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Sample records for metodo para calculo

  1. Validation of Hiriart equation to compute steam production by the lip pressure method; Validacion de la ecuacion de Hiriart para calculo de gasto de vapor por el metodo de presion de labio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    Mainly in new geothermal wells, it is necessary to evaluate the production in a very fast, simple and not expensive way, to know the convenience to install surface equipment, such as silencers and separators, to drive the steam to the commercial gathering system. In practice, one of the most known methods is the lip pressure one, which requires a simple set of installations. The objective of this paper is to validate the steam flow rate calculated by the lip pressure method, with respect to the ASME method. The ASME method is known for its accuracy, and is done by measuring the steam and liquid after a high pressure separator, by an orifice plate of known diameter and a triangular weir. Results of the validation show up the feasibility of application of the lip pressure method by using a simple adjustment equation. Percentage of mistake results less than 1%, without any notable influence of the production enthalpy. That equation to be applied in a general case, is as follows: Q{nu} =(20642)(F*P*D{sup 2}/{radical}h-2000). For the particular case of the Los Azufres geothermal field, the equation is: Q{nu}= 810*P*D{sup 2} [Espanol] En los pozos geotermicos, principalmente en los nuevos, es necesario evaluar su produccion de manera rapida, sencilla y economica, para determinar la conveniencia de instalar equipo superficial, como separadores, silenciadores, etc., que permita la integracion del vapor al sistema comercial de generacion electrica. Para fines practicos uno de los metodos mas conocidos es el de presion de labio, que solo requiere un arreglo sencillo de instalaciones superficiales. En este documento se validan y ajustan los calculos de produccion de vapor por ese metodo de presion de labio, con respecto a las mediciones exactas efectuadas con el metodo ASME. Este ultimo es reconocido internacionalmente por su precision, y se lleva a cabo separando la mezcla obtenida en superficie en un recipiente a presion para medir el vapor a traves de una placa de orificio

  2. Aplicação de metodos de otimização para o calculo do equilibrio quimico e de fases combinados para processos com gas de sintese

    OpenAIRE

    Consuelo Cristina Gomes Silva

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: Essa pesquisa consiste em aplicar métodos de otimização global para o cálculo do equilíbrio químico e de fases combinados para misturas com gás de síntese. O gás de síntese tem grande interesse industrial, pelas inúmeras possibilidades de produção de diversos compostos químicos. Dessa forma, é fundamental conhecer as condições termodinâmicas que favoreçam a obtenção de determinado produto. A aplicação de métodos de otimização global é de grande interesse para a determinação do equilíb...

  3. Torque calculation in the induction motor with the finite element method; Calculo del par en el motor de induccion con el metodo del elemento finito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Diaz, Ramon

    2002-06-15

    In this work the method of the finite element is applied to the bi-dimensional analysis of the induction motor in operation in steady state, excited by sine sources of laminar currents and sine sources of voltage. The analysis is focused mainly in the calculation of the electromagnetic torque. The topics of electromagnetic theory are covered and in an idealized model of the induction motor, analytically and numerically with the method of the finite element, in the variant method of Galerkin, the vectorial potential and the torque are calculated. The results obtained with the analytical and numerical methods are compared. Three formulations are developed to calculate the torque with the method of the finite element, using triangular elements of first order, based in the equation of force of Lorentz, the Maxwell tensor and the principle of the virtual work. Finally, a motor of induction of real characteristics is simulated, assuming it is connected to a three-phase voltage source. In this motor it is analyzed the convergence and the evolution in the results obtained of the torque with different discretions, and the torque-velocity performance curve is calculated. [Spanish] En este trabajo se aplica el metodo del elemento finito al analisis bidimensional del motor de induccion en operacion en estado estable, excitado por fuentes de corriente laminar senoidales y fuentes de voltaje senoidales. El analisis se enfoca principalmente en el calculo del par electromagnetico. Se tratan los topicos de teoria electromagnetica involucrados y en un modelo idealizado del motor de induccion, se calculan analitica y numericamente con el metodo del elemento finito, en la variante metodo de Galerkin, el potencial vectorial y el par. Se comparan resultados obtenidos con los metodos analiticos y numericos. Se desarrollan tres formulaciones para calcular el par con el metodo del elemento finito, utilizando elementos triangulares de primer orden, basadas en la ecuacion de fuerza de

  4. Computer program for the calculation of stresses in rotary equipment discs; Programas de computo para el calculo de esfuerzos en discos de equipo rotatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Delgado, Wilson; Kubiak, Janusz; Serrano Romero, Luis Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotary machines is very common to utilize simple calculation methods for the mechanical and thermal stresses, dynamic and thermodynamic analysis and flow of fluids in this machines (Gutierrez et al., 1989). The analysis with these methods provides the necessary results for the project initial stage of the machine. Later on, more complex tools are employed to refine the design of some machine components. In the Gutierrez report et al., (1989) 34 programs were developed for the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotating equipment; in this article, one of them is presented in which a method for the analysis of mechanical and thermal stresses is applied in discs of uniform or variable thickness that are normally found in turbomachines and rotary equipment. [Espanol] En el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de maquinas rotatorias es muy comun emplear metodos de calculo sencillos para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos, analisis dinamico y termodinamico y de flujo de fluidos en estas maquinas (Gutierrez et al., 1989). El analisis con estos metodos proporcionan los resultados necesarios para la etapa del proyecto inicial de la maquina. Posteriormente, para refinar el diseno de algunos componentes de la maquina, se aplican las herramientas mas complejas. En el informe de Gutierrez et al., (1989) se desarrollan 34 programas para el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de equipo rotatorio; en este articulo, se presenta uno de ellos, en el que se emplea un metodo para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos en discos de espesor constante o variable que se encuentran comunmente en turbomaquinas y en equipos rotatorios.

  5. Computer program for the calculation of stresses in rotary equipment discs; Programas de computo para el calculo de esfuerzos en discos de equipo rotatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Delgado, Wilson; Kubiak, Janusz; Serrano Romero, Luis Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    In the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotary machines is very common to utilize simple calculation methods for the mechanical and thermal stresses, dynamic and thermodynamic analysis and flow of fluids in this machines (Gutierrez et al., 1989). The analysis with these methods provides the necessary results for the project initial stage of the machine. Later on, more complex tools are employed to refine the design of some machine components. In the Gutierrez report et al., (1989) 34 programs were developed for the preliminary design and diagnosis of rotating equipment; in this article, one of them is presented in which a method for the analysis of mechanical and thermal stresses is applied in discs of uniform or variable thickness that are normally found in turbomachines and rotary equipment. [Espanol] En el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de maquinas rotatorias es muy comun emplear metodos de calculo sencillos para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos, analisis dinamico y termodinamico y de flujo de fluidos en estas maquinas (Gutierrez et al., 1989). El analisis con estos metodos proporcionan los resultados necesarios para la etapa del proyecto inicial de la maquina. Posteriormente, para refinar el diseno de algunos componentes de la maquina, se aplican las herramientas mas complejas. En el informe de Gutierrez et al., (1989) se desarrollan 34 programas para el diseno preliminar y diagnostico de equipo rotatorio; en este articulo, se presenta uno de ellos, en el que se emplea un metodo para el analisis de esfuerzos mecanicos y termicos en discos de espesor constante o variable que se encuentran comunmente en turbomaquinas y en equipos rotatorios.

  6. Microscale adaptation of the potentiometric method with ion-selective electrode for the quantification of fluoride; Adaptacion a microescala del metodo potenciometrico con electrodo ion selectivo para la cuantificacion de fluoruro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara Ruiz, Paulina; Ortiz Perez, Maria Deogracias [Laboratorio de Bioquimica, Facultad de de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, (Mexico)]. E-mail: mdortiz@uaslp.mx

    2009-05-15

    muestra necesarios, disminuya costo y substancias de desecho. Se valido el metodo potenciometrico establecido en la NMX-AA-077-SCFI-2001, asi como el metodo a microescala propuesto en este trabajo; posteriormente, se compararon ambos metodos mediante graficos y calculos estadisticos. Ademas se analizaron por ambos metodos 125 muestras de agua embotellada de venta en la ciudad de San Luis Potosi. Los datos de la validacion del metodo fueron optimos para su desempeno. Los resultados de la determinacion en las muestras de agua embotellada por ambos metodos, indican que la modificacion a microescala es estadisticamente comparable al metodo potenciometrico con electrodo ion selectivo. El metodo propuesto a microescala es apropiado para su utilizacion, con una reduccion de 95 % en costo y desechos generados.

  7. A review of calculation methods for fast and intermediate reactors; Expose des methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs a neutrons rapides et intermediaires; Obzor metodov rascheta reaktorov na promezhutochnykh i bystrykh nejtronakh; Estudio panoramico de los metodos de calculo de los reactores rapidos e intermedios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, G I [Akademiya Nauk, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    This paper discusses the development of methods for calculating intermediate and fast reactors. It deals with various approaches to the problems of physical calculation. The calculation of resonance effects is discussed. Consideration is given to multi-group systems of fundamental and conjugate equations, various applications of perturbation theory to the problems of physical reactor calculation, and numerical methods of solving fundamental and conjugate reactor equations, which approximate the method of spherical harmonics. The paper describes an application of the response method to the solution of critical-mass problems, and methods of calculating reactors with hydrogeneous moderators. The fundamental features of an effective one-group reactor model are described. (author) [French] L'auteur examine la mise au point de methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs a neutrons rapides et intermediaires . Il decrit diverses manieres d'aborder les problemes des calculs sur la physique des reacteurs, notamment le calcul des effets de resonance. Il s'attache particulierement aux points suivants: systemes d'equations fondamentales et conjuguees a plusieurs groupes; diverses applications de la theorie des perturbations aux problemes de calculs sur la physique des reacteurs; methodes numeriques pour resoudre les equations fondamentales et conjuguees, voisines de la methode des harmoniques spheriques. L'auteur decrit ensuite une maniere d'appliquer la methode de la reponse aux problemes de la masse critique ainsi que des methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs ralentis a l'hydrogene. Il decrit les caracteristique s fondamentale s d'un modele de reacteur a un groupe effectif. (author) [Spanish] El autor analiza el desarrollo de los metodos de calculo de los reactores nucleares que trabajan con neutrones rapidos y con neutrones intermedios. Examina diversos planteos de los problemas del calculo fisico. Indica la forma de tomar en cuenta los efectos de resonancia y menciona los sistemas

  8. Development of applications in Internet for the calculation of solar control devices; Desarrollo de una aplicacion en Internet para el calculo de dispositivos de control solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez V, Jesus B; Robles G, Saul; Villa M, Hector A; Cabanillas L, Rafael E [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work the development of an interactive software, visible over the World Wide Web, is presented to support the basic calculation required to control the solar gain inside buildings and houses. The site has two main parts: one part describes in a very required parameters to design devices for the control of the illumination inside the buildings, like overhangs and wingwalls for shading. The other part has the routines and procedures to calculate the sun position for any date and position over the earth, and the horizontal and vertical protection angles. The part to implement the calculations has been developed as a Java applet which can run on any platform and let the users, in an interactive way, to get the results. This software makes possible that any Internet user can run the application from his/her own computer without having to compile of use sophisticated procedures as it happens with traditional languages. With this web site it is intended to cover the necessity of having simple and reliable means for architects and civil engineers to support the use of solar energy and the saving of energy in bioclimatic design of buildings. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un sitio interactivo visible en el World Wide Web (WWW) que pretende servir de apoyo para los calculos basicos de control de asoleamiento en viviendas y edificios. El sitio esta conformado por dos partes principales: una parte cubre el aspecto informativo, donde en forma sencilla y clara, se explican los conceptos y parametros necesarios para disenar los dispositivos de control, alerones y parteluces. La otra parte contiene los procedimientos y las rutinas de calculo para la determinacion de la posicion solar para cualquier fecha del ano desde cualquier punto sobre la tierra, asi como los angulos de sombreado vertical y horizontal. Para la realizacion de los calculos se ha construido un applet de Java, el cual puede ejecutarse desde cualquier plataforma de computacion y

  9. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  10. Critical Consideration of the Methods of Calculation Used in the Evaluation of the Absorbed Dose to the Skin in Cases of External Contamination; Observations Critiques sur les Methodes de Calcul Utilisees pour l'Evaluacion de la Dose Absorbee par la Peau en Cas de Contamination Externe; 041a 0420 0414 ; Observaciones Criticas Sobre los Metodos de Calculo Utilizados para Evaluar la Dosis Absorbida por la Piel en Caso de Contaminacion Externa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casnati, E.; Breuer, F. [Gruppo di Dosimetria e Standardizzazione, CNEN, Centro di Studi Nucleari della Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1965-06-15

    resultats permettent de conclure que, dans la geometrie consideree, on peut determiner par des formules de type exponentielle, d'une part la dose imputable aux rayons beta et, d'autre part, la dose imputable aux rayons gamma pour la couche basale de la peau;- on peut considerer les resultats comme acceptables du point de vue de la radioprotection. (author) [Spanish] La dosis absorbida, suele calcularse mediante la formula de Loevinger cuando se trate de particulas beta mientras que para las radiaciones electromagneticas se recurre habitualmente a una formula exponencial. En la memoria, los autores se proponen examinar si en el caso de contaminacion cutanea puede considerarse satisfactorio el empleo de una formula exponencial (la formula de Rossi y Ellis) y de una formula similar para calcular la dosis beta y la dosis gamma, respectivamente. Con este objeto, se han comparado los resultados.obtenidos para este tipo especial de geometria por medio de la formula de Rossi y Ellis y con la formula de Loevinger para partfculas beta; por lo que respecta a la radiacion gamma, se han comparado los valores obtenidos mediante la formula exponencial y con otras dos formulas mas complejas, que se ajustan a las condiciones de acumulacion fotonica maxima nula, respectivamente. Estos resultados permiten sacar la conclusion de que, dadas las condiciones geometricas de que se trata, pueden determinarse mediante la formula de tipo exponencial tanto la dosis de radiacion beta como la dosis de radiacion gamma en la dermis. Los resultados son aceptables desde el punto de vista de la proteccion radiologica. (author) [Russian] Obychno pri podschete dozy ispol'zuetsja formula Laevingera dlja chastic i jeksponencial'naja formula dlja jelektromagnitnyh izluchenij. V doklade rassmatrivaetsja vopros o tom, mozhno li schitat' udovletvoritel'nym ispol'zovanie jeksponencial'noj formuly (podobnoj formule Rossi i Jellisa) i analogichnyh formul pri podschete sootvetstvenno beta- i gamma-dozy. S jetoj cel

  11. Experimental method for calculation of effective doses in interventional radiology; Metodo experimental para calculo de dosis efectivas en radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz Lblanca, M. D.; Diaz Romero, F.; Casares Magaz, O.; Garrido Breton, C.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper proposes a method that allows you to calculate the effective dose in any interventional radiology procedure using an anthropomorphic mannequin Alderson RANDO and dosimeters TLD 100 chip. This method has been applied to an angio Radiology procedure: the biliary drainage. The objectives that have been proposed are: to) put together a method that, on an experimental basis, allows to know dosis en organs to calculate effective dose in complex procedures and b) apply the method to the calculation of the effective dose of biliary drainage. (Author)

  12. Manual method for dose calculation in gynecologic brachytherapy; Metodo manual para o calculo de doses em braquiterapia ginecologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianello, Elizabeth A.; Almeida, Carlos E. de [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Biaggio, Maria F. de [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes a manual method for dose calculation in brachytherapy of gynecological tumors, which allows the calculation of the doses at any plane or point of clinical interest. This method uses basic principles of vectorial algebra and the simulating orthogonal films taken from the patient with the applicators and dummy sources in place. The results obtained with method were compared with the values calculated with the values calculated with the treatment planning system model Theraplan and the agreement was better than 5% in most cases. The critical points associated with the final accuracy of the proposed method is related to the quality of the image and the appropriate selection of the magnification factors. This method is strongly recommended to the radiation oncology centers where are no treatment planning systems available and the dose calculations are manually done. (author) 10 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Methods of calculus for neutron spectrometry in proportional counters; Metodos de calculo para espectrometria de neutrones en contadores proporcionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butragueno, J L; Blazquez, J B; Barrado, J M

    1976-07-01

    Response functions for cylindrical proportional counters with hydrogenated gases have been determined, taking in account only wall effect, by means of two independent calculus methods. One of them is a Monte Carlo application and the other one analytica at all. Results of both methods have been compared. (Author)

  14. Method to allow the estimation of heat transfer coefficients in solar stills; Metodo para determinar coeficientes locales de transferencia de calor en destiladores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Cerda, Eduardo; Porta Gandara, Miguel A [CIBNOR, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Fernandez Zayas, Jose Luis [UNAM Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work reports an experimental method that allows to estimate the heat transfer coefficients in the neighborhood of walls or flat plates subject to convective transport phenomena. This method can be applied to a great variety of thermal systems since it is based on the knowledge of the border condition for the temperature at the surface of the plate, and the temperature profile that characterize the dimensionless coefficient of heat transfer in the fluid, according to its definition given by the Nusselt number. The approach of this work are the foundations of the method and the system that has been developed to apply it, that incorporates automatic acquisition equipment for continuos monitoring of the information and elements to control the parameters of interest. In addition, the experimental cavities on which the method will be evaluated are discussed, considering two different scales, as well as experiments in cavities filled with air, and with a mixture of air and steam water, as is the case for solar distillation. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un metodo que permite determinar de manera experimental coeficientes de transferencia de calor por conveccion. Este metodo puede ser aplicado a una gran variedad de sistemas termicos ya que se fundamenta en el conocimiento de la condicion de frontera para la temperatura en la superficie de la placa, y del perfil de temperaturas que caracteriza el coeficiente adimensional de transferencia de calor en el fluido, de acuerdo a la definicion de este, dada por el numero de Nusselt. El trabajo que aqui se reporta esta enfocado a la fundamentacion del metodo y al equipamiento que se ha desarrollado para instrumentarlo, que incorpora equipos automaticos de adquisicion continua de informacion y elementos de control para los parametros de interes. Se presentan ademas, las cavidades experimentales sobre las que sera evaluado el metodo, que considera dos escalas diferentes, asi como experimentos en cavidades llenas de aire

  15. Algorithm for the calculation of a steam generator efficiency; Algoritmo para el calculo de la eficiencia de un generador de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David; Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The efficiency calculation of steam generators is not always simple. The purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the calculation of steam generators efficiency, easy to understand and carry out, in the form of a series of steps to be followed. It takes as starting point that the person in charge of applying these calculations has knowledge of the combustion processes and thermodynamic principles that rule such processes. [Espanol] El calculo de la eficiencia de los generadores de vapor no siempre es sencillo, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el de proponer un algoritmo de calculo de eficiencia de generadores de vapor, el cual sea facil de entender y de llevar a cabo, en forma de una serie de pasos a seguir. Se toma como punto de partida, que la persona encargada de aplicar estos calculos tenga el conocimiento de los procesos de combustion y principios termodinamicos que rigen tales procesos.

  16. Method of identifying the friction of rotors using the wavelet transform; Metodo para identificar el rozamiento de rotores utilizado la transformada wavelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui Correa, Juan Carlos; Rubio Cerda, Eduardo; Gonzalez Brambila, Oscar [CIATEQ, A.C., Queretaro (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The modern processes of signal analysis that measure mechanical vibrations are based on the fast transform of Fourier (FFT), nevertheless, this method is not able to identify transient phenomena nor of nonlinear nature. Although many efforts have been made to try to identify these phenomena in the frequency spectra, it is not possible to correlate the spectra with the physical characteristics of this type of phenomena. Within these phenomena on the rubbing of a rotor against the housing or trunnion of a bearing, this phenomenon has a nonlinear behavior, as it is demonstrated in this paper. In the first part a method based on the of signal analysis type wavelets is presented and how this technique can be used to predict transient and nonlinear phenomena. Once defined the method, its application in the identification of the friction of rotors is demonstrated. With this, one demonstrates that the method presented in this paper allows to also identifying in real time the rubbing phenomenon and also that it can be used as an of analysis technique in the preventive maintenance systems. [Spanish] Los procesos modernos de analisis de senales que miden vibraciones mecanicas se basan en la transformada rapida de Fourier (FFT por sus siglas en ingles), sin embargo, este metodo no es capaz de identificar fenomenos transitorios ni de naturaleza no lineal. A pesar de que se han hecho muchos esfuerzos para tratar de identificar estos fenomenos en los espectros de frecuencia, no es posible correlacionar el espectro con las caracteristicas fisicas de este tipo de fenomenos. Dentro de estos fenomenos sobre el rozamiento de un rotor contra la carcasa o munon de una chumacera, este fenomeno tiene un comportamiento no lineal, como se demuestra en este trabajo. En la primera parte se presenta un metodo basado en el analisis de senales tipo wavelets y como esta tecnica puede utilizarse para predecir fenomenos transitorios y no lineales. Una vez definido el metodo, se demuestra su

  17. METODO OPTICO PARA MEDIR EL COMPORTAMIENTO DE UNA LINEA DE TRANSMISION.

    OpenAIRE

    ASAHI KODAMA, TAKESHI EDUARDO; ASAHI KODAMA, TAKESHI EDUARDO

    1998-01-01

    El objetivo de esta tesis es el de establecer un método de manera de poder medir en forma óptica la corriente y el voltaje que circulan en una línea de transmisión. Para ello, se utilizan los fenómenos de Faraday y Kerr en líneas de transmisión que tienen 57p.

  18. Development of computer programme for the use of empirical calculation of mining subsidence; Desarrollo informatico para utilizacion de los metodos empiricos de calculo de subsidencia minera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The fundamental objective of the project is the elaboration of a user friendly computer programme which allows to mining technicians an easy application of the empirical calculation methods of mining subsidence. As is well known these methods use, together with a suitable theoretical support, the experimental data obtained during a long period of mining activities in areas of different geological and geomechanical nature. Thus they can incorporate to the calculus the local parameters that hardly could be taken into account by using pure theoretical methods. In general, as basic calculation method, it has been followed the procedure development by the VNIMI Institute of Leningrad, a particularly suitable method for application to the most various conditions that may occur in the mining of flat or steep seams. The computer programme has been worked out on the basis of MicroStation System (5.0 version) of INTERGRAPH which allows the development of new applications related to the basic aims of the project. An important feature, of the programme that may be quoted is the easy adaptation to local conditions by adjustment of the geomechanical or mining parameters according to the values obtained from the own working experience. (Author)

  19. Calculation methods of reactivity using derivatives of nuclear power and Filter fir; Metodos para o calculo da reatividade usando derivadas da potencia nuclear e o filtro FIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Daniel Suescun

    2007-07-01

    This work presents two new methods for the solution of the inverse point kinetics equation. The first method is based on the integration by parts of the integral of the inverse point kinetics equation, which results in a power series in terms of the nuclear power in time dependence. Applying some conditions to the nuclear power, the reactivity is represented as first and second derivatives of this nuclear power. This new calculation method for reactivity has special characteristics, amongst which the possibility of using different sampling periods, and the possibility of restarting the calculation, after its interruption associated it with a possible equipment malfunction, allowing the calculation of reactivity in a non-continuous way. Apart from this reactivity can be obtained with or without dependency on the nuclear power memory. The second method is based on the Laplace transform of the point kinetics equations, resulting in an expression equivalent to the inverse kinetics equation as a function of the power history. The reactivity can be written in terms of the summation of convolution with response to impulse, characteristic of a linear system. For its digital form the Z-transform is used, which is the discrete version of the Laplace transform. In this method it can be pointed out that the linear part is equivalent to a filter named Finite Impulse Response (Fir). The Fir filter will always be, stable and non-varying in time, and, apart from this, it can be implemented in the non-recursive way. This type of implementation does not require feedback, allowing the calculation of reactivity in a continuous way. The proposed methods were validated using signals with random noise and showing the relationship between the reactivity difference and the degree of the random noise. (author)

  20. Validation of analytical method to calculate the concentration of conjugated monoclonal antibody; Validacao de metodo analitico para calculo de concentracao de anticorpo monoclonal conjugado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Lais F.; Massicano, Adriana V.F.; Oliveira, Ricardo S.; Araujo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: lais_alcarde@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative analytical method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the antibody concentration in conjunction with bifunctional chelator. Assays were performed using a high performance liquid chromatograph, and the following conditions were used: flow rate of 1 mL / min, 15 min run time, 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 as the mobile phase and column of molecular exclusion BioSep SEC S-3000 (300 x 7.8 mm, 5 μM - Phenomenex). The calibration curve was obtained with AcM diluted in 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 by serial dilution, yielding the concentrations: 400 μg/mL, 200 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL and 12.5 μg/mL. From the calibration curve calculated the equation of the line and with it the concentration of the immunoconjugate. To ensure the validity of the method accuracy and precision studies were conducted. The accuracy test consisted in the evaluation of 3 samples of known concentration, being this test performed with low concentrations (50 μg/mL), medium (100 μg/mL) and high (200 μg/mL). The precision test consisted of 3 consecutive measurements of one sample of known concentration, subject to the conditions set forth above for the other tests. The correlation coefficient of the standard curve was greater than 97%, the accuracy was satisfactory at low concentrations as well as accuracy. The method was validated by showing it for the accurate and precise determination of the concentration of the immunoconjugate. Furthermore, this assay was found to be extremely important, because using the correct mass of the protein, the radiochemical purity of the radioimmunoconjugate was above 95% in all studies.

  1. METODO PROPUESTO PARA LA PREDICCION DE TENSIONES ADMISIBLES EN ZAPATAS CIMENTALDAS EN ARENAS

    OpenAIRE

    DIAZ SEGURA; EDGAR GIOVANNY; DIAZ SEGURA; EDGAR GIOVANNY

    2010-01-01

    La evidencia experimental ha demostrado que la mayoría de las metodologías actuales no son capaces de predecir las cargas de diseño de zapatas en suelos no cohesivos con un grado aceptable de precisión. En el presente estudio se propone un método sencillo y realista para estimar la carga de diseño de zapatas rígidas cimentadas en arenas sometidas a una carga estática vertical. Se adoptó como criterio de diseño el propuesto por Terzaghi et al. (1996), basado en limitar a 16 mm e...

  2. METODO PROPUESTO PARA LA PREDICCION DE TENSIONES ADMISIBLES EN ZAPATAS CIMENTADAS EN ARENAS

    OpenAIRE

    DIAZ SEGURA, EDGAR GIOVANNY; DIAZ SEGURA, EDGAR GIOVANNY

    2010-01-01

    La evidencia experimental ha demostrado que la mayoría de las metodologías actuales no son capaces de predecir las cargas de diseño de zapatas en suelos no cohesivos con un grado aceptable de precisión. En el presente estudio se propone un método sencillo y realista para estimar la carga de diseño de zapatas rígidas cimentadas en arenas sometidas a una carga estática vertical. Se adoptó como criterio de diseño el propuesto por Terzaghi et al. (1996), basado en limitar a 16 mm el asentamiento ...

  3. Um metodo para modelagem de exceções em desenvolvimento baseado em componentes

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Henrique da Silva Brito

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Devido a grande popularização do Desenvolvimento Baseado em Componentes (DBC), ele vem sendo empregado inclusive no desenvolvimento de sistemas computacionais críticos. O emprego do DBC na construção de sistemas confiáveis evidencia a necessidade de se desenvolver componentes de software que sejam robustos e que possuam uma garantia maior do seu funcionamento correto. Tratamento de exceções é uma técnica bastante conhecida para a verificação e tratamento de erros em sistemas de softwa...

  4. Metodo para montaje permanente de huevos de helmintos enteroparasitos Definitive preservation of helminthic eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Muñoz

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Se comunican resultados obtenidos empleando Medio de Hoyer para el montaje de huevos de helmintos enteroparásitos, destinado a preparaciones para colecciones docentes y/o de investigación. La utilización de esta técnica en muestras fecales conteniendo huevos de A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, Uncinaria sp., Taenia sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., H. nana, H. diminuta y F. hepática, permitió la correcta observación de ellos en lecturas iniciadas a las 24 horas y mantenidas hasta 180 días después.The results using the Hoyer method for examining eggs of helminths enteroparasites are presented. This method is particularly swited for teaching and on research purposes. Using this technique in fecal sample containing eggs of A.lumbricoides, T. trichiura, Uncinaria sp., Taenia sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., H. nana, H. diminuta and F. hepática allowed the correct identification of then after 24 hours up to 180 days after the samples were obtained.

  5. Calculation of uncertainties; Calculo de incertidumbres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Asencio, Misael [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    metodologico para la obtencion de informacion (mesurando) de un sistema material (poblacion). Ello supone la necesidad de la definicion del problema, la eleccion de los metodos de muestreo y medicion adecuados y la ejecucion de estas actividades para la obtencion de la informacion. El resultado de una medicion solo es una aproximacion o estimacion del valor del mesurando, el cual se completa solo cuando va acompanado por una estimacion de la incertidumbre del proceso analitico. Segun el 'Vocabulario de Terminos Basicos y Generales de Metrologia' la incertidumbre de medicion 'es el parametro asociado con el resultado de la medicion que caracteriza la dispersion de los valores que razonablemente pudiera ser atribuida al mensurando (o magnitud). Este parametro podria ser una desviacion estandar o un intervalo de confianza'. La evaluacion de la incertidumbre exige que observemos detalladamente todas sus posibles fuentes, pero no de forma desproporcionada. Podemos realizar una buena estimacion de la incertidumbre concentrando el esfuerzo en las mayores contribuciones. Los pasos fundamentales del proceso de determinacion de la incertidumbre en las mediciones son: - la especificacion del mesurando; - la identificacion de las fuentes de incertidumbre; - la cuantificacion de las componentes individuales de la incertidumbre; - el calculo de la incertidumbre estandar combinada; - informe de la incertidumbre.

  6. Thickness calculation software of the thermal insulation in facilities using thermal solar energy; Software para el calculo de espesores del aislante termico en instalaciones de aprovechamiento de energia solar termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo Jimenez, Canek [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico)]. E-mail: cnk@uas.uasnet.mx

    2010-11-15

    It is presented a software application for calculating the thickness of the thermal insulation used in various facilities where there are thermal systems using solar energy. The software facilitates the calculation of the thermal cover thickness over components such as pipes (flat or round), storage and other devices that require thermal protection, installed in outdoors or indoors. The software was programmed in Visual Basic by following the technical specifications of the current regulations in the field. Application examples are performed, obtaining certain results that are discussed briefly. [Spanish] Se presenta un software de aplicacion para el calculo de los espesores de los aislantes termicos, utilizados en diferentes instalaciones donde existen sistemas de aprovechamiento termico de energia solar. El software facilita el calculo del grosor del recubrimiento termico en componentes tales como: tuberias (planas o circulares), depositos acumuladores y otros aparatos que necesiten proteccion termica, instalados en exteriores o en interiores. El software fue programado en Visual Basic siguiendo las especificaciones tecnicas de la normatividad vigente en la materia. Se realizan ejemplos de aplicacion, donde se obtienen ciertos resultados de los cuales se hace una breve discusion.

  7. Diseño y calculo de estructura para una industria fotovoltaica en el parque tecnologico de paterna (Valencia)

    OpenAIRE

    MEDINA RUIZ, VÍCTOR MANUEL

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo fundamental del presente trabajo es el diseño y cálculo de la estructura metálica, así como su cimentación, de una nave para una industria dedicada a la fabricación de paneles fotovoltaicos en el Parque Tecnológico de Paterna (Valencia). El espacio interior debe ser suficiente para contener todas las áreas necesarias en una industria de dichas características: Oficinas, Vestuarios, Almacén y Línea de Producción (Soldadura, montaje…). Para la realización del cál...

  8. A reverse method to estimate initial temperatures in geothermal reservoirs; Un metodo inverso para estimacion de la temperatura inicial de yacimientos geotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx; Ramos Alcantara, Jose R. [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Arellano Gomez, Victor M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    A method is presented for estimating the initial temperature in geothermal-reservoir formations. The method is based on control theory where the measured temperatures or temperature logs are compared with corresponding simulated temperatures for different times with the well closed. The comparison is made using a control algorithm that makes changes to the originally assumed reservoir temperatures and performs iterations until the best fit between the temperature logs and the simulated temperatures is obtained. The simulation of fluid transport and heat in the well includes the processes of circulation and stop in the presence of circulation losses, modeled on macroscopic balances of momentum and energy. The transport processes in the formation regard the reservoir as an isotropic porous medium and fluid flow is described by Darcy's law. This model generates the fields of temperatures, pressures and speeds as a function of time and space. The method was tested with data from well LV-3 in Las Tres Virgenes geothermal field, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The estimated temperatures of the undisturbed formation-or initial temperatures-are compared within {+-}15 degrees Celsius with the measured temperatures, which is an acceptable outcome from an engineering point of view. [Spanish] Se presenta un metodo para la estimacion de la temperatura inicial en las formaciones de yacimientos geotermicos. El metodo se basa en la teoria de control donde las temperaturas medidas o registros de temperatura se comparan con las correspondientes temperaturas simuladas a diferentes tiempos con el pozo cerrado. La comparacion se hace usando un algoritmo de control el cual hace cambios a las temperaturas de yacimiento originalmente supuestas y realiza iteraciones hasta que se obtiene el mejor ajuste entre los registros de temperatura y las temperaturas simuladas. La simulacion del transporte de fluidos y calor en el pozo incluye los procesos de circulacion y paro en presencia de

  9. Comparative Study of the Methods Used for the Computer Resolution of Composite Gamma-Ray Spectra; Etude Comparative des Methodes Utilisees pour la Resolution de Spectres Gamma Complexes au Moyen d'un Ordinateur; Sravnitel'noe izuchenie metodov razresheniya sostavnykh gamma-spektrov pri pomoshchi schetno-reshayushchego ustrojstva; Estudio Comparativo de los Metodos Aplicados para Resolver Espectros Gamma Complejos Mediante Calculadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHaan, A. Jr.; Leventhal, L.; Benson, P. [Tracerlab, Richmond, CA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    diferentes metodos, prestando especial atencion a las muestras de baja actividad. Se han estudiado los metodos matematicos de uso mas corriente para resolver en sus componentes un espectro gamma complejo. Con arreglo a ellos, la concentracion de los diferentes emisores gamma se calcula por uno de los siguientes procedimientos: 1. Eliminacion sucesiva de radionuclidos con fotopicos de energia elevada sustrayendo el espectro puro del espectro complejo, hasta su resolucion. 2. Resolucion por picos sin sustraccion, 3. Establecimiento y resolucion de un sistema de ecuaciones lineales simultaneas del mismo grado que el numero de radionuclidos de la muestra. 4. Calculo de las concentraciones por cuadrados minimos, segun el metodo clasico o el ponderado. 5. Combinacion de los metodos estadistico y de cuadrados minimos con regresion lineal multiple gradual, lo que constituye una tentativa de introducir en el analisis los procesos determinantes. Se expone, para cada metodo analitico aplicado a mezclas compuestas por varios radionuclidos, el calculo estadistico de los errores inherentes a las concentraciones halladas. (author) [Russian] Razreshenie slozhnyh smesej gamma-izluchatelej bylo uskoreno blagodarja ispol'zovaniju ochen' slozhnyh gamma- spektrometrov sovmestno s cifrovymi schetno-reshajushhimi ustrojstvami. Jeti pribory poluchili v nastojashhee vremja shirokoe rasprostranenie i stali dostupnymi dlja tehnicheskih laboratorij. Daetsja opisanie metodov, primenjaemyh v laboratorii izotopnyh indikatorov dlja opredelenija koncentracii otdel'nyh gamma-izluchajushhih radioizotopov v probah radioaktivnyh osadkov, i sravnivajutsja rezul'taty, poluchennye s sostavnymi probami na osnovanii razlichnyh matematicheskih metodov. Poluchennye pri pomoshhi schetno-reshajushhego ustrojstva dannye sravnivajutsja s rezul'tatami, poluchennymi posredstvom radiohimicheskogo analiza proby. Opisyvaemymi nizhe sposooami snachala izucheny oinarnye smesi, a zatem rezul'taty jetogo analiza rasprostraneny na

  10. Nueva formula matemática para el calculo de la proteinuria de 24 horas en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Salabarría

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Se elaboró una fórmula matemática para la cuantificación de la excreción urinaria de proteínas en 24 horas en niños y adolescentes, derivada de la relación proteinuria creatinuria (RPC. Se procesaron 104 muestras de orina de 24 horas, las cuales se dividieron en 2 grupos de acuerdo con la excreción diaria de creatinina. La proteinuria de 24 horas se determinó en cada grupo por el método tradicional y mediante la fórmula propuesta. Se obtuvo una excelente correlación (r = 0,994 y una elevada concordancia en el grupo con recolecciones adecuadas de orina, no así en el grupo con recolecciones inadecuadas (r = 0,896. Al comparar las RPC en 30 muestras de orina obtenidas en 3 diferentes períodos, con la RPC de 24 horas correspondiente se obtuvo una elevada correlación (r 0,99; no obstante la que guardó mayor identidad fue la del período comprendido entre las 7:00 a.m. y 12:00 m.A mathematical formula for the quantification of 24-hour urinary protein excretion in children and adolescents, derived from the proteinuria-creatinuria relation (PCR was elaborated. 104 urine specimens were processed and divided into two groups according to daily creatinine excretion. 24-hour proteinuria was determined in each group by the traditional method and by the formula proposed. An excelent correlation (r=0,994 and an elevated correspondence in the group with adequate urine collections were obtained, but it was not so in the group with inadequate collections (r=0,896. On comparing the PCR in 30 urine specimens collected at three different periods with the corresponding 24-hour PCR, an elevated correlation (r 0,99 was obtained; however, the one with the greatest identity was that collected between 7:00 a.m. and 12:00 m.

  11. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las

  12. Development of an analytic method for arsenic's determination in lime and tortilla; Desarrollo de un metodo analitico para determinacion de arsenico en cal y tortilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huato Soberanis, Julio; Ogura, Tetsuya [Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    1995-02-01

    A spectrophotometric method to determine As in tortilla and lime has been optimized, modifying the AsH{sub 3} generator. The reaction between arsin (AsH{sub 3}){sub 4} and diethyldithiocarbamate of Ag (AgDDC); was followed spectrophotometrically. The conditions under which the As remains in the ash during the calcination of the tortillas were studied. It was found that when they were heated in a quartz tube with a careful control of the air flow and oxygen, as well as the heating temperature, the arsenic loss in minimized. [Spanish] Se ha optimizado el metodo para determinar As en la tortilla y cal mediante espectrometria en el visible del color producido en la reaccion entre Arsina (AsH{sub 3}){sub 4} y dietilditiocarbamato de plata (AgDDC); modificando el generador de AsH{sub 3}. Se han buscado las condiciones en las que el arsenico permanece en las cenizas de la calcinacion de las tortillas; encontrandose que las tortillas deben calentarse en un tubo de cuarzo con control del flujo de aire y oxigeno asi como de la temperatura de calentamiento.

  13. Measurement and calculation of dynamic coefficients in hydrodynamic bearings of gas films; Medicion y calculo de coeficientes dinamicos en cojinetes hidrodinamicos de peliculas de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Rafael O.; Di Liscia, Marcelo H.; Diaz, Sergio E. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Sartendejas, Baruta (Venezuela)

    2007-11-15

    dynamic coefficients. [Spanish] La identificacion de los coeficientes dinamicos en cojinetes de aire es fundamental para un adecuado analisis rotodinamico. El presente trabajo muestra el desarrollo de un algoritmo que permite la obtencion directa de los coeficientes dinamicos en cojinetes hidrodinamicos de aire tanto de forma numerica como experimental. El banco de pruebas utilizado consta de dos cojinetes magneticos, los cuales soportan al rotor en sus extremos y a su vez funcionan como actuadores permitiendo inducir orbitas controladas en el rotor. El cojinete de prueba se encuentra ubicado entre los cojinetes magneticos. Las fuerzas dinamicas generadas en el cojinete de aire se registran a partir de tres celdas de carga. El algoritmo fue desarrollado en un codigo comercial de programacion grafica, a traves del cual se pueden colectar, controlar y procesar las senales. El comportamiento no lineal de este tipo de cojinetes dificulta el calculo de los coeficientes dinamicos, por esta razon el procesamiento de las senales en espacio frecuencial facilita de cierta manera su manejo. Por otra parte, el modelo numerico se comparo con los resultados experimentales obteniendo aproximaciones aceptables tanto en magnitud como en comportamiento. El calculo de los coeficientes dinamicos numericos se realizo resolviendo la ecuacion diferencial de Reynolds para un fluido compresible en el espesor de la pelicula de gas, tomando en consideracion el flujo masico del fluido que se introduce, asi como la perdida de presion que sufre el mismo al pasar a traves de los orificios de alimentacion. Los metodos numericos utilizados incluyen la resolucion de la ecuacion diferencial de Reynolds por diferencias finitas, el calculo del perfil de presiones realizando iteraciones sucesivas y el calculo de las fuerzas hidrodinamicas a traves de una integracion numerica de Simpson. Los coeficientes dinamicos numericos fueron hallados aplicando una tecnica de minimos cuadrados a las fuerzas hidrodinamicas

  14. Non-Destructive Methods for Determining Burn-Up in Nuclear Fuel; Methodes Non Destructives d'Evaluation du Taux de Combustion dans le Combustible Nucleaire; Metody opredeleniya vygoraniya v yadernom toplive bez razrusheniya obraztsa; Metodos No Destructivos para Determinai el Grado de Combustion de los Elementos Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonnagle, W. J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    repercute en los calculos que pueden efectuarse. Otra de las dificultades de la determinacion no destructiva consiste en la presencia de intensos campos de radiaciones que contribuyen al 'ruido' defondo dela medicion. La preparacion de patrones eficaces es dificil. Aunque en el estado actual de la tecnica carezcan de la precision deseada, los metodos no destructivos para determinar el grado de combustion resultan utiles sobre todo cuando es preciso obtener rapidamente valores aproximados sin que el costo de la operacion resulte excesivo. Para determinar el grado de combustion se han empleado, se estan estudiando o se han propuesto diversos metodos no destructivos. Se han empleado varios tipos de espectrometro -el de cristal curvo, el magnetico de Compton, el de coincidencia de Compton y el de centelleo- para analizar la radiacion gamma proveniente del material radiactivo formado durante el proceso de fision. Entre otros metodos no destructivos cabe mencionar la activacion de laminas, la transmision neutronica, el analisis por activacion, la medicion de rayos gamma de captura y la medicion de neutrones rapidos y retardados. En la memoria se exponen los principios basicos de cada uno de los instrumentos y de los metodos mencionados y se formulan observaciones sobre su sensibilidad y sus inconvenientes. . El autor propone metodos no destructivos basados en el empleo de isotopos estables producidos durante el proceso de fision. Con el empleo de esos isotopos los datos relativos a las irradiaciones precedentes tienen una importancia secundaria y los relativos al tiempo de enfriamiento no tienen ninguna. Ademas, para los productos estables de fision se dispone de datos nucleares mas precisos. Entre los isotopos estables producidos durante el proceso de fision, los mas utiles parecen ser el circonio, el molibdeno, el rutenio y el neodimio. En la memoria se analizan todos los metodos propuestos. (author) [Russian] Metody kolichestvennogo izmerenija vygoranija toplivnyh jelementov v

  15. Flow measurement in a 170-MW hydraulic turbine using the Gibson method; Medicion del flujo de una turbina hidraulica de 170 MW utilizando el metodo Gibson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquiza, Gustavo [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); Adamkowski, Adam [The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery (Poland); Kubiak, Janusz; Sierra, Fernando [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); Janicki, Waldemar [The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery (Poland); Fernandez, J. Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    -tiempo o de Gibson. Este metodo esta basado en el fenomeno del golpe de ariete y es aplicado al caso de una tuberia de presion de tuberia hidraulica. La version del metodo usado en el presente trabajo consiste en la medicion, durante el rechazo total de carga, del historial de tiempo y del cambio de presion en una seccion de la tuberia de presion y relaciona este cambio de presion con el nivel del embalse de la central hidroelectrica. El flujo volumetrico se determina mediante la integracion del incremento de la diferencia de presion medida con respecto al tiempo. La medicion del flujo fue posible gracias a la poca influencia de la entrada del flujo a la tuberia de presion, de 300 m longitud, evitando asi introducir un error considerable en la medicion. Se aplicaron y adoptaron para la medicion los criterios de la norma IEC-41-1991 y experiencias previas. Se utilizo un sistema de adquisicion de datos rapido y eficiente, el cual incluye una tarjeta de 16 bit. El flujo fue calculado usando un programa de computo desarrollado y probado en varios casos anteriores. Los resultados obtenidos con el metodo Gibson fueron utilizados para la calibracion de un sistema de medicion en linea basado en el metodo relativo de Winter-Kennedy. Este ultimo se usa comunmente para el monitoreo continuo del flujo de turbinas hidraulicas, siempre y cuando la calibracion en sitio haya sido realizada usando los resultados de las mediciones de un metodo absoluto. Una vez medido el flujo y la potencia de salida, se calculo la eficiencia para diferentes condiciones de operacion. Se discuten y presentan los resultados obtenidos en una curva, la cual muestra las mejores condiciones de operacion basadas en la mayor eficiencia. Los detalles de la instrumentacion, su instalacion y otros resultados obtenidos se discuten tambien en el presente articulo.

  16. PCRELAP5: data calculation program for RELAP 5 code; PCRELAP5: programa de calculo dos dados de entrada para o codigo RELAP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Larissa Jacome Barros

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear accidents in the world led to the establishment of rigorous criteria and requirements for nuclear power plant operations by the international regulatory bodies. By using specific computer programs, simulations of various accidents and transients likely to occur at any nuclear power plant are required for certifying and licensing a nuclear power plant. Based on this scenario, some sophisticated computational tools have been used such as the Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program (RELAP5), which is the most widely used code for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of accidents and transients in nuclear reactors in Brazil and worldwide. A major difficulty in the simulation by using RELAP5 code is the amount of information required for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic accidents or transients. The preparation of the input data requires a great number of mathematical operations to calculate the geometry of the components. Thus, for those calculations performance and preparation of RELAP5 input data, a friendly mathematical preprocessor was designed. The Visual Basic for Application (VBA) for Microsoft Excel demonstrated to be an effective tool to perform a number of tasks in the development of the program. In order to meet the needs of RELAP5 users, the RELAP5 Calculation Program (Programa de Calculo do RELAP5 - PCRELAP5) was designed. The components of the code were codified; all entry cards including the optional cards of each one have been programmed. In addition, an English version for PCRELAP5 was provided. Furthermore, a friendly design was developed in order to minimize the time of preparation of input data and errors committed by users. In this work, the final version of this preprocessor was successfully applied for Safety Injection System (SIS) of Angra 2. (author)

  17. Systems for the calculation of electrical parameters and energy efficiency for high-capacity hydroelectric generators; Sistemas para el calculo de parametros electricos y eficiencia energetica para generadores hidroelectricos de gran capacidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Martinez, Oscar Alfonso; Pascacio de los Santos, Alberth; Perez Abad, Carlos Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Leon Rivera, Nicolas [CFE-LAPEM, Irapuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    construccion es la Central Hidroelectrica La Yesca, el cual concluira a finales de 2012 y consiste en dos generadores electricos de 375 MW, 17 kV. Sera el segundo en potencia y el tercero en generacion electrica en el sistema. De acuerdo con las normas nacionales e internacionales, debe efectuarse un conjunto de pruebas estaticas y dinamicas en estos generadores antes de la puesta en servicio, para asegurar su operacion apropiada. La prueba de resistencia de alto voltaje del devanado del estator, la prueba de corto circuito subito trifasico y el calculo de eficiencia energetica son algunas de las pruebas mas importantes por realizar en un nuevo generador electrico. Estas pruebas son dificiles de efectuar en sitio debido a la capacidad del equipo requerido, por lo que muy pocas companias en el mundo pueden conducirlas.

  18. Modificação do metodo "kindling" para obtenção de status epilepticus experimental em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Reis de Campos

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi utilizada em nova espécie animal (ratos, uma modificação do método "kindling", introduzida por Taber e col. (1977 para obtenção de status epilepticus experimental. Para isso foram implantados mediante cirurgia estereotáxica, eletrodos duplos, torcidos no hipocampo dorsal de 12 ratos machos albinos. Esses animais foram submetidos, após uma semana de pós-operatório, a 1 segundo de estimulação elétrica de baixa intensidade em forma intermitente, um estímulo por minuto durante 2 horas, desenvolvendo-se em prazo de 30 minutos um estado de epilepsia eletrográfica e comportamental duradoura. Vários padrões de descargas epilépticas eletrográficas foram observados bem como manifestações convulsivas tônico-clônicas. Os animais que foram submetidos a novas sessões de estimulação após 7 e 14 dias mostraram aumento de atividade epiléptica demonstrando uma modificação plástica do hipocampo do rato submetido a estimulação elétrica a qual perdura no tempo. O método permite a obtenção de "kindling" em tempo bem mais curto (horas, comparativamente às técnicas anteriormente descritas (dias, tornando-se um promissor modelo de epilepsia para testes de drogas anticonvulsivantes e para o estudo dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos e bioquímicos envolvidos na descarga epiléptica.

  19. Proposta de metodo de gerenciamento de processos administrativos para organizações prestadoras de serviços

    OpenAIRE

    Benigno Roberto Zaki

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: Desde a metade do século XX e neste início do século XXI, as empresas buscam aumentar a produtividade e melhorar a qualidade de seus produtos e serviços. Para uma organização, muito mais do que a liderança no seu mercado de atuação é a sua capacidade de se manter competitiva. A busca da vantagem competitiva perante o mercado está em satisfazer as expectativas do cliente e implementar com êxito uma série de exigências em termos de eficiência no processo produtivo. O desenvolvimento des...

  20. RA-0 reactor. New neutronic calculations; Reactor RA-0. Nuevos calculos neutronicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumis, D; Leszczynski, F

    1991-12-31

    An updating of the neutronic calculations performed at the RA-0 reactor, located at the Natural, Physical and Exact Sciences Faculty of Cordoba National University, are herein described. The techniques used for the calculation of a reactor like the RA-0 allows prediction in detail of the flux behaviour in the core`s interior and in the reflector, which will be helpful for experiments design. In particular, the use of WIMSD4 code to make calculations on the reactor implies a novelty in the possible applications of this code to solve the problems that arise in practice. (Author). [Espanol] En este trabajo se actualizan los calculos neutronicos realizados para el reactor RA-0, instalado en la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Cordoba. Se describen los calculos realizados hasta la fecha y los resultados obtenidos. Las tecnicas incorporadas al calculo de un reactor como el RA-0 permiten predecir en detalle el comportamiento del flujo en el interior del nucleo y en el reflector, lo que sera una importante ayuda en el diseno de experimentos. En particular, el empleo del codigo WIMSD4 para calculos del reactor completo constituye una novedad en las posibles aplicaciones de ese codigo para resolver problemas que se presentan en la practica. (Autor).

  1. Calculation of attenuation by rain using the DAH model and diameter of antennas for the Ka Band in Mexico; Calculo de atenuacion por lluvia usando el modelo DAH y diametro de antena para Banda Ka en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landeros-Ayala, S.; Neri-Vela, R; Cruz-Sanchez, H.; Hernandez-Bautista, H. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    Fatim Haidara), combinado con los mapas globales de distribucion de lluvia de Crane, para el calculo de la atencion por lluvia en sistema de comunicacion por satelite que operen en la Banda Ka. Ademas, se proponen diametros de antena para los sistemas de comunicaciones en Banda Ka en diferentes localidades de la Republica Mexicana, empleando para ello, los margenes de atencion por lluvia obtenidos a trav del Modelo DAH, y usando como referencia las caracteristicas del satelite de comunicaciones ANIK F2 y de una estacion terrena VSAT.Se muestra una fig. de la atenuacion por lluvia a 27.5 gHz y de los diametros de antena para banda Ka en Mexico. Se da una tabla de la atenuacion por lluvia a 29.5 GHz y a 20.2 GHz.

  2. The Comparative Accuracy of the 4 {pi} Liquid Scintillation Counting Method of Radioisotope Standardization; L'exactitude comparee de la methode de comptage 4 {pi} a scintillateurs liquides pour l'etalonnage des radioisotopes; Sravnitel'naya tochnost' 4 {pi} zhidkogo stsintillatsionnogo metoda podscheta standartiziruemykh radioizotopov; Exactitud del metodo de recuento con centelleador liquido 4 {pi} para normalizar radioisotopos, comparada con la de otros metodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, J [National Physical Research Laboratory, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1960-06-15

    The accuracy of the 4 {pi} liquid scintillation counting method of standardizing {beta} emitters was compared to 4 l{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting for the nuclides Co{sup 60}, I{sup 131} and Au{sup 198}. For P{sup 32} the liquid counting results were compared to 4 {pi} proportional counting. The efficiency of the liquid scintillation counting method was found to be energy dependent, dropping to about 97.5% for Co{sup 60} which was the lowest energy {beta} emitter investigated. (author) [French] La precision de la methode de comptage 4 {pi} a scintillateurs liquides pour l'etalonnage des emetteurs {beta} a ete comparee au comptage par coincidences 4 {pi} {beta}-{gamma} pour le So{sup 60}, le I{sup 131} et le Au{sup 198}. Dans le cas du P{sup 32}, les resultats du comptage au liquide ont ete compares a ceux du comptage 4 {pi} proportionnel. On a constate que le rendement de la methode de comptage a scintillateurs liquides variait en fonction de l'energie emise et qu'il descendait a environ 97.5% pour le Co{sup 60} qui, de tous les emetteurs {beta} etudies, emet l'energie la plus faible. (author) [Spanish] El autor compara la precision del metodo de recuento con centelleador iquido 4 {pi} para normalizar emisores {beta} con la del metodo de coincidencias {beta}-{gamma} 4 {pi}, para los siguientes nuclidos: So{sup 60}, I{sup 131} y Au{sup 198}. En el caso del P{sup 32}, confronta los resultados del primer metodo con los obtenidos mediante el recuento proporcional 4 {pi}. Comprueba que la eficacia del metodo de recuento con centelleador liquido depende de la energia y desciende al 97.5%, aproximadamente, para el Co{sup 60}, que fue el emisor {beta} mas debil que se investigo. (author) [Russian] Tochnost' 4 {pi} zhidkogo stsintillyatsionnog o metoda podscheta standartiziruemogo {beta}-izluchatelya sravnivalas' s 4 {pi} {beta}-{gamma} metodom podscheta na sovpadeniyakh dlya izotopov So{sup 60}, I{sup 131} i Au{sup 198}. Dlya R{sup 32} rezultaty zhidkogo

  3. Numerical Calculation of Transport Based on the Drift-Kinetic Equation for Plasmas in General Toroidal Magnetic Geometry: Numerical Methods; Calculo Numerico de Transporte mediante la Ecuacion Cinetica de Deriva para Plasmas en Geometria Magnetica Toroidal: Metodos Numericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.

    2009-10-12

    In this report we continue with the description of a newly developed numerical method to solve the drift kinetic equation for ions and electrons in toroidal plasmas. Several numerical aspects, already outlined in a previous report [Informes Tecnicos Ciemat 1165, mayo 2009], will be treated now in more detail. Aside from discussing the method in the context of other existing codes, various aspects will be now explained from the viewpoint of numerical methods: the way to solve convection equations, the adopted boundary conditions, the real-space meshing procedures along with a new software developed to build them, and some additional questions related with the parallelization and the numerical integration. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. Coupling between the differential and perturbation theory methods for calculating sensitivity coefficients in nuclear transmutation problems; Acoplamento entre os metodos diferencial e da teoria da perturbacao para o calculo dos coeficientes de sensibilidade em problemas de transmutacao nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Lubianka Ferrari Russo

    2014-07-01

    The main target of this study is to introduce a new method for calculating the coefficients of sensibility through the union of differential method and generalized perturbation theory, which are the two methods generally used in reactor physics to obtain such variables. These two methods, separated, have some issues turning the sensibility coefficients calculation slower or computationally exhaustive. However, putting them together, it is possible to repair these issues and build a new equation for the coefficient of sensibility. The method introduced in this study was applied in a PWR reactor, where it was performed the sensibility analysis for the production and {sup 239}Pu conversion rate during 120 days (1 cycle) of burnup. The computational code used for both burnup and sensibility analysis, the CINEW, was developed in this study and all the results were compared with codes widely used in reactor physics, such as CINDER and SERPENT. The new mathematical method for calculating the sensibility coefficients and the code CINEW provide good numerical agility and also good efficiency and security, once the new method, when compared with traditional ones, provide satisfactory results, even when the other methods use different mathematical approaches. The burnup analysis, performed using the code CINEW, was compared with the code CINDER, showing an acceptable variation, though CINDER presents some computational issues due to the period it was built. The originality of this study is the application of such method in problems involving temporal dependence and, not least, the elaboration of the first national code for burnup and sensitivity analysis. (author)

  5. Monte Carlo method for dose calculation due to oral X-rays; Coeficientes de conversao para calculo de doses devidos a radiografias odontologicas utilizando o metodo de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Eduardo Cesar de Miranda

    1998-06-01

    The increasing utilization of oral X-rays, especially in youngsters and children, calls for the assessment of equivalent doses in their organs and tissues. With this purpose, a Monte Carlo code was adapted to simulate an X-ray source irradiating phantoms of the MIRD-5 type with different ages (10, 15 and 40 years old) to calculate the conversion coefficients which transform the exposure at skin to equivalent doses at several organs and tissues of interest. In order to check the computer program, simulations were performed for adult patients using the original code (ADAM.FOR developed at the GSF-Germany) and the adapted program (MCDRO.PAS). Good agreement between results obtained with both codes was observed. Irradiations of the incisive, canine and molar teeth were simulated. The conversion factors were calculated for the following organs and tissues: thyroid, active bone narrow (head and whole body), bone (facial skeleton, cranium and whole body), skin (head and whole body) and crystalline. Based on the obtained results, it follows that the younger the patient and the larger the field area, the higher the dose in assessed organs and tissues. The variation of the source-skin distance does not change the conversion coefficients. On the other hand, the increase in the voltage applied to the X-ray tube causes an increase in the calculated conversion coefficients. (author)

  6. Analysis of a calculation method for the determination of the value of safety or control bars; Analisis de un metodo de calculo para la determinacion del valor de barras de seguridad o control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F; Torres A, C; Filio L, C [ININ, Gcia. de Reactores, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1982-09-15

    Due to the control or safety bars in a nuclear reactor are constituted by strongly absorbent materials, the Diffusion Theory like tool for the calculation of bar values is not directly applicable, should it use the Transport Theory. However the speed and economy of the Diffusion codes for the reactors calculation, those make attractiveness and by this reason its are used in the determination of characteristic parameters and even in the determination of bar values, not without before to make some theoretical developments that allow to make applicable this theory. The application of the Diffusion Theory in strongly absorbent media is based on the use of some effective cross sections distinct from the real ones obtained when imposing the reason that among the flow and it gradient in the external surface of such media (control element in general, bar type or flagstone) be similar to the one obtained using Transport Theory in all the control region (multiplicative and absorbent media) with those real cross sections. The effective cross sections were obtained of the Leopard-NUMICE cell code which has incorporate the respective calculation theory of effective cross sections. Later these constants its were used in the bidimensional diffusion code Exterminator-II, simulating in it, the distribution of safety or control bars. From the cell code its were also obtained the respective constants of the homogeneous fuel cell. The results as soon as those obtained bar values of the diffusion code, its were compared with some experimental results obtained in the R{phi} Swedish reactor of natural uranium and heavy water. In this work an analysis of the bar value of one of them, trying to determine the applicability of the method is made. (Author)

  7. Standardization of a method to calculate absolute renal uptake of {sup 99m} Tc-DMSA in children; Padronizacao do metodo para calculo da captacao renal absoluta do {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Carla Rachel; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Watanabe, Tomoco; Costa, Paulo Luiz Aguirre; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: crachelo@usp.br; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; Machado, Marcia Melo Campos [Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital Universitario; Liberato Junior, Waldyr de Paula

    2006-01-15

    Objective:To standardize a method and determine normal values for absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children with normal creatinine clearance. Materials and methods: Twenty-two children (between 7 months and 10 years of age; mean 4.5 years) without clinical evidence of renal disease were studied using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Eighteen had normal renal ultrasonography, micturating urethrocystography, creatinine clearance and visual interpretation of the scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA. Four children were excluded, one with incomplete creatinine clearance and three due to reduction in the creatinine clearance. Absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA-Abs) was expressed as the fraction of the administered dose retained by each kidney six hours after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: DMSA-Abs was 21.8 +- 3.2% for the right kidney and 23.1 +-3.3% for the left kidney. There was no correlation between renal uptake and the age groups studied, although there was a tendency to an increase in the creatinine clearance with age. Conclusion: Normal values of DMSA-Abs can be used as an additional parameter for the initial diagnostic evaluation and during follow-up of renal diseases, mainly when bilateral impairment of renal function is suspected or in a patient with a single functioning kidney (in which renal differential function is of limited value). (author)

  8. A combination between the differential and the perturbation theory methods for calculating sensitivity coefficients; Uma combinacao entre os metodos diferencial e da teoria de pertubacao para o calculo dos coeficientes de sensibilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Antonio Andrade

    1998-07-01

    A new method for the calculation of sensitivity coefficients is developed. The new method is a combination of two methodologies used for calculating theses coefficients, which are the differential and the generalized perturbation theory methods. The method utilizes as integral parameter the average flux in an arbitrary region of the system. Thus, the sensitivity coefficient contains only the component corresponding to the neutron flux. To obtain the new sensitivity coefficient, the derivatives of the integral parameter, {phi}, with respect to {sigma} are calculated using the perturbation method and the functional derivatives of this generic integral parameter with respect to {sigma} and {phi} are calculated using the differential method. (author)

  9. The use of stochastic method for the calculation of liquid-vapor multicomponent equilibrium and the contribution of groups theory for the evaluation of fugacity coefficient; Uso de um metodo estocastico para calculo do equilibrio liquido-vapor de sistemas multicomponentes e avaliacao de uma abordagem por contribuicao de grupos para o calculo do coeficiente de fugacidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Rafaelly L.; Oliveira, Jackson A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Rojas, Leopoldo O.A. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work has the main objective of evaluating the mathematical model developed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004) in terms of the prediction capacity for the calculation of the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). This model is based on Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS) and it considers the binary interaction parameters (Kij(T)) estimated by a contribution group method and dependent of the temperature. The model proposed by Jaubert e Mutelet (2004), named PPR78 (Predictive Peng-Robinson), was implemented in this work by using the Fortran language. An optimization approach based on the stochastic algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was used in order to calculate the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Simulations were accomplished for several binary systems and the results were concordant with some experimental data of the investigated systems. However, for some systems different from those presented by Jaubert and Mutelet (2004), the model presented low prediction capacity. In spite of the great demand of computational performance, the algorithm PSO demonstrated robustness during the calculation of VLE and it assured convergence in most of the cases. (author)

  10. Modelo para calculo estimación del carbono en Tipo Forestal Roble-Raulí-Coigüe en la Reserva Nacional Malleco: Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Moreno Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es la selección de un modelo para estimación de carbono en Tipo Forestal Roble-Raulí y Coigüe. La recolección de datos se realizo en la Reserva Nacional Malleco. Cada sitio fue representado por un grupo de 5 parcelas (cuadradas, de lado 35m, superficie 1225m2, ubicadas en un transecto según la pendiente más fuerte. Fueron estimados los volúmenes de madera con y sin corteza de la totalidad de los individuos por medio de funciones para cada especie del tipo forestal en estudio. La cantidad de carbono almacenado a nivel de fuste de las parcelas fue estimada aplicando la función universal de carbono. En cada parcela se contabilizaron los árboles por clase diamétrico de DAP, siendo definidas las clases a partir del DAP mínimo de 3 cm y con una amplitud de 5 cm. Fueron ajustados los modelos de Spurr, Meyer, Stoate, Naslund y Schumacher-Hall. El modelo Schumacher-Hall presento el mejor ajuste de acuerdo a los indicadores estadísticos considerados, además de una mejor distribución de residuales.

  11. A digital method for period measurements in a nuclear reactor; Um metodo digital para medidas de periodo em um reator nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Sergio Gorretta

    1971-02-15

    The present paper begins by giving a theoretical treatment for the nuclear reactor period. The conventional method of measuring the period is analysed and some previously developed digital methods are described. The paper criticises the latter, pointing out some deficiencies which the proposed process is able to eliminate. All errors connected with this process are also analysed. The paper presents suitable solutions to reduce them to a minimum. The total error is found to he less than the error presented by the other methods described. A digital period meter is designed with memory resources and an automatic scaler changer. Integrated circuits specifications are used in it. Real time experiments with nuclear reactors were made in order to check te validity of the method. The data acquired were applied to a simulated digital period meter implemented in a general purpose computer. The nuclear part of the work was developed at the 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear' and the simulation work was dane at the 'Departamento de Calculo Cientifico' of COPPE, which also advised the author in the completion of this thesis. (author)

  12. A digital method for period measurements in a nuclear reactor; Um metodo digital para medidas de periodo em um reator nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Sergio Gorretta

    1971-02-15

    The present paper begins by giving a theoretical treatment for the nuclear reactor period. The conventional method of measuring the period is analysed and some previously developed digital methods are described. The paper criticises the latter, pointing out some deficiencies which the proposed process is able to eliminate. All errors connected with this process are also analysed. The paper presents suitable solutions to reduce them to a minimum. The total error is found to he less than the error presented by the other methods described. A digital period meter is designed with memory resources and an automatic scaler changer. Integrated circuits specifications are used in it. Real time experiments with nuclear reactors were made in order to check te validity of the method. The data acquired were applied to a simulated digital period meter implemented in a general purpose computer. The nuclear part of the work was developed at the 'Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear' and the simulation work was dane at the 'Departamento de Calculo Cientifico' of COPPE, which also advised the author in the completion of this thesis. (author)

  13. Some Possibilities of the Eddy-Current Method for Multi-Parameter Testing of Structural Components; Quelques Possibilites Offertes par la Methode des Courants de Foucault pour le Controle de Nombreux Parametres des Elements de Construction; Nekotorye vozmozhnosti metoda vikhrevykh tokov dlya mnogoparametrovogo kontrolya ehlementov konstruktsij; Algunas Posibilidades que Brinda el Metodo de las Corrientes de Foucault para Controlar Numerosos Parametros de los Elementos de Construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vjahorev, V. G.; Gerasimov, V. G.; Deniskin, V. P.; Trahtenberg, L. I.; Shkarlet, Ju. M. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniju Atomnoj Jenergii SSSR, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-09-15

    donnees calculees et experimentales, les auteurs indiquent diverses possibilites de realisation de detecteurs a courants de Foucault de frequence unique permettant le controle avec modification simultanee de plusieurs parametres. (author) [Spanish] Los autores demuestran que los problemas del control no destructivo de diversos parametros se plantean en la tecnologia nuclear segun ciertas leyes y que el metodo de las corrientes de Foucault se adapta particularmente a la solucion de varios de esos problemas. Los autores justifican la utilizacion de modelos electricos para resolver problemas de control con ayuda de una larga bobina hueca. Presentan formulas y exponen un metodo para el calculo de detectores a base de corrientes parasitas. Describen un dispositivo que permite verificar el espesor de las paredes de tubos; en este dispositivo, el desplazamiento del tubo a controlar no ejerce influencia alguna sobre los resultados de las mediciones, gracias al empleo de un monitor accionado por una senal dependiente de la fase de tension del detector. En calidad de detector se ha empleado un dispositivo destinado al control de los tubos de un autogenerador despues de haber incluido en su circuito una bobina de ensayo. Partiendo de datos calculados y experimentales, los autores senalan diversas posibilidades de realizacion de detectores a base de corrientes de Foucault de frecuencia unica, que permiten efectuar el control con modificacion simultanea de varios parametros. (author) [Russian] Pokazana zakonomernost' voznikno- venija zadach o nerazrushajushhem mnogoparametrovom kontrole v jadernoj tehnologii i celeso- obraznost' reshenija nekotoryh iz nih metodom vihrevyh tokov. Obosnovano primenenie jelektricheskih modelej dlja reshenija zadach kontrolja s ispol'zovaniem dlinnoj prohodnoj katushki. Privodjatsja raschetnye formuly i izlagaetsja metodika rascheta nakladnyh toko- vihrevyh datchikov. Opisana shema pribora dlja kontrolja tolshhiny stenki trub, v kotorom vlijanie pereme

  14. Development of a chromatographic method for the study of the stability and compatibility of Mexican fuel oils; Desarrollo de un metodo cromatografico para el estudio de estabilidad y compatibilidad de combustoleos mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass Amador, Georgina; Panama Tirado, Luz Angelica [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-11-01

    compatibility of fuel oil mixes. [Espanol] En Mexico, la mayoria de la energia electrica producida proviene del uso de combustibles residuales pesados conocidos como combustoleos los cuales han sufrido disminuciones en la calidad debido a una combinacion de factores, entre los que destaca el de los cambios en el proceso de refinacion. Es necesario desarrollar metodos que sean capaces de indicar la inestabilidad (formacion de sedimento o incremento en viscosidad durante el almacenamiento o calentamiento) o incompatibilidad (formacion de sedimento al mezclar dos o mas) de los combustoleos utilizados en las centrales termoelectricas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue el desarrollar una prueba alternativa para el estudio de la compatibilidad y/o estabilidad de combustoleos mexicanos empleando cromatografia de liquidos de alta resolucion (CLAR) y asi poder determinar aspectos estructurales del combustoleo que determinan su estabilidad. Dado que la formacion de sedimentos ocurre cuando el poder disolvente del combustible es inadecuado para mantener los asfaltenos en solucion, es importante conocer la medida del poder disolvente o aromaticidad del diluyente; asi pues, la primera parte de este trabajo se centro en la determinacion del perfil de compuestos aromaticos de los diluyentes de los combustoleos, la otra parte se dedico a la determinacion del perfil de distribucion de los pesos moleculares de los asfaltenos presentes en los combustoleos. Los perfiles de la fraccion aromatica, asi como los de distribucion de pesos moleculares se determinaron empleando cromatografia de liquidos, en la que se empleo una variedad de columnas y de disolventes. Se efectuo una combinacion de pruebas de rutina tales como contenido de asfaltenos, equivalencia de tolueno, viscosidad, etcetera con el fin de obtener correlaciones con el metodo cromatografico desarrollado. En este articulo se discute solo la seccion correspondiente a la obtencion del perfil de contenidos de aromaticos de los combustoleos. Se

  15. Rapid Methods of Determining Internal Radioactive Contamination; Methodes Rapides Permettant d'Evaluer la Contamination Radioactive Interne; 0411 042b 0414 ; Metodos Rapidos para Determinar la Contaminacion Radiactiva Interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlet, J.; Fairman, W. D.; Robinson, J. J. [Industrial Hygiene and Safety Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-06-15

    , il est possible de l'atteindre. Les emetteurs alpha et les emetteurs beta purs de faible energie presentent la plus grande difficulte du fait que les charges corporelles de ces nucleides doivent ordinairement etre evaluees par une analyse radiochimique du sang ou des excreta. Les auteurs decrivent les separations radiochimiques qui ont ete mises au point et appliquees au Laboratoire national d*Argonne pour doser rapidement ces emetteurs. Le memoire examine d'autre part certains problemes que pose l'obtention de charges corporelles a partir des taux d'excretion, peu apres l'absorption. Pendant ce laps de temps, l'excretion se modifie rapidement et, pour beaucoup de nucleides importants en l'occurrence, a un taux inconnu. Pour les taux d'absorption tres eleves ou tres bas, il n'est pas necessaire de connaitre immediatement la mesure precise des charges corporelles. Cependant, il existe pour chaque radionucleide une dose d'absorption intermediaire pour laquelle il faut pouvoir -determiner sans trop tarder la charge corporelle avec une precision relative, ce qui permet de decider ou non le traitement. Les auteurs examinent les proprietes et les facteurs qui rendent le dosage des elements osteotropes particulierement difficile dans les cas d'accident. (author) [Spanish] Los metodos aplicables en casos de accidente o en situaciones excepcionales tienen que ser suficientemente rapidos y sensibles para proporcionar resultados en plazos que faciliten el tratamiento eficaz de las personas sobreexpuestas. Los plazos disponibles dependeran, en parte, del numero de individuos irradiados. Si se logra obtener en pocas horas resultados utiles, se habra cumplido la funcion primaria de las mediciones rapidas de la carga corporal, que es la de contribuir en toda la medida de lo posible a reducir los danos debidos .a radionuclidos depositados internamente. Los metodos que se citan a continuacion pueden servir para evaluar la contaminacion interna en casos de accidente: recuento gamma y

  16. A Comparison of Radioisotope Methods for River Flow Measurement; Comparaison de methodes radioisotopiques de mesure du debit des cours d'eau; Sravnenie radioizotopnykh metodov izmereniya rechnykh stokov; Comparacion de los metodos radioisotopicos para medir el caudal de los rios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C. G.; Smith, D. B. [Wantage Research Laboratory Atomic Energy Research Establishment Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1963-08-15

    consequent d'aucune utilite comme indicateur dans la mesure du debit d'un cours d'eau s'il n'est pas employe avec un entraineur; mais avec un entraineur, on observe une amelioration marquee de l'exactitude des resultats. {sup 24}Na et {sup 82}Br n'ont accuse aucune adsorption a des distances bien superieures a celles qui sont necessaires pour assurer une brassage lateral; dans la riviere la plus lente, toutefois, on a note, a plus de 660 m du point d'injection, une certaine diminution de {sup 24}Na. Le memoire contient quelques observations sur la dispersion laterale et longitudinale qui, a une certain degre, influe sur l'application generale des methodes radioisotopiques a la mesure du debit des cours d'eau. Les auteurs parviennent a la conclusion que les trois methodes donnent des resultats satisfaisants. Ils preferent, en fin'de compte, la methode d'echantillonnage continue, car elle donne les resultats les plus exacts pour, la quantite minimum d'indicateur. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han empleado los procedimientos de dilucion, muestreo continuo y recuento total en un estudio comparativo de los metodos radioisotopicos de medicion de caudales fluviales en el arroyo Aylburton, en Gloucestershire, y en los rios Usway Burn y Alwin, en Northumberland. Se trata de tres tios de caracteristicas geologicas diferentes, cuyos caudales oscilan entre 2,5 1/s y 3 m{sup 3}/s. En todos los metodos de medicion de caudales que emplean indicadores, la distancia entre el punto en que se efectua la medicion y el punto en que se anade el indicador tiene que ser suficientemente grande para que se produzca una mezcla lateral completa. Por otra parte, no debe ser excesiva para evitar que la dipersion longitudinal supere cierto valor o que se pierda parte del indicador por adsorcion en el lecho fluvial. La dispersion depende de las caracteristicas hidraulicad de la corriente y es inherente al metodo. Por su parte, la adsorcion depende del indicador elegido y de las caracteristicas geologicas

  17. Calculation of the electromagnetic fields in electric machines through the use of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of induction problems. Pt. 3; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas de induccion. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part of the series for the indirect solution of partial differential equations. Magnetic systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density is partially known (induction problems) are considered. Includes the ability to deal with means in movement and a sinusoidal behavior for the source density current is assumed. Some algorithms are developed that are implanted in the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) to obtain the numerical solutions of these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained through the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte de la serie y en el planteamiento proporcionado en la segunda parte para la solucion indirecta de ecuaciones diferenciales parciales. Se consideran sistemas magneticos en regiones cerradas con simetria traslacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total es parcialmente conocida (problemas de induccion). Incluye la capacidad para tratar medios con movimiento y se supone un comportamiento senoidal para la densidad de corriente fuente. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se implantan en el programa de computo CALIIE-2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) para obtener las soluciones numericas de estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  18. Evaluación de una prueba rápida para el diagnostico de Malaria en áreas endémicas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Arrospide V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos de la prueba rapida basada en la deteccion de la pLDH (OptiMALR kit individual para el diagnostico de malaria en areas endemicas del Peru. Materiales y metodos: Estudio transversal realizado con pacientes febriles atendidos en centros de salud de la selva norte del Peru (San Martin y Loreto, de abril a diciembre de 2001. A cada paciente se le realizo la gota gruesa, la prueba OptiMALR y densidad parasitaria en forma ciega, por personal local capacitado y luego en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Malaria. Se calculo la sensibilidad (S, especificidad (E, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y valor predictivo negativo(VPN de la prueba OptiMALR en relacion a la gota gruesa para el diagnostico de malaria global y segun especie (P.falciparum y P.vivax. Resultados: Se incluyeron 346 muestras, 170 positivas. La prueba OptiMALR tuvo niveles de S=95,7%, E=97,1%, VPP=97,7%, VPN=95,3% independientemente de la especie. Para P.falciparum tuvo S=90,5%, E=97,3%, VPP=67,9 y VPN=99.4%; en tanto que para P.vivax S=92,0%, E=99,0%, VPP=98,7% y VPN=93,5%. Las sensibilidades estratificadas por parasitemia fueron 97,0% (5000 parasitos/¥ìL, 99% (100-5000 p/¥ìL y 50% (<100p/¥ìL. Conclusiones: La prueba rapida OptiMALR es un metodo con buena sensibilidad y especificidad para el diagnostico de malaria y puede ser usado en lugares donde no se dispone de laboratorios o microscopistas.

