Bayesian vector autoregresive model estimates more reliable predictions due to reducing the number of included parametrs and considering the former models. Compared to the Vector Autoregressive model, the coefficients are estimated more accurately. Based on the results of RMSE in this study, previous function Nrmal-Vyshart was identified as a suitable previous disteribution. According to the results of the impulse response function, the sudden effects of shocks in macroeconomic variables on the value added in agriculture and domestic venture capital are stable. The effects on the exchange rates, tax revenues and monetary will bemoderated after 7, 5 and 4periods. Monetary policy shocks ,in the first half of the year, increased the value added of agriculture, while in the second half of the year had a depressing effect on the value added.
Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake rupture simulations
Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.
2014-01-01
Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic rupture simulation. A dynamic rupture simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near‐fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake rupture simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (Ⓔ see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic rupture simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic rupture computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic rupture codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake rupture computer simulation codes.
Metrics Are Needed for Collaborative Software Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojgan Mohtashami
2011-10-01
Full Text Available There is a need for metrics for inter-organizational collaborative software development projects, encompassing management and technical concerns. In particular, metrics are needed that are aimed at the collaborative aspect itself, such as readiness for collaboration, the quality and/or the costs and benefits of collaboration in a specific ongoing project. We suggest questions and directions for such metrics, spanning the full lifespan of a collaborative project, from considering the suitability of collaboration through evaluating ongoing projects to final evaluation of the collaboration.
Indefinite metric fields and the renormalization group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherry, T.N.
1976-11-01
The renormalization group equations are derived for the Green functions of an indefinite metric field theory. In these equations one retains the mass dependence of the coefficient functions, since in the indefinite metric theories the masses cannot be neglected. The behavior of the effective coupling constant in the asymptotic and infrared limits is analyzed. The analysis is illustrated by means of a simple model incorporating indefinite metric fields. The model scales at first order, and at this order also the effective coupling constant has both ultra-violet and infra-red fixed points, the former being the bare coupling constant
Herrera, J. L.; Rosón, G.; Varela, R. A.; Piedracoba, S.
2008-07-01
The key features of the western Galician shelf hydrography and dynamics are analyzed on a solid statistical and experimental basis. The results allowed us to gather together information dispersed in previous oceanographic works of the region. Empirical orthogonal functions analysis and a canonical correlation analysis were applied to a high-resolution dataset collected from 47 surveys done on a weekly frequency from May 2001 to May 2002. The main results of these analyses are summarized bellow. Salinity, temperature and the meridional component of the residual current are correlated with the relevant local forcings (the meridional coastal wind component and the continental run-off) and with a remote forcing (the meridional temperature gradient at latitude 37°N). About 80% of the salinity and temperature total variability over the shelf, and 37% of the residual meridional current total variability are explained by two EOFs for each variable. Up to 22% of the temperature total variability and 14% of the residual meridional current total variability is devoted to the set up of cross-shore gradients of the thermohaline properties caused by the wind-induced Ekman transport. Up to 11% and 10%, respectively, is related to the variability of the meridional temperature gradient at the Western Iberian Winter Front. About 30% of the temperature total variability can be explained by the development and erosion of the seasonal thermocline and by the seasonal variability of the thermohaline properties of the central waters. This thermocline presented unexpected low salinity values due to the trapping during spring and summer of the high continental inputs from the River Miño recorded in 2001. The low salinity plumes can be traced on the Galician shelf during almost all the annual cycle; they tend to be extended throughout the entire water column under downwelling conditions and concentrate in the surface layer when upwelling favourable winds blow. Our evidences point to the
Incorporating hydrologic variability into nutrient spiraling
Doyle, Martin W.
