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Sample records for metmyoglobin reducing ability

  1. Influence of different production strategies on the stability of color, oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhenyu; Miao, Jing; Xie, Li; Dai, Yan; Li, Xingmin; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Dai, Ruitong

    2014-02-01

    Fifty male Ningxia Tan sheep were randomly divided into five groups (10 per group). Different feeding strategies were applied to each group for 120 days prior to slaughter. The sheep belong to five groups were pastured for 0 h (feedlot-fed), 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h per day on a natural grazing ground, respectively. M. semitendinosus muscle from Tan sheep was obtained after slaughter. Instrumental color, pH values, oxygen consumption rate, metmyoglobin reducing activity and relative metmyoglobin percentages were analyzed after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Long-term daily grazing and herbage-based diet were conducive to maintain a lower oxygen consumption rate, higher metmyoglobin reducing activity and lower metmyoglobin accumulation. The combination of pasture-fed and feedlot-fed was conducive to weight gain, and at the same time, increased the color stability of the meat from Ningxia Tan sheep. © 2013.

  2. Reducing effects of polyphenols on metmyoglobin and the in vitro regeneration of bright meat color by polyphenols in the presence of cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yukari; Inai, Miyuki; Honda, Sari; Masuda, Akiko; Masuda, Toshiya

    2014-10-01

    The effect of polyphenols and related phenolic compounds on the reduction of metmyoglobin (MetMb) to oxymyoglobin (MbO2), in the presence of cysteine, was investigated. Caffeic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid, and hydroxtyrosol (600 μmol/L) did not show any reducing activity individually. However, their highly potent activity in the reduction of MetMb to MbO2 was observed in the presence of equimolar amounts of cysteine. On the basis of the analytical results for the redox reaction products generated during the MetMb-reducing reaction of caffeic acid, we proposed a mechanism for the polyphenol-mediated reduction of MetMb. As per the proposed mechanism, the antioxidant polyphenols having a catechol substructure can effectively reduce MetMb to MbO2 with chemical assistance from nucleophilic reactive thiol compounds such as cysteine. Moreover, cysteine-coupled polyphenols such as cysteinylcaffeic acids (which are coupling products of caffeic acid and cysteine) can be used as preserving agents for retaining the fresh meat color, because of their powerful reducing effect on MetMb. The reduction of MetMb to MbO2 changes the color of meat from brown to the more desirable bright red.

  3. Fatty acids, lipid and protein oxidation, metmyoglobin reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-05-23

    May 23, 2016 ... attributes of biceps femoris muscle in goats fed a canola and palm oil blend ... The 4% and 8% BCPO meat had lower C14:0, but ... oil had no effect on feed intake and growth performance in goats (Adeyemi et al., 2015c). .... temperature was set at 100 ºC for 2 min, and warmed to 170 ºC at 10 ºC/min, held ...

  4. Structure of bound water and refinement of acid metmyoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghaven, N.V.; Schoenborn, B.P.

    1982-06-01

    The structure of myoglobin has been determined by x-ray diffraction for the acidmet, deoxy, and the oxy forms. Neutron diffraction work, done in this laboratory, has demonstrated that hydrogen and deuterium positions can be located. In addition to the localization of H and D, neutron diffraction provides a unique method for studying the water structure because of the strong scattering ability of D 2 O. The scattering factor of deuterium is nearly twice as large as that of hydrogen, and it increases the visibility of water molecules in Fourier maps, so that in a neutron map a water molecule appears about three times as strong as in an equivalent electron-density map. (DT)

  5. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native perennial bunchgrasses. The authors also presented several statements regarding the benefits of winter grazing on post-fire plant community responses. However, this commentary will show that the study by Davies et al. has underlying methodological flaws, lacks data necessary to support their conclusions, and does not provide an accurate discussion on the effect of grazing on rangeland ecosystems. Importantly, Davies et al. presented no data on the post-fire mortality of the perennial bunchgrasses or on the changes in plant community composition following their experimental fires. Rather, Davies et al. inferred these conclusions based off their observed fire behavior metrics of maximum temperature and a term described as the “heat load”. However, neither metric is appropriate for elucidating the heat flux impacts on plants. This lack of post-fire data, several methodological flaws, and the use of inadequate metrics describing heat cast doubts on the authors’ ability to support their stated conclusions. This article is a commentary highlights the scientific shortcomings in a forthcoming paper by Davies et al. in the International Journal of Wildland Fire. The study has methodological flaw

  6. Lipid oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein induced by metmyoglobin/H2O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, P K; Willhite, C A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Metmyoglobin (metMb) and H(2)O(2) can oxidize low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro, and oxidized LDL may be atherogenic. The role of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) in LDL oxidation by peroxidases such as metMb is unclear. Herein, we show that during metMb/H(2)O(2)-induced oxidation of native LDL...... of CE-O(O)H is dependent on, and correlates with, LDL's alpha-TOH content, yet does not require preformed lipid hydroperoxides or H(2)O(2). This indicates that in native LDL alpha-TOH can act as a phase-transfer agent and alpha-TO(*) as a chain-transfer agent propagating LDL lipid peroxidation via...

  7. Assessing biochar's ability to reduce bioavailability of aminocyclopyrachlor in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, Jennifer L.; Rice, Pamela J.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Koskinen, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Aminocyclopyrachlor is a pyrimidine carboxylic acid herbicide used to control broadleaf weeds and brush. Amending soil with activated charcoal is recommended to prevent off-site transport of aminocyclopyrachlor and non-target plant damage. We used the batch-equilibrium method to determine the concentration of aminocyclopyrachlor in a pseudo-steady state with biochar, soil, and biochar-soil systems ( 5  kg ha −1 –7.27 × 10 5  kg ha −1 ). - Highlights: • Aminocyclopyrachlor is mobile in three Minnesota soils. • Biochar amendments had limited use for aminocyclopyrachlor remediation in soil. • Two biochar amendments consistently reduced the aqueous-phase herbicide. • Biochar inputs would be very high and not feasible for field-scale remediation. - This was the first study to assess the use of biochar as a remediation tool for reducing bioavailable aminocyclopyrachlor in the liquid phase soil systems

  8. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age.......Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  9. Met-myoglobin formation, accumulation, degradation, and myoglobin oxygenation monitoring based on multiwavelength attenuance measurement in porcine meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thien; Phan, Kien Nguyen; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2016-05-01

    We propose a simple, rapid, and nondestructive method to investigate formation, accumulation, and degradation of met-myoglobin (met-Mb) and myoglobin oxygenation from the interior of porcine meat. For the experiment, color photos and attenuance spectra of porcine meat (well-bled muscle, fat, and mixed) were collected daily to perform colorimetric analysis and to obtain the differences of attenuance between 578 and 567 nm (A578-A567) and between 615 and 630 nm (A630-A615), respectively. Oxy-, deoxy-, and met-myoglobin concentration changes over storage time were also calculated using Beer-Lamberts' law with reflectance intensities at 557, 582, and 630 nm. The change of A578-A567 was well matched with the change of myoglobin oxygenation, and the change of A630-A615 corresponded well with the formation and degradation of met-Mb. In addition, attenuation differences, A578-A567 and A630-A615, were able to show the formation of met-Mb earlier than colorimetric analysis. Therefore, the attenuance differences between wavelengths can be indicators for estimating myoglobin oxygenation and met-Mb formation, accumulation, and degradation, which enable us to design a simple device to monitor myoglobin activities in porcine meat.

  10. LC-MS of Metmyoglobin at pH = 2: Separation and Characterization of Apomyoglobin and Heme by ESI-MS and UV-Vis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynes, Helen Cleary; Layo, Araceli; Smith, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    The protein species of apomyoglobin (apoMb) and heme are freed and segregated from the aqueous protein solution of metmyoglobin by liquid chromatography, and are distinguished by UV-Vis absorption or electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). This is an ingenious and effective approach to characterize apomyoglobin and heme, while students…

  11. Gene knockdown of CENPA reduces sphere forming ability and stemness of glioblastoma initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinan Behnan

    2016-09-01

    Knockdown of CENPA reduced sphere forming ability, proliferation and cell viability of GICs. We also detected significant reduction in the expression of stemness marker SOX2 and the proliferation marker Ki67. These results indicate that CENPA might represent a promising therapeutic target for GBM treatment.

  12. A cohort study of permanently reduced work ability in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauglann, Beate; Benth, Jūratė Šaltytė; Fosså, Sophie D; Dahl, Alv A

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this cohort study were to explore various longitudinal aspects of employment and disability pension due to permanently reduced work ability among women with breast cancer and to investigate the impact of breast cancer on income. In a national register-based controlled cohort study from Norway, 1,548 women diagnosed with breast cancer (all stages) between 1992 and 1996 at the age 45-54 years and 1,548 cancer-free women matched for age, municipality and civil status were followed for up to 14 years. Medical data from the Cancer Registry of Norway were linked with longitudinal data on employment, social security benefits and socio-demography collected from other national official registries. Compared to cancer-free controls, breast cancer patients were significantly more likely to receive disability pension (hazard ratio (HR) 2.7, 95% CI 2.3-3.2) after adjustment for unmatched socio-demographic variables (education, income and children employment rates were higher in non-disabled patients than in non-disabled controls (82% vs. 77%, p = 0.008). Working breast cancer patients experienced a temporary negative effect on employment income. A considerable proportion of women with breast cancer will over time experience permanently reduced work ability and become disability pension holders. In case of reduced work ability in breast cancer survivors, medical personel caring for them should consider and discuss with them rehabilitation and workplace adjustment in order to prevent early disability pension.

  13. Intravenous clonidine administration and its ability to reduce pulmonary arterial pressure in patients undergoing heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Barbosa João

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the ability of clonidine to reduce pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing heart surgery, either by reducing the pressure values from the direct measurement of pulmonary arterial pressure or by reducing or eliminating the need for intraoperative dobutamine and nitroprusside. Method: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, comparative study conducted in 30 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension type 2 undergoing cardiac surgery. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and dosage of dobutamine and sodium nitroprusside were assessed four times: before intravenous administration of clonidine (2 μg/kg or placebo (T0, 30 min after tested treatment and before cardiopulmonary bypass (T1, immediately after CPB (T2, 10 min after protamine injection (T3. Results: There were no significant differences regarding mean pulmonary arterial pressure at any time of evaluation. There was no significant difference between groups regarding other variables, such as mean systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, total dose of dobutamine, total dose of sodium nitroprusside, and need for fentanyl. Conclusion: Data analysis from patients included in this study allows us to conclude that intravenous clonidine (2 μg/kg was not able to reduce the mean pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with pulmonary hypertension in group 2 (pulmonary venous hypertension, undergoing heart surgery, or reduce or eliminate the need for intraoperative administration of dobutamine and sodium nitroprusside. Keywords: Clonidine, Pulmonary hypertension, Heart surgery

  14. Improved walking ability and reduced therapeutic stress with an electromechanical gait device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivogel, Susanna; Schmalohr, Dieter; Mehrholz, Jan

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of repetitive locomotor training using a newly developed electromechanical gait device compared with treadmill training/gait training with respect to patient's ambulatory motor outcome, necessary personnel resources, and discomfort experienced by therapists and patients. Randomized, controlled, cross-over trial. Sixteen non-ambulatory patients after stroke, severe brain or spinal cord injury sequentially received 2 kinds of gait training. Study intervention A: 20 treatments of locomotor training with an electromechanical gait device; control intervention B: 20 treatments of locomotor training with treadmill or task-oriented gait training. The primary variable was walking ability (Functional Ambulation Category). Secondary variables included gait velocity, Motricity-Index, Rivermead-Mobility-Index, number of therapists needed, and discomfort and effort of patients and therapists during training. Gait ability and the other motor outcome related parameters improved for all patients, but without significant difference between intervention types. However, during intervention A, significantly fewer therapists were needed, and they reported less discomfort and a lower level of effort during training sessions. Locomotor training with or without an electromechanical gait trainer leads to improved gait ability; however, using the electromechanical gait trainer requires less therapeutic assistance, and therapist discomfort is reduced.

  15. Carotenoid-dependent coloration of male American kestrels predicts ability to reduce parasitic infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Russell D.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2006-12-01

    The signaling function of sexually selected traits, such as carotenoid-dependent avian plumage coloration, has received a great deal of recent attention especially with respect to parasitism and immunocompetence. We argue that parasite-mediated models of sexual selection may have an implicit temporal component that many researchers have ignored. For example, previous studies have demonstrated that carotenoid-dependent traits can signal past parasite exposure, current levels of parasitism, or the ability of individuals to manage parasitic infections in the future. We examined repeated measures of carotenoid-dependent skin color and blood parasitism in American kestrels ( Falco sparverius) to distinguish whether coloration might signal current parasitism or the potential to deal with infections in the future. We found no evidence that coloration was related to current levels of parasitism in either sex. However, coloration of males significantly predicted their response to parasitism; males with bright orange coloration during prelaying, when mate choice is occurring, were more likely than dull yellow males to reduce their levels of infection by the time incubation began. Coloration during prelaying may advertise a male’s health later in the breeding season. For kestrels, the ability to predict future health would be highly beneficial given the male’s role in providing food to his mate and offspring. Coloration of females was not a significant predictor of parasitism in the future, and we provide several possible explanations for this result.

  16. Formation of methemoglobin and metmyoglobin using 8-aminoquinoline derivatives or sodium nitrite and subsequent reaction with cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, R K; Baskin, S I; Clark, J H; Kirby, S D

    1990-10-01

    The kinetics of the oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb) by sodium nitrite, 8-[(4-amino-1-methylbutyl)amino]-6-methoxy-quinoline diphosphate (primaquine), 6-methoxy-8-(6-diethylaminohexylamino)-4-methyl-quinoline dihydrochloride (WR6026) and 8-[(4-amino-1-methylbutyl)amino]-2,6-dimethoxy-4-methyl- 5-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]quinoline succinate (WR238,605) were studied at pH values ranging from 7.4 to 7.6 and at 37 +/- 1 degrees C. The reaction between Hb and primaquine, WR6026 and WR238,605 resulted in precipitation, as did the reaction between Mb and WR238,605. The reaction between nitrite ion (NO2-) and Hb showed a lag period followed by an autocatalytic phase. The data in this study are consistent with and substantiate the proposed mechanism for the Hb-NO2- oxidation reaction. The reaction between Mb and NO2- at higher NO2- concentrations also showed a lag period followed by an autocatalytic period, while at lower NO2- concentrations no lag period was seen. The data suggest a shift in rate constant at these lower NO2- concentrations. The reaction between Mb and both WR6026 and primaquine followed a two-term rate law with oxidant-dependent and -independent terms. Concentration-effect curve data, along with these results, suggest the presence of a catalytic pathway. The rates of formation of cyanomethemoglobin and cyanometmyoglobin complexes from cyanide ion and methemoglobin (MHb) and metmyoglobin (MMb), respectively, were followed in the presence of the heme oxidants. The rate constants were all within a narrow range and suggest that complexation of cyanide by MHb and MMb is not affected by the presence of oxidants.