  19. Calculation of economic viability of alternative energy sources considering its environmental costs for small communities of Northeast Brazil; Calculo de viabilidade economica de fontes alternativas de energia considerando seus custos ambientais para pequenas comuidades da regiao nordeste brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza Chourkalo

    2014-09-01

    There has been an increasing concern about current environmental issues caused by human activity, as the world searches for development. The production of electricity is an extremely relevant factor in this scenario since it is responsible for a large portion of the emissions that cause the greenhouse effect. Due to this fact, a sustainable development with alternative energy sources, which are attractive for such purpose, must be proposed, especially in places that are not supplied by the conventional electricity grid such as many communities in the Northeast Brazil. This work aims to calculate the environmental cost for the alternative sources of energy - solar, wind and biomass - during electricity generation, and to estimate the economic feasibility of those sources in small communities of Northeast Brazil, considering the avoided costs. The externalities must be properly identified and valued so the costs or benefits can be internalized and reflect accurately the economic feasibility or infeasibility of those sources. For this, the method of avoided costs was adopted for the calculation of externalities. This variable was included in the equation developed for all considered alternative energy sources. The calculations of economic feasibility were performed taking the new configurations in consideration, and the new equation was reprogrammed in the Programa de Calculo de Custos de Energias Alternativas, Solar, Eolica e Biomassa (PEASEB). The results demonstrated that the solar photovoltaic energy in isolated systems is the most feasible and broadly applicable source for small communities of Northeast Brazil. (author)

  20. Protocolo Nacional para la Evaluacion de Disturbios en Suelos Forestales; Volumen II: Metodos complementarios, estadística y recoleccion de datos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Ann M. Abbott; Thomas M. Rice

    2013-01-01

    Este documento-El Volumen II: Métodos complementarios, estadística y recolección de datos- define las bases, los métodos estadísticos y de almacenamiento de datos de un Protocolo Nacional para la Evaluación de Disturbios en Suelos Forestales. Esta guía técnica proporciona las bases de un método consistente, con definiciones comunes, para generar datos de alta calidad,...

  1. Methodologies for the calculation of relative efficiency: description and application for natural gas distributors in Latin America; Metodologias para el calculo de eficiencia relativa: descripcion y aplicacion para distribuidores de gas natural en Latinoamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escandon Jimenez, Alejandro C. [Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The importance of knowing the performance of the companies within a productive sector has increased in the last years, demonstrating the necessity of knowing and applying tools that help us to know the performance of a company with respect to the others with which it is competing. Recently, a great variety of tools have been developed to know the efficiency or productivity of a company in a certain sector. Nevertheless, the two more used, up to now, are those that will be described in the present in study. Finally, one practical example of the two methodologies will be presented, applied to the natural gas industry for distributing companies of this energy in Latin America. [Spanish] La importancia de conocer el desempeno de las empresas dentro de un sector productivo ha incrementado en los ultimos anos, demostrando la necesidad de conocer y aplicar herramientas que nos ayuden a conocer el desempeno de una empresa con respecto a las demas con las cuales se esta compitiendo. Recientemente, se han desarrollado gran variedad de herramientas para conocer la eficiencia o productividad de una compania en un determinado sector. Sin embargo, las dos mas utilizadas, hasta el momento, son las que se describiran en el presente estudio. Finalmente, se presentara un ejemplo practico de las dos metodologias, aplicado a la industria del gas natural para companias distribuidoras de este energetico en Latinoamerica.

  2. Methods in nuclear reactors calculations; Metodos de calculo en reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velarde, G

    1966-07-01

    Studies are made of the neutron transport equation corresponding to the the real and virtual reactors, as well as the starting hypotheses. Methods are developed to solve the transport equation in slab geometry, and P{sub l}; B{sub l}; M{sub l}; S{sub n} and discrete ordinates approximations. (Author)

  3. Empleo de metodos numericos para el ajuste de los coeficientes de difusividad (D) y convectivo de transferencia de masa (hm) en el secado de alimentos

    OpenAIRE

    Arranz Saiz, Francisco Javier; Correa Hernando, Eva Cristina; Jiménez Ariza, Heidi Tatiana; Diezma Iglesias, Belen; Garcia-Herrero, Javier; Robla Villalba, José Ignacio; Barreiro Elorza, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Los modelos matemáticos de transferencia de humedad desde el alimento al medio circundante durante el proceso de secado dependen de dos parámetros: coeficiente de difusividad efectiva D y coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de masa hm, cuya determinación experimental se basa en la consideración de un sistema difusivo sencillo de solución analítica bien conocida. Para el caso, que aquí nos ocupa, de difusión monodimensional en una lámina infinita de grosor 2l, la solución analítica de ...

  4. Methods for the control of NOx and particles in the combustion; Metodos para el control de NOx y particulas en la combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, Cesar A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electrica, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This present the techniques and equipment of control of transmissions for thermoelectric power stations appear that have mayor possibilities of being considered in the future immediate within the national energetic panorama and the frame established by the environmental normative. The subject polluting compounds to overhaul are oxides of nonburned nitrogen and particles [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y las particulas inquemadas

  5. Methods for the control of NOx and particles in the combustion; Metodos para el control de NOx y particulas en la combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, Cesar A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electrica, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This present the techniques and equipment of control of transmissions for thermoelectric power stations appear that have mayor possibilities of being considered in the future immediate within the national energetic panorama and the frame established by the environmental normative. The subject polluting compounds to overhaul are oxides of nonburned nitrogen and particles [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y las particulas inquemadas

  6. Metodo integrado para la gestion de Universidades basado en el Balanced Scorecard (bsc y el modelo europeo de calidad (efqm: caso U.C.S.M.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwing Jesús Ticse Villanueva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2010v3n1p01   El presente Trabajo realiza la propuesta de un Método Integrado  que permite mejorar la competitividad en la Gestión de las Universidades, este método se basa: En una herramienta de Gestión Estratégica: el Balanced Scorecard (BSC, que fue creada por Kaplan y Norton en 1992; y En el Modelo  Europeo de Calidad (EFQM, que fue desarrollado como un Modelo de Excelencia en 1991. La metodología utilizada consiste en analizar las características, ventajas y limitaciones del BSC y el EFQM para aplicarlos simultáneamente en la gestión de Tomando como base los 9 criterios del EFQM, se desarrolla un Mapa Estratégico del BSC, para que se alineen todas las perspectivas hacia el logro de los Objetivos Estratégicos de la Organización. El método integrado planteado se aplica en el caso de la Universidad Católica de Santa María (Arequipa- Perú, donde se analiza las ventajas que implicaría la implementación del mismo

  7. Metodo integrado para la gestion de Universidades basado en el Balanced Scorecard (bsc y el modelo europeo de calidad (efqm: caso U.C.S.M.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Vicente Barreda Tamayo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente Trabajo realiza la propuesta de un Método Integrado que permite mejorar la competitividad en la Gestión de las Universidades, este método se basa: En una herramienta de Gestión Estratégica: el Balanced Scorecard (BSC, que fue creada por Kaplan y Norton en 1992; y En el Modelo Europeo de Calidad (EFQM, que fue desarrollado como un Modelo de Excelencia en 1991. La metodología utilizada consiste en analizar las características, ventajas y limitaciones del BSC y el EFQM para aplicarlos simultáneamente en la gestión de Tomando como base los 9 criterios del EFQM, se desarrolla un Mapa Estratégico del BSC, para que se alineen todas las perspectivas hacia el logro de los Objetivos Estratégicos de la Organización. El método integrado planteado se aplica en el caso de la Universidad Católica de Santa María (Arequipa- Perú, donde se analiza las ventajas que implicaría la implementación del mismo.

  8. Calculo de la Barra Antivuelco de un Vehículo Automotor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García de la Figal

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata acerca del calculo de la barra antivuelco del FORD modelo A, desarrollado por elInstituto de Desarrollo Automotriz, IDA, teniendo en cuenta las fuerzas que la cinta de seguridad de losautomovilistas, ejerce sobre la citada barra, ante un choque que provoca una aceleración de 20 g en elvehículo. El calculo se hace mediante la confección de un modelo de elementos finitos de la barra y lacarrocería, para lo cual se hace uso de un programa profesional de elementos finitos.Se determinan los esfuerzos máximos y los equivalentes, tanto de las partes metálicas del sistema, queson fundamentalmente tubos de acero, como de las partes de material compuesto (poliéster con fibras devidrio E, propios de la carrocería del vehículo. Todo lo cual permite hacer los cálculos y comprobacionesa resistencia de todo el conjunto. Así mismo, se determinan los desplazamientos en todos los sentidos detodos las partes del sistema, para poder realizar los correspondientes análisis de rigidez.El objetivo final de todos los análisis es determinar lo adecuado o no de las soluciones y materialespropuestos para el sistema, bajo la acción de la citada carga de impacto.

  9. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of problems with known total densities. Pt. 2; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas con densidades totales conocidas. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mauricio F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part. Here are only considered the magnetic systems or electric systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density or total electric load density is known. The algorithms that have been implanted in the software CLIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are developed in order to obtain numerical solutions for these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained by means of the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte. Aqui solo se consideran sistemas magneticos o sistemas electricos en regiones cerradas con simetria translacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total o densidad de carga electrica total es conocida. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se han implantado en el programa de computo CLIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) con el fin de obtener soluciones numericas para estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  10. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Algorithms for the solution of problems with known total densities. Pt. 2; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Algoritmos para la solucion de problemas con densidades totales conocidas. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mauricio F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is based in the electromagnetic modeling presented in the first part. Here are only considered the magnetic systems or electric systems in closed regions with moving or axial symmetry, whose total current density or total electric load density is known. The algorithms that have been implanted in the software CLIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) are developed in order to obtain numerical solutions for these problems. The basic systems of algebraic equations are obtained by means of the application of the Galerkin method in the discreteness of the finite element with first order triangular elements. [Espanol] Este articulo se basa en la modelacion electromagnetica presentada en la primera parte. Aqui solo se consideran sistemas magneticos o sistemas electricos en regiones cerradas con simetria translacional o axial, cuya densidad de corriente total o densidad de carga electrica total es conocida. Se desarrollan los algoritmos que se han implantado en el programa de computo CLIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) con el fin de obtener soluciones numericas para estos problemas. Los sistemas basicos de ecuaciones algebraicas se obtienen mediante la aplicacion del metodo de Galerkin en la discretizacion de elemento finito con elementos triangulares de primer orden.

  11. Structural integrity assessment of a pressure container component. Design and service code implementation. Case studies; Evaluacion de la integridad estructural de un componente contenedor de presion. Aplicacion de los codigos para el disenio y servicio. Estudio de casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzi, H C [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    In the present work, the most important results of the local stresses occurred in the cracked pipes with a axial through-wall crack (outer), produced during operation of a Petrochemical Plant, using finite elements method, are presented. As requested, the component has been verified based 3D FE plastic analysis, under the postulated failure loading, assuring with this method a high degree of accuracy in the results. Codes used by Design and Service, as ASME Section VIII Div. 2 and API 579, have been used in the analysis. (author) [Spanish] La correcta evaluacion de la integridad estructural de componentes contenedores de presion y canierias requiere del conocimiento y la participacion de especialistas en 'Stress Analysis' y materiales e inspectores. En la actualidad, las tecnicas avanzadas de analisis, que incluyen un detallado 'Stress Analysis', a partir de la utilizacion del metodo de elementos finitos y la mecanica de Fractura, junto con el conocimiento del comportamiento de los materiales y la capacidad para detectar fisuras o discontinuidades - tales como los ensayos no destructivos y la emision acustica - permiten garantizar la seguridad de los componentes a lo largo de su vida util. En este camino los codigos de aplicacion, tanto en el disenio como en el servicio, son utilizados para llevar a cabo un estudio de integridad. En este trabajo se presenta un procedimiento de calculo para evaluar la integridad estructural de un componte contenedor de presion que posee una falla superficial no pasante, en donde se aplica el Codigo API 579, utilizando el metodo de elementos finitos y la mecanica de fractura. (autor)

  12. Fundamentos del metodo cientifico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badii, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta obra no radica en realizar una búsqueda exhaustiva de la literatura en el tema, sino, sentar las bases del método científico, notando los aspectos filosóficos e éticos de la ciencia. Se presentan los conceptos y definiciones fundamentales relacionados con la metodología de la investigación científica. Se maneja el concepto de la toma de los datos válidos como un requisito básico en cualquier trabajo científico. Se pone a disposición del lector un modelo denominado el ECOEE que es una herramienta poderosa para establecer puntos de comparación e discusión entre los resultados de diferentes trabajos científicos. Finalmente, ofrece unas sugerencias de que hacer o no hacer en cuanto a realizar un trabajo de investigación.

  13. Control Methods Used in the Department of Metallurgy for Structure and Fuel Elements; Methodes de Controle Utilisees au Departement de Metallurgie pour les Elements de Structure et les Elements Combustibles; Metody kontrolya struktury toplivnykh ehlementov v departamente metallurgii; Metodos de Control Utilizados en el Departamento de Metalurgia para los Elementos Estructurales y Combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destribats, Marie-Therese; Allain, C.; Prot, A.; Thome, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1965-09-15

    reactores indujeron a utilizar y a perfeccionar numersos metodos no destructivos destinados a inspeccionar los distintos materiales que intervienen en la construccion de esos reactores; en particular radiografia y gamma- grafia, metodos ultrasonicos y empleo de corrientes de Foucault.. A continuacion se enumeran las operaciones de control llevadas a cabo durante la construccion de reactores pertenecientes a las familias EdF (grafito-gas) y EL 4 (agua pesada), y de elementos colaminados; se hace hincapie en ciertos aspectos caracteristicos de estos metodos, algunos de los cuales son ya bien conocidos. Familia EdF: metodos ultrasonicos para medir el espesor de las paredes de tubos de uranio o aleacion de uranio ; localizacion de las cavidades en esos tubos por gammagraffa; empleo de medios ultrasonicos para control de los tratamientos termicos a que se someten los tubos; empleo de procedimientos ultrasonicos para buscar fallas (inclusiones, grietas) en las palanquillas y barras con que se elaboran las vainas de Mg-Zr; control de la estanqueidad de los elementos mediante exudacion de helio. EL4: uso de metodos ultrasonicos y corrientes de Foucault para medir espesores de pared en tubos de Zircaloy, sean de fuerza o de guia; empleo de metodos ultrasonicos para inspeccionar tubos de fuerza de Zircaloy y vainas de acero inoxidable; radiografia al vacio de vainas de Be; control de la estanqueidad de barras huecas mediante exudacion de helio. Elementos colimados: medida del espesor de vainas mediante el empleo de corrientes de Foucault pulsadas; verificacion de la posicion del alma en tubos y placas mediante radiografia, recuento gamma y aplicacion de corrientes de Foucault pulsadas; control de la homogeneidad del combustible por recuento gamma; deteccion de defectos en barras de Zr-U mediante procedimientos ultrasonicos y gammagraficos; determinacion de las zonas despegadas en placas, empleando metodos ultrasonicos, corrientes de Foucault pulsadas y medicion de resistividad. Estos

  14. Validation of methods for WDXRF and OES-spark techniques in steel analysis. Determination of the uncertainty of measurements for API steel plant sample; Validacao de metodos para as tecnicas de WDXRF e OES-spark na analise de acos. Calculo de incerteza de medicao para amostras de processo, aco classe API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo da

    2009-07-01

    The increase of gas and petroleum demanding in the national and international markets, the specification and certification of the chemical analysis results of gas and oil pipe-line have became more and more challenging. A continuous development has been outlined to improve API grade alloy steels (American Petroleum Institute). The steel properties depend on the chemical composition control and process parameters during its manufacturing. In this work, a comparison of the measurement uncertainty between X-ray fluorescence (WD system) and Optical Emission (OES-spark) spectrometry, for API grade steel plant samples analysis, was outlined. Usually, this kind of analyze requires less than 40 seconds for full chemical characterization for adjustment in the process parameters production. The main influence source in the chemical analysis was evaluated for design of experiments. The constituents and trace elements such as Al, Si, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Nb, Mo and Sn were determined using the ASTM E-322, E-415, E-1009 and E-1085 standard methodologies. The 185A and 187A certified reference materials from CMI (Czech Metrology Institute) were used for evaluation of the methods. The uncertainty of the measurement, precision, accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements were obtained applying statistic tests, recommended by ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of measurement for each element is discussed for both techniques. (author)

  15. Automatic Inspection of Co-Laminated Elements; Controle Automatique d'Elements Colamines; Avtomaticheskij kontrol' ul'trazvukom sovmestno prokatannykh ehlementov; Metodo para la Verificacion Automatica de Elementos Colaminados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destribats, Marie-Therese [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Dory, J. [Realisations Ultrasoniques Meaux (S. et M.) (France)

    1965-09-15

    'un disque rotatif. Chaque traducteur est mis en service tous les 1/6 de tour par l'intermediaire de relais commandes par des secteurs aimantes. De la sorte, le pinceau ultrasonore decrit sur la surface de la plaque une serie d'arcs de cercle jointifs. La quantite d'energie transmise a travers la plaque est mesuree avec precision en chaque point. Le resultat de la mesure est applique a un enregistreur special qui donne une reproduction en vraie grandeur de l'element examine (le papier de l'enregistreur est de type ordinaire; l'inscription s'effectue au moyen de papier carbone). Sur l'enregistrement obtenu, les defauts apparaissent sous forme de taches foncees. L'appareillage peut fonctionner, soit en tout ou rien avec un seuil de marquage predetermine, soit en demi-teintes. Les traducteurs, dont la frequence peut varier de 3 a 15 MHz, sont excites par des impulsions breves. Les traducteurs utilisies, en titanate de baryum, ont un diametre de 3 mm. Le pas d'exploration est variable de 0,3 a 0,6 mm, la vitesse lineaire etant de 5 a 20 mm par seconde. L'ensemble peut recevoir des elements ayant les dimensions maximales suivantes: largeur 150 mm, longueur 2000 mm, epaisseur 25 mm. Les essais effectues jusqu'a ce jour ont permis de determiner des zones decollees de 0,5mm diametre dans de elements de 2 mm d'epaisseur. (author) [Spanish] Se describe en esta memoria un aparato automatico destinado a verificar, por un metodo ultrasoniso, la calidad de las vainas fabricadas con elementos colaminados. Estos elementos movidos por rodillos pasan bajo el haz ultrasonico sumergidos en una cuba de acero inoxidable llena de agua. Un reflector auxiliar permite utilizar los mismos transductores para la emision y la recepcion. La exploracion de las placas se lleva a cabo mediante seis transductores dispuestos en la periferia de un disco rotativo. Los transductores entran en funcion uno tras otro, cada 1/6 de vuelta, por intermedio de un sistema reles accionados por sectores imanados. De esta

  16. Optimum geometry for boiler soot blowers nozzles; Geometria optima de toberas para deshollinadores de caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza Garza, Jesus; Garcia Tinoco, Guillermo J; Martinez Flores, Jose Oscar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    For boiler soot blowing converging-diverging nozzles are employed, whose function is to convert thermal energy of a gas into kinetic energy to remove the deposits that adhere to the heat exchanger surfaces. In this paper are described the experimental equipment and the methods for flow, dynamic pressure, discharge velocity and air expansion factor calculation in each nozzle, as a function of its design geometry, utilizing air from a five stage centrifugal compressor. The graphic analysis of the results, concludes that the most efficient nozzles are not the ones than develop the greatest velocity, but the ones of highest dynamic pressure at the outlet. The nozzle geometry that allows obtaining the maximum dynamic air pressure at the discharge is A{sub 2}/A{sub g}=1.3676 [Espanol] Para el deshollinado de calderas se utilizan las toberas convergentes-divergentes, cuya funcion es convertir la energia termica de un gas en energia cinetica para remover los depositos que se adhieren a las superficies de intercambio de calor. En este trabajo se describen el equipo experimental y los metodos de calculo para flujo, presion dinamica, velocidad a la descarga y factor de expansion del aire en cada tobera, como funcion de su geometria de diseno. Durante la experimentacion se evaluaron siete disenos diferentes de toberas, empleando aire de un compresor centrifugo de cinco etapas. Del analisis grafico de los resultados, se concluye que las toberas mas eficientes no son las que desarrollan mayor velocidad sino las de mayor presion dinamica de la salida. La geometria de tobera que permite obtener la maxima presion dinamica del aire a la descarga es A{sub 2}/A{sub g} = 1.3676.

  17. Optimum geometry for boiler soot blowers nozzles; Geometria optima de toberas para deshollinadores de caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza Garza, Jesus; Garcia Tinoco, Guillermo J.; Martinez Flores, Jose Oscar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    For boiler soot blowing converging-diverging nozzles are employed, whose function is to convert thermal energy of a gas into kinetic energy to remove the deposits that adhere to the heat exchanger surfaces. In this paper are described the experimental equipment and the methods for flow, dynamic pressure, discharge velocity and air expansion factor calculation in each nozzle, as a function of its design geometry, utilizing air from a five stage centrifugal compressor. The graphic analysis of the results, concludes that the most efficient nozzles are not the ones than develop the greatest velocity, but the ones of highest dynamic pressure at the outlet. The nozzle geometry that allows obtaining the maximum dynamic air pressure at the discharge is A{sub 2}/A{sub g}=1.3676 [Espanol] Para el deshollinado de calderas se utilizan las toberas convergentes-divergentes, cuya funcion es convertir la energia termica de un gas en energia cinetica para remover los depositos que se adhieren a las superficies de intercambio de calor. En este trabajo se describen el equipo experimental y los metodos de calculo para flujo, presion dinamica, velocidad a la descarga y factor de expansion del aire en cada tobera, como funcion de su geometria de diseno. Durante la experimentacion se evaluaron siete disenos diferentes de toberas, empleando aire de un compresor centrifugo de cinco etapas. Del analisis grafico de los resultados, se concluye que las toberas mas eficientes no son las que desarrollan mayor velocidad sino las de mayor presion dinamica de la salida. La geometria de tobera que permite obtener la maxima presion dinamica del aire a la descarga es A{sub 2}/A{sub g} = 1.3676.

  18. Measurements and Calculations of the Slowing-Down and Migration Time; Mesures et Calcul du Temps de Ralentissement et de Migration; Izmereniya i raschety vremeni zamedleniya i migratsii; Medicion y Calculo del Tiempo de Moderacion y de Migracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profio, A. E.; Koppel, J. U. [General Atomic Division of General Dynamics Corporation, John Jay Hopkins Laboratory for Pure and Applied Science, San Diego, CA (United States); Adamantiades, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-08-15

    transcurre hasta que la velocidad de los neutrones pulsados disminuya en la medida necesaria para que estos alcancen la energia, el angulo y la posicion de observacion apetecidas. El tiempo medio es una correccion de las mediciones de espectros neutronicos en la masa hechas segun el metodo del tiempo de vuelo, y la variacion impone limites al poder de resolucion efectivo de tales experimentos. Estos parametros son igualmente importantes en los detectores cuyo funcionamiento se base en la moderacion, en los experimentos con el metodo de tiempo de vuelo en los que un moderador situado cerca de la fuente de neutrones pulsados proporciona neutrones de baja energia, y en la espectrometria del tiempo de moderacion. Se han ideado diversos metodos analfticos y numericos para calcular la distribucion espacio-energia angulo-tiempo o sus integrales. Ha podido demostrarse que los momentos temporales Empty-Set {sup (n)} (r, {Omega}, v, t) = {integral}{sub 0}{sup {infinity}}t{sup n} Empty-Set (r, {Omega}, v, t)dt, pueden calcularse aplicando repetidamente una clave de transporte en regimen estacionario. El termino de la fuente para el calculo del momento 'n'es igual a nv{sup -1} Empty-Set {sup (n-1)}. Los autores presentan los resultados correspondientes a maquetas del reactor TRIGA en las que se emplean medios multiplicadores y no multiplicadores. Otro valioso metodo de calculo consiste en emplear una clave de Monte Cario en funcion del tiempo. Los autores exponen los resultados del calculo de un flujo que escapa de una delgada placa de plomo. Se han hecho mediciones del tiempo de moderacion hasta la energia de corte del Cd y hasta la resonancia de 1,46 eV del In en agua y en tolueno. Los rayos gamma de captura se detectaron con un contador de centelleo. Esta tecnica exige disponer de una fuente de suficiente intensidad y de un detector eficaz debido a la brevedad del ciclo de trabajo (escasa anchura de las rafagas para la resolucion del tiempo de moderacion y amplio intervalo entre los

  19. Solar system design to heating water for a biodigester; Diseno de un sistema solar de calentamiento de agua para un biodigestor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Castro, Lucia Monica; Quinto Diez, Pedro [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: moni-80-lgc@hotmail.com; pqd510@hotmail.com; Tovar Galvez, Luis Raul [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones de Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: ltovarg@ipn.mx

    2010-11-15

    In this paper a Solar System of Heating Water (SSHW) to provide energy to a biodigester which produces biogas located in the Interdisciplinary Center of Investigation of Studies About Environment and Development (CIIEMAD) is assessed. This evaluation is made by means of the f Method considerating the extraterrestrial radiation, the earth radiation in the zone and the necessary energy to maintain at 55 degrees Celsius the mixture inside the biodigester. The data were introduced in the SOLAR program to calculate both the harnessing area m{sup 2} and the storage capacity in L/m{sup 2}. To guarantee the good performance of the SSHW, a control and monitoring system for the temperature of the mix inside the biodigester is proposed. It also controls the input and output temperature to the solar collectors, as well as the cost analysis which shows the savings of fuel of the SSHW with a conventional system to heating water. [Spanish] En este articulo se evalua un sistema solar de calentamiento de agua (SSCA) para proveer energia a un biodigestor que forma parte del sistema de generacion de biogas (SGB) ubicado en el Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones de Estudios sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo (CIIEMAD). Dicha evaluacion se realiza por medio del Metodo f de diseno que considera datos de radiacion terrestre, radiacion extraterrestre sobre la zona y la energia necesaria para mantener la temperatura de la mezcla dentro del biodigestor a 55 grados centigrados. Los datos fueron introducidos en el programa SOLAR para el calculo del area de captacion en m{sup 2} y la capacidad de almacenamiento en L/m{sup 2}. Para garantizar el buen funcionamiento del SSCA se propone un sistema de control y monitoreo de la temperatura de la mezcla dentro del biodigestor. Tambien se controla la temperatura de entrada y salida a los colectores solares, asi como el analisis de costos que muestra el ahorro de combustible del SSCA con un sistema convencional de calentamiento de agua.

  20. Analysis of the validity of the F-chart method for the calculation of the solar contribution in comunitarian facilities of ACS; Analisis de la validez del metodo F-chart para el calculo de la contribucion solar en instalaciones comunitarias de ACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Munoz, F.; Ruzafa Cueto, J.; Carrillo andres, A.; Cejudo Lopez, J. M.

    2008-07-01

    The FCHART method is extensively used in Spain as a tool for sizing solar hot water systems. However, when it comes to apply the method to installations with long runs of distribution and recirculation piping, we find the problem that FCHART does not explicitly address the effects of these pipes. In this paper, a centralized solar installation supplying hot water to a 28-apartment building is analyzed with FCHART and with detailed mathematical model. It is concluded that the hot water distribution network has a large impact on the solar fraction, whose magnitude is difficult to calculate other than by using the detailed mathematical model. (Author)

  1. Double-Sampling Method for Carrying Out Quality Control of a Fabrication Process; Methode du Double Echantillonnage pour le Controle de la Qualite d'un Procede de Fabrication; Metod dvukh obraztsov dlya osushchestvleniya kontrolya za kachestvom v protsesse izgotovleniya; Metodo de Muestreo Doble para el Control de Calidad de un Proceso de Fabricacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerrolaza, J. A.; Lago, A.; Montojo, Rosa M. [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1966-02-15

    taille des echantillons et le degre de controle sont determines en fonction des risques inherents a la premiere et a la deuxieme condition. Bien que cette methode soit applicable, elle est fort peu pratique quand il s'agit de controler des pieces de reacteurs, car les echantillons qu'elle exige sont de dimensions excessives. Le memoire expose une methode analogue a celle de Cave mais qui consiste a etablir un double echantillonnage dans lequel la taille moyenne de l'echantillon est beaucoup plus reduite. (author) [Spanish] La fabricacion de componentes que han de ser empleados en reactores nucleares presenta dos caracteristicas fundamentales que condicionan el proceso: la exigencia de una calidad muy elevada que limita a valores muy bajos el porcentaje de piezas defectuosas admisibles, y el coste muy alto de cada uno de los componentes. Estas dos condiciones obligan a que el control durante la fabricacion posea una curva de operacion con potencia muy elevada, y, por otra parte, a que el numero de piezas destruidas en cada inspeccion sea un pequeno como se pueda, siempre que se cumpla la condicion anterior. Los metodos usuales de control, basados en fijar el riesgo de primera especie, no son aplicables, ya que en general su eficacia no es suficiente. Cave ha desarrollado un metodo en que, tanto el tamano de las muestras como los limites de control, se fijan en funcion de los riesgos de primera y segunda especie. Este metodo, si bien es aplicable, resulta poco practico en el control de componentes para reactores, ya que se necesitan muestras de un tamano excesivamente grande. En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un metodo semejante al de Cave, pero en el que se establece un muestreo doble, con lo que el tamano medio de la muestra es mucho mas reducido. (author) [Russian] Pri izgotovlenii komponentov dlja ispol'zovanija v reaktorah reshajushhee znachenie imejut dva osnovnyh faktora, a imenno: neobhodimost' obespechit' ochen' vysokoe kachestvo, dopuskajushhee lish' ochen

  2. Precise magnetostatic field using the finite element method; Calculo de campos magnetostaticos com precisao utilizando o metodo dos elementos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Francisco Rogerio Teixeira do

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to simulate electromagnetic fields using the Finite Element Method. Even in the easiest case of electrostatic and magnetostatic numerical simulation some problems appear when the nodal finite element is used. It is difficult to model vector fields with scalar functions mainly in non-homogeneous materials. With the aim to solve these problems two types of techniques are tried: the adaptive remeshing using nodal elements and the edge finite element that ensure the continuity of tangential components. Some numerical analysis of simple electromagnetic problems with homogeneous and non-homogeneous materials are performed using first, the adaptive remeshing based in various error indicators and second, the numerical solution of waveguides using edge finite element. (author)

  3. Introduccion a la hidraulica de aguas subterraneas : un texto programado para auto-ensenanza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gordon D.

    1987-01-01

    Este ' texto programado esta diseflado para ayudarle a comprender la teoria de la hidniulica de aguas subterraneas por medio de la auto-enseflanza. La instrucci6n programada es un enfoque a una materia, un metodo de aprender;que no elimina el esfuerzo mental del proceso de aprendizaje. Algunas secciones de este programa necesitan solamente ser leidas; otras tendrian que ser elaboradas con lapiz y papel. Algunas preguntas pueden ser contestadas directamente; otras requieren calculos. A medida que se avanza en el texto, tendra que consultar frecuentemente textos o referencias sobre matematicas, mecanica de fluidos e hidrologia. En cada una de las ocho partes del texto, inicie el programa de instrucci6n leyendo la Secci6n 1. Elija una respuesta a la pregunta al final de la secci6n y dirijase a la nueva secci6n indicada al lado de la respuesta escogida. Si su respuesta fue correcta, pase a la secci6n que contiene materia nueva y otra pregunta, y proceda tal como en la Secci6n 1. Si su respuesta no fue correcta, dirijase a la secci6n que contiene explicaciones adicionales sobre el tema anterior y que le indica volver a la pregunta inicial e intentar de nuevo. En este caso, valdra Ia pena repasar el material de la secci6n anterior. Continue de esta man era en el programa hasta que llegue a Ia secci6n que indica el final de la parte. Observe que aunque las secciones estan en orden numerico en cada una de las ocho partes, por lo general, usted no procedeni en secuencia numerica (Secci6n 1 ala Secci6n 2, etc.) de principia a fin.

  4. Criticality Studies in a Pilot Plant for Processing MTR-Type Irradiated Fuels; Estudios de Criticidad de una Planta Piloto para el Tratamiento de Combustibles Irradiados Tipo ' MTR '

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Sanchez, G.; Uriarte Hueda, A. [Junta de Energia Nuclear, Division de Materiales Madrid (Spain)

    1966-05-15

    A number of theoretical studies on nuclear safety have been carried out in a pilot plant being constructed at the Junta de Energia Nuclear in Madrid for processing irradiated fuels from the MTR-type experimental reactor JEN-1. The study was carried out working with aqueous and organic solutions at two levels of {sup 235}U enrichment - 20% and 93%. The paper is divided into two main parts: the first deals with the individual items of equipment, and the interactions between these are studied in the second part. The calculations in this second part have been made using three different methods to make it more certain that the system as a whole can never be critical. The first method employed is based on the solid angle concept and makes it possible to fix the maximum {sup 235}U concentrations within the system. The second method, based on the albedo, supplies the value of the multiplication factor K of the whole assembly as a function of the concentration of {sup 235}U. In the last part, the distribution of the equipment is compared with other similar systems and experimental tests from other sources. Finally, the paper specifies the conditions for working the installation which ensure that a nuclear accident can never occur. (author) [Spanish] Se ha efectuado una serie de estudios teoricos sobre la seguridad nuclear de una planta piloto, que se encuentra en construccion en la Junta de Energfa Nuclear situada en Madrid, para el tratamiento de combustibles irradiados procedentes del reactor experimental JEN-1 del tipo MTR. El estudio se ha realizado utilizando disoluciones, tanto acuosas como organicas, con dos grados de enriquecimiento, 20% y 93% en {sup 235}U. Este trabajo comprende dos partes principales: en la primera se han considerado las distintas unidades del equipo individualmente y en la segunda se han estudiado las interacciones entre ellas. El calculo de esta segunda parte se ha hecho por tres metodos diferentes para tener una mayor seguridad de que el

  5. Desenvolvimento e validação de metodos para a determinação de antimicrobianos em leite e farmacos usando a cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia e eletroforese capilar

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Cecilia Vargas Mamani

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: Antimicrobianos são largamente empregados na medicina veterinária e resíduos destes podem permanecer nos alimentos de origem animal, acima de valores considerados seguros, quando não são respeitadas as boas práticas veterinárias. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o desenvolvimento e validação de métodos para a determinação de tetraciclinas, sulfonamidas, cloranfenicol e fluoroquinolonas em fármacos usando a eletroforese capilar (CE), assim como método multiresíduos para a determinação de ...

  6. Analisis comparativo de una metaheuristica en base a algoritmo genetico vs un metodo de ramificacion y corte para un caso de entrega y recolección con restricciones de ventana de horario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez, F.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available En la solución de problemas combinatorios, es importante evaluar el costo-beneficio entre la obtención de soluciones de alta calidad en detrimento de los recursos computacionales requeridos. El problema planteado es para el ruteo de un vehículo con entrega y recolección de producto y con restricciones de ventana de horario. En la práctica, dicho problema requiere ser atendido con instancias de gran escala (nodos ≥100. Existe un fuerte porcentaje de ventanas de horario activas (≥90% y con factores de amplitud ≥75%. El problema es NP-hard y por tal motivo la aplicación de un método de solución exacta para resolverlo en la práctica, está limitado por el tiempo requerido para la actividad de ruteo. Se propone un algoritmo genético especializado, el cual ofrece soluciones de buena calidad (% de optimalidad aceptables y en tiempos de ejecución computacional que hacen útil su aplicación en la práctica de la logística. Para comprobar la eficacia de la propuesta algorítmica se desarrolla un diseño experimental el cual hará uso de las soluciones óptimas obtenidas mediante un algoritmo de ramificación y corte sin límite de tiempo. Los resultados son favorables.

  7. Improved method for lifetime measurements; Methode perfectionnee de mesure de la duree de vie; Usovershenstvovannyj metod izmereniya vremeni zhizni; Metodo perfeccionado para medir la vida media de los estados de excitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinzierl, P; Bartl, W [Oesterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1962-04-15

    (Tl). Pour assurer une grande liberte de disposition geometrique entre les deux scintillateurs, on mesure l'energie gamma apres avoir additionne les amplitudes des impulsions issues de l'un et l'autre detecteur. La precision de fonctionnement du dispositif additionneur est obtenue en faisant d'abord passer les impulsions provenant du cristal organique dans un conditionneur qui ne s'ouvre que s'il y a coincidence entre les deux scintillateurs. Le spectre des impulsions fourni par le dispositif additionneur est transmis a un selecteur a un seul canal pour selection de l'energie gamma. Les rayons gamma (I) sont detectes dans un autre cristal organique. Les impulsions rapides issues des deux scintillateurs organiques sont appliquees a un convertisseur temps-amplitude et a un selecteur multicanaux. Ce selecteur est declenche par coincidence differee entre les discriminateurs d'amplitude des impulsions. (author) [Spanish] Las mediciones de la vida media de los estados excitados de los nucleos se basan en general en la medicion del retardo de un rayo {gamma} (II) respecto de otro rayo {gamma} (I) o de una particula {beta}. Los contadores de centelleo organicos dan el mejor tiempo de resolucion para dicha medida; pero cuando se presentan esquemas complejos de desintegracion, la identificacion de la energia y es importante y la mejor manera de lograrla es mediante detectores de Nal(TI). Para combinar las ventajas de ambos detectores, el rayo {gamma} (II) se hace incidir primeramente sobre un cristal organico (estilbeno) y el quantum de dispersion se detecta en un cristal de Nal(TI). Con el objeto de permitir grandes angulos de admision entre los dos detectores, la medicion de la energia {gamma} se efectua despues de sumar las alturas de los impulsos correspondientes de ambos detectores. Para asegurar el funcionamiento correcto del dispositivo sumador, los impulsos provenientes del cristal organico se hacen pasar primeramente por un circuito de puerta, accionado por cada coincidencia

  8. Critical experiments and nuclear calculations - LAMPRE-I; Experiences critiques et calculs nucleaires concernant le LAMPRE-I; Kriticheskie opyty i yadernye raschety - LAMPRE-I; Experimentos criticos u calculos nucleares relativos al LAMPRE-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battat, M E [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-03-15

    utilise la methode S{sub n} pour resoudre le probleme du transport neutronique. La comparaison entre les valeurs calculees et les valeurs mesurees des parametres, tels que le coefficient thermique, l'efficacite des barres de controle et la masse critique, presente aussi de l'interet pour evaluer le degre de confiance que l'on peut accorder aux calculs des bureaux d'etudes. (author) [Spanish] Como parte de un programa de ensayos de combustibles de plutonio para reactores reproductores de neutrones rapidos, se ha construido y puesto en marcha en el Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory un reactor experimental de 1 MW refrigerado por sodio, cuyo cuerpo contiene una aleacion fundida de plutonio y hierro (90 atomos por ciento de Pu y 10 atomos por ciento de Fe; punto de fusion: 410 deg. C). La reactividad se regula por medio de un reflector de acero inoxidable y de cuatro barras de control de niquel situadas fuera del nucleo. Se han llevado a cabo experimentos a temperaturas (isotermicas) de 80, 160 y 480 deg. C en el cuerpo, a fin de determinar la masa critica y la eficacia del reflector a cada una de esas temperaturas. Tambien se midio la eficacia de las barras de control, por registro de los periodos y del coeficiente termico de la reactividad. Aplicando el metodo S{sub n} de resolucion del problema del transporte neutronico, se efectuaron calculos para determinar los parametros nucleares basicos del reactor. La comparacion entre los valores calculados y los valores medidos de parametros tales como el coeficiente termico, la eficacia de las barras de control y la masa critica, presenta tambien interes en lo que se refiere a la evaluacion del grado de confianza que puede atribuirse a los calculos del proyectista. (author) [Russian] V kachestve chasti programmy po razvitiyu plutonievogo topliva dlya reaktorov-razmnozhitele j na bystrykh nejtronakh Los-Alamosskaya nauchnaya laboratoriya skonstruirovala i ehkspluatiruet ispytatel'nyj reaktor s natrievym okhlazhdeniem moshchnost'yu v

  9. Industrial Ultrasonic Inspection of Stainless-Steel Claddings for the EL4 Reactor; Controle Industriel par Ultrasons des Gaines en Acier Inoxydable du Reacteur EL4; Promyshlennyj kontrol' obolochechnykh trub iz nerzhaveyushchej stali reaktora dlya EL4 s pomoshch'yu ul'trazvukovogo metoda; Metodos Ultrasonicos para Control Industrial de las Vainas de Acero Inoxidable del Reactor EL4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prot, A. C.; Foulquoer, H. E.; Peyrot, J. P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1965-09-15

    del metodo a utilizar representa un proceso delicado, cuyas consideraciones fundamentales se exponen en el presente trabajo. Una vez elegido el metodo y puesto a punto en el laboratorio, surgen dos nuevos problemas: Transposicion a escala industrial. Necesidad de tener siempre presente la calidad que puede alcanzarse en la industria, en relacion con normas de aceptacion definidas de manera mas o menos arbitraria. En la practica, ello obliga a realizar un estudio estadistico sobre partidas de tubos de diversos origenes y clasificarlos teniendo en cuenta umbrales de aceptacion de distintos grados de severidad. Como se ve en el trabajo, el numero de tubos a controlar es muy superior al previsto inicialmente. Este hecho indujo a estudiar una maquina de control automatico, capaz de satisfacer al mismo tiempo las exigencias de la cantidad y las propias del tipo de control seleccionado; estas ultimas son por lo general de orden mecanico y requieren una construccion especialmente esmerada. El conjunto de estas consideraciones llevo a concebir una maquina capaz de satisfacer sin dificultad las necesidades de una cadena de fabricacion'de elementos combustibles. Las posibilidades de esta maquina estan estrechamente ligadas a las caracteristicas del material descontrol escogido, sobre todo al rendimiento de los circuitos electronicos correspondientes a los aparatos de control por metodos ultrasonicos y al de los transductores utilizados. Se deduce del presente estudio, por otra parte, que el material corriente no responde al problema sino de manera muy imperfecta, y que se debe encarar desde ya el proyecto de un aparato especial para este tipo de control. (author) [Russian] Uluchshenie rabochih harakteristik reaktorov trebuet primenenija tshhatel'no razrabotannyh i strogo kontroliruemyh materialov. Odnim iz aspektov jetogo kontrolja javljaetsja kachestvo ispol'zuemyh pokrytij dlja trub, mehanicheskoe sostojanie kotoryh predstavljaet soboj sushhestvennyj faktor rentabel

  10. Location and determination of steps of capacitors in shunt for distribution power lines; Localizacion y determinacion de pasos de capacitores en derivacion para lineas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampin Vergara, Gabriela; Sarmiento Uruchurtu, Hector [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    A methodology is presented to determine the optimal location of the capacitor banks in shunt for distribution networks. The proposed tool allows knowing the bank type to install (fixed, disconnect able or of pass), as well as the electrical parameters of the feeder and the economic benefit that the banks of capacitors represent, with a minimum of input data. Its development in a spreadsheet allows the analysis of numerous alternatives in an easy way. The method is based on that the structure of the feeders of distribution is, generally, of radial type, with which, and by means of an iterative process, the optimal location of the capacitor banks in shunt is looked for. The type of bank is determined based of the demand, as well as the number of steps. The results of the analysis in feeders of the network of the central area are shown. [Spanish] Se presenta una metodologia para determinar la localizacion optima de los bancos de capacitores en derivacion en redes de distribucion. La herramienta propuesta permite conocer el tipo de banco a instalar (fijo, desconcectable o de paso), asi como los parametros electricos del alimentador y el beneficio economico que representan los bancos de capacitores, con un minimo de datos de entrada. Su desarrollo en una hoja de calculo permite el analisis de numerosas alternativas de manera facil. El metodo se basa en que la estructura de los alimentadores de distribucion es, por lo general, de tipo radial, con lo cual, y por medio de un proceso iterativo, se busca la localizacion optima de los bancos de capacitores en derivacion. Se determina el tipo de banco en funcion de la demanda, asi como el numero de pasos. Se muestran resultados del analisis en alimentadores de la red del area central.

  11. Correlacion entre metodos de analisis de Zn disponible en cuatro ordenes de suelos de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Molina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizo una comparación entre métodos analisis del Zn disponible en 4 ordenes de sue- Analytilos de Costa Rica (Ultisoles, Vertisoles, Andisoles Inceptisoles, 25 de c/u, utilizando las siguientes soluciones extractoras: Olsen Modificado, Meh- lich 3, Morgan Modificado, DTPA y HC1. Las cantidades de Zn extrafdas dependieron de la natu- raleza qufmica de la solucion extractora. El HCl presento los contenidos mas altos de Zn en los chasuelos, excepto en Vertisoles. Las soluciones que hicontienen el agente quelante EDTA (Olsen Modi- ficado y Mehlich`3, extrajeron niveles interme- Modidios de Zn, en tanto que los metodos que contie- Den el quelato DTPA (Morgan Modificado y DT - PA, obtuvieron los valores mas bajos. Las corre- laciones de Zn extrafble entre los 5 metodos fue- signifirOD significativas en la mayona de los casos, tanto nivel de orden de suelos como en el conjunto de indivilos 100 suelos analizados. Los coeficientes de co- rrelacion mas altos, se presentaron entre Mehlich Morgan Modificado y DTPA. Las correlaciones Modifueron consistentes en los 4 ordenes, 10 que indica que estas soluciones poseen un amplio margen de adaptacion a diferentes tipos de suelo, siendo una caractenstica ventajosa para la selección de un metodo de analisis. El Olsen Modificado fue mas slighteficiente para la extraccion de Zn en suelos de pH ligeramente acido 0 neutro (Vertisoles e Inceptiso- les, que en suelos acidos (Ultisoles y Andisoles. EI HCI extrajo cantidades muy aItas de Zn que Moraparentementestan relacionadas con formas no disponibles para lag plantas. Se concluye que lag soluciones Mehlich 3, Morgan Modificado y DT - PA son semejantes en la forma de extraer Zn dispo- Dible, y podrian seT una altemativa para sustituir el metoda tradicional de Olsen Modificado utilizado en Costa Rica. Sin embargo,la eficiencia de ellas no puede seT establecida sino a traves de log estudios de correlacion contra rendimiento en invernadero y campo.

  12. Proposed method for the hydraulic design of ski-jump energy dissipators in dam spillways considering the occurrence of scour holes downstream of the structure; Metodo propuesto para el diseno hidraulico de trampolines empleados como disipadores de energia en aliviaderos para presas, considerando la ocurrencia del cono de socavacion al pie del mismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo-Gomez, Rafael [Centro de Investigaciones Hidraulicas (Cuba)

    2008-04-15

    Ski-jump energy dissipators are widely used in hydraulic engineering because of their well-known effectiveness. Nevertheless, some uncertainty exits associated with the dimensions of the scour hole appearing downstream of the structure. This paper presents a new method for solving this problem. This method includes spillway stability checking as part of the design process and also stability checking of any other construction near the energy dissipation zone. [Spanish] Los disipadores de energia tipo trampolin tienen amplia utilizacion en la practica de la ingenieria hidraulica por su probada eficacia; sin embargo, su diseno esta sujeto a cierto grado de incertidumbre en cuanto a la prediccion de las dimensiones del cono de socavacion que habra de producirse aguas abajo de la estructura. En el presente trabajo se muestra un metodo novedoso, mediante el cual el autor soluciona el aspecto antes referido, toda vez que se incluye como parte del proceso de diseno la comprobacion de la estabilidad del propio aliviadero o de cualquier otra obra cercana a la zona de disipacion de energia.

  13. Methods of Particle Detection in Free Neutron Decay; Methode de detection des particules dans une desintegration de neutrons libres; Metod obnaruzheniya chastits pri raspade svobodnogo nejtrona; Metodo para la deteccion de particulas en la desintegracion de neutrones libres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novey, T B [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States)

    1960-06-15

    aboutir a un multiplicateur ordinaire a 10 etages et ses chicanes d'entree pour resolution angulaire. 4. Le systeme electronique qui isole dans les detecteurs les impulsions venant des detecteurs et ayant les caracteristiques voulues de frequence, de retard relatif et d'amplitude et permet ainsi d'identifier la des- integration d'un neutron. (author) [Spanish] En el Laboratorio de Argonne se ha llevado a cabo recientemente una serie de estudios experimentales sobre la desintegracion de neutrones polarizados, con el fin de elucidar las modalidades de la interaccion nuclear a bajas energias. Estos estudios han consistido en mediciones de la distribucion angular de electrones y protones con respecto al sentido del spin de los neutrones libres que sufren la desintegracion. Los componentes fundamentales del aparato que el autor describe en la memoria son: 1. Un espejo de hierro y cobalto, de un metro, que selecciona un haz de neutrones altamente polarizados y permite determinar el grado de polarizacion aplicando distintos procedimientos . 2. El detector de electrones, consistente en un mosaico de cristales de antraceno de 10 cm de diametro y 6 mm de espesor, y en un dispositivo de canalizacion luminosa. 3. El detector de protones, formado por un sistema multiplicador de electrones de 14 etapas, la primera de las cuales con una abertura de 15x15 cm, que va disminuyendo en cuatro pasos hasta una estructura multiplicadora usual de 10 etapas, y sus deflectores de entrada para lograr la resolucion angular. 4. El sistema electronico que selecciona los impulsos que, al ser adecuados los intervalos con que se suceden, su defasaje en tiempo y su amplitud, hacen posible la identificacion de una desintegracion neutronica. (author) [Russian] Nedavno Argonnskoj gruppoj byl zavershen ryad ehksperimental'nykh issledovanij po raspadu polyarizovannykh nejtronov s tem, chtoby prolit'svet na strukturu slabogo yadernogo vzaimodejstviya. EHti issledovaniya nosili formu izmereniya uglovykh

  14. Calculation of sensitivities in electrical systems with SIFLETCA devices; Calculo de sensibilidades en sistemas electricos con dispositivos SIFLETCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Marroquin, Gabriel Omar

    2004-03-15

    de potencia (CUFP). Ademas, se desarrolla en esta tesis las ecuaciones utilizadas en el Jacobiano del metodo Newton-Raphson, para resolver flujos de potencia incluyendo los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Se muestra diferentes aplicaciones que se tienen al instalar un dispositivo, tales como prevencion de flujos en anillo, barrera electronica, incremento en la capacidad de transmision y especificacion del flujo de potencia en lineas de transmision. Por otra parte, se desarrolla en la tesis un analisis de sensibilidades de un sistema de potencia en estado estacionario. Tambien se proponen en la tesis los parametros de control para los cuales se calcula las sensibilidades. Asimismo, se utiliza un indice de desempeno para medir el grado de congestion de un sistema electrico. Al calcular las sensibilidades se utiliza los resultados obtenidos de los flujos de potencia. Se usa 4 redes electricas para encontrar donde se debe situar cada dispositivo SIFLETCA para reducir la congestion en el sistema. Tambien, se compara el metodo desarrollado en la tesis con un metodo de sensibilidades que emplea flujos de CD para validacion y mostrar las ventajas de usar el metodo Newton en flujos de potencia.

  15. New Methods and Facilities for the Measurement of Physical Properties of Reactor Components and Irradiated Materials; Nouveaux Procedes et Instruments de Mesure des Proprietes Physiques des Elements de Reacteur et des Matieres Irradiees; Novye metody i sredstva izmereniya fizicheskikh s vojstv komponentov reaktora i obluchennykh materialov; Nuevos Metodos y Equipos para Medir Propiedades Fisicas de Componentes de Reactor y de Materiales Irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, F.; Mueller, P. [Institut Dr. Foerster, Reutlingen, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-09-15

    zone 'chaude ' du reacteur. Ils discutent la relation entre la conductivite electrique et la dose d'irradiation. Les auteurs decrivent un instrument de mesure de la permeabilite, de la remanence et de la force co- ercitive en fonction des contraintes mecaniques, de la deformation elastique et inelastique et de la dose d'irradiation. Ils donnent des mesures de la variation des proprietes magnetiques en fonction des contraintes elastiques et de la deformation inelastique. Ils etudient les effets de l'irradiation sur la permeabilite et sur la force coercitive. Les auteurs decrivent un instrument permettant la mesure rapide et la lecture directe de la permeabilite des elements en acier inoxydable. Ils expliquent la correlation entre la permeabilite et la teneur en ferrite {Delta}. Us discutent certaines mesures du pourcentage de ferrite {Delta} dans les soudures de tubes en acier inoxydable ainsi que certaines mesures de precipitation de ferrite {Delta} en fonction de la deformation inelastique (forgeage a la main d'elements combustibles pour reacteurs). (author) [Spanish] Se describe un intrumento para medir y registrar en forma totalmente automatica el modulo de Young, el modulodecorte y la capacidad de amortiguamiento, en funcion de la temperatura y el tiempo. El modulo de Young se determina excitando muestras de diversos tamanos con sus frecuencias naturales, mientras que la capacidad de amortiguamiento se mide en funcion de la libre atenuacion de la vibracion, o bien por la anchura media de la curva de resonancia. Se presentan ejemplos de medidas de la recuperacion despues de provocar danos por irradiaciones y deformaciones plasticas asf como grado de grafitacion. Se describe la deteccion de fallas y variaciones de densidad en barras de grafito. Se explica, ademas, un metodo para investigar la retencion de pastillas de UO{sub 2} en tubos austenfticos de pared delgada. Se describe un horno especial para estudiar el comportamiento elastico e inelastico de muestras

  16. Neuronal networks for the study of buildings thermal behavior; Redes neuronales para el estudio del comportamiento termico de edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincic, Irene [Universidad de Sonora (Mexico); Del Rio, J. Antonio [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Transferencia Tecnologica (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The evaluation as well as the prediction of buildings thermal behavior involves complex calculations mainly because of its enormous number of variables, many of them difficult to determine. For this type of problems, a possibility is to resort to models of the black box type, that allow the characterization of the building with very few variables, for then to be able to predict its behavior under other circumstances, with greater certainty. One of the black box models of more and more used in diverse disciplines, is the one of the artificial neuronal networks (ANN). These can be used as an alternative method of analysis and prediction, particularly for cases in which many variables take part. In this work a preliminary study is presented that analyzes the accuracy of a model of neuronal network for the prediction of the inside temperatures of a building, given the outside temperatures. A very simple network, of 3 neurons, located in 2 layers is considered. The results of the inside temperatures obtained in the learning as well as in the prediction stage are analyzed, comparing them with the ones obtained using another model of black box previously developed by the authors, the one of the function responded in the dominion of frequencies. [Spanish] Tanto la evaluacion como la prediccion del comportamiento termico de los edificios involucra calculos complejos sobre todo por su enorme numero de variables, muchas de ellas dificiles de determinar. Para este tipo de problemas, una posibilidad es recurrir a modelos del tipo caja negra, que permiten caracterizar al edificio como muy pocas variables, para luego poder predecir su comportamiento bajo otras circunstancias, como mayor certeza. Uno de los modelos de caja negra cada vez mas utilizado en diversas disciplinas, es el de las redes neuronales artificiales (ANN). Estas pueden ser usadas como metodo alternativo de analisis y sobre todo de prediccion, particularmente para los casos en que intervienen muchas variables. En

  17. Scienza e conoscenza: sul valore del metodo scientifico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Luciano Appolloni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available L’antico problema di riconoscere una forma di conoscenza oggettivae fondata è ancora vivo; in questo scritto cercheremo di capire se la scienza moderna possa essere una forma di conoscenza tale e, quindi, privilegiata. A tal fine ci serviremo del pensiero di alcuni epistemologi e scienziati. In particolare, nel trattare il problema del valore epistemologico del metodo scientifico, non potremo esimerci dal fare i conti con l’anarchismo metodologico di Paul K. Feyerabend, verso il quale l’esito del presente articolo sarà fondamentalmente critico. A partire dai fecondi spunti di questo filosofo, tenteremo dapprima di analizzare i caratteri distintivi della scienza e del suo metodo rispetto ad altre forme di sapere; quindi, cercheremo di individuare alcuni limiti della conoscenza razionale.

  18. Diseño de rotor para un aerogenerador de bajas velocidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Arevalo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En los ultimos afios ha existido un creciente interes en el disefio y el estudio de turbinas eólicas de baja velocidad debido a la mayor cantidad de lugares donde este potencial eólico esta presente. Usando elementos de Ia teoría de momentum del alabe (BEM y la teoría de la circulación, este articulo describe un metodo basado en el analisis del cambio de circulación y momentum a traves de cada estación del alabe, permitiendo calculos mas precisos y optimizando así el rendimiento del rotor en turbinas eólicas de eje horizontal, baja velocidad de viento y paso fijo. La comparaci6n de los resultados obtenidos con datos provenientes de turbinas eólicas reales muestra una alta similitud.

  19. Calculos de potenciais de ionização de algumas bases e aza-analogas utilizando o metodo semi-empirico HAM/3

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Jair Vianna Cirino

    1994-01-01

    Resumo: Inicialmente procedeu-se a otimização de geometrias das bases purinas guanina, 8-azaguanjna, xantina, 8-azaxantina e hipoxantina com o uso dos métodos semi-empíricos MNDO, AMI e MNDO-PM3. Nesta etapa também fez-se uso de métodos ab initio utilizando o conjunto de base cep-31G. Os potenciais de ionização dos elétrons do caroço das bases purinas foram calculados posteriormente por meio do método semi-empírico HAM/3 empregando as geometrias otimizadas pelos métodos semi-empíricos na etap...

  20. Comparison between calculation methods of dose rates in gynecologic brachytherapy; Comparacion entre metodos de calculo de tasa de dosis en braquiterapia ginecologica8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianello, E.A.; Biaggio, M.F.; Dr, M.F.; Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas- (L.C.R.)-D.B.B.- UERJ- R. Sao Francisco Xavier, 524- Pav. HLC- sala 136- CEP 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    In treatments with radiations for gynecologic tumors is necessary to evaluate the quality of the results obtained by different calculation methods for the dose rates on the points of clinical interest (A, rectal, vesicle). The present work compares the results obtained by two methods. The Manual Calibration Method (MCM) tri dimensional (Vianello E., et.al. 1998), using orthogonal radiographs for each patient in treatment, and the Theraplan/T P-11 planning system (Thratonics International Limited 1990) this last one verified experimentally (Vianello et.al. 1996). The results show that MCM can be used in the physical-clinical practice with a percentile difference comparable at the computerized programs. (Author)

  1. UNA APROXIMACION A LOS DETERMINANTES SOCIOECONOMICOS DE LA MORTALIDAD INFANTIL Y DE NIÑEZ EN BOLIVIA: USO DE METODOS INDIRECTOS DE CALCULO DE MORTALIDAD Y ANALISIS BIVARIADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Córdova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de las importantes mejoras en los resultados de salud infantil y de niñez durante el Siglo XXI en América Latina, las tasas de mortalidad infantil y de niñez permanecen inaceptablemente altas en Bolivia encontrándose entre las más elevadas la región, solo por debajo de Haití, dirigiéndose a una deficiente salud infantil y de niñez. Estos resultados requieren de evidencia científica sobre la mejor manera de hacer frente a sus determinantes. Este estudio aproxima, teóricamente, mediante el marco teórico propuesto por Mosley-Chen y Sastry, los determinantes de la mortalidad infantil y de niñez en Bolivia enfocados en características individuales, del hogar y contextual. Además se examina de manera preliminar los niveles y magnitudes de la mortalidad mediante el uso de métodos directos e indirectos de estimación mediante la técnica propuesta por la versión Trussel y la versión Palloni-Heligman del Método de Brass y se realiza un análisis bivariado que da cuenta de relaciones existentes entre la mortalidad infantil y de niñez y las variables a nivel del hogar, individual y contextual relacionado con las políticas públicas.

  2. Flow in potential cascades by means of the finite element method; Flujo en cascadas potenciales mediante el metodo del elemento finito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa Cordero, Rodolfo; Fernandez Valencia, Gonzalo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article presents a mathematical model and its solution by means of the finite element method with approximate Garlekin formulation, for the flow analysis in a circular cascade, in a surface of revolution current of a turbo- machine, that can be axial, mixed or radial. To the revolution surface an agreed transformation is applied to obtain a plane, eliminating in this form one term in the equation succeeding in avoiding an iterative solution. Likewise, the finite element method allows to solve the equation in partial derivatives of the elliptical type in its quasi-harmonic form. Additionally, the method followed to introduce the contour conditions is presented; specially, the Kutta-Joukowsky conditions and the one of periodicity, which distinguishes this problem from the classical problems of ideal flows evaluated in the contour. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta un modelo matematico y su solucion mediante el empleo del metodo del elemento finito con formulacion aproximada de Galerkin, para el analisis del flujo en una cascada circular, en una superficie de corriente de revolucion de una turbomaquina, que puede ser axial, mixta o radial. A la superficie de revolucion se le aplica una transformacion conforme para obtener un plano, eliminando de esta forma un termino en la ecuacion logrando evitar la solucion iterativa. Asimismo, el metodo del elemento finito permite resolver la ecuacion en derivadas parciales del tipo eliptico en su forma cuasiarmonica. Se presenta, ademas, el metodo seguido para introducir las condiciones de contorno; en especial, las condiciones de Kutta-Joukowsky y la de periodicidad, que distinguen a este problema de los problemas clasicos de flujos ideales valuados en el contorno.

  3. Flow in potential cascades by means of the finite element method; Flujo en cascadas potenciales mediante el metodo del elemento finito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa Cordero, Rodolfo; Fernandez Valencia, Gonzalo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1986-12-31

    This article presents a mathematical model and its solution by means of the finite element method with approximate Garlekin formulation, for the flow analysis in a circular cascade, in a surface of revolution current of a turbo- machine, that can be axial, mixed or radial. To the revolution surface an agreed transformation is applied to obtain a plane, eliminating in this form one term in the equation succeeding in avoiding an iterative solution. Likewise, the finite element method allows to solve the equation in partial derivatives of the elliptical type in its quasi-harmonic form. Additionally, the method followed to introduce the contour conditions is presented; specially, the Kutta-Joukowsky conditions and the one of periodicity, which distinguishes this problem from the classical problems of ideal flows evaluated in the contour. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta un modelo matematico y su solucion mediante el empleo del metodo del elemento finito con formulacion aproximada de Galerkin, para el analisis del flujo en una cascada circular, en una superficie de corriente de revolucion de una turbomaquina, que puede ser axial, mixta o radial. A la superficie de revolucion se le aplica una transformacion conforme para obtener un plano, eliminando de esta forma un termino en la ecuacion logrando evitar la solucion iterativa. Asimismo, el metodo del elemento finito permite resolver la ecuacion en derivadas parciales del tipo eliptico en su forma cuasiarmonica. Se presenta, ademas, el metodo seguido para introducir las condiciones de contorno; en especial, las condiciones de Kutta-Joukowsky y la de periodicidad, que distinguen a este problema de los problemas clasicos de flujos ideales valuados en el contorno.

  4. Guides for flow sensors selection; Guias para la seleccion de sensores de flujo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Garcia, Gustavo; Guzman Flores, Roberto; Rodriguez Martinez, Arnulfo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper a system is presented that allows the selection and calculation on instruments for flow measurement, based on practical experiences, standards an taking into consideration the process operational characteristics such as fluid type, maximum flow rate, piping diameter, etc. The system is composed of a knowledge base and a software for the selection, calculation and de adequate recommendation of flow sensing elements for the different services needed in the power plants. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema que permite realizar la seleccion y calculo de instrumentos para la medicion de flujo con base en experiencias practicas, normas y tomando en cuenta las caracteristicas de operacion del proceso como el tipo de fluido, flujo maximo, diametro de tuberia, etcetera. El sistema esta compuesto por una base de conocimiento y un software para la seleccion, calculo y la recomendacion adecuada de elementos sensores de flujo para los diferentes servicios que se tienen en centrales generadoras.

  5. Guides for flow sensors selection; Guias para la seleccion de sensores de flujo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Garcia, Gustavo; Guzman Flores, Roberto; Rodriguez Martinez, Arnulfo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper a system is presented that allows the selection and calculation on instruments for flow measurement, based on practical experiences, standards an taking into consideration the process operational characteristics such as fluid type, maximum flow rate, piping diameter, etc. The system is composed of a knowledge base and a software for the selection, calculation and de adequate recommendation of flow sensing elements for the different services needed in the power plants. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un sistema que permite realizar la seleccion y calculo de instrumentos para la medicion de flujo con base en experiencias practicas, normas y tomando en cuenta las caracteristicas de operacion del proceso como el tipo de fluido, flujo maximo, diametro de tuberia, etcetera. El sistema esta compuesto por una base de conocimiento y un software para la seleccion, calculo y la recomendacion adecuada de elementos sensores de flujo para los diferentes servicios que se tienen en centrales generadoras.