2005-09-01
Nutrient spiraling describes the path of a nutrient molecule within a stream ecosystem, combining the biochemical cycling processes with the downstream driving force of stream discharge. To date, nutrient spiraling approaches have been hampered by their inability to deal with fluctuating flows, as most studies have characterized nutrient retention within only a small range of discharges near base flow. Here hydrologic variability is incorporated into nutrient spiraling theory by drawing on the fluvial geomorphic concept of effective discharge. The effective discharge for nutrient retention is proposed to be that discharge which, over long periods of time, is responsible for the greatest portion of nutrient retention. A developed analytical model predicts that the effective discharge for nutrient retention will equal the modal discharge for small streams or those with little discharge variability. As modal discharge increases or discharge variability increases, the effective discharge becomes increasingly less than the modal discharge. In addition to the effective discharge, a new metric is proposed, the functionally equivalent discharge, which is the single discharge that will reproduce the magnitude of nutrient retention generated by the full hydrologic frequency distribution when all discharge takes place at that rate. The functionally equivalent discharge was found to be the same as the modal discharge at low hydrologic variability, but increasingly different from the modal discharge at large hydrologic variability. The functionally equivalent discharge provides a simple quantitative means of incorporating hydrologic variability into long-term nutrient budgets.
Tripathi, Manjul; Deo, Rama Chandra; Suri, Ashish; Srivastav, Vinkle; Baby, Britty; Kumar, Subodh; Kalra, Prem; Banerjee, Subhashis; Prasad, Sanjiva; Paul, Kolin; Roy, Tara Sankar; Lalwani, Sanjeev
2015-07-01
The surgical corridor to the upper third of the clivus and ventral brainstem is hindered by critical neurovascular structures, such as the cavernous sinus, petrous apex, and tentorium. The traditional Kawase approach provides a 10 × 5-mm fenestration at the petrous apex of the temporal bone between the 5th cranial nerve and internal auditory canal. Due to interindividual variability, sometimes this area proves to be insufficient as a corridor to the posterior cranial fossa. The authors describe a modification to the technique of the extradural anterior petrosectomy consisting of additional transcavernous exploration and medial mobilization of the cisternal component of the trigeminal nerve. This approach is termed the modified Dolenc-Kawase (MDK) approach. The authors describe a volumetric analysis of temporal bones with 3D laser scanning of dry and drilled bones for respective triangles and rhomboid areas, and they compare the difference of exposure with traditional versus modified approaches on cadaver dissection. Twelve dry temporal bones were laser scanned, and mesh-based volumetric analysis was done followed by drilling of the Kawase triangle and MDK rhomboid. Five cadaveric heads were drilled on alternate sides with both approaches for evaluation of the area exposed, surgical freedom, and angle of approach. The MDK approach provides an approximately 1.5 times larger area and 2.0 times greater volume of bone at the anterior petrous apex compared with the Kawase's approach. Cadaver dissection objectified the technical feasibility of the MDK approach, providing nearly 1.5-2 times larger fenestration with improved view and angulation to the posterior cranial fossa. Practical application in 6 patients with different lesions proves clinical applicability of the MDK approach. The larger fenestration at the petrous apex achieved with the MDK approach provides greater surgical freedom at the Dorello canal, gasserian ganglion, and prepontine area and better
Paas, Fred G.W.C.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J.G.; van Merrienboer, J.J.G.