  17. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Merajuddin Khan,1 Mujeeb Khan,1 Abdulhadi H Al-Marri,1 Abdulrahman Al-Warthan,1 Hamad Z Alkhathlan,1 Mohammed Rafiq H Siddiqui,1 Vadithe Lakshma Nayak,2 Ahmed Kamal,2 Syed F Adil1 1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, CSIR – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano­composites (PGE-HRG-Ag were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. Keywords: plant extract, graphene/silver nanocomposites, anticancer, apoptosis

  18. Lithium-induced NDI: acetazolamide reduces polyuria but does not improve urine concentrating ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Theun; Doornebal, Joan; Christensen, Birgitte M; Cockx, Simone; Sinke, Anne P; Baumgarten, Ruben; Bedford, Jennifer J; Walker, Robert J; Wetzels, Jack F M; Deen, Peter M T

    2017-09-01

    Lithium is the mainstay treatment for patients with bipolar disorder, but it generally causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which the renal urine concentrating ability has become vasopressin insensitive. Li-NDI is caused by lithium uptake by collecting duct principal cells and downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels, which are essential for water uptake from tubular urine. Recently, we found that the prophylactic administration of acetazolamide to mice effectively attenuated Li-NDI. To evaluate whether acetazolamide might benefit lithium-treated patients, we administered acetazolamide to mice with established Li-NDI and six patients with a lithium-induced urinary concentrating defect. In mice, acetazolamide partially reversed lithium-induced polyuria and increased urine osmolality, which, however, did not coincide with increased AQP2 abundances. In patients, acetazolamide led to the withdrawal of two patients from the study due to side effects. In the four remaining patients acetazolamide did not lead to clinically relevant changes in maximal urine osmolality. Urine output was also not affected, although none of these patients demonstrated overt lithium-induced polyuria. In three out of four patients, acetazolamide treatment increased serum creatinine levels, indicating a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Strikingly, these three patients also showed a decrease in systemic blood pressure. All together, our data reveal that acetazolamide does not improve the urinary concentrating defect caused by lithium, but it lowers the GFR, likely explaining the reduced urine output in our mice and in a recently reported patient with lithium-induced polyuria. The reduced GFR in patients prone to chronic kidney disease development, however, warrants against application of acetazolamide in Li-NDI patients without long-term (pre)clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Component analysis and heavy metal adsorption ability of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zheng-Bo; Li, Qing; Li, Chuan-chuan; Chen, Tian-hu; Wang, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play an important role in the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this paper, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was used as the test strain to explore the effect of heavy metals on the components and adsorption ability of EPS. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis results showed that heavy metals did not influence the type of functional groups of EPS. Potentiometric titration results indicated that the acidic constants (pKa) of the EPS fell into three ranges of 3.5-4.0, 5.9-6.7, and 8.9-9.8. The adsorption site concentrations of the surface functional groups also increased. Adsorption results suggested that EPS had a specific binding affinity for the dosed heavy metal, and that EPS extracted from the Zn(2+)-dosed system had a higher binding affinity for all heavy metals. Additionally, Zn(2+) decreased the inhibitory effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on the SRB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence for shared genetic risk between ADHD symptoms and reduced mathematics ability: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Corina U; Kovas, Yulia; Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and mathematics ability are associated, but little is known about the genetic and environmental influences underlying this association. Data came from more than 6,000 twelve-year-old twin pairs from the UK population-representative Twins Early Development Study. Parents rated each twin's behaviour using a DSM-IV-based 18-item questionnaire of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms. Mathematics tests based on the UK National Curriculum were completed by each twin. The twins also completed standardised tests of reading and general cognitive ability. Multivariate twin model fitting was applied. Inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were highly heritable (67% and 73% respectively). Mathematics ability was moderately heritable (46%). Mathematics ability and inattentiveness showed a significantly greater phenotypic correlation (r(p) = -.26) and genetic correlation (r(A) = -.41) than mathematics ability and hyperactivity-impulsivity (r(p) = -.18; r(A) = -.22). The genetic correlation between inattentiveness and mathematics ability was largely independent from hyperactivity-impulsivity, and was only partially accounted for by genetic influences related to reading and general cognitive ability. Results revealed the novel finding that mathematics ability shows significantly stronger phenotypic and genetic associations with inattentiveness than with hyperactivity-impulsivity. Genetic associations between inattentiveness and mathematics ability could only partially be accounted for by hyperactivity-impulsivity, reading and general cognitive ability. Results suggest that mathematics ability is associated with ADHD symptoms largely because it shares genetic risk factors with inattentiveness, and provide further evidence for considering inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity separately. DNA markers for ADHD symptoms (especially inattentiveness) may also be candidate risk factors for

  1. Hypopituitarism is associated with lower oxytocin concentrations and reduced empathic ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Rees, D Aled

    2017-07-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is characterised by arginine vasopressin deficiency. Oxytocin is structurally related to vasopressin and is synthesised in the same hypothalamic nuclei, thus we hypothesised that patients with acquired central diabetes insipidus and anterior hypopituitarism would display an oxytocin deficiency. Moreover, psychological research has demonstrated that oxytocin influences social and emotional behaviours, particularly empathic behaviour. We therefore further hypothesised that central diabetes insipidus patients would perform worse on empathy-related tasks, compared to age-matched and gender-matched clinical control (clinical control-isolated anterior hypopituitarism) and healthy control groups. Fifty-six participants (age 46.54 ± 16.30 yrs; central diabetes insipidus: n = 20, 8 males; clinical control: n = 15, 6 males; healthy control: n = 20, 7 males) provided two saliva samples which were analysed for oxytocin and completed two empathy tasks. Hypopituitary patients (both central diabetes insipidus and clinical control groups) had significantly lower oxytocin concentrations compared to healthy control participants. Hypopituitary patients also performed significantly worse on both the reading the mind in the eyes task and the facial expression recognition task compared to healthy control participants. Regression analyses further revealed that central diabetes insipidus patients' oxytocin concentrations significantly predicted their performance on easy items of the reading the mind in the eyes task. Hypopituitarism may therefore be associated with reduced oxytocin concentrations and impaired empathic ability. While further studies are needed to replicate these findings, our data suggest that oxytocin replacement may offer a therapeutic approach to improve psychological well-being in patients with hypopituitarism.

  2. Nitroxide radicals as research tools: Elucidating the kinetics and mechanisms of catalase-like and "suicide inactivation" of metmyoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuni, Uri; Czapski, Gideon; Goldstein, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Metmyoglobin (MbFe(III)) reaction with H(2)O(2) has been a subject of study over many years. H(2)O(2) alone promotes heme destruction frequently denoted "suicide inactivation," yet the mechanism underlying H(2)O(2) dismutation associated with MbFe(III) inactivation remains obscure. MbFe(III) reaction with excess H(2)O(2) in the absence and presence of the nitroxide was studied at pH 5.3-8.1 and 25°C by direct determination of reaction rate constants using rapid-mixing stopped-flow technique, by following H(2)O(2) depletion, O(2) evolution, spectral changes of the heme protein, and the fate of the nitroxide by EPR spectroscopy. The rates of both H(2)O(2) dismutation and heme inactivation processes depend on [MbFe(III)], [H(2)O(2)] and pH. Yet the inactivation stoichiometry is independent of these variables and each MbFe(III) molecule catalyzes the dismutation of 50±10 H(2)O(2) molecules until it is inactivated. The nitroxide catalytically enhances the catalase-like activity of MbFe(III) while protecting the heme against inactivation. The rate-determining step in the absence and presence of the nitroxide is the reduction of MbFe(IV)O by H(2)O(2) and by nitroxide, respectively. The nitroxide effects on H(2)O(2) dismutation catalyzed by MbFe(III) demonstrate that MbFe(IV)O reduction by H(2)O(2) is the rate-determining step of this process. The proposed mechanism, which adequately fits the pro-catalytic and protective effects of the nitroxide, implies the intermediacy of a compound I-H(2)O(2) adduct, which decomposes to a MbFe(IV)O and an inactivated heme at a ratio of 25:1. The effects of nitroxides are instrumental in elucidating the mechanism underlying the catalysis and inactivation routes of heme proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced ability to work both before and after infectious spondylodiscitis in working-age patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Hallas, Jesper; Bælum, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As little is known about the ability to work in patients with infectious spondylodiscitis, we compared the relation between the workforce before infection with that of a reference population and described the patients' ability to work after infection including predictors of return...... to work (RTW). METHODS: We identified all patients aged 20-57 years treated for infectious spondylodiscitis January 1994-May 2009 at hospitals in Funen County, Denmark. The work status of each week from 2 years before until 2 years after index date was compared with that of a reference population. Time...... before infection compared with a reference population and infection further lowered their ability to RTW....

  4. Recruitment efforts to reduce adverse impact: targeted recruiting for personality, cognitive ability, and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel A; Lyon, Julie S

    2009-03-01

    Noting the presumed tradeoff between diversity and performance goals in contemporary selection practice, the authors elaborate on recruiting-based methods for avoiding adverse impact while maintaining aggregate individual productivity. To extend earlier work on the primacy of applicant pool characteristics for resolving adverse impact, they illustrate the advantages of simultaneous cognitive ability- and personality-based recruiting. Results of an algebraic recruiting model support general recruiting for cognitive ability, combined with recruiting for conscientiousness within the underrepresented group. For realistic recruiting effect sizes, this type of recruiting strategy greatly increases average performance of hires and percentage of hires from the underrepresented group. Further results from a policy-capturing study provide initial guidance on how features of organizational image can attract applicants with particular job-related personalities and abilities, in addition to attracting applicants on the basis of demographic background. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Lithium-induced NDI: acetazolamide reduces polyuria but does not improve urine concentrating ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T. de; Doornebal, J.; Christensen, B.M.; Cockx, S.; Sinke, A.P.; Baumgarten, R.; Bedford, J.J.; Walker, R.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is the mainstay treatment for patients with bipolar disorder, but it generally causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which the renal urine concentrating ability has become vasopressin insensitive. Li-NDI is caused by lithium uptake by collecting duct principal cells and

  6. Locomotor Adaptation Improves Balance Control, Multitasking Ability and Reduces the Metabolic Cost of Postural Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Miller, C. A.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Guined, J. R.; Buxton, R. E.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    During exploration-class missions, sensorimotor disturbances may lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial introduction to a novel gravitational environment following a landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of our current project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability training program to facilitate rapid adaptation to these environments. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene. It provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Greater metabolic cost incurred during balance instability means more physical work is required during adaptation to new environments possibly affecting crewmembers? ability to perform mission critical tasks during early surface operations on planetary expeditions. The goal of this study was to characterize adaptation to a discordant sensory challenge across a number of performance modalities including locomotor stability, multi-tasking ability and metabolic cost. METHODS: Subjects (n=15) walked (4.0 km/h) on a treadmill for an 8 -minute baseline walking period followed by 20-minutes of walking (4.0 km/h) with support surface motion (0.3 Hz, sinusoidal lateral motion, peak amplitude 25.4 cm) provided by the treadmill/motion-base system. Stride frequency and auditory reaction time were collected as measures of locomotor stability and multi-tasking ability, respectively. Metabolic data (VO2) were collected via a portable metabolic gas analysis system. RESULTS: At the onset of lateral support surface motion, subj ects walking on our treadmill showed an increase in stride frequency and auditory reaction time indicating initial balance and multi-tasking disturbances. During the 20-minute adaptation period, balance control and multi-tasking performance improved. Similarly, throughout the 20-minute adaptation period, VO2 gradually

  7. Influences of reduced masticatory sensory input from soft-diet feeding upon spatial memory/learning ability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Keisuke; Kaku, Masato; Motokawa, Masahide; Tohma, Yuiko; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Fujita, Tadashi; Kohno, Shinya; Ohtani, Junji; Tenjoh, Kaoru; Nakano, Mao; Kamada, Hiroko; Tanne, Kazuo

    2007-02-01

    It has been reported that reduction of masticatory afferent stimulation might influence learning and memory function. In order to clarify the influences of reduced masticatory sensory input on spatial memory/learning ability and neuropathological changes, we conducted the Morris water maze experiment and investigated the number of hippocampal neurons in association with the differences in masticatory afferent stimuli from hard- and soft-diet feeding in mice. The water maze experiment showed no significant difference in learning ability between 180-day-old solid- and powderdiet groups. Meanwhile, the ability was significantly reduced in the 360-day-old powder-diet group as compared with the age-matched solid-diet group. The total number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions was significantly smaller in 360-day-old powder-diet group than in the remaining groups. These results demonstrate that reduction of masticatory afferent stimuli due to long-term soft-diet feeding may induce neuron loss in the hippocampus and reduced memory/learning ability.

  8. Nutritional Intervention as part of Functional Rehabilitation in Older People with reduced functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Dent, Elsa; Baldwin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    body weight, hand-grip strength or muscle strength. There was no difference between groups in the critical outcomes; balance, cognition, activities of daily living and mortality at long-term follow-up. Nutritional intervention given with functional rehabilitation was associated with an increased...... studies considered to be clinical homogenous were combined in a meta-analysis Results Of the 788 studies screened, five were identified for inclusion. Nutritional intervention given with functional rehabilitation improved energy and protein intake, although it failed to provide any improvement in final....... Conclusions This meta-analysis highlights concerns regarding the quality of the randomisation of participants at baseline. Future high-quality research is essential to establish whether older people with loss of functional abilities can benefit from nutritional intervention....

  9. The biofilteration ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to reduce Aeromonas salmonicida in salmon culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaona; Li, Xian; Sun, Guoxiang; Sharawy, Zaki Zaki; Qiu, Tianlong; Du, Yishuai; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Pathogen contamination in the environment is inevitable with the rapid development of intensive aquaculture. Therefore, alternative ecofriendly biological strategies to control pathogenic bacteria are required. However, our aim was to investigate the ability of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to filter the important opportunistic pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida (strain C4), using a green fluorescent protein tag (GFP) in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming wastewater. Hence, A. salmonicida removal efficiency and ingestion rate were detected in two different oyster stages (larvae and adults). To evaluate the practical performance of oysters as A. salmonicida biofilter, adult oysters were applied to an integrated constructed wetlands system (ICWS) and their long-term C4-GFP removal efficiency was recorded for 60 days. Overall, our results clearly indicated that oysters had substantial A. salmonicida removal ability via their ingestion process when observed under a fluorescent microscope. Approximately 88-95% of C4-GFP was removed by oyster larvae at an ingestion rate of 6.4 × 10 3 -6.2 × 10 5  CFU/h·ind, while 79-92% of C4-GFP was removed by adult oysters at an ingestion rate of 2.1 × 10 4 -3.1 × 10 6  CFU/h·ind. Furthermore, 57.9 ± 17.2% of C4-GFP removal efficiency was achieved when oysters were applied to ICWS. We, therefore, concluded that using oysters as a biofilter represents an effective alternative for removing A. salmonicida from aquaculture wastewater. However, the fate of oysters after ingesting the pathogenic bacteria, acting as a potential reservoir or vector for pathogens, is still debatable. This research provides the basis for the application of oysters as a biofilter to remove pathogens from aquaculture wastewater in industrialized production.

  10. Ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne enteritis worldwide and is primarily caused by consumption/mishandling of contaminated poultry. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing many enteric pathogens, but has not demonstrated consistent reduction against Campylobac...

  11. The ability of select probiotics to reduce enteric Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide and is often associated with consumption and/or mishandling of contaminated poultry products. Probiotic use in poultry has been an effective strategy in reducing other enteric foodborne pathogens but not consistently for Campylobacter...

  12. Silybin supplementation during HCV therapy with pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin reduces depression and anxiety and increases work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Bertino, Gaetano; Chisari, Giuseppe; Motta, Massimo; Vecchio, Michele; Vacante, Marco; Caraci, Filippo; Greco, Carmela; Drago, Filippo; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Michele

    2016-11-15

    Hepatitis C virus infection and interferon treatment are often associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms and poor health-related quality of life. To evaluate the Silybin-vitamin E-phospholipids complex effect on work ability and whether health related factors (anxiety and depression) were associated with work ability in subjects with chronic hepatitis C treated with Pegylated-Interferon-α2b (Peg-IFN) and Ribavirin (RBV). Thirty-one patients (Group A) with chronic hepatitis and other 31 subjects in Group B were recruited in a randomized, prospective, placebo controlled, double blind clinical trial. Group A received 1.5 mg/kg per week of Peg-IFN plus RBV and placebo, while Group B received the same dosage of Peg-IFN plus RBV plus association of Silybin 94 mg + vitamin E 30 mg + phospholipids 194 mg in pills for 12 months. All subjects underwent to laboratory exams and questionnaires to evaluate depression (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI), anxiety (State-trait anxiety inventory - STAI) and work ability (Work ability Index - WAI). The comparison between group A and group B showed significant differences after 6 months in ALT (P work ability and reduced depression and anxiety in patients treated with Peg-IFN and RBV. NCT01957319 , First received: September 25, 2013. Last updated: September 30, 2013 (retrospectively registered).

  13. Osteosarcopenic obesity is associated with reduced handgrip strength, walking abilities, and balance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, J Z; Inglis, J E; Kelly, O J; McGee, D L

    2015-11-01

    We determined the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (loss of bone and muscle coexistent with increased adiposity) in overweight/obese postmenopausal women and compared their functionality to obese-only women. Results showed that osteosarcopenic obese women were outperformed by obese-only women in handgrip strength and walking/balance abilities indicating their higher risk for mobility impairments. Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is a recently defined triad of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and adiposity. We identified women with OSO in overweight/obese postmenopausal women and evaluated their functionality comparing them with obese-only (OB) women. Additionally, women with osteopenic/osteoporotic obesity (OO), but no sarcopenia, and those with sarcopenic obesity (SO), but no osteopenia/osteoporosis, were identified and compared. We hypothesized that OSO women will have the lowest scores for each of the functionality measures. Participants (n = 258; % body fat ≥35) were assessed using a Lunar iDXA instrument for bone and body composition. Sarcopenia was determined from negative residuals of linear regression modeled on appendicular lean mass, height, and body fat, using 20th percentile as a cutoff. Participants with T-scores of L1-L4 vertebrae and/or total femur OSO (n = 32) included women with both osteopenia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia, while those with normal bone and no sarcopenia were classified as OB (n = 99). Functionality measures such as handgrip strength, normal/brisk walking speed, and right/left leg stance were evaluated and compared among groups. Women with OSO presented with the lowest handgrip scores, slowest normal and brisk walking speed, and shortest time for each leg stance, but these results were statistically significantly different only from the OB group. These findings indicate a poorer functionality in women presenting with OSO, particularly compared to OB women, increasing the risk for bone fractures and immobility from

  14. The ability of different thermal aids to reduce hypothermia in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Malmkvist, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether hypothermia in newborn piglets could be reduced by applying different thermal aids. The experiment was performed on 150 newborn piglets from 24 sows. Right after birth, the piglets were moved to a wire mesh cage for the first 2 h of life where they experienced 1 of 7...... floor (RadiantC; n = 22) or a slatted floor (RadiantSlat; n = 18); and provision of straw on a solid floor (Straw; n = 8). Piglets’ rectal temperature was measured both continuously and manually every 10 min for the first 2 h after birth using a thermal sensor inserted in the rectum of the piglets...... were analyzed. All statistical analyses were performed using a mixed model. All thermal aids/heat solutions resulted in a less steep drop in rectal temperature, a faster recovery, and, for the smaller piglets, also a greater average rectal temperature (except for built-in floor heating) and less time...