  6. Experience with a New Colour-Scintillographic Method for Diagnosing Liver Tumours and Inflammatory Liver Disorders; Experience d'une Nouvelle Methode d'Enregistrement Scintigraphique en Couleurs, pour le Diagnostic des Tumeurs Hepatiques et des Affections Inflammatoires du Foie; Opyt ispol'zovaniya novogo metoda tsvetnoj'' stsintigrafii dlya diagnostiki pechenochnykh opukholej i vospalitel'nykh protsessov pecheni; Ensayo de un Nuevo Metodo de Registro Centelleografico Policromo, para el Diagnostico de Tumores Hepaticos y de Inflamaciones del Higado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparchez, T.; Gheorghescu, B.; Steclaci, A.; Merculiev, E.; Popovici, M. [Clinique Medicale, Bucarest (Romania)

    1964-10-15

    que le noir represente l'activite maximum, situee au centre du foie ou le parenchyme est plus epais. Les couleurs intermediaires correspondent aux differentes zones d'isoradioactivite. Les auteurs ont etudie, a l'aide de cette methode, 150 cas de tumeurs hepatiques malignes (primitives et secondaires) et de tumeurs benignes, 80 cas d'hepatite chronique et de cirrhose et 50 cas normaux. Dans la majorite descas, ils ont utilise l'or-198 colloiedal (Amersham-Angleterre) injecte par voie intraveineuse. Ils ont effectue parallelement, dans un grand nombre de cas, des mecanogrammes, photoscintigrammes en blanc et noir et scintigrammes en couleurs. Le diagnostic a ete verifie par ponction, laparoscopie, laparophoto ou cinematographie, ponction biopsique, intervention chirurgicale ou necropsie. La methode scintigraphique en couleurs permet de mieux distinguer les variations d'intensite de la radioactivite, c'est-a-dire la desorganisation ou la substitution du parenchyme hepatique par processus tumoraux. (author) [Spanish] Para obtener imagenes que reflejasen mejor los detalles de la estructura del parenquima hepatico modificado por la enfermedad, los autores adaptaron al aparato Scanner-Tracerlab un dispositivo gracias al cual se pueden obtener diagramas hepaticos en siete colores. Cada color, elegido arbitrariamente, corresponde a un numero dado de impulsos y representa zonas de isorradiactividad, es decir, de tejido hepatico de volumen relativamente igual. En el centelleograma policromo, el blanco representa la radiactividad de fondo, mientras que el negro representa la actividad maxima, situada en el centro del higado, donde el parenquima es mas espeso. Los colores intermedios corresponden a las diferentes zonas de isorradiactividad. Recurriendo a este metodo, los autores estudiaron 150 casos de tumores hepaticos malignos (primitivos y secundarios) y de tumores benignos, 80 casos de hepatitis cronica y de cirrosis, y 50 casos normales. En la mayoria de los casos utilizaron

  7. Neutron Investigation of Magnon Spectrum in Haematite; Etude du Spectre de Magnons dans l'Hematite, au Moyen des Neutrons; Nejtronnoe issledovanie spektra magnona v gematite; Estudio, por Metodos Neutronicos, del Espectro de Magnones en la Hematita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrijevic, Z.; Rzany, H.; Todorovic, J.; Wanic, A. [Institute for Nuclear Physics Cracow (Poland)

    1965-04-15

    'existence d'une branche optique qui, toutefois, ne se prete pas aux recherches par la methode de la diffusion des neutrons. (author) [Spanish] Los autoresrealizaron sus mediciones en el reactor RA de Vinca con ayuda de un espectrometro neutronicode cristal. Los neutrones monocromaticos ({lambda} = 1.314A) se dispersaron en un monocristal de hematita (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}{alpha}) de gran tamano. Se estudiaron las distribuciones angulares de los neutrones inelast Lea mente dispersos, midiendo para un cierto numero de angulos distintos de desplazamiento del cristal, {Delta}{theta}, la anchura {Gamma} del haz de neutrones dispersos (el llamado cono de dispersion), que fue adscrito a la superficie de dispersion magnOnica que envolvia al punto(l,l,l)delared reciproca. Se calcularon y compararon con los puntos obtenidos experimentalmente los valores de {Gamma} en funcion de la variacion del angulo de desplazamiento para diversas velocidades de los magnones. Se comprobo que el valor de la velocidad en la direccion [111] era igual a 25,5 {+-} 1,0 km/s, descubriendose asi la anisotropia estructural de la relacion de dispersion magnonica. Se encontro que la velocidad era superior para las direcciones de propagacion paralelas al eje [111], lo que esta cualitativamente de acuerdo con anteriores mediciones (Riste y otros) que daban una velocidad v = 38 km/s. No fue posible poner de manifiesto la existencia de una laguna energetica Eg en la banda de las energias magnonicas acusticas. Se calculo que el valor de Eg tiene que ser inferior a 1 meV. Utilizando las formulas propuestas por Wallace se calcularon las relaciones de dispersion de los magnones en la hematita. Este calculo se efectuo en el supuesto de que existan dos integrales de intercambio que no desaparecen: J{sub 1} y J{sub 2}, que indican el acoplamiento energetico de superintercambio entre los spins de los iones hierro proximos, enlazados por un ion oxigeno, los angulos de los enlaces Fe-O-Fe tenidos en cuenta son de 132 Degree

  8. Validation in life for dosimetric calculations in PET; Validacion de vida para calculos dosimetricos en PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo ramos, J. C.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Zankl, M.

    2015-07-01

    The LIFE program (VOXEL-PHANTOM-BASED SOFTWARE FOR INTERNAL DOSE ASSESSMENT) is developing new software for dose assessment in patients undergoing nuclear medicine examinations. This paper shows some of the validation and comparison tests that have been carried out for the case of the F-18 FDG. Unlike current programs (eg. OLINDA) using phantoms stylized size reference, the new developed software uses the pre calculated library Specific Absorption Fractions (SAF) of photons and electrons based on different anthropomorphic phantoms voxelized and the SAF new computational phantoms of the ICRP for photons, electrons, neutrons and alphas. In addition, the software uses the latest information from nuclear decay of the ICRP 107 (2008). The software is being widely put on trial and comparison with other methods of calculation available. (Author)

  9. Calculo de Parámetros Electrónicos Para el Grafito Bernal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Villaquirán

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Using ab-initio calculation, we have computed different electronic parameters associated with the transport coefficients of graphite Bernal. Software CRYSTAL¹ was used with a Pople standard STO- 21G* basis set. Different hamiltonians were tested, choosing a restricted Hartree-Fock one, because it generated the best qualitative results. All graphites studied present a valence bandwidth near 0.60 a.u., in agreement with the literature. In hexagonal Bernal graphite the splitting of the valence P band was accentuated, and E F = -0.00140 a.u. The surface Fermi is located around the HKH edge of the first Brillouin zone. In general such surfaces present a central electron orbit of maximal size in the plane, which diminish in size when the z component of the vector moves in KH direction. Integrating on the surface Fermi calculates the time relaxation parallel and the time relaxation perpendicular and finally we evaluate the parallel and perpendicular resistivity.

  10. Factors application of MW-mile method and participation in the allocation of charges by the drills use in electricity markets; Aplicacion de los factores de participacion y del metodo de MW-milla en la asignacion de cargos por uso de redes de transmision en mercados de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Gomez, L; Tovar-Hernandez, J. H; Gutierrez-Alcaraz, G [Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: horaciotovar@mexico.com; ggutier@itmorelia.edu.mx

    2007-04-15

    Use of network allocation costs by shift factors and MW-Mile method is reported in this paper. Conventional shift factors are computed based on DC power flow. DC power flow requires to selecting a slack bus in order to avoid matrix singularity. Therefore, shift factors are slack bus dependent. In order to evade slack bus dependency, two approaches are considered. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta la asignacion de costos por uso de red mediante la aplicacion de Factores de Participacion (FP) y el metodo de MW-Milla. Los FP clasicos son calculados a partir del modelo lineal de flujos de potencia para lo que se requiere de establecer un nodo de referencia a fin de eliminar la singularidad de la matriz de coeficientes. Por lo tanto, los FP son dependientes de la asignacion del nodo de referencia. Dos metodos alternativos para evitar la dependencia del nodo compensador en la obtencion de los factores de participacion son presentados.

  11. LE «SOTTIGLIEZZE DI CERTA DIDATTICA SUPERLATIVA» DELLA GRAMMATICA ELEMENTARE: STORIA (ATTESTATA DEL METODO RAFFORZISTA (1814-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Dota

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo ripercorre la storia e le peculiarità del metodo rafforzista, metodo glottodidattico per l’insegnamento della lettura e della scrittura. Il metodo, nato in Italia nel primo Ottocento, nell’epoca postunitaria era praticato nelle scuole elementari soprattutto dell’Italia meridionale, nonché nelle scuole reggimentali e in alcuni istituti per sordomuti. Le sue fondamenta, aberranti rispetto alla norma ortografica e ortoepica tradizionale, lo resero obiettivo di un tenace ostracismo da parte del Ministero dell’Istruzione pubblica, sostenuto per questa occasione da due tra i più eminenti glottologi dell’epoca: Graziadio Isaia Ascoli e Francesco Lorenzo Pullè. Il metodo finì per estinguersi nel secondo decennio del Novecento.   The history of the “metodo rafforzista” for teaching Italian (1814-1914 This article retraces the history and peculiarities of the “metodo rafforzista”, a language teaching method developed in Italy during the first part of 1800s. In the post-Unitarian period, it was used in elementary schools, especially in Southern Italy, and also in military schools and in some institutes for the Deaf and Dumb. Orthographic and orthoepic models proposed by the “metodo rafforzista” diverged from rules of traditional Italian grammar. The method, supported by Graziadio Isaia Ascoli and Francesco Lorenzo Pullè, two of the most distinguished Italian linguists at that time, was subsequently rejected by the Ministry of Public Education, and it vanished during the second half of 1900s.

  12. Data Evaluation Problems in the Pulsed Neutron Source Method; Problemes d'Evaluation des Donnees dans les Applications de la Methode de la Source Pulsee; Problemy otsenki dannykh pri primenenii metoda istochnika impul'snykh nejtronov; Problemas de Evaluacion de Datos en el Metodo de la Fuente de Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, L.; Bod, L.; Szatmary, Z. [Central Research Institute for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    1965-08-15

    muy importante determinar directamente el parametro caracteristico del fondo, partiendo de los datos de desin tegracion obtenidos empleando diversas demoras. Los parametros de difusion se calcularon con el metodo de los cuadrados minimos ponderados, empleando las constantes de desintegracion de desviacion tipo minima obtenidas segun la funcion de maxima probabilidad. Como no se conocian los valores del recorrido libre medio de transporte para los materiales investigados, se ideo un procedimiento de iteracion rapidamente convergente para determinarlo. Con la calculadora se pudieron determinar los coeficientes de orden B{sup 6} y los terminos superiores de la constante de desintegracion. Los parametros de difusion de los materiales hidrogenados investigados se calcularon con la formula de Radkowsky, partiendo de la variacion de las secciones eficaces integrales de dispersion en funcion de la energia. Los calculos demuestran que la formula de Radkowsky proporciona un metodo empirico muy util para evaluar el recorrido libre medio de transporte en gran numero de materiales hidrogenados. (author) [Russian] Dlja opredelenija diffuzionnyh parametrov teplovyh nejtronov uzhe bolee desjati let primenjaetsja impul'snyj metod. Jetot metod okazalsja ves'ma podhodjashhim dlja issledovanija gidrogennyh zamedlitelej. Soobshhajutsja rezul'taty izmerenij v vode, benzole, toluole, ksilon-ciklogeksane, n-geksane i difenile; obsuzhdajutsja metody, s po- moshh'ju kotoryh na osnovanii izmerennyh dannyh s naimen'shej pogreshnost'ju mozhno opre- delit' parametry diffuzii, predstavljajushhie interes. Vvidu togo, chto pri issledovanii zamedlitelej pri vysokih temperaturah vstrechajutsja zatrudnenija tehnicheskogo haraktera iz-za projavlenija vozdejstvija vremeni proleta, chto oka- zyvaet vlijanie na velichinu konstanty raspada, to jeto javlenie podrobno issleduetsja kak teoreticheski, tak i jeksperimental'no; ukazyvajutsja geometricheskie uslovija, dajushhie voz- mozhnost' obespechit

  13. Diffusion Parameters of BeO by the Pulsed Neutron Method; Calcul des Parametres de Diffusion de BeO par la Methode des Neutrons Pulses; Opredelenie diffuzionnykh parametrov BeO s pomoshch'yu metoda impul'snykh nejtronov; Determinacion de los Parametros de Difusion en el BeO por el Metodo de los Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, B. V.; Nargundkar, V. R.; Subbarao, K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1965-08-15

    la position et la longueur du compteur d'une part, la position de la source d'autre part, il est possible d'eliminer la plupart des harmoniques spatiaux. Il est egalement possible de tenir compte de n'importe quel bruit de fond constant pour le calcul de la constante de decroissance. Il faut eviter les laplaciens tres eleves afin de ne pas avoir d {sup h}armoniques du temps. Tous les harmoniques qui restent sont rendus inoperants par un retard en temps adequat. Les auteurs ont determine la constante de decroissance du mode fondamental de la population de neutrons thermiques pour plusieurs laplaciens. Ils discutent les conditions a remplir pour une determination exacte de la constante du refroidissement par diffusion C. Pour la glucine, ils ont obtenu les constantes suivantes: {lambda}{sub 0} (constante d'absorption) = 156, 02 {+-} 4, 37 s{sup -1}. D (coefficient dediffusion) = (1,3334 {+-} 0,0128) * 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/s, C (constante du refroidissement de diffusion) = (-4,8758 {+-} 0,5846) * 10{sup 5} cm{sup 4}/s. Les auteurs ont etudie le role que peut jouer, dans la determination des parametres de diffusion, le fait que la contribution du terme en B{sup 6} est neglige; ils montrent qu'il est considerable. Ce serait la probablement la cause des ecarts entre les valeurs de C obtenues pour un meme ralentisseur par differents chercheurs. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen el empleo del metodo de los neutrones pulsados para determinar con precision los parametros de difusion en moderadores. Con ayuda de este metodo, han obtenido los parametros de difusion en el BeO. Las rafagas de neutrones se generaron mediante un acelerador en cascada pulsando la fuente ionica y empleando la reaccion Be (d, n). Como detector se utilizo un contador proporcional de BF{sub 3} enriquecido. Los autores demuestran que por seleccion adecuada de la posicion y longitud del contador y de la ubicacion de la fuente, pueden eliminarse la mayoria de los armonicos espaciales. En el calculo de

  14. Preparando um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pires de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as etapas para a criação de um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma Android. O artigo foi dividido em quatro partes: Primeiro uma introdução sobre o assunto. Na segunda seção são mostrados os passos necessários para a configuração do ambiente de desenvolvimento. Na terceira seção, é demonstrado como criar uma aplicação para dispositivo Android que calculo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. A quarta seção apresenta as considerações finais. A solução abordada tem como base a IDE Eclipse e o SDK do Android, bem como o Kit de Desenvolvimento Java da Oracle (JDK.

  15. Preparando um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pires de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve as etapas para a criação de um ambiente de desenvolvimento para a plataforma Android. O artigo foi dividido em quatro partes: Primeiro uma introdução sobre o assunto. Na segunda seção são mostrados os passos necessários para a configuração do ambiente de desenvolvimento. Na terceira seção, é demonstrado como criar uma aplicação para dispositivo Android que calculo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. A quarta seção apresenta as considerações finais. A solução abordada tem como base a IDE Eclipse e o SDK do Android, bem como o Kit de Desenvolvimento Java da Oracle (JDK.

  16. Deteccion De Los Diferentes Grados De Motricidad A Traves Del Metodo De Mabc Para Encontrar Las Estrategias Metodologicas De Enseñanza A Los Niños Con Sindrome De Down, En La Escuela Especial “Un Nuevo Amanecer”, De La Ciudad De Babahoyo

    OpenAIRE

    Galarza Acosta, Fresia

    2015-01-01

    Detectar dificultades en la aplicación de estrategias metodológicas de enseñanza mediante la evaluación del desarrollo de habilidades motrices y destrezas cognitivas que predominan en los niños con síndrome de Down que acuden a la escuela especial Un Nuevo Amanecer mediante la comparación con los parámetros del test de Mabc para conocer cuáles son las estrategias más adecuadas de enseñanza. Se hacen esfuerzos por incluir en la sociedad a las personas con síndrome de Down, especial atenció...

  17. Pulsed and Static Neutron Measurements in Light-Water and Heavy-Water Exponentials; Mesures par les Methodes Pulsee et Statique dans les Ensembles Exponentiels a Eau Legere et a Eau Lourde; Izmerenie impul'snykh i staticheskikh nejtronov v ehksponentsial'nykh ustanovkakh s obychnoj i tyazheloj vodoj; Mediciones por los Metodos Pulsados y Estaticos en Conjuntos Exponenciales de Agua Ligera y Agua Pesada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, T. F.; Perez, R. B.; Fry, D. N.; Hartley, R. H.; Smith, S. P.D.; Diaz, N. J. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1964-04-15

    etant le laplacien geometrique du systeme equivalent sans reflecteur avec gain reflecteur. Modele C: On imagine un systeme sans reflecteur a deux groupes avec gain reflecteur. En comparant les constantes de decroissance obtenues par calcul et par voie experimentale, on constate que seul le modele A assure une concordance satisfaisante. On peut en tirer les conclusions ci-apres: 1. La presence du reflecteur a una grande influence sur la physique du systeme puise. L'hypothese selon laquelle on admet un gain reflecteur n'est pas toujours valable. 2. La valeur de la constante de decroissance {lambda} depend etroitement de la valeur admise pour la probabilite d'absence de fuite de neutrons rapides. Les experiences indiquent que la methode des neutrons puises permet de determiner k{sub {infinity}} pour des ensembles heterogenes de petites dimensions. Des travaux sont en cours sur des barres d'uranium creuses qui permettent de simuler l'emploi de fluides de refroidissement organiques. (author) [Spanish] Desde hace tiempo se recurre a experimentos exponenciales para determinar el laplaciano material de un medio multiplicador. En fecha mas reciente se ha comenzado a utilizar la tecnica de los neutrones pulsados para medir los valores propios del tiempo, {lambda}, de los que puede deducirse k{sub {infinity}}. Este ultimo metodo presenta la ventaja de que permite el empleo de reticulados mas pequefios que el metodo exponencial estatico. Sin embargo, para establecer la validez del metodo pulsado, es preciso comparar sus resultados con los obtenidos mediante los metodo estaticos. Los autores han efectuado estas mediciones en sistemas con y sin reflector, utilizando H{sub 2}O y D{sub 2}O en calidad de moderador; en los experimentos emplearon un tanque de 1 m de diametro. La correlacion entre las constantes de decrecimiento medidas y los parametros pertinentes del sistema se efectuo empleando un modelo teorico modificado de un solo grupo (denominado modelo A). El valor de {lambda} se

  18. Method by chromatography of gases for the determination of made up of alcoholic fermentation in pineapple fruits (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr); Metodo por cromatografia de gases para la determinacion de compuestos de fermentacion alcoholica en frutos de pina (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murillo Williams, A

    2001-07-01

    The pineapple (Ananas comosus) it is used in the entire world for the fresh consumption or for processed products (canned, frozen, dehydrated). it is cultivated in a wide range of countries and in extreme latitudes.The factors of quality include: maturity, stability, size uniformity, absence of microbial deterioration, absence of burns for the sun, absence of blows, damage for insects and breaking, crowns, color, longitude and integrity. The factors that determine the longevity of a product can be physiologic or pathological. The physiologic conditions refer to the processes of degradation of the fabrics after the crop, while the pathological ones involve the attack of mushrooms and bacteria. In the case of the pineapple, a physiologic problem exists, called black heart, internal brewing (IB), brown endogenic stain ({sup m}ancha cafe endogena{sup ,} MCE) or chilling injury (CI) that can happen in any part of the world where it is cultivated. This problem has associated to the exhibition from the pineapple to low temperatures, so it is a challenge to manage a fruit like the pineapple that it cannot tolerate low temperatures without problems. In studies made about the physiologic changes that happen during the storage in controlled atmospheres in fruits, it has been observed that the ethanol and the acetaldehyde are volatile compounds associated with metabolic post-crop changes and that they have implication in the quality of the product. (author) [Spanish] La pina (Ananas comosus) se utiliza en todo el mundo para el consumo fresco o para productos procesados (enlatados, congelados, deshidratados). Se cultiva en un amplio rango de paises y en latitudes extremas. Los factores de calidad incluyen: madurez, firmeza, uniformidad de tamano, ausencia de deterioro microbiano, ausencia de quemaduras por el sol, ausencia de golpes, dano por insectos y quebraduras, corona, color, longitud e integridad. Los factores que determinan la longevidad de un producto pueden ser

  19. A Method of Identification and Inspection for Inventory Control of Irradiated Fuel Elements; Methode d'Identification et d'Inspection Permettant de Proceder a l'Inventaire des Elements Combustibles Irradies; Metod identifikatsii i proverki pri inventarnom kontrole obluchennykh toplivnykh ehlementov; Metodos de Identificacion e Inspeccion para el Control de las Existencias de Elementos Combustibles Irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinderman, E. M.; Mills, J. S. [Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    punto de descarga del reactor y el de almacenamiento del combustible. Pero esos dos lugares presentan dificultades materiales de caracter peculiar para los inspectores o los encargados de controlar el inventario. La distancia entre el objeto y el observador, la escasa iluminacion y l a distorsion optica debida a los medios de blindaje (agua, cristal) son factores que contribuyen a dificultar las operaciones inherentes al inventario de materiales. Para resolver estas dificultades y poder identificar positivamente el combustible descargado de un reactor, los autores han ideado un dispositivo de inspeccion optica compuesto de una estacion fija, un periscopio, un telescopio y una camara fotografica. Con este dispositivo se han hecho pruebas en una pileta de irradiacion por cobalto en las que se han examinado varias muestras marcadas diversamente y tratadas en un circuito de agua caliente. Para estas pruebas se emplearon un periscopio lleno de agua, de 3,35 m de longitud, un telescopio catadioptrico colocado a 4,9 m del periscopio, y una camara de 35 mm para registrar las observaciones. El telescopio, la camara y los soportes son portatiles, pues pesan en total menos de 10 kg y su dimension maxima es de 75 cm. Las observaciones fotograficas de diagramas de resolucion tomadas como pruebas en aire, a 6 m del objetivo del telescopio, pusieron de manifiesto que ese sistema puede resolver senales de comprobacion de 22 {mu}m de ancho, lo que corresponde a una resolucion de 0,8 segundos de arco. Ensayos llevados a cabo con el dispositivo sumergido en agua mostraron que en este caso el poder de resolucion es superior a 50 {mu}m a 6 m, lo que corresponde a una resolucion de 1 segundo de arco, Es evidente que el poder de resolucion nunca puede ser superior al del sistema en aire. El sistema descrito empleado en un inventario real de combustible, reproducira adecuadamente cualquier senal de comprobacion. (author) [Russian] Mesta razgruzki reaktora i hranenija obluchennogo topliva

  20. A modification of the method for determining current efficiency of aluminium electrolytic cells; Modification de la methode permettant de determiner le rendement des cuves dans la production d'aluminium par electrolyse; Izmenenie metoda opredeleniya ehffektivnosti toka v alyuminievykh ehlektroliticheskikh bakakh; Modificacion del metodo para determinar el rendimiento de las celdas utilizadas en la produccion de aluminio por electrolisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradzynski, A [Institute of Basic Technical Problems, Polish Academy of Sciences. Warsaw (Poland); Orman, Z [Institute of Nonferrous Metals, Gliwice (Poland)

    1962-01-15

    de faciliter l'application de cette methode dans les usines d'aluminium et d'eviter toutes les restrictions et tous les dangers qu'entraine la manipulation, en dehors des laboratoires speciaux pour l'etude des radioisotopes, de sources radioactives non scellees. De l'or inactif a ete introduit dans' l'alliage type et dans le bain de la cuve electrolytique. La concentration d'or dans les echantillons d'alliage type et dans les echantillons preleves dans la cuve a ete mesuree apres irradiation de ces echantillons dans un reacteur nucleaire. (author) [Spanish] El procedimiento para determinar el rendimiento de las celdas para la produccion de aluminio por electrolisis fue descrito inicialmente por Rempel y col. y fue perfeccionado por Bozoky y col. que emplearon el radioisotopo {sup 198}Au. Este procedimiento consiste en preparar aleaciones tipo de aluminio con {sup 198}Au y medir la elevada actividad especifica de muestras de la aleacion con un tubo Geiger-Mueller, introduciendo plomo como absorbente entre el tubo y la muestra. Los autores midieron la actividad especifica de la aleacion tipo despues de diluirla con una cantidad conocida de aluminio puro. De esta manera, las muestras de aleacion tipo diluida y las muestras tomadas en la celda electrolitica tienen una actividad especifica del mismo orden de magnitud, que puede ser medida sin necesidad de absorbente. Los autores han recurrido al analisis por radiactivacion con objeto de facilitar la aplicacion de este procedimiento en las fabricas de aluminio y evitar las restricciones y los peligros que supone la utilizacion de fuentes de radiacion no encerradas fuera .de los laboratorios de radioisotopos. El procedimiento consiste en introducir oro inactivo en la aleacion tipo y en la masa fundida de la celda electrolitica. Se extraen muestras de la aleacion y del electrolito y, despues de irradiarlas en un reactor nuclear, se determina la concentracion de oro. (author) [Russian] Metod opredeleniya ehffektivnosti toka v

  1. The daylight alternative for energy conservation saving in lighting systems; La luz natural alternativa para el ahorro de energia en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escutia Perez, A.; Cruz Mendez, E. P. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Buitron Sanchez, H. [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    arquitectonico de la edificacion, materiales y elementos de control, etc., para aplicar con precision el metodo de calculo. Las tecnicas fundamentales de alumbrado han variado poco. En la mayor parte de comercios e industrias se utiliza aun el alumbrado general, que produce una iluminancia mas o menos uniforme sobre el plano de trabajo, lo que garantiza una total libertad para la colocacion de maquinaria, bancos de trabajo, estanteria, expositores, percheros, etc. Este tipo de alumbrado se consigue mediante el empleo de una serie mas o menos regular de lucernarios. Se emplea iluminacion localizada adecuada en aquellas zonas que, a causa de la presencia de obstrucciones o de la inclinacion desfavorable del plano de trabajo, no esten suficientemente bien iluminadas por el alumbrado general. El empleo de la luz natural de acuerdo con la disponibilidad en cada momento permitira en muchos centros de trabajo una sensible disminucion de tiempo de utilizacion del alumbrado artificial, siempre que la situacion del accionamiento de la instalacion lo permita, en conjunto con controles modernos y la gran variedad de lamparas ahorradoras eficientes.

  2. The daylight alternative for energy conservation saving in lighting systems; La luz natural alternativa para el ahorro de energia en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escutia Perez, A; Cruz Mendez, E P [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Buitron Sanchez, H [Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    arquitectonico de la edificacion, materiales y elementos de control, etc., para aplicar con precision el metodo de calculo. Las tecnicas fundamentales de alumbrado han variado poco. En la mayor parte de comercios e industrias se utiliza aun el alumbrado general, que produce una iluminancia mas o menos uniforme sobre el plano de trabajo, lo que garantiza una total libertad para la colocacion de maquinaria, bancos de trabajo, estanteria, expositores, percheros, etc. Este tipo de alumbrado se consigue mediante el empleo de una serie mas o menos regular de lucernarios. Se emplea iluminacion localizada adecuada en aquellas zonas que, a causa de la presencia de obstrucciones o de la inclinacion desfavorable del plano de trabajo, no esten suficientemente bien iluminadas por el alumbrado general. El empleo de la luz natural de acuerdo con la disponibilidad en cada momento permitira en muchos centros de trabajo una sensible disminucion de tiempo de utilizacion del alumbrado artificial, siempre que la situacion del accionamiento de la instalacion lo permita, en conjunto con controles modernos y la gran variedad de lamparas ahorradoras eficientes.

  3. Alternate method for to realize image fusion; Metodo alterno para realizar fusion de imagenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L; Hernandez, F; Fernandez, R [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Imagenologia Diagnostica. Centro Medico de Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    At the present time the image departments have the necessity of carrying out image fusion obtained of diverse apparatuses. Conventionally its fuse resonance or tomography images by X-rays with functional images as the gammagrams and PET images. The fusion technology is for sale with the modern image equipment and not all the cabinets of nuclear medicine have access to it. By this reason we analyze, study and we find a solution so that all the cabinets of nuclear medicine can benefit of the image fusion. The first indispensable requirement is to have a personal computer with capacity to put up image digitizer cards. It is also possible, if one has a gamma camera that can export images in JPG, GIF, TIFF or BMP formats, to do without of the digitizer card and to record the images in a disk to be able to use them in the personal computer. It is required of one of the following commercially available graph design programs: Corel Draw, Photo Shop, FreeHand, Illustrator or Macromedia Flash that are those that we evaluate and that its allow to make the images fusion. Anyone of them works well and a short training is required to be able to manage them. It is necessary a photographic digital camera with a resolution of at least 3.0 mega pixel. The procedure consists on taking photographic images of the radiological studies that the patient already has, selecting those demonstrative images of the pathology in study and that its can also be concordant with the images that we have created in the gammagraphic studies, whether for planar or tomographic. We transfer the images to the personal computer and we read them with the graph design program. To continuation also reads the gammagraphic images. We use those digital tools to make transparent the images, to clip them, to adjust the sizes and to create the fused images. The process is manual and it is requires of ability and experience to choose the images, the cuts, those sizes and the transparency grade. (Author)

  4. New method for protection of parallel generator; Novo metodo para protecao do gerador em paralelismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M R.C. da [Elfa-Seg Eletronica Ltda. (Brazil)

    1988-07-01

    The protection of synchronous machinery, especially generators working in parallel with the pertaining electric power utility have been extensively discussed specially because of the growing importance of co-generation in Brazil. This work discusses existing efficient methods and suggests new ways of proceeding this protection. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Geostatistical methods for the integrated information; Metodos geoestadisticos para la integracion de informacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassiraga, E F; Gomez-Hernandez, J J [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    The main objective of this report is to describe the different geostatistical techniques to use the geophysical and hydrological parameters. We analyze the characteristics of estimation methods used in others studies.

  6. CONSERVACION DE MANZANAS GRANNY SMITH MINIMAMENTE PROCESADAS POR METODOS COMBINADOS

    OpenAIRE

    GALLEGUILLOS CANALES, PAMELA CRISTINA; GALLEGUILLOS CANALES, PAMELA CRISTINA

    2011-01-01

    Se ha demostrado que el consumo de frutas y hortalizas tiene un efecto beneficioso para la salud. Debido a su alto contenido de antioxidantes, constituye una de las maneras más efectivas para reducir el riesgo de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles (Speisky, 2006; Block et al., 1992; Knekt et al., 1997; Ness y Powles, 1997; Doll, 1990; Wang et al., 1996; Del Caro et al., 2004). El aumento de muertes por enfermedades como cáncer, diabetes y enfermedades cardiovasculares, ha llevado a ent...

  7. Avaliação dos métodos de amostragem para fauna perifítica em macrófitas na Reserva da Biosfera, Serra do Espinhaço, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.377 Evaluation of sampling methods for periphytic fauna in macrophytes at the Espinhaço Mountain Range Biosphere Reserve, Minas Gerais State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.377

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Machado López

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos “Jarra”, “Remocao Manual” e “Draga de Eckman modificada” foram avaliados para amostrar a fauna perifitica associada a macrofitas aquaticas. Foram coletadas 63 amostras em cinco ambientes lenticos e tres loticos na reserva da biosfera da Serra do Espinhaco (Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os testes estatisticos Anova e Tukey foram feitos para riqueza de Protista, Rotifera e Crustacea, enquanto para a abundancia de Protista, Rotifera, Crustacea, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada e Nematoda foram avaliados os percentuais. Os protozoarios e rotiferos representaram 80% da abundancia e riqueza da comunidade. Nos ecossistemas avaliados todos os metodos foram relevantes para Protista, por outro lado, o metodo da Jarra foi o mais adequado para a analise de Crustacea. Entre os metodos, a Draga foi menos indicada para os grupos de microinvertebrados nos ecossistemas aquaticos. Os metodos Remocao Manual e Draga foram apropriados para analisar Rotifera. A abundancia de Gastrotricha e Tardigrada demonstrou melhores resultados pelo metodo da Jarra e Nematoda pelo metodo da Draga. Os tres metodos sao apropriados para amostragem da fauna perifitica em ambos os sistemas aquaticos. Entretanto, e importante estar ciente de que para cada tipo de ecossistema a amostragem da comunidade faunistica requer um metodo especifico para obter a melhor performance.The methods “Jar”, “Manual Removal” and “modified Ekman`s Dredge” were evaluated for sampling periphyton fauna associated to aquatic macrophytes. Sixty three samples were collected from five lentic and three lotic water bodies at Espinhaço Mountain Range Biosphere Reserve (Minas Gerais, Brazil. ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests were performed for Protista, Rotifera and Crustacea richness, whilst Protista, Rotifera, Crustacea, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada and Nematoda, abundance were evaluate by percentage. Amongst the three methods, Dregde is less indicated for different water bodies systems

  8. Development of an analytic outline for the aflatoxins analysis in grains and flours; Desarrollo de un esquema analitico para el analisis de aflatoxinas en granos y harinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibaja Adams, Roxana

    2000-07-01

    The instrumental and analytic conditions were optimized for the aflatoxine determination B1, B2, 1 and G2 in corn and peanut byl iquid chromatography of high discharge following the analyzing method AOAC 994,08. Besides, it was defined a function for evaluating the dependence of the chromatographic discharge with the aflatoxine concentration. The analyzing method was validated, and four calibration curves were obtained for the aflatoxine B1, B2, G1 and G2, which turned to have a heterocedastico behavior. The applicability of this method was demonstrated, obtaining imagines of appropriate merit and comparable with those reported by the AOAC. Additionally, the applicability of the chromatographic method was demonstrated in fine layer for the presumptive analysis of aflatoxine, allowing both methods to propose an outline of reliable analysis of real samples. [Spanish] Se optimizaron las condiciones instrumentales y analiticas para la determinacion de aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 y G2 en maiz y mani por Cromatografia liquida de alto desempeno siguiendo el metodo de analisis AOAC 994,08. Ademas, se definio una funcion para evaluar la dependencia del desempeno cromatografico con la concentracion de aflatoxinas.Se valido el metodo de analisis y se obtuvieron las cuatro curvas de calibracion para las aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 y G2, las que resultaron tener un comportamiento heterocedastico. Se demostro la aplicabilidad del metodo, obteniendose figuras de merito adecuadas y comparables con las reportadas por el AOAC.Adicionalmente, se demostro la aplicabilidad del metodo de cromatografia en capa fina para el analisis presuntivo de aflatoxinas, permitiendo ambos metodos proponer un esquema de analisis confiable de muestras reales.

  9. Matriz para ingenieria de tejido oseo: modificacion superficial con zinc Estudio preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Cristian; Olmedo, Daniel; Ozols, Andres

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es desarrollar un metodo de sintesis de matrices para ingenieria de tejidos, capaces de acelerar los procesos reparativos y disminuir el riesgo de infeccion, destinadas a cirugias reconstructivas que involucren el tejido oseo. A este fin se emplea la fase mineral de hueso bovino, la hidroxiapatita, conservando su estructura tridimensional. Esta se obtiene a partir de un proceso de lavado quimico, seguido de un proceso termico que elimina todos los componentes ...

  10. Módulos interactivos para el aprendizaje de la semántica.

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino Palacios, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Se proponen modulos interactivos para lograr el aprendizaje de la semantica en alumnos del V semestre de la Carrera de Lenguas, Literatura y Comunicacion de la Facultad de Educacion de la UNCP. Los metodos utilizados fueron el experimental y el bibliografico-documental. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la prueba objetiva, prueba de ensayo y la prueba pedagogica. Se logró mejorar el aprendizaje de la semántica 

  11. USO DA SISTEMATIZAÇÃO DA ASSISTÊNCIA DE ENFERMAGEM (SAE: UMA FERRAMENTA PARA REALIZAÇÃO DA AUDITORIA DE QUALIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izelta da Silva Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizar uma revisao bibliografica acerca da Sistematização da Assistencia de Enfermagem (SAE como instrumento para auditoria de qualidade. Metodos: Foram revisados 12 artigos cientificos sobre auditoria e 10 artigos sobre SAE, bem como dois livros sobre os assuntos abordados. Esta revisao e de carater descritivo. Resultados: Por meio da pesquisa, tornou-se evidente a correlação da SAE com a auditoria. A SAE bem implementada pode contribuir para uma auditoria de qualidade.

  12. Evaluation of the shield calculation adequacy of radiotherapy rooms through Monte Carlo Method and experimental measures; Avaliacao da adequacao do calculo de blindagens de salas de radioterapia atraves do metodo de Monte Carlos e medidas experimentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meireles, Ramiro Conceicao

    2016-07-01

    The shielding calculation methodology for radiotherapy services adopted in Brazil and in several countries is that described in publication 151 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP 151). This methodology however, markedly employs several approaches that can impact both in the construction cost and in the radiological safety of the facility. Although this methodology is currently well established by the high level of use, some parameters employed in the calculation methodology did not undergo to a detailed assessment to evaluate the impact of the various approaches considered. In this work the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code was used with the purpose of evaluating the above mentioned approaches. TVLs values were obtained for photons in conventional concrete (2.35g / cm{sup 3}), considering the energies of 6, 10 and 25 MeV, respectively, first considering an isotropic radiation source impinging perpendicular to the barriers, and subsequently a lead head shielding emitting a shaped beam, in the format of a pyramid trunk. Primary barriers safety margins, taking in account the head shielding emitting photon beam pyramid-shaped in the energies of 6, 10, 15 and 18 MeV were assessed. A study was conducted considering the attenuation provided by the patient's body in the energies of 6,10, 15 and 18 MeV, leading to new attenuation factors. Experimental measurements were performed in a real radiotherapy room, in order to map the leakage radiation emitted by the accelerator head shielding and the results obtained were employed in the Monte Carlo simulation, as well as to validate the entire study. The study results indicate that the TVLs values provided by (NCRP, 2005) show discrepancies in comparison with the values obtained by simulation and that there may be some barriers that are calculated with insufficient thickness. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the additional safety margins considered when calculating the width of the primary barrier of radiotherapy rooms are conservative. They also show that the attenuation provided by the patient's body decreases with increased energy, with the highest attenuation being 0.54, for the energy of 6 MeV. (author)

  13. Determination of viscosity of fayalite slags for kv model and measurements by means of inclined plane; Estimacion de la viscosidad de escorias fayaliticas utilizando el modelo de calculo kv y el metodo experimental del plano inclinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, V.; Goni, C.; Castella, L.; Brandaleze, E.; Verdeja, L. F.; Parra, R.

    2006-07-01

    The viscosity of the lands represents one of the most relevant variables of most of the processes metallurgical and kinetics of the refine operations, since it is one of the decisive factors of the efficiency in the reactions between metal and lag, as much as slag-refractory. In the last decades, the mathematical models of different metallurgical processes have established methods to predict viscosity of mixtures of oxides fused to high temperatures in function of the chemical composition. The model developed by Toguri, based on the data reported by Johasen and Winterhager et al has proposed the Kv model. The used index it is similar to the relationship used in the steel industry like the basicity index. It is presented in this work values determined of viscosity in experimental form by means of the technique of inclined plane. (Author)

  14. Validation and calculation of uncertainties of the method of determination of creatinine in urine in internal dosimetry; Validacion y calculo de incertidumbres del metodo de determinacion de creatinina en orina en dosimetria interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Barcedo, I.; Hernandez Gonzalez, C.; Benito Alonso, P.; Lopez Zarza, C.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to conduct the validation of the quantification technique of content by spectrophotometry creatinine in urine samples of exposed workers at risk of internal counter and the study of all sources uncertainty that influence in the process. This technique is used to carry out the normalization of the amount of urine to urinary 24h, necessary for dosimetric purposes, as well as a criterion for acceptance of rejection of urine specimens received by the laboratory.

  15. Calculation of voltage drop during motors startup: power flow calculation by using the direct method; Calculo da queda de tensao na partida de motores: metodo direto do fluxo de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Monaco [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, is presented a new theoretical approach developed in order to determine by direct method, non iterative, the load flow among the N bus bar of a generic power system. This method has been used to, from a single line simplified system of a typical industrial substation, used in the petroleum and by products storage and transportation facilities, calculate the voltage drops at bus bars and motors terminals from starting of the electric motors, after defining active and reactive power expressions flowing among bus bars, as a function of their voltages, impedance of connecting cables and of the loads connected to them. (author)

  16. Dancoff factors with partial neutrons absorption in cluster geometry by the direct method; Calculo dos fatores de Dancoff com absorcao parcial de neutrons em geometria cluster pelo metodo direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Leticia Jenisch

    2007-07-01

    Accurate analysis of resonance absorption in heterogeneous systems is essential in problems like criticality, breeding ratios and fuel depletion calculations. In compact arrays of fuel rods, resonance absorption is strongly affected by the Dancoff factor, defined in mis study as the probability that a neutron emitted from the surface of a fuel element, enters another fuel element without any collusion in the moderator or cladding. In fact, in the most practical cases of irregular cells, it is observed that inaccuracies in computing both Grey and Black Dancoff factors, i.e. for partially and perfectly absorbing fuel rods, can lead to considerable errors in the calculated values of such integral quantities. For this reason, much effort has been made in the past decades to further improve the models for calculating Dancoff factors, a task that has been accomplished in connection with the development of faster computers. In the WIMS code, Black Dancoff factors based on the above mentioned collusion probability definition are computed in cluster geometry, for each one of the symmetrically distinct fuel pin positions in the cell. Sets of equally-spaced parallel lines are drawn in subroutine PIJ, at a number of discrete equally-incremented azimuthal angles, covering the whole system and forming a mesh over which the in-plane integrations of the Bickley functions are carried out by simple trapezoidal rule, leading to the first-flight collusion matrices. Although fast, the method in PIJ is inefficient, since the constructed mesh does not depended on the system details, so that regions of small relative volumes are crossed out by relatively few lines, which affects the convergence of the calculated probabilities. A new routine (PIJM) was then created to incorporate a more efficient integration scheme considering each system region individually, minimizing convergence problems and reducing the number of neutron track lines required in the in-plane integrations for any given accuracy. In this routine, the radial integrations are performed by Gauss' formula whereas the angular ones are obtained by extended trapezoidal rule. In the present work, PIJM is extended to compute Grey Dancoff factors by the collision probability definition, in two-dimensional cylindrical cells in cluster geometry. The vi effectiveness of the method is accessed by comparing Grey Dancoff factors as calculated by PIJM, with those available in the literature by the Monte Carlo method, for the irregular geometries of the Canadian CANDU 37 assembly. Dancoff factors at five symmetrically distinct fuel pin positions are found in very good agreement with the literature results. (author)

  17. The ion exchange and its connection the industry II.- Calculation methods for installations; El cambio de ion y su relacion con la industria II.- Metodos de calculo de instalaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte Hueda, A; Lopez Perez, B; Gutierrez Jodra, L

    1960-07-01

    An exposure is made of calculation methods for ion exchange installations based on kinetic considerations and similarity with other unitary operations. Factors to be experimentally obtained as well as difficulties which may occur in its determination are also given. Calculation procedures most commonly used in industry are enclosed and explained with numerical resolution of a problem of water demineralization. (Author) 22 refs.

  18. DOLOČITEV POVRŠINSKE NAPETOSTI Z METODO KAPILARNEGA DVIGA DVOFAZNIH SISTEMOV

    OpenAIRE

    Kravanja, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Namen magistrske naloge je bil postavitev merilne naprave in razvoj nove metode merjenja površinske napetosti s kapilarnim dvigom dvofaznih sistemov v okolici kritične točke. Za pridobitev natančnih in primerljivih meritev je bilo potrebno poznati natančni notranji premer tankih kapilar. Določili smo ga z metodo laserskega tipanja na nemški koordinatni merilni napravi ZEISS tipa UMC-850 s pomočjo merilne programske opreme CALYPSO 5.1.4. Za merjenje ravnotežne višine smo uporabili računalniški...

  19. Ensenanza de la Astronomia a Traves de Metodos no Tradicionales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tignanelli, H. L.

    1990-11-01

    REUMEN: Se presentan los aspects pri nc ipales de a ense? anza de la astronor:. a para -; s. En esta cc .unicaci #n, 5 ha especial mfasis em Ia descripci':"n de las caracteristicas y las posibi lidades peda gicas de los no tradicionales de aprendiZaje. E' : In the following the principal aspects of teaching of astrono ..y for children) are oresented. In this paper, special emphasis has been given to desc rib the characteristics and pedagogical possibilities of the non traditional methods of learning. : TEACHING

  20. Impacto orcamentario da utilizacao do Metodo Canguru no cuidado neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Piovezan Entringer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Estimar o impacto orçamentário da utilização do Método Canguru na rede municipal de saúde. MÉTODOS Um modelo de decisão analítico foi desenvolvido para simular os custos do Método Canguru e Unidade Intermediária Neonatal no Rio de Janeiro, RJ, em 2011. A população de referência foi constituída pelos recém-nascidos estáveis clinicamente, que podem receber assistência nas duas modalidades de cuidado. O impacto orçamentário foi estimado para uma coorte hipotética de 1.000 recém-nascidos elegíveis em um ano. A proporção de recém-nascidos elegíveis que recebem assistência nas duas modalidades foi obtida por coleta de dados nas maternidades incluídas no estudo. As probabilidades dos eventos e o consumo de recursos de saúde, no período da assistência, foram incorporados ao modelo. Cenários foram desenvolvidos para refletir a adoção do método Canguru em maior ou menor escala. RESULTADOS A utilização do Método Canguru significou redução de gastos equivalente a 16% em um ano, se todos os recém-nascidos elegíveis fossem assistidos por esse método. CONCLUSÕES A opção Método Canguru é de menor custo comparado com a da Unidade Intermediária Neonatal. A análise de impacto orçamentário da utilização desse método no Sistema Único de Saúde indicou economia importante para o período de um ano.

  1. Calculation of reactivity for safety in nuclear reactors; Calculo de la reactividad para seguridad en reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suescun D, D. [Universidad Surcolombiana, Av. Pastrana Borrero - Carrera 1, Neiva, Huila (Colombia); Rojas A, O., E-mail: daniel.suescun@usco.edu.co [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla, Av. 9 Pte 1908, Barrio de Santiago, 72410 Puebla (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The measurement of reactivity is a function of time and its calculation results from the variation in nuclear power from the inverse equation of punctual kinetics. This equation is a differential integral, where the term of the integral conserves the historical power and the differential part is directly related to the period of the reactor. In practice, in a nuclear plant, sensors are required to record the signals. For example, the movements of the control rods that cause the fluctuations of nuclear power over time commonly generate signals with noise, an event that makes difficult to estimate the reactivity. Thus is necessary and very useful to build digital reactivity meters in real time, since allows a reactor to be operated with greater security. The calculation of the reactivity is carried out using punctual kinetics, especially the concentration of delayed neutron precursors. In this work we present a new way to reduce the fluctuations in the calculation of the reactivity, for the high precision we propose the generalization of the predictor and corrector of the Adams-Bashforth-Moulton (ABM) method of order 4 to solve numerically the equations of the point kinetics for the calculation of the reactivity, without using the power history, due to the nature of the equations of the punctual kinetics, the modifiers of the different predictors are used to increase the accuracy in the approximation obtained accompanied by the filter known as Savitzky-Golay (Sg), allow to reduce the fluctuations of reactivity. It is known that the Sg filter softens and does not attenuate the nuclear power regardless of its shape, guarantees to reduce noise levels up to σ = 0.01, with a calculation time step of σ = 0.01, s. This formulation uses a polynomial approximation of Gram, with a degree d = 2, to calculate the convolution coefficients by means of an analytical formula that is implemented computationally and avoids problems of bad conditioning, caused by the inversion of a linear system. This formulation uses a polynomial approximation of Gram, with a degree d = 2, to calculate the convolution coefficients by means of an analytical formula that is implemented computationally and avoids problems of bad conditioning, caused by the inversion of a linear system. In addition, this article presents a hybrid method that allows simulating the Gaussian random noise, which is distributed around the medium power and the fluctuations of the reactivity are reduced. The results show better values in the maximum difference and in the average absolute error of the reactivity compared to that reported in the literature. (Author)

  2. Calculation of dose equivalents for photon skyshine production; Calculo da dose equivalente para fotons decorrente da producao de skyshine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frota, Marco A.; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria (LARARA)]. E-mail: egbakel@vm.uff.br

    2005-07-01

    Some radiation facilities are designed with little shielding in the ceiling above the accelerator. A problem may then arise as a result of the radiation scattered by the atmosphere to points at ground level outside the treatment room. Stray radiation of this type is referred to as skyshine, and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 51 (NCRP 1977) gives methods for the calculation of skyshine for accelerator facilities. McGinley (1993) has compared skyshine measurements made at an 18 MeV medical accelerator facility with values calculated using the techniques presented in NCRP Report No. 51. Measurements were made of the photon levels outside a treatment room housing a Varian 2100 deg C. The roof above the accelerator was designed for weather protection only and offered little shielding for the primary beam and scattered radiation. The distance from the treatment room floor to the roof was 4.27 m, and the primary walls were constructed of concrete 2.0 m thick.The secondary walls were fabricated of concrete 0.99 m thick. The results for the photon skyshine rate dose as a function of distance from the isocenter using Monte Carlo code, are compared with those in NCRP publication 74 and measured obtained. The photon skyshine dose rates simulated for real clinic spectra transmitted through roof range from 4.7 to 14.6 nSv.s{sup -1}. (author)

  3. Elementary computation of radiation doses and shieldings for radiochemical laboratories; Calculo Elemental de dosis y blindajes para laboratorios radioquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F

    1971-07-01

    Simple procedures for the calculation of radiation exposition, half thickness, shield thickness, etc. are described and equations and graphs are included for those gamma-emitting radionuclides, that are more often used in radiochemical laboratories. Application is made of these procedures to three radionuclides, bromine-82, sodium-24 and cobalt-60 which cover a rather wl.de energy range; theoretical results are compared with those obtained from experimental measurements. (Author) 23 refs.

  4. Treatment calculation program for reverse osmosis facilities; Programa de calculo de tratamiento para instalaciones de osmosis inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adroer, M.; Bodas, J.; Coma, J.

    2001-07-01

    Reverse osmosis if a technique used ever more frequently for the desalination of water. it is very important to maintain the permeability of the membrane as much as possible throughout its life, and in order to do this, is necessary to know the incrustations properties of the water in contact with the membrane. The Adicro program has been developed to calculate the characteristics of this water from the analysis of the intake water, the type of membrane used, and the recovery percentage. It also calculates the necessary inhibitor doses and, finally, whether the supply water is apt for use in the plant under the predicted conditions or whether it should be modified. (Author) 2 refs.

  5. The cost calculus model for the hull roughness; Um modelo para calculo do custo da rugosidade do casco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco, Antonino Di [International Paint (Akzo Nobel Ltda.), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The economic importance of the condition of the immersed hull cannot be underestimated; any increase of the roughness may result in a significant increase in the operational costs of a ship. There are two main types of roughness, biological and physical, each one with its proper characteristics of macro and micro roughness; when an increase in the roughness of the underwater hull occurs, the frictional resistance of the ship or .drag. also increases, resulting in additional power and consequent increase of the fuel consumption to keep the speed of the ship. Keeping the power constant will result in lower speed and greater voyage times. Aiming the better understanding of the effect of the roughness in the performance, costs and operational efficiency of a ship, International Paint developed a new model called 'Hull Roughness Penalty Calculator', a program that predicts the increase of the hull roughness during in service time specified service and combines it with the fouling risk associated with different types of antifoulings. The model compares fuel consumptions and costs of different types of TBT free antifoulings to derive the potential benefit, and also can be used to compare the emissions of carbon dioxide and sulphur oxides. (author)

  6. RAMA Methodology for the Calculation of Neutron Fluence; Metodologia RAMA para el Calculo de la Fluencia Neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villescas, G.; Corchon, F.

    2013-07-01

    he neutron fluence plays an important role in the study of the structural integrity of the reactor vessel after a certain time of neutron irradiation. The NRC defined in the Regulatory Guide 1.190, the way must be estimated neutron fluence, including uncertainty analysis of the validation process (creep uncertainty is ? 20%). TRANSWARE Enterprises Inc. developed a methodology for calculating the neutron flux, 1,190 based guide, known as RAMA. Uncertainty values obtained with this methodology, for about 18 vessels, are less than 10%.

  7. The Control of Fast Reactors: Current Methods and Future Prospects; Controle des Reacteurs a Neutrons Rapides. Methodes Actuelles et Perspectives d'Avenir; Upravlenie reaktorami na bystrykh nejtronakh. sushchestvuyushchie metody i dal'nejshie perspektivy; Control de Reactores Rapidos: Metodos Actuales y Perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenstein, W. B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1964-06-15

    examina los actuales mecanismos de control de los reactores de neutrones rapidos. En la medida de lo posible aprovechan el control por medio de fugas neutronicas. Si este metodo no es aplicable se suele recurrir al control por desplazamiento de los materiales del cuerpo. Igualmente se recurre a un control limitado utilizando un absorbente. Ninguno de estos metodos presenta ventajas considerables cuando se aplica a los'grandes reactores de potencia regeneradores, a menos que la razon interna de regeneracion (del cuerpo) sea muy elevada. Se requerira mucha habilidad para utilizar metodos de control basados en el empleo de un absorbente o en el desplazamiento espectral sin afectar en grado apreciable la economia neutronica deseada y a menudo necesaria. El autor cita algunos resultados preliminares obtenidos con sistemas perfeccionados. La reactividad de control viene determinada por los requisitos relativos a la parada del reactor, al ciclo del combustible (exceso de reactividad) y, en menor medida, por la realimentacion dominante. Pueden especificarse perfectamente los requisitos relativos al exceso de reactividad para un ciclo de combustible determinado, pero esos requisitos varian de modo considerable en otros sistemas similares que funcionen con distintos ciclos de combustible. A partir de ciertos limites, pueden fijarse casi arbitrariamente les requisitos relativos al exceso de reactividad. Sin embargo, existen algunas consideraciones generales que rigen la determinacion de este parametro. Se tienen en cuenta dichas consideraciones al examinar la reactividad de control en los actuales reactores de neutrones rapidos comparandola a la cantidad realmente necesaria para el funcionamiento de reactores de potencia regeneradores y neutrones rapidos. El autor cita parametros tipicos de potencia y de realimentacion en funcion de la temperatura a fin de determinar su influencia en los requisitos relativos a la reactividad de control. Los metodos utilizados para predecir la

  8. Analytic techniques to quantify Tetrachlorohydroquinone and Chloranil; Tecnicas analiticas para cuantificar Tetraclorohidroquinona y Cloranilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Escobedo, Ma. Teresa; Gutierrez de Gonzalez, Luz Ma; Gojon Zorrilla, Gabriel [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    1995-02-01

    Tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) was determined by two methods: iodometry and cerimetry. Tritation with aqueous ceric ammonium sulphate using potentiometric end-point detection proved to be the method of choice on account of its coefficient of variation (CV=0.475%) and its excellent accuracy. Chloranil (TCQ) was quantified by titration with aqueous ascorbic acid in acetone-water-hexamethylene tetramine (HMT), the golden-yellow color of the TCQ-HMT complex disappearing at the end point. This method is accurate and has CV=0.396%. [Spanish] Se cuantifico la tetraclorohidroquinona (TCHQ) mediante una tecnica yodometrica y un metodo potenciometrico, basado en el uso de sulfato cerico amoniacal. Se concluyo que el metodo potenciometrico es el mejor, ya que tiene un coeficiente de variacion (CV) de 0.475%, y una exactitud muy aceptable. Se desarrollo un tecnica para cuantificar el Cloranilo (TCQ) por titulacion con Acido Ascorbico en presencia de Hexametilentetramina (HMT) en medio acetona-agua; el punto final se determino por la separacion del color amarillo oro del complejo TCQ-HMT. Esta tecnica presenta un coeficiente de variacion (CV) de 0.396% y una exactitud aceptable. Se realizaron pruebas de hipotesis para verificar la exactitud de los metodos elegidos.

  9. Techniques for contact and contact with friction problems; Tecnicas para problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia Arana, Gonzalo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    Different numerical techniques are presented based in the finite element method to obtain numerical solutions to contact and contact with friction problems between solid bodies, and compared between each other. [Espanol] Se presentan diferentes tecnicas numericas basadas en el metodo de elementos finitos para la obtencion de soluciones numericas de problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion entre cuerpos solidos, y se comparan entre si.

  10. Techniques for contact and contact with friction problems; Tecnicas para problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velandia Arana, Gonzalo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    Different numerical techniques are presented based in the finite element method to obtain numerical solutions to contact and contact with friction problems between solid bodies, and compared between each other. [Espanol] Se presentan diferentes tecnicas numericas basadas en el metodo de elementos finitos para la obtencion de soluciones numericas de problemas de contacto y contacto con friccion entre cuerpos solidos, y se comparan entre si.

  11. Cuestionarios Interactivos para Autoevaluación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez García, Juan Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La autoevaluación es un instrumento valioso para que el propio alumno pueda medir el grado de conocimientos adquiridos de la materia en cuestión, al tiempo sirve para adiestrarlo en el tipo de prueba que se utilizará posteriormente en el examen. Por otro lado, dado que en la adaptación al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (E3S tiene particular importancia la labor realizada por el propio alumno, los pruebas de autoevalución adquieren, si cabe, una mayor relevancia. Por todo ello, hemos elaborado unos test interactivos con hoja de calculo, para cubrir el doble propósito de evaluar los conocimientos alcanzados por nuestros alumnos, relativos tanto a la materia, como al manejo en sí de la propia herramienta informática de la hoja de cálculo. Se muestran ejemplos concretos relacionados con las matemáticas y la hoja de cálculo Excel.

  12. Group cross-sections for fast reactors; Sections efficaces de groupes pour les reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Gruppovye secheniya reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Secciones eficaces de grupos para reactores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweifel, P P [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ball, G L [Atomic Power Development Associates, Inc., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1962-03-15

    , comme c'est souvent le cas, la section efficace de groupe en terme d'integrales de resonance efficace, mais qu'il faut modifier cette definition suivant le type de schema multigroupe utilise. (author) [Spanish] La memoria discute en terminos generales las ecuaciones de difusion de grupos multiples y la forma correcta de las secciones eficaces correspondientes . En particular, demuestra que la seccion eficaz media de transporte puede expresarse con bastante precision en terminos de un promedio de recorridos libres medios. Esta magnitud es dificil de calcular porque no se puede expresar en funcion de promedios elementales ; sin embargo, se demuestran varias desigualdades que simplifican el procedimiento de determinacion de promedios. La memoria discute otros tres aspectos de las secciones eficaces de grupos que con frecuencia se ignoran, pero que pueden ser importantes al estudiar detalladamente un diseno. a) El empleo de los mismos valores medios correspondientes a las secciones eficaces de grupos para todos los reactores rapidos no se justifica si los espectros de los diferentes reactores no son similares y si las secciones eficaces varian rapidamente dentro del grupo, como ocurre a menudo. Los autores describen un metodo de iteracion, que permite obtener valores medios correctos y determinar en que medida los efectos espectrales ejercen influencia sobre los calculos de reactores. b) En los calculos de transporte (metodo S{sub n} por ejemplo), los promedios deben evaluarse en funcion del angulo y de la energia. Como el flujo no es separable en una parte angulo y en una parte energetica, es necesario proceder con sumo cuidado para evitar errores. La ecuacion S{sub n} se estudia sobre la base de un modelo sencillo, y de este estudio se deduce un criterio que puede ser de utilidad al determinar la importancia de la no-separabilida d angular en los calculos de reactores. c) Basandose en los argumentos de conservacion neutronica, se deriva una relacion de compatibilidad

  13. Calculation of the temperature distribution and thermal stresses in a gas turbine nozzle cooled by air film; Calculo de la distribucion de temperaturas y esfuerzos termicos en una tobera de turbina de gas enfriada por pelicula de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez R, Alejandro; Garcia I, Rafael; Mazur C, Zdislaw [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    temperaturas. Con las temperaturas correctamente importadas, se realizaron las simulaciones para el calculo de los esfuerzos termicos en la tobera.

  14. Mathematical and numerical modeling of the turbulent dispersion of reactive pollutant plumes; Modelacion matematica y numerica de la dispersion turbulenta de plumas de contaminantes reactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodas Grapain, Arturo

    1999-07-01

    One of the main problems involved in air quality models to calculate the pollutant concentration in a single point in the space and time, is the complexity of the numerical method. Even though the numerical methods are based on sophisticated and elaborated mathematics. They present two important and inevitable drawbacks: the stability of the numerical method. This means that its capacity to obtain reliable convergency in relation to the calculated values and real values is limited. The time and memory consumption. The high machine memory used to perform the numerical procedures and the time needed to prepare such procedures. Another problem is the mathematical basis of the structure of the air quality model. Commonly, simple models can perform quick estimations; however they are not exact contrary to the complex and elaborated models. In order to employ these complex models a high speed computer (workstations or Cray computer) is required. For this reason, this work presents a model approach with a relatively simple theoretical structure. The structure of this model named MOTTQUIP (modelo de transporte turbulento y quimica de plumas) can provide good results in point concentration operations. These results are compared with those obtained by two moderately complex mathematical models (Georgopoulos-Seinfeld and Lipphardt reactive plume models). The model developed in this work, shows a special feature where the solution of the differential equations are not involved explicitly. Therefore, it does not present the typical difficult in solving this kind of equations with the traditional numerical methods. [Spanish] Uno de los principales problemas que se presentan en los modelos de calidad del aire para el calculo de la concentracion de un cierto contaminante, para un punto dado en el espacio y en el tiempo, es la complejidad del metodo numerico involucrado para este fin, debido a que dichos metodos de calculo estan basados en matematicas sofisticadas y muy

  15. Some Non-Destructive Testing Methods Applicable to Sintered Materials; Quelques Methodes d'Essais Non Destructifs Applicables aux Materiaux Frittes; Nekotorye metody nedestruktivnykh ispytanii, primenimye k spechennym materialam; Algunos Metodos de Ensayo No Destructivo Aplicables a los Materiales Sinterizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labusca, Elena; Mirion, I.; Andreescu, N.; Alecu, M.; Biscoveanu, I. [Institut de Physique Atomique, Bucarest (Romania)

    1965-10-15

    solides frittes, a l'aide de la metallographie et de la microscopie electronique. Ces methodes mettent en evidence l'homogeneite de la structure, les dimensions et l'orientation des grains, la presence de defauts divers (inclusions, pores) et revolution meme du processus de frittage, y compris la formation des cristaux, la croissance granulaire, etc. Dans quelques cas, on peut combiner l'examen microscopique a des essais de microdurete. Cet examen de la structure microcristalline represente l'une des methodes principales de controle qualitatif des materiaux frittes, et ne peut etre remplace par aucun autre moyen d'investigation. 2. Controle du degre de consolidation, qui determine essentiellement la qualite des materiaux frittes. Ce controle est effectue par la mesure de quelques proprietes, telles que la conductibilite electrique et thermique, en correlation avec la densite, etant donne que la conductibilite des materiaux frittes est directement porportionnelle au degre de frittage. On a essaye aussi une methode adequate de controle de la porosite; on a obtenu des donnees experimentales interessantes, surtout au point de vue de la porosite libre, laquelle est susceptible aux inclusions gazeuses. Le memoire contient des donnees experimentales concernant l'application de ces methodes de controle a quelques materiaux frittes interessants pour la technologie nucleaire. (author) [Spanish] Teniendo en cuenta la estructura granular especifica de los materiales sinterizados, elaborados a partir de polvos, cuyo proceso de consolidacion se desarrolla en funcion del tratamiento de sinterizacion, los autores han estudiado algunos metodos para verificar el grado de sinterizacion y controlar ciertas propiedades. Entre los metodos no destructivos utilizados, se mencionan en la presente memoria: 1. Examen de la estructura cristalina de los solidos sinterizados por metalografia y microscopfa electronica. Estos metodos ponen de manifiesto el giado de homogeneidad estructural, la dimension

  16. Osservazioni sul principio di legalità come idea e come metodo nell’esperienza giuridica della Chiesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Serra

    2012-10-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. – La struttura essenziale del concetto di legalità e la sua realizzazione radicale nel diritto della Chiesa. - 3. L’idea di legalità come “regola che sta prima” nel ius commune e la sua coesistenza con un approccio empirico, essenzialmente giurisprudenziale e dottrinale, di costruzione del diritto. Il principio di legalità come metodo di produzione del diritto nel pensiero giuridico moderno- 4. Il legame storico-concettuale fra il principio di legalità e i Codici moderni - 5. Il Codex iuris canonici del 1917 e il principio di legalità come metodo di costruzione del ius ecclesiae in funzione della certezza del diritto - 6. (segueUlteriori riflessi della prima codificazione canonica sul principio di legalità.:

  17. Metodologia de la Administración Federal de Aviación para el Diseño de estructuras de Pavimento flexible para aeropuertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Rodrigo Quintero González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se representan los aspectos técnicos fundamentales y principalesconsideraciones de la metodologia propuesta por la Administracion Federal de Aviación FAA para el diseño de estructuras de pavimento para aeropuertos. Se exponen los aspectos sobre las variables consideradas en el diseño (estructurales tránsito, factores ambientales y factores intrinsecos, se establecen las caracteristicas de las variables consideradas por el metodo (subrasante y materiales para la estructura, geometría del tren de aterrizaje, número de decolajes equivalentes y peso bruto maximo del decolaje y se explica el procedimiento utilizado para el tratamiento de la información requerida en diseño estructural de pavimentos flexibles para aeropuertos.

  18. Calculo del valor en riesgo del futuro de energia e internacionalizacion del sector energetico en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Esquivel Fonseca, Leidy Gioanna

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo de grado busca definir cuál es el mejor método para determinar el valor en riesgo del contrato de futuro de energía eléctrica que se transa en Colombia, para cumplir con este objetivo se toma como referencia el marco histórico del VaR y de los futuros seguido de las características de la fijación de precios, la estructura del contrato, que políticas y métodos hay para cubrirse del riesgo y como se realiza en otros países, realizando algunos cálculos de los modelos más trad...

  19. Radioactive Waste Facilities at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment; Installations pour le Traitement des Dechets Radioactifs au Centre de Recherche de la Commission Australienne a l'Energie Atomique; 0423 0421 0422 0414 ; Dispositivos para Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en el Centro de Investigaciones de la Australian Atomic Energy Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, C. L.W.; Keher, L. H.; Miles, G. L.; Wilson, A. R.W. [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1960-07-01

    'impuretes fertiles (appliquant un procede calcium-fer-phosphate) et de bassins de retenue. Le memoire examine les diverses methodes de concentration des impuretes et de traitement secondaire qui sont actuellement a l'etude. Les auteurs etudient la formule d'evacuation et la dilution probable dans le Woronora, et decrivent un essai de dilution qui a ete effectue dans les eaux touchees par la maree. On se propose d'enfouir, le cas echeant apres empaquetage, tous les dechets solidesi de faible activite. Les auteurs etudient le choix et l'emplacement de la zone d'elimination. Ils font un expose sur la construction d'une installation destinee au stockage et a l'elimination de dechets solides a activite elevee. On envisage l'e vaporation et le stockage des dechets liquides a activite moyenne et elevee. Le memoire donne des renseignements detailles sur les depenses d'equipement et d'exploitation afferentes a l'usine de traitement des effluents et a d'autres installations pour le traitement des dechets. (author) [Spanish] La memoria describe las instalaciones previstas para la recogida, tratamiento y evacuacion de los desechos radiactivos en Lucas Heights, en relacion con las cantidades que se produciran segun los calculos. Los efluentes de baja actividad se dividen en tres tipos: a) Aguas de las cloacas, b) Desechos de funcionamiento, provenientes de la torre de refrigeracion del reactor, de los talleres mecanicos y otras zonas no activas, c) Efluentes de los laboratorios y otras zonas activas. La planta de tratamiento para los efluentes del ultimo tipo consiste en principio en tanques de mezcla y dosificacion de alcali, un clarificador de lodos (que emplea un sistema a base de calcio - herro - fosfato) y tanques receptores. Se estan estudiando metodos para concentrar los lodos y metodos de tratamiento secundario, que se discuten en la memoria. La memoria estudia la forma de descarga y el grado de dilucion que se espera obtener en el rio Woronora, asi como un experimento de dilucion que se

  20. Monte Carlo calculations for doses in organs and tissues to oral radiography; Calculo de Monte Carlo para doses em orgaos e tecidos para radiologia oral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, E V.M.

    1986-12-31

    Using the MIRD 5 phantom and Monte Carlo technique, organ doses in patients undergoing external dental examination were calculated taking into account the different x-ray beam geometries and the various possible positions of x-ray source with regard to the head of the patient. It was necessary to introduce in the original computer program a new source description specific for dental examinations. To have a realistic evaluation of organ doses during dental examination it was necessary to introduce a new region in the phantom heat which characterizes the teeth and salivary glands. The attenuation of the x-ray beam by the lead shield of the radiographic film was also introduced in the calculation. (author).