1994-01-01
Four computer-based training strategies for geometrical problem solving in the domain of computer numerically controlled machinery programming were studied with regard to their effects on training performance, transfer performance, and cognitive load. A low- and a high-variability conventional
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Fayez Shakil; Laghrouche, Salah; Mehmood, Adeel; El Bagdouri, Mohammed
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Estimation of aerodynamic force on variable turbine geometry vanes and actuator. • Method based on exhaust gas flow modeling. • Simulation tool for integration of aerodynamic force in automotive simulation software. - Abstract: This paper provides a reliable tool for simulating the effects of exhaust gas flow through the variable turbine geometry section of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), on flow control mechanism. The main objective is to estimate the resistive aerodynamic force exerted by the flow upon the variable geometry vanes and the controlling actuator, in order to improve the control of vane angles. To achieve this, a 1D model of the exhaust flow is developed using Navier–Stokes equations. As the flow characteristics depend upon the volute geometry, impeller blade force and the existing viscous friction, the related source terms (losses) are also included in the model. In order to guarantee stability, an implicit numerical solver has been developed for the resolution of the Navier–Stokes problem. The resulting simulation tool has been validated through comparison with experimentally obtained values of turbine inlet pressure and the aerodynamic force as measured at the actuator shaft. The simulator shows good compliance with experimental results
Taha, Zahari; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Majeed, A. P. P. Abdul; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad; Muaz Alim, Muhammad; Arif Mat Jizat, Jessnor; Fauzi Ibrahim, Mohamad
2018-03-01
Support Vector Machine (SVM) has been revealed to be a powerful learning algorithm for classification and prediction. However, the use of SVM for prediction and classification in sport is at its inception. The present study classified and predicted high and low potential archers from a collection of psychological coping skills variables trained on different SVMs. 50 youth archers with the average age and standard deviation of (17.0 ±.056) gathered from various archery programmes completed a one end shooting score test. Psychological coping skills inventory which evaluates the archers level of related coping skills were filled out by the archers prior to their shooting tests. k-means cluster analysis was applied to cluster the archers based on their scores on variables assessed. SVM models, i.e. linear and fine radial basis function (RBF) kernel functions, were trained on the psychological variables. The k-means clustered the archers into high psychologically prepared archers (HPPA) and low psychologically prepared archers (LPPA), respectively. It was demonstrated that the linear SVM exhibited good accuracy and precision throughout the exercise with an accuracy of 92% and considerably fewer error rate for the prediction of the HPPA and the LPPA as compared to the fine RBF SVM. The findings of this investigation can be valuable to coaches and sports managers to recognise high potential athletes from the selected psychological coping skills variables examined which would consequently save time and energy during talent identification and development programme.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heyen, H. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik
1998-12-31
A multivariate statistical approach is presented that allows a systematic search for relationships between the interannual variability in climate records and ecological time series. Statistical models are built between climatological predictor fields and the variables of interest. Relationships are sought on different temporal scales and for different seasons and time lags. The possibilities and limitations of this approach are discussed in four case studies dealing with salinity in the German Bight, abundance of zooplankton at Helgoland Roads, macrofauna communities off Norderney and the arrival of migratory birds on Helgoland. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein statistisches, multivariates Modell wird vorgestellt, das eine systematische Suche nach potentiellen Zusammenhaengen zwischen Variabilitaet in Klima- und oekologischen Zeitserien erlaubt. Anhand von vier Anwendungsbeispielen wird der Klimaeinfluss auf den Salzgehalt in der Deutschen Bucht, Zooplankton vor Helgoland, Makrofauna vor Norderney, und die Ankunft von Zugvoegeln auf Helgoland untersucht. (orig.)
The Erez–Rosen metric and the role of the quadrupole on light propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, Donato; Crosta, Mariateresa; Vecchiato, Alberto; De Felice, Fernando; Geralico, Andrea
2013-01-01
The gravitational field of a static body with the quadrupole moment is described by an exact solution found by Erez and Rosen. Here, we investigate the role of the quadrupole in the motion, deflection and lensing of a light ray in the above metric. The standard lensing observables such as image positions and magnification have been explicitly obtained in the weak-field and small-quadrupole limit. In this limit, the spacetime metric appears as the natural generalization to quadrupole corrections of the metric form adopted also in current astrometric models. Hence, the corresponding analytical solution of the inverse ray tracing problem and the consistency with other approaches are also discussed. (paper)
Applying graphs and complex networks to football metric interpretation.