  15. Reduced sensitivity to context in language comprehension: A characteristic of Autism Spectrum Disorders or of poor structural language ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Melanie; Nadig, Aparna

    2018-01-01

    We present two experiments examining the universality and uniqueness of reduced context sensitivity in language processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), as proposed by the Weak Central Coherence account (Happé & Frith, 2006, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(1), 25). That is, do all children with ASD exhibit decreased context sensitivity, and is this characteristic specific to ASD versus other neurodevelopmental conditions? Experiment 1, conducted in English, was a comparison of children with ASD with normal language and their typically-developing peers on a picture selection task where interpretation of sentential context was required to identify homonyms. Contrary to the predictions of Weak Central Coherence, the ASD-normal language group exhibited no difficulty on this task. Experiment 2, conducted in German, compared children with ASD with variable language abilities, typically-developing children, and a second control group of children with Language Impairment (LI) on a sentence completion task where a context sentence had to be considered to produce the continuation of an ambiguous sentence fragment. Both ASD-variable language and LI groups exhibited reduced context sensitivity and did not differ from each other. Finally, to directly test which factors contribute to reduced context sensitivity, we conducted a regression analysis for each experiment, entering nonverbal IQ, structural language ability, and autism diagnosis as predictors. For both experiments structural language ability emerged as the only significant predictor. These convergent findings demonstrate that reduced sensitivity to context in language processing is linked to low structural language rather than ASD diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does improved decision-making ability reduce the physiological demands of game-based activities in field sport athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Carius, Josh; Mulvey, Mike

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of video-based perceptual training on pattern recognition and pattern prediction ability in elite field sport athletes and determined whether enhanced perceptual skills influenced the physiological demands of game-based activities. Sixteen elite women soccer players (mean +/- SD age, 18.3 +/- 2.8 years) were allocated to either a video-based perceptual training group (N = 8) or a control group (N = 8). The video-based perceptual training group watched video footage of international women's soccer matches. Twelve training sessions, each 15 minutes in duration, were conducted during a 4-week period. Players performed assessments of speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprint), repeated-sprint ability (6 x 20-m sprints, with active recovery on a 15-second cycle), estimated maximal aerobic power (V O2 max, multistage fitness test), and a game-specific video-based perceptual test of pattern recognition and pattern prediction before and after the 4 weeks of video-based perceptual training. The on-field assessments included time-motion analysis completed on all players during a standardized 45-minute small-sided training game, and assessments of passing, shooting, and dribbling decision-making ability. No significant changes were detected in speed, repeated-sprint ability, or estimated V O2 max during the training period. However, video-based perceptual training improved decision accuracy and reduced the number of recall errors, indicating improved game awareness and decision-making ability. Importantly, the improvements in pattern recognition and prediction ability transferred to on-field improvements in passing, shooting, and dribbling decision-making skills. No differences were detected between groups for the time spent standing, walking, jogging, striding, and sprinting during the small-sided training game. These findings demonstrate that video-based perceptual training can be used effectively to enhance the decision-making ability of field

  17. Peripheral hearing loss reduces the ability of children to direct selective attention during multi-talker listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emma; Kitterick, Padraig T; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2017-07-01

    Restoring normal hearing requires knowledge of how peripheral and central auditory processes are affected by hearing loss. Previous research has focussed primarily on peripheral changes following sensorineural hearing loss, whereas consequences for central auditory processing have received less attention. We examined the ability of hearing-impaired children to direct auditory attention to a voice of interest (based on the talker's spatial location or gender) in the presence of a common form of background noise: the voices of competing talkers (i.e. during multi-talker, or "Cocktail Party" listening). We measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG) when children prepared to direct attention to the spatial location or gender of an upcoming target talker who spoke in a mixture of three talkers. Compared to normally-hearing children, hearing-impaired children showed significantly less evidence of preparatory brain activity when required to direct spatial attention. This finding is consistent with the idea that hearing-impaired children have a reduced ability to prepare spatial attention for an upcoming talker. Moreover, preparatory brain activity was not restored when hearing-impaired children listened with their acoustic hearing aids. An implication of these findings is that steps to improve auditory attention alongside acoustic hearing aids may be required to improve the ability of hearing-impaired children to understand speech in the presence of competing talkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving ability mathematic literacy, self-efficacy and reducing mathematical anxiety with learning Treffinger model at senior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizh Nizham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a Quasi Experimental study with the design of The Pretest-Post-Test Non-Equivalent Group Design. Population in this research is all student of class X SHS in South Jakarta. Sampling is done by purposive sampling, to obtain an experimental class and control class. In the experimental class, students learn with Treffinger learning model and control, class learning with conventional learning. This study is also to examine the differences of self-efficacy improvement and students literacy skills, and decreased students' mathematical anxiety. Also, this study also examines the relevance of early mathematical abilities (high, medium, low with improving students' math literacy skills. The instrument used in this research is literacy skill test, self-efficacy scale, mathematical anxiety scale, observation sheet, and student interview. Data were analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA, and two lines. From the results of the data, it is found that: (1 The improvement of literacy ability of students who are learned with Treffinger model learning is not significantly higher than students who learn with conventional. (2 The self-efficacy of students who learning with the Treffinger model learning  is better than the student that is learning by conventional. (3 The mathematical anxiety of students learning with Treffinger model learning reduces better than students learning with conventional. (4 There is a difference in the improvement of students' mathematical literacy skills learning by learning the Treffinger model and students learning with conventional learning based on early mathematical abilities. (5 Student response to Treffinger model learning is better than students learning with conventional learning. Therefore, learning model Treffinger can be an alternative model of learning to improve students' mathematical literacy skills, and self-efficacy students, and able to reduce mathematical anxiety.

  19. Reducing surface tension in endodontic chelator solutions has no effect on their ability to remove calcium from instrumented root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Schicht, Olivier; Sener, Beatrice; Schmidlin, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing surface tension in endodontic chelator solutions on their ability to remove calcium from instrumented root canals. Aqueous solutions containing 15.5% EDTA, 10% citric acid, or 18% 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) were prepared with and without 1% (wt/wt) polysorbate (Tween) 80 and 9% propylene glycol. Surface tension in these solutions was measured using the Wilhelmy method. Sixty-four extracted, single-rooted human teeth of similar length were instrumented and irrigated with a 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and then randomly assigned (n = 8 per group) to receive a final one-minute rinse with 5 ml of test solutions, water, or the pure aqueous Tween/propylene glycol solution. Calcium concentration in eluates was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Incorporation of wetting agents resulted in a reduction of surface tension values by approximately 50% in all tested solutions. However, none of the solutions with reduced surface tension chelated more calcium from canals than their pure counterparts (p > 0.05).

  20. Modelling the ability of source control measures to reduce inundation risk in a community-scale urban drainage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chao; Liu, Jiahong; Wang, Hao; Shao, Weiwei; Xia, Lin; Xiang, Chenyao; Zhou, Jinjun

    2018-06-01

    Urban inundation is a serious challenge that increasingly confronts the residents of many cities, as well as policymakers, in the context of rapid urbanization and climate change worldwide. In recent years, source control measures (SCMs) such as green roofs, permeable pavements, rain gardens, and vegetative swales have been implemented to address flood inundation in urban settings, and proven to be cost-effective and sustainable. In order to investigate the ability of SCMs on reducing inundation in a community-scale urban drainage system, a dynamic rainfall-runoff model of a community-scale urban drainage system was developed based on SWMM. SCMs implementing scenarios were modelled under six design rainstorm events with return period ranging from 2 to 100 years, and inundation risks of the drainage system were evaluated before and after the proposed implementation of SCMs, with a risk-evaluation method based on SWMM and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Results show that, SCMs implementation resulting in significantly reduction of hydrological indexes that related to inundation risks, range of reduction rates of average flow, peak flow, and total flooded volume of the drainage system were 28.1-72.1, 19.0-69.2, and 33.9-56.0 %, respectively, under six rainfall events with return periods ranging from 2 to 100 years. Corresponding, the inundation risks of the drainage system were significantly reduced after SCMs implementation, the risk values falling below 0.2 when the rainfall return period was less than 10 years. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of SCMs on mitigating inundation, and quantified the potential of SCMs on reducing inundation risks in the urban drainage system, which provided scientific references for implementing SCMs for inundation control of the study area.

  1. Human low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by metmyoglobin/H2O2: involvement of α-tocopheroxyl and phosphatidylcholine alkoxyl radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witting, P.K.; Willhite, C.A.; Stocker, R.; Davies, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Metmyoglobin (metMb) and H 2 O 2 can oxidize low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro; formation of such oxidized LDL may be atherogenic. The role of α-tocopherol (α-TOH) in LDL oxidation by peroxidases, such as metMb is unclear. Herein we show that during metMb/H 2 O 2 -induced oxidation of native, α-TOH-containing, LDL, α-tocopheroxyl radical (α-TO) and hydroperoxides and hydroxides of cholesteryl esters (CE-O(O)H) and phosphatidylcholine (PC-O(O)H) accumulated concomitantly with α-TOH consumption. Accumulation of CE-O(O)H was dependent on, and correlated with, LDL's α-TOH content indicating that α-TO . acted as a chain-transfer agent and propagated LDL lipid peroxidation via tocopherol-mediated peroxidation (TMP). Further, the ratio of accumulating CE-O(O)H to PC-O(O)H remained constant in the presence α-TOH. Subsequent to α-TOH depletion, CE-O(O)H continued to accumulate, albeit at a lower rate than in the presence of α-TOH. This was accompanied by depletion of PC-OOH, a rapid increase in the CE-O(O)H/PC-O(O)H ratio, formation of lipid-derived alkoxyl radicals and phosphatidylcholine hydroxides (PC-OH), and accumulation of a second organic radical, characterized by a broad singlet EPR signal. The latter persisted for several hours at 37 deg C. We conclude that metMb/H 2 O 2 -induced peroxidation of LDL lipids is not inhibited by α-TOH and occurs initially via TMP. After α-TOH depletion, cholesteryl esters peroxidize at higher fractional rates than surface phospholipids, and this appears to be mediated via reactions involving alkoxyl radicals derived from the peroxidatic activity of metMb on PC-OO

  2. Sentinel-5/UVNS instrument: the principle ability of a slit homogenizer to reduce scene contrast for earth observation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Ch.; Keim, C.; Irizar, J.; Bauer, M.

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel-5/UVNS 1 is an Earth observation spectrometer system that is operating in nadir looking push broom mode from a low Earth orbit. While having a wide across-track field of view (≈ 2700 km) it covers approximately 7 km at nadir in flight direction during one dwell. However a high contrast in the scene in along track may lead to disturbance of the Instrument Spectral Response Function (ISRF) and with this a variation of measured spectrum. In order to reduce the effect of scene contrast along track, instead of a spectrometer slit two mirrors are introduced, in between which the light path is extended such as a one dimensional wave guide. The entrance length across track however is wide enough to let light pass unchanged. This new concept is called Slit Homogenizer (SH) within theSentinel-5 project. The entrance of the SH is placed on the image plane of the preceding op- tics. The exit of the SH represents the object plane of the subsequent spectrometer in the along track (spectral) direction. This article proposes a simulation model of a SH together with a preced- ing generic optics based on scalar diffraction theory. The model is used to evaluate quantitatively the homogenizing ability of the device. Some parameters in the discussed examples are taken from Sentinel-5/UVNS instrument but the model and its application is not limited to that mission.

  3. Comparison of myofibrillar protein degradation, antioxidant profile, fatty acids, metmyoglobin reducing activity, physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of gluteus medius and infraspinatus muscles in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem D. Adeyemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functionality of myofibrillar proteins is a major factor influencing the quality attributes of muscle foods. Nonetheless, the relationships between muscle type and oxidative changes in chevon during ageing are meagrely elucidated. Postmortem changes in antioxidant status and physicochemical properties of glycolytic gluteus medius (GM and oxidative infraspinatus (IS muscles in goats were compared. Methods Twenty Boer bucks (9–10 months old, body weight of 36.9 ± 0.725 kg were slaughtered and the carcasses were subjected to chill storage (4 ± 0.5 °C. Analyses were conducted on GM and IS muscles sampled on 0, 1, 4 and 7 d postmortem. Results Chill storage did not affect the antioxidant enzyme activities in both muscles. The IS had greater (P  0.05 on free thiol, MRA and TBARS. The GM had lower (P  0.05 on consumer preference for flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability. However, IS had higher (P < 0.05 tenderness score than GM on d 1 and 4 postmortem. Intramuscular fat was higher (P < 0.05 in IS compared with GM. Fatty acid composition did not differ between the muscles. However, GM had lower (P < 0.05 n-6/n-3 ratio than IS. The n-3 and n-6 PUFA declined (P < 0.05 while the SFA increased (P < 0.05 over storage. Conclusion The changes in myofibrillar proteins and physicochemical properties of goat meat during postmortem chill storage are muscle-dependent.

  4. Occupational stress is associated with impaired work ability and reduced quality of life in patients with chronic kidney failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Luca; Rocca Rey, Luisa A; Gallieni, Maurizio; Brancaccio, Diego; Cozzolino, Mario; Colombi, Antonio; Burroughs, Thomas E

    2009-05-01

    About 300,000 patients in the United States with Chronic Kidney Failure (CKF) are of working age, but up to 70% lose their job within the first year of renal replacement therapy .No study has examined how work ability and perceived health are influenced by the subjects' adjustment to their job. We assessed the association of occupational stress (Effort-Reward Imbalance, ERI),work ability (WAI) and health-related quality of life (QoL) in hemodialysis. 40 employed hemodialysis patients completed a self-administered questionnaire. Associations between ERI, short Form 12 (sF-12), short Form - 6 Dimensions (sF-6D), Kidney Disease QOL- 36 (KDQOL-36) and WAI were tested with partial Spearman's correlation adjusted for age, income, and comorbidity burden. Study subjects were mainly low-income (82%), african-american (73%), men (75%); 16 were manual laborers and 9 worked in the industrial sector. Study subjects reported low levels of Occupational Stress: ERI scores indicated an imbalance between Job Efforts and Rewards in only 3 subjects. Nevertheless, ERI scores were inversely and strongly associated with WAI (rho=-0.41, pworking. The causal relationship between Occupational stress, perceived health, and work ability should be further investigated. Occupational Health professionals and nephrologists should closely collaborate to meet the needs of occupationally active hemodialysis patients.

  5. Reduced stress and improved physical functional ability in elderly with mental health problems following a horticultural therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ah-Reum; Park, Sin-Ae; Ahn, Byung-Eun

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of a plant cultivation-based horticultural therapy program for elderly people with mental health problems. Pre- and post-test design with experimental and control groups. Twenty-eight elderly Korean people with mental health problems participated from April to June 2017 at a farm located in Suwon, South Korea. The participants were randomly assigned to either the control (n = 14) or horticultural therapy group (n = 14); the latter participated in once-weekly sessions of a previously designed 10-session horticultural therapy program. The pre-test occurred 1 week before starting the horticultural therapy program. The post-test was completed within 1 week after finishing the final program session. Cortisol levels were measured in saliva samples collected from both groups. The Senior Fitness Test was used to assess physical functional ability in both groups. In the horticultural therapy group, the cortisol levels decreased significantly from before to after the horticultural therapy program, and the post-test scores for six subtests of the Senior Fitness Test improved significantly. No significant improvements were seen in either measure in the control group. This study demonstrates the potential ability of horticultural therapy to improve the stress levels and physical functional abilities of elderly people with mental health problems. In future studies, it would be interesting to verify the long-term effects of this horticultural therapy program and to compare its effects with regard to sex, age, and various mental symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Delayed Compensatory Postural Adjustments After Lateral Perturbations Contribute to the Reduced Ability of Older Adults to Control Body Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, Renato; Dos Santos, Marcio José; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the timing of compensatory postural adjustments in older adults during body perturbations in the mediolateral direction, circumstances that increase their risk of falls. The latencies of leg and trunk muscle activation to body perturbations at the shoulder level and variables of center of pressure excursion, which characterize postural stability, were analyzed in 40 older adults (nonfallers and fallers evenly split) and in 20 young participants. The older adults exhibited longer latencies of muscular activation in eight out of 15 postural muscles as compared with young participants; for three muscles, the latencies were longer for the older fallers than nonfallers. Simultaneously, the time for the center of pressure displacement reached its peak after the perturbation was significant longer in both groups of older adults. The observed delays in compensatory postural adjustments may affect the older adults' ability to prompt control body balance after postural disturbances and predispose them to falls.

  7. The ability of cover crops to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus losses from arable land in southern Scandinavia and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, H.; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2016-01-01

    ]). The data indicate that CCs do not substantially reduce total P losses by runoff and leaching. The effects of CCs on total P leaching varied between a relative increase of 86% and a decrease of 43%. Climate conditions involving freezing-thawing during winter increased the risk of losses of dissolved P from...

  8. Realistic Job Previews: Can a Procedure to Reduce Turnover Also Influence the Relationship between Abilities and Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanous, John P.

    1978-01-01

    The current state of theory, research, and practice in realistic job previews (RJP) for recruitment is still immature. RJPs have been used to reduce employee turnover, but not necessarily to influence the job performance of newcomers. This research looks at the background, research results, and unanswered issues. (Author/RK)

  9. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic ...