  1. Design and construction of a live insulator washing system for transformers; Diseno y construccion de un sistema de lavado en vivo para los aisladores de transformadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizama-Camara, Y.A. [Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: yahir_lizama@ieee.org; Mendieta-Antunez, J.A.; Blanco-Brisset, E. [Industrias IEM, Tlalnepantla, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: unamanu@hotmail.com; Olivares Galvan, J.C.; Escarela-Perez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mails: jolivare_1999@yahoo.com; r.escarela@ieee.org

    2012-04-15

    Through the electrical industry history there have been developments of different cleaning methods to avoid the insulators flashover s due to pollution. This paper describes the principal cleaning methods applicable to transformers insulators, emphasizing the high pressure fixed-type live insulator washing method, which was applied for cleaning the insulators of 900 MVA transformer bank of the Laguna Verde power plant localized at the state of Veracruz in Mexico. We propose a transformer insulator cleaning methodology, which identifies the main variables to take into account (the voltage level of the transformers, the pollution level of the insulators, determination of the optimal wash time, the amount of water, the optimal pressure of water jet, the maximum conductivity of the water and the wind velocity), reference values are given for these variables. In addition, we present an economic cost analysis when applying a method of this kind in an electric substation. [Spanish] A lo largo de la historia de la industria electrica se han desarrollado diferentes metodos de limpieza para evitar las fallas de los aisladores de los transformadores debido a la contaminacion. Este articulo describe los principales metodos de limpieza aplicables a los aisladores de transformadores, enfatizando el sistema de lavado en vivo tipo fijo con agua a alta presion, metodo que fue aplicado para realizar la limpieza de los aisladores en el banco de transformadores de 900 MVA de la central electrica Laguna Verde, ubicada en el estado de Veracruz, en Mexico. Se propone una metodologia para la limpieza de los aisladores de transformadores, donde se identifican las principales variables a tomar en cuenta (el nivel de tension de los transformadores, nivel de contaminacion de los aisladores, determinacion del tiempo optimo de lavado, cantidad de precipitacion de agua, presion optima del chorro de agua, maxima conductividad del agua y las velocidades de los vientos) y se dan valores de

  2. Ultra-high-speed oscillographic techniques; Techniques d'oscillographie ultra-rapide; Metody sverkhskorostnoj ostsillografii; Metodos oscilograficos ultrarrapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, S; Elphick, B; Foster, H [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1962-04-15

    100 {Omega}; e) Des resistances de complement a large bande, destinees a l'extraction des signaux de declenchement de la base de temps; / ) Des bases de temps fournissant des signaux de l'ordre de quelques nanosecondes et comportant des dispositifs de declenchement et de suppression du faisceau; g) Un appareil de prise de vues a grande ouverture. En conclusion, le memoire examine certaines applications de l'electronique nucleaire. (author) [Spanish] Despues de un resumen historico de los metodos de utilizacion de oscilografos para senales transitorias de alta velocidad, los autores examinan sus limites de aplicacion practica. En la memoria se pasa revista a los tubos de rayos catodicos apropiados para estos oscilografos, tomando en cuenta especialmente los tipos de deflexion por onda progresiva. En la memoria se estudian los siguientes componentes de un oscilografo completo para senales transitorias: a) Un tubo de rayos catodicos con deflexion por onda progresiva con conexion coaxial balanceada y una anchura de banda de 2 GHz; b) Un transformador inversor de fase con una impedancia caracteristica de 100 y 50 {Omega} y una anchura de banda de 1,5 kHz a 1,5 GHz; c) Resistencias de terminacion coaxial para frecuencias del orden de los GHz; d) Condensadores de acoplamiento compensados para usarlos en lineas coaxiales con frecuencias comprendidas entre 5 kHz y 3 GHz y 100 {Omega} de impedancia caracteristica; e) Atenuadores resistivos de banda ancha, para la extraccion de senales de disparo de base de tiempos; f) Bases de tiempo del orden de los nanosegundos, con dispositivos disparadores y supresores ; g) Una camara de gran apertura. Finalmente, los autores examinan las aplicaciones de estos oscilografos en la electronica nuclear. (author) [Russian] Posle kratkogo opisaniya ostsillograficheskogo metoda izucheniya sverkhskorostnykh perekhodnykh izluchenij obsuzhdayutsya prakticheskie vozmozhnosti ehtogo apparata. Daetsya obzor podkhodyashchikh katodnykh ehlektronnykh lamp

  3. Clique aqui para Decidir: As Recomendacoes Online Na Decisao de Compra dos Servicos Hoteleiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa Karen Leitinho Sales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou como as opinioes publicadas em sites de recomendacoes influenciam o processo de decisao de compra de servicos hoteleiros. Na coleta de dados, pelo metodo qualitativo, utilizou‑se entrevistas com internautas e consumidores que ja se sentiram influenciados pelas opinioes de outros usuarios. Os resultados indicam que as opinioes postadas atuam de forma relevante na decisao de compra de servicos hoteleiros. Os principais fatores para tornar os comentarios dos internautas referencias sao a credibilidade e a confianca que os buscadores de informacoes lhes atribuem. Identificaram‑se, ainda, os processo de compartilhamento e de busca de informacoes online dos servicos turisticos.

  4. Subsurface microbial ecology. Epi fluorescence direct counts; Ecologia microbica del sottosuolo: metodo di conta diretta in epifluorescenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barra Caracciolo, A.; Silvestri, C.; Creo, C.; Izzo, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    To the aim of recognize the importance of microorganisms in affecting or even determining the fate of xenobiotics in the subsurface environment evaluating bacteria concentration in a subsurface ecosystem, the report discusses a soil sample treatment method which has been developed for epi fluorescence direct counting with DAPI. [Italian] Lo studio discute un metodo di trattamento del campione per la conta diretta in epifluorescenza con un marcatore selettivo per il DNA, il DAPI, al fine di quantificare la concentrazione batterica del sottosuolo e studiare il ruolo dei microrganismi nella biodegradazione delle molecole esogene, ancora poco indagato.

  5. La Vision que tienen del Calculo los Diplomados en Empresariales: Un Test Final

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seijas Macías, J. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Como docentes de Matemáticas Aplicadas a la Economía y Empresa somos conscientes de las a veces difíciles relaciones entre ambas disciplinas. ¿En qué sentido se diluyen las matemáticas en la economía? ¿Qué queda de ellas en los alumnos de empresa al acabar la carrera? ¿El lenguaje matemático sigue teniendo significado para ellos? Este trabajo pretende responder a estas preguntas tomando como referencia un test pasado a los alumnos del último año de la diplomatura de Ciencias Empresariales de la Universidad de A Coruña.

  6. Equilibrio liquido-liquido-vapor de misturas ternarias : algoritimo de calculo e aspectos termodinamicos

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Helena Cano de Andrade

    1991-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho é uma contribuição ao estudo de processos de separação envolvendo fases em equilibrio liquido-liquido-vapor. Os seguintes aspectos são abordados: (1) desenvolvimento de um algoritmo eficiente de cálculo de flash liquido-liquido-vapor e sua aplicação para gerar diagramas de fases e em cálculos de destilação; (2) avaliação da utilização de parâmetros binários do modelo UNIQUAC obtidos de dados bifásicos em cálculos trifásicos de misturas ternárias; (3) medidas experimentai...

  7. Preparation of hydrotalcite compounds using ultrasound irradiation to capture CO{sub 2}; Preparacion de compuestos tipo hidrotalcita utilizando irradiacion de ultrasonido para la captura de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.A.J.; Paredes, S.P.; Valenzuela, M.A.; Hernandez, M.L. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: sparedesc@ipn.com.mx

    2009-09-15

    Al-Mg hydrotalcite compounds (HTC) were prepared using co-precipitation, sol-gel and reconstruction of the structure with ultrasound-assisted irradiation. The interlaminar components for each method were nitrate, acetylacetonate ethoxide and metavanadate, respectively. Optimization of the synthesis was performed using x-ray diffraction. The effect of the different parameters on synthesis was studied, including pH, time and ultrasound irradiation power. In addition, for the reconstruction method, temperature and calcination time were evaluated. For all methods, ultrasound-assisted methods were found to be more efficient and economical than conventional methods reported (autoclave). They also have the advantage of being able to control properties such as crystallinity, porosity and the specific surface, which significantly depends on the preparation method, irradiation time and type of interlaminar component. These methods are intended to synthesize interlaminar anionic materials that are very scarce in nature with better properties than traditional adsorbents used for the capture of CO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Se prepararon compuestos tipo hidrotalcita Al-Mg por los metodos de: coprecipitacion, sol gel y reconstruccion de la estructura asistidos por irradiacion de ultrasonido. Los componentes interlaminares para cada metodo fueron respectivamente: nitrato, etoxido-acetilacetonato y metavanadato. La optimizacion de la sintesis, se efectuo mediante difraccion de rayos-X. Se estudio el efecto de diversos parametros en la sintesis: pH, tiempo y potencia de irradiacion de ultrasonido, ademas, para el metodo de reconstruccion se evaluaron la temperatura y el tiempo de calcinacion. En todos los casos se encontro que el empleo de metodos asistidos por ultrasonido resultan ser mas eficientes y economicos que los metodos convencionales reportados (autoclave), ademas tienen la ventaja, de poder controlar propiedades tales como: la cristalinidad, la porosidad y la superficie

  8. Trends in the analytical methods for water analysis; Tendencias de los metodos analiticos para el analisis del agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortajada-Genero, L. A.; Campins-Falco, P. [Universidad de Valencia (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The technological and methodological advances have provided and evolution of analytical chemistry, specially in the area of water analysis. There area wide variety of problems for this kind of analysis, as result of the high number of possible objectives. They involve from complex environmental studies to routine control of a physical-chemical parameter. Additionally, the variety of analysis to analyse is increasing as in total number as in complexity terms. The response has been the appearance of a high number of analytical methods. Some guidelines and recommendations have been described together with different strategies for quality assurance. In this paper, a review of the last analytical methods described in the scientific references for determinations in water was realised. The evolution and future perspectives were also studied. (Author) 16 refs.

  9. Tools for building Breast Cancer CAD methods; Herramientas para elaborar metodos de CAD del cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Herrero, G.; Franco-Valiente, J. M.; Suarez-Ortega, C.; Rubio del Solar, M.; Ramos-Pollam, R.; Guevara-Lopez, M. A.; Gonzalez de Posada, N.; Ramos, I.; Loureiro, J.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the main results of the collaboration currently ongoing between CETA-CIEMAT and the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Porto. It introduces the Mammography image Workstation for Analysis and Diagnosis (MIWAD) and the data analysis processes through which Grid infrastructures are used to develop Breast Cancer Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) methods.MIWAD is a novel integrated software framework that integrates a specialized graphical user interface combining digital image processing, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence techniques. This paper describes its successful application in a pilot experience, on the first Portuguese Breast Cancer Digital Repository. (Author)

  10. A proactive method for safety management in nuclear facilities; Um metodo proativo para gerenciamento da seguranca em instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos; Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; Santos, Isaac Antonio Luquetti dos, E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana

    2014-07-01

    Due to the modern approach to address the safety of nuclear facilities which highlights that these organizations must be able to assess and proactively manage their activities becomes increasingly important the need for instruments to evaluate working conditions. In this context, this work presents a proactive method of managing organizational safety, which has three innovative features: 1) the use of predictive indicators that provide current information on the performance of activities, allowing preventive actions and not just reactive in safety management, different from safety indicators traditionally used (reactive indicators) that are obtained after the occurrence of undesired events; 2) the adoption of resilience engineering approach in the development of indicators - indicators are based on six principles of resilience engineering: top management commitment, learning, flexibility, awareness, culture of justice and preparation for the problems; 3) the adoption of the concepts and properties of fuzzy set theory to deal with subjectivity and consistency of human trials in the evaluation of the indicators. The fuzzy theory is used primarily to map qualitative models of decision-making, and inaccurate representation methods. The results of this study aim an improvement in performance and safety in organizations. The method was applied in a radiopharmaceutical shipping sector of a nuclear facility. The results showed that the method is a good monitoring tool objectively and proactively of the working conditions of an organizational domain.

  11. Sintese fotoquimica de polipirrol em membranas microporosas de PVDF : um novo metodo para obter compositos condutores eletricos

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Marlene Campomanes Santana

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho descreve em linhas gerais um novo método de obter compósitos condutores de polipirrol (PPy)/Poli(fluoreto de vinilideno) (PVDF), polimerização via luz UV induzida em presença de um adequado fotogerador de ácido (PAG), compostos tais como os sais de Ferro-areno e Trifenil sulfônio ou compostos geradores orgânicos tal como a triazina clorinada. Estudos Gravimétricos confirmados por Análise Termogravimé-trico (TGA), tem mostrado que o rendimento da polimerização insidente n...

  12. A new method for the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial; Un metodo nuevo para los coeficientes del polinomio caracteristico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, H.E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In linear algebra, one can associate an equation to each square matrix: its characteristic equation or secular equation. Starting from this equation, the one characteristic polynomial that codes several important properties of the matrix is obtained: its own values, it determinant and it appearance. The first method to calculate those coefficients of this polynomial were proposed by the french astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier (1811-1877), from then on, many methods have intended to calculate these coefficients. In this work the author proposes a new one method and a bibliographical citation is given where the calculations with others methods that know each other for it, taking like reference the matrix used by Le Verrier are explained. It was concluded that it here proposed, besides being the only mexican method that is knew, has the advantage of being very easy of understanding and of calculating well, in the operations that it carries out, it doesn't use the division and it avoids fractions in matrices whose entrances are whole. This has a great importance for their use in the classroom for their great didactic value and in nuclear reactors and Genetic Engineering. (Author)

  13. Implementation of statistical analysis methods for medical physics data; Implementacao de metodos de analise estatistica para dados de fisica medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Marilia S.; Pinto, Nivia G.P.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F., E-mail: mariliasilvat@gmail.co, E-mail: lfolive@oi.com.b, E-mail: cely_barroso@hotmail.co, E-mail: nitatag@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    The objective of biomedical research with different radiation natures is to contribute for the understanding of the basic physics and biochemistry of the biological systems, the disease diagnostic and the development of the therapeutic techniques. The main benefits are: the cure of tumors through the therapy, the anticipated detection of diseases through the diagnostic, the using as prophylactic mean for blood transfusion, etc. Therefore, for the better understanding of the biological interactions occurring after exposure to radiation, it is necessary for the optimization of therapeutic procedures and strategies for reduction of radioinduced effects. The group pf applied physics of the Physics Institute of UERJ have been working in the characterization of biological samples (human tissues, teeth, saliva, soil, plants, sediments, air, water, organic matrixes, ceramics, fossil material, among others) using X-rays diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The application of these techniques for measurement, analysis and interpretation of the biological tissues characteristics are experimenting considerable interest in the Medical and Environmental Physics. All quantitative data analysis must be initiated with descriptive statistic calculation (means and standard deviations) in order to obtain a previous notion on what the analysis will reveal. It is well known que o high values of standard deviation found in experimental measurements of biologicals samples can be attributed to biological factors, due to the specific characteristics of each individual (age, gender, environment, alimentary habits, etc). This work has the main objective the development of a program for the use of specific statistic methods for the optimization of experimental data an analysis. The specialized programs for this analysis are proprietary, another objective of this work is the implementation of a code which is free and can be shared by the other research groups. As the program developed since the method modeling through his implementation, this fact will allows that modifications and adaptations be accomplished any time at null cost

  14. A new method for the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial; Un metodo nuevo para los coeficientes del polinomio caracteristico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, H E [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In linear algebra, one can associate an equation to each square matrix: its characteristic equation or secular equation. Starting from this equation, the one characteristic polynomial that codes several important properties of the matrix is obtained: its own values, it determinant and it appearance. The first method to calculate those coefficients of this polynomial were proposed by the french astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier (1811-1877), from then on, many methods have intended to calculate these coefficients. In this work the author proposes a new one method and a bibliographical citation is given where the calculations with others methods that know each other for it, taking like reference the matrix used by Le Verrier are explained. It was concluded that it here proposed, besides being the only mexican method that is knew, has the advantage of being very easy of understanding and of calculating well, in the operations that it carries out, it doesn't use the division and it avoids fractions in matrices whose entrances are whole. This has a great importance for their use in the classroom for their great didactic value and in nuclear reactors and Genetic Engineering. (Author)

  15. Methods to identify and locate spent radiation sources; Metodos para la identificacion y localizacion de fuentes radiactivas gastadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this manual is to provide essential guidance to Member States with nuclear applications involving the use of a wide range of sealed radiation sources on the practical task of physically locating spent radiation sources not properly accounted for. Advice is also provided to render the located source safe on location. Refs, figs, tabs.

  16. The Brazilian dilution method for ballast water exchange; O metodo de diluicao brasileiro para troca de agua de lastro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Celso Alleluia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao e Monitoramento Ambiental]. E-mail: celso@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Land, Claudio Goncalves [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Abastecimento, Logistica e Planejamento]. E-mail: cgland@petrobras.com.br; Pimenta, Jose Maria Hollanda Alvares; Barreto, Francisco Carlos Peixoto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Engenharia; Brandao, Marcus Vinicius Lisboa; Marroig, Nilton Lemos [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Frota Nacional de Petroleiros. Inspetoria Geral; Tristao, Maria Luiza Braganca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Quimica; Fadel, Andre Luiz da Fonseca [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Financas Corporativa e Tesouraria; Villac, Maria Celia; Fernandes, Lohengrin; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Dias, Cristina; Bonecker, Sergio; Denise Tenenbaum [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia; Persich, Graziela; Garcia, Virginia; Odebrecht, Clarisse [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia

    2002-12-01

    In a precautionary approach and dealing with the coming International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations on ballast water, PETROBRAS developed a new method for ballast water exchange in tankers. Differently from ordinary methods PETROBRAS method which have been called Brazilian Dilution Method (BDM) or Dilution Method involves ballast loading through the top with simultaneous unloading from the bottom of the tanks. The method proposal was firstly presented to IMO, which encouraged PETROBRAS to carry out a field trial. PETROBRAS in June 1998 carried out a trial in the product carrier M/V Lavras. A simulation study was useful to plan the trial assessing the theoretical efficiency of the method, establishing the best sampling points and comparing the BDM with the Tank Overfilling Method (TOM). Simulation showed that for the same tank shape, the water renewal in BDM is more effective than in TOM and that 90 % of water renewal could be obtained by BDM. A dye concentration variation monitoring and a biological assessment were performed and the results confirmed that over than 90 % of the ballast water was renewed after three exchanges. The method was proved safe, practical, economical and suitable to minimize the risk of exotic species transport between ports. (author)

  17. A definitive method for dosimetry with radiochromic movie; Un metodo definitivo para la dosimetria con pelicula radiocromica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miras del Rio, H.; Arrans Lara, R.

    2013-07-01

    Despite the undoubted benefits of radiochromic film as a two-dimensional radiation detector, the manufacturing process and characteristics of scanners make to present some inherent difficulties that result that its use is complex, tedious, and if not performed so appropriate, imprecise. A protocol that simplifies the calibration process while reducing the number of films used for this purpose is proposed systematically corrects several difficulties, both inherent in the manufacture of the film as the reader and, what is more important achieves levels comparable to those of other more widespread use detectors accuracy. (Author)

  18. Thermochemical methods for the treatment of oil contaminated sand; Metodo termoquimico para tratamento de areia contaminada por oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Rosana C.G.M. [Fundacao Jose Bonifacio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Khalil, Carlos N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The Nitrogen Generating System (SGN in Portuguese) is a thermochemical method first developed for cleaning and removal of paraffin deposits in production and export pipelines. SGN is based on a redox chemical reaction between two salts which is catalyzed in acidic pH. The reaction is strongly exothermic and its products are nitrogen, sodium chloride, water and heat. All reaction products are harmless to the environment. In January 2000 there was a major oil spill in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, which contaminated 2400 tons of sand. This work, developed at PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES), was based on SGN technology which has been adapted for cleaning contaminated sand and recovering of spilled oil. By combining simultaneous effects of the SGN treatment such as heating, turbulence and floatation, one can remove, within 98% of efficiency, spilling oil from contaminated sand and removed oil can be securely returned to refining process. SGN technology has proved to be efficient, fast, low cost and ecologically correct method for cleaning contaminated sand and can be applied in loco right after a contamination event. (author)

  19. Thermochemical method for the treatment of oil contaminated sand; Metodo termoquimico para tratamento de areia contaminada por oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Rosana C.G.M. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)]|[PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Khalil, Carlos N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    In January 2000 there was a major oil spill in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, which contaminated 2400 tons of sand. This work, based on NGS (Nitrogen Generating System) technology, was adapted for cleaning contaminated sand and recovering of spilled oil. NGS is a thermochemical method first developed for removal of paraffin deposits in production and export pipelines. The method is based on a strongly exothermic redox chemical reaction between two salts catalyzed in acidic pH. The reaction products are harmless to the environment and consist of nitrogen, sodium chloride, water and heat. By combining simultaneous effects of the treatment such as heating, turbulence and floatation, one can remove, within 98% of efficiency, spilling oil from contaminated sand. After treatment, removed oil can be securely returned to refining process. The method has proved to be efficient, fast, low cost and ecologically correct method for cleaning contaminated sand and can be applied in place right after a contamination event. (author)

  20. A method multi criterio to evaluate projects of rural electrification; Un metodo multicriterio para evaluar proyectos de electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Posse, E

    1994-07-01

    In this document about the problem of the evaluation projects methodologies in rural electrification.The low analysis problem is of complex nature, because each project is evaluation object and an economic agent. One of these agents identifies different benefits and cost, and also has a different approaches for value them.In consequence, the form in that it is carried out the evaluation of the one project for each one of this agents that it is usually solved for mechanisms linked to the capacity of incidence or of determination of each one of them, this does not assures a satisfactory results for the general interest.

  1. A new method for dosimetry with films radiochromic; Un nuevo metodo para la dosimetria con peliculas radiocromica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Carot, I.

    2013-07-01

    in this paper a new method is presented and the results of the comparison between the calibration is summarized based on a planning reference and calibration obtained from the irradiated fragments measure different dose levels multichannel compare dosimetry based on the weighted average dosimetry described by Micke et al.(present in the FilmQAPro software) and, finally, show different results obtained with the method proposed in several applications clinics. (Author)

  2. ESTUDIO TEÓRICO DE LA MOLÉCULA DE HIDROGENO CALCULO AB-INITIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Quitián

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando la técnica LCGO-SCF-MO (Combinación Lineal de los Orbitales Moleculares en Orbitales Gausianos, en el método del Campo Auto-Coherente, se determinaron las energías de orbital, la energía electrónica total, la energía de repulsión nuclear y la energía de Hartree-Fock de la molécula de hidrógeno en su estado fundamental, mediante un cálculo ab initio y utilizando una base de funciones gausianas. Los orbitales moleculares fueron desarrollados en términos de una función Is contraída por átomo de hidrógeno, obtenida por la minimización de los coeficientes y de los exponentes de los orbitales gausianos para el átomo aislado. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten afirmar que la base molecular mejora sensiblemente los resultados, acercándose más al límite de Hartree-Fock.

  3. Survey of Pulsed Neutron Source Methods for Multiplying Media; Methodes des Neutrons Pulses Pour l'Etude des Milieux Multiplicateurs; Obzor metodov s ispol'zovaniem istochnikov impul'snykh nejtronov dlya razmnozhayushchej sredy; Estudio Panoramico de los Metodos de Empleo de Fuentes de Neutrons Pulsados en Medios Multiplicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garelis, E. [General Electric Company, Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    -Small-L ). Il discute en outre l'emploi des methodes qui sont fondees sur la reponse a des impulsions pseudoaleatoires et utilisent une correlation entre l'entree et la sortie, pour la determination de la fonction de Green d'un milieu multiplicateur. H montre que les renseignements obtenus par ces methodes sont identiques a ceux fournis par les methodes de la source puisee a repetition, ce qui permet d'appliquer aux premieres les procedes qui ont ete mis au point pour les secondes. (author) [Spanish] En los ultimos afios ha habido dos tendencias principales acerca de la manera mas eficaz de medir la reactividad de parada, empleando fuentes de neutrones pulsados: la primera preconizaba el empleo de metodos tradicionales de medicion con fuentes neutronicas reiteradamente pulsadas, y la segunda propugnaba la aplicacion de metodos basados en una tecnica seudoaleatoria de respuesta a los impulsos, utilizando una correlacion entre los datos de entrada y los de salida. La informacion obtenida con una y otra tecnica es la misma; en teoria, ambos metodos sirven para determinar la funcion de respuesta. Se resefia el desarrollo de las tecnicas de empleo de fuentes de neutrones pulsados aplicadas a sistemas termicos con miras a medir la reactividad, desde los primeros intentos de Sjoestrand hasta el reciente metodo (k{beta}/ Script-Small-L ). Con el metodo usual de empleo de estas fuentes, la propiedad que se procuia determinar es la funcion de Green del conjunto subercritico empleado, es decir, la respuesta del reactor a una fuente de neutrones de funcion delta. El decrecimiento exponencial (e{sup {alpha}t}) de la funcion de Green proporciona una constante de decrecimiento de los neutrones instantaneos que es independiente del espacio. El autor examina los metodos para obtener el valor de la reactividad partiendo de la medida de a, como por ejemplo el metodo de la medicion de la criticidad por neutrones retardados a y el reciente metodo (k{beta}/ Script-Small-L ). Seguidamente examina el

  4. Simulation of molecular transitions using classical trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, A.; Martens, C. C. [University of California, California (United States)

    2001-03-01

    una superficie electronica promedio. El metodo es probado en un problema modelo, el cual consiste en el movimiento unidimensional sobre dos superficies electronicas acopladas que se cruzan. Los resultados concuerdan muy bien con los calculos exactos obtenidos mediante propagacion de paquetes de onda. El metodo es aplicado para modelar interferometria de paquetes de onda, donde dos paquetes de onda, los cuales difieren solo en una fase relativa, chocan en la region donde las superficies electronicas se cruzan. Nuestro metodo, basado en trayectorias clasicas, captura perfectamente la dependencia en la fase relativa de la transferencia de poblacion resultante. Comparacion con un metodo alternativo, muestra que nuestro metodo es apropiado para modelar fenomenos de interferencia cuantica.

  5. Syrio. A program for the calculation of the inverse of a matrix; Syrio. Programa para el calculo de la inversa de una matriz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de Viedma Alonso, L.

    1963-07-01

    SYRIO is a code for the inversion of a non-singular square matrix whose order is not higher than 40 for the UNIVAC-UCT (SS-90). The treatment stands from the inversion formula of sherman and Morrison, and following the Herbert S. Wilf's method for special matrices, generalize the procedure to any kind of non-singular square matrices. the limitation of the matrix order is not inherent of the program itself but imposed by the storage capacity of the computer for which it was coded. (Author)

  6. Parameter calculation tool for the application of radiological dose projection codes; Herramienta de calculo de parametros para la aplicacion de codigos de proyeccion de dosis radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo G, I. F.; Vergara del C, J. A.; Galvan A, S. J. [Instituto Nacional de Electricidad y Energias Limpias, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Tijerina S, F., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [CFE, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Federal Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, 91476 Municipio Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The use of specialized codes to estimate the radiation dose projection to an emergency postulated event at a nuclear power plant requires that certain plant data be available according to the event being simulated. The calculation of the possible radiological release is the critical activity to carry out the emergency actions. However, not all of the plant data required are obtained directly from the plant but need to be calculated. In this paper we present a computational tool that calculates the plant data required to use the radiological dose estimation codes. The tool provides the required information when there is a gas emergency venting event in the primary containment atmosphere, whether well or dry well and also calculates the time in which the spent fuel pool would be discovered in the event of a leak of water on some of the walls or floor of the pool. The tool developed has mathematical models for the processes involved such as: compressible flow in pipes considering area change and for constant area, taking into account the effects of friction and for the case of the spent fuel pool hydraulic models to calculate the time in which a container is emptied. The models implemented in the tool are validated with data from the literature for simulated cases. The results with the tool are very similar to those of reference. This tool will also be very supportive so that in postulated emergency cases can use the radiological dose estimation codes to adequately and efficiently determine the actions to be taken in a way that affects as little as possible. (Author)

  7. Nomograms to calculate stability in slate and granite spoil heaps; Abacos para el calculo de estabilidad en escombreras de pizarra y granito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Freire, M.; Taboada Castro, J.; Rivas Brea, T.; Giraldez Perez, E.; Araujo Fernandez, M.

    2011-07-01

    One of the main problems involved in the mining of slate and ornamental granite is the unavoidable generation of waste rock, which must be stored in spoil heaps under suitably integrated, secure and stable conditions. Our work here focuses on this last point. To study the risk of instability within spoil heaps we have analysed the performance of a wide number of models with regard to circular slope failure, taking into account the different degrees of compactness of the material, the characteristics of the material itself, the effect of water pressure and the geometry of the heap. From this analysis we obtained more than 300 safety criteria, which were then used to draw up a series of nomograms to allow us to determine the risk of sliding in any granite or slate spoil heap. Thus, nomograms prove themselves to be suitable, quick, easy-to-use tools for preliminary studies of new structures, for periodic analyses of existing structures and to investigate structures that are due to be modified. (Author) 24 refs.

  8. Fluid dynamic calculations for the cooling of the European Spallation Source (ESS) target; Calculos fluidodinamicos para la refrigeracion del target de la Fuente Europea de Espalacin (ESS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magan Romero, M.; Sordo Balbin, F.; Domingo, S.; Bermejo, J.; Perlado, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    In this document is simulated the tantalum water cooling, that is going to be used in the ESS-Bilbao, using fluent. The target mesh, the models used and the options choices are displayed. At the end, the results and design recommendations are analyzed.

  9. Calculation of neutron fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients using GEANT4; Calculo de coeficientes de fluencia de neutrons para equivalente de dose individual utilizando o GEANT4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rosane M.; Santos, Denison de S.; Queiroz Filho, Pedro P. de; Mauricio, CLaudia L.P.; Silva, Livia K. da; Pessanha, Paula R., E-mail: rosanemribeiro@oi.com.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients provide the basis for the calculation of area and personal monitors. Recently, the ICRP has started a revision of these coefficients, including new Monte Carlo codes for benchmarking. So far, little information is available about neutron transport below 10 MeV in tissue-equivalent (TE) material performed with Monte Carlo GEANT4 code. The objective of this work is to calculate neutron fluence to personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients, H{sub p} (10)/Φ, with GEANT4 code. The incidence of monoenergetic neutrons was simulated as an expanded and aligned field, with energies ranging between thermal neutrons to 10 MeV on the ICRU slab of dimension 30 x 30 x 15 cm{sup 3}, composed of 76.2% of oxygen, 10.1% of hydrogen, 11.1% of carbon and 2.6% of nitrogen. For all incident energy, a cylindrical sensitive volume is placed at a depth of 10 mm, in the largest surface of the slab (30 x 30 cm{sup 2}). Physic process are included for neutrons, photons and charged particles, and calculations are made for neutrons and secondary particles which reach the sensitive volume. Results obtained are thus compared with values published in ICRP 74. Neutron fluence in the sensitive volume was calculated for benchmarking. The Monte Carlo GEANT4 code was found to be appropriate to calculate neutron doses at energies below 10 MeV correctly. (author)

  10. Orintsol. Surfaces with assorted inclination: software to calculate the solar radiation; Orientsol. Superficies con distinta inclinacion Software para el calculo de la radiacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rus, C.; Almonacid, F.; Hontoria, L.; Perez, P. J.; Munoz, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The Universidad de Jaen, conscious of the importance of using energy sources respectful with the environment, offers in its Technical Industry Engineer degree, in the specialties of: Mechanics, Electricity and Industrial electronics the optional subjects Solar electricity and Photovoltaic Facilities. With these matters is intended that the students acquire the capability of design, calculate, analyze their different applications. A fundamental aspect in solar facilities is how to know the incident radiation in the plant which we want to analyze or the size. Orintsol software tool, with a didactic aim, facilitates so teaching as learning about solar radiation received on inclined surfaces. (Author) 8 refs.

  11. Formulation of coarse mesh finite difference to calculate mathematical adjoint flux; Formulacao de diferencas finitas de malha grossa para calculo do fluxo adjunto matematico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Valmir; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this work is the obtention of the mathematical adjoint flux, having as its support the nodal expansion method (NEM) for coarse mesh problems. Since there are difficulties to evaluate this flux by using NEM. directly, a coarse mesh finite difference program was developed to obtain this adjoint flux. The coarse mesh finite difference formulation (DFMG) adopted uses results of the direct calculation (node average flux and node face averaged currents) obtained by NEM. These quantities (flux and currents) are used to obtain the correction factors which modify the classical finite differences formulation . Since the DFMG formulation is also capable of calculating the direct flux it was also tested to obtain this flux and it was verified that it was able to reproduce with good accuracy both the flux and the currents obtained via NEM. In this way, only matrix transposition is needed to calculate the mathematical adjoint flux. (author)

  12. Code Betal to calculation Alpha/Beta activities in environmental samples; Programa de ordenador Betal para el calculo de la actividad Beta/Alfa de muestras ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L.; Travesi, A.

    1983-07-01

    A codes, BETAL, was developed, written in FORTRAN IV, to automatize calculations and presentations of the result of the total alpha-beta activities measurements in environmental samples. This code performs the necessary calculations for transformation the activities measured in total counts, to pCi/1., bearing in mind the efficiency of the detector used and the other necessary parameters. Further more, it appraise the standard deviation of the result, and calculus the Lower limit of detection for each measurement. This code is written in iterative way by screen-operator dialogue, and asking the necessary data to perform the calculation of the activity in each case by a screen label. The code could be executed through any screen and keyboard terminal, (whose computer accepts Fortran IV) with a printer connected to the said computer. (Author) 5 refs.

  13. Improvement of a computational algorithm that calculates a simulated distillation curve of crude; Aprimoramento de algoritmo computacional para calculo de curva de destilacao simulada de petroleo bruto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Galo A.C.; Medeiros, Claudia Larini; Gatti, Anderson C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is the implementation of a software that calculates the Simulated Distillation (SimDis) curve of a crude oil, according to ASTM D5307 (Standard Test Method for the Determination of Boiling Range Distribution of Crude Petroleum by Gas Chromatography). The software is based on the principle that the area of a chromatogram is proportional to the mass percent of crude oil recovered at a given retention time. The boiling points and retention times are correlated by a calibration curve. In order to make the software friendly windows were implemented, that are organized in a menu. Therefore the software turned up more easy to use and practical for the computation of Simulated Distillation Analysis. (author)

  14. HADES. A computer code for fast neutron cross section from the Optical Model; HADES. Un programa numerico para el calculo de seccciones eficaces neutronicas mediante el modelo optico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J; Navarro, C

    1973-07-01

    A FORTRAN V computer code for UNIVAC 1108/6 using a local Optical Model with spin-orbit interaction is described. The code calculates fast neutron cross sections, angular distribution, and Legendre moments for heavy and intermediate spherical nuclei. It allows for the possibility of automatic variation of potential parameters for experimental data fitting. (Author) 55 refs.

  15. Mathematical model for heat loss calculation through a window; Modelo para el calculo de la perdida de calor por una ventana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fissore Sch, Adelqui; Cuevas B, Cristian [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: afissore@udec.cl; ccuevas@udec.cl

    2000-07-01

    In the present work a semi-empirical model for heat loss by convection at an indoor window surface with curtain or blind is given. With this model, the convection heat transfer coefficient and temperature of the air at confined space between the curtain and the glass can be calculated. The curtain was modeled with a paper due to the low thermal inertia that it has. The model is based on experimental data obtained for four separations between the paper and the window. Data from numerical simulation program are also used. (author)

  16. Developing a verification tool for calculations dissemination through COBAYA; Desarrollo de una herramienta de verificacion para calculos de difusion mediante COBAYA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabater Alcaraz, A.; Rucabado Rucabado, G.; Cuervo Gomez, D.; Garcia Herranz, N.

    2014-07-01

    The development of a software tool that automates the comparison of results with previous versions of the code and results using models of accuracy is crucial for implementing the code new functionalities. The work presented here has been the generation the mentioned tool and the set of reference cases that have set up the afore mentioned matrix. (Author)

  17. Use of the 'DRAGON' program for the calculation of reactivity devices; Utilizacion del programa DRAGON para el calculo de mecanismos de reactividad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollerach, Ricardo; Fink, Jose [Nucleoelectrica Argentina SA (NASA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    DRAGON is a computer program developed at the Ecole Polytechnique of the University of Montreal and adopted by AECL for the transport calculations associated to reactivity devices. This report presents aspects of the implementation in NASA of the DRAGON program. Some cases of interest were evaluated. Comparisons with results of known programs as WIMS D5, and with experiments were done. a) Embalse (CANDU 6) cell without burnup and leakage. Calculations of macroscopic cross sections with WIMS and DRAGON show very good agreement with smaller differences in the thermal constants. b) Embalse fresh cell with different leakage options. c) Embalse cell with leakage and burnup. A comparison of k-infinity and k-effective with WIMS and DRAGON as a function of burnup shows that the differences ((D-W)/D) for fresh fuel are -0.17% roughly constant up to about 2500 MWd/tU, and then decrease to -0.06 % for 8500 MWd/tU. Experiments made in 1977 in ZED-2 critical facility, reported in [3], were used as a benchmark for the cell and supercell DRAGON calculations. Calculated fluxes were compared with experimental values and the agreement is so good. d) ZED-2 cell calculation. The measured buckling was used as geometric buckling. This case can be considered an experimental verification. The calculated reactivity with DRAGON is about 2 mk, and can be considered satisfactory. WIMS k-effective value is about one mk higher. e) Supercell calculations for ZED-2 vertical and horizontal tube and rod adjuster using 2D and 3D models were done. Comparisons between measured and calculated fluxes in the vicinity of the adjuster rods. Incremental cross sections for these adjusters were calculated using different options. f) ZED-2 reactor calculations with PUMA reveal a good concordance with critical heights measured in experiments. The report describes also particular features of the code and recommendations regarding its use that may be useful for new users. (author)

  18. Criteria for calculation of effective dose from the individual monitoring; Criterios para calculo de dose efetiva a partir da monitoracao individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NN.3.01. 'Basic Act of Radiological Protection', as expressed in the section 5.9, and its application to the effective dose calculation for individual occupationally exposed. from the internal and external individual monitoring data

  19. Calculation engine of the planning system for radiotherapy with microbeams; Motor de calculo del sistema de planificacion para la radioterapia con microhaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Rovira, I.; Sempau, J.; Bravin, A.; Prezado, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The TPS calculation engine includes a full modeling of the synchrotron source (energy spectrum, phase space and polarization of the incident photons) and transport through 42 m of optical elements to position the patient, where generating a phase space file (PSF) with the state of the particles. This PSF is used as input for the calculation of doses in a model of the patient, based on computed axial tomography (CT).

  20. Preliminary shielding calculation for the system of CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery; Calculo de blindagem preliminar para o sistema de radiocirurgia robotica CyberKnife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toreti, Dalila; Xavier, Clarice; Moura, Fabio, E-mail: clarice.xavier@rem.ind.b, E-mail: fabio.moura@rem.ind.b [REM Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The CyberKnife robotic system uses a manipulator with six grade of freedom for positioning a 6 MV Linac accelerator for treatment of lesions. This paper presents calculations for a standard room, with 200 cm of thickness walls primary, build for a CyberKnife system, and calculations for a room originally designed for a Linac conventional (with gantry), with secondary barriers of 107 cm thickness. After the realization of shielding for both rooms, the results shown that walls of standard room with 200 cm thickness are adequate for the secondary shield, and for a room with a conventional Linac, from all six evaluated points, two would require additional shielding of nine cm and four cm of concrete with 2.4 g/cubic cm. This shows that the CyberKnife system can be installed in a originally designed room for a conventional Linac with neither restrict nor any shielding, since no incidence of beams on the secondary barriers is existent

  1. Syrio. A program for the calculation of the inverse of a matrix; Syrio. Programa para el calculo de la inversa de una matriz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia de Viedma Alonso, L.

    1963-07-01

    SYRIO is a code for the inversion of a non-singular square matrix whose order is not higher than 40 for the UNIVAC-UCT (SS-90). The treatment stands from the inversion formula of sherman and Morrison, and following the Herbert S. Wilf's method for special matrices, generalize the procedure to any kind of non-singular square matrices. the limitation of the matrix order is not inherent of the program itself but imposed by the storage capacity of the computer for which it was coded. (Author)

  2. ORBITALES. A program for the calculation of wave functions with an analytical central potential; ORBITALES. Programa de calculo de Funciones de Onda para una Potencial Central Analitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretero, Yunta; Rodriguez Mayquez, E

    1974-07-01

    In this paper is described the objective, basis, carrying out in FORTRAN language and use of the program ORBITALES. This program calculate atomic wave function in the case of ths analytical central potential (Author) 8 refs.

  3. Development of a computational code for calculations of shielding in dental facilities; Desenvolvimento de um codigo computacional para calculos de blindagem em instalacoes odontologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lava, Deise D.; Borges, Diogo da S.; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Guimaraes, Antonio C.F.; Moreira, Maria de L., E-mail: deise_dy@hotmail.com, E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.br, E-mail: malu@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This paper is prepared in order to address calculations of shielding to minimize the interaction of patients with ionizing radiation and / or personnel. The work includes the use of protection report Radiation in Dental Medicine (NCRP-145 or Radiation Protection in Dentistry), which establishes calculations and standards to be adopted to ensure safety to those who may be exposed to ionizing radiation in dental facilities, according to the dose limits established by CNEN-NN-3.1 standard published in September / 2011. The methodology comprises the use of computer language for processing data provided by that report, and a commercial application used for creating residential projects and decoration. The FORTRAN language was adopted as a method for application to a real case. The result is a programming capable of returning data related to the thickness of material, such as steel, lead, wood, glass, plaster, acrylic, acrylic and leaded glass, which can be used for effective shielding against single or continuous pulse beams. Several variables are used to calculate the thickness of the shield, as: number of films used in the week, film load, use factor, occupational factor, distance between the wall and the source, transmission factor, workload, area definition, beam intensity, intraoral and panoramic exam. Before the application of the methodology is made a validation of results with examples provided by NCRP-145. The calculations redone from the examples provide answers consistent with the report.

  4. A microwave technique for electrical conductivity measurements in semiconductors; Un procedimiento en frecuencia de microondas para la medicion de la conductividad electrica en semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, A; Zehe, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Starostenko, O [Universidad de las Americas, Puebla, (Mexico); Perez, L [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-01-15

    In the present paper a theoretical approach is given together with the description of the experimental technique for electrical conductivity measurements of semiconductors in frequency range of 10 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength of {lambda}= 3 cm. It is shown, that the sample conductivity, measured without the need of electrical contacts, Is practically identical with results obtained by direct current methods. The potential use of the method for dielectric measurements in samples of general shape is included in the discussion. Given that the local electrical field is known only in bodies of ellipsoidal shape, one has to apply approximation methods for sample shapes of practical relevance (cylinders, cubes, disks). Finally, the measuring range and corresponding errors are explained on the base of measurements realized with silicon samples. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se desarrolla la teoria junto con la descripcion del arreglo experimental para la medicion de la conductividad electrica en muestras semiconductoras, utilizando un campo de microondas de {lambda}= 3 cm, correspondiente a una frecuencia n de 10 GHz. Se demuestra que la conductividad electrica medida sin la necesidad de contactos electricos es practicamente identica con resultados obtenidos por el metodo comun utilizando corriente directa (d.c.). Se incorpora en la discusion ademas el potencial del metodo para el estudio de propiedades dielectricas en muestras de geometria general. Dado que solamente en cuerpos con geometria elipsoidal se conoce bien el campo electrico local, y con esto el momento bipolar inducido, para muestras de geometrias mas practicas (cilindros, cubos, discos) se acude a metodos de aproximacion. Finalmente, se discute el rango de mediciones y errores, y se presentan mediciones concretas, utilizando muestras de silicio.

  5. A FORTRAN program for the use of digital terrain elevation models of the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica of Mexico (INEGI); Programa en FORTRAN para el manejo de modelos digitales de elevacion del terreno del Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica de Mexico (INEGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Estrada, Gerardo [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-09-01

    producir un mapa en coordenadas planas rectangulares en metros. Durante la delimitacion de la ventana se hace un filtrado simple para disminuir los errores numericos que existen en el archivo y si se desea puede elegirse un submuestreo de los datos para preparar mapas menos detallados pero de gran cobertura. El programa ha sido desarrollado y probado extensamente en la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) de Mexico, en donde se utiliza en estudios regionales para la elaboracion de mapas base, el trazo automatico de perfiles topograficos y el calculo de condiciones de frontera para modelos termicos. Otros usos directos son el calculo de las correcciones por rugosidad o la estimacion de efectos isostaticos en estudios gravimetricos, la estimacion de cotas topograficas para puntos de coordenadas horizontales conocidas, el modelado termico de efectos climaticos en funcion de la topografia, el calculo automatico de volumenes de material y muchos otros.

  6. Métodos cromatográficos para determinar aminas biogênicas em alimentos de origem animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Aquiles Lázaro de la Torre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aminas biogenicas sao formadas como resultado da descarboxilacao de aminoacidos livres especificos. A analise desses metabolitos e de grande importancia na determinacao da qualidade e monitoramento de biogenicas como histamina e tiramina relacionadas com episodios de intoxicacao em humanos. A cromatografia e uma tecnica de separacao química usada para caracterizar aminas biogenicas. Variacoes da tecnica (cromatografia liquida, em camada delgada e gasosa tem sido amplamente usadas, porem a complexidade da matriz alimentar faz com que sejam realizadas mudancas nos processos de extracao, derivatizacao e deteccao em concordancia com cada grupo de alimento. A cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia (CLAE e o metodo mais utilizado na determinacao de aminas biogenicas em alimentos. Contudo, devido a importancia das aminas biogenicas no controle da qualidade e a seguranca do consumidor, os pesquisadores tentam desenvolver novos metodos com o intuito de uma analise mais rapida e precisa para o controle de alimentos no mercado. O objetivo da revisao e apresentar algumas tecnicas cromatograficas aplicadas no monitoramento de aminas biogenicas em produtos de origem animal.

  7. COMPARACIÓN DEL ESTADIO FETAL OBTENIDO POSTMORTEM MEDIANTE DOS METODOS ANTROPOMETRICOS. Comparación del estadio fetal obtenido postmortem mediante dos metodos antropometricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta M Aliendo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En la etapa fetal se observa un rápido incremento de la masa corporal y de todas las dimensiones. La literatura evidencia discrepancias sobre los criterios para determinar el estadio fetal post-mortem, en relación a los parámetros morfométricos utilizados, por lo que nuestro objetivo fue comparar la medición morfológica directa (vertex-coxis, tabla de Hansmann con la ultrasonografía (medición del fémur, para establecer el grado de confiabilidad en la determinación post-mortem del estadío fetal. Se utilizaron 120 fetos: 1 grupo A (60 fetos estadificado ecográficamente y 2 grupo B (60 fetos estadificado por tabla de Hansmann. A ambos grupos se le realizaron múltiples mediciones siguiendo parámetros probados según la literatura internacional. Se utilizó calibre de precisión. Parámetros evaluados: longitud vertex-coxis, circunferencia cefálica, diámetro cefálico occipito-frontal, biparietal, longitud mentón-vertex, perímetro toráxico-transverso, circunferencia abdomi-nal y longitudes de brazo, antebrazo, mano, muslo, pierna y pie. Estos valores fueron agrupados por semanas, obteniéndose la media y aplicándose la prueba t de Student. Los resultados demostraron que la diferencia entre los parámetros medidos en el grupo A y en el grupo B eran significativas en todas las semanas, por lo que se observa disparidad en la determinación del estadio fetal por ecografía y los registros correspondientes a la medición vertex-coxis (tabla de Hansmann postmortem. Concluímos que los resultados obtenidos por ambas modalidades de medición son diferentes para una misma edad gestacional y, por ende, resultaría más apropiado referirse a fetos con ciertas dimensiones según alguno de estos parámetros que a “edad gestacional”.In fetal stage, body mass and measurements quickly increase. Scientific literature shows differences on the criteria to determine the post-mortem fetal stage, depending on morphometric parameters. Our objective

  8. Analysis methodology for economic technical feasibility studies in offshore electrical generation systems; Metodologia de analisis para estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en sistemas de generacion electrica costa fuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis methodology followed in the development of technique-economic feasibility studies of systems of electrical generation in offshore electrical installations is presented, including the obtaining of the curves of the turbine and generator performance, the technical considerations for the formulation of the operation scenes and the calculations of the economic evaluation of a real scenario. [Spanish] Se muestra una metodologia de analisis seguida en el desarrollo de estudios de factibilidad tecnica-economica de sistemas de generacion electrica en instalaciones electricas costa fuera, incluyendo la obtencion de las curvas de comportamiento de la turbina y el generador, las consideraciones tecnicas para la formulacion de los escenarios de operacion y los calculos de la evaluacion economica de un escenario real.

  9. System for the design of electrical distribution substations; Sistema para el diseno de subestaciones electricas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas Perez, Benjamin Eddie; Islas Perez, Eduardo; Bahena Rada, Jessica Liliana; Romero Lima, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sierra Rodriguez, Benjamin; Moreno Diaz, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    llevan a cabo en las Divisiones de Distribucion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en dos procesos por separado: elaboracion de planos de ingenieria con software para diseno asistido por computadora (CAD, Computer-Aided Design) y calculo de la volumetria para la elaboracion del presupuesto base, con hojas de calculo convencionales. Los documentos se elaboran manualmente y de forma individual, sin existir alguna funcionalidad que permita actualizar automaticamente las modificaciones del diseno en todos los planos, y el correspondiente presupuesto base, resultando un proceso tardado, laborioso y factible de inconsistencia entre los documentos. Con la finalidad de optimizar el proceso de diseno de la obra civil y electromecanica de subestaciones electricas (SE) en un ambiente grafico tridimensional (3D), la Gerencia de Supervision de Proceso del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), en coordinacion con la Subdireccion de Distribucion de la CFE, desarrollo el Sistema para el Diseno de Subestaciones Electricas de Distribucion (DiDSED), el cual aprovecha las ventajas de la tecnologia CAD3D para el desarrollo de la ingenieria de detalle, ingenieria de costos para el calculo del presupuesto base y realidad virtual para navegacion tridimensional interactiva. Cabe destacar que actualmente, este sistema se encuentra en la etapa de implantacion en la Subdireccion de Distribucion de la CFE. En este articulo se describen brevemente las etapas principales del desarrollo del proyecto, asi como la funcionalidad y los componentes principales del sistema.

  10. Comparative analysis to determine asphalt density and content, using nuclear and traditional methods; Analisis comparativo para la determinacion de densidad y contenido de asfalto, mediante metodo nuclear y metodo tradicional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margffoy S, F R; Robayo S, A M

    1989-07-01

    Quality control for flex pavement construction in Colombia for asphaltic mix, as well as for granular and granular sub base layers is made by means of methods that does not guarantee the quality of the job, due to the difficult execution of tests, which impede more to be done or due to inherent problems of the test process. Thanks to the inherent characteristics and advantages of nuclear techniques, those become the optimal alternative to this quality control job. The present research project has been developed with the objective of justifying the use of new technologies applied to road construction; making a comparative analysis between traditional methods used in our country and nuclear techniques that have been using in United States with great success in quality control in road construction.

  11. The disc method. A new method for selecting facilitations in flocculating sludge to be dewatered in centrifuges; Metodo de disco. Un nuevo metodo para la seleccion de floculantes en la floculacion de lodos a deshidratar en centrifugas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canga Rodriguez, J.; Gutierrez Lavin, A.

    2002-07-01

    An experimental protocol was designed at a laboratory scale, in view of achieving the selection with different poly electrolytes related to the chemical conditioning (flocculation) of sewage sludge before dewatering it in a drying centrifuge. The method is based on a new parameter of quality of the formed floc, which measures its compaction when is submitted to a fix external strength. Some experimental tests have been introduced, whose results are numbers, avoiding all subjective aspects related to direct observation of flocs. (Author) 8 refs.

  12. Current Practice in the Management of High-Bevel Radioactive Wastes in the United States of America; La Pratique Courante de Gestion des Dechets de Haute Activite aux Etats-Unis d'Amerique; 0421 041e 0412 0420 0415 041c 0415 041d 041d 042b 0414 0 ; Metodos Corrientes de Tratamiento y Evacuacion de Desechos de Elevada Actividad Aplicados en los Estados Unidos de America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Bruce F.; Doud, Edward; Tomlinson, R. E. [General Electric Company, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Richland, WA (United States)

    1963-02-15

    diversos tipos de deposito representan en cada caso una solucion equilibrada cuyos factores determinantes son la seguridad de funcionamiento, la duracion y el costo. Los gastos de inversion unitarios correspondientes a los dispositivos de almacenamiento de desechos actualmente utilizados oscilan entre 0,47 y 2, 66 dolares/gal. Tambien han de incluirse en el calculo de los gastos a largo plazo los correspondientes a vigilancia, tratamiento o transvase de desechos e instalaciones de reemplazo. Los autores llegan a la conclusion de que los datos disponibles no permiten por ahora formular predicciones precisas. En Hanford se utilizan depositos de hormigon armado, con revestimiento de acero al carbono, para almacenar soluciones radiactivas. En cuatro de los 145 depositos puestos en servicio desde 1945, se produjeron escapes despues de contener durante periodos de 8 a 12 anos desechos que no generan calor. En cada caso, el contenido de los depositos se transvaso por medio de bombas a otro recipiente. Si bien se detecto radiactividad en el terreno circundante de los depositos defectuosos, la radiactividad no paso a las aguas subterraneas. Otro deposito fue retirado del servicio al observarse una deformacion de su revestimiento de acero al carbono. En Savannah River, se construyen recipientes de acero al carbono alojados en bovedas de hormigon. En cuatro de estos depositos, de un total de 14, se han formado pequenas grietas en las paredes laterales a consecuencia de corrosion con tension en las zonas afectadas por la soldadura. La pequena cantidad de desechos que escapo por las grietas se recogio en la boveda y se volvio a introducir en los depositos. En la actualidad ha cesado el escape y los recipientes siguen utilizandose. En Idaho Falls, se estan construyendo depositos de acero inoxidable alojados en boveda de hormigon. No se han planteado problemas ni se han observado defectos en los depositos. Si bien los metodos actuales de almacenamiento de soluciones radiactivas son

  13. Analysis of the indices of thermal comfort for the conditions of the Mexican Republic; Analisis de los indices de confort termico para las condiciones de la republica mexicana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Freixanet, Victor; Rodriguez Viqueira, Manuel [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The objective of this article is to analyze different indices of thermal comfort for the Mexican Republic. Among them the Fanger (PMV and PPD) physiological methods of comfort and the new effective temperature index are included. The standard effective temperature (SET), as well as the adaptive methods of Humphreys and Nicol, Auliciems, De Dear and Brager. A comparative analysis is done of the different indices through thematic maps determined by interpolation, using a climatic data base of 700 cities obtained from the observatories and stations of the National Meteorological Service. This article pretends to establish general criteria of the thermal comfort to later define design strategies for each one of the climatic regions of the Mexican Republic. [Spanish] El objetivo de este articulo es analizar distintos indices de confort termico para la Republica Mexicana. Entre ellos se incluyen los metodos fisiologicos de confort de Fanger (PMV y PPD), el indice de nueva temperatura efectiva. La temperatura efectiva estandar (SET), asi como los metodos adaptativos de Humphreys y Nicol, Auliciems, De Dear y Brager. Se hace un analisis comparativo de los distintos indices a traves de mapas tematicos determinados por interpolacion, usando una base de datos climaticos de 700 ciudades obtenidos de los observatorios y estaciones del Servicio Meteorologico Nacional. Este articulo presenta establecer criterios generales del confort termico para posteriormente definir estrategias de diseno para cada una de las regiones climaticas de la Republica Mexicana.

  14. ESFER computer tool for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems used in rural electrification; ESFER herramienta de computadora para evaluar sistemas fotovoltaicos utilizados en electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, Francisco; Perez, Miguel; Huacuz, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    ESFER (Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural) Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation for Rural Electrification is a computerized calculation tool for the analysis of information and evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. This article describes such a tool, as well as the parameters that are taken into account for analyzing the systems, the methodology to qualify and the computer program operation. The graphic results of a typical case are presented. ESFER pretends to be a program of general use for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. [Espanol] ESFER, Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural, es una herramienta de calculo computarizada para el analisis de informacion y evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos para electrificacion rural. En el presente articulo se describe dicha herramienta, asi como los parametros que se toman en cuenta para analizar los sistemas, la metodologia de calificacion y la operacion del programa de computadora. Se presentan los resultados graficos de un caso tipico. ESFER pretende ser un programa de uso generalizado para la evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos de electrificacion rural.

  15. ESFER computer tool for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems used in rural electrification; ESFER herramienta de computadora para evaluar sistemas fotovoltaicos utilizados en electrificacion rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor, Francisco; Perez, Miguel; Huacuz, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    ESFER (Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural) Photovoltaic Systems Evaluation for Rural Electrification is a computerized calculation tool for the analysis of information and evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. This article describes such a tool, as well as the parameters that are taken into account for analyzing the systems, the methodology to qualify and the computer program operation. The graphic results of a typical case are presented. ESFER pretends to be a program of general use for the evaluation of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification. [Espanol] ESFER, Evaluacion de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos para Electrificacion Rural, es una herramienta de calculo computarizada para el analisis de informacion y evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos para electrificacion rural. En el presente articulo se describe dicha herramienta, asi como los parametros que se toman en cuenta para analizar los sistemas, la metodologia de calificacion y la operacion del programa de computadora. Se presentan los resultados graficos de un caso tipico. ESFER pretende ser un programa de uso generalizado para la evaluacion de sistemas fotovoltaicos de electrificacion rural.

  16. Uses and updating of the Benders method in the integer-mixed programming in the planning of the electric power systems expansion; Usos y actualizacion del metodo de Benders en la programacion entera-mixta y en la planeacion de la expansion de los sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre Vega, Eli

    1997-04-01

    of some potential improvements that the proposed method has. [Espanol] En el primer capitulo se presenta la deduccion de los cortes de Benders partiendo de las propiedades de la dualidad. Tambien se presentan las propiedades de los cortes de Benders asi como el algoritmo inicial de Benders para resolver cualquier problema de programacion lineal entera-mixta. En el segundo capitulo, se presenta el problema de la planeacion de la expansion de los medios de generacion y transmision en un sistema electrico de potencia, las distintas estructuras de la programacion matematica a que da lugar y como se puede adaptar el metodo de Benders a estas. En el tercer capitulo se presentan las aportaciones teoricas de este trabajo: a) Como inicializar el problema maestro para aprovechar la experiencia adquirida despues de haber resuelto un problema similar, de modo que se pueda resolver mas eficientemente, la sucesion de problemas de programacion lineal entero-mixtos que surgen al resolver el problema de la planeacion de la expansion de los medios de generacion y transmision en un sistema electrico de potencia. b) Como generar un problema maestro cuya solucion optima continua corresponda al optimo continuo del problema entero-mixto, de modo que la busqueda de soluciones enteras se realice en la vecindad del optimo continuo. c) Como generar una solucion entera, cercana al optimo continuo del problema entero-mixto, que tenga mucha probabilidad de ser factible, y que quizas sea la solucion optima entera, en un tiempo menor al que se requiere para resolverlo en forma exacta. Ademas, se presentan otras ideas que se le pueden incorporar al metodo de Benders. A fin de mostrar la efectividad de las ideas propuestas, en el capitulo 4 se presentan los resultados obtenidos al resolver varios problemas usando: 1. El metodo de Benders in actualizacion, 2. El metodo de Ramificacion y Acotamiento, 3. La actualizacion de Benders al agregar restricciones y 4. La actualizacion de Benders al considerar

  17. Efecto neutralizador del extracto acuoso de Dracontium loretense (JERGÓN SACHA sobre la actividad letal del veneno de Bothrops atrox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lovera

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la capacidad del extracto acuoso D. loretense (jergon sacha para neutralizar la actividad letal del veneno de la serpiente B. atrox. Materiales y metodos: Se realizo el screening fitoquimico del extracto acuoso del bulbo desecado de D. loretense, se calculo la dosis letal 50(DL50 para el extracto y el veneno de B. atrox. Luego se realizaron enfrentamientos de diferentes dosis de extracto y veneno inyectadas intraperitonealmente en ratones, previa incubacion, para calcular la dosis eficaz 50% (DE50 del extracto para neutralizar el efecto letal del veneno por el metodo de Probits. Resultados: El analisis fitoquimico del extracto permitio identificar compuestos fenolicos, taninos, saponinas, proteinas, terpenoides y esteroides. No sobrevivio ningun raton que recibio el veneno sin D. loretense, y no fallecio ninguno al que se le dio solo el extracto acuoso de D. loretense. Se determino la DE50 en 91,15 µg/raton del extracto para neutralizar 2DL50 del veneno. Se encontro que a mayor dosis del veneno de B.atrox se necesito menores dosis del extracto acuoso de D. loretense. Conclusiones: el extracto acuoso de D. loretense neutraliza la actividad letal de veneno de B. atrox. Es necesario realizar estudios que permitan identificar los metabolitos del extracto que tienen esta accion.

  18. Calculo Preliminar de la Tasa de Meteorización del Batolito Antioqueño, Cordillera Central, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Garcia; Michel Hermelin

    2004-01-01

    Este trabajo es una estimación preliminar del tiempo necesario para generar la espesa capa de saprolito que caracteriza el perfil de meteorización actual de un batolito cuarzodiorítico cretácico que aflora en altiplanos de la Cordillera Central de Colombia, entre 5º50' y 7º00' de latitud Norte y 74º50' y 75º35' de longitud Oeste y a alturas entre 750 y 2700 m.Se utilizan datos obtenidos previamente mediante el análisis de la composición química de las aguas superficiales d...

  19. Cálculos neutrônicos, termo-hidráulicos e de segurança de um dispositivo para irradiação de miniplacas (DIM) de elementos conbustíveis tipo dispersão

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Borges Domingos

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidos calculos neutrônicos, termo-hidráulicos e de segurança para avaliar a seguranca operacional de um dispositivo de irradiação a ser colocado no núcleo do reator IEA-R1 do IPEN-CNEN/SP. Este dispositivo de irradiação é utilizado para alojar miniplacas de combustvel do tipo dispers~ao de U3O8-Al e U3Si2-Al, com 19,75% em peso de 235U e densidades, respectivamente, de ate 3,2 gU/cm3 e 4,8 gU/cm3. Estas miniplacas serão irradiadas a queimas acima de 50% do 235U, d...

  20. Calculo de tanque de PRFV de 200 000 litros de capacidad. // 200 000 liters capacity PRFV tank calculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García de la Figal Costales

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La tarea que se acomete es el cálculo a resistencia y rigidez de un tanque para el almacenamiento de agua, de 200 000 litrosde capacidad, construido de plástico reforzado con fibras de vidrio, PRFV. El mismo es cilíndrico vertical, de 8 metros dediámetro por 4.2 metros de altura. Los materiales seleccionados para la conformación de las láminas con las que se haránlos laminados de PRFV, fueron: resina poliéster isosftálica, y fibras de vidrio E.La carga fundamental a soportar por el tanque será la presión debida a la columna de agua en su interior, pero por estar a laintemperie y en zona de playa, se considerará también la acción de las dilataciones debidas a la temperatura, así como laacción de un ciclón.Palabras claves: resistencia, recipiente, composites, elementos finitos._____________________________________________________________________________Abstract.The stress and strains calculation of a water reinforced fiber glass container is carried out by means of a modern FiniteElement program, because the high complexity of calculus. The soported main load is the pressure caused by the column ofwater.Key words: Resistance, vessels, composites, finite elements.

  1. Overvoltage in chain of insulators front to lightning discharges: a comparative study of the calculation methods and of the parameter Z{sub t}; Sobretensoes em cadeia de isoladores frente a descargas atmosfericas: um estudo comparativo dos metodos de calculo e do parametro Z{sub t}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoy, Antonio Varejao de

    1989-07-01

    This work studies in a deterministic point of view a lightning discharges that strikes directly the transmission line tower top. The calculation methods of this kind of surges: the method of successive reflections introduced by Jordan and the method of field well as compared with these purpose. Based on this two approaches a computational program is developed to calculate the overvoltage on the insulator string and the required parameters. Based on the results of this analysis, the simplest and most efficient method is chosen and where a simple sensitivity analysis is made for the following parameters: the impedance of lightning stroke channel, the tower foot impedance, time to crest of stroke shape function and tower surge impedance. This analysis is performed in order to verify the voltage variation on the insulator string. Finally, the last parameter, the tower surge impedance is emphasized comparing its calculated values with the measured values by geometrical model technique. (author)

  2. Calculation of the thermal solar contribution in facilities of ACS in buildings. Comparison between the method of strong simulation and F-Chart considering lost in the circuits; Calculo de la contribucion solar termica en instalaciones de ACS en edificios. Comparacion entre el metodo de simulacion dinamica y F-Chart considerando perdidas en los circuitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillo, J. F.; Lucas, M.; Lucas, R.; Vicente, P. G.

    2008-07-01

    It has analyzed the impact of distribution losses in the size of solar installations by comparing two methods commonly used in calculating the contribution of solar residential building: f-chart and dynamic simulation. 3 schemes have been analysed in a building 22 houses and 70 occupants located in the IV and climate in the province of Alicante. For comparison between the two methodologies have been used for calculating the same values input from climate data as consumption of ACS. (Author)

  3. Methods of scientific calculation applied to classic and quantum description of the vibrational dynamics of chaotic systems. Application to the HO2 system; Metodos de calculo cientifico aplicados a la caracterizacion clasica y cuantica de la dinamica vibracional de sistemas caoticas. Aplicacion al sistema molecular HO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Giralda, C.

    2005-07-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to search for points of correspondence between the classic and quantum behavior of the dynamics of non-rigid molecular system HO2 (Hidroperoxil Radix), and too, the study of the manifestation mode as the regularity than the ergodicity from the point of view of the classical and quantum mechanics laws. (Author)

  4. Efecto de la concentracion de hidrogeno en la red de hierro bcc por calculos ab-initio

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Javier; Andrés, Pedro L. de; Fullea, J.; Andrade, C.

    2008-01-01

    Utilizando cálculos mecano-cuánticos de primeros principios hemos estudiado la interacción del hidrógeno con la red cúbica centrada en el cuerpo del hierro. El hidrógeno intersticial puede ocupar dos posiciones de alta simetría en la red: el hueco octaédrico y el tetraédrico. Nuestros cálculos nos proporcionan barreras de difusión entre ambos huecos, que analizamos para entender la propagación del hidrogeno a través de la red de hierro. Se ha estudiado el efecto de la concentración de hidróge...

  5. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  6. Consideraciones respecto al calculo de empalmes atornillados de perfiles estructurales de GFRP sometidos a flexión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serna, Eduardo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A composite material can be defined as the combination of two or more materials with the aim of obtaining a new product with improved properties. Composite materials, composed of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibers, are currently used as structural elements, in spite of the uncertainties on strength, deformability and durability. The use of pultruded profiles in shapes similar to those used in metallic construction, results in an interesting solution for this material when high resistance. protection against chemical attacks and lightness are required. The structural key point of those materials are the joints. The present paper is focused on joints composed of bolted plates on the wings of IPN pultruded profiles. Different tests conducted in LABEIN are described. Likewise, this paper deals with tests carried out with the purpose of analysing the feasibility of joints with high resistance bolts.Se entiende como material compuesto la combinación de dos o más materiales para obtener un nuevo producto que mejore las propiedades individuales de cada uno ellos. Se está comenzando a emplear el material compuesto. formado por una matriz de tipo polimérico o resina reforzada con fibras. como elementos estructurales. pero con reticencias originadas por las incertidumbres existentes en la actualidad relativas a su resistencia, deformabilidad y durabilidad. Este material aporta un importante interés cuando se quieren obtener elementos estructurales de alta resistencia . protección frente a ataques químicos y ligereza. utilizando perfiles a la manera de la estructura metálica. fabricados por pultrusión, Debido a que el punto crítico estructural se encuentra en las uniones. el presente artículo se centrará en los empalmes atornillados con cubrejuntas de alas de perfiles pultruídos IPN, describiendo los ensayos de diferente naturaleza realizados en las instalaciones del Centro Tecnológico LABEIN. A su vez se recogen los ensayos previos

  7. Reação peritoneal tardia ao calculo biliar humano, de colesterol, deixado na cavidade abdominal de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bertges

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os resultados tardios da colocação de cálculos biliares humanos, de colesterol, na cavidade peritoneal de ratos. Constituíram-se cinco grupos: cinco ratos foram apenas laparotomizados com manuseio da cavidade; cinco foram laparotomizados e receberam um ponto com fio monofilamentar cinco zeros no sulco paracólico direito e mesentério; dez receberam cálculos que foram deixados livres na cavidade peritoneal; em dez, os clculos foram fixados no sulco paracólico direito e, finalmente, dez tiveram clculos fixados no mesentério. Os animais foram mortos após cinco meses de pós-operatório quando se observou a cavidade abdominal e foi coletado material para estudo histopatológico. Concluiu-se que os cálculos não foram absorvidos, desenvolveram uma reação peritoneal do tipo corpo estranho com formação de plastrão e foram envolvidos por tecido fibroso e células inflamatórias.

  8. Componentes Principales (C.P. de los sistemas de calculo del IPC base 92 y sistema IPC base 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pallas González

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nueve años después de que se adoptara un cambio de base en el cálculo del IPC para el Estado Español, asistimos a un cambio de sistema en el cálculo del mismo, naciendo el sistema de índices de precios, base 2001. A lo largo de este trabajo y utilizando el programa estadístico SPSS, se tratará de realizar un análisis multivariante, sobre las distintas variables que componen el IPC base 92, del estado español, y las del índice, atendiendo al nuevo sistema base 2001, que entró en vigor en enero de 2002. De todas las técnicas multivariantes susceptibles de ser aplicadas en este trabajo, se utilizaran el análisis de componentes principales y el análisis factorial, con el fin de obtener factores no observables que permitan explicar, perdiendo la mínima información, las variables originales que representan.