Arriaza-Ardiles, E; Martín-González, J M; Zuniga, M D; Sánchez-Flores, J; de Saa, Y; García-Manso, J M
2018-02-01
This work presents a methodology for analysing the interactions between players in a football team, from the point of view of graph theory and complex networks. We model the complex network of passing interactions between players of a same team in 32 official matches of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional (Spain), using a passing/reception graph. This methodology allows us to understand the play structure of the team, by analysing the offensive phases of game-play. We utilise two different strategies for characterising the contribution of the players to the team: the clustering coefficient, and centrality metrics (closeness and betweenness). We show the application of this methodology by analyzing the performance of a professional Spanish team according to these metrics and the distribution of passing/reception in the field. Keeping in mind the dynamic nature of collective sports, in the future we will incorporate metrics which allows us to analyse the performance of the team also according to the circumstances of game-play and to different contextual variables such as, the utilisation of the field space, the time, and the ball, according to specific tactical situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Urban Landscape Metrics for Climate and Sustainability Assessments
Cochran, F. V.; Brunsell, N. A.
2014-12-01
To test metrics for rapid identification of urban classes and sustainable urban forms, we examine the configuration of urban landscapes using satellite remote sensing data. We adopt principles from landscape ecology and urban planning to evaluate urban heterogeneity and design themes that may constitute more sustainable urban forms, including compactness (connectivity), density, mixed land uses, diversity, and greening. Using 2-D wavelet and multi-resolution analysis, landscape metrics, and satellite-derived indices of vegetation fraction and impervious surface, the spatial variability of Landsat and MODIS data from metropolitan areas of Manaus and São Paulo, Brazil are investigated. Landscape metrics for density, connectivity, and diversity, like the Shannon Diversity Index, are used to assess the diversity of urban buildings, geographic extent, and connectedness. Rapid detection of urban classes for low density, medium density, high density, and tall building district at the 1-km scale are needed for use in climate models. If the complexity of finer-scale urban characteristics can be related to the neighborhood scale both climate and sustainability assessments may be more attainable across urban areas.
Madonna, Erica; Ginsbourger, David; Martius, Olivia
2018-05-01
In Switzerland, hail regularly causes substantial damage to agriculture, cars and infrastructure, however, little is known about its long-term variability. To study the variability, the monthly number of days with hail in northern Switzerland is modeled in a regression framework using large-scale predictors derived from ERA-Interim reanalysis. The model is developed and verified using radar-based hail observations for the extended summer season (April-September) in the period 2002-2014. The seasonality of hail is explicitly modeled with a categorical predictor (month) and monthly anomalies of several large-scale predictors are used to capture the year-to-year variability. Several regression models are applied and their performance tested with respect to standard scores and cross-validation. The chosen model includes four predictors: the monthly anomaly of the two meter temperature, the monthly anomaly of the logarithm of the convective available potential energy (CAPE), the monthly anomaly of the wind shear and the month. This model well captures the intra-annual variability and slightly underestimates its inter-annual variability. The regression model is applied to the reanalysis data back in time to 1980. The resulting hail day time series shows an increase of the number of hail days per month, which is (in the model) related to an increase in temperature and CAPE. The trend corresponds to approximately 0.5 days per month per decade. The results of the regression model have been compared to two independent data sets. All data sets agree on the sign of the trend, but the trend is weaker in the other data sets.
Top 10 metrics for life science software good practices.
Artaza, Haydee; Chue Hong, Neil; Corpas, Manuel; Corpuz, Angel; Hooft, Rob; Jimenez, Rafael C; Leskošek, Brane; Olivier, Brett G; Stourac, Jan; Svobodová Vařeková, Radka; Van Parys, Thomas; Vaughan, Daniel
2016-01-01
Metrics for assessing adoption of good development practices are a useful way to ensure that software is sustainable, reusable and functional. Sustainability means that the software used today will be available - and continue to be improved and supported - in the future. We report here an initial set of metrics that measure good practices in software development. This initiative differs from previously developed efforts in being a community-driven grassroots approach where experts from different organisations propose good software practices that have reasonable potential to be adopted by the communities they represent. We not only focus our efforts on understanding and prioritising good practices, we assess their feasibility for implementation and publish them here.