  10. The CO2-tax and its ability to reduce CO2 emissions related to oil and gas production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemo, F.; Lund, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The primary ambition of the paper is to illustrate some relevant effects of the CO 2 -tax, and draw the line from company adaptation via national ambitions and goals to global emission consequences. The CO 2 -tax is a success for oil and gas production only to the extent that the CO 2 emission per produced unit oil/gas is reduced as a consequence of the tax. If not, the CO 2 -tax is a pure fiscal tax and has no qualitative impact on the CO 2 emissions. The reduction potential is then isolated to the fact that some marginal fields will not be developed, and the accelerated close down of fields in production. The paper indicates that a significant replacement of older gas turbines at a certain level of the CO 2 -tax could be profitable for the companies. This is dependent on change in turbine energy utilization, and the investment cost. The CO 2 -tax is a political success for the nation if it is a significant contributor to achieve national emission goals. Furthermore, is the CO 2 -tax an environmental success only to the extent it contributes to reductions in the CO 2 emissions globally. The paper indicates that there are possibilities for major suboptimal adaptations in connection with national CO 2 -taxation of the oil and gas production. 13 refs., 6 figs

  11. Aspirin therapy reduces the ability of platelets to promote colon and pancreatic cancer cell proliferation: Implications for the oncoprotein c-MYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylman, Joanna L.; Ngo, Anh T. P.; Pang, Jiaqing; Sears, Rosalie C.; Williams, Craig D.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin, an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic drug, has become the focus of intense research as a potential anticancer agent owing to its ability to reduce tumor proliferation in vitro and to prevent tumorigenesis in patients. Studies have found an anticancer effect of aspirin when used in low, antiplatelet doses. However, the mechanisms through which low-dose aspirin works are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of aspirin on the cross talk between platelets and cancer cells. For our study, we used two colon cancer cell lines isolated from the same donor but characterized by different metastatic potential, SW480 (nonmetastatic) and SW620 (metastatic) cancer cells, and a pancreatic cancer cell line, PANC-1 (nonmetastatic). We found that SW480 and PANC-1 cancer cell proliferation was potentiated by human platelets in a manner dependent on the upregulation and activation of the oncoprotein c-MYC. The ability of platelets to upregulate c-MYC and cancer cell proliferation was reversed by an antiplatelet concentration of aspirin. In conclusion, we show for the first time that inhibition of platelets by aspirin can affect their ability to induce cancer cell proliferation through the modulation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. PMID:27903583

  12. Preparation of silver-cuprous oxide/stearic acid composite coating with superhydrophobicity on copper substrate and evaluation of its friction-reducing and anticorrosion abilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peipei [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Chen, Xinhua [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-01-15

    A simple two-step solution immersion process was combined with surface-modification by stearic acid to prepare superhydrophobic coatings on copper substrates so as to reduce friction coefficient, increase wear resistance and improve the anticorrosion ability of copper. Briefly, cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) crystal coating with uniform and compact tetrahedron structure was firstly created by immersing copper substrate in 2 mol L{sup −1} NaOH solution. As-obtained Cu{sub 2}O coating was then immersed in 0.33 mmol L{sup −1} AgNO{sub 3} solution to incorporate silver nanoparticles, followed by modification with stearic acid (denoted as SA) coating to achieve hydrophobicity. The surface morphology and chemical composition of silver-cuprous oxide/stearic acid (denoted as Ag-Cu{sub 2}O/SA) composite coating were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS); and its phase structure was examined with an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Moreover, the contact angle of water on as-prepared Ag-Cu{sub 2}O/SA composite coating was measured, and its friction-reducing and anticorrosion abilities were evaluated. It was found that as-prepared Ag-Cu{sub 2}O/SA composite coating has a water contact angle of as high as 152.4{sup o} and can provide effective friction-reducing, wear protection and anticorrosion protection for copper substrate, showing great potential for surface-modification of copper.

  13. The neuroprotective properties of the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol correlate with its ability to reduce pathological glutamate release in a rodent model of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohare, Preeti; Hyzinski-García, María C.; Vipani, Aarshi; Bowens, Nicole H.; Nalwalk, Julia W.; Feustel, Paul J.; Keller, Richard W.; Jourd’heuil, David; Mongin, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of oxidative stress to ischemic brain damage is well established. Nevertheless, for unknown reasons, several clinically tested antioxidant therapies failed to show benefits in human stroke. Based on our previous in vitro work, we hypothesized that the neuroprotective potency of antioxidants is related to their ability to limit release of the excitotoxic amino acids, glutamate and aspartate. We explored the effects of two antioxidants, tempol and edaravone, on amino acid release in the brain cortex, in a rat model of transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAo). Amino acid levels were quantified using a microdialysis approach, with the probe positioned in the ischemic penumbra as verified by a laser Doppler technique. Two-hour MCAo triggered a dramatic increase in the levels of glutamate, aspartate, taurine and alanine. Microdialysate delivery of 10 mM tempol reduced the amino acid release by 60–80%, while matching levels of edaravone had no effect. In line with these latter data, an intracerebroventri-cular injection of tempol but not edaravone (500 nmols each, 15 minutes prior to MCAo) reduced infarction volumes by ~50% and improved neurobehavioral outcomes. In vitro assays showed that tempol was superior in removing superoxide anion, whereas edaravone was more potent in scavenging hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, and peroxynitrite. Overall, our data suggests that the neuroprotective properties of tempol are likely related to its ability to reduce tissue levels of the superoxide anion and pathological glutamate release, and, in such a way, limit progression of brain infarction within ischemic penumbra. These new findings may be instrumental in developing new antioxidant therapies for treatment of stroke. PMID:25224033

  14. Difference in root K+ retention ability and reduced sensitivity of K+-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species confer differential salt tolerance in three Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Bose, Jayakumar; Shabala, Lana; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-01

    Brassica species are known to possess significant inter and intraspecies variability in salinity stress tolerance, but the cell-specific mechanisms conferring this difference remain elusive. In this work, the role and relative contribution of several key plasma membrane transporters to salinity stress tolerance were evaluated in three Brassica species (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. oleracea) using a range of electrophysiological assays. Initial root growth assay and viability staining revealed that B. napus was most tolerant amongst the three species, followed by B. juncea and B. oleracea At the mechanistic level, this difference was conferred by at least three complementary physiological mechanisms: (i) higher Na(+) extrusion ability from roots resulting from increased expression and activity of plasma membrane SOS1-like Na(+)/H(+) exchangers; (ii) better root K(+) retention ability resulting from stress-inducible activation of H(+)-ATPase and ability to maintain more negative membrane potential under saline conditions; and (iii) reduced sensitivity of B. napus root K(+)-permeable channels to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The last two mechanisms played the dominant role and conferred most of the differential salt sensitivity between species. Brassica napus plants were also more efficient in preventing the stress-induced increase in GORK transcript levels and up-regulation of expression of AKT1, HAK5, and HKT1 transporter genes. Taken together, our data provide the mechanistic explanation for differential salt stress sensitivity amongst these species and shed light on transcriptional and post-translational regulation of key ion transport systems involved in the maintenance of the root plasma membrane potential and cytosolic K/Na ratio as a key attribute for salt tolerance in Brassica species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L., J. oxycedrus (L., J. phoenicea (L. and Tetraclinis articulata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, quercetin, and Trolox. The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91±0.37 μg/mL, 19.80±0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23±0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  16. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  17. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P hands (P hand washing with soap at reducing indicator organisms on farmworker hands. Based on these results, ABHS is an efficacious hand hygiene solution for produce handlers, even on soiled hands.

  18. Reduced ability of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) to activate natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) causes dwarfism in lbab−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Andrea R.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Earhart, Cathleen A.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Potter, Lincoln R.

    2015-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates endochondrial ossification by activating the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase, natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B). Recently, a spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation that causes severe dwarfism in mice was identified. The mutant, called long bone abnormality (lbab), contains a single point mutation that converts an arginine to a glycine in a conserved coding region of the CNP gene, but how this mutation affects CNP activity has not been reported. Here, we determined that thirty to greater than one hundred-fold more CNPlbab was required to activate NPR-B as compared to wild-type CNP in whole cell cGMP elevation and membrane guanylyl cyclase assays. The reduced ability of CNPlbab to activate NPR-B was explained, at least in part, by decreased binding since ten-fold more CNPlbab than wild-type CNP was required to compete with [125I][Tyr0]CNP for receptor binding. Molecular modeling suggested that the conserved arginine is critical for binding to an equally conserved acidic pocket in NPR-B. These results indicate that reduced binding to and activation of NPR-B causes dwarfism in lbab−/− mice. PMID:18554750

  19. Lysimeter experiments to determine the ability of soil to reduce concentrations of BOD, available P and inorganic N in dirty water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, S K E; Chadwick; Retter, A R

    2005-11-01

    Lysimeter experiments were conducted to determine the ability of different soils to reduce levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and concentrations of molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) and ammonium-N (NH4(+)-N) in dirty water and the impact of applications on nitrate leaching. An additional experiment investigated the effect of dirty water components on leaching quality. This information is required to assess the potential risk of dirty water applications on polluting groundwater and to assess the use of such soils in the development of treatment systems for dirty water. Intact and disturbed soil lysimeters, 0.5 and 1m deep were constructed from four soils; a coarse free-draining sandy loam, a sandy loam over soft sandstone, a calcareous silty clay over chalk and a sandy loam over granite. For the coarse free-draining sandy loam, lysimeters were also constructed from disturbed soil with and without the addition of lime, to assess if this could increase phosphorus immobilisation. Levels of BOD and concentrations of MRP, NH4(+)-N and nitrate (NO3(-)-N) of leachates were measured following dirty water applications at 2 and 8 mm day(-1) under laboratory conditions. Under the daily 2mm application, all soils were effective at treating dirty water, reducing concentrations of BOD, MRP and NH4(+)- N by > or = 98% but NO3(-)-N concentrations increased up to 80 mg l(-1) from the 0.5 m deep lysimeters of the sandy loam over granite. Soils were less effective at reducing levels of BOD, MRP and NH4(+)- N at the 8 mm daily rate of application, with maximum NO3(-)-N concentrations of leachates of 200 mg l(-1) from disturbed soils.

  20. Impact of elevated CO_2 concentrations on carbonate mineral precipitation ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria and implications for CO_2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Varun G.; Wronkiewicz, David J.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in anthropogenic CO_2 release and associated global climatic change has prompted numerous laboratory-scale and commercial efforts focused on capturing, sequestering or utilizing CO_2 in the subsurface. Known carbonate mineral precipitating microorganisms, such as the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), could enhance the rate of conversion of CO_2 into solid minerals and thereby improve long-term storage of captured gasses. The ability of SRB to induce carbonate mineral precipitation, when exposed to atmospheric and elevated pCO_2, was investigated in laboratory scale tests with bacteria from organic-rich sediments collected from hypersaline Lake Estancia, New Mexico. The enriched SRB culture was inoculated in continuous gas flow and batch reactors under variable headspace pCO_2 (0.0059 psi to 20 psi). Solution pH, redox conditions, sulfide, calcium and magnesium concentrations were monitored in the reactors. Those reactors containing SRB that were exposed to pCO_2 of 14.7 psi or less showed Mg-calcite precipitation. Reactors exposed to 20 psi pCO_2 did not exhibit any carbonate mineralization, likely due to the inhibition of bacterial metabolism caused by the high levels of CO_2. Hydrogen, lactate and formate served as suitable electron donors for the SRB metabolism and related carbonate mineralization. Carbon isotopic studies confirmed that ∼53% of carbon in the precipitated carbonate minerals was derived from the CO_2 headspace, with the remaining carbon being derived from the organic electron donors, and the bicarbonate ions available in the liquid medium. The ability of halotolerant SRB to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals can potentially be applied to the long-term storage of anthropogenic CO_2 in saline aquifers and other ideal subsurface rock units by converting the gas into solid immobile phases. - Highlights: • SRB under study are capable of precipitating calcite up to 14.7 psi pCO_2. • At 20 psi pCO_2, bacterial activity

  1. May common model biases reduce CMIP5's ability to simulate the recent Pacific La Niña-like cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Wang, Gang; Dommenget, Dietmar

    2018-02-01

    Over the recent three decades sea surface temperate (SST) in the eastern equatorial Pacific has decreased, which helps reduce the rate of global warming. However, most CMIP5 model simulations with historical radiative forcing do not reproduce this Pacific La Niña-like cooling. Based on the assumption of "perfect" models, previous studies have suggested that errors in simulated internal climate variations and/or external radiative forcing may cause the discrepancy between the multi-model simulations and the observation. But the exact causes remain unclear. Recent studies have suggested that observed SST warming in the other two ocean basins in past decades and the thermostat mechanism in the Pacific in response to increased radiative forcing may also play an important role in driving this La Niña-like cooling. Here, we investigate an alternative hypothesis that common biases of current state-of-the-art climate models may deteriorate the models' ability and can also contribute to this multi-model simulations-observation discrepancy. Our results suggest that underestimated inter-basin warming contrast across the three tropical oceans, overestimated surface net heat flux and underestimated local SST-cloud negative feedback in the equatorial Pacific may favor an El Niño-like warming bias in the models. Effects of the three common model biases do not cancel one another and jointly explain 50% of the total variance of the discrepancies between the observation and individual models' ensemble mean simulations of the Pacific SST trend. Further efforts on reducing common model biases could help improve simulations of the externally forced climate trends and the multi-decadal climate fluctuations.

  2. Enriched housing enhances recovery of limb placement ability and reduces aggrecan-containing perineuronal nets in the rat somatosensory cortex after experimental stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Madinier

    Full Text Available Stroke causes life long disabilities where few therapeutic options are available. Using electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain and physical rehabilitation, recovery of brain function can be enhanced even late after stroke. Animal models support this notion, and housing rodents in an enriched environment (EE several days after experimental stroke stimulates lost brain function by multisensory mechanisms. We studied the dynamics of functional recovery of rats with a lesion to the fore and hind limb motor areas induced by photothrombosis (PT, and with subsequent housing in either standard (STD or EE. In this model, skilled motor function is not significantly enhanced by enriched housing, while the speed of recovery of sensori-motor function substantially improves over the 9-week study period. In particular, this stroke lesion completely obliterates the fore and hind limb placing ability when visual and whisker guidance is prevented, a deficit that persists for up to 9 weeks of recovery, but that is markedly restored within 2 weeks by enriched housing. Enriched housing after stroke also leads to a significant loss of perineuronal net (PNN immunoreactivity; detection of aggrecan protein backbone with AB1031 antibody was decreased by 13-22%, and labelling of a glycan moiety of aggrecan with Cat-315 antibody was reduced by 25-30% in the peri-infarct area and in the somatosensory cortex, respectively. The majority of these cells are parvalbumin/GABA inhibitory interneurons that are important in sensori-information processing. We conclude that damage to the fore and hind limb motor areas provides a model of loss of limb placing response without visual guidance, a deficit also seen in more than 50% of stroke patients. This loss is amenable to recovery induced by multiple sensory stimulation and correlates with a decrease in aggrecan-containing PNNs around inhibitory interneurons. Modulating the PNN structure after ischemic damage may provide new

  3. Reducing Water Availability Impacts the Development of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 and Its Ability to Take Up and Transport Phosphorus Under in Vitro Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Le Pioufle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios predict a higher variability in rainfall and an increased risk of water deficits during summers for the coming decades. For this reason, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and their mitigating effects on drought stress in plants are increasingly considered in crop management. However, the impact of a decrease in water availability on the development of AMF and their ability to take up and transport inorganic phosphorus (Pi to their hosts remain poorly explored. Here, Medicago truncatula plantlets were grown in association with Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 in bi-compartmented Petri plates. The system consisted in associating the plant and AMF in a root compartment (RC, allowing only the hyphae to extend in a root-free hyphal compartment (HC. Water availability in the HC was then lowered by increasing the concentration of polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG-8000 from 0 to 10, 25, and 50 g L-1 (corresponding to a slight decrease in water potential of -0.024, -0.025, -0.030, and -0.056 Mpa, respectively. Hyphal growth, spore production and germination were severely impaired at the lowest water availability. The dynamics of Pi uptake by the AMF was also impacted, although total Pi uptake evaluated after 24 h stayed unchanged. The percentage of metabolically active extraradical hyphae remained above 70%. Finally, at the lowest water availability, a higher P concentration was observed in the shoots of M. truncatula. At reduced water availability, the extraradical mycelium (ERM development was impacted, potentially limiting its capacity to explore a higher volume of soil. Pi uptake was slowed down but not prevented. The sensitivity of R. irregularis MUCL 41833 to a, even small, decrease in water availability contrasted with several studies reporting tolerance of AMF to drought. This suggests a species or strain-dependent effect and support the necessity to compare the impact of water availability on morpho-anatomy, nutrient

  4. Ability of Arkansas LaKast and LaKast Hybrid Rice Bran to Reduce Salmonella Typhimurium in Chicken Cecal Incubations and Effects on Cecal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ae Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prebiotic ability of Arkansas (AR LaKast rice bran cultivars as a feed supplement to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium and other gut microbiota. An in vitro mixed anaerobic culture system was used to simulate conditions in the chicken ceca. Anaerobic cultures contained feed, cecal contents collected from 2, 4, and 6 weeks of chicken broilers, and with/without AR rice bran (pureline and hybrid. After 24 h pre-incubation, S. Typhimurium was inoculated into the anaerobic cultures and surviving S. Typhimurium were enumerated during anaerobic incubation up to 48 h. Samples were also collected after 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 h incubation for microbiome analysis with an Illumina MiSeq platform to investigate the changes in bacterial composition. Both pure and hybrid LaKast rice exhibited significant inhibitory effects in all experiments using 2, 4, and 6 weeks ceca but greater bactericidal effects by LaKast rice were observed at 6 weeks compared to 2- and 4-week ceca samples. For samples containing 6-week chicken ceca, the pureline and hybrid rice bran resulted in no viable S. Typhimurium and 6.58 log CFU/ml reduction after 48 h, respectively. Adding rice bran also led to changes in the cecal microbiota. LaKast rice bran resulted in more diverse bacterial population than control groups without any rice bran. The lowest abundance of Proteobacteria (at phylum level and Enterobacteriaceae (at family and genus level was exhibited in LaKast pure treated groups followed by LaKast hybrid and control. This may be attributed to a significant reduction of S. Typhimurium of the Enterobacteriaceae family and Proteobacteria phylum. This study suggests the beneficial functionality of LaKast rice brans as biological supplements in feed. The use of rice bran is favorable for both the consumer and the rice industry because of the perception of rice bran as a naturally occurring substance. As an abundant by-product of rice

  5. How work impairments and reduced work ability are associated with health care use in workers with musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disorders or mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Reeuwijk (Kerstin); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The aim of this study was to explore how work impairments and work ability are associated with health care use by workers with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), cardiovascular disorders (CVD), or mental disorders (MD). Methods in this cross-sectional study,

  6. EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING IN ADJUNCT TO CONVENTIONAL THERAPY IN REDUCING PAIN AND IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN INDIVIDUALS WITH PLANTAR FASCIITIS A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Tulasi Ratna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders of foot. The pain and discomfort associated with this condition has a dramatic impact on physical mobility and function. Treatment of this condition is usually conservative; however, review of literature revealed no clinical studies demonstrating the efficacy of any targeted treatment for this condition. Methods: This was a prospective study which included 60 subjects with plantar fasciitis, who were randomly divided into two groups. Subjects in group I received ultrasound and exercise therapy while subjects in group II received kinesio tape in addition to ultrasound and exercise therapy. Patients were evaluated at the beginning of the study and at the end of three weeks using VAS (visual analogue scale for pain intensity, PFPS (plantar fasciitis pain / disability scale for functional ability and ultra sonography for any change in the caliber of plantar fascia. Results: A statistically significant difference in improvement was noted within the groups and between the groups in terms of visual analogue scale and plantar fasciitis pain /disability scale score (p0.05. Conclusion: Kinesio taping can be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy in clinical application for greater improvement in pain levels and functional ability in patients with plantar fasciitis.