  9. Comparison Of The Worth Of Critical And Exponential Measurements For Heavy-Water-Moderated Reactors; Valeur Relative des Mesures Critiques et Exponentielles pour l'Etude des Reacteurs Ralentis a l'Eau Lourde; Sravnenie tsennosti kriticheskikh i ehksponentsial'nykh izmerenij dlya reaktorov s tyazhelovodnym zamedlitelem; Valor Relativo de las Mediciones Criticas y Exponenciales para los Reactores Moderados por Agua Pesada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, W. E.; Hennelly, E. J. [Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1964-02-15

    para determinar el coeficiente termico del laplaciano para un calentamiento uniforme del reticulado. En el SRL hay una instalacion especial, el PSE, que permite establecer dicho coeficiente hasta temperaturas de 215 Degree-Sign C. En cambio, para un calentamiento no uniforme, se prefiere generalmente los conjuntos criticos. 5. Reticulados mixtos En los reactores en funcionamiento raramente se usan los reticulados uniformes simples a los cuales se aplican basicamente los experimentos exponenciales. En el SRL se recurre a los experimentos criticos con cargas mezcladas, tanto para medir los efectos directos en maquetas, como para verificar la correccion de los calculos de difusion en medios heterogeneos y bidimensionales. 6. Estudios de la criticidad en agua ligera de un combustible destinado a reticulados de agua pesada Se ha comprobado que los experimentos exponenciales del laboratorio del SRL son particularmente valiosos para los estudios de criticidad encaminados a encontrar metodos seguros de manipulacion en agua ligera del combustible enriquecido. Estos trabajos no exigen una exactitud muy grande, y cabe senalar que los estudios de tipo general del laplaciano efectuados en conjuntos exponenciales son decididamente preferibles a los estudios especializados con conjuntos criticos. (author) [Russian] Kriticheskie i jeksponencial'nye jeksperimenty dajut, kak pravilo, chastichno perekryvajushhiesja dannye po reaktornym reshetkam. V techenie poslednih desjati let v Laboratorii Savanna-River rabotali parallel'no tjazhelovodnaja kriticheskaja ustanovka PDP i jeksponencial'naja ustanovka SE. Obobshhaetsja opyt s cel'ju dat' rekomendacii v otnoshenii primenenija jetih dvuh ustanovok dlja razlichnyh jeksperimentov. Rassmatrivajutsja shest' vidov jeksperimentov: 1) . Izmerenija laplasiana v odnorodnyh izotopnyh reshetkah Osushhestvleno shirokoe sravnenie rezul'tatov, poluchennyh pri odnorodnyh kriticheskih, jeksponencial'nyh i podstanovochno-kriticheskih izmerenijah, a takzhe

  10. Calculo Preliminar de la Tasa de Meteorización del Batolito Antioqueño, Cordillera Central, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcia

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es una estimación preliminar del tiempo necesario para generar la espesa capa de saprolito que caracteriza el perfil de meteorización actual de un batolito cuarzodiorítico cretácico que aflora en altiplanos de la Cordillera Central de Colombia, entre 5º50' y 7º00' de latitud Norte y 74º50' y 75º35' de longitud Oeste y a alturas entre 750 y 2700 m.Se utilizan datos obtenidos previamente mediante el análisis de la composición química de las aguas superficiales de cuatro cuencas con áreas diferentes, ubicadas sobre el Batolito Antioqueño, al este de Medellín. Los cáculos se hicieron con el método basado en la pérdida de componentes en solución utilizando diferentes valores de solutos. Al utilizar la pérdida de sílice se obtiene un tiempo de meteorización de unos 6 x 10 6 años, comparable con el obtenido mediante la datación de las cenizas volcánicas mas antiguas que recubren la topografía actual y que indican la fecha mínima de configuración de la superficie de erosión.A pesar de resultar de una serie de suposiciones simplificadoras, este resultado es interesante y justifica la realización de determinaciones mas detalladas. Confirma la larga preservación de superficies de erosión antiguas conformadas sobre un saprolito que desde hace varios millones de años no ha sido sometido a una erosión profunda, fenómeno poco común en una zona tectónicamente activa como la estudiada.

  11. Inventory Methods in a Conversion Plant; Methodes d'Inventaire dans un Etablissement de Transformation; Metody inventarizatsij na predpriyatii po pererabotke yadernykh materialov; Metodos de Inventario en una Planta de Transformacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billy, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    1966-02-15

    inventarios es la de salvaguardar los intereses de la Comision, evaluar la cuantia de las perdidas y controlar las medidas adoptadas para el almacenaje de los desechos. Para el recuento de las existencias el inspector puede efectuar materialmente el inventario, participar en el o comprobarlo. Este ultimo procedimiento es el que da mejores resultados. Las operaciones de recuento, precedidas de una reunion preparatoria para fijar las modalidades, se efectuan en dos tiempos: la comprobacion del inventario ponderal y la comprobacion de la contabilidad fisica. Las cuestiones que pueden plantearse durante el inventario se refieren a las discrepancias en el peso y el contenido, la eleccion del equipo de pesada, los residuos y la evaluacion de las perdidas. Los metodos de inventario no deben diferir de un pais a otro. Parece preferible subrayar las dificultades que se presentan durante las operaciones y estudiar en comun los medios para evitarlas. (author) [Russian] Osnovnymi zadachami inventarizacii javljajutsja: sobljudenie interesov Komissariata; opredelenie razmerov poter'; kontrol' mer, prinimaemyh dlja hranenija othodov. Inspektirujushhee lico mozhet provodit' fakticheskuju inventarizaciju, uchastvovat' v nej ili proverjat' ee. Jetot poslednij metod daet nailuchshie rezul'taty. Operacii po uchetu, kotorym predshestvuet podgotovitel'noe soveshhanie dlja opredelenija sposobov ucheta, provodjatsjav dva jetapa: snachala proverjaetsja nalichie po vesu, azatemdoku mentacija. Voprosy, voznikajushhie v svjazi s inventarizaciej i kasajushhiesja vesa, soderzhanija poko- vok, vybora vesov dlja vzveshivanija, normy othodov i ocenki poter', razreshajutsja otpravite- lem i poluchatelem. Metody inventarizacii v odnom gosudarstve ne dolzhny sil'no otlichat'sja ot takovyh v drugom gosudarstve. Neobhodimo podcherknut' trudnosti, voznikajushhie v processe inven- tarizacii, i zhelatel'nost' otyskanija sovmestnyh putej ih preodolenija. (author)

  12. Application of Laplace transform for determination of albedo type boundary conditions for neutronic calculations; Aplicacao da transformada de Laplace para determinacao de condicoes de contorno tipo albedo para calculos neutronicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Claudio Zen

    2008-07-01

    In this dissertation we use the Laplace transform to derive expressions for nonstandard albedo boundary conditions for one and two non-multiplying regions at the ends of one dimensional domains. In practice, the fuel regions of reactor cores are surrounded by reflector regions that reduce neutron leakage. In order to exclude the reflector regions from the calculations, we introduce a reflection coefficient or albedo. We use the present albedo boundary conditions to solve numerically slab-geometry monoenergetic and multigroup diffusion equations using the conventional finite difference method. Numerical results are generated for fixed source and eigenvalue diffusion problems in slab geometry(author)

  13. Advanced calculations developed for the ITER project within of engineering support framework contracts to F4E; Calculos avanzados desarrollados para el proyecto ITER dentro de los contratos marco de soporte de ingenieria para F4E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, C.; Polo, J.; Garcia Cid, J.; Guirao, J.; Fernandez, E.; Bayon, A.; Caixas, J.

    2013-07-01

    Present the different kind of analyses carried out within the engineering support framework contracts for F4E in the period 2009-2013 and its evolution according to project needs and Vacuum Vessel manufacturing status.

  14. Simplified methodology for control cell constant calculations of the reactor cores for the space kinetics; Metodologia simplificada para calculos das constantes das celulas de controles dos nucleos de reatores para a cinetica espacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rubens Souza dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    In this work is presented a methodology which focuses the distribution of neutron absorber rods in nuclear reactor power plants, for utilizing in space kinetic calculations, principally in the cluster ejection transients of control rods. A numerical model for macroscopic constant calculations based on the knowledge of the neutron flux without the control rods is proposed, as alternative to the analytical models, based on the hypothesis of the null current on the cell super boundaries. The proposed model in this work has itself showed adequate to deal with problems with strong space dependence, once that the model showed consistence in the global average built in the analytical model. (author)

  15. The criteria for setting the natural gas reference price for purposes of government take calculation; Os criterios para fixacao do preco de referencia do gas natural para fins de calculo das participacoes governamentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Flavio Augusto Pimentel de; Rosa, Renata Gualberto Cordeiro [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Petroleum Law states that the concession contract will also have provisions regarding the government takes established by the bid tender. However, the criteria for calculating the value of Royalties are set forth in the Decree 2.705/98, enacted to set such criteria, taking into account the volumes of production and the reference prices for oil and natural gas. The following aspects are analyzed in this paper: the method for calculating the volumes subject to the impact of Royalties; definition of the reference price for natural gas, the general rule for setting up the reference price in case the sale was made at market price; the special rule in case the sale was not made on a market basis, in case there is no sale or in case of breach of the conditions set in that Decree; and the settlement of the reference price in situations where only part of the volumes produced are sold on contracts that meet the requirements of the Decree. In conclusion the problems caused by gaps in legislation will be highlighted, particularly with regard to concessions granted to consortia as well as the inconsistencies between the applicable legislation, which may provide different analysis, including by the ANP, according to the features of each case. (author)

  16. Axial profiles of burned and fraction of holes for calculations of criticality with credit for BWR fuel burning; Perfiles axiales de quemado y fraccion de huecos para calculos de criticidad con credito al quemado para combustible BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado Sanchez, C.; Rubio Oviedo, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a method to define surround profiles of burning and fraction of holes suited for use in applications of credit to burning of BWR fuel from results obtained with the module STARBUCS of SCALE. (Author)

  17. DosedPet application for Nuclear Medicine: Calculation of the volume of medication needed for PET/CT patient; Aplicativo DosedPet para uso em Medicina Nuclear: calculo do volume de medicamento necessario para paciente de PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck, E-mail: pedroan88@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologias em Saude

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the facilities after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  18. Modeling and identification for the adjustable control of generation processes; Modelado e identificacion para el control autoajustable de procesos de generacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricano Castillo, Juan Manuel; Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    The recursive technique of the method of minimum squares is employed to obtain a multivariable model of the self regressive mobile mean type, needed for the design of a multivariable, self-adjustable controller self adjustable multivariable. In this article the employed technique and the results obtained are described with the characterization of the model structure and the parametric estimation. The convergency velocity curves are observed towards the parameters` numerical values. [Espanol] La tecnica recursiva del metodo de los minimos cuadrados se emplea para obtener un modelo multivariable de tipo autorregresivo de promedio movil, necesario para el diseno de un controlador autoajustable muitivariable. En el articulo, se describe la tecnica empleada y los resultados obtenidos con la caracterizacion de la estructura del modelo y la estimacion parametrica. Se observan las curvas de la velocidad de convergencia hacia los valores numericos de los parametros.

  19. Modeling and identification for the adjustable control of generation processes; Modelado e identificacion para el control autoajustable de procesos de generacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricano Castillo, Juan Manuel; Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    The recursive technique of the method of minimum squares is employed to obtain a multivariable model of the self regressive mobile mean type, needed for the design of a multivariable, self-adjustable controller self adjustable multivariable. In this article the employed technique and the results obtained are described with the characterization of the model structure and the parametric estimation. The convergency velocity curves are observed towards the parameters` numerical values. [Espanol] La tecnica recursiva del metodo de los minimos cuadrados se emplea para obtener un modelo multivariable de tipo autorregresivo de promedio movil, necesario para el diseno de un controlador autoajustable muitivariable. En el articulo, se describe la tecnica empleada y los resultados obtenidos con la caracterizacion de la estructura del modelo y la estimacion parametrica. Se observan las curvas de la velocidad de convergencia hacia los valores numericos de los parametros.

  20. Conocimiento y uso de metodos anticonceptivos por la poblacion femenina de una zona de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroto de Agustín Alicia

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: El uso de métodos anticonceptivos está en relación, entre otros, con factores demográficos, sociales, económicos, educativos e ideológicos. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer qué métodos anticonceptivos conocen las mujeres en edad fértil, así como la prevalencia de su uso. MÉTODOS: A partir del listado de tarjeta sanitaria se seleccionaron mediante muestreo sistemático 389 de las 5800 mujeres en edad fértil (15-45 años asignadas a un centro de salud. Previo envío de una carta, comunicando el motivo del estudio, se contactó telefónicamente con ellas para la realización de una encuesta, la cual incluía preguntas acerca del conocimiento y uso de métodos anticonceptivos, características socioculturales y actividad sexual. Las mujeres que no tenían teléfono fueron citadas en el centro de salud. RESULTADOS: Se contactó con 178 mujeres, de las que participaron 166 (tasa de respuesta de 42,7%. De ellas utilizaban algún método anticonceptivo 86 (51,8%; IC:44,2-59,4%. Sin embargo, entre mujeres con riesgo de embarazo no deseado, la prevalencia de uso era del 70,5% (IC: 62,4-78,6%, destacando el hecho de que en el grupo de mujeres de 40 a 45 años sólo utilizaran anticonceptivos el 45,4%, con una frecuencia significativamente inferior a los otros grupos de edad. Los métodos más conocidos eran el preservativo (90,4%, los contraceptivos orales (89,2% y el dispositivo intrauterino (78,3%, siendo escaso el conocimiento de otros métodos. CONCLUSIONES: La tasa de utilización de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres con riesgo de embarazo no deseado es aceptable, si bien entre 40 y 45 años es llamativamente baja. Los métodos más conocidos son el preservativo, los contraceptivos orales y el dispositivo intrauterino.

  1. L’utilizzo della ricostruzione nella comunicazione del patrimonio archeologico. L’approccio, il metodo, le finalità e alcuni spunti di discussione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bacci

    2010-05-01

    In questo contributo si focalizza l’attenzione sulla ricostruzione grafica e virtuale del patrimonio e sulle sensazioni che la ricostruzione evoca nel fruitore del messaggio culturale. La ricostruzione si attua mediante la collaborazione tra archeologo e illustratore e costituisce un momento di verifica visiva dell’interpretazione archeologica e uno strumento di comunicazione del dato archeologico fruibile a più livelli. Ciò avviene grazie allo scambio costante di informazioni (dati scientifici e proposte di ricostruzione e il confronto che ne deriva determina i metodi e le fasi di avanzamento del progetto. Il metodo si basa sull’integrazione delle immagini 3D con il disegno tradizionale ed è finalizzato alla trasposizione del dato archeologico, in modo tale da garantire alla ricostruzione il duplice requisito di soddisfazione estetica e credibilità scientifica.

  2. Information systems for civil engineering; Sistemas de informacion para ingenieria civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buen R, Pablo R; Alvarado G, Alonso; Alaniz Q, Felipe de J; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Since its beginnings, in the Gerencia de Ingenieria Civil (GIC) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) the interest has existed to take advantage of and to promote the advantages that the appropriate use of the computerizing systems in the different tasks of civil engineering in the power sector represent. Either as a part of its infrastructure or at the request of their clients, at the GIC have been developed calculation systems for the analysis and design of special structures such as turbo-generators foundations, poles for transmission and distribution and transmission towers, in addition the information systems for the consultation and the analysis of diverse information, such as the related to the Manuals of Civil Works of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) or the relative to the existing instruments in the large dams of our country. In this article are briefly described some of the computer systems developed by the GIC in recent years. [Spanish] Desde sus inicios, en la Gerencia de Ingenieria Civil (GIC) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha existido el interes por aprovechar y promover las ventajas que representa el uso adecuado de los sistemas de computo en las diferentes tareas de ingenieria civil en el sector energetico. Ya sea como parte de su infraestructura o a solicitud de sus clientes, en la GIC se han desarrollado sistemas de calculo para el analisis y diseno de estructuras especiales como lo son las cimentaciones de turbogeneradores, los postes para transmision y distribucion y las torres de transmision, ademas de sistemas de informacion para la consulta y el analisis de informacion diversa, como es la relacionada con los manuales de obras civiles de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) o a la relativa a los instrumentos existentes en las grandes presas de nuestro pais. En este articulo se describen brevemente algunos de los sistemas de computo desarrollos por la GIC en anos recientes.

  3. Analytical methods for 2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) determination; Metodos analiticos para la determinacion del 2,4-D (Acido diclorofenoxiacetico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez G, M.S.M

    1999-06-01

    The 2,4-D herbicide is one of the main pesticides for controlling the bad grass in crops such as the water undergrowth. In Mexico the allowed bound of this pesticide is 0.05 mg/l in water of 2,4-D so it is required to have methods trusts and exacts, which can used in order to detected low concentration of it. In this work we show some for the conventional techniques and for establishing the 2,4-D concentrations. The UV-Vis spectrometer and liquids chromatography due that they are the most common used nowadays. Beside, we introduce a now developed technique, which is based on the neutronic activation analysis. Though use of the UV-Vis spectrometer technique it was possible target the concentrations interval between 1 and 200 mg/l. In the liquids chromatography interval was between 0.1 and 0.9, and by the neutronic activation analysis the interval was between 0.01 and 200 mg/l. (Author)

  4. An Optimised Method to Determine PAHs in a Contaminated Soil; Metodo Optimizado para la Determinacion de PAHs en un Suelo Contaminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano castano, M. L.; Escolano Segovia, O.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2007-07-20

    An analytical study is presented based on an optimised method to determine selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The work was focused to obtain reliable measurements of PAH in a gas work contaminated soil and was performed in the frame of the project 'Assessment of natural remediation technologies for PAHs in contaminated soils' (Spanish Plan Nacional l+D+i, CTM 2004-05832-CO2-01): First assays were focused to evaluate an initial proposed procedure by sonication extraction in the contaminated soil. Afterwards to extend the efficiency and reduce solvent and time consuming of extraction procedures, the more relevant parameters that affect the extraction step were investigated. A comparison between sonication and microwave procedures was done, and the influence of sample grinding was studied. In general, both extraction techniques led on comparable results, although sonication procedure needs to be more carefully optimised. Finally, as a final application of the optimised method, the effect of particle size on relative distribution of selected PAHs in the contaminated soil was investigated. Relative abundance of more volatile PAHs showed a decreasing according to lower grain size, while relative abundance of less volatile compounds indicated an increasing of concentration levels for lower grain size. (Author) 10 refs.

  5. Applied methods for mitigation of damage by stress corrosion in BWR type reactors; Metodos aplicados para la mitigacion del dano por corrosion bajo esfuerzo en reactores BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez C, R.; Diaz S, A.; Gachuz M, M.; Arganis J, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Gerencia de Ciencia de Materiales, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The Boiling Water nuclear Reactors (BWR) have presented stress corrosion problems, mainly in components and pipes of the primary system, provoking negative impacts in the performance of energy generator plants, as well as the increasing in the radiation exposure to personnel involucred. This problem has caused development of research programs, which are guided to find solution alternatives for the phenomena control. Among results of greater relevance the control for the reactor water chemistry stands out particularly in the impurities concentration and oxidation of radiolysis products; as well as the supervision in the materials selection and the stresses levels reduction. The present work presents the methods which can be applied to diminish the problems of stress corrosion in BWR reactors. (Author)

  6. The irradiation as a quarantine method for the treatment of fresh fruits; La irradiacion como metodo cuarentenario eficaz para el tratamiento de frutas frescas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupert, Norma L [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Dept. de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Agropecuarias

    1999-07-01

    The irradiation is proposed as an alternative to chemical or other physical methods for the quarantine of fresh fruit. The case of the products of the Southern part of Argentina is analysed and the economical and financial parameters for the installation and the operation of an irradiation plant are estimated. The costs are compared to those of a chemical quarantine system. (author)

  7. In-situ gamma spectrometry method for determination of environmental gamma dose; Metodo de espectrometria gamma in situ para determinacao de dose gama ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Claudio de Carvalho

    1995-07-15

    This work tries to establish a methodology for germanium detectors calibration, normally used for in situ gamma ray spectrometry, for determining the environmental exposure rate in function of the energy of the incident photons. For this purpose a computer code has been developed, based on the stripping method, for the computational spectra analysis to calculate the contribution of the partial absorption of the gamma rays (Compton effect) in the active and nonactive parts of the detector. The resulting total absorption spectrum is then converted to fluence distribution in function of the energy for the photons reaching the detector, which is then used to calculate the exposure rate or kerma in air. The unfolding and fluency convention parameters are determined by detector calibration using point gamma sources. The method is validated by comparison of the results against the calculated exposure rate at a point of interest for the standards. This method is used for the direct measurement of the exposure rate distribution in function of the energy at the site, in situ measurement technic, leading to rapid results during an emergency situation and also used for indoor measurements. (author)

  8. Implementation of the Bee Colony Optimization method for the design of fuel cells; Implementacion del metodo Bee Colony Optimization para el diseno de celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Ortiz S, J. J., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@fi.uaemex.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The present work shows the results obtained after applying the Bee Colony Optimization algorithm in the design of fuel cells for a BWR. The algorithm that is implemented, works following the behavior that have the bees when pollinating a flowers field. The bees carry out an exhaustive analysis in the cell, so they leave generating diverse configurations where different fuel bars are placed with different uranium enrichments to reach a value mean, with a specific number of gadolinium bars. The behavior of the generated cell is evaluated by means of the use of the commercial code CASMO-4, which shows the variables that allow fixing if the cell fulfills the requirements. Such variables are the local potential peak factor and the neutrons multiplication factor in an infinite medium. (Author)

  9. Application of spectroscopic methods to the study of ionizing radiation effects in polymers; Aplicacion de metodos espectroscopicos para estudiar efectos de la radiacion en polimeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez P, G

    1996-12-31

    In general the interaction of ionizing radiation with polymers generates physic-chemical changes. Aiming to quantity these changes, three spectroscopic analytical techniques were used (UV, IR and EPR) and the chemical corrosion technique was used for three DSTN (CR39, Lexan and Makrofol) which were exposed to two radiation types: electrons and gammas. The effects of radiation are compared. Also a correlation between the UV and Vg results in function of dose is presented. The possible causes of the increase in chemical corrosion are discussed. (Author).

  10. Sequential method for the assessment of innovations in computer assisted industrial processes; Metodo secuencial para evaluacion de innovaciones en procesos industriales asistido por computadora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Antola, R [Universidad Catolica del Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay); Artucio, G [Ministerio de Industria Energia y Mineria. Direccion Nacional de Tecnologia Nuclear, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1995-08-01

    A sequential method for the assessment of innovations in industrial processes is proposed, using suitable combinations of mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of dynamics. Some advantages and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. tabs.

  11. Implementation of sum-peak method for standardization of positron emission radionuclides; Implementacao do metodo pico-soma para padronizacao de radionuclideos emissores de positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Mercia Liane de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: mcfragoso@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is being increasingly recognized as an important quantitative imaging tool for diagnosis and assessing response to therapy. As correct dose administration plays a crucial part in nuclear medicine, it is important that the instruments used to assay the activity of the short-lived radionuclides are calibrated accurately, with traceability to the national or international standards. The sum-peak method has been widely used for radionuclide standardization. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of PET radiopharmaceuticals at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE). (author)

  12. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents; Metodo para el desarrollo de la preparacion de la respuesta a emergencias nucleares o radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability.

  13. ICP-MS: suitable method to study the metals distribution in estuarine regions; ICP-MS metodo adequado para o estudo da distribuicao de metais em regioes estuarinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Oliveira, Arno H. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: danilochagas@yahoo.com.br; heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br; Santos, Silvio J. dos; Brito, Veronica F.O.; Severo, Maria Isabel G. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2005-07-01

    Anthropogenic inputs of pollutants such as heavy metals into the marine environment have increased their levels to large extents within past a few decades. These pollutants tend to accumulate in the bottom sediments. As a result, ecosystems such as seaports or other industrialized coastal areas that have chronic inputs of metals have highly contaminated sediments. This characteristic has led to concerns over the ecological effects that may be associated with sediment quality. Of particular concern are toxic effects and the potential for bioaccumulation of metals in biota exposed to the sediments. The bivalves Crassostrea rhizophorae, Lucina pectinata and Mytella falcata have been used as biomonitors of trace metal contamination in two estuaries from Ilheus city, Bahia state, in Brazil. Bivalves, sediment and water samples were collected in March 2004 in Acuipe and Rio do Engenho mangroves. The proposed technique to analyze the studied matrices was the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results suggested that the studied molluscs are bioaccumulators of metals and showed the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) as an adequate technique to determine a large range of inorganic elements, because its high sensibility and low detection limits. (author)

  14. Sub-coulomb transfer method of a nucleon for measure orbital radii; Metodo de transferencia sub-coulombiana de un nucleon para medir radios orbitales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Murillo, G.; Ramirez, J.; Avila, O. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1986-04-15

    The neutron transfer method is revised to measure neutron orbital radii and possible interest systems to apply it are determined. Its were carried out DWBA preliminary calculations for the system {sup 209} Bi(d,t) {sup 208} Bi. (Author)

  15. Method for automatic re contouring straight adaptive radiotherapy for prostate cancer; Metodo para el recontorneo automatico del recto en radioterapia adaptativa en cancer de prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Vila, B.; Garcia Vicente, F.; Aguilera, E. J.

    2011-07-01

    Outline of quickly and accurately the rectal wall is important in Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT in the acronym) as an organ of greatest influence in limiting the dose in the planning of radiation therapy in prostate cancer. Deformabies registration methods based on image intensity can not create a correct spatial transformation if there is no correspondence between the image and image planning session. The rectal content variation creates a non-correspondence in the image intensity becomes a major obstacle to the deformable registration based on image intensity.

  16. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste; Metodo para determinar la concentracion de actividad y actividad total de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A

    2001-02-15

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients.

  17. "Mastery Learning" Como Metodo Psicoeducativo para Ninos con Problemas Especificos de Aprendizaje. ("Mastery Learning" as a Psychoeducational Method for Children with Specific Learning Problems.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coya, Liliam de Barbosa; Perez-Coffie, Jorge

    1982-01-01

    "Mastery Learning" was compared with the "conventional" method of teaching reading skills to Puerto Rican children with specific learning disabilities. The "Mastery Learning" group showed significant gains in the cognitive and affective domains. Results suggested Mastery Learning is a more effective method of teaching…

  18. El uso del metodo MICMAC y MACTOR analisis prospectivo en un area operativa para la busqueda de la excelencia operativa a traves del Lean Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Baldemar Garza Villegas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Presents the MICMAC and MACTOR prospective analysis study in an operational area which looks for world-class management with reference to the concepts of lean manufacturing. The results of a qualitative analysis and his conclusions are presented.

  19. The comparison of two methods to obtain human oral keratinocytes in primary culture; Comparacao de dois metodos de obtencao celular para cultura primaria de queratinocitos bucais humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingbeil, Maria Fatima Guarizo

    2006-07-01

    The therapeutic procedures frequently used in oral treatments for the pathological diseases are surgical, resulting in failures of the mucosal continuity.The possibility to obtain transplantable oral epithelia from an in vitro cell culture opens new utilization perspectives not only to where it comes from, but also as a reconstructive material for other parts of the human body, such as: urethra, epithelia corneo-limbal, cornea, ocular surface. Many researchers still use controversial methods for obtaining cells. It was therefore evaluated and compared the efficiency in both methods: enzymatic and direct explant to obtain oral keratinocytes from human oral mucosa. Fragments of intra oral epithelial tissues from healthy human subjects, undergoing dental surgeries, were donated to the research project. The keratinocytes were cultivated over a feeder-layer from a previously irradiated 3T3 Swiss albino fibroblasts. In this study it was compared the time needed in the cell obtention, the best cell amount between both methods, the life-span, the cell capacity to form an in vitro epithelia and its morphologic structure. The results in the assessment of both methods have shown the possibility to obtain keratinocytes from a small oral fragment, but at the same time we may verify the advantages and peculiar restrictions for each one of both analyzed methods. (author)

  20. Calibration methods of plane-parallel ionization chambers used in electron dosimetry; Metodos de calibracao de camaras de ionizacao de placas paralelas para dosimetria de feixes de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulla, Roseli Tadeu

    1999-07-01

    The use of linear accelerators in radiotherapy is of great importance in Medicine, and according to international recommendations the electron beam dosimetry has to be performed using plane-parallel ionization chambers, previously calibrated in standard gamma radiation fields at accredited laboratories. In this work, calibration methods of plane-parallel ionization chambers used in dosimetry procedures of high energy electron beams of clinical accelerators were presented, tested and intercompared. The experiments were carried out using gamma radiation beams of {sup 60} Co at the Calibration Laboratory of Clinical Dosemeters at IPEN and electron beams od 4 to 16 MeV at the Radiotherapy Department of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo. A method was chosen to be established at IPEN. Proposals of the calibration procedure, calibration certificate and data sheets are presented. (author)

  1. The Muhlbauer method for pipeline risk management in onshore environment; O metodo de Muhlbauer para gerenciamento de risco em linhas de dutos em ambiente 'onshore'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer, Alexandro G.; Miguelis, Paula M.F. [UNIPAMPA, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    There are several methods for the risk assessment and risk management applied to pipelines, among them the Muhlbauer's Method. W. Kent Muhlbauer is an internationally recognized authority on pipeline risk management. He made a detailed identification about 300 distinct conditions that influence the risk assessment in pipelines and he proposed a score system that is known as method of Muhlbauer. The purpose of this model is to evaluate the public exposure to the risk and identify ways for management that risk in fact. The assessment is made by the attribution of quantitative values to the several items that influences in the pipeline risk. This paper approaches the Muhlbauer's basic model for risk assessment and management in pipelines. In the beginning, the basic model for risk assessment is presented, and methodology for pipelines in onshore environment is detailed. After, presents major items in risk assessment and this relative score. Finally, present the additional modules for Muhlbauer's method customizing. (author)

  2. Computer simulating for oil fields with artificial elevation method by electrical submersible pump; Simulacao computacional para pocos de petroleo com metodo de elevacao artificial por bombeio centrifugo submerso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Evellyne da Silva; Maitelli, Andre Laurindo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Costa, Rutacio de Oliveira [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio RN/CE; Barbosa, Tiago de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Computacao

    2008-07-01

    The architecture heterogeneities and petrophysical properties of carbonate reservoirs result from a combination of platform morphology, related depositional environments, relative sea level changes and diagenetic events. The reservoir layering built for static and dynamic modelling purposes should reflect the key heterogeneities (depositional or diagenetic) which govern the fluid flow patterns. The layering needs to be adapted to the goal of the modelling, ranging from full field computations of hydrocarbon volumes, to sector-based fine-scale simulations to test the recovery improvement. This paper illustrates various reservoir layering types, including schemes dominated by depositional architecture, and those more driven by the diagenetic overprint. The examples include carbonate platform reservoirs from different stratigraphic settings (Tertiary, Cretaceous, Jurassic and Permian) and different regions (Europe, Africa and Middle East areas). This review shows how significant stratigraphic surfaces (such as sequence boundaries or maximum flooding) with their associated facies shifts, can be often considered as key markers to constrain the reservoir layering. Conversely, how diagenesis (dolomitization and karst development), resulting in units with particular poroperm characteristics, may significantly overprint the primary reservoir architecture by generating flow units which cross-cut depositional sequences. To demonstrate how diagenetic processes can create reservoir bodies with geometries that cross-cut the depositional fabric, different types of dolomitization and karst development are illustrated. (author)

  3. Method of compensation spires for the detection of the diamagnetic effect in a Tokamak; Metodo de espiras de compensacion para la deteccion del efecto diamagnetico en un Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colunga S, S

    1990-09-15

    In this report the classical detection method of the diamagnetic effect by means of a rolled spire on the discharges chamber in the poloidal direction and the difficulties related with this are analyzed. An alternative method that increases considerably the detection sensibility of the diamagnetic effect and that for its simplicity it is quite attractive for its application to the Tokamak Novillo of the ININ is presented. (Author)

  4. Development of method to chemical separation of gallium-67 by thermal diffusion technique; Desenvolvimento de metodo para separacao quimica de galio-67 pela tecnica de difusao termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Patricia de Andrade

    2012-07-01

    Radioisotopes of gallium have been studied and evaluated for medical applications since 1949. Over the past 50 years {sup 67}Ga has been widely used in the diagnosis of various diseases, including acute and chronic inflammatory lesions, bacterial or sterile and several types of tumors. In Brazil 30% of clinics that provide services for Nuclear Medicine use {sup 67}Ga citrate and the demand for 67{sup G}a at IPEN-CNEN/SP is 37 GBq (1 Ci)/week. The {sup 67}Ga presents physical half-life of 3.26 days (78 hours) and decays 100% by electron capture to stable {sup 67}Zn. Its decay includes the emission of {gamma} rays with energies of 93.3 keV (37%), 184.6 keV (20.4%), 300.2 keV (16.6%) and 888 keV (26%). In the past {sup 67}Ga was produced by the reaction {sup 68}Zn (p, 2n) {sup 67}Ga at IPEN-CNEN/SP. After irradiation, the target was dissolved in concentrated HCl and the solution percolated through a cationic resin DOWEX 50W-X8, 200-400 mesh, conditioned with 10 mol L{sup -1} HCl. Zinc, nickel and copper were eluted in 10 mol L{sup -1} HCl and {sup 67}Ga 3.5 mol L{sup -1} HCl. The final product was obtained as {sup 67}Ga citrate. This work presents a new, fast, direct and efficient method for the chemical separation of 67{sup G}a by thermal diffusion (heating of the target) combined with concentrated acetic acid extraction. Purification was performed by ion exchange chromatography. Natural zinc electrodeposition was performed on nickel/copper plates as substrate and the zinc deposits were adherent to the substrate, slightly shiny and uniform. The targets were irradiated with 26 MeV protons and integrated current of 10 {mu}A.h. After irradiation, the targets were heated at 300 deg C for 2 hours and placed in contact with concentrated acetic acid for 1 hour. The average yield of extraction of {sup 67}Ga was (72 {+-} 10)%. This solution was evaporated and the residue was taken up in 0.5 mol L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}OH. The 67{sup G}a was purified on cationic resin Dowex 50WX8 in NH{sub 4}OH medium. The {sup 67}Ga recovery was (98 {+-} 2)%. This solution was evaporated and taken up in 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl. The chemical purity was evaluated by ICP-OES that resulted in (2 {+-} 1) {mu}g mL{sup -1} of zinc. The concentration of iron, copper and nickel was lower than the detection limits and also than the utilization limits for {sup 67}Ga. The radionuclidic purity was greater than (99.9%). This method showed to be suitable to obtain high purity {sup 67}Ga in less aggressive chemical conditions than before. (author)

  5. An experimental-numerical method for comparative analysis of joint prosthesis; Un metodo numerico-experimental para el analisis comparativo de protesis articulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claramunt, R.; Rincon, E.; Zubizarreta, V.; Ros, A.

    2001-07-01

    The difficulty that exists in the analysis of mechanical stresses in bones is high due to its complex mechanical and morphological characteristics. This complexity makes generalists modelling and conclusions derived from prototype tests very questionable. In this article a relatively simple comparative analysis systematic method that allow us to establish some behaviour differences in different kind of prosthesis is presented. The method, applicable in principle to any joint problem, is based on analysing perturbations produced in natural stress states of a bone after insertion of a joint prosthesis and combines numerical analysis using a 3-D finite element model and experimental studies based on photoelastic coating and electric extensometry. The experimental method is applied to compare two total hip prosthesis cement-free femoral stems of different philosophy. One anatomic of new generation, being of oblique setting over cancellous bone and the other madreporique of trochantero-diaphyseal support over cortical bone. (Author) 4 refs.

  6. Method for evaluating the applicability and application rate wastes in soil; Metodo para avaliacao da aplicabilidade e taxa de aplicacao de residuos em solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhares, Monica Moreira [Partime (Brazil); Seabra, Paulo Negrais [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    1991-01-01

    Land treatment of refinery solid wastes has been practiced in the last few years by some PETROBRAS refineries. The biodegradation process is dynamic and complex, and incorrect monitoring may destroy the potential of the soil. Due to great differences both in terms of soils and of residues, each case must be monitored individually. We therefore developed a monitoring method for land farming systems based on the impact of the waste on indigenous soil microbial populations. The method is extremely simple, requiring only a gas chromatograph to evaluate the CO{sub 2} evolution, and can detect possible causes for low efficiency biodegradation processes. Conditions should then be altered, to ensure adequate functioning of the system.The method also allows for determination of the applicability of candidate wastes and of acceptable waste application rates in soil. (author) 2 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Optimization of a radiochemistry method for plutonium determination in biological samples; Optimizacion del metodo radioquimico para determinar plutonio en muestras biologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerchetti, Maria L; Arguelles, Maria G [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Ezeiza (Argentina). Laboratorio de Dosimetria Personal y de Area

    2005-07-01

    Plutonium has been widely used for civilian an military activities. Nevertheless, the methods to control work exposition have not evolved in the same way, remaining as one of the major challengers for the radiological protection practice. Due to the low acceptable incorporation limit, the usual determination is based on indirect methods in urine samples. Our main objective was to optimize a technique used to monitor internal contamination of workers exposed to Plutonium isotopes. Different parameters were modified and their influence on the three steps of the method was evaluated. Those which gave the highest yield and feasibility were selected. The method involves: 1-) Sample concentration (coprecipitation); 2-) Plutonium purification; and 3-) Source preparation by electrodeposition. On the coprecipitation phase, changes on temperature and concentration of the carrier were evaluated. On the ion-exchange separation, changes on the type of the resin, elution solution for hydroxylamine (concentration and volume), length and column recycle were evaluated. Finally, on the electrodeposition phase, we modified the following: electrolytic solution, pH and time. Measures were made by liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry (PIPS). We obtained the following yields: 88% for coprecipitation (at 60 C degree with 2 ml of CaHPO{sub 4}), 71% for ion-exchange (resins AG 1x8 Cl{sup -} 100-200 mesh, hydroxylamine 0.1N in HCl 0.2N as eluent, column between 4.5 and 8 cm), and 93% for electrodeposition (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-NH{sub 4}OH, 100 minutes and pH from 2 to 2.8). The expand uncertainty was 30% (NC 95%), the decision threshold (Lc) was 0.102 Bq/L and the minimum detectable activity was 0.218 Bq/L of urine. We obtained an optimized method to screen workers exposed to Plutonium. (author)

  8. Utilizacion del metodo de hidrolisis de los amilostatolitos para el diagnostico de resistencia al calor, la sequia y la salinidad en el tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Sánchez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone 5 indices de calidad que penni- ten estimar certerarnentel nivel de calidad y po- tencial productivo de una plantaci6n forestal. £1 primer indice es el de calidad general y debe uti- lizarse preferiblemente en plantaciones no ralea- das. £ste indiceproducira valores de 1.0-4.0. Valo- res cercanos a 1 serlin de plantaciones de la mas al- ta calidad. £1 segundo es el de calidad de cosecha y se basa en la cantidad de individuos presentes por ha de calidad 1 y 2. Una plantaci6n con 400 indi- viduos de calidad 1 +2 seria excelente y con menos de 200 individuos seria de mala calidad. £1 tercero es el de calidad maxima, que busca reflejar en que proporci6n la plantaci6n se aproxima al maximo numero posible de individuos de calidad 1 y de 40 cm de dap que puede contener una plantaci6n fo- festal ala cosecha; es basado en N 1=250 Y genera harvalores porcentuales, donde una plantaci6n con >90% seria excelente y 1600 trozas/ha de calidad 1+2 son excelentes y aquellas <800 trozas son inaceptables. Por ultimo se incluye el indice de calidad de productividad, que permite valorar la calidad de una plantaci6n en

  9. Planetary method to measure the neutrons spectrum in lineal accelerators of medical use; Metodo planetario para medir el espectro de neutrones en aceleradores lineales de uso medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Benites R, J. L., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Servicio de Seguridad Radiologica, Calzada de la Cruz 118 Sur, 63000 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    A novel procedure to measure the neutrons spectrum originated in a lineal accelerator of medical use has been developed. The method uses a passive spectrometer of Bonner spheres. The main advantage of the method is that only requires of a single shot of the accelerator. When this is used around a lineal accelerator is necessary to operate it under the same conditions so many times like the spheres that contain the spectrometer, activity that consumes enough time. The developed procedure consists on situating all the spheres of the spectrometer at the same time and to realize the reading making a single shot. With this method the photo neutrons spectrum produced by a lineal accelerator Varian ix of 15 MV to 100 cm of the isocenter was determined, with the spectrum is determined the total flow and the ambient dose equivalent. (Author)

  10. Automatic method detection of artifacts for control of tomographic uniformity on SPECT; Metodo automatico de dteccion de artefactos para el control de la uniformidad tomografica en SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynes Llompart, G.; Puchal, R.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work is the find an automatic method for the detection and classification of artifacts produced in tomographic uniformity, extracting the characteristics necessary to apply a classification algorithm using pattern recognition techniques. The method has been trained and validated with synthetic images and tested with real images. (Author)

  11. Torpedo Base - a new method for installation of a conductor casing; Base Torpedo - um novo metodo para instalacao do revestimento condutor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Emmanuel Franco; Borges, Alexandre Thomaz [PETROBRAS. E and P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Perfuracao e Operacoes Especiais (Brazil)], e-mails: efranco@petrobras.com.br, atborges@petrobras.com.br; Medeiros Junior, Cipriano Jose de [PETROBRAS. Engenharia. Gerencia de Geociencias (Brazil)], e-mail: cipri.intec@petrobras.com.br; Machado, Rogerio Diniz; Souza, Ebenezer Viana de [PETROBRAS. E and P - SERV. Gerencia de Ancoragem (Brazil)], e-mail: rogeriodm@petrobras.com.br, ebnezer_souza@petrobras.com.br

    2008-12-15

    In the last years, PETROBRAS has been optimizing and reducing the cost of the mooring systems through the use of torpedo anchors. It consists of a tubular pile with heavy weight ballast, installed by a process that uses the energy generated by the free fall of the pile from a supply vessel. It is a low cost anchoring concept, with simple fabrication and installation. More than two hundred torpedo anchors were installed offshore Brazil in the last four years. Based on the success of the torpedo anchors for mooring purposes PETROBRAS Exploration and Production department decided to employ the same idea for installing the conductor casing. The benefit was that this installation could be accomplished from an anchor-handling vessel saving important rig time. Another advantage with this installation method is a better foundation provided since no soil is removed during this process. The paper will provide an overview of PETROBRAS Torpedo Base experience in the Albacora Leste field as well as a few other applications of this technology for the production side. After the final installation of two prototypes in the Albacora Leste Field, in Campos Basin, at the end of 2004, the Torpedo Base project was approved by the clients and by PETROBRAS's technological area, having its acquisition requested by five assets (management areas responsible for oil fields located in that basin), in a total of 18 Torpedo Base. The difficulties related to the hiring of services and logistics faced in order to make the installation of the equipment feasible made the E and P technological area to choose to monitor the acquisition and installation of these 18 bases, so as to ensure a smooth transition between the project authors and the technicians in charge of operation of the equipment, ensuring, therefore, the consolidation of the technology. This paper reports PETROBRAS's experience with Torpedo Bases during the installation of these 18 bases in several fields in Campos Basin, throughout almost two years. There shall be presented the problems faced, solutions for them and improvements implemented aiming at optimizing not only the equipment but also its installation process. (author)

  12. Electret ionization chamber: a new method for detection and dosimetry of thermal neutrons; Camara de ionizacao de eletretos: um novo metodo para deteccao e dosimetria de neutrons termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghilardi, A J.P.

    1988-12-31

    An electret ionization chamber with boron coated walls is presented as a new method for detecting thermal neutrons. The efficiency of electret ionization chambers with different wall materials for the external electrode was inferred from the results. Detection of slow neutrons with discrimination against the detection of {gamma}-rays and energetic neutrons was shown to depend on the selection of these materials. The charge stability over a long period of time and the charge decay owing to natural radiation were also studied. Numerical analysis was developed by the use of a micro-computer PC-XT. Both the experimental and numerical results show that the sensitivity of the electret ionization chamber for detection of thermal neutrons is comparable with that of the BF{sub 3} ionization chamber and that new technologies for deposition of the boron layer will produce higher efficiency detectors. (author). 102 refs, 32 fig, 10 tabs.

  13. Validation of a method to determine methylmercury in fish tissues using gas chromatography; Validacion de un metodo para determinar metilmercurio en tejido de pescado por cromatografia de gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Bolannos, Luisa O; Arias Verdes, Jose A; Beltran Llerandi, Gilberto; Castro Diaz, Odalys; Moreno Tellez, Olga L [Instituto de Nutricion e Higiene de los Alimentos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2000-07-01

    We validated a method to determine methylmercury in fish tissues using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector as described by the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) International. The linear curve range was 0.02 to 1 g/ml and linear correlation coefficient was 0.9979. A 1 mg/kg methylmercury-contaminated fish sample was analyzed 20 times to determine repeatability of the method. The quantification limit was 0.16 mg/kg and detection limit was 0.06 ppm. Fish samples contaminated with 0.2 to 10 mg/kg methylmercury showed recovery indexes from 94.66 to 108.8%.

  14. Empleo de una sonda infrarroja in situ para monitorear reacciones de esterificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Sánchez Castellanos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se empleó un reactor batch (por lotes, dotado de tres detectores: pH, Sonda IR y operación en continuo, de tal forma que puede operarse como un reactor CSTR. En la medida en que la esterificación procede, decrecen las bandas correspondientes al grupo -COOH del ácido carboxIlico y la del grupo C-OH del alcohol, presentándose al mismo tiempo incremento en la banda del grupo -COOR del ester que se está formando. El progreso de la reacción se puede seguir por el registro continuo de los espectro IR. La banda correspondiente a H-O-H del agua no se puede seguir ya que se requiere de un ambiente absolutamente anhidro para hacerlo. De otro lado, por aparte pueden prepararse soluciones patrones para poder cuantificar la intensidad de los picos en el espectro IR, segün la composición del componente en la mezcla. Sin embargo, cuando se presentan cambios de fase en la mezcla reactiva, este metodo no puede emplearse para seguir el curso de una reacción, ya que se presenta una variación muy aleatoria en la senal de intensidad de los picos.

  15. The Application of Various Nondestructive Testing Methods to Fuel Elements of the Orgel Type; Application des Differentes Methodes d'Essais Non Destructifs aux Elements Combustibles du Type Orgel; Primenenie razlichnykh nedestruktivnykh metodov ispytanij k toplivnym ehlementam tipa ''orgel''; Aplicacion de Distintos Metodos de Ensayo No Destructivo a los Elementos Combustibles de Tipo Orgel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, P.; Jansen, J. [EURATOM, C.C.R., Ispra (Italy)

    1965-09-15

    methode a un capteur montre quelles sont les limites d'utilisation de ces deux methodes. Defauts transversaux; La methode a un capteur appliquee a cette recherche fait l'objet d'une breve description. Entrainement mecanique: Le memoire fait etat d'un banc mecanique, type laboratoire, pour la recherche des criteres d'essais et d'un banc de passage des tubes, de type semi-industriel, pour l'examen en continu avec enregistrement des defauts. Les difficultes rencontrees et les moyens misenceuvrepoury remediersont evoques. c) Tests par radiographie. Cette methode fera l'objet d'un memoire special; seuls sont indiques les resultats obtenus sur tubes de force ou sur tubes de gaines. d) Test divers Les test finaux sur elements combustibles complets peuvent se resumer en deux parties. Tests d'etancheite au moyen du test a l'helium developpe par la SOGEV. Un dispositif permet d'examiner simultanement 4 ou 6 elements combustibles ou separement 2 ou 3. Tests classiques de radiographie; l'accent est mis plus particulierement sur l'etude des soudures; on donne la marge des conditions experimentales pour obtenir une bonne definition. En conclusion, les auteurs presentent un projet de chaine de controle semi-industrielle avec les differentes possibilites de traitements et essaient de degager une certaine philosophie des tests non destructifs appliques aux elements combustibles. (author) [Spanish] La memoria presenta los distintos metodos empleados para deteccion de fallas (de tipo dimensional o estructural) en vainas de elementos combustibles. Los autores describen, asimismo, los ensayos finales con elementos combustibles completos, en particular radiografia de las soldaduras y pruebas de estanqueidad. Este tema se ha tratado ya en forma parcial. El estudio de las caracteristicas dimensionales de las vainas lisas de SAP (producto de aluminio sinterizado) ha sido objeto de trabajos bastante avanzados. La memoria examina en particular los siguientes temas: 1. Medicion de diametros internos

  16. Estimation of hydraulic conductivity on clay content in soil determined from resistivity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevnin, Vladimir; Delgado-Rodriguez, Omar; Mousatov, Aleksandr [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ryjov, Albert [Moscow State Geological Prospecting Academy, Geophysical Faculty, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-15

    The influence of clay content in sandy and clayey soils on hydraulic conductivity (filtration coefficient) is considered. A review of published experimental data on the relationship of hydraulic conductivity with soil lithology and grain size, as dependent on clay content is presented. Theoretical calculations include clay content. Experimental and calculated data agree, and several approximation formulas for filtration coefficient vs clay content are presented. Clay content in soil is estimated from electric resistivity data obtained from 2D VES interpretation. A two-step method is proposed, the first step including clay content calculating from soil resistivity and groundwater salinity, and the second step including filtration coefficient estimating from clay content. Two applications are presented. [Spanish] El contenido de arcilla en suelos areno-arcillosos influye sobre la permeabilidad hidraulica (coeficiente de filtracion). Se presenta una revision de datos experimentales publicados que relacionan el coeficiente de filtracion con el tipo litologico del suelo y el tamano de las particulas. A partir de calculos teoricos, se modifican las conocidas formulas que relacionan el coeficiente de filtracion con el contenido de arcilla. Se estima el contenido de arcilla a partir de los datos interpretados por el metodo SEV, y se propone un procedimiento para la estimacion del coeficiente de filtracion: (a) calculo del contenido de arcilla a partir de la resistividad del suelo y de la salinidad del agua subterranea, (b) estimacion del coeficiente de filtracion a partir del contenido de arcilla. Se presentan algunos ejemplos de la aplicacion de esta metodologia.

  17. Geochemical model of a geothermal system: an approach on the analytical uncertainty; Modelo geoquimico de sistema geotermico: un enfoque sobre la incertidumbre analitica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal Verma, Mahendra [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    A procedure was developed to consider the analytical uncertainty in each parameter of geochemical analysis of geothermal fluid. The estimation of the uncertainty is based on the results of the geochemical analyses of geothermal fluids (numbered from the 0 to the 14), obtained within the framework of the comparisons program among the geochemical laboratories in the last 30 years. Also the propagation of the analytical uncertainty was realized in the calculation of the parameters of the geothermal fluid in the reservoir, through the methods of interval of uncertainty and GUM (Guide to the expression of Uncertainty of Measurement). The application of the methods is illustrated in the pH calculation of the geothermal fluid in the reservoir, considering samples 10 and 11 as separated waters at atmospheric conditions. [Spanish] Se desarrollo un procedimiento para estimar la incertidumbre analitica en cada parametro de analisis geoquimico de fluido geotermico. La estimacion de la incertidumbre esta basada en los resultados de los analisis geoquimicos de fluidos geotermicos (numerados del 0 al 14), obtenidos en el marco del programa de comparaciones entre los laboratorios geoquimicos en los ultimos 30 anos. Tambien se realizo la propagacion de la incertidumbre analitica en el calculo de los parametros del fluido geotermico en el yacimiento, a traves de los metodos de intervalo de incertidumbre y GUM (Guide to the expression of Uncertainty of Measurement). La aplicacion de los metodos se ilustra en el calculo de pH del fluido geotermico en el yacimiento, considerando las muestras 10 y 11 como aguas separadas a las condiciones atmosfericas.

  18. A method for optimization of patient dose estimation in conventional radiology; Un metodo per l'ottimizzazione della stima della dose al paziente nella radiologia tradizionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofani, A.; Del Corona, A. [Azienda Unita' Sanitaria Locale 6, Livorno (Italy). Unita' Ospedaliera di Fisica Sanitaria; Niespolo, A. [Azienda Ospedaliera Pisana, Pisa (Italy). Unita' Ospedaliera di Fisica Sanitaria

    2000-05-01

    found to depend on the average body surface, a parameter which takes into account both patient height and mass. Thus, determining the normalization factor for each projection and each view allows to estimate the absorbed dose under different geometrical conditions. The method has been verified by considering four of the most common X-ray procedures (chest AP, cervical spine LAT, lumbar spine AP and head LAT). The average error on dose estimation is about 13 %. In the very next future the method will be extended to all the projections and views of ICRP Report no. 34, and we plant to integrate the described algorithm in a computer program devoted to the automatic computation of patient dose. [Italian] Il metodo raccomandato dalla International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) nel suo Report n. 34(1982) per il calcolo della dose al paziente negli esami di radiodiagnostica e' basato su dati dosimetrici tabulati ottenuti mediante simulazioni Monte Carlo su fantocci antropomorfi descritti da semplici funzioni matematiche. Nel caso del calcolo della dose per un paziente adulto, le limitazioni principali di questo metodo sono due: in primo luogo i parametri geometrici dell'esame - e in particolare la distanza fuoco-pellicola e il formato della pellicola- sono fissi, e questo rende problematico l'utilizzo dei dati dosimetrici nelle condizioni effettive in cui si e' svolto l'esame, che in genere non coincideranno con quelle standard ICRP. Inoltre quando le dimensioni e la massa del paziente differiscono sensibilmente da quelle del fantoccio utilizzato nelle simulazioni (il cosidetto uomo di riferimento, di altezza pari a 174 cm e massa di 70,9 Kg) il metodo ICRP puo' portare a errori considerevoli nella stima della dose. Lo scopo del presente lavoro e' quello di indicare una possibile via di uscita per superare queste limitazioni. L'algoritmo proposto in questo lavoro si basa sull'applicazione del metodo suggerito da Huda e

  19. Studies for the elaboration of standards of energy efficiency in constructions; Estudios para la elaboracion de normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Heard, Christopher [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez Pensado, Fernando [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The obtaining of the first drafts of standard of energy efficiency implicate diverse research work previous to its elaboration, which include the justification and the analysis of the reason of the variables to consider, the corresponding cost-benefit study that gives viability to the standard and a procedure of calculation for its fulfillment. The present paper relates the diverse aspects that were analyzed for the justification, the revision and the obtaining of the first drafts of the first standards of energy efficiency in nonresidential constructions that are hoped to be implemented in Mexico. [Spanish] La obtencion de los anteproyectos de norma de eficiencia energetica implica diversos trabajos de investigacion previos a su elaboracion, los cuales incluyen la justificacion y el analisis del porque de las variables a considerar, el estudio costo- beneficio correspondiente, que da viabilidad a la norma y un procedimiento de calculo para su cumplimiento. El presente trabajo relata los diversos aspectos que se analizaron para la justificacion, la revision y la obtencion de los anteproyectos de las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones no residenciales que se esperan implantar en Mexico.

  20. Analysis of uncertainties, associated to the calculating hypothesis, in discharge tables for high flows estimating, based on mathematics models for calculating water surface profiles fore steady gradually varied flow; Analisis de las incertidumbres, asociadas a las hipotesis de calculo, en la estimacion de curvas de gasto para crcidas, basada en el empleo de modelo matematico de calculo hidraulico en regimen permanente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldana Valverde, A. L.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, J. C.

    1999-08-01

    In this paper are analyzed some of the most important factors which can influence on the results of calculating water surface profiles for steady gradually varied flow. In this case, the objective of this kind of modeling, has been the estimation of discharges tables for high flows of river station gages connected to the hydrologic automatic information system (SAIH) of the Confederacion Hidrografica del Sur de Espana, system named red Hidrosur. (Author) 3 refs

  1. para palmito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Paulo Chaimsohn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Densidades de siembra, arreglos espaciales y fertilización en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes cv Diamantes-10 para palmito. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Los Diamantes (Guápiles, Costa Rica, el 3 de octubre del 2003, cuyo objetivo fue la evaluación del efecto de diferentes densidades de siembra (3.333, 5.000 y 6.666 plantas/ha, arreglos espaciales, y diversos métodos de fertilización (química, orgánica, sobre el crecimiento de las plantas de pejibaye para producción de palmito. Se consideraron las variables diámetro y altura del tallo primario y el número de hojas y rebrotes como indicadores de producción. El período de evolución abarcó sólo los primeros 25 meses de crecimiento en el campo. El número de hojas, la altura y el diámetro del tallo no mostraron diferencias de respuesta relevantes. Sólo el número de rebrotes disminuyó al aumentar la densidad de la población, cuando se midió a los 15 meses de edad. El efecto de la fertilización se hizo evidente después de la primera cosecha, realizada a los 20 meses, debido al aumento de la competencia entre plantas, ahora más desarrolladas. Fue entonces cuando la fertilización química indujo la producción de un mayor número y vigor de los rebrotes. Sin embargo, las prácticas evaluadas 25 meses después de la siembra, no habían infl uido hasta ese momento en el número de palmitos cosechados, ni tampoco había afectado las características físicas de los sectores foliar y caulinar del palmito.

  2. Sonochemical synthesis of a PdAg/C electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction; Sintesis sonoquimica de un electrocatalizador de PdAg/C para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinez-Garcia, A.; Perez-Robles, J.F. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN. Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: jperez@qro.cinvestav.mx; Solorza-Feria, O. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    The synthesis and characterization of nanocatalysts for fuel cells has been a primary line of research for the purpose of obtaining less expensive electrocatalysts with better activity. A large variety of methods exist to synthesize useful nanoparticles as electrocatalysts. Each method generates particles with a different surface morphology and, therefore, the catalytic activity usually varies depending on which is used in the synthesis. In this work, PdAg/C electrocatalysts are synthesized with high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation and compared to those obtained using a conventional method such as reduction by NaBH{sub 4}. The study of this technique is of interest because it produces highly dispersed carbon-supported nanoparticles with very clean surfaces. Each electrocatalyst was evaluated for its oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acid medium with cyclic voltamperometry (CV) and rotating disc electrode (RDE). The electrocatalyst was characterized with x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The physical characterization reveals that the electrocatalyst is composed of nanometric bimetallic aggregates. An important characteristic of the PdAg/C alloy obtained using ultrasound is better activity than that obtained by reduction with NaBH{sub 4}. [Spanish] La sintesis y caracterizacion de nanocatalizadores para celdas de combustible ha sido una de las principales lineas de investigacion, con el objetivo de obtener electrocatalizadores mas baratos y con una mejor actividad. Existen una gran variedad de metodos para sintetizar nanoparticulas utiles como electrocatalizadores, cada metodo genera particulas con una morfologia superficial diferente por lo que la actividad catalitica suele variar dependiendo de cual se utilice en la sintesis. En este trabajo se sintetizan electrocatalizadores de PdAg/C con irradiacion ultrasonica de alta intensidad y se comparan con las obtenidas con un metodo convencional como es la reduccion por NaBH{sub 4}. Esta

  3. An Appraisal of Analytical Methods for Plutonium and their Applications to the Analysis of Nuclear Materials; Evaluation des Methodes Analytiques de Dosage du Plutonium et de Leur Application a l'Analyse des Matieres Nucleaires; Otsenka analiticheskikh metodov opredeleniya plutoniya i ikh primenenie dlya analiza yadernykh materialov; Metodos Analiticos de Determinacion del Plutonio y su Empleo en el Analisis de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, G. W.C.; Phillips, G. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1966-02-15

    respectifs de la dissolution dans des melanges d'acides mineraux courants et de la dissolution faisant appel a des procedes de fusion, avec des exemples a l'appui. Les auteurs decrivent aussi les procedes utilises et les resultats obtenus, pour l'analyse des alliages Pu-U, Pu-Ce-Co et Pu-U-Mo, des oxydes et carbures de Pu-U, et des cermets de carbure de Pu-U contenant Fe, Mo et Cr. Ces matieres sont l'aboutissement de recherches metallurgiques destinees a mettre au point des combustibles nucleaires. (author) [Spanish] Para determinar el contenido de plutonio de los materiales nucleares existen diversos metodos. Si se trata de cantidades del orden del miligramo se pueden emplear la espectrofotometria diferencial por el color del Pu (III), la gravimetria basada en el PuO2{sub ,} si recuento gamma y metodos de oxidorreduccion como las valoraciones potenciometricas o amperimetricas y la culombiometria de potencial controlado. Si se trata de microgramos son preferibles el recuento alfa, la dilucion isotopica o las tecnicas polarograficas. Teniendo en cuenta que unos metodos son mas adecuados que otros para ciertos tipos de muestra, el analista tiene que resolver un dificil problema de seleccion a fin de obtener ios mejores resultados posibles. Los autores exponen las ventajas y las limitaciones puestas de manifiesto por los anos de experiencia en la A.E.R.E. y formulan observaciones acerca de la exactitud y la precision de los metodos, su sensibilidad y otras cuestiones de especial interes. Como algunos de esos metodos exigen la separacion previa del plutonio, los autores estudian el empleo de las tecnicas de intercambio anionico y de cromatografia en fase inversa, y en particular su conveniencia para el analisis de muestras radiactivas. Examinan los muchos problemas que han surgido al analizar por estos metodos, aleaciones, productos ceramicos y cermets de plutonio en diversos sistemas que contenian uranio, torio, hierro, cromo, molibdeno, cerio y cobalto. La memoria trata

  4. Optimal restoration strategies based on heuristic techniques for electrical distribution networks; Estrategias de restablecimiento optimas basadas en tecnicas heuristicas para redes de distribucion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Castrejon, J. A; Islas Perez, E; Espinosa Reza, A; Garcia Mendoza, R [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mails: adrian.cruz@iie.org.mx; eislas@iie.org.mx; aer@iie.org.mx; rgarcia@iie.org.mx

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we present a proposed solution to the problem of finding alternatives to reset faults in radial distribution networks power systems. This solution uses a deterministic method based on the definition of heuristics and whose main objectives are to improve execution time and solution quality. This search is based on the alternate repetition of two stages: a stage that attempts to reset the unconnected areas and other areas trying ballasting overloaded. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una propuesta de solucion al problema de busqueda de alternativas de restablecimiento para fallas en redes de distribucion radiales en sistemas electricos de potencia. Esta solucion utiliza un metodo deterministico basado en la definicion de heuristicas y cuyos objetivos principales son: mejorar el tiempo de ejecucion y calidad de la solucion. Esta busqueda se basa en la repeticion alternada de dos etapas: una etapa que intenta restablecer las areas desconectadas y otra que intenta deslastrar las areas sobrecargadas.

  5. Application of the identification methods from Hilbert and Prony to the study of oscillatory phenomena in electrical power systems; Aplicacion de los metodos de identificacion de Hilbert y Prony al estudio de fenomenos oscilatorios en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade Soto, Manuel Antonio

    2002-10-15

    In the present thesis work the application of identification techniques is investigated based on methods of spectral analysis to the study of the instantaneous characteristics of signals obtained by means of digital simulation of the dynamic behavior of the power system. The study focuses on the perspectives developed from two different approaches of analysis: the use of lineal methods of spectral analysis and the use of methods of non-lineal analysis, based on the concept of an analytical signal. The developed tools are applied to the study of two phenomena of electromechanical origin of different characteristics in complex power systems. A comparison between the results obtained is performed for these techniques and the possibility of its application is discussed for the problem of on-line identification in power systems. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo de tesis se investiga la aplicacion de tecnicas de identificacion basadas en metodos de analisis espectral al estudio de las caracteristicas instantaneas de senales obtenidas mediante simulacion digital del comportamiento dinamico del sistema de potencia. El estudio se centra en las aproximaciones desarrolladas desde dos enfoques distintos de analisis: la utilizacion de metodos lineales de analisis espectral y la utilizacion de metodos de analisis no lineal, basados en el concepto de una senal analitica. Las herramientas desarrolladas se aplican al estudio de dos fenomenos de origen electromecanico de caracteristicas distintas en sistemas complejos de potencia. Se hace una comparacion entre los resultados obtenidos por estas tecnicas y se discute la posibilidad de su aplicacion al problema de identificacion en linea en sistemas de potencia.

  6. Non-Destructive Testing Methods Applied to Multi-Finned SAP Tubing for Nuclear-Fuel Elements; Essais Non Destructifs de Gaines a Ailettes, en Poudre d'Aluminium Frittee, pour Elements Combustibles; Nedestruktivnye metody ispytaniya rebristykh trub iz spechennogo alyuminikiog'o poroshka dlya yadernykh toplivnykh ehlementov; Metodos de Ensayo No Destructivo Aplicados a Tubos de SAP con Aletas Multiples Destinados a Elementos Combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, S. A. [Danish Central Welding Institution, Copenhagen (Denmark); Knudsen, P. [Danish Atomic Energy Commission, Research Establishment, Risoe (Denmark)

    1965-09-15

    Energia Atomica de Dinamarca ha emprendido el estudio de un reactor de potencia con refrigerante organico y moderador de agua pesada. Los correspondientes elementos combustibles consisten en haces de 19 barras formadas por pastillas de dioxido de uranio sinterizado, encerradas en tubos de producto de aluminio sinterizado (SAP), de 2 m de longitud, provistos de aletas helicoidales. Para obtener condiciones optimas de transmision de calor y mantener la integridad del elemento combustible durante el funcionamiento del reactor, es necesario contar con tubos de muy alta calidad. Se citan dos ejemplos que ponen de manifiesto las estrechas tolerancias dimensionales adoptadas. Para asegurar una calidad adecuada de los tubos, se establecio un control de calidad muy estricto, basado en gran medida en la aplicacion de metodos no destructivos. Se describen en esta memoria las tecnicas desarrolladas para medir el espesor de pared y los diametros, y para descubrir defectos. La compleja seccion transversal, con 24 aletas, impide aplicar metodos ultrasonicos o de comentes de Foucault para medir el espesor de la pared. Por consiguiente, se desarrollo un calibre registrador de rayos beta, cuyo funcionamiento se basa en la atenuacion sufrida por la radiacion beta proveniente de una fuente de {sup 90}Sr colocada en el interior del tubo. Para el registro continuo del espesor de la pared del tubo con seccion transversal mas simple, de 12 aletas, se utiliza un metodo ultrasonico de resonancia por inmersion. Los diametros interno y externo (entre puntos de aletas) se registran de manera continua mediante calibres neumaticos rapidos. Las fallas se detectan mediante la tecnica de eco de impulsos ultrasonicos, y examinando los tubos con corrientes de Foucault. El metodo ultrasonico permite descubrir facilmente las fisuras transversales, pero hasta ahora ha sido imposible utilizarlo para la deteccion de defectos longitudinales. Por consiguiente, ademas del ensayo ultrasonico, se aplica el examen con

  7. Calculo y comparacion de la prima de un reaseguro de salud usando el modelo de opciones de Black-Scholes y el modelo actuarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Giron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación pretende calcular y comparar la prima de un reaseguro  usando el modelo de opciones de Black-Scholes y el modelo clásico actuarial tradicional. El período de análisis va desde enero de 2011 hasta diciembre de 2012. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el modelo de Black-Scholes, que se utiliza normalmente para valorar opciones financieras, puede ser también usado para la estimación de primas de reaseguros de salud; y que la prima neta estimada a partir de este modelo se aproxima a las establecidas por el método actuarial, excepto cuando el deducible del reaseguro es muy alto (por encima de $200.000.000.

  8. Recent Radiochemical Procedures for Bio-Assay Studies at Trombay; Methodes Radiochimiques d'Analyse Biologique Employees a Trombay; Nedavno razrabotannye v trombee radiokhimicheskie metody dlya biologicheskikh issledovanij; Regientes Metodos Radioquimicos Aplicados al Analisis Biologico en Trombay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, P. R.; Bhat, I. S.; Rudran, Kamala; Iyengar, M. A.R.; Koshy, Elizabeth; Waingankar, Urmila S.; Khanolkar, Vasanti S. [Health Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1964-10-15

    travaux accomplis au laboratoire d'analyses biologiques depuis 1958. (author) [Spanish] El laboratorio de analisis biologicos de Trombay efectua anualmente cerca de dos mil analisis de orina para determinar diferentes radionuclidos, siendo los isotopos de mayor interes el {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 224}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, U natural, productos de fision y {sup 239}Pu, asip como el {sup 60}Co, {sup 32}P, {sup 131}I, {sup 32}P, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, etc. El analisis rapido de un gran numero de muestras de baja actividad exige el perfeccionamiento de tecnicas especiales, sobre todo cuando se desea un alto grado de especificidad, unido a un elevado rendimiento. La' orina presenta una matriz muy complicada, con una elevada proporcion de sustancias organicas complejantes y contenido variable de sales. Los procedimientos de calcinacion por via humeda exigen un tiempo considerable y resultan engorrosos cuando se han de destruir muestras de aproximadamente 1 a 1,5 l. El trabajo deseribe algunos metodos recientemente desarrollados en el laboratorio de los autores y proporciona detalles de estudios sobre indicadores que han intervenido en el desarrollo de aquellos metodos. Radio-228: Se mide el mesotorio contenido en la orina despues de separar el {sup 228}Ac en equilibrio radiactivo. El radio presente en la orina se coprecipita con BaSO{sub 4}, teniendose en cuenta que sigue formandose {sup 228}Ac. El precipitado se disuelve en acido perclorico despues de anadir como portadores Pb, Bi y La. Los sulfatos insolubles se precipitan con H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} diluido y el {sup 228}Ac que permanece en solucion, despues de ser arrastrado con F{sub 3}La, se somete a recuento de actividad beta y se comprueba la disminucion de actividad. La cantidad de {sup 228}Ra se calcula a partir de la actividad observada en el {sup 228}Ac despues de introducir la oportuna correccion para tener en cuenta la desintegracion y el rendimiento de la recuperacion quimica. Torio: El trabajo

  9. Seeking tools for image fusion between computed tomography, structural and functional magnetic resonance methods for applications in neurosurgery; Ferramentas para fusao de imagens dos metodos de tomografia computadorizada, ressonancia magnetica e ressonancia magnetica funcional para aplicacao pre-neurocirurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Liana Guerra Sanches da, E-mail: liana@einstein.br [Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo (SP) (Brazil); Amaro Junior, Edson [Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Deptartamento de Diagnostico por Imagem; Instituto do Cerebro - InCe, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate tools for the fusion of images generated by tomography and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Magnetic resonance and functional magnetic resonance imaging were performed while a volunteer who had previously undergone cranial tomography performed motor and somatosensory tasks in a 3-Tesla scanner. Image data were analyzed with different programs, and the results were compared. Results: We constructed a flow chart of computational processes that allowed measurement of the spatial congruence between the methods. There was no single computational tool that contained the entire set of functions necessary to achieve the goal. Conclusion: The fusion of the images from the three methods proved to be feasible with the use of four free-access software programs (OsiriX, Register, MRIcro and FSL). Our results may serve as a basis for building software that will be useful as a virtual tool prior to neurosurgery. (author)

  10. Nuclear Calculations of Light-Water Moderated Reactors and Experimental Correlations; Calculs de Riacteurs Ralentis a l'Eau Ordinaire et Comparaison avec les Risultats Expirimentaux; Raschet reaktorov s zamedlitelem iz obychnoj vody i sravnenie s ehksperimental'nymi rezul'tatami; Calculos Nucleares de Reactores Moderados por Agua Ligera y Correlacion Experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanilla, R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1964-02-15

    nombreuses geometries - faite par comparaison avec certains des principaux parametres d'un reseau y/o de multiplication effective, est satisfaisante, l'ecart entre la reactivite obtenue par le calcul et le chiffre donne par l'experience,n'etant pas, en general, superieur a 2%. (author) [Spanish] Con el empleo de la teoria de dos grupos modificados por fisiones epitermales, se ha analizado un conjunto de sistemas criticos dotados de reflector y moderador de agiia liviana y variado enriquecimiento en {sup 235}U del combustible nuclear. Las secciones eficaces del grupo termal empleadas son las consignadas en las Tablas de Amster para mezclas hidrogenadas a diferentes temperaturas; concentraciones de {sup 235}U y absorbedores en 1/v. El efecto de heterogeneidad en las secciones eficaces ha sido tratado aproximadamente modificando las concentraciones de los absorbedores por variacion espacial del flujo termico en la celda elemental. El factor de desventaja ha sido calculado empleando la formula de Amouyal-Benoist. El coeficiente de difusion termal ha sido definido como la inversa del triple de la seccion eficaz macroscopica de transporte homogeneizada sobre el volumen de la celda elemental. Las constantes del grupo rapido han sido calculadas'de acuerdo al esquema de Ombrellaro de tres grupos rapidos de difusion (10 MeV a 0,821 MeV; 0,821 MeV a 5,5 keV; 5,5 keV a 0,625 eV) con secciones eficacesmicroscopicas ajustadas para cada grupo. La definicion de Ombrellaro de las constantes neutionicas de los tres,grupos rapidos en funcion de las secciones eficaces ajustadas ha sido modificada para el tercer grupo de acuerdo al tratamiento de Hick de la absorcion efectiva de resonancia del {sup 238}U, basada en el computo de la integral de resonancia efectiva. Los calculos han sido realizadas computando la integral de resonancia efectiva del: {sup 238}U por la formula obtenida, por el autor, del calculo teorico, con reduccion de la relacion S/M de acuerdo a la aproximacion del Bell del

  11. Construction of a computational exposure model for dosimetric calculations using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code and voxel phantoms; Construcao de um modelo computacional de exposicao para calculos dosimetricos utilizando o codigo Monte Carlo EGS4 e fantomas de voxels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Jose Wilson

    2004-07-15

    The MAX phantom has been developed from existing segmented images of a male adult body, in order to achieve a representation as close as possible to the anatomical properties of the reference adult male specified by the ICRP. In computational dosimetry, MAX can simulate the geometry of a human body under exposure to ionizing radiations, internal or external, with the objective of calculating the equivalent dose in organs and tissues for occupational, medical or environmental purposes of the radiation protection. This study presents a methodology used to build a new computational exposure model MAX/EGS4: the geometric construction of the phantom; the development of the algorithm of one-directional, divergent, and isotropic radioactive sources; new methods for calculating the equivalent dose in the red bone marrow and in the skin, and the coupling of the MAX phantom with the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Finally, some results of radiation protection, in the form of conversion coefficients between equivalent dose (or effective dose) and free air-kerma for external photon irradiation are presented and discussed. Comparing the results presented with similar data from other human phantoms it is possible to conclude that the coupling MAX/EGS4 is satisfactory for the calculation of the equivalent dose in radiation protection. (author)

  12. Quantification of tomography images for dose calculation for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine; Quantificacao de imagens tomograficas para calculo de dose em diagnose e terapia em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massicano, Felipe

    2010-07-01

    The nuclear medicine area has an increasing slope in the therapy of diseases, particularly in the treatment of radiosensitive tumors. Due to the high dose levels in radionuclide therapy, it is very important the accurate quantify of the dose distribution to avoid deleterious effects on healthy tissues. In Brazil, the internal dosimetry system used is the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) based on a reference model that does not have adequate patient data to obtain a dose accurate assessment in therapy. However, in recent years, internal radionuclide dosimetry evaluates the spatial dose distribution base ad on information obtained from CT and SPECT or PET images together with the using of Monte Carlo codes. Those systems are called patient-specific dosimetry systems. In the Nuclear Engineering Center at IPEN, this methodology is in development. When the CT images are inserted into the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 through of use of a interface software called SCMS the dosimetry can be accomplished using patient-specific data, resulting in a more accurate energy deposition in organs of interest. This work aim to contribute with the development of part of that patient-specific dosimetry for therapy. To achieve this goal we have proposed three specific objectives: (1) Development of a software to convert images from Computed Tomography (CT) in the tissue parameters ({rho}, {omega}({iota})); (2) Development of a software to perform attenuation correction in nuclear medicine tomographic images (SPECT or PET) and to provide the map of relative activity and (3) Provide data to the SCMS code by these two software. The software developed for the rst specific objective was the Image Converter Computed Tomography (ICCT), which obtained a good accuracy to determine the density and the tissue composition; the elements that had high variation were carbon and oxygen. Fortunately, this variation for the energy range used in radionuclide therapy is not detrimental to the dose distribution. A major advantage is the high accuracy obtained to calcium and phosphorus which have great influence on the dose distribution calculation. For the second objective it was developed the Attenuation Corretion SPECT PET (ACPS) software which performs the attenuation correction in PET and SPECT images through of 1a order Chang method and create the relative activity distribution within of patient. Finally, the data generated by the two software, was formatted to SCMS which in provides the complete information do the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code for radiation transport simulation for dose distribution estimation. (author)

  13. Calculo de funciones de onda lcao para el estado fundamental de solidos. aplicación al estudio teórico de la estructura de los cristales de litio y de nitruro de boro. I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepomuceno Quitian C.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available En esta primera publicación se ha aplicado el formulismo de la Química Cuántica del Estado Sólido, al estudio teórico de los cristales de Litio y de Nitruro de Boro, utilizando una base de funciones Gausianas dentro del método LCAO— SCF—MO (Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals- Self Consistent Fields – Molecular Orbltals. Se calculan los factores de estructura teóricos a partir de los elementos de la matriz de densidad y las integrales de recubrimiento Generalizadas. Se calcula igualmente la densidad electrónica y una función delta (A a partir de los factores de estructura teóricos, con el fin de poner en evidencia la unión Química.

  14. Development of a program for calculation of second dose and securities in brachytherapy high dose rate; Elaboracion de un programa para el segundo calculo de la dosis y seguridades en braquiterapia de alta tasa de dosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve Sanchez, S.; Martinez Albaladejo, M.; Garcia Fuentes, J. D.; Bejar Navarro, M. J.; Capuz Suarez, B.; Moris de Pablos, R.; Colmenares Fernandez, R.

    2015-07-01

    We assessed the reliability of the program with 80 patients in the usual points of prescription of each pathology. The average error of the calculation points is less than 0.3% in 95% of cases, finding the major differences in the axes of the applicators (maximum error -0.798%). The program has proved effective previously testing him with erroneous dosimetry. Thanks to the implementation of this program is achieved by the calculation of the dose and part of the process of quality assurance program in a few minutes, highlighting the case of HDR prostate due to having a limited time. Having separate data sheet allows each institution to its protocols modify parameters. (Author)

  15. Evaluation of the Analytical Anisotropic Algorithm (AAA) in dose calculation for fields with non-uniform fluences considering heterogeneity correction; Avaliacao do Algoritmo Analitico Anisotropico (AAA) no calculo de dose para campos com fluencia nao uniforme considerando correcao de heterogeneidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornatto, P.; Funchal, M.; Bruning, F.; Toledo, H.; Lyra, J.; Fernandes, T.; Toledo, F.; Marciao, C., E-mail: pricila_bornatto@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Erasto Gaertner (LPCC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the calculation of dose distribution AAA (Varian Medical Systems) for fields with non-uniform fluences considering heterogeneity correction. Five different phantoms were used with different density materials. These phantoms were scanned in the CT BrightSpeed (©GE Healthcare) upon the array of detectors MAPCHECK2 TM (Sun Nuclear Corporation) and irradiated in a linear accelerator 600 CD (Varian Medical Systems) 6MV and rate dose 400MU/min with isocentric setup. The fluences used were exported from IMRT plans, calculated by ECLIPSE™ planning system (Varian Medical Systems), and a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field to assess the heterogeneity correction for uniform fluence. The measured dose distribution was compared to the calculated by Gamma analysis with approval criteria of 3% / 3 mm and 10% threshold. The evaluation was performed using the software SNCPatient (Sun Nuclear Corporation) and considering absolute dose normalized at maximum. The phantoms best performers were those with low density materials, with an average of 99.2% approval. Already phantoms with plates of higher density material presented various fluences below 95% of the points approved. The average value reached 94.3%. It was observed a dependency between fluency and approved percentage points, whereas for the same fluency, 100% of the points have been approved in all phantoms. The approval criteria for IMRT plans recommended in most centers is 3% / 3mm with at least 95% of points approved, it can be concluded that, under these conditions, the IMRT plans with heterogeneity correction can be performed , however the quality control must be careful because the difficulty of the system to accurately predict the dose distribution in certain situations. (author)

  16. Calculation of the uncertainty of H{sub P} (10) evaluation for a thermoluminescent dosimetry system; Calculo da incerteza da avaliacao do H{sub P} (10) para um sistema de dosimetria termoluminescente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.S.; Silva, E.R.; Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: max.das.ferreira@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full interpretation of dose assessment only can be performed when the uncertainty of the measurement is known. The aim of this study is to calculate the uncertainty of the TL dosimetry system of the LDF/IRD for evaluation of H{sub P} (10) for photons. It has been done by experimental measurements, extraction of information from documents and calculation of uncertainties based on ISO GUM. Energy and angular dependence is the most important source to the combined u{sub c}(y) and expanded (U) uncertainty. For 10 mSv, it was obtained u{sub c}(y) = 1,99 mSv and U = 3,98 mSv for 95% of coverage interval. (author)

  17. Mathematical models evaluation of the calculation of the spread in the rolling of ellipsoidal and diamond profiles; Avaliacao de modelos matematicos para calculo do alargamento na laminacao dos perfis oval e losango

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, Lirio; Guedes, Luiz F.M. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e dos Materiais

    1987-12-31

    In this work, general considerations are initially performed about the spread and the main factors which influence it in the rolling process.It was established a prior analysis of the models in the case of oval and diamond profiles rolling. Afterwards, three mathematical models to calculate the spread are presented. It was notes that for some mathematical models, because their expressions are presented for the rectangular sections rolling, it was necessary to use auxiliary methods, which are also shown in this work. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Model for the estimate of the global subsidence in sublevel caving of wide layers in big slopes; Modelo para el Calculo de la Subsidencia Global en la Exploatacion de Capas Anchas y de Fuerte Pendiente por Sutiraje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The Sociedad Anonima Hullera Vasco-Leonesa (HVL) is working in a highly tectonised deposit, which very thick and irregular sub vertical seams, whose particular characteristics led to follow an investigation project for the final preparation of a model to estimate the global subsidence produced during and after the works. The working method in use has been basically observatory, until the necessary values were achieved to establish a representative model of the subsidence phenomenon. The information was gathered in two stages: the most interesting details in existence were collected in the first stage and in the second one, a wide measurement work was accomplished, in order to how the ground moved while the subsidence process. The movements of the ground were measured on the surface, with classical topographic means, as well as in the underground with extensometers. Different methods have been followed for the final preparation of the estimate model, in order to select the most suitable one. Some models have been studied: the classical procedures of influence functions, the tenso-deformational models solved by means of numerical models in computers and the theoretical models based on closed solutions. A theoretical model has been selected, following J. LITWINSISZYN and S. G. AVERSHING`s theory, which has been solved using the method of finite differences in an elasticity system. Finally two computer applications were created: one of them which allows to obtain subsidence previsions and deformations, and another one focused to make the accomplishment of topographic control measurement easier. As a whole, it can be stated that, starting from this project, HVL has a suitable means to continue controlling the evolution of the subsidence and, if needed, to adjust adequately the defined model. (Author)

  19. Development of a computational code for the internal doses assessment of the main radionuclides of occupational exposure at IPEN; Desenvolvimento de um codigo computacional de apoio ao calculo de dose interna para radionuclideos de interesse do IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claro, Thiago Ribeiro

    2011-07-01

    The dose resulting from internal contamination can be estimated with the use of biokinetic models combined with experimental results obtained from bioanalysis and assessment of the time of incorporation. The biokinetics models are represented by a set of compartments expressing the transportation, retention and elimination of radionuclides from the body. The ICRP publications, number 66, 78 and 100, present compartmental models for the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and for systemic distribution for an array of radionuclides of interest for the radiological protection. The objective of this work is to develop a computational code for the internal doses assessment of the main radionuclides of occupational exposure at IPEN. Consequently serving as a agile and efficient tool for the designing, visualization and resolution of compartmental models of any nature. The architecture of the system was conceived containing two independent software: CBT - responsible for the setup and manipulation of models and SSID - responsible for the mathematical solution of the models. Four different techniques are offered for the resolution of system of equations, including semi-analytical and numerical methods, allowing for comparison of precision and performance of both. The software was developed in C{ne} programming, using a Microsoft Access database and XML standards for file exchange with other applications. Compartmental models for uranium, thorium and iodine radionuclides were generated for the validation of the CBT software. The models were subsequently solved via SSID software and the results compared with the values published in the issue 78 of ICRP. In all cases the system replicated the values published by ICRP. (author)

  20. Calculation of source term in spent PWR fuel assemblies for dry storage and shipping cask design; Calculo de los terminos fuente de combustibles irradiados PWR para el diseno de contenedores de almacenamiento y transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J L; Lopez, J

    1986-07-01

    Using the ORIGEN-2 Coda, the decay heat and neutron and photon sources for an irradiated PWR fuel element have been calculated. Also, parametric studies on the behaviour of the magnitudes with the burn-up, linear heat power and irradiation and cooling times were performed. Finally, a comparison between our results and other design calculations shows a good agreement and confirms the validity of the used method. (Author) 6 refs.

  1. Development and implementation of a software for assessment of calculations in radiotherapy monitor units; Elaboracao e implementacao de um programa para verificacao dos calculos das unidades monitoras em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Marcio Rogerio; Silva, Marco Antonio da; Rodrigues, Laura Natal [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia]. E-mail: mrmuller@usp.br

    2005-12-01

    Objective: To develop and implement a software based on the manual calculation algorithm for verification of the calculations in radiotherapy monitor units and to establish acceptance levels as a mechanism of quality assurance. Materials and methods: Data were obtained from Clinac 600C and 2100C Varian linear accelerators and the computerized treatment planning system used was CadPlan{sup TM}. Results: For the 6 MV beams the acceptance levels for deviations among the calculations of monitor units, divided by treatment area, were the following: breast (0.0%{+-}1.7%), head and neck (1.5%{+-}0.5%), hypophysis (-1.7%{+-}0.5%), pelvis (2.1%{+-}2.1%) and thorax (0.2%{+-}1.3%). For the 15 MV beams the suggested level for pelvis in all the treatment techniques was (3.2%{+-}1.3%). Conclusion: The present data are sufficient to justify the use of the software in the clinical practice as a tool for the quality assurance program. (author)

  2. Aquelarre. A computer code for fast neutron cross sections from the statistical model; AQUELARRE. Un programa numerico para el calculo de secciones eficaces neutronicas mediante el modelo de nucleo compuesto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J.

    1974-07-01

    A Fortran V computer code for Univac 1108/6 using the partial statistical (or compound nucleus) model is described. The code calculates fast neutron cross sections for the (n, n'), (n, p), (n, d) and (n, {alpha}) reactions and the angular distributions and Legendre moments for the (n, n) and (n, n') processes in heavy and intermediate spherical nuclei. A local Optical Model with spin-orbit interaction for each level is employed, allowing for the width fluctuation and Moldauer corrections, as well as the inclusion of discrete and continuous levels. (Author) 67 refs.

  3. Thermal-hydraulic feedback model to calculate the neutronic cross-section in PWR reactions; Modelo termohidraulico para realimentacao do calculo de secoes de choque neutronicas em reatores PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Daniela Maiolino Norberto

    2011-07-01

    In neutronic codes,it is important to have a thermal-hydraulic feedback module. This module calculates the thermal-hydraulic feedback of the fuel, that feeds the neutronic cross sections. In the neutronic co de developed at PEN / COPPE / UFRJ, the fuel temperature is obtained through an empirical model. This work presents a physical model to calculate this temperature. We used the finite volume technique of discretized the equation of temperature distribution, while calculation the moderator coefficient of heat transfer, was carried out using the ASME table, and using some of their routines to our program. The model allows one to calculate an average radial temperature per node, since the thermal-hydraulic feedback must follow the conditions imposed by the neutronic code. The results were compared with to the empirical model. Our results show that for the fuel elements near periphery, the empirical model overestimates the temperature in the fuel, as compared to our model, which may indicate that the physical model is more appropriate to calculate the thermal-hydraulic feedback temperatures. The proposed model was validated by the neutronic simulator developed in the PEN / COPPE / UFRJ for analysis of PWR reactors. (author)

  4. Equivalent Coil Model for Computing Levitation Forces Between Permanent Magnets and High Temperatures Superconductors; Modelo de Espira Equivalente para el Calculo de Fuerzas de Levitacion Magnetica entre Imanes Permanentes y Superconductores de Alta Temperatura Critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavia Santos, S; Garcia-Tabares, L

    1998-05-01

    A new simple theory has been developed for the study of levitation forces between a permanent magnet and a HTc superconductor. This theory is based on the assumption that both, the magnet and the superconductor, can be modelled by an equivalent coil placed on their surface. While the current flowing through the permanent magnet is constant, the equivalent current through the superconductor can be iether corresponding to screen the overall flux or a constant current corresponding to critical current density when the superconductor is saturated. A test facility has been designed and built for measuring levitation forces at variable approaching speeds. Comparison between theoretical and experimental measurements are presented in the report as well as a general description of the test facility. (Author)

  5. On line CALDose{sub X}: real time Monte Carlo calculation via Internet for dosimetry in radiodiagnostic; CALDose{sub X} online: Calculos de Monte Carlo em tempo real via Internet para dosimetria em radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.b, E-mail: vagner.cassola@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Cavalcanti, Arthur; Lins, Rafael Dueire, E-mail: rdl@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Eletronica e Sistemas

    2011-10-26

    The CALDose{sub X} 4.1 is a software which uses thr MASH and FASH phantoms. Patient dosimetry with reference phantoms is limited because the results can be applied only for patients which possess the same body mass and right height that the reference phantom. In this paper, the dosimetry of patients for diagnostic with X ray was extended by using a series of 18 phantoms with defined gender, different body masses and heights, in order to cover the real anatomy of the patients. It is possible to calculate absorbed doses in organs and tissues by real time Monte Carlo dosimetry through the Internet through a dosimetric service called CALDose{sub X} on line

  6. Development of a computational model for the calculation of neutron dose equivalent in laminated primary barriers of radiotherapy rooms; Desenvolvimento de um modelo computacional para calculo do equivalente de dose de neutrons em barreiras primarias laminadas de salas de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Gabriel Fonseca da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Many radiotherapy centers acquire 15 and 18 MV linear accelerators to perform more effective treatments for deep tumors. However, the acquisition of these equipment must be accompanied by an additional care in shielding planning of the rooms that will house them. In cases where space is restricted, it is common to find primary barriers made of concrete and metal. The drawback of this type of barrier is the photoneutron emission when high energy photons (e.g. 15 and 18 MV spectra) interact with the metallic material of the barrier. The emission of these particles constitutes a problem of radiation protection inside and outside of radiotherapy rooms, which should be properly assessed. A recent work has shown that the current model underestimate the dose of neutrons outside the treatment rooms. In this work, a computational model for the aforementioned problem was created from Monte Carlo Simulations and Artificial Intelligence. The developed model was composed by three neural networks, each being formed of a pair of material and spectrum: Pb18, Pb15 and Fe18. In a direct comparison with the McGinley method, the Pb18 network exhibited the best responses for approximately 78% of the cases tested; the Pb15 network showed better results for 100% of the tested cases, while the Fe18 network produced better answers to 94% of the tested cases. Thus, the computational model composed by the three networks has shown more consistent results than McGinley method. (author)

  7. Qualification of the WIMS lattice code, for the design, operation and accident analysis of nuclear reactors; Calificacion del programa WIMS de calculo neutronico para diseno, seguimiento de operacion y analisis de accidentes de reactores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerner, A M [Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    A basic problem in nuclear reactor physics in that of the description of the neutron population behaviour in the multiplicative medium of a nuclear fuel. Due to the magnitude of the physical problem involved and the present degree of technological evolution regarding computing resources, of increasing complexity and possibilities, the calculation programs or codes have turned to be a basic auxiliary tool in reactor physics. In order to analyze the global problem, several aspects should be taken into consideration. The first aspect to be considered is that of the availability of the necessary nuclear data. The second one is the existence of a variety of methods and models to perform the calculations. The final phase for this kind of analysis is the qualification of the computing programs to be used, i.e. the verification of the validity domain of its nuclear data and the models involved. The last one is an essential phase, and in order to carry it on great variety of calculations are required, that will check the different aspects contained in the code. We here analyze the most important physical processes that take place in a nuclear reactor cell, and we consider the qualification of the lattice code WIMS, that calculates the neutronic parameters associated with such processes. Particular emphasis has been put in the application to natural uranium fuelled reactor, heavy water cooled and moderated, as the Argentinean power reactors now in operation. A wide set of experiments has been chosen: a.-Fresh fuel in zero-power experimental facilities and power reactors; b.-Irradiated fuel in both types of facilities; c.-Benchmark (prototype) experiments with loss of coolant. From the whole analysis it was concluded that for the research reactors, as well as for the heavy water moderated power reactors presently operating in our country, or those that could operate in a near future, the lattice code WIMS is reliable and produces results within the experimental values and their errors, and as good as those produced by the most reliable calculation tools available at present. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  8. Calculation of dose distribution in the patient for verification of plans of intensity modulated radiation therapy; Calculo de la distribucion de dosis en el paciente para la verificacion de planes de radioterapia de intensidad modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Moreno, J. M.; Zucca Aparicio, D.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrila, J.; Fernandez Leton, J. P.; Minambres Moro, A.

    2013-07-01

    The precision in the delivery of radiation therapy treatments intensity modulated depends on, among other things, of the proper administration of the sequence of radiation calculated on the planning system. In recent years the electronic devices of imaging portal have shown as a useful tool for the measurement of dose distribution with high resolution. An algorithm has been developed to calculate the distribution of dose in the patient's Anatomy, using the accelerator as measuring equipment electronic imaging of portal In this way the acceptance criteria can be changed in the dosimetry verifications pretreatment of radiation therapy treatments, from those based on evaluation of gamma index to others based on the evaluation of the distribution of dose in the patient. (Author)

  9. Calculation of conversion factor of Kerma in the air for ambient dose equivalent in radiotherapy; Calculo dos fatores de conversao de Kerma no ar para equivalente de dose ambiental em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marco Antonio Frota

    2000-03-01

    This work aims to estimate the average conversion factor of Kerma in air to H {sup *} (10) using photon beams coming from clinic linear accelerators, transmitted through concrete walls of a radiotherapic treatment room. The transmitted photon spectra by both 1 meter and 2 meters concrete walls, in an area of 40 x 40 cm{sup 2}, were calculated when the primary beam impart in an angle of 0 deg. The (secondary) photon beams transmitted respectively by 0,5 meter, 1,0 meter, 1,0 meter and 2,0 meter concrete walls, after they scattered by an angle of 90 deg in a cylindric phantom inside the room, were also determined. Generally, 50 millions of histories were computed for each simulation made for the primary beam. For the 90 deg spread, the number of histories was 100 millions. The computational code used on this work was the MCNP4B. The most common clinic accelerators used on radiotheraphic treatments were used on this work CLINAC-4, CLINAC-6, CLINAC-18 and CLINAC-2500. From the spectra analysis obtained in this work, it was possible to dispose the conversion factor for realistic beams found in radiotherapeutic establishment. (author)

  10. Dosimetric calculations by Monte Carlo for treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife, homogeneous and non homogeneous cases; Calculos dosimetricos por Monte Carlo para tratamientos de radiocirugia con el Leksell Gamma Knife, casos homogeneo y no homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lallena R, A.M. [Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    In this work dose profiles are calculated that are obtained modeling treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife. This was made with the simulation code Monte Carlo Penelope for an homogeneous mannequin and one not homogeneous. Its were carried out calculations with the irradiation focus coinciding with the center of the mannequin as in near areas to the bone interface. Each one of the calculations one carries out for the 4 skull treatment that it includes the Gamma Knife and using a model simplified of their 201 sources of {sup 60} Co. It was found that the dose profiles differ of the order of 2% when the isocenter coincides with the center of the mannequin and they ascend to near 5% when the isocenter moves toward the skull. (Author)

  11. Independent dose calculation in IMRT for the Tps Iplan using the Clarkson modified integral; Calculo independiente de dosis en IMRT para el TPS Iplan usando la integral modificada de Clarkson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrada, A.; Tello, Z.; Garrigo, E.; Venencia, D., E-mail: jorge.alberto.adrada@gmail.com [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia, Obispo Oro 423, X5000BFI Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatments require a quality assurance (Q A) specific patient before delivery. These controls include the experimental verification in dose phantom of the total plan as well as dose distributions. The use of independent dose calculation (IDC) is used in 3D-Crt treatments; however its application in IMRT requires the implementation of an algorithm that allows considering a non-uniform intensity beam. The purpose of this work was to develop IDC software in IMRT with MLC using the algorithm proposed by Kung (Kung et al. 2000). The software was done using Matlab programming. The Clarkson modified integral was implemented on each flowing, applying concentric rings for the dose determination. From the integral of each field was calculated the dose anywhere. One time finished a planning; all data are exported to a phantom where a Q A plan is generated. On this is calculated the half dose in a representative volume of the ionization chamber and the dose at the center of it. Until now 230 IMRT planning were analyzed carried out ??in the treatment planning system (Tps) Iplan. For each one of them Q A plan was generated, were calculated and compared calculated dose with the Tps, IDC system and measurement with ionization chamber. The average difference between measured and calculated dose with the IDC system was 0.4% ± 2.2% [-6.8%, 6.4%]. The difference between the measured and the calculated doses by the pencil-beam algorithm (Pb) of Tps was 2.6% ± 1.41% [-2.0%, 5.6%] and with the Monte Carlo algorithm was 0.4% ± 1.5% [-4.9%, 3.7%]. The differences of the carried out software are comparable to the obtained with the ionization chamber and Tps in Monte Carlo mode. (author)

  12. Estimating effective wedge factor for enhanced dynamic wedge 2100CD a Varian Clinac; Calculo De factor cuna efectiva para cuna dinamica mejorada de un Clinac 2100CD de Varian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro Trigo, F.; Morillas Ruiz, J.; Nunuz Martinez, L.; Sanchez Jimenez, J.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods of calculating the effective factor enhanced dynamic wedge (EDWF) with the values ??obtained in measurements of symmetric and asymmetric fields.

  13. Coordinated Use of Heterogeneous Infrastructures for Scientific Computing at CIEMAT by means of Grid Technologies; Aprovechamiento Coordinado de las Infraestructuras Heterogeneas para Calculo Cientifico Participadas por el CIEMAT por medio de Tecnologias Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Montero, A. J.

    2008-08-06

    Usually, research data centres maintain platforms from a wide range of architectures to cover the computational needs of their scientists. These centres are also frequently involved in diverse national and international Grid projects. Besides, it is very difficult to achieve a complete and efficient utilization of these recourses, due to the heterogeneity in their hardware and software configurations and their unequal use along the time. This report offers a solution to the problem of enabling a simultaneous and coordinated access to the variety of computing infrastructures and platforms available in great Research Organisms such as CIEMAT. For this purpose, new Grid technologies have been deployed in order to facilitate a common interface which enables the final user to access the internal and external resources. The previous computing infrastructure has not been modified and the independence on its administration has been guaranteed. For a sake of comparison, a feasibility study has been performed with the execution of the Drift Kinetic Equation solver (Dikes) tool, a high throughput scientific application used in the TJ-II Flexible Heliac at National Fusion Laboratory. (Author) 35 refs.

  14. Main features and possibilities of the new scale module for calculation of sensitivity and uncertainty by sampling: SAMPLER; Principlaes caracteristicas y posibilidades del nuevo modulo de SCALE 6.2 para calculo de sensibilidad e incertidumbre por muestreo: SAMPLER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesado, C.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    Due to the importance of calculating sensitivity and uncertainty in the calculation of field engineering, and especially in the nuclear world, it has been decided to present the main features of the new module present in the new version of SCALE 6.2 (currently beta 3 version) called SAMPLER. This module allows the calculation of uncertainty in a wide range of effective sections, neutron parameters, composition and physical parameters. However, the calculation of sensitivity is not present in the beta 3 release. Even so, this module can be helpful for participants of the proposed Benchmark by Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM-LWR), as well as to analysts in general. (Author)

  15. Revision of the equation Calculated Cetane Index for the characteristics of diesel commercialized in the Parana-Brazil; Revisao da equacao de Calculo do Indice de Cetano para as caracteristicas do diesel comercializado no Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Tatiana Bittencourt de; Yamamoto, Carlos Itsuo; Cocco, Lilian Cristina [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Analise de Combustiveis Automotivos (LACAUTets)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the development of models for Calculated Cetane Index (CCI) determination with the purpose of tailor it to the diesel oil sold in Brazil, using optimization techniques. As the diesel is the main fuel on the Brazilian territory, their quality is of great importance. The CCI calculation is important to evaluate the diesel quality. The standard ASTM D 4737 does not take into account the presence of cetane booster additive and biodiesel, which creates the need to recast the equation of the CCI determination. About 300 representative samples were selected of diesel in Parana, during the 2006 to 2007 period, which had their physic-chemical properties determined using the methodology adopted by the ANP - the Brazilian petroleum, natural gas and biofuel agency. The Derived Cetane Number was obtained in the IQT apparatus and several models were proposed, all with better predictive capability than the equation of the standard ASTM D 4737. It is pointed out that biodiesel can act as cetane booster additive depending upon its origin, mostly in concentrations above 5%. The methodology can be expanded to generate a representative equation for the diesel sold in the whole Brazilian territory. (author)

  16. T.I.G. Welding of stainless steel. Numerical modelling for temperatures calculation in the Haz; Soldadura T.I.G. de acero inoxidable. Modelo numerico para el calculo de temperaturas en la ZAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Conesa, E. J.; Estrems-Amestoy, M.; Miguel-Eguia, V.; Garrido-Hernandez, A.; Guillen-Martinez, J. A.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, a numerical method for calculating the temperature field into the heat affected zone for butt welded joints is presented. The method has been developed for sheet welding and takes into account a bidimensional heat flow. It has built a computer program by MS-Excel books and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The model has been applied to the TIG process of AISI 304 stainless steel 2mm thickness sheet. The welding process has been considered without input materials. The numerical method may be used to help the designers to predict the temperature distribution in welded joints. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. Dose calculations for a simplified Mammosite system with the Monte Carlo Penelope and MCNPX simulation codes; Calculos de dosis para un sistema Mammosite simplificado con los codigos de simulacion Monte Carlo PENELOPE y MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Varon T, C.F.; Pedraza N, R. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: elrc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    The treatment of the breast cancer at early stages is of vital importance. For that, most of the investigations are dedicated to the early detection of the suffering and their treatment. As investigation consequence and clinical practice, in 2002 it was developed in U.S.A. an irradiation system of high dose rate known as Mammosite. In this work we carry out dose calculations for a simplified Mammosite system with the Monte Carlo Penelope simulation code and MCNPX, varying the concentration of the contrast material that it is used in the one. (Author)

  18. Criticality calculations of a generic fuel container for fuel assemblies PWR, by means of the code MCNP; Calculos de criticidad de un contenedor de combustible generico para ensambles combustibles PWR, mediante el codigo MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas E, S.; Esquivel E, J.; Ramirez S, J. R., E-mail: samuel.vargas@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The purpose of the concept of burned consideration (Burn-up credit) is determining the capacity of the calculation codes, as well as of the nuclear data associates to predict the isotopic composition and the corresponding neutrons effective multiplication factor in a generic container of spent fuel during some time of relevant storage. The present work has as objective determining this capacity of the calculation code MCNP in the prediction of the neutrons effective multiplication factor for a fuel assemblies arrangement type PWR inside a container of generic storage. The calculations are divided in two parts, the first, in the decay calculations with specified nuclide concentrations by the reference for a pressure water reactor (PWR) with enriched fuel to 4.5% and a discharge burned of 50 GW d/Mtu. The second, in criticality calculations with isotopic compositions dependent of the time for actinides and important fission products, taking 30 time steps, for two actinide groups and fission products. (Author)

  19. Numerical Calculation of Transport Based on the Drift Kinetic Equation for plasmas in General Toroidal Magnetic Geometry; Calculo Numerico del Transporte mediante la Ecuacion Cinetica de Deriva para Plasmas en Geometria Magnetica Toroidal: Preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.

    2009-12-11

    This report is the first of a series dedicated to the numerical calculation of the evolution of fusion plasmas in general toroidal geometry, including TJ-II plasmas. A kinetic treatment has been chosen: the evolution equation of the distribution function of one or several plasma species is solved in guiding center coordinates. The distribution function is written as a Maxwellian one modulated by polynomial series in the kinetic coordinates with no other approximations than those of the guiding center itself and the computation capabilities. The code allows also for the inclusion of the three-dimensional electrostatic potential in a self-consistent manner, but the initial objective has been set to solving only the neoclassical transport. A high order conservative method (Spectral Difference Method) has been chosen in order to discretized the equation for its numerical solution. In this first report, in addition to justifying the work, the evolution equation and its approximations are described, as well as the baseline of the numerical procedures. (Author) 28 refs.

  20. Numerical Calculation of Transport Based on the Drift-Kinetic Equation for Plasmas in General Toroidal Magnetic Geometry: Convergence and Testing; Calculo Numerico del Transporte mediante la Ecuacion Cinetica de Deriva para Plasmas en Geometria Magnetica Toroidal: Convergencia y Comprobaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.

    2009-12-11

    This report is the third of a series [Informes Tecnicos Ciemat 1165 y 1172] devoted to the development of a new numerical code to solve the guiding center equation for electrons and ions in toroidal plasmas. Two calculation meshes corresponding to axisymmetric tokamaks are now prepared and the kinetic equation is expanded so the standard terms of neoclassical theory --fi rst order terms in the Larmor radius expansion-- can be identified, restricting the calculations correspondingly. Using model density and temperature profiles for the plasma, several convergence test are performed depending on the calculation meshes and the expansions of the distribution function; then the results are compared with the theory [Hinton and Hazeltine, Rev. Mod. Phys. (1976)]. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. Calculation and analysis of hydrogen volume concentrations in the vent pipe rigid proposed for NPP-L V; Calculo y analisis de concentraciones volumetricas de hidrogeno en el tubo de venteo rigido propuesto para la CNLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Xolocostli M, V. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez M, R.; Filio L, C. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Royl, P., E-mail: armando.gomez@inin.gob.mx [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz I, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In 2012 was modeled of primary and secondary container of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) for the CFD Gas-Flow code. These models were used to calculate hydrogen volume concentrations run release the reactor building in case of a severe accident. The results showed that the venting would produce detonation conditions in the venting level (level 33) and flammability at ground level of reload. One of the solutions to avoid reaching critical concentrations (flammable or detonable) inside the reactor building and thus safeguard the contentions is to make a rigid venting. The rigid vent is a pipe connected to the primary container could go to the level 33 of the secondary container and style fireplace climb to the top of the reactor building. The analysis of hydrogen transport inside the vent pipe can be influenced by various environmental criteria and factors vent, so a logical consequence of the 2012 analysis is the analysis of the gases transport within said pipe to define vent ideal conditions. For these evaluations the vent pipe was modeled with a fine mesh of 32 radial interior nodes and a coarse mesh of 4 radial interior nodes. With three-dimensional models were realized calculations that allow observing the influence of heat transfer in the long term, i.e. a complete analysis of exhaust (approx. 700 seconds). However, the most interesting results focus on the first milliseconds, when the H{sub 2} coming from the atmosphere of the primary container faces the air in the vent pipe. These first milliseconds besides allowing evaluating the detonation criteria in great detail in the different tubular sections similarly allow evaluating the pressure wave that occurs in the pipe and that at some point slows to the fluid on the last tubular section and could produce a detonation inside the pipe. Results are presented for venting fixed conditions, showing possible detonations into the pipe. (Author)

  2. Propositions of new correlations for prediction of physical-chemical properties in products of Brazilian crude oil; Proposicao de novas correlacoes para calculo de propriedades fisico-quimicas de derivados de petroleos brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Ulysses Brandao [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The prediction of products properties is a useful tool in the petroleum industry, because it allows the estimation of quality when it is not possible to be determined it in the laboratory. Among existing correlations for properties prediction, the best known are those from the American Petroleum Institute (API), but there are limitations in the use of such models to estimate the properties of Brazilian petroleum products. A study was done to determine new correlations which would adjust to these oils. In this work a statistical treatment was used in a group of samples covering products from oils produced in several regions of Brazil. The results of this study are presented in this work. New correlations are proposed to estimate the aniline point, pour point and cloud point of Brazilian oil products. The data are showed graphically, with the experimental values plotted against the results of both the proposed and the API correlations. The average absolute deviations obtained for these correlations were smaller than those presented by the API equations, for the same data sets. This work helps to improve the quality estimation of Brazilian petroleum products using process simulators. (author)

  3. Preparation of a program for the independent verification of the brachytherapy planning systems calculations; Confeccion de un programa para la verificacion independiente de los calculos de los sistemas de planificacion en braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Carmona, V.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Lliso, F.; Richart Sancho, J.; Ballester, F.; Pujades-Claumarchirant, M.C.; Munoz, M.

    2010-07-01

    In this work a program is presented that independently checks for each patient the treatment planning system calculations in low dose rate, high dose rate and pulsed dose rate brachytherapy. The treatment planning system output text files are automatically loaded in this program in order to get the source coordinates, the desired calculation point coordinates and the dwell times when it is the case. The source strength and the reference dates are introduced by the user. The program allows implementing the recommendations about independent verification of the clinical brachytherapy dosimetry in a simple and accurate way, in few minutes. (Author).

  4. Verification of the calculation program for brachytherapy planning system of high dose rate (PLATO); Programa de verificacion del calculo para un sistema de planificacion de braquiterapia de alta tasa de dosis (PLATO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almansa, J.; Alaman, C.; Perez-Alija, J.; Herrero, C.; Real, R. del; Ososrio, J. L.

    2011-07-01

    In our treatments are performed brachytherapy high dose rate since 2007. The procedures performed include gynecological intracavitary treatment and interstitial. The treatments are performed with a source of Ir-192 activity between 5 and 10 Ci such that small variations in treatment times can cause damage to the patient. In addition the Royal Decree 1566/1998 on Quality Criteria in radiotherapy establishes the need to verify the monitor units or treatment time in radiotherapy and brachytherapy. All this justifies the existence of a redundant system for brachytherapy dose calculation that can reveal any abnormality is present.

  5. Shields calculations for teletherapy equipment. Regulatory approach of the National Center of Nuclear Safety; Calculos de blindajes para equipos de teleterapia, enfoque regulatorio del Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente P, A. de la; Dumenigo G, C.; Quevedo G, J.R.; Lopez F, Y. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, Calle 28 No. 504 e/5 y 7 Ave. Miramar, Playa, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: andres@orasen.co.cu

    2006-07-01

    The evaluation of applications of construction licenses for the new services of radiotherapy has occupied a significant space in the activity developed by the National Center of Nuclear Safety (CNSN) in the last 2 years. Presently work the experiences of the authors in the evaluation of the required shield for the local where cobalt therapy equipment and lineal accelerators of medical use are used its are exposed, the practical problems detected are approached during the application of the methodologies recommended in both cases and its are discussed which have been the suppositions of items accepted by the Regulatory Authority for the realization of these shield calculations. The accumulated experience allows to assure that the realistic application of the item data and the rational use of the engineering logic makes possible to design local for radiotherapy equipment that fulfill the established dose restrictions in the in use legislation in Cuba, without it implies an excessive expense of construction materials. (Author)

  6. Thermal calculations for the study of the heat evacuation in the vaults building of the centralised temporary storage (ATC); Calculos termicos para el estudio de la evacuacion de calor en el Edificio de Bovedas del Almacen Temporal Centralizado (ATC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Dominguez, J. R.; Garcia Gonzalez, M.; Huelamo, E.

    2015-07-01

    This article presents the thermal analyses of the vaults building at the future Spanish Nuclear Waste Storage facility (ATC) in which spent nuclear fuel and high activity nuclear wastes are to be stored efficiency, safety and securely. the analyses have been carried out by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation codes, for the purpose of confirming the adequate design of the storage buildings and in order to obtain the air flow rate required to guarantee that the different thermal criteria are met. The design relies on natural convection in order to remove residual heat from the nuclear waste. The simulation model allows the designer to perform sensitivity analyses to evaluate the impact of different design parameters, to optimize the heat load per fuel canister and to provide an optimal loading plan for the facility. (Author)

  7. Criticality and shielding calculations for containers in dry of spent fuel of TRIGA Mark III reactor of ININ; Calculos de criticidad y blindaje para contenedores en seco de combustible gastado del reactor Triga Mark III del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranco R, F.

    2015-07-01

    In this thesis criticality and shielding calculations to evaluate the design of a container of dry storage of spent nuclear fuel generated in research reactors were made. The design of such container was originally proposed by Argentina and Brazil, and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) of Mexico. Additionally, it is proposed to modify the design of this container to store spent fuel 120 that are currently in the pool of TRIGA Mark III reactor, the Nuclear Center of Mexico and calculations and analyzes are made to verify that the settlement of these fuel elements is subcritical limits and dose rates to workers and the general public are not exceeded. These calculations are part of the design criteria for security protection systems in dry storage system (Dss for its acronym in English) proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of the United States. To carry out these calculations simulation codes of Monte Carlo particle transport as MCNPX and MCNP5 were used. The initial design (design 1) 78 intended to store spent fuel with a maximum of 115. The ININ has 120 fuel elements and spent 3 control rods (currently stored in the reactor pool). This leads to the construction of two containers of the original design, but for economic reasons was decided to modify (design 2) to store in a single container. Criticality calculations are performed to 78, 115 and fresh fuel elements 124 within the container, to the two arrangements described in Chapter 4, modeling the three-dimensional geometry assuming normal operating conditions and accident. These calculations are focused to demonstrate that the container will remain subcritical, that is, that the effective multiplication factor is less than 1, in particular not greater than 0.95 (as per specified by the NRC). Spent fuel 78 and 124 within the container, both gamma radiation to neutron shielding calculations for only two cases were simulated. First actinides and fission products generated during irradiation of fuels, with MCNPX, then these data were obtained and used for the simulation with MCNP5 using conversion factors creep dose rate. The need to store the spent fuel (outside the reactor pool) leads to the creation of an alternative for its management, and the idea is to propose and evaluate a dry storage container arises. (Author)

  8. Calculations of hydrogen transport for the simulation of a Sbo in the NPP-L V using the code CFD GASFLOW; Calculos de transporte de hidrogeno para la simulacion de un SBO en la CNLV usando el codigo CFD GASFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A. M.; Xolocostli M, V. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez M, R.; Filio L, C.; Mugica R, C. A. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Royl, P., E-mail: armando.gomez@inin.gob.mx [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Consultor, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz, D-76344 Eggenstein -Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The scenario of electric power total loss in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) has been analyzed using the code MELCOR previously, until reaching fault conditions of the primary container. A mitigation measure to avoid the loss of the primary contention is the realization of a venting toward the secondary contention (reactor building), however this measure bears the potential explosions occurrence risk when the hydrogen accumulated in the primary container with the oxygen of the reactor building atmosphere reacting. In this work a scenario has been supposed that considers the mentioned venting when the pressure of 4.5 kg/cm{sup 2} is reached in the primary container. The information for the hydrogen like an entrance fact is obtained of the MELCOR results and the hydrogen transport in both contentions is analyzed with the code CFD GASFLOW that allows predicting the detailed distribution of the hydrogen volumetric concentration and the possible detonation of flammability conditions in the reactor building. The results show that the venting will produce detonation conditions in the venting level (level 33) and flammability in the level of the recharge floor. The methodology here described constitutes the base of a detailed calculation system of this type of phenomena that can use to make safety evaluations in the NPP-L V on scenarios that include gases transport. (Author)

  9. Calculation of uncertainties in the protocol of dosimetry for Co 60 beams in Radiotherapy; Calculo de incertidumbres en el protocolo de dosimetria para haces de Co 60 en Radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez M, S.; Carrera M, F.; Sanchez S, J. [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Ronda Norte s/n 21005 Huelva (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The objective in this work is to show how the uncertainty is possible to know in the determination of the absorbed dose in Co 60 photon beams and to establish in a rational form, tolerance levels for this. It is took as base the spanish protocol of dosimetry in Radiotherapy. We have been centered in a Co 60 beam. We utilized the statistical theory of little samples. We allowed to suggest a new approach about the treatment of the tolerance levels and the uncertainty of the measurement. After two years of experience in the practical hospitable application we have gotten to put around 1 % uncertainty in the absolute dosimetry of the Co 60 beam. The presented protocol allows to execute the accuracy requirements in the determination of absorbed doses. (Author)

  10. Evaluation of dose calculation algorithms using the treatment planning system XiO with tissue heterogeneity correction turned on; Validacao dos algoritmos de calculo de dose do sistema de planejamento XiO considerando as correcoes para heterogeneidade dos tecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, L.R.; Barbi, G.L.; Silva, W.T. da; Reis, E.G.F. dos; Borges, L.F.; Bertucci, E.C.; Maciel, M.F.; Amaral, L.L. do, E-mail: lefairbanks@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2010-07-01

    Since the cross-section for various radiation interactions is dependent upon tissue material, the presence of heterogeneities affects the final dose delivered. This paper aims to analyze how different treatment planning algorithms (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Clarkson) work when heterogeneity corrections are used. To that end, a farmer-type ionization chamber was positioned reproducibly (during the time of CT as well as irradiation) inside several phantoms made of aluminum, bone, cork and solid water slabs. The percent difference between the dose measured and calculated by the various algorithms was less than 5%; This is in accordance with the recommendation of several references.The convolution method shows better results for high density materials (difference {approx}1 %), whereas the Superposition algorithm is more accurate for low densities (around 1,1%).

  11. Evaluation of dose calculation algorithms using the treatment planning system Xi O with tissue heterogeneity correction turned on; Validacao dos algoritmos de calculo de dose do sistema de planejamento Xi O considerando as correcoes para heterogeneidade dos tecidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, Leandro R.; Barbi, Gustavo L.; Silva, Wiliam T.; Reis, Eduardo G.F.; Borges, Leandro F.; Bertucci, Edenyse C.; Maciel, Marina F.; Amaral, Leonardo L., E-mail: lefairbanks@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2011-07-01

    Since the cross-section for various radiation interactions is dependent upon tissue material, the presence of heterogeneities affects the final dose delivered. This paper aims to analyze how different treatment planning algorithms (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition and Clarkson) work when heterogeneity corrections are used. To that end, a farmer-type ionization chamber was positioned reproducibly (during the time of CT as well as irradiation) inside several phantoms made of aluminum, bone, cork and solid water slabs. The percent difference between the dose measured and calculated by the various algorithms was less than 5%.The convolution method shows better results for high density materials (difference {approx}1 %), whereas the Superposition algorithm is more accurate for low densities (around 1,1%). (author)

  12. Application of perturbation theory to sensitivity calculations of PWR type reactor cores using the two-channel model; Aplicacao da teoria de perturbacao para calculos de sensibilidade em nucleos de reatores PWR, usando um modelo de dois canais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, A.C.J.G. de

    1988-12-01

    Sensitivity calculations are very important in design and safety of nuclear reactor cores. Large codes with a great number of physical considerations have been used to perform sensitivity studies. However, these codes need long computation time involving high costs. The perturbation theory has constituted an efficient and economical method to perform sensitivity analysis. The present work is an application of the perturbation theory (matricial formalism) to a simplified model of DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) analysis to perform sensitivity calculations in PWR cores. Expressions to calculate the sensitivity coefficients of enthalpy and coolant velocity with respect to coolant density and hot channel area were developed from the proposed model. The CASNUR.FOR code to evaluate these sensitivity coefficients was written in Fortran. The comparison between results obtained from the matricial formalism of perturbation theory with those obtained directly from the proposed model makes evident the efficiency and potentiality of this perturbation method for nuclear reactor cores sensitivity calculations (author). 23 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs.

  13. Methodology for calculating the thickness free of sigma phase in duplex stainless steels large section parts during hiperquenching; Metodologia para el calculo de espesores limite libres de fase sigma durante el hipertemple en piezas de aceros duplex de gran seccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimbert, P.; Guraya, T.; Torregary, A.; Bravo, P.

    2013-06-01

    To achieve the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance desired by duplex stainless steels used by the petrochemical and nuclear industry, parts are subjected to a hiperquenching heat treatment from about 1050 degree centigrade. This avoids the risk of intermetallic precipitation which drastically reduces the properties of these materials. However with increasing depth to which the deposits are present, the thicknesses for such pipes have been increased, resulting in higher levels of demand on all its manufacturing process, including the heat treatment. To avoid the precipitation of intermetallic phases such as sigma phase it is necessary to know the cooling profile in the center of the work piece and for this purpose to know the value of the Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient (h) is essential. This coefficient changes during the hiperquenching and its value is determined experimentally as it depends on several process parameters. Studies reveal that its value is stabilized within a few seconds. We can then assume that to know the cooling profile in the center of large sections it is only necessary to know the stabilized value of h. However, all the studies found in the literature are referred to diameters smaller than 100 mm. This paper has developed a methodology to predict the precipitation of intermetallic phases in duplex stainless steel parts with large thicknesses in industrial facilities from the calculation of h. This methodology allows us to calculate the cooling profiles without wasting any work piece using one or more sensorized patterns with thermocouples and a subsequent simulation with ANSYS. (Author)

  14. Simulation model and methodology for calculating the damage by internal radiation in a PWR reactor; Modelo de simulacion y metodologia para el calculo del dano por irradiacion en los internos de un reactor PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Mendicoa, A. M.; Benito Hernandez, M.; Barreira Pereira, P.

    2012-07-01

    This study involves the development of the methodology and three-dimensional models to estimate the damage to the vessel internals of a commercial PWR reactor from irradiation history of operating cycles.

  15. Calculations of received dose for different points in the enrichment uranium oxide warehouse at 4%; Calculos de dosis recibida para diferentes puntos en el almacen de oxido de uranio enriquecido al 4%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso V, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1990-06-15

    In order to verifying that the received dose so much inside as outside of the warehouse of enriched uranium dioxide to 4% it doesn't represent risk to the personnel, the modelling of this and the corresponding calculations for the extreme case of dose at contact are made. (Author)

  16. Neutronic, thermal-hydraulics and safety calculations of a Miniplate Irradiation Device (MID) of dispersion type fuel elements; Calculos neutronicos, termo-hidraulicos e de seguranca de um dispositivo para Irradiacao de miniplacas (DIM) de elementos combustiveis tipo dispersao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Douglas Borges

    2010-07-01

    Neutronic, thermal-hydraulics and accident analysis calculations were developed to estimate the safety of a Miniplate Irradiation Device (MID) to be placed in the IEA-R1 reactor core. The irradiation device is used to receive miniplates of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}- Al dispersion fuels, LEU type (19.75 % {sup 235}U) with uranium densities of, respectively, 3.2 gU/cm{sup 3} and 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3}. The fuel miniplates will be irradiated to nominal {sup 235}U burnup levels of 50% and 80%, in order to qualify the above high-density dispersion fuels to be used in the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), now in the conception phase. For the neutronic calculation, the computer codes CITATION and 2DB were utilized. The computer code FLOW was used to calculate the coolant flow rate in the irradiation device, allowing the determination of the fuel miniplate temperatures with the computer model MTRCR-IEA-R1. A postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) was analyzed with the computer codes LOSS and TEMPLOCA, allowing the calculation of the fuel miniplate temperatures after the reactor pool draining. The calculations showed that the irradiation should occur without adverse consequences in the IEA-R1 reactor. (author)

  17. Dosimetric calculation of I-131 activity for the treatment to patients having differentiated thyroid cancer. Benefits and limitations; Calculo dosimetrico de la actividad de I-131 para tratamiento de pacientes con cancer diferenciado de tiroides (CADT). Beneficios y limitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejas, R. C.; Chebel, G. M.; Fadel, A. M.; Rojo, A. M.; Deluca, G.; Degross, O. J.; Valdivieso, C. M.; Carbejas, M. L.

    2006-07-01

    Maximum safe activity calculation, that has to be administered for treatment to patients having Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (CADT). No important side effects should be produced. Post treatment evolution was analysed. 23 Dosimetric studies were performed determining blood and whole body uptake curves (CE)during 5 days. Using the MIRDOSE software, the maximum safe activity in the whole body (CE)was calculated. The retained activity in the body (AR), 48 hs. post tracer dose. Should have been less than 2.96 GBq so as to avoid lung fibrosis. 17 patients that received activities<11.1 GBq, had no side effects. Three patients presents special situations: high AR, users in the mouth, and plaque to and leucopenia. This methodology has benefits because AT can be estimated. This was possible for 85% of the patients. When AR was high at 48 hr, AT was diminished to avoid pulmonary lesions. Tumor absorbed dose estimation, will allow the administration of AT>11.1 GBq in the future. (Author)

  18. Development of a computer software based on geographic information for calculating voltage drop and brake points in half tension networks; Desarrollo informatico georreferenciado para calculos de caida de tension y puntos de corte en redes de media tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertole, Hector; Aguero, Carlos A.; Prado, Pedro O.; Suarez, Juan A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    1997-12-31

    This development is a group of tools of calculations and analysis thought to be used in the technical area of an electric power company. It allows the realization of calculations of voltage drop in the networks of half tension and the determination of the break points. It is possible to analyze the readiness of power in the distribution centers and the state of load of the conductors. (author) 8 refs., 7 figs.; e-mail: hbertole at fi.mdp.edu.ar; poprado at fi.mdp.edu.ar

  19. Evolution calculations of fuel for a GFR using MCNPX-C90 and Tripoli-4-D; Calculos de evolucion de combustible para un GFR usando MCNPX-C90 y TRIPOLI-4-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes R, R.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Francois L, J. L. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Brun, E.; Dumonteil, E.; Malvagi, F., E-mail: emeric.brun@cea.fr [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternative, Service d' Etude des Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees, Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SERMA/LTSD, Bat 470, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    Burnt calculations were realized for a fuel model based on the technology of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor, GFR. The fuel design is based on bars. The code MCNPX-CINDER90 and the CSADA method for the burnt calculations were used. Models of homogeneous and heterogeneous fuel assembly were studied; for the burnt calculations of the fuel homogeneous model was considered the tracking of three series (Tiers) of evolution of the fission products. The Tier 1 tracks a reduced group of fission products, the Tier 2 tracks to the arrangement of fission products that are contained in the library of cross sections XSDIR of MCNPX; and the Tier 3 tracks 1325 fission products. The results were compared with those obtained with Tripoli-4-D in function of the calculation methods: 1) Explicit Euler, as method of first order; and 2) CSADA, as method of second order. According to the results was observed that the infinite multiplication factor varies in function of the fission products quantity that are tracked. The calculation time used by MCNPX-C90 with the series Tier 3 is more than double than the used by Tripoli-4-D, therefore this last code has advantage over MCNPX-C90 in the case of neutrons analysis of fast reactors. (Author)

  20. Aquelarre. A computer code for fast neutron cross sections from the statistical model; AQUELARRE. Un programa numerico para el calculo de secciones eficaces neutronicas mediante el modelo de nucleo compuesto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guasp, J

    1974-07-01

    A Fortran V computer code for Univac 1108/6 using the partial statistical (or compound nucleus) model is described. The code calculates fast neutron cross sections for the (n, n'), (n, p), (n, d) and (n, {alpha}) reactions and the angular distributions and Legendre moments for the (n, n) and (n, n') processes in heavy and intermediate spherical nuclei. A local Optical Model with spin-orbit interaction for each level is employed, allowing for the width fluctuation and Moldauer corrections, as well as the inclusion of discrete and continuous levels. (Author) 67 refs.

  1. Use of Monte Carlo simulation software for the calculation of the effective dose in cone beam Tomography; Uso del software de simulacion Monte Carlo para el calculo de la dosis efectiva en Tomografia de haz conico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes B, W. O., E-mail: wilsonottobatista@gmail.com [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Bardalho, 40301-015 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In this study irradiation geometry applicable to PCXMC and the consequent calculation of effective dose in applications of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was developed. Two different CBCT equipment s for dental applications were evaluated: Care Stream Cs-9000 3-Dimensional and Gendex GXCB-500 tomographs. Each protocol initially was characterized by measuring the surface kerma input and the product air kerma-area, P{sub KA}. Then, technical parameters of each of the predetermined protocols and geometric conditions in the PCXMC software were introduced to obtain the values of effective dose. The calculated effective dose is within the range of 9.0 to 15.7 μSv for Cs 9000 3-D and in the range 44.5 to 89 mSv for GXCB-500 equipment. These values were compared with dosimetric results obtained using thermoluminescent dosimeters implanted in anthropomorphic mannequin and were considered consistent. The effective dose results are very sensitive to the radiation geometry (beam position); this represents a factor of fragility software usage, but on the other hand, turns out to be a very useful tool for quick conclusions regarding the optimization process of protocols. We can conclude that the use of Monte Carlo simulation software PCXMC is useful in the evaluation of test protocols of CBCT in dental applications. (Author)

  2. PREVALENCIA DE BOCIO ENDEMICO POR EL METODO ECOGRAFICO, DETERMINACION DE YODURIAS y YODO EN SAL EN ESCOLARES DEL PARAGUAY.

    OpenAIRE

    Jara Y, Jorge A; Pretell, Eduardo A; Zaracho de Irazusta, Juana; Goetting, Sonia; Riveros, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    Paraguay, país mediterráneo ubicado en el corazón de America del Sur, con una superficie de 406.542 Km2 y con una población de 5,8 millones de habitantes importa toda la sal que consume de países cercanos como la Argentina, Brasil y Chile. En el presente estudio observacional, de tipo descriptivo utiliza el método ecográfico para determinar el tamaño y las características de la glándula tiroides, se examinaron 1034 escolares de ambos sexos de 13 distritos del país y fue realizado durante 3 me...

  3. The Role of Non-Destructive Testing in the Los Alamos Reactor Programme; Role des Essais Non Destructifs dans le Programme de Reacteurs de los Alamos; Rol' nedestruktivnykh ispytanij materialov v Los-Alamosskoj reaktornoj programme; Papel de los Metodos de Ensayo No Destructivo en el Programa de Reactores de Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenney, G. H. [University of California, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1965-10-15

    temperature UHTREX, actuellement en construction, on a etudie par microiadiogiaphie et au moyen de microscopes electroniques des grains de carbure d'uranium enrobes de carbone pyrolytique, d'un diametre de 150 {mu}m, pour evaluer la translocation de l'uranium en fonction de la temperature. On determine la quantite et l'uniformite de la charge d'uranium dans les elements au graphite d'UHTREX au moyen de compteurs a scintillation specialement concus. Environ 90% des travaux effectues a ce sujet n'ont encore fait l'objet d'aucune publication. (author) [Spanish] El Laboratorio Cientifico de Los Alamos, explotado por la Universidad de California por encargo de la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos, viene ocupandose desde hace mas de veinte afios del proyecto, diseno y construccion de reactores nucleares de cuatro tipos generales; a saber, de investigacion, de potencia, de propulsion espacial y para conjuntos criticos. El llamado Grupo de ensayos no destructivos colabora practicamente en todas las actividades y proyectos del laboratorio. En la presente memoria se exponen algunos de los metodos de ensayo no destructivo y sus aplicaciones, establecidos para uso en el programa de reactores. El programa LAPRE (Los Alamos Power Reactor Experiment) se basa en el empleo de una solucion de fosfato de uranio a alta temperatura. La solucion es muy corrosiva y todas las piezas que entren en contacto con ella deben ir revestidas de oro. Durante el proceso de produccion de chapa de oro laminada a partir de lingotes, se han utilizado procedimientos radiograficos especiales para inspeccionar el metal. Las juntas soldadas se examinaron del mismo modo, y ademas se establecio un metodo para comprobar la presencia de impurezas incrustadas en la superficie de la chapa de oro. El concepto fundamental en que se basa el programa LAMPRE (Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiment) es la utilizacion como combustible de plutonio metalico liquido en vez de solido. El combustible esta

  4. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Computational aspects; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Aspectos computacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.

  5. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in electric machines by means of the finite element. Computational aspects; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito. Aspectos computacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario; De la Torre, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    In this article are described the computational characteristics of the Package CALIIE 2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), for the calculation of bi-dimensional electromagnetic fields. The computational implementation of the package is based in the electromagnetic and numerical statements formerly published in this series. [Espanol] En este articulo se describen las caracteristicas computacionales del paquete CALIIE 2D del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), para calcular campos electromagneticos bidimensionales. La implantacion computacional del paquete se basa en los planteamientos electromagneticos y numericos antes publicados en esta serie.

  6. Proceedings of the 7 Annual conference of the Mexican association for the energy economy. The energy sector in Mexico: challenges and solutions. [Selected papers]; 7. Conferencia anual de la asociacion mexicana para la economia energetica. El sector energia en Mexico: retos y soluciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Mexican Association for the Energy Economy (AMEE) had its VII annual conference, The energy sector in Mexico: challenges and solutions, in October, 2004. Some of the expounded topics are: technical and environmental aspects of the combined cycle power stations; analysis of the generation of electric power across biogas from sanitary landfills in Mexico; cogeneration in large power plants; methodologies for the calculation of relative efficiency: description and application of natural gas distributors in Latin American and others. [Spanish] La Asociacion Mexicana para la Economia Energetica A. C. (AMEE), llevo acabo su VII conferencia anual El sector energia en Mexico: retos y soluciones, en octubre del 2004. Algunos de los temas tratados son: Aspectos tecnicos y medioambientales de las centrales de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico; Cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso; Metodologias para el calculo de eficiencia relativa: descripcion y aplicacion para distribuidores de gas natural en Latinoamerica y otros.

  7. Tele-asistencia y tele-alarma para adultos mayores: experiencias preliminares en Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo-Rodriguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analizar el efecto de un programa piloto de tele-asistencia y tele-alarma en la autopercepción del estado de salud de los adultos mayores y conocer la satisfacción y aceptación del programa. METODOS Estudio transversal que incluyó entrevistas a 378 adultos mayores, 294 cuidadores/familiares y 53 profesionales de la salud, realizado en la Ciudad de México en 2010. Variables sociodemográficas, de autopercepción del estado de salud, satisfacción y aceptación del programa se obtuvieron por medio de cuestionario estandarizado. Se realizó análisis descriptivo y se utilizaron pruebas no paramétricas. RESULTADOS Se observaron efectos significativos en la autopercepción del estado de salud, 6,17 (DE 17,9 p < 0,05 puntos por encima de la media. El programa tuvo una buena aceptación por parte de los adultos mayores, de sus cuidadores familiares y de los profesionales de la salud. CONCLUSIONES El programa contribuye a mantener o mejorar la calidad de vida, permite la atención preventiva y es un medio ideal para dar apoyo psicosocial a los adultos mayores.

  8. Metaheurística MOAMP para un problema de recogida de basuras en áreas rurales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero Fernández, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se propone un modelo bi-objetivo para la recogida de basuras en áreas rurales.. Los objetivos son la reducción de los costes de transporte de los vehículos de recogida y la mejora del nivel de servicio. Concretamente la calidad va a estar relacionada con la frecuencia de recogida en los diferentes puntos. Se propone un algoritmo para obtener un conjunto de soluciones no dominadas a este problema. Este metodo está basado en la estrategia denominada MOAMP y consigue obtener conjuntos numerosos y densos de soluciones no-dominadas.ABSTRACT In this work a biobjective model for recollecting dusty bins in rural areas is proposed in a period. The two objectives considered are: minimizing costs (that is transport costs and improving level service. Specifically the level of service or quality depends on frequency of recollecting in every point over different points. Also an algorithm is proposed in order to obtain a set of not dominated solutions close to efficiency curve. This algorithm is based in MOAMP strategy. It shows to obtain a dense set of not-dominated solutions.

  9. Electronic methods for discriminating scintillation shapes; Methodes electroniques de discrimination des formes des impulsions issues de scintillateurs; Ehlektronnye metody diskriminatsii form stsintillyatsii; Metodos electronicos de discriminacion de forma de impulsos de centelleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, M; Konsta, A; Maranzana, C [European Atomic Energy Community, CCR, ISPRA (Italy)

    1962-04-15

    ne doit se faire qu'entre deux types d'impulsions seulement (neutrons et rayons gamma, par exemple), on a egalement envisage l'emploi de reseaux passifs qu'il serait possible d'ameliorer et de simplifier. Les auteurs ont fait l'essai de quelques reseaux; ils sont notamment parvenus, en presence d'un bruit de fond du a des rayons gamma, a realiser la discrimination dans des scintillateurs liquides de protons de recul ne delivrant que de faibles impulsions (quelques dizaines de photo-electrons) et celle de fragments de capture de neutrons dans des scintillateurs liquides contenant du bore. Certains de ces reseaux ont pu fonctionner avec des impulsions de meme polarite issues de deux des dernieres dynodes, et meme avec les impulsions de sortie delivrees par une seule electrode. Il y a la une possibilite interessante pour les cas ou il est indique d'utiliser l'anode separement, par exemple pour le cycle de synchronisation. (author) [Spanish] Como ya se ha senalado, la forma de los impulsos emitidos por un centelleador, que es caracteristica del tipo de particula excitante (electron, proton, particulas alfa, etc.), puede convertirse en una amplitud de impulso como parametro independiente. Ello permite determinar, utilizando un analizador multicanal, la composicion de un haz mixto de particulas que excite el centelleador. Este metodo se ha aplicado con exito empleando varios centelleadores de tipo organico e inorganico. Los autores describen con detalle las tecnicas electronicas utilizadas para convertir la forme de los impulsos. En el caso mas sencillo de discriminacion entre solo dos clases de impulsos (por ejemplo, discriminacion de neutrones y rayos gamma), se ha estudiado la conveniencia de utilizar redes pasivas, susceptibles de nuevos perfeccionamientos y simplificaciones. Se han ensayado varios tipos de redes y el principal resultado obtenido consiste en la discriminacion, en presencia de un fondo gamma, de los protones de retrocesco en centelleadores liquidos

  10. LA INVESTIGACION COMO CONTENIDO, METODO, ENFOQUE Y CONTEXTO EN LA FORMACIÓN DE LOS PROFESIONALES EN LA UNIVERSIDAD CONTEMPORANEA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Martínez

    2016-04-01

    La universidad, tiene un papel fundamental en el proceso respectivo y potencia las competencias de sus educandos, y entre las funciones principales la creacion de cultura a partir de los procesos de investigacion que en ella se genera y, consecuentemente, participa de manera activa en la solucion de los problemas del entorno, lo que tambien constituye su encargo social; siendo este fundamental en el proceso y la prioridad en la formacion para la investigacion de los estudiantes y al desarrollo de habilidades formativas como parte de sus competencias profesionales, ademas de la autopreparacion y cpacitacion permanente del docente vínculo clave en los procesos de desarrollo. La capacidad laboral mediad a través de las competencias, que el educando recibe en su proceso de formacion, es la búsqueda de los elementos necesarios que constituyen habilidades, destrezas, comportamientos debidamente organizados a fin de lograr metas y objetivos concretos, estos deben ser medidos y cualificados con eficacia, dentro de los niveles de rendimiento exigidos en el trabajo; se logra con la adquisicion y desarrollo de conocimientos, expresados en el desempeño a través de la integracion del saber, el saber hacer y saber ser.

  11. Calculate the high solar radiation for photovoltaic panels in Chile; Aproximacio al calculo de la oferta de energia por paneles fotovoltaicos en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino, Beatriz; Roth, Pedro; Stolz, German [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Bonneschky, Alexis [Cottbus University, Cottbus (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    del potencial solar fotovoltaico en Chile. En un trabajo previo, se detecto la falta de una guia obligatoria y general para la instalacion de los SHS, ademas de la falta de informacion en relacion al potencial electrico real para lograr satisfacer el consumo de las personas. Este trabajo pretende ser la primera aproximacion a una carta detallada de la oferta electrica para el uso de paneles fotovoltaicos en Chile. El mapa de oferta electrica se realiza con la ayuda de un programa computacional el que contiene las ecuaciones necesarias a fin de obtener la radiacion solar para superficie inclinada hora a hora a partir de los datos geograficos y de radiacion solar global promedio mensual sobre superficie horizontal del lugar. Ademas el programa contiene las ecuaciones de un panel fotovoltaico con las que es posible obtener la energia en un lapso de una hora, utilizando como dato de entrada la radiacion a traves de un dia tipico de cada mes y la curva de oferta de energia electrica o curva de energia electrica proporcionada por el panel fotovoltaico escogido.

  12. Calculation of electromagnetic field in electric machines through the finite element: Electromagnetic modeling; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito: Modelacion electromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    In this article are presented the general characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomena that can be described by means of the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) derived from a modeling based in the magnetic and electric potentials, always using the MKS rationalized units system. Closed regions are considered with axial or moving symmetry to incorporate the bi-dimensional behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The possibility of means with movement is also included. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas generales de los fenomenos electromagneticos que pueden describirse mediante el programa de computo CALIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), que provienen de una modelacion basada en los potenciales magnetico y electrico, en esta se utiliza sistema MKS racionalizado de unidades. Se consideran regiones cerradas con simetria axial o traslacional para incorporar el comportamiento bidimensional de los campos electromagneticos, se incluye tambien la posibilidad de medios con movimiento.

  13. Calculation of electromagnetic field in electric machines through the finite element: Electromagnetic modeling; Calculo de campos electromagneticos en maquinas electricas mediante elemento finito: Modelacion electromagnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Mario F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    In this article are presented the general characteristics of the electromagnetic phenomena that can be described by means of the software CALIIE-2D of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) derived from a modeling based in the magnetic and electric potentials, always using the MKS rationalized units system. Closed regions are considered with axial or moving symmetry to incorporate the bi-dimensional behavior of the electromagnetic fields. The possibility of means with movement is also included. [Espanol] En este articulo se presentan las caracteristicas generales de los fenomenos electromagneticos que pueden describirse mediante el programa de computo CALIIE-2D, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), que provienen de una modelacion basada en los potenciales magnetico y electrico, en esta se utiliza sistema MKS racionalizado de unidades. Se consideran regiones cerradas con simetria axial o traslacional para incorporar el comportamiento bidimensional de los campos electromagneticos, se incluye tambien la posibilidad de medios con movimiento.