  7. The Ability of Tourist Natural Trails to Resist Tourism Load and Possibilities for Reducing the Environmental Impacts : Case Study of the Slovak Paradise National Park (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janočková Jana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The strictly protected natural area of Sucha Bela Gorge, located in the Slovak Paradise National Park, Slovakia, is exposed to environmental degradation by heavy tourist loads. Although educational and technical measures have been put in place, there is ongoing debate whether and how to limit the intensity of tourist visits. This study evaluates the ability of the trail leading through the gorge to resist trampling disturbance and to minimise the environmental impacts in the wider area of Sucha Bela by keeping tourists from moving off the designated areas. Aspects of trail layout, geological and geomorphological structures, terrain altering during the summer season, and acceptable tourist flow were investigated.The results show the current development would be acceptable in the case of limited off-trail movement. It therefore seems appropriate to review the trail allocation and marking, and to focus on environmental education rather than on limiting tourist visits.

  8. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity, and fire-induced plant mortality was not demonstrated: A comment on Davies et al. (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native peren...

  9. Desulfovibrio frigidus sp. nov. and Desulfovibrio ferrireducens sp. nov., psychrotolerant bacteria isolated from Arctic fjord sediments (Svalbard) with the ability to reduce Fe(III)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, Verona; Knoblauch, Christian; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2006-01-01

    fermentation products such as hydrogen, formate and lactate with sulfate as the electron acceptor. Sulfate could be replaced by sulfite, thiosulfate or elemental sulfur. Poorly crystalline and soluble Fe(III) compounds were reduced in sulfate-free medium, but no growth occurred under these conditions...

  10. An inter-laboratory study to test the ability of amendments to reduce the availability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sally [Box 352100 University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)]. E-mail: slb@u.washington.edu; Christensen, Barbara [Box 352100 University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lombi, Enzo [CSIRO Land and Water PMB, 2 Glen Osmond, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)]. E-mail: enzo.lombi@csiro.au; McLaughlin, Mike [CSIRO Land and Water PMB, 2 Glen Osmond, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)]. E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@csiro.au; McGrath, Steve [Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: steve.mcgrath@bbsrc.ac.uk; Colpaert, Jan [Limburgs Universitair, Centrum Universitaire Campus, Building D, BE 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Limburgs Universitair, Centrum Universitaire Campus, Building D, BE 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)]. E-mail: jvangron@luc.ac.be

    2005-11-15

    An international inter-laboratory research program investigated the effectiveness of in situ remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium, lead and zinc, measuring changes in soil and soil solution chemistry, plants and soil microbiota. A common soil, from mine wastes in Jasper County MO, was used. The soil was pH 5.9, had low organic matter (1.2 g kg{sup -1} C) and total Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations of 92, 5022, and 18 532 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Amendments included lime, phosphorus (P), red mud (RM), cyclonic ashes (CA), biosolids (BIO), and water treatment residuals (WTR). Both soil solution and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} extractable metals were decreased by all treatments. Phytotoxicity of metals was reduced, with plants grown in P treatments having the highest yields and lowest metal concentration (0.5, 7.2 and 406 mg kg{sup -1} Cd, Pb, and Zn). Response of soil micro-organisms was similar to plant responses. Phosphorus addition reduced the physiologically based extraction test Pb from 84% of total Pb extracted in the untreated soil to 34.1%. - Addition of phosphorus to Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated mine waste was able to reduce metal toxicity for a range of biological endpoints.

  11. An inter-laboratory study to test the ability of amendments to reduce the availability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Sally; Christensen, Barbara; Lombi, Enzo; McLaughlin, Mike; McGrath, Steve; Colpaert, Jan; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2005-01-01

    An international inter-laboratory research program investigated the effectiveness of in situ remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium, lead and zinc, measuring changes in soil and soil solution chemistry, plants and soil microbiota. A common soil, from mine wastes in Jasper County MO, was used. The soil was pH 5.9, had low organic matter (1.2 g kg -1 C) and total Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations of 92, 5022, and 18 532 mg kg -1 , respectively. Amendments included lime, phosphorus (P), red mud (RM), cyclonic ashes (CA), biosolids (BIO), and water treatment residuals (WTR). Both soil solution and NH 4 NO 3 extractable metals were decreased by all treatments. Phytotoxicity of metals was reduced, with plants grown in P treatments having the highest yields and lowest metal concentration (0.5, 7.2 and 406 mg kg -1 Cd, Pb, and Zn). Response of soil micro-organisms was similar to plant responses. Phosphorus addition reduced the physiologically based extraction test Pb from 84% of total Pb extracted in the untreated soil to 34.1%. - Addition of phosphorus to Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated mine waste was able to reduce metal toxicity for a range of biological endpoints

  12. Enhanced radiosensitivity of cultured fibroblasts from ataxia telangiectasia heterozygotes manifested by defective colony-forming ability and reduced DNA repair replication after hypoxic γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, M.C.; Anderson, A.K.; Smith, B.P.; Smith, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    We have measured the sensitivity to γ-ray inactivation of diploid skin fibroblasts cultured from 10 persons in four families with ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Persons heterozygous for AT, including parents of afflicted patients, are not as yet detectable by any specific clinical or laboratory marker but are believed to constitute a substantial portion of the middle-aged cancer population. In one AT family, fibroblast strains from both parents exhibited a colony-forming ability after hypoxic irradiation which was intermediate between that displayed by five control strains from normal children and that from the affected child. In the remaining three families, cultures from only one parent were available; one parental strain displayed an intermediate survival capacity as above, whereas the other two responded normally. The homozygous recessive strains from the five afflicted children in the four families were all equally hypersensitive to hypoxic γ-ray inactivation. The three presumed AT heterozygous strains that displayed intermediate rayiosensitivity also carried out γ-rad-induced DNA repair replication to an extent intermediate between those in normals and AT homozygotes. These findings suggest that a numerically significant, cancer-prone subpopulation of humans carrying one normal and one abnormal AT gene may also be moderately sensitive to lethal effects of hypoxic γ-rays due to a defect in the enzymatic repair of DNA

  13. Research of the load distribution in the wave kinematic reducer with a modified tooth profile and dependence of the load abilities in proportion to its gear ratio and overall dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, D. L.; Nikulin, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of reducers based on work of gear trains, which transfer torque. The most popular reducers are with such type of gearing as an involute gear, a worm drive and an eccentrically cycloid gear. A new type of the reducer will be represented in this work. It is a wave reducer with the modified profile of the tooth close to the profile of the tooth of Novikov gearing. So such reducers can be widely used in drives of difficult technical mechanisms, for example, in mechatronics, robotics and in drives of exact positioning. In addition, the distribution of loading in gearing of teeth of a reducer was analyzed in this paper. It proves that the modified profile of the tooth allows distributing loading to several teeth in gearing. As a result, an admissible loading ability of a reducer becomes higher. The aim of the research is to define a possibility to reduce overall dimensions of a reducer without changing the gear ratio or to increase the gear ratio without changing overall dimensions. So, the result of this work will be used in further research.

  14. Knock down of HIF-1α in glioma cells reduces migration in vitro and invasion in vivo and impairs their ability to form tumor spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esencay Mine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma (GBM is the most common and malignant primary intracranial human neoplasm. GBMs are characterized by the presence of extensive areas of necrosis and hypoxia. Hypoxia and its master regulator, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 play a key role in glioma invasion. Results To further elucidate the functional role of HIF-1α in glioma cell migration in vitro and in invasion in vivo, we used a shRNA approach to knock down HIF-1α expression complemented with genome-wide expression profiling, performed in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Our data show that knock down of HIF-1α in glioma cells significantly impairs their migration in vitro as well as their ability to invade into the brain parenchyma in vivo. Next, we assessed the role that HIF-1α plays in maintaining the characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs. By using the tumor sphere forming assay, we demonstrate that HIF-1α plays a role in the survival and self-renewal potential of CSCs. Finally, expression profiling experiments in glioma cells provided detailed insight into a broad range of specific biological pathways and processes downstream of HIF-1α. We discuss the role of these processes in the migratory and invasive properties, as well as the stem cell biology of glioblastomas Conclusions Our data show that knock down of HIF-1α in human and murine glioma cells impairs their migration in vitro and their invasion in vivo. In addition, our data suggest that HIF-1α plays a role in the survival and self-renewal potential of CSCs and identify genes that might further elucidate the role of HIF-1α in tumor migration, invasion and stem cell biology.

  15. Investigating the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4 to reduce cadmium stress in Lactuca sativa via an intervention in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Lucas J; Macfie, Sheila M

    2016-12-01

    A typical plant response to any biotic or abiotic stress, including cadmium (Cd), involves increased ethylene synthesis, which causes senescence of the affected plant part. Stressed plants can experience reduced ethylene and improved growth if they are inoculated with bacteria that have the enzyme ACC deaminase, which metabolizes the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate). We investigated whether one such bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4, reduces the production of ethylene and improves the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) sown in Cd-contaminated potting material (PRO-MIX® BX). Plants were inoculated with the wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 or a mutant strain that cannot produce ACC deaminase. Cadmium-treated plants contained up to 50 times more Cd than did control plants. In noninoculated plants, Cd induced a 5-fold increase in ethylene concentration. The wild-type bacterium prevented Cd-induced reductions in root biomass but there was no relationship between Cd treatment and ethylene production in inoculated plants. In contrast, when the concentration of ethylene was plotted against the extent of bacterial colonization of the roots, increased colonization with wild-type P. fluorescens UW4 was associated with 20% less ethylene production. Ours is the first study to show that the protective effect of this bacterium is proportional to the quantity of bacteria on the root surface.

  16. The efficacy of treadmill training with and without projected visual context for improving walking ability and reducing fall incidence and fear of falling in older adults with fall-related hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ooijen, Mariëlle W; Roerdink, Melvyn; Trekop, Marga; Janssen, Thomas W J; Beek, Peter J

    2016-12-28

    The ability to adjust walking to environmental context is often reduced in older adults and, partly as result of this, falls are common in this population. A treadmill with visual context projected on its belt (e.g., obstacles and targets) allows for practicing step adjustments relative to that context, while concurrently exploiting the great amount of walking practice associated with conventional treadmill training. The present study was conducted to compare the efficacy of adaptability treadmill training, conventional treadmill training and usual physical therapy in improving walking ability and reducing fear of falling and fall incidence in older adults during rehabilitation from a fall-related hip fracture. In this parallel-group, open randomized controlled trial, seventy older adults with a recent fall-related hip fracture (83.3 ± 6.7 years, mean ± standard deviation) were recruited from inpatient rehabilitation care and block randomized to six weeks inpatient adaptability treadmill training (n = 24), conventional treadmill training (n = 23) or usual physical therapy (n = 23). Group allocation was only blind for assessors. Measures related to walking ability were assessed as the primary outcome before and after the intervention and at 4-week and 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included general health, fear of falling, fall rate and proportion of fallers. Measures of general walking ability, general health and fear of falling improved significantly over time. Significant differences among the three intervention groups were only found for the Functional Ambulation Category and the dual-task effect on walking speed, which were in favor of respectively conventional treadmill training and adaptability treadmill training. Overall, adaptability treadmill training, conventional treadmill training and usual physical therapy resulted in similar effects on walking ability, fear of falling and fall incidence in older adults rehabilitating

  17. The two umuDC-like operons, samAB and umuDCST, in Salmonella typhimurium: The umuDCST operon may reduce UV-mutagenesis-promoting ability of the samAB operon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohmi, Takehiko; Hakura, Atsushi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Yamada, Masami; Sofuni, Toshio; Nakai, Yasuharu; Murayama, Somay Y.

    1993-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium, especially its derivatives containing pKM101 plasmid, has been widely used in the Ames test for the detection of environmental mutagens and carcinogens. It is known, however, that if the pKM101 plasmid is eliminated, S. typhimurium itself shows a much weaker mutagenic response to UV and some chemical mutagens than does Escherichia coli. In fact, certain potent base-change type mutagens, such as furylfuramide and aflatoxin B 1 , are nonmutagenic to S. typhimurium in the absence of pKM101, whereas they are strongly mutagenic to S. typhimurium in the presence of pKM101 plasmid as well as to E. coli. The low mutability can be restored to levels comparable to E. coli by introducing the plasmid carrying the E. coli umuDC operon or the pKM101 plasmid carrying mucAB operon. Salmonella typhimurium has an SOS regulatory system which resembles that of E. coli. Thus, it was suggested that S. typhimurium is deficient in the function of umuDC operon, which plays an essential role in UV and most chemical mutagenesis in E. coli. In order to clarify the implications of umuDC genes in mutagenesis and antimutagenesis in typhimurium, we have independently screened the umuDC-like genes of S. typhimurium TA1538. Consequently, we have cloned another umuDC-like operon which is 40% diverged from the aforementioned umuDC operon of S. typhimurium LT2 at the nucleotide level (16). We have termed the cloned DNA the samAB (Salmonella; mutagenesis) operon, and tentatively referred to the umuDC operon cloned from S. typhimurium LT2 (27,31) as the umuDC ST operon. Based on the results of the Southern hybridization experiment, we concluded that the two sets of umuDC-like operons reside in the same cells of S. typhimurium LT2 and TA1538. Our results also suggested that the umuDC ST operon reduces the UV-mutagenesis promoting ability of the samAB operon when the two operons are present on the same multi-copy number plasmid

  18. Readability and Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Benjamin D.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    This document discusses the measurement of reading ability and the readability of books by application of the Lexile framework. It begins by stating the importance of uniform measures. It then discusses the history of reading ability testing, based on the assumption that no researcher has been able to measure more than one kind of reading ability.…

  19. Optical absorption of copper met-myoglobin complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, M.T.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Bemski, G.

    1976-01-01

    It is reported on the use of a known denaturing agent, namely Cu 2+ ions, to induce a gradual change in the optical spectrum of Mb solutions, in order to identify the absorption bands that undergo similar changes which may be attributed to the transitions between correlated energy levels [pt

  20. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  1. Girls underestimate maths ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    A study by psychologists in the US has found that high-school girls rate their competence in mathematics lower than boys, even for those with similar abilities (Front. Psychol. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00386).

  2. Functional Ability, Community Reintegration and Participation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Functional ability which appears to be related to stroke laterality showed positive association with both community reintegration and participation restriction. This suggests that improving the functional ability of the stroke survivors may reduce participation restriction and enhance their reintegration into the ...

  3. Development of arithmetical abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Levstek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arithmetic (from the word 'arithmos' which means 'numbers' is an elementary branch of mathematics. Numeracy is essential for understanding mathematics, so the development of arithmetic abilities has been an area of scientific research for a long time. Recent research has shown that the development of arithmetic abilities is not based only on gaining experience and learning. Some arithmetic abilities, especially the sense of quantity, are innate. Even babies are able to distinguish between groups with different number of elements and they perceive numeracy amodally. Six-month-olds distinguish between two groups with the numeracy ratio of 1 : 2. With age this ratio improves rapidly. Five-year-old children already distinguish between groups with the number ratio 7 : 8. The ability to compare two quantities begins to develop after 15 months of age and children learn how to count spontaneously, together with the acquisition of language. Speech enables children to understand number in its abstract, symbolic sense, thus opening the way to symbolic arithmetic. During the preschool period children use intuition when doing calculations, but in school the arithmetic is based on the knowledge of arithmetical algorithms. So, in order to acquire mathematical knowledge, it is necessary to incorporate memory and automate arithmetical processes, without the use of intuition. However, research has shown that intuition is very important and is even a predictive factor for the development of mathematical abilities throughout the schooling process.

  4. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  5. Early Functional Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...

  6. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MENTAL ABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF HUMAN INTELLECT. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1955 TO 1966. BOOKS, REPORTS, JOURNAL MATERIALS, AND SOME UNPUBLISHED TITLES ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE (1) INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT, (2) ABILITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS, RACES,…

  7. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  8. Synchronization of Mental Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, A.

    2008-01-01

    I think it is better to summarize some cognitive issues in relation to this subject; how we learn, how we should organize learning (instructions), knowledge, etc. before treating creativity and rationality. Is it, really, possible to consider creativity without any kind of involvement of the ability

  9. AgrAbility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cordless Ratchet Wrench ClampTite Wire Clamping Tool iBlue Smart Gate/Door Opener Full Toolbox AT Database Extranet ... in-person NTW - March 19-22, Portland, Maine House and Senate Appropriations Committees recommend restoring AgrAbility funding... ...

  10. Effects of nitrate addition to a diet on fermentation and microbial populations in the rumen of goats, with special reference to Selenomonas ruminantium having the ability to reduce nitrate and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Narito; Yokoyama, Shota; Hino, Tsuneo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary nitrate addition on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial populations in goats. The involvement of Selenomonas ruminantium in nitrate and nitrite reduction in the rumen was also examined. As the result of nitrate feeding, the total concentration of ruminal volatile fatty acids decreased, whereas the acetate : propionate ratio and the concentrations of ammonia and lactate increased. Populations of methanogens, protozoa and fungi, as estimated by real-time PCR, were greatly decreased as a result of nitrate inclusion in the diet. There was modest or little impact of nitrate on the populations of prevailing species or genus of bacteria in the rumen, whereas Streptococcus bovis and S. ruminantium significantly increased. Both the activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) per total mass of ruminal bacteria were increased by nitrate feeding. Quantification of the genes encoding NaR and NiR by real-time PCR with primers specific for S. ruminantium showed that these genes were increased by feeding nitrate, suggesting that the growth of nitrate- and nitrite-reducing S. ruminantium is stimulated by nitrate addition. Thus, S. ruminantium is likely to play a major role in nitrate and nitrite reduction in the rumen. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. The effect of industrial processing of salmon oil on its ability to reduce serum concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein- β2-glycoprotein-I complex in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Framroze

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Circulating serum levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, β2-glycoprotein I complex (oxLDL-GP, have been previously correlated with adverse cardiovascular events and have been shown to be reduced by consumption of enzymatically liberated extra virgin salmon oil (EVSO. This mouse study measured the changes in the oxLDL-GP lowering effect when consuming EVSO with varying levels of EPA+DHA (eicosapentenoic acid and docosahexenoic acid as well as when consuming EVSO that was subjected to various processing treatments commonly carried out during fish oil production. Methods: Sprague Dawley mice were fed a diet containing eight different EVSO’s incorporated into a normal diet at the Human Equivalent Dose (HED of 1000 mg for 8 weeks. Serum was collected at the start and at the end of the trial and the oxLDL-GP concentrations were measured using an ELISA assay. Statistical analysis of the results was carried out using a 1-tail, paired Student t-Test. Results: In order to lower circulatory oxLDL-GP levels, the mice had to consume a minimum of 80 mg per day HED of EPA+DHA. Heat treatment of the EVSO did not affect this bioactivity but hydrolysis with acid or base and re-esterification to the triglyceride form or significant oxidation (rancidity rendered the oil inactive on this important cardio-vascular disease (CVD biomarker. Conclusions: This result shows that harsh processing conditions on fish oils can lead to the destruction of biological efficacy in spite of increasing the concentration of typical fish oil bioactive constituents such as EPA+DHA. It also lends support to the developing nutrition theory that eating highly-refined, processed or concentrated-ingredient supplements derived from functional foods may not be able to reproduce their full nutritive and health-benefiting effects

  12. The work ability continuum : Epidemiological studies of factors promoting sustainable work ability

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    For the individual, the workplace and society, there would be considerable gains if the number of people suffering from physical and mental disorders could be reduced. The overall aim of this thesis was to identify determinants for future work ability among gainfully employed women and men, with special reference to promotive factors at work. Work ability is in this thesis defined as the ability to work with respect to demands at work on health and physical and mental reso...

  13. Diagnosing EAP Writing Ability Using the Reduced Reparameterized Unified Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in and need for test information for use in instructional practice and student learning, there have been few attempts to systematically link a diagnostic approach to English for academic purposes (EAP) writing instruction and assessment. In response to this need for research, this study examined the extent to which…

  14. Ability Grouping in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a position statement of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Reports that the NCSS objects to ability grouping in social studies. Argues that ability grouping disadvantages minority, handicapped, and low ability students. Suggests that ability grouping undermines the democratic ideals that should be the basis of the social…

  15. Efficient evaluation of hearing ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A system for establishing a hearing ability model of a hearing ability of a person, includes a data storage configured to store a representation of a distribution of a hearing ability of a population of individuals, and a processor configured to establish a hearing ability model representing a

  16. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools.

  17. Information Processing and Human Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, John R.; Das, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    The simultaneous and successive processing model of cognitive abilities was compared to a traditional primary mental abilities model. Simultaneous processing was found to be primarily related to spatial ability; and to a lesser extent, to memory and inductive reasoning. Subjects were 104 fourth-grade urban males. (Author/GD C)

  18. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    tend to sort themselves into jobs that are commensurate with their ability level ( McCormick , DeNisi, & Staw, 1979; McCormick , Jeanneret, & Mecham...of Genetic Psychology, 153, 229-230. Specific abilities, g, & high ability populations 14 McCormick , E. J., DeNisi, A. S., & Shaw, J. B... McCormick , E. J., Jeanneret, P. R., & Mecham, R. C. (1972). A study of job characteristics and job dimensions as based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire

  19. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  20. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  1. Psychological Measures of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Ion Clinciu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial abilities are divided into three categories: mental rotation, spatial relation and visualization. Several tests are cited in foreign literature that are frequently used in order to assess these abilities, but for Romanian specialists they are not on hand. The present paper is introducing new assessment tools for static spatial abilities that were successfully used along with already validated instruments. Data on statistical qualities of the new instruments are also discussed.

  2. Language mastery, narrative abilities and oral expression abilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of language and language mastery for science learning has been the object of extensive investigation in recent decades, leading to ample recognition. However, specific focus on the role of narrative abilities is still scarce. This work focuses on the relevance of narrative abilities for chemistry learning.

  3. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Mollerstrom

    Full Text Available Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  4. Verbal Ability and Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Michael D.; Cobb, Casey D.; Giampietro, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Critics of traditional teacher education programs have suggested that verbal ability along with subject knowledge is sufficient for measuring good teaching. A small group of research studies is called upon to support this contention. This article reviews these studies, analyzes the role of verbal ability in teaching, and presents research…

  5. Efficient evaluation of hearing ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of establishing a hearing ability model for a person, the method including providing a representation of the distribution of hearing ability for a population of individuals. The method may comprise the steps) performing a hearing evaluation event, comprising

  6. Readability, Reading Ability, and Readership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Richard P.; And Others

    This paper presents data describing large differences between the reading difficulty levels of printed materials used in certain military occupational specialties (MOSs) and the relatively lower reading ability levels of men assigned to these MOSs. Initial data explore the relationship between reading ability and utilization of printed materials…

  7. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 (student) teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances for one year. We...... ensured exogenous variation in otherwise random team composition by assigning students to teams based on their measured cognitive abilities. Each team performs a variety of tasks, often involving complex decision making. The key result of the experiment is that the performance of business teams first...... increases and then decreases with ability dispersion. We seek to understand this finding by developing a model in which team members of different ability levels form sub- teams with other team members with similar ability levels to specialize in different productive tasks. Diversity spreads production over...

  8. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  9. High ability: Giftedness and talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Prieto Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1 Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2 Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3 Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, USA, Russia, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Poland, from sixteen different Spanish and international universities: Alicante (Spain, Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain, Málaga (Spain, Murcia (Spain, Navarra (Spain, Oviedo (Spain, Tufts University (USA, Yale University (USA, Moscow State University (Russia, Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, University of Connecticut (USA, Universidade do Minho (Portugal, Universidade da Beira Interior (Portugal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, King Faisal University (Saudi Arabia and Universidad de Szczecin (Poland.

  10. Ability performance of older workers - Internal and external influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Internal and external factors affecting ability and performance of older employees are being analyzed in a short literature review. Internal factors like physical capacity, sensory capacity, cognitive abilities and general health are reduced with ageing; their effect on performance, however, depends

  11. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  12. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  13. Lifestyle index and work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa; Jegier, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In many countries around the world, negative changes in lifestyles are observed. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of selected lifestyle indicators on work ability among professionally active individuals. The study was performed in the randomly selected group of full-time employees (94 men and 93 women) living in the city of Lódź. Work ability was measured with the work ability index and lifestyle characteristic was assessed with the healthy lifestyle index. We analyzed four lifestyle indicators: non-smoking, healthy weight, fiber intake per day, and regular physical activity. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals to control the effects of lifestyle and work ability. The analysis of lifestyle index indicated that 27.7, 30.9, 27.7 and 11.7% of men and 15.1, 21.5, 35.5 and 26.9% of women scored 0, 1, 2, 3 points, respectively. Only 2.1% of men and 1.1% of women met the criteria for the healthy lifestyle (score 4). Work ability was excellent, good and moderate in 38.3, 46.8 and 14.9% of men, and in 39.8, 14.9 and 19.3% of women, respectively. Poor work ability was found in 9.7% women. Work ability was strongly associated with lifestyle in both men and women. Among men with index score = 0, the risk of moderate work ability was nearly seven times higher than in men whose lifestyle index score exceeded 1 or more points (OR = 6.67; 95% CI: 1.94-22.90). Among women with lifestyle index score = 0, the risk of moderate or lower work ability was also highly elevated as compared to those with lifestyle index = 1 or higher (OR = 14.44; 95% CI: 3.53-59.04). Prophylactic schedules associated with the improvement of lifestyles should be addressed to all adults. Future programs aimed at increasing work ability should consider work- and lifestyle-related factors.

  14. Deafness and motor abilities level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zwierzchowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  15. The concept of work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2011-06-01

    The concept of "work ability" is central for many sciences, especially for those related to working life and to rehabilitation. It is one of the important concepts in legislation regulating sickness insurance. How the concept is defined therefore has important normative implications. The concept is, however, often not sufficiently well defined. AIM AND METHOD The objective of this paper is to clarify, through conceptual analysis, what the concept can and should mean, and to propose a useful definition for scientific and practical work. RESULTS Several of the defining characteristics found in the literature are critically scrutinized and discussed, namely health, basic standard competence, occupational competence, occupational virtues, and motivation. These characteristics are related to the work tasks and the work environment. One conclusion is that we need two definitions of work ability, one for specific jobs that require special training or education, and one for jobs that most people can manage given a short period of practice. Having work ability, in the first sense, means having the occupational competence, the health required for the competence, and the occupational virtues that are required for managing the work tasks, assuming that the tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. In the second sense, having work ability is having the health, the basic standard competence and the relevant occupational virtues required for managing some kind of job, assuming that the work tasks are reasonable and that the work environment is acceptable. CONCLUSION These definitions give us tools for understanding and discussing the complex, holistic and dynamic aspects of work ability, and they can lay the foundations for the creation of instruments for evaluating work ability, as well as help formulate strategies for rehabilitation.

  16. Competence: Commodification of Human Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the meaning and presumptions of competence in the concrete context of knowledge capitalism. First, the nature of competence as a "commodification of human ability" that obtains a standardized monetary value to sell in the labor market, is elucidated by applying Karl Marx's critical theory. Second, it is…

  17. An Alternative to Ability Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann

    2006-01-01

    Ability grouping is a common approach to dealing with student variance in learning. In general, findings suggest that such an approach to dealing with student differences is disadvantageous to students who struggle in school and advantageous to advanced learners. The concept of differentiation suggests that there is another alternative to…

  18. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  19. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  20. Ability Dispersion and Team Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogendoorn, Sander; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    What is the effect of dispersed levels of cognitive ability of members of a (business) team on their team's performance? This paper reports the results of a field experiment in which 573 students in 49 teams start up and manage real companies under identical circumstances. We ensured exogenous va...

  1. Technology and Motor Ability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lang, Yong; Luo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    As a new member joining the technology family, active video games have been developed to promote physical exercise. This working-in-progress paper shares an ongoing project on examining the basic motor abilities that are enhanced through participating in commercially available active video games. [For the full proceedings see ED557181.

  2. Review of pump suction reducer selection: Eccentric or concentric reducers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, R M; van Vuuren, S J

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric reducers are traditionally recommended for the pump suction reducer fitting to allow for transportation of air through the fitting to the pump. The ability of a concentric reducer to provide an improved approach flow to the pump while still allowing air to be transported through the fitting is investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were utilised to analyse six concentric and six eccentric reducer geometries at four different inlet velocities to determine the flow velocity ...

  3. INDIVIDUAL ABILITIES AND LIFELONG LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new and emerging technologies in education, learning environments and methods that have to satisfy lifelong learning, from school age to retirement, on the basis of the psychophysiological model of the cognitive abilities formation. It covers such topics as: evaluation of a human (accounting schoolchildren, youth and adults features abilities and individual propensities, individual trajectory of learning, adaptive learning strategy and design, recommendation on curriculum design, day-to-day support for individual’s learning, assessment of a human learning environment and performance, recommendation regards vocational retraining and/or further carrier etc.. The specific goal is to facilitate a broader understanding of the promise and pitfalls of these technologies and working (learning/teaching environments in global education/development settings, with special regard to the human as subject in the system and to the collaboration of humans and technical, didactic and organizational subsystems.

  4. Implicit learning as an ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; Deyoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Jiménez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber, 1993; Stanovich, 2009) have suggested that individual differences in implicit learning are minimal relative to individual differences in explicit learning. In the current study of English 16-17year old students, we investigated the association of individual differences in implicit learning with a variety of cognitive and personality variables. Consistent with prior research and theorizing, implicit learning, as measured by a probabilistic sequence learning task, was more weakly related to psychometric intelligence than was explicit associative learning, and was unrelated to working memory. Structural equation modeling revealed that implicit learning was independently related to two components of psychometric intelligence: verbal analogical reasoning and processing speed. Implicit learning was also independently related to academic performance on two foreign language exams (French, German). Further, implicit learning was significantly associated with aspects of self-reported personality, including intuition, Openness to Experience, and impulsivity. We discuss the implications of implicit learning as an ability for dual-process theories of cognition, intelligence, personality, skill learning, complex cognition, and language acquisition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Data Set on the Multiple Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klynge, Alice Heegaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a data set on multiple abilities. The abilities cover the Literacy and Math Ability, the Creative and Innovative Ability, the Learning Ability, the Communication Ability, the Social Competency, the Self-Management Ability, the Environmental Awareness, the Civic Competency......, the Intercultural Awareness, and the Health Awareness. The data stems from a unique cross-sectional survey carried out for the adult population in Denmark. Several dimensions and many questions pinpoint and measure every ability. The dimensions cover areas such as the individual behavior at work, the individual...... behavior in leisure, the motivation for using an ability, the working conditions for using an ability, and the educational conditions for using an ability. The paper defines every ability and describes the dimensions and the questions underlying the abilities. It reports the categories of answers...

  6. Availability of new drugs and Americans' ability to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this work was the investigation of the extent to which the introduction of new drugs has increased society's ability to produce goods and services by increasing the number of hours worked per member of the working-age population. Econometric models of ability-to-work measures from data on approximately 200,000 individuals with 47 major chronic conditions observed throughout a 15-year period (1982-1996) were estimated. Under very conservative assumptions, the estimates indicate that the value of the increase in ability to work attributable to new drugs is 2.5 times as great as expenditure on new drugs. The potential of drugs to increase employee productivity should be considered in the design of drug-reimbursement policies. Conversely, policies that broadly reduce the development and utilization of new drugs may ultimately reduce our ability to produce other goods and services.

  7. Teachers of high ability pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Genovard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the characteristics of gifted and talented students’ expert teachers. The subject background and the specific proprieties of the instructional process to meet gifted students’ educational needs are analyzed. The value of teacher-student interactions and of teaching and learning styles are highlighted. Also, we include different action guidelines and instructional resources to use in the classroom to teach these students. There is not an ideal teacher for high ability students. However, teachers must know what the teaching-learning processes are and how these work, and the diverse psychological, content and contextual variables involved in such processes.

  8. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  9. Structure of Cognitive Abilities and Skills of Lifeguards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lifeguard service on beaches greatly contributes to reducing the number of accidents in and around the water. The lifeguard can be a person with good motor, but also cognitive skills and abilities. In addition to good swimming skills, lifeguard must be able to quickly detect and recognize the accident, and also to be able to timely and correctly act in case of accident in water, but also at the beach. The goal of this study is to determine the structure of cognitive abilities and skills with the sample of lifeguards that work on Montenegrin beaches. Battery KOG-3 was applied on the sample of 40 lifeguards. The collected and achieved results lead to following conclusion: the subjects have good ability to determine relation between elements of a structure and lower characteristics of that structure; subjects have good ability to assess the efficiency of serial processor; and subjects have good ability to assess efficiency of perceptive processor.