  14. Scanning Study of 700 Livers Evaluation of Existing Diagnostic Procedures; Etude Scintigraphique de 700 Foies (Evaluation des Procedures Actuelles de Diagnostic); Issledovanie pecheni 700 bol'nykh s pomoshch'yu skennirovaniya; Exploracion Hepatica de 700 Pacientes (Evaluacion de los Metodos Actuales De Diagnostico); Exploracion Hepatica de 700 Pacientes (Evaluacion de los Metodos Actuales de Diagnostico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, P. [Radium and Isotope Institute, Government Hospital, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)

    1964-10-15

    regeneracion completa. 3. Despues de una derivacion porta-cava, la imagen del higado es mas pequena y la del bazo mas grande, incluso cuando el estado general es satisfactorio. 4. Los agentes citostaticos pueden ser momentaneamente eficaces para ciertas lesiones hepaticas difusas. 5. Ha ocurrido a veces que al explorar de nuevo una lesion dudosa esta ha aparecido como una lesion macroscopica o ha desaparecido totalmente. Por tanto, la epoca en que se efectua la exploracion puede afectar al diagnostico, . Conclusiones: 1. La exploracion hepatica puede considerarse como metodo muy util para el diagnostico clfnico, morfologico y topografico en hepatopatologia. 2. Los resultados pueden mejorarse: a) utilizando aparatos perfeccionados o tecnicas de exploracion estereoscopica, y b) estableciendo una eficaz colaboracion entre el clinico y el cirujano. (author) [Russian] Provodilis' klinicheskie issledovanija, laboratornye analizy, rentgenograficheskoe obsledovanie i skennirovanie pecheni 700 bol'nyh. Za bol'nymi bylo ustanovleno nabljudenie, i v bol'shinstve sluchaev v konechnom itoge diagnoz podtverdilsja. Takim obrazom byla dana ocenka provedennym issledovanijam. Skennirovanie pecheni proizvodilos' s pomoshh'ju bengal'skoj rozy i polivinilpirolidona, mechennyh zolotom-198 i jodom-131 . Pomimo klassicheskogo AR-metoda dlja opredelenija ra- dioizotopnyh kojefficientov pecheni primenjalis' special'nye metody, takie kak treh ili dvuhploskostnoe stereoskennirovanie i kombinirovannoe izotopnoe issledovanie s pomoshh'ju mechennoj zolotom-198 i jodom-131 bengal'skoj rozy. Bol'nye byli razdeleny na vosem' klinicheskih grupp, i sootvetstvenno proizvodilsja sbor i ocenka diagnosticheskih dannyh. Daetsja kratkoe izlozhenie rezul'tatov jetogo issledovanija. V kazhdoj klinicheskoj gruppe analizy provodilis' otdel'no. Naprimer, v 95%iz 65 sluchaev jehinokokkovoj bolezni byl obnaruzhen ogranichennyj uchastok porazhenija. Rentgenovskoe obsledovanie vyjavilo obizvestvlenie tol'ko v 35%jetih sluchaev

  15. Some Problems of Calculation and Design of High-Activity Gamma Units; Quelques aspects du calcul et de l'etablissement de projets d'installations puissantes emettrices de rayonnement gamma; Nekotorye voprosy rascheta i proektirovaniya moshchnykh gamma-ustanovok; Algunos aspectos del calculo y construccion de instalaciones de irradiacion gamma de elevada intensidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibergal, A V; Leshchinsky, N I; Margulis, U Ya; Khrushev, V G [Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1960-07-15

    installations et reduisant le cout de la construction et de l'exploitation. (author) [Spanish] En este informe se indican los requisitos esenciales que deben reunir las instalaciones de irradiacion gamma destinadas a distintos usos. Se describen varios metodos para calcular campos de distintas intensidades en funcion de la forma de la fuente de cobalto-60 y cesio-137 empleada y se facilitan graficos, nomogramas y formulas que permiten determinar el valor de la dosis de rayos gamma absorbida por el objeto irradiado. Algunos de los datos calculados se han confirmado experimentalmente. Se examinan los usos mas convenientes de una serie de dispositivos de irradiacion de distintas configuraciones en instalaciones experimentales e industriales. Los autores estudian asimismo los procedimientos de irradiacion de diferentes muestras, que se aplican con el proposito de poder elegir unas condiciones de irradiacion optimas (coeficiente de aprovechamient o de la radiacion, uniformidad del campo de irradiacion, etc.), La memoria describe tambien algunos sistemas racionales de proteccion que simplifican las operaciones de irradiacion, asi como los dispositivos que permiten cambiar la carga y reducir de este modo los costos de construccion y de explotacion de las instalaciones. (author) [Russian] V doklade sformulirovan y osnovnye trebovaniya, pred{sup y}avlyaemye k gamma-ustanovkam razlichnogo naznacheniya. Provodyatsya nekotorye metody rascheta doznykh polej dlya razlichnykh form obluchatelej, a takzhe grafiki, nomogrammy i formuly, pozvolyayushchie poluchit' znacheniya pogloshchennoj dozy gamma-luchej kobal'ta-60 i tseziya-137 v obluchaemom ob{sup e}kte. Nekotorye raschetnye dannye podtverzhdayutsya ehksperimentami. Rassmatrivaets ya tselesoobraznost ' ispol'zovani ya obluchatelej razlichnykh konfiguratsij , primenyaemykh v ehksperimental'nykh i proizvodstvennykh ustanovkakh. Obsuzhdaetsya tekhnologiya oblucheniya razlichnykh ob{sup e}ktov s tsel'yu vybora optimal'nykh uslovij

  16. Metodos estadisticos empleados en los articulos originales publicados sobre tabaquismo en cuatro revistas medicas espanõlas (1985-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García López José Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Siendo el tabaquismo un tema prioritario de investigación y habiéndose incrementado el uso de técnicas estadísticas en las publicaciones biomédicas, se describen las técnicas estadísticas utilizadas y se cuantifica la accesibilidad estadística en los artículos originales sobre tabaquismo publicados en cuatro revistas médicas españolas. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de los 154 artículos originales sobre tabaquismo publicados en las revistas Atención Primaria, Medicina Clínica (Barcelona, Revista Española de Salud Pública y Revista Clínica Española, en el período de 1985 a 1996. Un único observador codificó las técnicas estadísticas en 14 categorías de acuerdo con la clasificación elaborada por Carré et al (1995 a partir de la clasificación establecida por Emerson y Colditz (1983. Para el estudio de la accesibilidad estadística se estableció como referencia el conocimiento de técnicas bivariables, hasta regresión lineal simple. Resultados: El 81,8% de los originales utilizaron la estadística inferencial. Las categorías estadísticas más frecuentemente utilizadas fueron las "Tablas de contingencia" (37,0%, "Estadística descriptiva" (18,2% y "Tablas de vida y análisis de supervivencia" (9,7%. Un lector familiarizado con técnicas bivariables tuvo acceso estadístico al 96,0% de los originales de Revista Española de Salud Pública, al 86,2% de Atención Primaria, al 66,7% de Medicina Clínica (Barcelona y al 33,3% de Revista Clínica Española. Este mismo lector tuvo acceso al 100% de los originales publicados en el trienio 1985-87 y al 68,1% en el 1994-96. Conclusiones: La utilización de técnicas estadísticas varía en función del tema y diseño de investigación, de la revista y del año de publicación. La disminución de la accesibilidad estadística hace necesario identificar el perfil del lector estándar en nuestro país para adaptar sus conocimientos a las exigencias de la

  17. New processing techniques for radioisotopes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Production de radioisotopes: nouvelles techniques employees au Laboratoire national d'Oak Ridge; Novye tekhnologicheskie metody polucheniya radioizotopov v Okridzhskoj natsional'noj laboratorii; Nuevos metodos de preparacion de radioisotopos aplicados en el Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, T A; Lamb, E; Rupp, A F [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-01-15

    une activite de 235 c/g. La poudre a ete comprimee en pastilles, que l'on a ensuite agglomerees pour leur donner une consistance ceramique. Le prometheum-147 a ete produit en quantites de l'ordre du kilocurie par combinaison des techniques de precipitation et d'echanges d'ions. Un procede d'extraction par solvant pour separer le prometheum-147 d'autres terres rares a ete experimente sur de tres faibles quantites. Quelques grammes de technetium-99 ont ete recuperes dans les produits de fission des effluents par precipitation et extraction par solvant combinees. Le technetium avait une purete chimique superieure a 99,9% et une purete radiochimique superieure a 99,99%. La purification du strontium-90 par elimination des contaminants les plus importants, a l'aide d'un systeme d'extraction continu par solvant, a ete demontree sur de tres petites quantites. En partant d'un produit contenant 95% de calcium inerte, on a obtenu du strontium a 98% de purete. On a ensuite traite le strontium-90 pour obtenir des elements ceramiques de titanate de strontium. (author) [Spanish] Entre los adelantos mas recientes introducidos en el programa de preparacion de radioisotopos del Oak Ridge National Laboratory se cuenta el desarrollo de nuevos metodos y el mejoramiento de procedimientos ya establecidos para la obtencion de cerio-144, promecio-147, tecnecio-99 y estroncio-90. Se ha producido experimentalmente cerio-144 en escala de los kiloeuries. Se recupero mas del 98% de cerio con una pureza superior al 99%. Este cerio se siguio purificando hasta obtener oxido de cerio puro en forma pulverulenta de actividad especifica igual a 235 e/g. Este polvo se comprimio en pastillas y se sinterizo para obtener un material ceramico denso. El promecio-147 se obtuvo en cantidades de kiloeuries aplicando un metodo combinado de precipitacion e intercambio ionico. Se ensayo la extraccion de vestigios de elementos con disolventes para separar el promecio-147 de otras tierras raras. Gracias a una

  18. Fractal analysis of the electrical discharges' surface paths in polymeric insulation considering different pollution levels; Analisis fractal de las trayectorias de descargas electricas superficiales en aislamiento polimerico considerando diferentes niveles de contaminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios Lopez, Arturo

    2002-07-01

    In this thesis tree patterns of superficial breakdown in polymeric insulator of Silicon Rubber are generated. Experimental arrangement rod-rod was used on the basis of norm ASTM D 2303-85. Pollution levels on the basis of norm IEC 507 were also used. The experimental values of Fractal Dimension for each case of pollution were reported. A self similar method called Box Counting for the fractal dimension calculus and for the self affine methods an R/S and Variogram were used. According to the results, it was concluded that the tree patterns of superficial electric breakdown in Silicon Rubber is self similar and its value does not depend on the degree of pollution, that is equivalent to the concentration of salt for liter of water or to the Equivalent Salt Deposition (ESDD), in the surface of an insulator. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se inducen descargas electricas superficiales en un aislamiento polimerico de Hule Silicon, el arreglo experimental que se utilice es punta-punta con base en la norma ASTM D 2303-85 y los niveles de contaminacion con base en la norma IEC 507. Se reportan los valores experimentales de la Dimension Fractal para cada caso de contaminacion, se utilice el metodo auto similar de conteo de cuadros, para el calculo de la Dimension Fractal y para metodos auto afines se utilice analisis R/S y variograma. Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que la trayectoria de la descarga electrica superficial en un polimero de Hule Silicon es auto similar y su valor no depende del grado de contaminacion, el cual es equivalente a la concentracion de gramos de sal por litro de agua o a la densidad de sal depositada (DESD), en la superficie de un aislador.

  19. Estrategias para negociaciones exitosas.

    OpenAIRE

    José B. Parra V; Evelinda Santiago J.; Misael Murillo M.; Candy Atonal N.

    2010-01-01

    Las estrategias de negociación son herramientas para disminuir conflictos o para intercambiar bienes y servicios. Una negociación exitosa crea relaciones de solidaridad y propicia reciprocidad, cooperación y confianza para quienes tendrán relaciones permanentes de negociación con beneficios para ambas partes. Una estrategia de negociación exitosa requiere manejar el desarrollo del ambiente social del grupo de personas, con la finalidad de tener presente las fronteras que no pueden irrumpirse....

  20. Algoritmo para generar formulas de características geométricas de las secciones planas, su implementación en DERIVE // Algorithm for the calculation of the geometric characteristics of the plane sections defined for polygonal, their implementation in DERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Rivero-Galán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la esfera del diseno de estructuras y de elementos de maquinas, se presenta con relativafrecuencia el calculo de determinadas caracteristicas o propiedades geometricas de seccionesplanas, como son entre otras: el area de una seccion transversal, el centro de gravedad, unmomento de inercia o mas general la determinacion de alguna caracteristica geometrica definidapor una integral doble extendida en la region del plano que ocupa la seccion, pieza o elemento.El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la confeccion de un programa para computadora,utilizando el asistente matematico DERIVE, para la determinacion de las caracteristicas geometricasde secciones planas cuyo contorno este constituido por segmentos de rectas.Palabras claves: Algoritmo, seccion plana, DERIVE, momentos, centro de gravedad.______________________________________________________________AbstractIn the sphere of the design of structures, is relative frequency the calculation of certaincharacteristic or geometric properties of plane sections, like: the area of a traverse section, thecenter of gravity, a moment of inertia or more general the determination of some geometriccharacteristic defined by a double integral extended in the region of the plane that occupies thesection, piece or element.The present work has as objective the making of a program for computer, using the mathematicalassistant DERIVE, for the determination of the geometric characteristics of plane sections whosecontour this constituted by segments of right.Key words: Algorithm, plane section, DERIVE, moments, center of gravity

  1. Subvenciones para instituciones Directrices para gastos de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    División de Administración de Subvenciones ... En la Parte 2 del Acuerdo de Subvención estándar de IDRC se incluyen los límites ... pagar los costos de sustitución (tiempo libre para personal académico) de los investigadores principales.

  2. Calculation of absorbed dose for skin contamination imparted by beta radiation through the VARSKIN modified code for 122 interesting isotopes for nuclear medicine, nuclear power plants and research; Calculo de dosis absorbida para contaminacion en piel impartida por radiacion beta mediante el codigo VARSKIN modificado para 122 isotopos de interes para medicina nuclear, plantas nucleares e investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T [Depto. de Metrologia, ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1991-07-01

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the VARSKIN code for calculation of absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by Beta emitting is presented. The modification consists on the inclusion of 47 isotopes of interest even Nuclear Plants for the dose evaluation in skin generated by 'hot particles'. The approach for to add these isotopes is the correlation parameter F and the average energy of the Beta particle, with relationship to those 75 isotopes of the original code. The methodology of the dose calculation of the VARSKIN code is based on the interpolation, (and integration of the interest geometries: punctual or plane sources), of the distribution functions scaled doses in water for beta and electrons punctual sources, tabulated by Berger. Finally a brief discussion of the results for their interpretation and use with purposes of radiological protection (dose insurance in relation to the considered biological effects) is presented.

  3. Calculation of the absorbed dose for contamination in skin imparted by beta radiation through the Varskin code modified for 122 isotopes of interest for nuclear medicine, nuclear plants and research; Calculo de dosis absorbida para contaminacion en piel impartida por radiacion beta mediante el codigo Varskin modificado para 122 isotopos de interes para medicina nuclear, plantas nucleares e investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J T

    1992-06-15

    In this work the implementation of a modification of the Varskin code for calculation of absorbed dose by contamination in skin imparted by external radiation fields generated by beta emitting is presented. The necessary data for the execution of the code are: isotope, dose depth, isotope activity, geometry type, source radio and time of integration of the isotope, being able to execute combinations of up to five radionuclides. This program it was implemented in Fortran 5 by means of the FFSKIN source program and the executable one in binary language BFFSKIN being the maximum execution time of 5 minutes. (Author)

  4. Blind method of clustering for the evaluation of the dose received by personnel in two methods of administration of radiopharmaceuticals; Metodo ciego de clusterizacion para la evaluacion de la dosis recibida por el personal en dos metodos de administracion de radioformacos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VerdeVelasco, J. M.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, M.; Montes Fuentes, C.; Verde Velasco, J.; Gonzalez Blanco, F. J.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    The difficulty for the injection of drugs marked with radioactive isotopes while syringe is located within the lead protector does that in many cases staff do it chooses to use the syringe outside the lead protector, increasing therefore the dose of radiation received. In our service raises the possibility of using a different methodology, channeling a pathway through a catheter, which allows administer, in all cases, with the syringe within the lead guard. We will check if significant differences can be seen both in the dose absorbed by the staff as in the time it takes to perform the administration of the drug using the method proposed compared injection without guard. (Author)

  5. ELABORACIÓN DE CRITERIOS E INDICADORES PARA DESARROLLAR Y EVALUAR PROGRAMAS DE ENVEJECIMIENTO SALUDABLE EN LOS LUGARES DE TRABAJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Mateo Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos:En el actual contexto poblacional de envejecimiento dela población y prolongación de la vida laboral, los programas de promociónde salud en el trabajo son una herramienta clave y necesaria para promoverun envejecimiento activo y saludable. El objetivo fue elaborar una herra-mienta tipo lista de verificación para orientar la planificación, implemen-tación y evaluación de buenas prácticas en intervenciones en este ámbito,aplicables a una variedad de programas, países y centros de trabajo.Métodos:Se utilizó una técnica Delphi en tres rondas en la que parti-ciparon expertos/as de cinco países europeos. Se elaboró un cuestionario enlínea a partir de una lista de criterios e indicadores y, empleando el correoelectrónico, se trabajó durante las sucesivas rondas en su adaptación a laevaluación de intervenciones. Mediante procesos de valoración y consenso,se priorizaron los criterios e indicadores más relevantes.Resultados:Partiendo de nueve criterios basales se priorizaron cuatrocriterios clave cuyas puntuaciones medias fueron: relevancia: 62, adecua-ción al objetivo: 57, innovación: 50 y garantía de calidad: 41. Utilizandoesta matriz de criterios e indicadores se diseñó una lista de verificación conla información clave que debe recogerse a la hora de planificar, implementary evaluar buenas prácticas en las intervenciones.Conclusiones:La lista de verificación ayuda a sistematizar la metodo-logía global de implantación de intervenciones que puede ser utilizada porresponsables de los programas para promover el envejecimiento activo ysaludable en los centros de trabajo.

  6. Computational package for the dynamic analysis of synchronous generators and their controls; Paquete computacional para el analisis de generadores sincronos y sus controles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Guillen, Jesus Artemio

    1997-12-31

    conjunto de simuladores de los elementos que integran el subsistema de generacion. El desarrollo de la interfaz grafica se realizo con programacion orientada a objetos utilizando la libreria de clases para aplicaciones en medio ambiente Windows, proporcionada por el compilador de Borland C++, generando un conjunto de menus y ventanas de dialogos que integran un medio ambiente de simulacion interactivo y versatil. El paquete contiene modelos matermaticos de tercero, cuarto, quinto y sexto orden para generadores sincronos de polos lisos y polos salientes; incluye los modelos matematicos de los sistemas de excitacion DC1A, AC1A y ST1A de la clasificacion del IEEE; modelos de turbinas termica e hidraulica con gobernador de velocidad; se incluye un modelo matematico para el estabilizador de sistema de potencia y los efectos de la saturacion magnetica en los generadores sincronos. La solucion de las ecuaciones diferenciales puede realizarse por cuatro metodos de integracion numerica. Euler, Euler mejorado y Runge Kutta de segundo y cuarto orden. Tambien se incluyen algoritmos para la generacion grafica del diagrama fasorial, curva de capacidad y curva de saturacion de la maquina sincrona. Se presentan resultados de simulaciones para verificar la influencia en la respuesta dinamica del sistema de los metodos numericos de integracion, del modelado de la maquina sincrona, de los sistemas de excitacion, del estabilizador del sistema de potencia y de la saturacion magnetica del generador sincrono. Con la integracion de la interfaz grafica, el conjunto de simuladores para los distintos elementos del sistema de generacion de potencia indicados y el conjunto de herramientas de analisis grafico se obtiene un paquete de computo que puede ser util para la ensenanza e investigacion de la dinamica de los generadores sincronos y sus controles.

  7. Gasification of heavy fuels to produce electrical energy and hydrogen; Gasificacion de combustibles pesados para producir energia electrica e hidrogeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Garcia, Oscar Alberto [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico(UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    integrado (CCGI). El segundo, examina la incorporacion de un reactor shift en el cual el gas de sintesis se transforma en CO{sub 2} y H{sub 2} el cual se usa para mover la turbina a gas, adaptada para hidrogeno puro. Finalmente se estudia la cantidad de otros subproductos que se pueden obtener de estos ciclos de cogeneracion tales como CO{sub 2} para ser usado en recuperacion secundaria de pozos petroleros, N{sub 2} para ser usado en la industria de fertilizantes o en la propia produccion petrolera y H{sub 2} para ser usado en la industria petroquimica o en la generacion con celdas de combustible. Todos los casos son estudiados en forma cuantitativa, realizando los balances de masa y energia de cada uno de ellos. Para darle mas sentido practico a los calculos, se han tomado como base los datos tecnicos de la Central Valladolid de Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Este articulo proporciona una idea basica, pero muy practica, para estimar el consumo de combustible de los diferentes modos de arreglo de una central CCGI, asi como los volumenes de los diferentes gases que se pueden producir y las modificaciones al tamano de los equipos que se requieren.

  8. Oro para Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Forero, María Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Las mujeres han debido atravesar un largo camino partiendo de la discriminación hasta empezar un proceso de equidad en la sociedad y en el deporte, de esta manera llegar a ser parte de un evento como los Juegos Olímpicos. Esta tesis toma el caso de tres atletas colombianas y describe su proceso de formación para lograr dos medallas de oro para el país.

  9. Estrategias para negociaciones exitosas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Parra V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de negociación son herramientas para disminuir conflictos o para intercambiar bienes y servicios. Una negociación exitosa crea relaciones de solidaridad y propicia reciprocidad, cooperación y confianza para quienes tendrán relaciones permanentes de negociación con beneficios para ambas partes. Una estrategia de negociación exitosa requiere manejar el desarrollo del ambiente social del grupo de personas, con la finalidad de tener presente las fronteras que no pueden irrumpirse. Otro aspecto importante, es el lenguaje corporal utilizado por las personas y las tácticas que se practican. El manejo de esta información permite diseñar diferentes modelos de negociaciones para cada caso específico. Este documento propone la utilización de la herramienta MONACO, diseñada por los autores, que es un software útil para encontrar los mejores tácticas posibles dentro de una negociación; basándose en el lenguaje corporal que muestra el negociante oponente durante cada oferta monetaria. El uso de este software da al negociador la oportunidad de manejar las negociaciones con mayor control, el negociador que usa el software puede elegir una estrategia de acuerdo a las relaciones que espera mantener con el negociador oponente.

  10. Avaliação da composição corporal em adolescentes obesos: o uso de dois diferentes métodos Evaluación de la composición corporal en adolescentes obesos: uso de dos metodos diferentes Body composition evaluation in obese adolescents: the use of two different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio de Mello

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A pletismografia é um método rápido e fácil para determinação da composição corporal que utiliza a relação inversa entre pressão e volume. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de comparar os valores obtidos com o método pletismografia com os valores observados com o DEXA em uma população de adolescentes obesos. Participaram da amostra 88 adolescentes pós-púberes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 15 e 19 anos (17,01 ± 1,6 ingressantes de um programa de atividade física multidisciplinar. Os voluntários foram submetidos a uma avaliação da composição corporal em dias distintos dentro da mesma semana, pelo método de pletismografia e outra avaliação pelo método DEXA. Quando os métodos foram comparados, não se observaram diferenças significativas entre eles; além disso, foram observadas correlações significativas entre os parâmetros comuns dos dois métodos (massa magra, massa gorda (kg e massa gorda (%, r = 0,88 p La pletismografía es un método rápido y fácil para la determinación de la composición corporal que utiliza la relación inversa entre la presión y el volumen. El objetivo del presente estudio fué el de comparar los valores obtenidos con el metodo pletismografia con los valores observados con el DEXA en una población de adolescentes obesos. Participaron de la muestra 80 adolescentes post púberes de ambos sexos, con edades entre los 15 y los 19 años (17,01±1,6 iniciantes en un programa de actividad física multidisciplinar. Los voluntarios fueron sometidos a una evaluación de la composición corporal en días distintos dentro de la misma semana, por el método de pletismografia y otra evaluación por el método DEXA. Cuando se compararon los métodos, no fueron observadas diferencias significativas entre ellos, además de ello, fueron observadas correlaciones entre los parámetros comunes a los dos métodos (masa magra, masa grasa (kg y masa gorda (%, r = 0,88 p Plethysmography is an easy and

  11. Guía para la certificación de servicios diagnósticos de trastornos del sueño en Colombia. (Incluye estándares para Servicios Pediátricos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Londono Palacio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: INTRODUCCIÓN: La Asociación Colombiana de Sociedades Científicas (ACSC; convocó al Grupo de Investigación Transdisciplinario en Trastornos del Sueño (GITTS, conformado por la Asociación Colombiana de Medicina del Sueño (ACMES, la Asociación Colombiana de Medicina Interna (ACMI® - Médicos para adultos, la Asociación Colombiana de Neumología y Cirugía de Tórax (Asoneumocito, la Asociación Colombiana de Neurología (ACN, la Asociación Colombiana de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía Plástica Facial (ACORL y la Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría (ACP para que elaboraran un documento con el cual se estableciera una normatividad para la certificación voluntaria de los servicios que estudian los trastornos del sueño en Colombia. Se busca que este proceso fomente la excelencia en el diagnóstico de los trastornos del sueño. OBJETIVOS: El proceso busca definir los estándares mínimos para los servicios diagnósticos de medicina del sueño en Colombia. Aunque riguroso, el proceso ha de ser “amigable para el usuario”. Se propone a la ACMES como ente evaluador. MATERIALES Y METODOS: El proceso evalúa la organización y administración de los servicios; los empleados y la dirección; las políticas y los procedimientos; la educación y el desarrollo del personal; las instalaciones y los equipos; y el aseguramiento de la calidad. El enfoque general estuvo influenciado por programas establecidos y adoptados en otros países. Se espera que la consistencia con las guías internacionales disminuya la cantidad de trabajo necesaria para preparar la aplicación para los servicios que ya estén involucrados en los procedimientos de certificación (ej. certificación de hospitales y esto ayude a preparar el camino para la certificación en sueño. La primera fase del proceso incluye contestar un cuestionario detallado designado para evaluar qué tan preparado está el servicio para ser certificado. La autoevaluación es una

  12. Algorithms for the evaluation of the reliability of networks and substations; Algoritmos para evaluar la confiabilidad de redes y subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    Two algorithms are presented, one for analyzing the reliability of networks and another one to analyzing the reliability of electrical substations. The algorithms model a network or a substation by means of a graph and determine all the exits, of up to third degree, which isolates the load points. The algorithm that is used for the network analysis, is the one of p-cuts and in the case of the substations it is the one of minimum ways, for later, from these minimum p-cuts and of the minimum ways, obtains the minimum cuts. These minimum cuts are evaluated with the approximate method and give as a result the system reliability and of each one of the components that have been modeled. At the end some examples and results obtained are shown. As case of study, the algorithm is applied to two substations arrangements and to a network of industrial distribution, but it is possible to be applied to transmission and distribution networks. [Spanish] Se presentan dos algoritmos, uno para analizar la confiabilidad de redes y otro para analizar la confiabilidad de subestaciones electricas. Los algoritmos modelan una red o una subestacion por medio de un grafo y determinan todas las salidas, de hasta tercer grado, que aislan los puntos de carga. El algoritmo que se utiliza para el analisis de redes, es el de p-cortes y en el caso de las subestaciones es el de caminos minimos, para despues, a partir de estos p-cortes minimos y de los caminos minimos, obtener los cortes minimos. Estos cortes minimos se evaluan con el metodo aproximado y dan como resultado la confiabilidad del sistema y de cada una de las componentes que se hayan modelado. Al final se muestran algunos ejemplos y resultados obtenidos. Como caso de estudio, el algoritmo se aplica a dos arreglos de subestaciones y a una red de distribucion industrial, pero se puede aplicar a redes de transmision y de distribucion.

  13. Methodology for evaluating the grounding system in electrical substations; Metodologia para la evaluacion del sistema de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrelles Rivas, L.F [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica: Antonio Jose de Sucre (UNEXPO), Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: torrellesluis@gmail.com; Alvarez, P. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: alvarezph@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    The present work proposes a methodology for evaluating grounding systems in electrical substations from medium and high voltage, in order to diagnose the state of the elements of the grounding system and the corresponding electrical variables. The assessment methodology developed includes a visual inspection phase to the elements of the substation. Then, by performing measurements and data analysis, the electrical continuity between the components of the substation and the mesh ground is verified, the soil resistivity and resistance of the mesh. Also included in the methodology the calculation of the step and touch voltage of the substation, based on the criteria of the International IEEE standards. We study the case of the 115 kV Pirital Substation belonging to PDVSA Oriente Transmission Network. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea una metodologia para la evaluacion de sistemas de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas de media y alta tension, con la finalidad de diagnosticar el estado de los elementos que conforman dicho sistema y las variables electricas correspondientes. La metodologia de evaluacion desarrollada incluye una fase de inspeccion visual de los elementos que conforman la subestacion. Luego, mediante la ejecucion de mediciones y analisis de datos, se verifica la continuidad electrica entre los componentes de la subestacion y la malla de puesta a tierra, la resistividad del suelo y resistencia de la malla. Se incluye tambien en la metodologia el calculo de las tensiones de paso y de toque de la subestacion, segun lo fundamentado en los criterios de los estandares Internacionales IEEE. Se estudia el caso de la Subestacion Pirital 115 kV perteneciente a la Red de Transmision de PDVSA Oriente.

  14. Metodo de quantificação de nucleotideos por HPLC-MS/MS e avaliação da atividade de analogos de sildenafil sobre fosfodiesterase

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Lorenzetti

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: No presente trabalho foi padronizado um novo método para a dosagem da atividade de fosfodiesterase in vitro, por HPLC-MS/MS. Este novo método conseguiu apresentar exatidão, precisão, sensibilidade e rapidez nas análises; monitorando os nucleotídeos (AMP, GMP, AMPc e GMPc). O desenvolvimento de novos fármacos derivados de um protótipo aponta para a obtenção de moléculas com um melhor perfil farmacocinético ou uma melhor relação estrutura-atividade. Atualmente o sildenafil é considerad...

  15. Tiempo para un cambio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltjer, L.

    1987-06-01

    En la reunion celebrada en diciembre dei ano pasado informe al Consejo de mi deseo de terminar mi contrato como Director General de la ESO una vez que fuera aprobado el proyecto dei VLT, que se espera sucedera hacia fines de este aAo. Cuando fue renovada mi designacion hace tres aAos, el Consejo conocia mi intencion de no completar los cinco aAos dei contrato debido a mi deseo de disponer de mas tiempo para otras actividades. Ahora, una vez terminada la fase preparatoria para el VLT, Y habiendose presentado el proyecto formalmente al Consejo el dia 31 de marzo, y esperando su muy probable aprobacion antes dei termino de este ano, me parece que el 10 de enero de 1988 presenta una excelente fecha para que se produzca un cambio en la administracion de la ESO.

  16. Origin identification for Cantona, Puebla, obsidians by the analysis method of neutron activation (NAA); Identificacion de procedencia para obsidianas de Cantona, Puebla, por el metodo de analisis por activacion neutronica (AAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez N, A. L.

    2013-07-01

    There are tests that most of the obsidian worked in the workshops of Cantona, Puebla, is coming from the mineral deposits of Oyameles-Zaragoza, but also has been detected obsidian that macroscopically belongs to other mineral deposits. The present work has as purpose to determine the provenance of an obsidian sample obtained in the Cantona Site to know if there was the presence of obsidian of other mineral deposits. For the study the neutron activation analysis was used to identify the presence of other deposits. An explanation on the treatment to the selected pieces is included, the preparation of the same ones for its irradiation in the nuclear reactor, the counting and statistical study of the results. Finally the results of the selected samples are presented, indicating their origin places, that time comes and the interpretation of the results is given. (Author)

  17. Radioimmunoassay method for measurement of plasma androstenedione. Its validation in ovulatory women and in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome; Metodo de radioimunoensaio para medida da androstenediona plasmatica. Validacao em mulheres ovulatorias e com sindrome dos ovarios policisticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova Socorro Veras, Maria do; Silva e Rosa, Alzira Amelia; Moura, Marcos Dias de; Ferriano, Rui Alberto; Sa, Marcos Felipe Silva de [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1995-01-01

    The present paper has as objective the standardization of a radioimmunoassay method for measurement of androstenedione. Ethyl ether was used for plasma extraction. The sensitivity of the method was 6,8 pg/tube; the reproducibility (inter assay error) was 15,6%; the precision (intrassay error) was 5,2%. As biological control, 20 ovulatory women showed median plasma values of 1250 pg/ml and 24 women with polycystic ovary syndrome presented median plasma values of 2.037 pg/ml. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Analytical Evaluation to Determine Selected PAHs in a Contaminated Soil With Type II Fuel; Metodo Optimizado de Extraccion por Ultrasonidos para la Determinacion de PAHs Seleccionados en un Suelo Contaminado con Fuel de Tipo II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Alonso, S.; Perez Pastor, R. M.; Sevillano Castano, M. L.; Garcia Frutos, F. J.

    2010-10-21

    A study on the optimization of an ultrasonic extraction method for selected PAHs determination in soil contaminated by type II fuel and by using HPLC with fluorescence detector is presented. The main objective was optimize the analytical procedure, minimizing the volume of solvent and analysis time and avoiding possible loss by evaporation. This work was carried out as part of a project that investigated a remediation process of agricultural land affected by an accidental spillage of fuel (Plan Nacional I + D + i, CTM2007-64 537). The paper is structured as: Optimization of wavelengths in the chromatographic conditions to improve resolution in the analysis of fuel samples. Optimization of the main parameters affecting in the extraction process by sonication. Comparison of results with those obtained by accelerated solvent extraction. (Author) 3 refs.

  19. Study of the precision and trueness of the Brazilian method for ethanol and gasoline determination; Estudo da precisao e exatidao do metodo brasileiro para determinacao de etanol e gasolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchini, Ricardo R.; Hinata, Patricia [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gioseffi, Carla S.; Franco, Joao B.S. [Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo, Gas e Biocombustiveis (IBP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Cristina R.; Torres, Eduardo S. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The determination of repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations of an analytical method, s{sub r} and s{sub R}, obtained by Interlaboratory program, makes it possible to calculate many kinds of precision limits of the method, which are needed in every laboratory's routine result comparisons and also in between-laboratories comparisons. This paper presents the results of the first interlaboratory trial, accomplished in the Brazilian petroleum sector, performed to define the trueness and precision of the Brazilian standard method for the determination of fuel anhydrous ethylic alcohol content in gasoline, that was performed by 34 experienced laboratories. The r and R values were 0,7 and 2,3 and main factors that would improve and optimize the method are presented. (author)

  20. Use of radioanalytical methods for determination of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes in radioactive wastes; Utilizacao de metodos radioanaliticos para a determinacao de isotopos de uranio, plutonio, americio e curio em rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca

    2012-07-01

    Activated charcoal is a common type of radioactive waste that contains high concentrations of fission and activation products. The management of this waste includes its characterization aiming the determination and quantification of the specific radionuclides including those known as Difficult-to-Measure Radionuclides (RDM). The analysis of the RDM's generally involves complex radiochemical analysis for purification and separation of the radionuclides, which are expensive and time-consuming. The objective of this work was to define a methodology for sequential analysis of the isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium present in a type of radioactive waste, evaluating chemical yield, analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost. Three methodologies were compared and validated that employ ion exchange (TI + EC), extraction chromatography (EC) and extraction with polymers (ECP). The waste chosen was the activated charcoal from the purification system of primary circuit water cooling the reactor IEA-R1. The charcoal samples were dissolved by acid digestion followed by purification and separation of isotopes with ion exchange resins, extraction and chromatographic extraction polymers. Isotopes were analyzed on an alpha spectrometer, equipped with surface barrier detectors. The chemical yields were satisfactory for the methods TI + EC and EC. ECP method was comparable with those methods only for uranium. Statistical analysis as well the analysis of time spent, amount of secondary waste generated and cost revealed that EC method is the most effective for identifying and quantifying U, Np, Pu, Am and Cm present in charcoal. (author)

  1. Reshaping of computational system for dosimetry in neutron and photons radiotherapy based in stochastic methods - SISCODES; Remodelagem do sistema computacional para dosimetria em radioterapia por neutrons e fotons baseado em metodos estocasticos - SISCODES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Bruno Machado

    2011-02-15

    This work shows the remodeling of the Computer System for Dosimetry of Neutrons and Photons in Radiotherapy Based on Stochastic Methods . SISCODES. The initial description and status, the alterations and expansions (proposed and concluded), and the latest system development status are shown. The SISCODES is a system that allows the execution of a 3D computational planning in radiation therapy, based on MCNP5 nuclear particle transport code. The SISCODES provides tools to build a patient's voxels model, to define a treatment planning, to simulate this planning, and to view the results of the simulation. The SISCODES implements a database of tissues, sources and nuclear data and an interface to access then. The graphical SISCODES modules were rewritten or were implemented using C++ language and GTKmm library. Studies about dose deviations were performed simulating a homogeneous water phantom as analogue of the human body in radiotherapy planning and a heterogeneous voxel phantom, pointing out possible dose miscalculations. The Soft-RT and PROPLAN computer codes that do interface with SISCODES are described. A set of voxels models created on the SISCODES are presented with its respective sizes and resolutions. To demonstrate the use of SISCODES, examples of radiation therapy and dosimetry simulations for prostate and heart are shown. Three protocols were simulated on the heart voxel model: Sm-153 filled balloon and P-32 stent, to prevent angioplasty restenosis; and Tl-201 myocardial perfusion, to imaging. Teletherapy with 6MV and 15MV beams were simulated to the prostate, and brachytherapy with I-125 seeds. The results of these simulations are shown on isodose curves and on dose-volume histograms. The SISCODES shows to be a useful tool for research of new radiation therapy treatments and, in future, can also be useful in medical practice. At the end, future improvements are proposed. I hope this work can contribute to develop more effective radiation therapy treatments. (author)

  2. Solution of the transport equation in stationary state, in one and two dimensions, for BWR assemblies using nodal methods; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte en estado estacionario, en 1 y 2 dimensiones, para ensambles tipo BWR usando metodos nodales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, J V

    2002-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to solve the neutron transport equation in one and two dimensions (slab geometry and X Y geometry, respectively), with no time dependence, for BWR assemblies using nodal methods. In slab geometry, the nodal methods here used are the polynomial continuous (CMPk) and discontinuous (DMPk) families but only the Linear Continuous (also known as Diamond Difference), the Quadratic Continuous (QC), the Cubic Continuous (CC), the Step Discontinuous (also known as Backward Euler), the Linear Discontinuous (LD) and the Quadratic Discontinuous (QD) were considered. In all these schemes the unknown function, the angular neutron flux, is approximated as a sum of basis functions in terms of Legendre polynomials, associated to the values of the neutron flux in the edges (left, right, or both) and the Legendre moments in the cell, depending on the nodal scheme used. All these schemes were implemented in a computer program developed in previous thesis works and known with the name TNX. This program was modified for the purposes of this work. The program discreetizes the domain of concern in one dimension and determines numerically the angular neutron flux for each point of the discretization when the number of energy groups and regions are known starting from an initial approximation for the angular neutron flux being consistent with the boundary condition imposed for a given problem. Although only problems with two-energy groups were studied the computer program does not have limitations regarding the number of energy groups and the number of regions. The two problems analyzed with the program TNX have practically the same characteristics (fuel and water), with the difference that one of them has a control rod. In the part corresponding to two-dimensional problems, the implemented nodal methods were those designated as hybrids that consider not only the edge and cell Legendre moments, but also the values of the neutron flux in the corner points. In this geometry nodal, continuous and discontinuous schemes were used. For the continuos schemes, only the Bi Quadratic (BiQ) and the Bi Cubic (BiC) were considered. In the case of the discontinuous ones two nodal schemes were considered, namely the Discontinuous Bi Linear (DBiL) and Discontinuous Bi Quadratic (DBiQ). The nodal schemes applied use from 4 up to 16 interpolation parameters per cell. These schemes are-defined for a set D{sub c} of interpolation parameters and a polynomial space S{sub h} corresponding to each one of the nodal schemes considered. All these four nodal hybrid schemes were implemented in a computer program called TNHXY starting from the computer program TNXY developed in previous thesis works. Several subroutines wae added to calculate the average neutron flux for each cell and for each energy group, generating two versions, one for the continuous schemes and one for the discontinuous schemes. For this geometry, two benchmark problems of the ANL-7416 document were analyzed. They are 7x7 BWR fuel assemblies, one without control rod and the other one with control rod. The computer program was also applied to a MOX assembly proposed by the Nuclear Energy Agency and it is considered as a reference problem. The results obtained for the one-dimensional problems using TNX for the effective multiplication factor were compared with the ones obtained with the code ANISN/PC. TNX code shows a faster convergence within four significant figures for the case with no control rod and three significant figures for the case with control rod (using double precision). These results suggest TNX is a very useful tool for this kind of calculations. For X Y geometry, the results obtained with TNHXY were compared with those calculated with the code TWOTRAN. To get these results, several spatial (1x1, 2x2, 4x4 per cell) and angular meshes (S{sub 2}, S{sub 4}, S{sub 6}, and S{sub 8}) were used. The results for the problem with no control rod were practically the same as those obtained with TWOTRAN using the scheme DBiL that is the simplest one. The results for the other three schemes are practically the same, except for differences in the fourth or fifth significant figure. For the MOX assembly, the results obtained for k{sub eff} with TNHXY were compared with the values obtained with the codes HELIOS, MCNP4B/ENDF-VI and CPM-3. The results obtained with TNHXY are comparable with those reported with the other codes. Particularly, when k{sub eff} values obtained with TNHXY are compared with those obtained with MCNP-4B/ENDF-VI the error was less than 0.5%. Finally, the cross sections used in TNHXY were obtained with the code HELIOS. (Author)

  3. Clinic implementation of method Zacarias for the correction of errors of convergence of optimization of IMRT in lung; Implementacion clinica del metodo Zacarias para la correccion de errores de convergencia de optimizacion en la IMRT en pulmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Perez, E.; Molina Lopez, M. Y.; Ruiz Maqueda, S.; Castro Novais, J.; Counago Lorenzo, F.

    2013-07-01

    The implemented procedure is acceptable per a unit of radiophysic since it does not increase planning time in more than 30 - 45 minutes. Plans thus obtained show an improvement in dosimetric parameters for a small increase in the complexity of the plan, without appreciable increase risk organ doses. (Author)

  4. Development of a new technic for breast attenuation correction in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using computational methods; Desenvolvimento de uma nova tecnica para correcao da atenuacao por tecidos moles em cintilografia de perfusao miocardica utilizando metodos computacionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Anderson de

    2015-07-01

    Introduction: One of the limitations of nuclear medicine studies are false-positive results that lead to unnecessary exams and procedures associated to morbidity and costs to the individual and society. One of the most frequent causes for reducing the specificity of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is photon attenuation, especially by breast in women. Objective: To develop a new technique to compensate the photon attenuation by women breasts in myocardial perfusion imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, using computational methods. Materials and methods: A procedure was proposed which integrates Monte Carlo simulation, computational methods and experimental techniques. Initially, were obtained the chest attenuation correction percentages using a phantom Jaszczak and breast attenuation percentages by Monte Carlo simulation method, using the EGS4 program. The percentages of attenuation correction were linked to individual patients' characteristics by an artificial neural network and a multivariate analysis. A preliminary technical validation was done by comparing the results of the MPI and catheterism (CAT), before and after applying the technique to 4 patients. The t test for parametric data, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and X{sup 2} for the others were used. Probability values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Each increment of 1 cm in the thickness of breast was associated to an average increment of 6% on photon attenuation, while the maximum increase related to breast composition was about 2%. The average chest attenuation percentage per unit was 2.9%. Both, the artificial neural network and linear regression, showed an error less than 3% as predictive models for percentage of female attenuation. The anatomical-functional correlation between MPI and CAT was maintained after the use of the technique. Conclusion: Results suggest that the proposed technique is promising and could be a possible alternative to other conventional methods employed today. (author)

  5. A new method for verification of IMRT treatments on patient geometry files using DYNALOG; Un metodo para la verficacion de tratamientos de IMRT sobre la geometria del paciente utilizando los archivos Dynalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infante Utrilla, M. A.; Calama Santiago, J. A.; Lavado Rodriguez, M. E.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to implement a novel method of verification of IMRT treatments, using this information to reconstruct the flow in the scheduler and calculate the dose, comparing dose distributions in 2D and 3D histograms obtained with the initials. This procedure lacks the limitations and uncertainties of the dosimetric detectors used in the verification of model (ionization chamber, film, etc..) Or ILD, also allowing to quantify the differences on the patient.

  6. Comparative analysis between P1 and B1 equations for neutron moderation; Analise comparativa entre os metodos de obtencao e das solucoes das equacoes P1 e B1 para moderacao de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Cardoso, Carlos Eduardo Santos [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2000-07-01

    In order to calculate the neutron flux in nuclear reactors, B1 or P1 equations are solved by numerical methods for several groups of energy. The neutron fluxes obtained from the solutions of the B1 and P1 equations are similar when they are applied to large nuclear power reactors. However, an important difference between the two fluxes is that the system of P1 equations uses one more approximation than the B1 system and then, its flux is less precise. The present work shows the relations between both equations and analyzes for what conditions the two equations systems are equivalent. Furthermore, this equations are numerically solved in 54 groups of energy for a quadrangular arrange. (author)

  7. Irradiation alternative method of manganese sulfate solution by a Pu-Be source for efficiency measurements; Metodo alternativo de irradiacao da solucao de sulfato de manganes por uma fonte de Pu-Be para medicoes de eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fellipe Souza da; Martins, Marcelo Marques; Pereira, Walsan Wagner, E-mail: fellipess@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This study intends to create an alternative irradiation system from a Plutonium-Beryllium source for manganese sulphate solution using the Monte Carlo code. Thus seeking to eliminate the issue of institutes that do not have reactors or particle accelerators in its infrastructure, in order to optimize and provide independence for them to carry out efficiency measurements of MnSO{sub 4} solution in their own locality. The Monte Carlo simulations defined the technical features of this new system so that the solution reaches the maximum neutron capture by manganese in solution. (author)

  8. Solution of the transport equation in stationary state, in one and two dimensions, for BWR assemblies using nodal methods; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte en estado estacionario, en 1 y 2 dimensiones, para ensambles tipo BWR usando metodos nodales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolocostli M, J.V

    2002-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to solve the neutron transport equation in one and two dimensions (slab geometry and X Y geometry, respectively), with no time dependence, for BWR assemblies using nodal methods. In slab geometry, the nodal methods here used are the polynomial continuous (CMPk) and discontinuous (DMPk) families but only the Linear Continuous (also known as Diamond Difference), the Quadratic Continuous (QC), the Cubic Continuous (CC), the Step Discontinuous (also known as Backward Euler), the Linear Discontinuous (LD) and the Quadratic Discontinuous (QD) were considered. In all these schemes the unknown function, the angular neutron flux, is approximated as a sum of basis functions in terms of Legendre polynomials, associated to the values of the neutron flux in the edges (left, right, or both) and the Legendre moments in the cell, depending on the nodal scheme used. All these schemes were implemented in a computer program developed in previous thesis works and known with the name TNX. This program was modified for the purposes of this work. The program discreetizes the domain of concern in one dimension and determines numerically the angular neutron flux for each point of the discretization when the number of energy groups and regions are known starting from an initial approximation for the angular neutron flux being consistent with the boundary condition imposed for a given problem. Although only problems with two-energy groups were studied the computer program does not have limitations regarding the number of energy groups and the number of regions. The two problems analyzed with the program TNX have practically the same characteristics (fuel and water), with the difference that one of them has a control rod. In the part corresponding to two-dimensional problems, the implemented nodal methods were those designated as hybrids that consider not only the edge and cell Legendre moments, but also the values of the neutron flux in the corner points. In this geometry nodal, continuous and discontinuous schemes were used. For the continuos schemes, only the Bi Quadratic (BiQ) and the Bi Cubic (BiC) were considered. In the case of the discontinuous ones two nodal schemes were considered, namely the Discontinuous Bi Linear (DBiL) and Discontinuous Bi Quadratic (DBiQ). The nodal schemes applied use from 4 up to 16 interpolation parameters per cell. These schemes are-defined for a set D{sub c} of interpolation parameters and a polynomial space S{sub h} corresponding to each one of the nodal schemes considered. All these four nodal hybrid schemes were implemented in a computer program called TNHXY starting from the computer program TNXY developed in previous thesis works. Several subroutines wae added to calculate the average neutron flux for each cell and for each energy group, generating two versions, one for the continuous schemes and one for the discontinuous schemes. For this geometry, two benchmark problems of the ANL-7416 document were analyzed. They are 7x7 BWR fuel assemblies, one without control rod and the other one with control rod. The computer program was also applied to a MOX assembly proposed by the Nuclear Energy Agency and it is considered as a reference problem. The results obtained for the one-dimensional problems using TNX for the effective multiplication factor were compared with the ones obtained with the code ANISN/PC. TNX code shows a faster convergence within four significant figures for the case with no control rod and three significant figures for the case with control rod (using double precision). These results suggest TNX is a very useful tool for this kind of calculations. For X Y geometry, the results obtained with TNHXY were compared with those calculated with the code TWOTRAN. To get these results, several spatial (1x1, 2x2, 4x4 per cell) and angular meshes (S{sub 2}, S{sub 4}, S{sub 6}, and S{sub 8}) were used. The results for the problem with no control rod were practically the same as those obtained with TWOTRAN using the scheme DBiL that is the simplest one. The results for th

  9. An multi objective heuristic method for calculating the performance of distribution network with distributed generators; Um metodo heuristico multi-objetivo para calcular o desempenho de redes de distribuicao com geradores distribuidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciric, Rade M.; Padilha, Antonio [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the allocation and the performance of the distributed generators installed in a electric power distribution network, and presents a investigation to determining the impacts of distributed generators integration in power systems and the distribution network global performance.

  10. Development of methods for the purification of {sup 67}Ga and {sup 68}Ga for biomolecules labeling; Desenvolvimento de metodos de purificacao do {sup 67}Ga e {sup 68}Ga para a marcacao de biomoleculas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Renata Ferreira

    2012-07-01

    For more than fifty years, the long-lived {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators have been in development, obtaining {sup 68}Ga without the need of having in house cyclotron, which is a considerable convenience for PET centers that have no nearby cyclotrons. {sup 68}Ga decays 89% by positron emission and low photon emission (1077 keV) and the physical half life of 67.7 minutes is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of low biomolecular weight substances like peptides and antibody fragments. Moreover, its established metallic chemistry allows it to be stably bound to the carrier peptide sequence via a suitable bifunctional chelator, such as DOTA. All these reasons together with the technology of PET/CT allowed advances in molecular imaging, in particular in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine diseases. However, the eluate from the commercial {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators still contains high levels of long lived {sup 68}Ge, besides other metallic impurities, which competes with {sup 68}Ga with a consequent reduction of the labeling yield of biomolecules, such as Fe{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}. Thus, the lower the amount of impurities in the eluate, the competition between the radiolabeled and unlabeled peptide by the receptor will be smaller and the quality of imaging will be better, a subsequent purification step is needed after the generator elution. The aim of this work is to evaluate different purifications methods of {sup 68}Ga to label biomolecules, with emphasis on the study of the chemical impurities contained in the eluate and to develop a new purification method. Several purification methods were studied. Many cationic resin were tested simulating the commercial process. {sup 68}Ga is adsorbed in cationic resin, which is not commercial available and eluted in acid/acetone solution. The use of minor particles of cationic resin AG50W-X4 (200-400 mesh) showed the best results. An innovate method was the extraction chromatography, which is based on the absorption of diisopropyl ether in XAD 16 and {sup 68}Ga recovery in deionized water. Although the results regarding to {sup 68}Ga recovery and the radiochemical separation between {sup 68}Ga and {sup 65}Zn were excellent, there was no reproducibility on the purification of metals. The most promising and innovative method was the {sup 68}Ga purification performed by cationic resin in basic media, which presented the best results, especially regarding the Zn reduction (98 {+-} 2)%, the chemical contaminant found in great abundance in {sup 68}Ga eluate. The total impurities reduction was (95 {+-} 4)%. The peptides DOTATOC/DOTATATE were labeled {sup 68}Ga in three different forms: purified {sup 68}Ga in basic solution, through solvent extraction and no purified {sup 68}Ga. The best result was achieved with DOTATATE labeling with purified {sup 68}Ga in basic media, proving the purification process efficiency. (author)

  11. Implementation of the e-learning method for technological research institutes utilization; Implantacao de metodos de ensino a distancia para uso em institutos de pesquisas tecnologicas utilizando como meio a internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Valderes Fernandes; Silva, Aucyone Augusto da; Rogero, Jose Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: valma@ecodigit.com.br

    2002-07-01

    The e-learning is a subject that is attracting all teaching institution at the present because the number of interested student is growing in the same proportion of communication technology facilities is getting more easy and low cost to be used. Most of universities and colleges are adapting their classes to on-line and a new market is growing very fast all around the world. Of course that these institutions are also worried about the quality of the online teaching materials and also methodologies used to delivery them. This paper will explore some models that are being used in online classes and also will present the contribution of this research in developing a new teaching model that will applied in the technological research institutions like IPEN/CNEN-SP. This model should be technical and economical self-sufficient and it is emphasized in the customers technological needs. The model's variables are interactivity levels with the technology, use of internet tools (chat, forum, discussion list), teacher and student relationship, knowledge evaluation, etc. (author)

  12. Implementation of a method for patient-specific IMRT treatment verification using dynalog files; Aplicacion de un metodo para la verificacion de tratamientos de imrt sobre la anatomia del paciente utilizando archivos dynalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calama Santiago, J. A.; Infante Utrilla, M. A.; Lavado Rodriguez, M. E.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to implement a simple method of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) verification on the patient anatomy using dynalog files. Monitor units (MU) fraction and leaf positions, both planned and actually positioned during treatment, are sampled every 55 ms and stored in these files. This information was used in the treatment planning system to reconstruct the given fluence and to recalculate the absorbed dose in the patients CT, comparing absorbed dose distributions and histograms with those initially planned. Differences mainly appeared in areas with high absorbed dose gradients at the beginning and at the end of the radiation fields. These differences were lower than 3% in absorbed dose for most cases. No significant differences were found on dose-volume histograms. With proper linac and multileaf collimator commissioning, and a more stringent linac, treatment planning and record and verify system quality assurance program, this procedure allows patient-specific IMRT treatment verification, unlike conventional methods. (Author) 15 refs.

  13. Optimization of the synthesis of a high specific activity 125{sup I}-labelled hapten for radioimmunoassays; Optimizacion de un metodo de preparacion de un radiohapteno-125''I para ria de alta actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suraez, C.; Paz, D.; Simon, M. A.; Romero del Hombrebueno, B.

    1994-07-01

    In this first report it is described the synthesis, separation and purification of the 2-radioiodinated histamine- I-labelled histamine by a mixed anhydride reaction. About 75% incorporation of I{sup -}125, from Na{sup 1}25I, was achieved with a molecular ratio of 1:1 mixed anhydride:histamine. The radiochemical purity of the conjugate by TLC was > 99% and its theoretical specific activity, 3850 {mu}Ci/{mu}g. Dissolved in ethanol and held at -20 degree centigree under darkness decomposition on storage didn't exceed 1% per month. (Author) 13 refs.

  14. Different seeds to solve the equations of stochastic point kinetics using the Euler-Maruyama method; Diferentes semillas para solucionar las ecuaciones de la cinetica puntual estocastica empleando el metodo de Euler-Maruyama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suescun D, D.; Oviedo T, M., E-mail: daniel.suescun@usco.edu.co [Universidad Surcolombiana, Av. Pastrana Borrero - Carrera 1, Neiva, Huila (Colombia)

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, a numerical study of stochastic differential equations that describe the kinetics in a nuclear reactor is presented. These equations, known as the stochastic equations of punctual kinetics they model temporal variations in neutron population density and concentrations of deferred neutron precursors. Because these equations are probabilistic in nature (since random oscillations in the neutrons and population of precursors were considered to be approximately normally distributed, and these equations also possess strong coupling and stiffness properties) the proposed method for the numerical simulations is the Euler-Maruyama scheme that provides very good approximations for calculating the neutron population and concentrations of deferred neutron precursors. The method proposed for this work was computationally tested for different seeds, initial conditions, experimental data and forms of reactivity for a group of precursors and then for six groups of deferred neutron precursors at each time step with 5000 Brownian movements per seed. In a paper reported in the literature, the Euler-Maruyama method was proposed, but there are many doubts about the reported values, in addition to not reporting the seed used, so in this work is expected to rectify the reported values. After taking the average of the different seeds used to generate the pseudo-random numbers the results provided by the Euler-Maruyama scheme will be compared in mean and standard deviation with other methods reported in the literature and results of the deterministic model of the equations of the punctual kinetics. This comparison confirms in particular that the Euler-Maruyama scheme is an efficient method to solve the equations of stochastic point kinetics but different from the values found and reported by another author. The Euler-Maruyama method is simple and easy to implement, provides acceptable results for neutron population density and concentration of deferred neutron precursors and is computationally efficient for obtaining solutions that minimize the problem of rigidity of the equations of the punctual stochastic kinetics at each step of time. (Author)

  15. Skyshine method for photons:comparison between theoretical approach and numerical simulation by Monte Carlo method; Skyshine para fotons: comparacao entre abordagem teorica e simulacao numerica pelo metodo de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, R.C.; Facure, A.; Santini, E.S. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ross@cnen.gov.br; afsoares@cnen.gov.br; esantini@cnen.gov.br; Silva, A.X. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: ademir@com.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    The skyshine method is commonly used to compute the dose around radiotherapy facilities, when the roof shielding is projected considering that there will be no occupancy upstairs. In these cases, there will be no need to have the usual 1,5-2,0 m thick ceiling, and the construction costs can be considerably reduced. The semi-empirical expression commonly used to compute these doses show a poor agreement with the experimental dose measurements found in the literature. In this paper the MCNP code was used to simulate the transport of photons in some radiotherapy rooms, with shielding projects approved by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), and whose roof shielding were designed according to the above-mentioned method. These simulations are then compared with the calculations presented in the shielding projects and a clear discrepancy is observed between both results. (author)

  16. Calibration of the identiFINDER detector for the iodine measurement in thyroid using the Monte Carlo method; Calibracion del detector identiFINDER para la medicion de yodo en tiroides utilizando el metodo Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos M, D.; Yera S, Y.; Lopez B, G. M.; Acosta R, N.; Vergara G, A., E-mail: dayana@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/ 41 y 47, Playa, 10600 La Habana (Cuba)

    2014-08-15

    This work is based on the determination of the detection efficiency of {sup 125}I and {sup 131}I in thyroid of the identiFINDER detector using the Monte Carlo method. The suitability of the calibration method is analyzed, when comparing the results of the direct Monte Carlo method with the corrected, choosing the latter because the differences with the real efficiency stayed below 10%. To simulate the detector their geometric parameters were optimized using a tomographic study, what allowed the uncertainties minimization of the estimates. Finally were obtained the simulations of the detector geometry-point source to find the correction factors to 5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm, and those corresponding to the detector-simulator arrangement for the method validation and final calculation of the efficiency, demonstrating that in the Monte Carlo method implementation if simulates at a greater distance than the used in the Laboratory measurements an efficiency overestimation can be obtained, while if simulates at a shorter distance this will be underestimated, so should be simulated at the same distance to which will be measured in the reality. Also, is achieved the obtaining of the efficiency curves and minimum detectable activity for the measurement of {sup 131}I and {sup 125}I. In general is achieved the implementation of the Monte Carlo methodology for the identiFINDER calibration with the purpose of estimating the measured activity of iodine in thyroid. This method represents an ideal way to replace the lack of patterns solutions and simulators assuring the capacities of the Internal Contamination Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones are always calibrated for the iodine measurement in thyroid. (author)

  17. Development of a method for the estimation of the useful life of the target in one helical; Desarrollo de un metodo para la estimacion de la vida util del target en una unidad de tomoterapia helicoidal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Aparicio, J. M.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Martin Rincon, C.; Perez Alvarez, M. E.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Saez Beltran, M.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Cons Perez, N.; Sena Espinel, E. de

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of this degradation and develop a method for the estimation of the duration of the life of the target independently used internally by the technical service. This can serve to plan the date of intervention when it comes to replace this component. (Author)

  18. Method of semi-automatic high precision potentiometric titration for characterization of uranium compounds; Metodo de titulacao potenciometrica de alta precisao semi-automatizado para a caracterizacao de compostos de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, Barbara Fernandes G.; Dias, Fabio C.; Barros, Pedro D. de; Araujo, Radier Mario S. de; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Silva, Jose Wanderley S. da, E-mail: barbara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.b, E-mail: pedrodio@ird.gov.b, E-mail: radier@ird.gov.b, E-mail: delgado@ird.gov.b, E-mail: wanderley@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    The method of high precision potentiometric titration is widely used in the certification and characterization of uranium compounds. In order to reduce the analysis and diminish the influence if the annalist, a semi-automatic version of the method was developed at the safeguards laboratory of the CNEN-RJ, Brazil. The method was applied with traceability guaranteed by use of primary standard of potassium dichromate. The standard uncertainty combined in the determination of concentration of total uranium was of the order of 0.01%, which is better related to traditionally methods used by the nuclear installations which is of the order of 0.1%

  19. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori via water for human consumption. Determination by means of the molecular method using PCR; Helicobacter pylori, su transmision a traves de las aguas para el consumo humano. Determinacion por metodo molecular con la PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amo, A. J.; Moreno, C.; Apraiz, D.; Catalan, V. [LABAQUA. Alicante (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    Helicobacter pylori is the cause of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcers and stomach cancer. Its natural reservoirs and transmission mechanisms are still little understood. The gastro-oral route-especially vomiting and regurgitation-is one transmission path, especially in young children and babies. It has been found in some patients saliva and dental plaque, which suggests a possible oral-oral contagion route. The discovery of H. Pylori human excrement points to a faecal-oral route as the main transmission pathway via water for human consumption. It is therefore important to develop detection methods such as isolation by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to effectively monitor this pathogen in human drinking water. (Author) 30 refs.

  20. Effect of synthesis method on the preparation of lanthanum chromite for using as ceramic pigment; Influencia do metodo de sintese na preparacao de cromita de lantanio para utilizacao como pigmento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, G.C.B.; Ferreira, K.M.B.; Pimentel, P.M., E-mail: gerbeson_dantas@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil); Melo, D.M.A.; Gomes, D.K.S.; Costa, A.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, LaCrO3 perovskites were synthesized by two synthesis methods, in order to compare these methods in function of microstructure and optical properties. The synthesis routes employed were a method that use gelatin as organic precursor and microwave assisted auto-combustion. The resulting powders were calcined at 800 ° C and 1000 ° C for obtaining the perovskite phase. Then, they were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM); UV-Visible spectroscopy and colorimetric analysis for color identification. No significant changes were observed in the powders synthesized by two routes. The oxides presented orthorhombic perovskite structure. The powders synthesized by the gelatin method were single phase. Chromite lanthanide presented grayish hue being darker in perovskites calcined at higher temperatures. (author)

  1. Analysis of uncertainties in a individualized method of estimation activity of {sup 1}31I for hyperthyroid patient; Analisis de incertidumbres en un metodo individualizado de estimacion de actividad de {sup 1}31I para el paciente hipertiroideo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orellana Salas, A.; Melgar Perez, J.; Arrocha Acevedo, J. F.

    2013-07-01

    The determination of the activity to prescribe the hyperthyroid patients presented difficult consideration uncertainties. The uncertainties associated with the experimental design can exceed 20%, so it should be valued to customize activity therapy of {sup 1}31 I. (Author)

  2. Conjugate view gamma camera method for measuring activity in 131{sup I} treatments; Metodo de la imagen conjugada para la cuantificacion de la actividad en tratamientos de 131{sup I}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero Sanz, R.; Placios, A. M.; Perez, D. M.; Tortosa Oliver, R.; Michel, R.

    2012-07-01

    A quantification method is developed to determine 131{sup I} activity and its associated uncertainty using regions of interest from gamma camera images. Inside a neck phantom, a known activity source is introduced to simulate thyroid remainders in thyroid differentiated cancer. The three parameters that define the accuracy of the method are: net count rates in ROI, the air calibration factor of the gamma camera and the attenuation correction factor. In order to obtain net count rates, four methods for background subtraction are tested. The best procedure to follow is based in two energy windows acquisitions, which gives an activity result of 47 {+-} 5 {mu}Ci Bq, in good agreement with the real activity value for the source, 46 {+-} 5 {mu}Ci. (Author) 12 refs.

  3. Method for determining the wedge angle from the daily measurements made with the measurement enabled devices DC6; Metodo para la determinacion del angulo de cuna a partir de las medidas diarias realizadas con el dispositio de medida QC6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Fraguela, E.; Suero Rodrigo, M. A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a method for determining the angle of the wedges virtual electron linear accelerator (ALE) Siemens Primus, from the daily measurements made with the measurement system PTW-QC6Plus and found to be sufficiently sensitive to determine variations of {+-} 1 of this parameter. In addition, we study the behavior statistically CUFLE angle over a year.

  4. A polynomial analytical method for one-group slab-geometry discrete ordinates heterogeneous problems; Metodo analitico de aproximacao polinomial para problemas de ordenadas discretas em geometria Cartesiana unidimensional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Andre Luiz do Carmo

    2008-07-01

    In this work we evaluate polynomial approximations to obtain the transfer functions that appear in SGF auxiliary equations (Green's Functions) for monoenergetic linearly anisotropic scattering SN equations in one-dimensional Cartesian geometry. For this task we use Lagrange Polynomials in order to compare the numerical results with the ones generated by the standard SGF method applied to SN problems in heterogeneous domains. This work is a preliminary investigation of a new proposal for handling the transverse leakage terms that appear in the transverse-integrated one-dimensional SN equations when we use the SGF - exponential nodal method (SGF-ExpN) in multidimensional rectangular geometry. (author)

  5. Jaws calibration method to get a homogeneous distribution of dose in the junction of hemi fields; Metodo de calibracion de mandibulas para conseguir una distribucion homogenea de dosis en la zona de union de hemicampos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenizo de Castro, E.; Garcia Pareja, S.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Hernandez Rodriguez, R.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    Hemi fields treatments are widely used in radiotherapy. Because the tolerance established for the positioning of each jaw is 1 mm, may be cases of overlap or separation of up to 2 mm. This implies heterogeneity of doses up to 40% in the joint area. This paper presents an accurate method of calibration of the jaws so as to obtain homogeneous dose distributions when using this type of treatment. (Author)

  6. A hydrothermal economic dispatch model for the energy markets using the interior point method; Um modelo de despacho economico hidrotermico para os mercados de energia utilizando o metodo de pontos interiores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Leandro L.H.; Silva, Alessandro L. da; Vergilio, Andre H.B.; Nepomuceno, Leonardo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: leandroluiz@ymail.com, alessandrolopessilva@uol.com.br, andrevergilio@yahoo.com.br, leo@feb.unesp.br; Cicogna, Marcelo Augusto [Anhanguera Educacional S.A. (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelo.cicogna@unianhanguera.edu.br,

    2009-07-01

    This paper aims to propose a model of economic dispatch for the problem representation of the auction in pool markets for systems with generation predominantly hydraulic. In the dispatch models described in the literature, only the agents of thermal generation participate in the auction pool. This is due to the fact that it have not been proposed in the literature yet a suitable model for representation of the cost structure of hydraulic generators. In this work is proposed the function of opportunity cost of hydrogeneration, which establishes a framework of 'cost' of hydraulic generation, based on losses in the process of hydroelectric generation. It is also studied the feasibility that both agents on the hydraulic and thermal generators can bidding in the pool. The approach to solving the problem involves the method of primal-dual logarithmic barrier. The results show that using the function of opportunity cost for hydroelectric plants is important for the system energy optimization as a whole, but its use for the representation of the bids of the hydraulic agents still needs further deepening search.

  7. Validation of methods to measure uranium isotopes using magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source; Validacion de metodos para medir isotopos de uranio usando espectrometria de masas de sector magnetico con fuente de plasma acoplado inductivamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, H. [Universidad del Centro de Mexico, Capitan Caldera 75, Col. Tequixquiapan, 78250 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Rios L, M. J. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutricion, Unidad de Posgrado, Av. Nino Artillero 130, 78210 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Romero G, E. T., E-mail: hector.hernandez520@gmail.com [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio Forense Nuclear, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    The mass spectrometry technique with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-Ms) has been widely used to measure isotopic ratios of elements toxic to human health. Reason for which, in this work several measurement methods for the analysis of uranium isotopes in different matrices were implemented using magnetic sector mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma source (Icp-SFMS). Groundwater, sediment, soil and urine were the matrices analyzed, which were supplied by intercomparison tests conducted by the IAEA and Association for the Promotion of Quality Control of Medical Biology Analysis in Radio-toxicology. The procedures used in the treatment of soil, sediment and water samples were based on US EPA methods. In the case of the urine sample, the preparation was rapid (1:20 dilution). The average of the results obtained in yield of each matrix was 94, 71, 72 and 78% for water, urine, soil and sediment respectively. In addition, the precision in terms of standard relative deviation was less than 5% and the accuracy was less than 4%. In conclusion, the Icp-SFMS is a very sensitive technique for measuring isotopes of U in different matrices. However, careful tuning is necessary, especially in the mass regions of interest 234, 235 and 238 if an external quantification is considered using natural U solutions. (Author)

  8. Seed prepare for oil content determination by NMR method in six cotton varieties; Preparo de sementes para determinacao do teor de oleo pelo metodo de RMN em seis variedades de algodoeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim-Tomaz, Rose Marry Araujo; Erismann, Norma de Magalhaes; Sabino, Nelson Paulieri; Kondo, Julio Isao; Cia, Edivaldo; Azzini, Anisio [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Algodao e Fibrosas Diversas]. E-mail: gondim@cec.iac.br; Soave, Daise [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Genetica, Biologia Molecular e Fitoquimica

    1998-07-01

    Three comparative methods (chemical seed-delinting with sulphuric acid solution, flaming and seed with linter) to prepare cotton seeds for oil determination by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique were considered. The chemical treatment with sulphuric acid was the best as long the linter interference was eliminated. The seed oil contents were determined by the NMR method in six cotton varieties from the national variety test. The IAPAR (Instituto Agronomico do Parana) 71 PR3 and IAC (Instituto Agronomico de Campinas) 20 varieties presented the highest oil content followed by the CNPA 7H, CS 50, IAC 22 and CNPA Precoce 2. (author)

  9. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao linear de amostras irregulares de solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-07-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient ({mu}) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the {mu} determination. It consists of the {mu} determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of {mu} was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  10. The two means method for the attenuation coefficient determination of archaeological ceramics from the North of Parana; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao de ceramicas arqueologicas do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Richard Maximiliano Cunha e

    1998-12-31

    This work reports an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination ({mu} {rho}) of irregular form samples, in such a way that is not necessary to consider the sample thickness. With this methodology, indigenous archaeological ceramics fragments from the region of Londrina, north of Parana, were studied. These ceramics fragments belong to the Kaingaing and Tupiguarani traditions. The equation for the {mu} {rho} determination employing the two mean method was obtained and it was used for {mu} {rho} determination by the gamma ray beam attenuation if immersed ceramics, by turns, in two different means with known linear attenuation coefficient. By the other side, {mu} theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer code. This code uses as input the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. In order to validate the two mean method validation, five ceramics samples of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Using these ceramics, {mu} {rho} was determined using the attenuation method, and the two mean method. The result obtained for {mu} {rho} and its respective deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two means method is good for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of materials of irregular shape, what is suitable, specially, for archaeometric studies. (author) 25 refs., 29 figs., 28 tabs.

  11. Method to Solve the Problem of the Radioactivity Detection in Environmental Samples. Characteristic Limits; Metodos para la Resolucion del Problema de la Detecfcion de Radiactividad en Muestras Ambientales. Limites Caracteristicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Martinez, M.; Heras, M.

    2009-07-21

    The problem of the detection or when the radioactivity can be considered as higher than the background using different measurement techniques has been the objective of several statistical studies and controversies. The detection limit and the critical limit were studied by Currie in year 1968 and used by radiochemistry laboratories considering different ways of calculation that introduced confusion and not correct implementations. In the last few years, and due to the increasing number of standardization processes on the field of radioactivity and accreditation, several international institutions have chosen to unify the criteria for using common determination of detection limits. The most used methods are those developed by MARLAP and International Standard Organization ISO (Standard-11929). In this report are summarised both standards doing a comparative study and giving some examples of how to apply these limits. In same cases, little differences in the uncertainty calculation have been observed but the final results have been concordant. A deeply study of these standards can be done consulting the web page of the American Labs that developed MARLAP or buying the original ISO standard ISO-11929 recently approved (2009). (Author) 17 refs.

  12. The two means method for the attenuation coefficient determination of archaeological ceramics from the North of Parana; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao de ceramicas arqueologicas do norte do Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Richard Maximiliano Cunha e

    1997-12-31

    This work reports an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination ({mu} {rho}) of irregular form samples, in such a way that is not necessary to consider the sample thickness. With this methodology, indigenous archaeological ceramics fragments from the region of Londrina, north of Parana, were studied. These ceramics fragments belong to the Kaingaing and Tupiguarani traditions. The equation for the {mu} {rho} determination employing the two mean method was obtained and it was used for {mu} {rho} determination by the gamma ray beam attenuation if immersed ceramics, by turns, in two different means with known linear attenuation coefficient. By the other side, {mu} theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer code. This code uses as input the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. In order to validate the two mean method validation, five ceramics samples of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Using these ceramics, {mu} {rho} was determined using the attenuation method, and the two mean method. The result obtained for {mu} {rho} and its respective deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two means method is good for the linear attenuation coefficient determination of materials of irregular shape, what is suitable, specially, for archaeometric studies. (author) 25 refs., 29 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Hurdle technology to preserve the 'Golden' papaya post harvest quality;Metodos combinados para preservar a qualidade pos-colheita do mamao 'Golden' tipo exportacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, Andrea Cristina Fialho, E-mail: molinari_af@yahoo.co

    2007-07-01

    With the purpose of evaluating a combination of post harvest techniques on papaya Golden storage, the following treatments were investigated: carton boxes packaging (CP); CP + plastic bag of PEBD - low density polyethylene film, with 0.05mm of thickness (PE); CP + PEBD with 0.025mm of thickness impregnated with mineral ethylene scavenger (PEAbs); gamma-irradiation (0.4 kGy and 0.7 kGy); and refrigerated storage at 10 deg C e 90% of relative humidity for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days plus five days under environmental conditions to allow ripening and to simulate the product marketing. To evaluate the effects on fruit quality the following measurements were taken: - first experiment, disease incidence, skin color and loss of turgidity (as visual variables); skin and flesh color, weight loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, pH, lycopene and beta-carotene composition; - second experiment, sensorial analysis on samples submitted to the treatments with better results from the first experiment. Post harvest diseases were the main factor responsible for discarding fruits. Percentage of weight loss was higher on papayas stored without plastic packaging. Time affected the flesh firmness (F = 95%). However, there wasn't influence of the treatments on that parameter. A significant effect on skin color was observed with interaction between irradiation (0.4 and 0.7 kGy) and storage period. Once reached the edible stage, irradiated papayas presented more uniformity on skin color. For beta-carotene and Lycopene, the mean values were 1.27 to 1.79 and 19.16 to 23.90 mug/ml of flesh, respectively. But those substances weren't affected by the combined methods or the time. The same behavior were observed for total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH (mean values of 11.53 to 12.20 deg Brix, 0.117 to 0.136 g of citric acid/100g of flesh and 4.91 to 5.04, respectively). On sensory evaluation, the judges didn't get to detect significant differences among papayas submitted to different treatments. A synergism was verified on the techniques combination, with the best results obtained from the association of CP + PEabs + gamma-irradiation at 0.4 kGy, which reached a total storage period of 35 days. Thus, that is the post harvest hurdle technology recommend for exporting 'Golden' papayas to markets with quarantine restrictions to fruit-flies (author)

  14. Practical methods for the functioning evaluation of the whole body counter system Accuscan II of the ININ; Metodos practicos para la evaluacion del comportamiento del sistema contador de cuerpo entero Accuscan II del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M. M.; Ramirez J, F. J.; Mondragon C, L., E-mail: mercedes.alfaro@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Touca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The whole body counter system Accuscan II of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), was designed and built to quantify and to measure radionuclides fission product as well as gamma emitters, with a maximum sensibility of less than 10 n Ci for cobalt 60 at one time of counting of 5 minutes. The system has two detectors of Ge(Hp) with Beryllium window to a relative efficiency of 25% in a counting configuration of vertical scanning, this configuration gives a plane response of constant efficiency. In this work some practical methods developed in the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory to carry out the functioning evaluation of the whole body counter system Accuscan II of the ININ are described. With the obtained results of this evaluation we can decide fine adjustments will be necessary for the optimization of the equipment operation. The evaluation of this equipment was especially necessary, due to its 21 years-old antiquity and for the gradual changes that has in its functioning. The equipment is intrinsically a gamma spectrometry system and some described experiences could be applied too in other gamma spectrometry systems. (Author)

  15. Optimization of the synthesis of a high specific activity 125{sup I}-labelled hapten for radioimmunoassays; Optimizacion de un metodo de preparacion de un radiohapteno-125''I para ria de alta actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suraez, C; Paz, D; Simon, M A; Romero del Hombrebueno, B

    1994-07-01

    In this first report it is described the synthesis, separation and purification of the 2-radioiodinated histamine- I-labelled histamine by a mixed anhydride reaction. About 75% incorporation of I{sup -}125, from Na{sup 1}25I, was achieved with a molecular ratio of 1:1 mixed anhydride:histamine. The radiochemical purity of the conjugate by TLC was > 99% and its theoretical specific activity, 3850 {mu}Ci/{mu}g. Dissolved in ethanol and held at -20 degree centigree under darkness decomposition on storage didn't exceed 1% per month. (Author) 13 refs.

  16. A method for estimation of hydrological sensibility applied in Golfo San Jorge basin. Province of Chubut. Argentina; Un metodo para estimar la sensibilidad hidrologica aplicado en la cuenca del Golfo San Jorge. Provincia de Chubut. Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M. A.; Scatizza, C.; Rojo, M.; Preiato, S. A.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-07-01

    A method developed and used in an area of Chubut Province is described. The object of the method is to determine the underground and surficial hydrological sensitivity in order to select the site of petroleum facilities with the least possible environmental hydric risk. It is based on the conjunction of the GOD method used to assess the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability (original version) and the proposed La Plata Method (MLP) for the surficial hydrological sensitivity. The latter method assigns numerical values based on landforms (positive and negative), slope percent and seasonality of the water regime, using a complexive range scale from zero to one. The Surficial Sensitivity factor results from the average of the three indicators and includes five categories, from low to extreme values. For a global coverage in the underground and surficial terrestrial arches (geo environmental map) it is proposed to compare the GOD values with those of the MLP method using a GIS, through the mathematical overlapping of two raster layers (map algebra) in each map pixel. In addition to the cartographic display, attribute tables can be used to estimate the environmental pollution in soils and waters, existing infrastructure and location of new facilities and drillings. The Arc Map 9.1 program was used due to its capacity for a permanent and quasi-automatic updating of thematic mapping. The map corresponding to Cerro for the initial position 2007 is presented as an example. (Author) 6 refs.

  17. Microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of {sup 4} He superfluid helium deduced by maximum entropy method; Modelo microscopico para la hidrodinamica fluctuante no lineal del {sup 4}He superfluido deducido mediante el metodo de maxima entropia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1998-10-01

    This thesis presents a microscopic model for the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of superfluid helium ({sup 4} He), model developed by means of the Maximum Entropy Method (Maxent). In the chapter 1, it is demonstrated the necessity to developing a microscopic model for the fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium, starting from to show a brief overview of the theories and experiments developed in order to explain the behavior of the superfluid helium. On the other hand, it is presented the Morozov heuristic method for the construction of the non-linear hydrodynamic fluctuating of simple fluid. Method that will be generalized for the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic of the superfluid helium. Besides, it is presented a brief summary of the content of the thesis. In the chapter 2, it is reproduced the construction of a Generalized Fokker-Planck equation, (GFP), for a distribution function associated with the coarse grained variables. Function defined with aid of a nonequilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub FP} that is evaluated as Wigneris function through {rho}{sub CG} obtained by Maxent. Later this equation of GFP is reduced to a non-linear local FP equation from considering a slow and Markov process in the coarse grained variables. In this equation appears a matrix D{sub mn} defined with a nonequilibrium coarse grained statistical operator {rho}hut{sub CG}, matrix elements are used in the construction of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamics equations of the superfluid helium. In the chapter 3, the Lagrange multipliers are evaluated for to determine {rho}hut{sub CG} by means of the local equilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub l}-tilde with the hypothesis that the system presents small fluctuations. Also are determined the currents associated with the coarse grained variables and furthermore are evaluated the matrix elements D{sub mn} but with aid of a quasi equilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub qe} instead of the local equilibrium operator {rho}hut{sub l}-tilde. Matrix elements that lead to the local transport coefficients for the superfluid helium, by means of a generalization of the Green-Kubo fluctuation-dissipation relation, in analogy with the results present in the Appendix A, obtained with a local equilibrium statistical operator {rho}hut{sub l}-tilde. Specified the Lagrange multipliers, the currents and the local transport coefficients, a non-linear local FP equation is determined for the superfluid helium in the Fourier space. Starting with such FP equation their associated non-linear equations of the Langevin type are built, where the random forces that appear are of multiplicative type. Forces that are expressed as the product of Gaussian random variables and local variablesin such way that the variances of the random variables are independent of the local variables. Finally, applying the Fourier inverse transformed to the non-linear equations of the Langevin type in the space of Fourier, the equations of the non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamic are built for the superfluid helium in the configuration space. Lastly, in the chapter 4, it is presented a discussion of the results and the conclusions of this thesis. (Author)

  18. Characterization of tissues equivalent to the human body by the Monte Carlo method for X-rays; Caracterizacion de tejidos equivalentes al cuerpo humano mediante el metodo Monte Carlo para rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega R, J.; Huamani T, Y.; Mullisaca P, A. F.; Yauri C, L., E-mail: josevegaramirez@yahoo.es [Universidad Nacional de San Agustin de Arequipa, Av. Independencia s/n, 04000 Arequipa (Peru)

    2017-10-15

    There is a need to have materials equivalent to the human body that have the appropriate characteristics to be used as a substitute tissue in the clinical practices of radio-diagnosis, radiotherapy. In Arequipa, Peru, there are two health centers in radiotherapy applications, one with a Theratron Co-60 gamma irradiator and another with Elekta Linac; the Medical Physics Area of the School of Physics of the National University of San Agustin de Arequipa, were four equivalent materials based on epoxy resin, phenolitic spheres, calcium carbonate, etc. were built, such as bone tissue, soft tissue, adipose and lung tissue compared with water, whit the purpose of studying and applying them in future clinical applications. In this work we describe its physical and dosimetric characterization to determine its use as an equivalent material or manikin. The materials are 1 cm thick and 30 cm in diameter, the materials are non-malleable solids, they do not degrade, they have stability in their consistency due to temperature and irradiation, they are not toxic in their use, determining densities from 0.32 g/cm{sup 3} for the lung tissue to 1.8 g/cm{sup 3} for the bone material. These materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, giving the percentages by weight of the elements found to determine their effective atomic number, the physical analysis to determine their mass absorption and energy coefficients, which were studied for energy photons between 1 KeV at 20 MeV. The simulation of the equivalent materials and the physical and dosimetric study were found using the code Penelope 2008 Monte Carlo method and validated by the Nist database. The results obtained according to their coefficients of mass attenuation of each material, show lung, bone, soft and adipose tissue with differences with respect to the same Nist materials. The range maximum and minimum Rd deviation found was 35.65 - 3.16 for bone, 28.5 - 6.74 for lung, 33.78 - 9.06 for soft tissue and 86.42 - 1.28 for adipose tissue. The Pdp dosimetric analysis was performed with gamma radiation (Co-60) and high energy X-rays (6 MV). (Author)

  19. Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. I; Flujo supersonico de un plasma con ondas de choque, un metodo de montecarlo para plasmas de baja densidad, I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almenara, E; Hidalgo, M; Saviron, J M

    1980-07-01

    This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs.

  20. A method for detection of mechanical collisions and couch-beam intersections; Un metodo para la prediccion de colisiones mecanicas y de intersecciones del haz con la mesa de tratamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Galiano, P.; Crelgo Alonso, D.; Gonzalez Sancho, J. M.; Vivanco Parellada, J.; Fernandez Garcia, J.; Barbes Fernandez, B.; Pamos Urena, M.; Monserrat Fuertes, T.

    2009-07-01

    Two software applications for avoiding mechanical collisions and beam blocking by the couch are described. The method used is based on a simplified model of the couch cross-sections and a very simple routine. The algorithms employed and the graphical interfaces developed are described, along with several software implementation tests. The accuracy of predictions was within 5 mm, therefore the results are satisfactory despite the simple approach assumed. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. A Simple Analytical Method Using HPLC with Fluorescence Detection to Determine Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Filter Samples; Metodo Analitico Sencillo para la Determinacion de Compuestos Aromaticos Policiclicos en Muestras de Filtros mediante HPLC con Detector de Fluorescencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.; Perez, R. M.

    2014-06-01

    A study on the comparison and evaluation of a miniaturized extraction method for the determination of selected PACs in sample filters is presented. The main objective was the optimization and development of simple, rapid and low cost methods, minimizing the use of extracting solvent volume. The work also includes a study on the intermediate precision. (Author)

  2. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography; Resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del metodo de matrices de riesgo para evaluaciones de seguridad en radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Truppa, W. [Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aravena, M. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Tamayo, B., E-mail: alopezg@cnsns.gob.mx [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  3. New method of preparation of CaSO{sub 4}: Dy for ionizing radiation dosimetry; Nuevo metodo de preparacion del CaSO{sub 4}: Dy para dosimetria de radiacion ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman L, J.; Rivera M, T.; Alarcon F, G.; Guzman M, J. [CICATA-IPN, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J.; Sosa F, R. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Serrano F, A.K. [Hospital Juarez General de Mexico, 07760 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: holand_jeos@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    In this work some results of the characterization of solid state materials exposed at a gamma radiation beam coming from a {sup 60} Co bomb for medical use are presented. These thermoluminescent dosemeters are prepared and proposed for the ionizing radiations dosimetry using the thermoluminescence method. The passive dosemeters of CaSO{sub 4}: Dy are developed in the polycrystalline powder form being used a new synthesis route by means of the precipitation method. To determine the sensibility of the pellets of CaSO{sub 4}: Dy before gamma radiation, these were exposed before a gamma radiation beam coming from a {sup 60} Co bomb. The morphological and structural characteristics were also studied and present two in this work. (Author)

  4. Optical and Scanning electron Microscopy as advanced analysis methods to determine the condition of synthetic geo membranes; Las microscopias optica de reflexion y electronica de barrido como metodos avanzados de analisis para conocer el estado de las geomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano Carrillo, J.; Blanco Fernandez, M.; Garcia Calleja, M. A.; Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.; Aguilar Gonzalez, E.; Rubin de Celix, M.

    2014-02-01

    Microscopic techniques have been widely used for years in the study of inorganic materials however their use in organic materials and specifically, in synthetic geo membranes, is very limited. In this study, this innovative technology has been used with the different geo synthetic polymeric barriers with which this research team is experienced: plasticized polyvinyl chloride, polyethylenes, rubbers such as ethenyltriphenyl-diene monomer terpolymer and butyl, polyolefins, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, chlorosulfonated polyethylene and polypropylene. the influence of the extraction area and the time since their application is tested. (Author)

  5. Development of methodology for characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 using the Monte Carlo method; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para caracterizacao do filtro cuno do reator IEA-R1 utilizando o Metodo Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Priscila

    2014-07-01

    The Cuno filter is part of the water processing circuit of the IEA-R1 reactor and, when saturated, it is replaced and becomes a radioactive waste, which must be managed. In this work, the primary characterization of the Cuno filter of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN was carried out using gamma spectrometry associated with the Monte Carlo method. The gamma spectrometry was performed using a hyperpure germanium detector (HPGe). The germanium crystal represents the detection active volume of the HPGe detector, which has a region called dead layer or inactive layer. It has been reported in the literature a difference between the theoretical and experimental values when obtaining the efficiency curve of these detectors. In this study we used the MCNP-4C code to obtain the detector calibration efficiency for the geometry of the Cuno filter, and the influence of the dead layer and the effect of sum in cascade at the HPGe detector were studied. The correction of the dead layer values were made by varying the thickness and the radius of the germanium crystal. The detector has 75.83 cm{sup 3} of active volume of detection, according to information provided by the manufacturer. Nevertheless, the results showed that the actual value of active volume is less than the one specified, where the dead layer represents 16% of the total volume of the crystal. A Cuno filter analysis by gamma spectrometry has enabled identifying energy peaks. Using these peaks, three radionuclides were identified in the filter: {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag and {sup 60}Co. From the calibration efficiency obtained by the Monte Carlo method, the value of activity estimated for these radionuclides is in the order of MBq. (author)

  6. Synthesis by the Pechini method and reaction combustion for the preparation of TiO{sub 2}: a comparative analysis; Sintese pelo metodo Pechini e reacao de combustao para preparacao de TiO{sub 2}: uma analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E.P.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Freitas, N.L.; Lira, H.L.; Costa, A.C.F.M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Kiminami, R.H.G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare TiO{sub 2} powder by Pechini and combustion reaction methods. A comparative analysis between the structural and morphological results obtained by the two methods was investigated. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffractions (XRD), infrared analysis, nitrogen adsorption (BET) and particle size distribution. The results from XRD show that the powders prepared by Pechini method and by combustion reaction using aniline as fuel, present anatase as major phase and traces of rutile phase. The values of crystallite size and surface area from BET were: 30 e 44 nm; 6.2 e 4.4 m{sup 2}/g, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The values of particle size were: 21.9 e 5.3 {mu}m, for the powders prepared by Pechini and combustion reaction, respectively. The Pechini method was more suitable to obtain powders with irregular agglomerates, in the block shape with particles bonded softly and small crystallite size. (author)

  7. Development of methods of labeling pentavalent DMSA with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re; Desenvolvimento de metodos para marcacao de DMSA pentavalente com {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Tania de Paula, email: jtoniolo@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Technetium-99 m is the most useful radionuclide in diagnostic imaging procedures in Nuclear Medicine, more than 80 percent of radiopharmaceuticals are {sup 99m}Tc-labeled compounds. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) has been used for imaging of soft tissue, head and neck tumors. It shows a particularly high specificity for medullary thyroid carcinoma and bone metastases in a variety of cancers. Biodistribution studies of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. The aim of this work is the development of methods of labeling DMSA(V) with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) can be prepared by two methods. One of them is the indirect one, through the use of a commercial kit of DMSA (III), by adjusting the pH from 2.5 to {approx} 8.5 with NaHCO{sub 3}. This method was evaluated and optimized presenting high labeling yields. The other method is the direct one, through the preparation of a lyophilised kit ready for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, being the method of interest of this work, due to the easy of its clinical use. The most adequate formulation of the kit was: 1.71 mg of DMSA, 0.53 mg of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and 0.83 mg of ascorbic acid (pH 9). Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved labeling this kit with 1 to 2 m L of {sup 99m}Tc with activities up to 4736 MBq (128 mCi). The kit was stable up to 6 months and biodistribution studies confirmed the quality of the DMSA (V) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using this kit. The reduction potential of Re is lower than the one for Tc, so the labeling conditions of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) are different from the ones used for {sup 99m}Tc- DMSA(V). {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) is prepared in acid solution, that makes it possible to use the DMSA (III) commercial kit developed for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, prepared in pH 2.5, for labeling with {sup 188}Re. Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved with this methodology, with a rection time of 30 minutes at 100 deg C using no more than 1 m L of {sup 188}ReO{sub 4}{sup -}. Another method of preparing {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) was also evaluated, using a liquid kit containing 2.5 mg of DMSA, 1.00 mg of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and 30 mg of sodium oxalate at pH 5. This kit was labeled with 1 m L of {sup 188}ReO{sub 4}{sup -}, with 15 minutes of reaction at room temperature resulting in a labeling yield of about 91%. (author)

  8. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells; Aplicacion del metodo de Bow Tie para la evaluacion de seguridad en la practica de perfilaje de pozos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso Pallares, C; Perez Reyes, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.I. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk.

  9. Primary and scattering contributions to beta scaled dose point kernels by means of Monte Carlo simulations; Contribuicoes primaria e espalhada para dosimetria beta calculadas pelo dose point kernels empregando simulacoes pelo Metodo Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Mauro [CONICET - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de La Republica Argentina (Conicet), Buenos Aires, AR (Brazil); Botta, Francesca; Pedroli, Guido [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Medical Physics Department; Perez, Pedro, E-mail: valente@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Fac. de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FaMAF)

    2012-07-01

    Beta-emitters have proved to be appropriate for radioimmunotherapy. The dosimetric characterization of each radionuclide has to be carefully investigated. One usual and practical dosimetric approach is the calculation of dose distribution from a unit point source emitting particles according to any radionuclide of interest, which is known as dose point kernel. Absorbed dose distributions are due to primary and radiation scattering contributions. This work presented a method capable of performing dose distributions for nuclear medicine dosimetry by means of Monte Carlo methods. Dedicated subroutines have been developed in order to separately compute primary and scattering contributions to the total absorbed dose, performing particle transport up to 1 keV or least. Preliminarily, the suitability of the calculation method has been satisfactory, being tested for monoenergetic sources, and it was further applied to the characterization of different beta-minus radionuclides of nuclear medicine interests for radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  10. Implementation of the automated potentiometric titration method for total U at the CNEN Safeguard Laboratory, Brazil; Implementacao do metodo de titulacao potenciometrica automatizado para U total no Laboratorio de Salvaguardas da CNEN, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiano, Barbara F.G.; Delgado, Jose U.; Araujo, Radier M.S. de; Silva, Jose W.S. da; Barros, Pedro D. de, E-mail: barbara@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazilian nuclear facilities, in accordance with the regulation CNEN-NN-2.02, must have available measurement systems which allow to determine their nuclear material inventories. For the evaluation and the follow up the performance of the involved laboratories in those measurement systems, the accomplishment of interlaboratory comparison programmes becomes fundamental. Therefore, the implementation of the potentiometric titration viewing the characterization of uranium samples, represents an reference element for the Brazilian programs

  11. Cost effective method for valuation of impacts caused by greenhouse gases emissions for oil and gas companies; Metodo de custo-efetividade para avaliacao de impactos causados pelas emissoes de gases de efeito estufa em empresas de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Elisa Vieira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, Sergio Ricardo da Silveira [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LATEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Mestrado em Sistemas de Gestao

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work is to apply the method of cost-effectiveness in economic evaluation of new investment projects, based on information about reducing greenhouse gases emissions. In the context of the commitment of companies with the Climate Change and Sustainability, this work is important and contributes to the oil and gas industry, because it integrates information on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in negative Net Present Value (NPV) projects, helping the portfolio manager on decision making between alternative projects. In this article, examples are given of two investment projects, in which the cost effectiveness methodology is applied, considering the reduction of emission of greenhouse gases such as additional environmental benefit, or cost avoidance, in an adjusted model of the economic viability analysis of meritorious projects. (author)

  12. Production method test for the mechanizing exploitation of coal subvertical layer; Ensayo en produccion de un metodo para la explotacion altamente mecanizada de capas subverticales de carbon de mediana potencia (2-3 m)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the carboniferous locations and more concretely in those in that the disposition of the strata, is subvertical, a great problem is believed for its exploitation by interior mining. We remember that a very important part of the reservation of coal in the different Asturian basins has a disposition of this type. With the step of the time, what constituted 100% of conventional outburst in a principle, that is to say by means of hammer picador (system of headwall), they left mechanizing the different exploitations. A very important and decisive factor, besides other, was the power of the layer of coal to choose a mechanization system. We have this way that, for the layers of inferior powers (0,70 to 2,00 m) they can be mecanizables by means of coal cutter and pole or by means equipment of machine coal-mining (for example Asturfalia RST3). For those layers with superior powers to the 4 m, the most widespread method and that is supposes a high mechanization range, it is the horizontal and soutiraje of the key of coal for shot with explosive of security or compressed air to very high pressure. It exists a very important lagoon then as for their mechanization she refers, for those powers of the layers of coal of between 2 and 3. With this Project and thanks to the financing of OCICARBON, he seeks to start a denominated system of exploitation soutiraje of narrow layer, to attack the mechanization of the layers with powers from 2 to 3 m, what would close the mechanization of the whole fan of powers of the present layers of coal in our locations with the mentioned disposition. With this Project an increase is also sought as for the yields he refers, as well as a humanization of the works in mine interior, starting a miner of court strait for the advance of the subnivles, different pole types, as well as the application of several shot systems to the key of local. Everything should lead it to an optimization of the mechanization of layers subvertical of coal with powers of between 2 and 3 meters. (Author)

  13. Turkevich method for silver/titanium dioxide nanoparticles with antimicrobial application in polymers systems;Obtencao de nanoparticulas de prata/dioxido de titanio pelo metodo Turkevich para aplicacoes antimicrobiais em matrizes polimericas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olyveira, Gabriel Molina de; Pessan, Luiz Antonio, E-mail: gmolyveira@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: acarvalho@ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (PPG-CEM/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Carvalho, Antonio Jose Felix de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were covered with silver nanoparticles using Turkevich Method or citrate reduction method. Silver and titanium dioxide has proved antimicrobial properties then the nanocomposite can be successful incorporated in polymer systems. Silver nitrate was reduced by sodium citrate in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)(PVP) resulting in nano-Ag/TiO{sub 2} stabilized suspension. It was tested ammonia hydroxide in the synthesis to avoid the nanoparticles growth. The Ag/TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The best system of coloidal nanoparticles was that one with Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and ammonia in the synthesis. (author)

  14. Two new methods to determine the adhesion by means of internal friction in materials covered with films; Dos nuevos metodos para determinar la adhesion mediante friccion interna en materiales recubiertos con peliculas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colorado, H. A.; Ghilarducci, A. A.; Salva, H. R.

    2006-07-01

    Two new models are proposed to determine the adhesion energy be means of the internal friction technique (IF) in thin films layered materials. for the first method is necessary to determine enthalpy by means of the IF technique, for which the adhesion work has been determined with experimental data. In the second method are necessary to perform IF tests at constant temperature. (Author)

  15. Validation of quantitative {sup 1}H NMR method for the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations; Validacao de metodo quantitativo por RMN de {sup 1}H para analises de formulacoes farmaceuticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maiara da S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Colnago, Luiz Alberto, E-mail: luiz.colnago@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    The need for effective and reliable quality control in products from pharmaceutical industries renders the analyses of their active ingredients and constituents of great importance. This study presents the theoretical basis of Superscript-One H NMR for quantitative analyses and an example of the method validation according to Resolution RE N. 899 by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), in which the compound paracetamol was the active ingredient. All evaluated parameters (selectivity, linearity, accuracy, repeatability and robustness) showed satisfactory results. It was concluded that a single NMR measurement provides structural and quantitative information of active components and excipients in the sample. (author)

  16. A study of digital hardware architectures for nuclear reactors protection systems applications - reliability and safety analysis methods; Um estudo de arquiteturas de hardware para aplicacao em sistemas digitais de protecao de reatores nucleares - metodos de analise de confiabilidade e seguranca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benko, Pedro Luiz

    1997-07-01

    A study of digital hardware architectures, including experience in many countries, topologies and solutions to interface circuits for protection systems of nuclear reactors is presented. Methods for developing digital systems architectures based on fault tolerant and safety requirements is proposed. Directives for assessing such conditions are suggested. Techniques and the most common tools employed in reliability, safety evaluation and modeling of hardware architectures is also presented. Markov chain modeling is used to evaluate the reliability of redundant architectures. In order to estimate software quality, several mechanisms to be used in design, specification, and validation and verification (V and V) procedures are suggested. A digital protection system architecture has been analyzed as a case study. (author)

  17. Simplex network modeling for press-molded ceramic bodies incorporated with granite waste; Dosagem de massa ceramica para blocos prensados com adicao de residuo de granito atraves do metodo simplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroti, L.G.; Vieira, C.M.F.; Alexandre, J.; Monteiro, S.N.; Xavier, G.C., E-mail: lpedroti@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Extrusion of a clay body is the most commonly applied process in the ceramic industries for manufacturing structural block. Nowadays, the assembly of such blocks through a fitting system that facilitates the final mounting is gaining attention owing to the saving in material and reducing in the cost of the building construction. In this work, the ideal composition of clay bodies incorporated with granite powder waste was investigated for the production of press-molded ceramic blocks. An experimental design was applied to determine the optimum properties and microstructures involving not only the precursors compositions but also the press and temperature conditions. Press load from 15 ton and temperatures from 850 to 1050°C were considered. The results indicated that varying mechanical strength of 2 MPa to 20 MPa and varying water absorption of 19% to 30%. (author)

  18. A new method for intraoperative localization of epilepsy focus by means of a gamma probe; Um novo metodo para a localizacao intraoperatoria de foco de epilepsia mediante utilizacao de gamaprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro Filho, Omar, E-mail: dromarcarneiro@gmail.com [Centro Brasileiro de Medicina Nuclear e Imagem Molecular (CEBRAMEN), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Instituto de Medicina Nuclear, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Vilela Filho, Osvaldo [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Neurocirurgia; Ragazzo, Paulo Cesar [Instituto de Neurologia de Goiania, GO (Brazil). Servico de Eplepsia e Neurofisiologia; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2014-01-15

    Objective: to evaluate the utility of a new multimodal image-guided intervention technique to detect epileptogenic areas with a gamma probe as compared with intraoperative electrocorticography. Materials and methods: two symptomatic patients with refractory epilepsy underwent magnetic resonance imaging, videoelectroencephalography, brain SPECT scan, neuropsychological evaluation and were submitted to gamma probe-assisted surgery. Results: in patient 1, maximum radioactive count was initially observed on the temporal gyrus at about 3.5 cm posteriorly to the tip of the left temporal lobe. After corticotomy, the gamma probe indicated maximum count at the head of the hippocampus, in agreement with the findings of intraoperative electrocorticography. In patient 2, maximum count was observed in the occipital region at the transition between the temporal and parietal lobes (right hemisphere). During the surgery, the area of epileptogenic activity mapped at electrocorticography was also delimited, demarcated, and compared with the gamma probe findings. After lesionectomy, new radioactive counts were performed both in the patients and on the surgical specimens (ex-vivo). Conclusion: the comparison between intraoperative electrocorticography and gamma probe-assisted surgery showed similarity of both methods. The advantages of gamma probe include: noninvasiveness, low cost and capacity to demonstrate decrease in the radioactive activity at the site of excision after lesionectomy. (author)

  19. Para-Hermitian and para-quaternionic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S.; Zamkovoy, S.

    2003-10-01

    A set of canonical para-Hermitian connections on an almost para-Hermitian manifold is defined. A Para-hermitian version of the Apostolov-Gauduchon generalization of the Goldberg-Sachs theorem in General Relativity is given. It is proved that the Nijenhuis tensor of a Nearly para-Kaehler manifolds is parallel with respect to the canonical connection. Salamon's twistor construction on quaternionic manifold is adapted to the para-quaternionic case. A locally conformally hyper-para-Kaehler (hypersymplectic) flat structure with parallel Lee form on the Kodaira-Thurston complex surfaces modeled on S 1 x SL (2, R)-tilde is constructed. Anti-self-dual locally conformally hyper-para-Kaehler (hypersymplectic) neutral metrics with non vanishing Weyl tensor are obtained on the Inoe surfaces. An example of anti-self-dual neutral metric which is not locally conformally hyper-para-Kaehler (hypersymplectic) is constructed. (author)

  20. Para-Hermitian and para-quaternionic manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, S [University of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' , Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Zamkovoy, S [University of Sofia ' St. Kl. Ohridski' , Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2003-10-01

    A set of canonical para-Hermitian connections on an almost para-Hermitian manifold is defined. A Para-hermitian version of the Apostolov-Gauduchon generalization of the Goldberg-Sachs theorem in General Relativity is given. It is proved that the Nijenhuis tensor of a Nearly para-Kaehler manifolds is parallel with respect to the canonical connection. Salamon's twistor construction on quaternionic manifold is adapted to the para-quaternionic case. A locally conformally hyper-para-Kaehler (hypersymplectic) flat structure with parallel Lee form on the Kodaira-Thurston complex surfaces modeled on S{sup 1} x SL (2, R)-tilde is constructed. Anti-self-dual locally conformally hyper-para-Kaehler (hypersymplectic) neutral metrics with non vanishing Weyl tensor are obtained on the Inoe surfaces. An example of anti-self-dual neutral metric which is not locally conformally hyper-para-Kaehler (hypersymplectic) is constructed. (author)

  1. Conhecimentos de adolescentes sobre Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis: subsídios para prevenção Conocimientos de adolescentes sobre Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles: subsidios para la prevención Teenagers' knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Diseases: strategies for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto da Silva Brêtas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar o conhecimento de adolescentes sobre as formas de transmissão e prevenção das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis. Metodos: envolveu 920 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos de idade eos dados foram obtidos por meio de um questionário estruturado. Resultado: os resultados demonstraram que a principal fonte para obtenção de informações sobre o assunto foi o professor; as Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis não são totalmente desconhecidas para os adolescentes do estudo, sendo a AIDS a mais conhecida.Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de conocimiento de adolescentes sobre las formas de transmisión y prevención de las EST. Métodos: Envolvió 920 adolescentes entre 10 y 19 años de edad, los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de un cuestionario estructurado. Resultados: Los resultados demostraron que la principal fuente para obtención de informaciones sobre el asunto fue el profesor; las Enfermedades Sexualmente Transmisibles no son totalmente desconocidas para los adolescentes del estudio, siendo el SIDA la más conocida.Objective: To identify teenager's knowledge of transmission and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD. Methods: A sample of children and teenagers aged between 10 and 19 years participated in the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire developed for the study. Results: The findings suggested that the main source of information on Sexually Transmitted Diseases was the participants' school teacher. Sexually transmitted diseases are not entirely unknown by the participants in the study, with AIDS the most notorious.

  2. ParaChoice Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Levinson, Rebecca Sobel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); West, Todd H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Analysis with the ParaChoice model addresses three barriers from the VTO Multi-Year Program Plan: availability of alternative fuels and electric charging station infrastructure, availability of AFVs and electric drive vehicles, and consumer reluctance to purchase new technologies. In this fiscal year, we first examined the relationship between the availability of alternative fuels and station infrastructure. Specifically, we studied how electric vehicle charging infrastructure affects the ability of EVs to compete with vehicles that rely on mature, conventional petroleum-based fuels. Second, we studied how the availability of less costly AFVs promotes their representation in the LDV fleet. Third, we used ParaChoice trade space analyses to help inform which consumers are reluctant to purchase new technologies. Last, we began analysis of impacts of alternative energy technologies on Class 8 trucks to isolate those that may most efficaciously advance HDV efficiency and petroleum use reduction goals.

  3. Methodology for the accelerated simulation of the deterioration that by atmospheric corrosion appears in electronic equipment; Metodologia para la simulacion acelerada del deterioro que por corrosion atmosferica se presenta en equipo electronico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Prado, A.; Schouwenaars, R.; Cerrud Sanchez, S.M. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-12-01

    The corrosion resistance of systems and electronic parts which are designed to work in atmospheric conditions have been tested for decades; some of these methods were the Cyclic Humidity Test, Field Tests and Salt Spray (Fog) Testing, the latter was one of the most popular methods. However, the salt spray test and most of the other existing methods do not show strong relationships with the real conditions of service. For this reason, it is necessary to develop appropriated methods and equipment for the accelerated simulation of real atmospheric corrosion phenomena. This article seeks to demonstrate the need to develop a test and the necessary equipment to reproduce the damage in electronic systems and equipment by atmospheric corrosion. [Spanish] Para la evaluacion de la resistencia a la corrosion de sistemas y equipo electronico que trabajaran bajo condiciones de deterioro generadas por el medio ambiente, se han aplicado una serie de ensayos, donde el mas popular es el de camara de niebla salina. Sin embargo, este y otros que se han elaborado para tal efecto no tienen ninguna relacion con las condiciones reales de servicio, por lo que es necesario un metodo de evaluacion que permita simular de forma acelerada los fenomenos de deterioro por efectos ambientales. Este articulo pretende demostrar la necesidad de desarrollar una prueba, que en forma acelerada, reproduzca el dano que sufre el material por efecto de la atmosfera; el cual se orienta a la evaluacion de equipo electrico y electronico.

  4. Diseño de un modelo para la optimización de los procesos en el mantenimiento programado aplicado al equipo Casa 212 de la Fuerza Aérea Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Sarmiento

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este proyecto es el resultado de Ia busqueda constante de un mejoramiento continuo de los procesos que garantizan la calidad total en el mantenimiento aeronautico, concebdo y desarrollado para ser aplicado en el mantenimiento basico de 100 horas o 1A del equipo C-212-300 asignado al grupo técnico del Comando Aéreo de Combate No.2. Es así como se hace un recuento acerca de Ia historia y Ia evolución del mantenimiento aeronautico, Ia normatividad y los metodos de trabajo, el estudio de tiempos y movimientos empleados actualmente, para garantizar Ia eficiencia y seguridad en Ia aviación comercial y militar. De ahí, que se visitó la Base Aerea del Ejercito del Aire Español, SATENA y la Base Aerea de Apiay de Ia Fuerza Aerea Colombiana, quienes t ienen dentro de sus flotas el equipo C-212.

  5. Universidades accesibles para todos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Stupp Kupiec

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende hacer conciencia sobrelos factores que inciden en la construcción colectiva deuniversidades dispuestas a innovar y transformar suideología, sus políticas, el currículum, los servicios estu-diantiles, la infraestructura física y administrativa y lasestrategias de comunicación e información, bajo el para-digma de la accesibilidad en el entorno. Se hace referen-cia al marco legal internacional y nacional que orientalas acciones que deben planificarse e implementarse enlas instituciones de Educación Superior.En la construcción de universidades accesibles para to-dos se requiere de un cambio en la concepción curricu-lar. Se analizan conceptos como la flexibilidad en la for-mación y el acceso a los planes de estudio para respondera las necesidades educativas de todos los estudiantes. Para promover estas transformaciones se proponen prin-cipios y prácticas tales como la interdisciplinareidad y lainclusión del tema de la discapacidad en todas las carre-ras. Además, se presentan ejemplos de aplicación en dife-rentes áreas del perfil profesional, en la formación deldocente universitario y en actividades de proyección so-cial, vida estudiantil e investigación. En el ámbito estu-diantil, se describen algunos servicios y procesos que sehan desarrollado en la Universidad de Costa Rica

  6. Educando para la ignorancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Durán

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Más que describir una situación particular, los autores buscan con este escrito motivar al estudiante para que asuma posiciones críticas; así como dar un campanazo de alerta a los profesores, en relación a los conocimientos que transmiten a sus alumnos y la forma en que lo hacen; todo con el ánimo de generar verdaderos espacios de reflexión en la universidad.

  7. INICIATIVAS PARA EL CAMBIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alfonso Defrancisco-Larrañaga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El planeta no atraviesa por su mejor momento en materia de conservación y renovación de sus recursos naturales. Claramente en los últimos tiempos los recursos hídricos han venido haciéndose cada vez menores; el hombre ha notado con preocupación y vivido en carne propia este fenómeno, que de no ser tratado a tiempo, podría atentar contra la existencia misma. Esto lo ha alentado a buscar métodos que sirvan como solución para contrarrestar éste mal y crear conciencia entre sus iguales, para así poder garantizar su permanencia y la de su entorno durante muchas generaciones. En países desarrollados del continente europeo y en algunos lugares de América del norte, el uso de sistemas de reutilización y tratamiento de aguas grises y aprovechamiento de las aguas lluvias se ha convertido en una constante y nos están dando las pautas para poder seguir el ejemplo y así de esta manera poder aportar a la causa ambiental y a su vez crear un ahorro en nuestros gastos mensuales de consumo.

  8. Elements of a thermic method of preparing beta-sources with fused carriers, including strontium-90; Elements d'une methode thermique de preparation de sources beta avec des entraineurs fondus, y compris le strontium-90; Osnovy termicheskogo metoda prigotovleniya beta-istochnikov s plavlennymi nositelyami, vklyuchayushchimi strontsij-90; Bases de un metodo termico de preparacion de fuentes beta con portadores fundidos, incluido el estroncio-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, N I; Zakharova, K P; Zimakov, P V; Kulichenko, V V

    1962-01-15

    comprises entre 100 et 1000{sup o}C, et expliquent le choix des parametres de base du procede employe. Ils precisent les fondements de la methode qui consiste a monter une preparation vitreuse contenant la quantite necessaire de {sup 90}Sr, sur des supports de forme et dimensions diverses en acier, ceramique et autres matieres. Enfin, les auteurs examinent les parametres de base qui permettent l'exploitation sure et sans danger des differents types de sources, et ils donnent des renseignements sur les sources de {sup 90}Sr preparees par la methode thermique. (author) [Spanish] Las fuentes de radiaciones ionizantes basadas en el radioisotopo {sup 90}Sr se utilizan ampliamente en la industria para los dispositivos y sistemas de control y regulacion automaticos. La preparacion de las fuentes consiste en la deshidratacion de una mezcla formada por una solucion radiactiva de nitrato de estroncio, y compuestos tales como el anhidrido borico, silice, alumina, etc. Por calentamiento de la mezcla deshidratada a temperaturas elevadas, se obtiene una masa fundida muy fluida que, una vez fria, da una masa vitrea que contiene la cantidad requerida de {sup 90}Sr. Los autores presentan datos y examinan los resultados obtenidos al estudiar la deshidratacion del sistema SrO - B{sub 2}O{sub 3}- SiO{sub 2} a temperaturas comprendidas entre 100 y 1000{sup o} C; tambien explican su eleccion de los parametros basicos del proceso tecnologico. Exponen en lineas generales un metodo que consiste en montar sobre acero, materiales ceramicos u otras sustancias, de distintas formas y dimensiones, una masa vitrea que contenga la cantidad requerida de {sup 90}Sr. La memoria estudia los parametros fundamentales para lograr una explotacion regular y segura de los distintos tipos de fuente, y presenta datos relativos y fuentes de {sup 90}Sr preparadas por el metodo termico. (author) [Russian] Istochniki ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij na osnove radioizotopa Sr''9''0 shiroko primenyayutsya v priborakh i skhemakh

  9. Computational modeling of the mathematical dummy of the Brazilian woman for calculations of internal dosimetry and ends of comparison of the fractions absorbed specific with the woman reference; Modelagem computacional do manequim matematico da mulher brasileira para calculos de dosimetria interna e para fins de comparacao das fracoes absorvidas especificas com a mulher referencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximenes, Edmir

    2006-07-01

    Tools for dosimetric calculations are of the utmost importance for the basic principles of radiological protection, not only in nuclear medicine, but also in other scientific calculations. In this work a mathematical model of the Brazilian woman is developed in order to be used as a basis for calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) in internal organs and in the skeleton, in accord with the objectives of diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The model developed here is similar in form to that of Snyder, but modified to be more relevant to the case of the Brazilian woman. To do this, the formalism of the Monte Carlo method was used by means of the ALGAM- 97{sup R} computational code. As a contribution to the objectives of this thesis, we developed the computational system cSAF - consultation for Specific Absorbed Fractions (cFAE from Portuguese acronym) - which furnishes several 'look-up' facilities for the research user. The dialogue interface with the operator was planned following current practices in the utilization of event-oriented languages. This interface permits the user to navigate by means of the reference models, choose the source organ, the energy desired, and receive an answer through an efficient and intuitive dialogue. The system furnishes, in addition to the data referring to the Brazilian woman, data referring to the model of Snyder and to the model of the Brazilian man. The system makes available not only individual data to the SAFs of the three models, but also a comparison among them. (author)

  10. Graphic console for analysis of severe accidents visualization of OEs, NAEs and calculation of the source term for the NPP-LV (CoGrAAS); Consola grafica para analisis de accidentes severos visualizacion de OEs, NAEs y calculo del termino fuente para la CLV (CoGrAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval V, S.; Mendoza E, P. R.; Gonzalez C, J. M.; Cecenas F, M. [Instituto Nacional de Electricidad y Energias Limpias, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Tijerina S, F., E-mail: francisco.tijerina@cfe.gob.mx [CFE, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Federal Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, 91476 Municipio Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    In response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the NRC conducted an analysis and issued recommendations to improve the safety of the nuclear reactors. These include strengthening and integrating emergency response capabilities and emphasizing periodic staff training, the performance of simulation exercises. As a tool to observe these recommendations, the Graphic Console was developed for Analysis of Severe Accidents, Visualization of OEs, NAEs and calculation of the source term for nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV ; CoGrAAS). The CoGrAAS is a computer system that displays in an integrated, graphic and dynamic way the information of a catalog of previously simulated accident scenarios. Has core mimics, vessel, primary containment and safety systems, trend graph of thermodynamic and radiological variables and the emergency procedures (OEs), chronological list of events, windows with detailed information for the dry-well, among others. The use of CoGrAAS allows that staff to understand and become familiar with the thermo-hydraulic progression of actual scenarios that exceed the design basis including those with core damage as severe accidents. The system enables personnel to develop an integral vision of the scenarios during the exercises and drills by observing and analyzing the evolution of the main reactor, core and primary containment variables, the response of emergency systems and the influence of that progression on OEs and the emergency action levels (NAEs). The CoGrAAS allows o observe the radiological variables and obtain the source term, to make the projection of doses, at any time within the scenario evolution. Thus, not only can the phenomenology of severe accidents be analyzed and understood, it is also possible to exercise, verify and evaluate the performance of critical tasks in the application of procedures, guidelines and emergency management plans. (Author)

  11. Scenarios catalog for the graphical console for analysis of severe accidents visualization of OEs, NAEs and calculation of source term of the NPP-LV; Catalogo de escenarios para la consola grafica para analisis de accidentes severos visualizacion de OEs, NAEs y calculo del termino fuente de la CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval V, S. [Instituto Nacional de Electricidad y Energias Limpias, Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Mendoza R, M. E.; Tijerina S, F.; Garcia C, T., E-mail: manuel.mendoza@cfe.gob.mx [CFE, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Federal Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, 91476 Municipio Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    A nuclear power plant is operated at all times within the design criteria of structures, systems and components, and according to the operation technical specifications. For different areas of work of a nuclear power plant is necessary to carry out practices in which is useful to have the prediction of the thermo-hydraulic and radiological progression of scenarios that imply exceeding that design bases, even reaching the damage of the fuel in different degree. During the exercises and drills of the External Plan of Emergency Response, the projection of doses is done to exercise the different tasks of the plan. To make the projection of doses is required to have the radiological source term of the scenario on which is practiced. Because of this, was identified the convenience of having a catalog of scenarios for which the radiological source term was calculated. In 2004, a first version of the catalog was produced for a power of 2027 MW, and in 2011 the catalog was updated for extended power conditions, 2317 MW. Both versions were made using the severe accident simulator MAAP-3B. That catalog consists of a form and an optical storage device. The form contains tables and figures in which the characteristics of the scenario to be practiced are searched and the electronic files of the corresponding radiological source term are located in the storage device. Due to the recent development of the graphical console for analysis of severe accidents, visualization of OEs, NAEs and calculation of the source term for the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) CoGrAAS, the catalog printed was replaced by an electronic catalog for the CoGrAAS. The new catalog retains the philosophy of the previous catalog, constituted by a wide collection of scenarios that involve different circumstances and phenomena, that can be used to practice different tasks during training exercises or simulacrums, and combined with the following advantages: the scenario selection is made from an automated scheme in the CoGrAAS, the calculation of the source term is automated and can be performed for any time during the scenario progression, the simulations were performed using a more detailed model of the Unit 1 of the NPP-LV and with a more advanced version of MAAP (version 4). (Author)

  12. Development of a computer program of fast calculation for the pre design of advanced nuclear fuel 10 x 10 for BWR type reactors; Desarrollo de un program de computo de calculo rapido para el prediseno de celdas de combustible nuclear avanzado 10 x 10 para reactores de agua en ebullicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mrpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) a methodology is developed to optimize the design of cells 10x10 of assemble fuels for reactors of water in boil or BWR. It was proposed a lineal calculation formula based on a coefficients matrix (of the change reason of the relative power due to changes in the enrichment of U-235) for estimate the relative powers by pin of a cell. With this it was developed the computer program of fast calculation named PreDiCeldas. The one which by means of a simple search algorithm allows to minimize the relative power peak maximum of cell or LPPF. This is achieved varying the distribution of U-235 inside the cell, maintaining in turn fixed its average enrichment. The accuracy in the estimation of the relative powers for pin is of the order from 1.9% when comparing it with results of the 'best estimate' HELIOS code. With the PreDiCeldas it was possible, at one minimum time of calculation, to re-design a reference cell diminishing the LPPF, to the beginning of the life, of 1.44 to a value of 1.31. With the cell design with low LPPF is sought to even design cycles but extensive that those reached at the moment in the BWR of the Laguna Verde Central. (Author)

  13. Data bank for economic viability calculation of energy sources for a typical rural community at the Brazil Northern and Northeastern; Banco de dados para o calculo da viabilidade economica de fontes de energia para uma comunidade rural tipica da reigao Norte e Nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Francine; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: fmenzel@ipen.b, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vanni, Silvia Regina, E-mail: sjcvanni@yahoo.com.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work elaborates a data bank containing information relevant relative to energy sources in Brazil with viability and sustainability, The data bank was elaborated using the computer program Excel, where all the references are linked to the articles and to the correspondent sites. This data bank was the base for the development or the Program for the Calculation of the Economic Viability of the Alternative Energies Solar, Aeolian and Biomass (PEASEB), which results were compared to the energy generated by innovator and compact reactors (IRIS)

  14. Computational modeling of the mathematical dummy of the Brazilian woman for calculations of internal dosimetry and ends of comparison of the fractions absorbed specific with the woman reference; Modelagem computacional do manequim matematico da mulher brasileira para calculos de dosimetria interna e para fins de comparacao das fracoes absorvidas especificas com a mulher referencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximenes, Edmir

    2006-07-01

    Tools for dosimetric calculations are of the utmost importance for the basic principles of radiological protection, not only in nuclear medicine, but also in other scientific calculations. In this work a mathematical model of the Brazilian woman is developed in order to be used as a basis for calculations of Specific Absorbed Fractions (SAFs) in internal organs and in the skeleton, in accord with the objectives of diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. The model developed here is similar in form to that of Snyder, but modified to be more relevant to the case of the Brazilian woman. To do this, the formalism of the Monte Carlo method was used by means of the ALGAM- 97{sup R} computational code. As a contribution to the objectives of this thesis, we developed the computational system cSAF - consultation for Specific Absorbed Fractions (cFAE from Portuguese acronym) - which furnishes several 'look-up' facilities for the research user. The dialogue interface with the operator was planned following current practices in the utilization of event-oriented languages. This interface permits the user to navigate by means of the reference models, choose the source organ, the energy desired, and receive an answer through an efficient and intuitive dialogue. The system furnishes, in addition to the data referring to the Brazilian woman, data referring to the model of Snyder and to the model of the Brazilian man. The system makes available not only individual data to the SAFs of the three models, but also a comparison among them. (author)

  15. Presentation of the DosePet application (APP) for use in Nuclear Medicine: calculation of the amount of medicament for PET / CT patients; Apresentacao do aplicativo DosedPet para uso em Medicina Nuclear: calculo do volume de medicamento necessario para paciente de PETCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck, E-mail: pedroan88@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Faculdade Ceilandia. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologias em Saude

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the premises after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  16. para mejorar el %R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Díaz Mata

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisan dos indicadores técnicos bursátiles que están estrechamente relacionados, el oscilador estocástico %K de Lane y el oscilador %R de Williams; asimismo, se evalúa el uso de dos mecanismos asociados con el primero y que no suelen utilizarse con el %R: el proceso de frenado (slowing y el uso de un promedio móvil del propio oscilador estocástico como disparadores de señales de compra y de venta. Realizando simulaciones con 27 acciones y el Índice de Precios y Cotizaciones de la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores se verifica la hipótesis principal y se comprueba que, efectivamente, en muchos casos, el uso del proceso de frenado con el oscilador %R de Williams permite tomar mejores decisiones. Por otro lado, se concluye que de los dos disparadores de señales el que mejor funciona, tanto para %K como para %R es el uso de cotas inferior y superior. Este artículo surgió en el curso de una investigación sobre el análisis técnico bursátil de acciones que se puede realizar en su totalidad por computadora y que, esencialmente, excluye el análisis gráfico. Uno de los propósitos del estudio es determinar si es posible, y bajo qué mecanismos, establecer un sistema de análisis bursátil que le permita al inversionista tomar decisiones de inversión en acciones en la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores sin tener que emplear la considerable cantidad de tiempo que es necesario para el análisis gráfico tradicional. Durante este estudio se realizó un análisis preliminar de unos 120 indicadores técnicos para, por un lado, conocerlos con cierto detalle y, por otra parte, aislar aquellos que prometían ser de utilidad para el objetivo de la investigación. Fue en este proceso cuando se detectó que existen dos indicadores que están relacionados y que permiten un análisis por separado que tiene, cuando menos, dos ventajas. En primer lugar está el placer que da a quien gusta de estos temas encontrarse con indicadores que, de acuerdo

  17. Inmunopotenciadores para la acuicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocmira Pérez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La acuicultura es una de las actividades económicas de mayor crecimiento para la producción de alimentos. Uno de sus principales retos es la obtención de grandes volúmenes de producción con la mayor calidad posible. Esto conlleva a una reducción de la aplicación de antibióticos y productos quimioterapéuticos. Una de las estrategias más prometedoras es la aplicación de inmunopotenciadores, principalmente en los cultivos intensivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar los principales inmunopotenciadores, así como las tendencias y retos de su uso mundial. Se resumen las particularidades moleculares y funcionales de los mismos y se hace énfasis en los más estudiados: levamisol, ß-glucanos, lipopolisacárido, vitamina C, extractos de plantas y hormonas. Todos estos compuestos de naturaleza heterogénea inciden mayoritariamente en los componentes de la inmunidad innata de los peces, fortaleciendo y potenciando la resistencia a enfermedades; adicionalmente algunos de ellos tienen funciones antiestrés y favorecen su crecimiento. Se concluye que los inmunopotenciadores constituyen una estrategia viable para reducir las pérdidas por problemas sanitarios en el sector de la acuicultura; pero aún quedan por solucionar aspectos como la vía de administración y la etapa de inmunización adecuada para cada especie y tipo de cultivo.

  18. Ha vuelto para mirarnos

    OpenAIRE

    Casalderrey, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    En cada entrega analizaremos un cuadro, mirándolo con ojos matemáticos. Con esa particular mirada, fruto de nuestra propia (de)formación. Y desde ese punto de vista haremos paseos por el arte y las matemáticas. Espero que el lector, como hago yo mismo, disfrute descubriendo más allá de lo que a simple vista distinguiría cualquiera. Al fin de cuentas, el arte, como las matemáticas, han sido creados para hacernos disfrutar.

  19. Interfaces para control cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Enrique Mario

    2000-01-01

    La función de una interfaz para control cerebral basada en señales de electroencefalograma (EEG), en forma general denominada BCI (Brain control Interface), es establecer un enlace directo entre el cerebro y una máquina, sin utilizar acciones motoras directas. Una BCI permite realizar operaciones simples a partir de la interpretación de las señales de EEG. Su desarrollo está principalmente orientado hacia la ayuda a personas con discapacidades motoras severas, que poseen deterioros en el sist...

  20. Comunicar para la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Eva Bocco

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Con este trabajo quiero plantearles una inquietud en torno al rol que nos cabe a los comunicadores en el área de la salud desde la perspectiva de la comunicación para la salud. ¿Se puede pensar la salud pública desvinculada de la comunicación? ¿La comunicación es posible sin la existencia de salud en la comunidad? ¿Qué puede hacer un comunicador en el ministerio de salud? ¿Puede un estado desarrollar políticas de salud sin la presencia de la comunicación?

  1. Democracia para ciudadanos ciborgs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Varela

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Enumera los instrumentos imprescindibles de la ciberpolítica para campañas electorales en España, cuando se renovaron los cargos municipales. La política vuelve a ser personal cuando ciudadanos y políticos se hablan cara a cara y cita varios ejemplos, reconociendo la recuperación de la comunicación directa. La ciberdemocracia es muy exigente. Los políticos prefieren la magia de la imagen. La sociedad no sabe como detener la propaganda viral que bombardea a los buscadores de red.

  2. Democracia para ciudadanos ciborgs

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Varela

    2007-01-01

    Enumera los instrumentos imprescindibles de la ciberpolítica para campañas electorales en España, cuando se renovaron los cargos municipales. La política vuelve a ser personal cuando ciudadanos y políticos se hablan cara a cara y cita varios ejemplos, reconociendo la recuperación de la comunicación directa. La ciberdemocracia es muy exigente. Los políticos prefieren la magia de la imagen. La sociedad no sabe como detener la propaganda viral que bombardea a los buscadores de red.

  3. Serie: Madera para construcción Acabados para madera

    OpenAIRE

    Sáenz-Muñoz, Marta; Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica

    2012-01-01

    Durante mucho tiempo, la madera ha sido utilizada como material de construcción para resolver principalmente objetivos estructurales; sin embargo, actualmente, el uso de la madera ha tomado mucho auge en la estética de las construcciones, para brindar apariencia y calidez. En la actualidad, el mercado ofrece una amplia gama productos para dar diversos “acabados” a la madera, los cuales sirven para resaltar la belleza de algunas de ellas, realzar características como el color y la veta, o bien...

  4. "Colaborar para Competir"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Liliana Hijuelos-Cárdenas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con Michael Porter, los Clusters se definen como “Una agrupación de empresas e instituciones relacionadas entre sí, pertenecientes a un mismo sector o segmento de mercado, que se encuentran próximas geográficamente y que colaboran para ser más competitivas”. Los Clusters son en última instancia una herramienta de competitividad basada en la cooperación de sus miembros, y es una de las estrategias recientes, en el país, para incrementar la productividad y competitividad y las apuestas productivas desde el nivel local. Y es precisamente esta cercanía geográfica de las empresas de un mismo sector, lo que a la vez que genera la competencia entre ellas, también les facilita el acceso a insumos y a conocimientos específicos y en última instancia les permite promover la innovación.

  5. Principios teatrales para docentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Irene Arroyo Zúñiga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende dar herramientas a los docentes para que puedan utilizarlas como parte de las actividades dentro de un plan de elección, en cualquier disciplina. Además encontrará una exposición de los elementos que componen el arte de la representación escénica, como son: 1. Expresión corporal; es la capacidad de expresar emociones partiendo únicamente de nuestro cuerpo. 2. Impostación; es la habilidad de proyectar la voz sin lastimar las cuerdas vocales. 3. Dicción; es la pronunciación correcta de las palabras. 4. Actuación; es la posibilidad de crear un personaje partiendo de los recursos expresivos y de la forma natural en que el alumno acostumbra a reaccionar. Técnica de improvisación, en éste artículo propongo una serie de seis pasos que pueden ser de gran ayuda a la hora de usar el teatro como recurso didáctico. El teatro a lo largo de la historia ha sido usado para transmitir conocimientos, valores, creencias y todo aspecto inherente a los individuos y su entorno social. Por lo tanto debemos aprovechar al máximo los beneficios que nos ofrece el teatro como educadores

  6. Choice and the cost and benefit analysis of one solar system of renewable energy for the Tepozan Park; Seleccion y analisis costo-beneficio de un sistema de energia renovable para el parque Tepozan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez P, J. Manuel A; Sheinbaum P, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This article is about the choice process and the cost and benefit analysis of one solar photovoltaic system for the Tepozan Park, which is a space of ecoturism and ecological education, it is at the Tlalpan District in Mexico, D.F. According to this objective, we start with an introduction related to general conditions in the Park and we talk about the energy requirement. Next, the method for the better option choice is shown, this is based on decision analysis of Kepner and Tregoe. The choice option is evaluated according to the main financial tools of the Cost and Benefit Analysis private evaluation. This shows the decision analysis including issued about ecology. Finally, we add a point for the result synthesis, so we can have a complete approach in order to choice a renewable energy. As conclusion is shown the most important costs and benefits, thinking on future decisions about operation and maintenance of the system. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el proceso de seleccion y analisis Costo-Beneficio de un sistema de energia solar fotovoltaica para las instalaciones del Parque Tepozan, un espacio de ecoturismo y educacion ambiental, ubicado en la delegacion Tlalpan de Mexico, D.F. Para ello, se da una introduccion de las condiciones generales del parque y de los requerimientos de energia. Posteriormente se presenta un apartado del metodo para la seleccion de la alternativa mas adecuada, sustentado en un analisis de decisiones. La alternativa seleccionada, se somete a una evaluacion de los principales criterios de la evaluacion privada derivada del Analisis Costo Beneficio, con lo que se ilustra el proceso de toma de decision, incluyendo los factores de impacto ambiental. Finalmente, se incorpora un apartado de sintesis de resultados, para aportar un panorama completo en cuanto a la operacion y mantenimiento del sistema dentro del parque.

  7. Sizing an isolated wind-solar-fuel cell generation system based on the particle swarm optimization method; Dimensionamiento de un sistema de generacion aislado eolico-solar-celda de combustible basado en el metodo de optimizacion de enjambre de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Huerta, V; Ramirez-Arredondo, Juan M. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: vsanchez@gdl.cinvestav.mx; Arriaga-Hurtado, L. G. [CIDETEQ, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Sizing an electric energy system requires an analysis of investment, maintenance and operating costs. In the case of a generation system that uses renewable sources, optimal capacity becomes more complex compared to a conventional system, because of the randomness of renewable resources (wind, solar) and the still high costs of wind and photovoltage generator modules. This work presents the optimal sizing of a wind-solar-fuel cell generation system, minimizing the costs of the system while satisfying the energy demands of an isolated charge. The optimization method used is based on an evolutionary programming technique known as particle swarms (PSO-particle swarm optimization). The generation of energy with a hybrid system is discussed, based on the profile of insolation and wind availability at the site, with the objective of satisfying a specific electric demand. [Spanish] El dimensionamiento de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica requiere un analisis de los costos de inversion, mantenimiento y operacion. En el caso de un sistema de generacion que utiliza fuentes renovables la capacidad optima resulta mas compleja con respecto a un sistema convencional, debido a la aleatoriedad de los recursos renovables (eolico, solar), y a los aun altos costos de generadores eolicos y modulos fotovoltaicos. En este trabajo se presenta el dimensionamiento optimo de un sistema de generacion eolico-solar-celda de combustible minimizando los costos del sistema que satisfaga la energia demandada por una carga aislada. El metodo de optimizacion utilizado esta basado en una tecnica de programacion evolutiva conocida como enjambre de particulas (PSO por sus siglas en ingles: particle swarm optimization). Se plantea la generacion de energia del sistema hibrido con base a la insolacion y el perfil del viento disponible en sitio, con objeto de satisfacer una demanda electrica determinada.

  8. Recommendations of technical specifications for ethanol and its blends (E6) and the infrastructure for their management in Mexico; Recomendaciones de especificaciones tecnicas para el etanol y sus mezclas (E6) y la infraestructura para su manejo en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    next few years in Mexico. [Spanish] Este documento describe la importancia y los beneficios del uso de la mezcla bioetanol-gasolina como sustituto de la gasolina pura. Presenta datos del mercado mundial de etanol, asi como de los principales productores, procesos involucrados para diferentes materias primas e indicadores de productividad. Discute las principales propiedades a ser monitoreadas en el etanol y la importancia de cada una. Tambien revisa el impacto de la adicion de etanol en las gasolinas automotrices y la influencian de cada propiedad en el funcionamiento de los automoviles y el medio ambiente. Presenta un diagnostico de las especificaciones internacionales del etanol anhidro usadas en los Estados Unidos, Brasil y la Union Europea, asi como sugerencias de armonizacion para los limites de los principales parametros y para las metodologias, a partir de estudios publicados recientemente (White Paper- Bioetahnol Task Force y Guidelines to Ethanol from Worldwide Fuel Charter Committee). Incluye la especificacion de las gasolinas brasilenas, adicionadas con un 25% de etanol (E25). Sugiere una especificacion de etanol anhidro, asi como una especificacion para mezclas gasolina/etanol E6 para su implementacion en Mexico. Presenta una priorizacion de los metodos de prueba de laboratorio para el etanol y la gasolina mezclada con etanol en tres categorias, indicando las pruebas mas adecuadas para ser usados en diferentes puntos de la cadena de distribucion de los productos. Discute el impacto del etanol en las instalaciones de distribucion de los combustibles, acciones para el control de posibles problemas, seleccion de materiales y equipamiento, presenta procedimientos de seguridad y el proceso de mezcla gasolina/etanol. Describe tambien el sistema brasileno de produccion/distribucion de combustibles y la experiencia de este pais en el control de calidad de los combustibles a partir de la legislacion vigente. Se incluye un cuadro con los principales equipos, sus

  9. Feasibility of implementation of an autonomous hybrid system for PEM fuel cells to electrify localities in rural Cuba; Factibilidad de implementacion de un sistema hibrido autonomo con celda de combustible PEM para electrificar localidades rurales en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Torres, Yamir [Centro de Estudios de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (CETER), Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)] e-mail: yamir@ceter.cujae.edu.cu

    2009-09-15

    a la electrificacion de zonas rurales alejadas de la red electrica nacional en Cuba. Se calculo la demanda electrica de la zona y el potencial energetico disponible, luego, mediante el uso de los programas informaticos de modelacion y simulacion, HOMER, PVSYST y Matlab 1,2,3, se determino la variabilidad del potencial eolico y fotovoltaico con las horas del dia y las estaciones climaticas a lo largo de un ano, asi como su efecto en la produccion de hidrogeno y electricidad. Se comprobo que incluso para los mas adversos escenarios se cumple con la demanda energetica necesaria. En el trabajo se ofrece detalladamente el comportamiento del sistema y se evidencia la no afectacion del entorno siendo posible la electrificacion y bienestar de los pobladores de la localidad.

  10. A Quick Method of Measuring and Analyzing {beta} Emitters in Solution of Very Low-Level Specific Activity; Remarques sur une technique rapide de mesure et d'analyse d'emetteurs {beta} en solution de tres faible activite specifique; Zamechaniya o bystroj tekhnike izmereniya i analize izluchatelej {beta}-chastits v rastvore s ochen' slaboj spetsificheskoj aktivnost'yu; Observaciones sobre un metodo rapido de medicion y analisis de emisores {beta} en soluciones de muy baja actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallic, Y; Grinberg, B; Thenard, M [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1960-06-15

    vaina de contadores conectados en anticoincidencia con los primeros. 2. Ademas enumeran las posibilidades y campos de utilizacion del metodo que: a) especialmente en el caso de los emisores {beta} blandos, permite medir actividades especificas mucho mas bajas que cuando se utilizan contadores para liquidos; b) permite descubrir las sustancias radiactivas presentes como impurezas en determinados radioelementos (por ejemplo, 2/10 000 de P{sup 32} en S{sup 35}); c) para la mayor parte de los radioelementos permite medir, sin necesidad de proceder a una concentracion previa, actividades especificas de igual orden de magnitud que los limites de tolerancia actualmente admitidos. (author) [Russian] 1. Opisanie mekhanizma izmereniya so slabym fonom prednaznachennog o dlya izmereniya radioaktivnykh produktov v zhidkom sostoyanii, kotoryj sostoit v osnovnom iz dvukh ploskikh schetchikov s odnim oknom i odnogo ploskogo schetchika s dvumya oknami, raspolozhenny kh parallel'no drug k DRUGU i izolirovanny kh vnutri zashchitnoj obolochkoj schetchikov, vstavlen- nykh takim obrazom, chtoby oni ne sovpadali s pervymi. 2. Vozmozhnosti i oblasti ispol'zovaniya metoda: a) ehtot metod pozvolyaet izmerit' gorazdo bolee slabuyu spetsificheskuyu aktivnost', chem ehto vozmozhno s zhidkotnymi schetchikami, v chastnosti s izluchatelyami ne zhestkikh {beta}-chastits; b) ehtot metod pozvolyaet obnaruzhivat' radioaktivnye primesi vnutri radioehlementa (napr. 2/10 OOO R{sup 32} v S{sup 35}); s) ehtot metod pozvolyaet dlya bol'shinstva radioehlemento v izmeryat' bez predvaritel'no j kontsentratsii spetsificheskuyu aktivnost' sootvetstvenno ravnuyu prinyatym v nastoyashchee v nastoyashchee vremya predel'nym dopuskam. (author)

  11. Bases para proyectiles dirigidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque actualmente no se ha llegado a una línea general de métodos o sistemas que gobiernen un tipo característico de rampa y servicios auxiliares necesarios para el lanzamiento al espacio de proyectiles dirigidos a grandes alturas y distancias, las experiencias obtenidas en diferentes ensayos, utilizando distintos tipos de proyectiles y trayectorias balísticas, han sentado toda una serie de procedimientos, datos y conclusiones de gran valor balístico que, aun teniendo en cuenta la continua evolución del proyectil, sus formas, combustibles y alcances, se conocen ya, con bastante aproximación, las condiciones mínimas que ha de reunir una base dedicada a este tipo de lanzamientos.

  12. The Role of Non-Destructive Testing in Test-Reactor Operation at the National Reactor Testing Station; Role des Essais Non Destructifs dans l'Exploitation des Reacteurs d'Essai au Centre National d'Essais de Reacteurs; Rol' nedestruktivnykh ispytanij pri ehkspluatatsii ispytatel'nykh reaktorov na natsional'noj stantsii po ispytaniyam reaktorov; Papel de los Metodos No Destructivos en la Explotacion de los Reactores de la National Reactor Testing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, W. C.; Brown, E. S.; Burdick, E. E.; Gibson, G. W.; Tingey, F. H. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Atomic Energy Division, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1965-10-15

    'un densimetre, permettent de determiner la distribution du combustible. On a habituellement recours a la radiographie des soudures pour les parties constitutives des reacteurs et des boucles d'essai. Le disp