  10. Parkinson's disease and driving ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pautomatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820

  11. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being ‘gifted’. This study looks at the inter-correlations between performance in various subjects in examinations and then considers how examination performance correlates with measures of working memory capacity, extent of field dependency, extent of divergency and visual-spatial abilities. A very large sample of grade 7 Kuwaiti students (aged ~13 was involved, the sample being selected in such a way that it contained a high proportion of those regarded as ‘gifted’ under the procedures used in Kuwait. While specific learner characteristics have been related to examination performance, this study brings four different characteristics together to gain a picture of the way these characteristics may be seen in those who perform extremely well in examinations. Principal components analysis using varimax rotation, was used to look at the examination data and one factor accounted for 87% of the variance. A consideration of the examination papers led to the conclusion that the national examinations tested only recall-recognition. It was also found that those who performed best in all six subjects tended to be those who are highly divergent and strongly visual-spatial as well as those tending to have higher working memory capacities and being more field independent. The inter-correlations between the various learner characteristics are explained in terms of the way the brain is known to process information. The implications of the findings for assessment and for the way high ability is considered are discussed.

  12. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  13. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  14. The measurement of change in functional ability: dealing with attrition and the floor/ceiling effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    , functional ability at baseline, relative wealth, social network, self-rated health, and life-satisfaction. Inclusion of the dead in statistical models for the study of change in functional ability reduced the attrition problem. A logistic model for paired observations of functional ability at two points...

  15. Functional ability of community dwelling elderly. Criterion-related validity of a new measure of functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, K; Avlund, K; Kreiner, S

    1992-01-01

    Criterion-related validity of a new measure of functional ability was conducted according to a causal model based on conceptual models employed in the area of rehabilitative and geriatric medicine. The criteria variables included concurrent diagnosed diseases, global self-rated health, drug...... consumption and general practitioner (GP) consultations. The measure of functional ability was developed with the intention of achieving a high degree of discrimination among a group of community dwelling elderly. Data were derived from a sample survey of 70-year-old men and women conducted in 1984...... different unidimensional index scales of functional ability divided into two types, with reduced speed and tiredness as subdimensions. The two scale types were mobility function and lower limb function. Early losses of ability together with global self-rated health were treated as outcome measures...

  16. Learning-Ability Relations in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Two successive recall tasks and eight ability measures were presented to women of five age groups to investigate the changing relation between performance and ability measures at various stages of the learning process during adulthood. (MS)

  17. Discourse abilities in the structure of intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article is devoted to empirical research on discourse abilities within the structure of cognitive abilities. Discourse abilities, as well as linguistic abilities, are part of language abilities, but they are directly linked with discourse practices and a certain communicative situation. Discourse abilities allow a person to effectively initiate, keep, expand, and complete the process of communication, using language appropriate to any given situation. These abilities contribute to making communication more effective and achieving mutual understanding between partners, while at the same time they speed up the process of forming an interaction strategy. the empirical verification of the construct “discourse abilities,” and the design of original diagnostic tests on them, led us to differentiate linguistic and discourse abilities. Objective. However, it is not yet clear what place discourse abilities occupy in the structure of cognitive abilities. This is the primary goal of our research. Method. The design of the study involved group testing (in groups of 15-35 people using the following methods: a discourse abilities test; a short selection test; a social intelligence test, and short variations of Torrance’s and Mednick’s tests. In total, 208 people (133 women and 75 men, ages 17 to 21 years participated in the study, all of them either first year humanities students or high school students from Moscow. Results and Discussion. The research results revealed that discourse abilities relevantly correlate with the majority of indicators of general and social intelligence and creativity (except non-verbal intelligence. Discourse abilities as part of the structure of cognitive capabilities form a discrete factor, and include relevant components such as verbal and general intelligence and indicators of social intelligence, such as the ability to group expressions. Structures indicative of cognitive abilities varied within the

  18. Discrimination ability of the Energy score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija

    as appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....

  19. Judging the Ability of Friends and Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer L; Murphy, Jennifer; Bird, Geoffrey

    2016-10-01

    Collaboration leads us to judge our own ability to be more similar to our collaborators and their ability to be more similar to our own, while competition leads us to exaggerate the gap between our abilities. How does this happen and what does it mean? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Welding abilities of UFG metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawiński, Łukasz; Chmielewski, Tomasz; Olejnik, Lech; Buffa, Gianluca; Campanella, Davide; Fratini, Livan

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafine Grained (UFG) metals are characterized by an average grain size of welded joints with similar properties to the base of UFG material are crucial for the production of finished engineering components. Conventional welding methods based on local melting of the joined edges cannot be used due to the UFG microstructure degradation caused by the heat occurrence in the heat affected zone. Therefore, the possibility of obtaining UFG materials joints with different shearing plane (SP) positions by means of friction welded processes, which do not exceed the melting temperature during the process, should be investigated. The article focuses on the Linear Friction Welding (LFW) method, which belongs to innovative welding processes based on mixing of the friction-heated material in the solid state. LFW is a welding process used to joint bulk components. In the process, the friction forces work due to the high frequency oscillation and the pressure between the specimens is converted in thermal energy. Character and range of recrystallization can be controlled by changing LFW parameters. Experimental study on the welded UFG 1070 aluminum alloy by means of FLW method, indicates the possibility of reducing the UFG structure degradation in the obtained joint. A laboratory designed LFW machine has been used to weld the specimens with different contact pressure and oscillation frequency.

  1. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  2. A qualitative approach to assessing work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    We often need to be able to assess the extent to which individuals have or lack work ability. For this we need instruments. Most of the instruments available have flaws. They either lack validity or they use roundabout methods when collecting information about the individual's work ability. The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual model for constructing a questionnaire that can be used for assessing work ability. The methods used are philosophical, i.e. analytical and deductive. A conceptual theory is provided, and based on the resulting definition of the concept of "work ability" conclusions are drawn regarding how to assess work ability. When constructing quantitative instruments, we can increase validity through using a more strict definition of work ability. However, such an approach will only solve some of the problems noted above. The proposal is, instead, to create a qualitative questionnaire, founded on a definition of "work ability", which focuses on the concrete problems concerning the work ability of the individual. Finally, a sketch of such an instrument is provided, with questions covering all the relevant aspects of work ability. The qualitative questionnaire proposed is believed to be superior to more traditional (quantitative) instruments for assessing a person's work ability, as well as for finding solutions to her problems concerning work ability.

  3. Artificial intelligence model for sustain ability measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navickiene, R.; Navickas, K.

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses the main dimensions of organizational sustain ability, their possible integrations into artificial neural network. In this article authors performing analyses of organizational internal and external environments, their possible correlations with 4 components of sustain ability, and the principal determination models for sustain ability of organizations. Based on the general principles of sustainable development organizations, a artificial intelligence model for the determination of organizational sustain ability has been developed. The use of self-organizing neural networks allows the identification of the organizational sustain ability and the endeavour to explore vital, social, antropogenical and economical efficiency. The determination of the forest enterprise sustain ability is expected to help better manage the sustain ability. (Authors)

  4. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  5. Work ability assessment in a worker population: comparison and determinants of Work Ability Index and Work Ability score

    OpenAIRE

    El Fassi, Mehdi; Bocquet, Valery; Majery, Nicole; Lair, Marie Lise; Couffignal, Sophie; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Background Public authorities in European countries are paying increasing attention to the promotion of work ability throughout working life and the best method to monitor work ability in populations of workers is becoming a significant question. The present study aims to compare the assessment of work ability based on the use of the Work Ability Index (WAI), a 7-item questionnaire, with another one based on the use of WAI?s first item, which consists in the worker?s self-assessment of his/he...

  6. Demand-specific work ability, poor health and working conditions in middle-aged full-time employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else

    2014-01-01

    -sectional questionnaire data from 3381 full-time employees responding to questions about vocational education, job demands and social support (working conditions), musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and major depression (MD) (poor health) and seven questions about difficulty managing different job demands (reduced demand......We investigated the prevalence of reduced demand-specific work ability, its association with age, gender, education, poor health, and working conditions, and the interaction between poor health and working conditions regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. We used cross...... was associated with six measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. We found no interaction between working conditions and poor health regarding reduced demand-specific work ability....

  7. Genetics and genomics of musical abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Oikkonen, Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Most people have the capacity for music perception and production, but the degree of music competency varies between individuals. In this thesis, I studied abilities to identify pitch, tone duration and sound patterns with Karma s test for auditory structuring (KMT), and Seashore s tests for time (ST) and pitch (SP). These abilities can be considered as basic components of musicality. Additionally, I studied self-reported musical activities, especially composing and arranging. Musical ability...

  8. Risk Aversion Relates to Cognitive Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....

  9. Risk aversion relates to cognitive ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....

  10. Relationship between Work Ability Index and Cognitive Failure among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Milad; Zakerian, Abolfazl; Kolahdouzi, Malihe; Mehri, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Frequent nursing errors are considered as factors that affect the quality of healthcare of patients. Capable nurses who are compatible with work conditions are more focused on their tasks, and this reduces their errors and cognitive failures. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between work ability index (WAI) and cognitive failures (CFs) as well as some factors that affect them in nurses working in the ICU, CCU, and emergency wards. This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted with 750 nurses at educational hospitals affiliated with the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A questionnaire of work ability index and cognitive failures was used to collect data. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, chi-squared, ANOVA, and the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Using the Pearson correlation test, the results of this study showed that there is a significant, inverse relationship between WAI, personal prognosis of work ability, and mental resources with CFs along with all its subscales in nurses (p work impairment due to diseases (p work experience, and body mass index (BMI) (p working units (p work ability of nurses be improved and that their CFs be reduced through various measures, including pre-employment examinations, proper management of work-shift conditions, and using engineering and administrative strategies to ensure the safety of hospitalized patients.

  11. [Person-organization fit and work ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Person-environment issue has long been in focus of researchers who explore the area of human labor. It is known that the level of fit is a predictor of many phenomena related to health and attitude to work. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the level of person- organization fit (P-O fit) and work ability, including indicators of somatic and mental health. Research was conducted on a representative sample of 600 Polish men and women at working age. The Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire was used to assess three dimensions of P-O fit (supplementary fit, complementary fit and identification with organization); mental health status was measured by GHQ-28; the number of diagnosed diseases was taken as an index of somatic health; work ability, ability to physical and mental efforts were measured by three items from the Work Ability Index. A significant relationship between P-O fit level and work ability was found. In men, work ability predictors were: age, supplementary fit and mental health status, which explained 25% of the variance in work ability. In women, work ability predictors were: the number of diagnosed somatic diseases, supplementary fit, age and complementary fit, which explained 27% of the variance in work ability. Some gender-related differences in the predictive value of variables under the study were also found. The results of this study indicate the importance of P-O fit in shaping the sense of work ability, a recognized predictor of workers' occupational activity and the frequency of taking sick leave in subsequent years. Therefore, this result may be a useful argument to motivate employers to employ workers adequately to their abilities and preferences.

  12. Work ability assessment in a worker population: comparison and determinants of Work Ability Index and Work Ability score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fassi, Mehdi; Bocquet, Valery; Majery, Nicole; Lair, Marie Lise; Couffignal, Sophie; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2013-04-08

    Public authorities in European countries are paying increasing attention to the promotion of work ability throughout working life and the best method to monitor work ability in populations of workers is becoming a significant question. The present study aims to compare the assessment of work ability based on the use of the Work Ability Index (WAI), a 7-item questionnaire, with another one based on the use of WAI's first item, which consists in the worker's self-assessment of his/her current work ability level as opposed to his/her lifetime best, this single question being termed "Work Ability score" (WAS). Using a database created by an occupational health service, the study intends to answer the following questions: could the assessment of work ability be based on a single-item measure and which are the variables significantly associated with self-reported work ability among those systematically recorded by the occupational physician during health examinations? A logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability of observing "poor" or "moderate" WAI levels depending on age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, position held, firm size and diseases reported by the worker in a population of workers aged 40 to 65 and examined between January 2006 and June 2010 (n=12389). The convergent validity between WAS and WAI was statistically significant (rs=0.63). In the multivariable model, age (pwork ability. A work position characterized by the predominance of mental activity (OR=0.71, 95%CI [0.61-0.84]) had a favourable impact on work ability. These relations were observed regardless of the work ability measurement tool used. The convergent validity and the similarity in results between WAI and WAS observed in a large population of employed workers should thus foster the use of WAS for systematic screening of work ability. Ageing, overweight, decline in health status, holding a mostly physical job and working in a large-sized firm increase the

  13. Age, burnout and physical and psychological work ability among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, D J; Freude, G; Martus, P; Rose, U; Müller, G; Potter, G G

    2018-03-26

    The ageing of the US labour force highlights the need to examine older adults' physical and psychological ability to work, under varying levels of occupational burnout. To examine how age and burnout interact in predicting physical and psychological work ability. Using a cohort of actively working nurses, we assessed factors on the Work Ability Index at 12-month follow-up and determined how these were related to age and exhaustion-related burnout at baseline. The study group consisted of 402 nurses aged 25-67 (mean = 41.7). Results indicated age by burnout interactions in which decrements in physical work ability with greater age were observed at all but the lowest level of burnout (1.5 SD below mean: β = -0.14, 95% CI -0.36, 0.07; 1 SD below: β = -0.23, 95% CI -0.39, -0.06; mean: β = -0.39, 95% CI -0.50, -0.29; 1 SD above: β = -0.56, 95% CI -0.70, -0.42; 1.5 SD above: β = -0.64, 95% CI -0.83, -0.46). In contrast, we observed decrements in psychological work ability with age at higher levels of burnout only (1 SD above: β = -0.20, 95% CI -0.35, -0.05; 1.5 SD above: β = -0.30, 95% CI -0.49, -0.11); at lower levels of burnout, older age was associated with improvements in this (1 SD below: β = 0.19, 95% CI 0.03, 0.35; 1.5 SD below: β = 0.29, 95% CI 0.08, 0.50). Findings indicated physical and psychological dimensions of work ability that differed by age and occupational burnout. This emphasizes the need for interventions to reduce burnout and to address age-related strengths and vulnerabilities relating to physical and psychological work ability.

  14. Worksite adjustments and work ability among employed cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, Steffen; Nielsen, Roy A; Gudbergsson, Sævar B; Dahl, Alv A

    2012-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine how many cancer survivors (CSs) make worksite adjustments and what kinds of adjustments they make. Changes in work ability among employed CSs were explored, and clinical, sociodemographic, and work-related factors associated with the current total work ability were studied. CSs of the ten most common invasive types of cancer for men and women in Norway completed a mailed questionnaire 15-39 months after being diagnosed with cancer. Included in the analyses were all participants who worked both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of the survey and who had not changed their labor force status since diagnosis (n = 563). The current total work ability was compared to the lifetime best (0-10 score). Twenty-six percent of the employed CSs had made adjustments at work, and the most common adjustment was changing the number of work hours per week. Despite the fact that 31% and 23% reported reduced physical and mental work abilities, respectively, more than 90% of the CSs reported that they coped well with their work demands. The mean total work ability score was high (8.6) among both men and women. Being self-employed and working part-time at the time of diagnosis showed significant negative correlations with total work ability, while a favorable psychosocial work environment showed a significant positive correlation. CSs with low work ability were more often in contact with the occupational health service and also made more worksite adjustments than others. The prospects of future work life seem optimistic for Norwegian employed CSs who return to work relatively soon after primary treatment.

  15. Spatial Ability Learning through Educational Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Carme; Antolí, Juan Òscar

    2016-01-01

    Several authors insist on the importance of students' acquisition of spatial abilities and visualization in order to have academic success in areas such as science, technology or engineering. This paper proposes to discuss and analyse the use of educational robotics to develop spatial abilities in 12 year old students. First of all, a course to…

  16. Work Ability of Finnish Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja

    2015-01-01

    In the physical education (PE) teachers' profession, physical tasks comprise a large part of the job. PE teachers identify their health as good, and they are satisfied with their job. Nevertheless, the work ability of PE teachers may be decreasing. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to explore the work ability of Finnish PE teachers. What…

  17. Statistical inference based on latent ability estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, H.J.A.; Boomsma, A.

    The quality of approximations to first and second order moments (e.g., statistics like means, variances, regression coefficients) based on latent ability estimates is being discussed. The ability estimates are obtained using either the Rasch, oi the two-parameter logistic model. Straightforward use

  18. Some procedures for computerized ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Zwarts, Michel A.

    1989-01-01

    For computerized test systems to be operational, the use of item response theory is a prerequisite. As opposed to classical test theory, in item response models the abilities of the examinees and the properties of the items are parameterized separately. Hence, when measuring the abilities of

  19. 45 CFR 1616.7 - Language ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Language ability. 1616.7 Section 1616.7 Public... § 1616.7 Language ability. In areas where a significant number of clients speak a language other than English as their principal language, a recipient shall adopt employment policies that insure that legal...

  20. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  1. Psycholinguistic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natalia F.; Heinze, Elena Garayzabal; Giacheti, Celia M.; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Sampaio, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the psycholinguistic abilities of children with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing children using the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). Performance on the ITPA was analysed in a group with WS (N=20, mean age=8.5 years, SD=1.62) and two typically developing groups,…

  2. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  3. Mental Rotation Ability and Computer Game Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecu, Zeynep; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Computer games, which are currently very popular among students, can affect different cognitive abilities. The purpose of the present study is to examine undergraduate students' experiences and preferences in playing computer games as well as their mental rotation abilities. A total of 163 undergraduate students participated. The results showed a…

  4. Reading Instruction That Increases Thinking Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cathy

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the effects of eight reading and writing lessons designed to increase adolescent thinking ability. Finds that the lessons increased thinking abilities and scholastic achievement of middle school students. Notes that the lessons positively affect students' self-esteem and communication skills. (RS)

  5. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  6. Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    addition to the six cognitive ability constructs, there are two motivational attributes that are highly relevant to systems thinking performance...roles of the habenular complex, the reward system , and the cingulate motor area revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of...Technical Report 1362 Innovative Tools to Assess Systems Thinking Ability Cory Adis Michelle Wisecarver Chelsey Raber Personnel

  7. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  8. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…

  9. Assessing Professional Decision-Making Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNergney, Robert; Hinson, Stephanie

    1985-01-01

    Describes Teacher Development Decision Exercises, a computer-based method of diagnosing abilities of elementary and secondary school supervisors (principals, staff developers, curriculum coordinators) to make professional preactive or planning decisions. This approval simulates assessment of supervisors' abilities to use professional knowledge to…

  10. Credit Ratings and Bank Monitoring Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, L.I.; Roszbach, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use credit rating data from two Swedish banks to elicit evidence on these banks’ loan monitoring ability. We do so by comparing the ability of bank ratings to predict loan defaults relative to that of public ratings from the Swedish credit bureau. We test the banks’ abilility to

  11. Validation of the Early Functional Abilities scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Ingrid; Kreiner, Svend; Engberg, Aase W

    2018-01-01

    model item analysis. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between the Early Functional Abilities scale and the Functional Independence Measurement™, in order to establish the criterion validity of the Early Functional Abilities scale and to compare the sensitivity of measurements using......), facio-oral, sensorimotor and communicative/cognitive functions. Removal of one item from the sensorimotor scale confirmed unidimensionality for each of the 4 subscales, but not for the entire scale. The Early Functional Abilities subscales are sensitive to differences between patients in ranges in which......OBJECTIVE: The Early Functional Abilities scale assesses the restoration of brain function after brain injury, based on 4 dimensions. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the validity, objectivity, reliability and measurement precision of the Early Functional Abilities scale by Rasch...

  12. Control coordination abilities in shock combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Boychenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: optimize the process control level of coordination abilities in martial arts. Material and Methods: analysis and compilation of scientific and methodological literature, interviews with coaches of drum martial arts, video analysis techniques, teacher observations. Results: identified specific types of coordination abilities in shock combat sports. Pod branny and offered specific and nonspecific tests to monitor the level of species athletes coordination abilities. Conclusion: it is determined that in order to achieve victory in the fight martial artists to navigate the space to be able to assess and manage dynamic and spatio-temporal parameters of movements, maintain balance, have a high coordination of movements. The proposed tests to monitor species coordination abilities athletes allow an objective assessment of not only the overall level of coordination, and the level of specific types of manifestations of this ability.

  13. Environmental change enhances cognitive abilities in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kotrschal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or innovative behavior is advantageous, especially when animals are exposed to frequent and unpredictable environmental perturbations. Improved cognitive abilities can help animals to respond quickly and adequately to environmental dynamics, and therefore changing environments may select for higher cognitive abilities. Increased cognitive abilities can be attained, for instance, if environmental change during ontogeny triggers plastic adaptive responses improving the learning capacity of exposed individuals. We tested the learning abilities of fishes in response to experimental variation of environmental quality during ontogeny. Individuals of the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus that experienced a change in food ration early in life outperformed fish kept on constant rations in a learning task later in life--irrespective of the direction of the implemented change and the mean rations received. This difference in learning abilities between individuals remained constant between juvenile and adult stages of the same fish tested 1 y apart. Neither environmental enrichment nor training through repeated neural stimulation can explain our findings, as the sensory environment was kept constant and resource availability was changed only once. Instead, our results indicate a pathway by which a single change in resource availability early in life permanently enhances the learning abilities of animals. Early perturbations of environmental quality may signal the developing individual that it lives in a changing world, requiring increased cognitive abilities to construct adequate behavioral responses.

  14. Cultural Capital and Teaching Ability Rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    do not possess cultural capital. This paper uses extremely rich longitudinal data that provides a better basis than previous studies for holding ‘everything else’ constant. In addition to children and parents’ cultural capital, I control for children’s actual academic ability, physical appearance......, health impairments, social behaviour, antenatal influences, and many family background characteristics. My analysis shows, first, that both children and parents’ cultural capital have independent effects on teacher ability ratings. Second, for oral ability I find that parents’ cultural capital ‘protects...

  15. Music training improves the ability to understand speech-in-noise in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Belleville, Sylvie; Zendel, Benjamin; West, Greg; Peretz, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that hearing abilities decline with age, and one of the most commonly reported hearing difficulties reported in older adults is a reduced ability to understand speech in noisy environments. Older musicians have an enhanced ability to understand speech in noise, and this has been associated with enhanced brain responses related to both speech processing and the deployment of attention, however the causal impact of music lessons in older adults is poorly understood. A sample of...

  16. Developing Interpersonal Abilities With Interactive Vignettes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zbylut, Michelle L; Ward, Jason N

    2004-01-01

    ... of innovation and cultural awareness." This paper discussed an innovative training prototype that not only targets the development of interpersonal ability in junior officers, but also incorporates many of the situation elements...

  17. The Curriculum and Homogenization of Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Eugene J.

    1970-01-01

    Argues against emphasis on standard curriculum and makes suggestions for providing basis to increase heterogeneity of high level abilities of college students and for allowing highly talented but selectively developed students to gain appropriate training. (IR)

  18. Ability or Finances as Constraints to Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    have significantly lower survival rates and are less profitable than are those of unconstrained entrepreneurs. Collectively, these results suggest that constrained entrepreneurs have lower entrepreneurial ability and that capital markets work sufficiently well in funding individuals who have worthy...

  19. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Redick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one’s cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  20. Videogame interventions and spatial ability interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S; Webster, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Numerous research studies have been conducted on the use of videogames as tools to improve one's cognitive abilities. While meta-analyses and qualitative reviews have provided evidence that some aspects of cognition such as spatial imagery are modified after exposure to videogames, other evidence has shown that matrix reasoning measures of fluid intelligence do not show evidence of transfer from videogame training. In the current work, we investigate the available evidence for transfer specifically to nonverbal intelligence and spatial ability measures, given recent research that these abilities may be most sensitive to training on cognitive and working memory tasks. Accordingly, we highlight a few studies that on the surface provide evidence for transfer to spatial abilities, but a closer look at the pattern of data does not reveal a clean interpretation of the results. We discuss the implications of these results in relation to research design and statistical analysis practices.

  1. Cognitive Ability, Principled Reasoning and Political Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Rye Rasmussen, Stig; Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    Individuals are not equally politically tolerant. To explain why, individual differences in emotions and threat have received much scholarly attention in recent years. However, extant research also shows that psychological dispositions, habitual cognitive styles, ideological orientation...... and ‘principled reasoning’ influence political tolerance judgments. The extent to which cognitive ability plays a role has not been entertained even if the capacity to think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and apply abstract ideas to concrete situations is inherent to both principled tolerance judgment...... and cognitive ability. Cognitive ability, we argue and show, adds to the etiology of political tolerance. In Danish and American samples cognitive ability strongly predicts political tolerance after taking habitual cognitive styles (as measured by personality traits), education, social ideology, and feelings...

  2. Contribution of psychological, social, and mechanical work exposures to low work ability: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberland, Jan S; Knardahl, Stein

    2015-03-01

    To determine the contribution of specific psychological, social, and mechanical work exposures to the self-reported low level of work ability. Employees from 48 organizations were surveyed over a 2-year period (n = 3779). Changes in 16 work exposures and 3 work ability measures-the work ability index score, perceived current, and future work ability-were tested with Spearman rank correlations. Binary logistic regressions were run to determine contribution of work exposures to low work ability. Role conflict, human resource primacy, and positive challenge were the most consistent predictors of low work ability across test designs. Role clarity and fair leadership were less consistent but prominent predictors. Mechanical exposures were not predictive. To protect employee work ability, work place interventions would benefit from focusing on reducing role conflicts and on promoting positive challenges and human resource primacy.

  3. Behavioural motivations and abilities in broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Broilers are chickens kept commercially under intensive husbandry conditions for poultry meat production. They grow to a slaughterweight of approximately 2.2 kg in 6 weeks. Broilers show a pronounced decrease in behavioural activity during their short life. The aim of this thesis was to gain more insight into the influence of both motivation and ability on behavioural activity in broilers. The distinction between motivation and ability is relevant for the interpretation of behavioural activit...

  4. Associations of work ability with frequent and long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J. W.; van Rhenen, W.; Roelen, C. A. M.

    Background Reduced work ability is related to long-term sickness absence. The relationship between work ability and frequent sickness absence has not previously been investigated. It is important to distinguish between frequent and long-term sickness absence as they are outcomes of different

  5. The Diagnostic Apathia Scale predicts the ability to return to work following depression or anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Lc; Eplov, Lf; Nordentoft, M

    2014-01-01

    , tiredness/fatigue, insomnia, and reduced ability to work and engage in personal interests. The scale was analysed for psychometric validity (scalability) and for its ability to predict RTW. Finally, the predictive validity of the Diagnostic Apathia Scale regarding RTW was compared with scales measuring...

  6. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); J.F. Plat (Jan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. Methods: The study population consisted of

  7. [Appraisal of occupational stress and work ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinwei; Wang, Zhiming; Lan, Yajia; Wang, Mianzhen

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess occupational stress and work ability. A test of occupational stress and work ability was carry out with revised occupational stress inventory (OSI-R) and work ability index(WAI) for 2270 workers. (1) The occupational stress and strain in male was significantly higher than those in female, but self-care and social support in female werehigher than in male(P < 0.01). The level of occupational stress, strain except interpersonal strain increased with age, while work ability decreased(P < 0.05). (2) Among 6 items of occupational role questionnaire, the score of role boundary and responsibility were obviously higher in college education (P < 0.05). The score of occupational role, psychological strain, physical strain was higher in maried, divorce than unmarried(P < 0.05). (3) The score of occupational role, strain in good work ability category was significantly lower than others, but personal resources were higher(P < 0.05). (4) The correlation of work ability and occupational stress, strain, personal resources were significant(P < 0.01), occupational role and personal strain were positively correlated, both of which correlated negatively to the personal resources(P < 0.01). (5) The major influential factors of personal strain were age, recreation, self-care, social support, rational/cognitive, role insufficiency, role ambiguity and role boundary.

  8. Individual differences in multitasking ability and adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney; Abbott, Robert; Radvansky, Gabriel; Haass, Michael; Tamplin, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the cognitive factors that predictability and adaptability during multitasking with a flight simulator. Multitasking has become increasingly prevalent as most professions require individuals to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Considerable research has been undertaken to identify the characteristics of people (i.e., individual differences) that predict multitasking ability. Although working memory is a reliable predictor of general multitasking ability (i.e., performance in normal conditions), there is the question of whether different cognitive faculties are needed to rapidly respond to changing task demands (adaptability). Participants first completed a battery of cognitive individual differences tests followed by multitasking sessions with a flight simulator. After a baseline condition, difficulty of the flight simulator was incrementally increased via four experimental manipulations, and performance metrics were collected to assess multitasking ability and adaptability. Scholastic aptitude and working memory predicted general multitasking ability (i.e., performance at baseline difficulty), but spatial manipulation (in conjunction with working memory) was a major predictor of adaptability (performance in difficult conditions after accounting for baseline performance). Multitasking ability and adaptability may be overlapping but separate constructs that draw on overlapping (but not identical) sets of cognitive abilities. The results of this study are applicable to practitioners and researchers in human factors to assess multitasking performance in real-world contexts and with realistic task constraints. We also present a framework for conceptualizing multitasking adaptability on the basis of five adaptability profiles derived from performance on tasks with consistent versus increased difficulty.

  9. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Muriel; Abegg, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls. Methods Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus. Results Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades. Conclusions Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity) might be the primary causes for reading impairment. PMID:27391149

  10. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Dysli

    Full Text Available Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls.Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus.Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades.Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity might be the primary causes for reading impairment.

  11. Work ability score of solvent-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furu, Heidi; Sainio, Markku; Hyvärinen, Hanna-Kaisa; Kaukiainen, Ari

    2018-03-28

    Occupational chronic solvent encephalopathy (CSE), characterized by neurocognitive dysfunction, often leads to early retirement. However, only the more severe cases are diagnosed with CSE, and little is known about the work ability of solvent-exposed workers in general. The aim was to study memory and concentration symptoms, work ability and the effect of both solvent-related and non-occupational factors on work ability, in an actively working solvent-exposed population. A questionnaire on exposure and health was sent to 3640 workers in four solvent-exposed fields, i.e. painters and floor-layers, boat builders, printers, and metal workers. The total number of responses was 1730. We determined the work ability score (WAS), a single question item of the Work Ability Index, and studied solvent exposure, demographic factors, Euroquest memory and concentration symptoms, chronic diseases, and employment status using univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings were compared to those of a corresponding national blue-collar reference population (n = 221), and a small cohort of workers with CSE (n = 18). The proportion of workers with memory and concentration symptoms was significantly associated with solvent exposure. The WAS of solvent-exposed workers was lower than that of the national blue-collar reference group, and the difference was significant in the oldest age group (those aged over 60). Solvent-exposed worker's WAS were higher than those of workers diagnosed with CSE. The WAS were lowest among painters and floor-layers, followed by metal workers and printers, and highest among boat builders. The strongest explanatory factors for poor work ability were the number of chronic diseases, age and employment status. Solvent exposure was a weak independent risk factor for reduced WAS, comparable to a level of high alcohol consumption. Even if memory and concentration symptoms were associated with higher solvent exposure, the effect of solvents on self

  12. Relationship between perceived work ability and productivity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vänni, Kimmo; Virtanen, Pekka; Luukkaala, Tiina; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to assessing presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss) that is related to perceived work ability. The aim of this explorative research was to find out if perceived work ability could be a robust indicator, interchangeable with presenteeism, in Finnish food industry organizations. The developed approach was based on existing presenteeism research as well as on register and survey data. The approach demonstrates that one step downward on the 10-point perceived work ability scale theoretically reduces employees' on-the-job productivity by ˜5 percentage points. At the company level, on-the-job productivity loss was 3.7% (mdn 0), while sickness absence was 5.0% (mdn 2.2). The probability of productivity loss among factory workers was fourfold compared to women in office work. The developed approach makes it possible to assess perceived productivity loss at the level of an individual and an organization. Perceived work ability may, in fact, be a robust indicator for assessing perceived productivity loss.

  13. Face validity of the single work ability item

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jensen, Bjørn Søvsø; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    with a total of 5,810 h, including 2,640 working hours. RESULTS: A significant moderate correlation between work ability and %HRR was observed among males (R = -0.33, P = 0.005), but not among females (R = 0.11, P = 0.431). In a gender-stratified multi-adjusted logistic regression analysis, males with high...... %HRR were more likely to report a reduced work ability compared to males with low %HRR [OR = 4.75, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.31 to 17.25]. However, this association was not found among females (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.16), and a significant interaction between work ability, %HRR......PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the face validity of the self-reported single item work ability with objectively measured heart rate reserve (%HRR) among blue-collar workers. METHODS: We utilized data from 127 blue-collar workers (Female = 53; Male = 74) aged 18-65 years from...

  14. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  15. Sludge displacement verification for reducing grout report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    To support the closure of HLW tanks at SRS, a reducing grout was developed that is formulated to reduce the mobility of radionuclides left in each tank. During non-radioactive flow tests of the grout, it was discovered that, in addition to its desired properties, the grout has the ability to move residual waste a considerable distance across the tank floor

  16. Confirmation of the decontamination ability using the dry blasting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izuka, Hirotaka; Tsuhara, Yuuki; Ito, Hajime; Fukuda, Kazuhiro; Sugahara, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Yoji

    2017-01-01

    The decontamination method of metallic waste was considered to reduce the radioactive waste in decommissioning a nuclear power plant. Stainless steel occupies most for the material of the system equipment of PWR. The contamination by radioactive materials is stuck in the surface in the equipment as the metal oxide (e.g. chromium oxide, iron oxide). The method of efficient abrasion by the dry blasting device was considered to remove metal oxide from stainless steel. The kind of blasting abrasives material and the abrasive operation condition (the blasting angle, rate) were considered to investigate the abrasion ability to stainless steel. The abrasive condition which was appropriate abrasive ability was investigated and appropriate blasting abrasives was selected to stainless steel. The decontamination test by selected blasting abrasives and abrasive operation condition was performed using samples and the relation between abrasive rate and activity concentration was confirmed. The metallic radioactive waste was confirmed to be able to decontaminate to the clearance level. (author)

  17. Improving Students' Speaking Ability through Scaffolding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Ginaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Students often got confused and felt hesitant when they speak English. This situation had caused poor speaking ability, which then lead to serious problem in the teaching-learning process.  The application of scaffolding technique in the EFL learning might be the ideal solution; it had some principles that could improve the students’ speaking ability. This research is aimed at finding out the effect of the implementing Scaffolding Technique towards the students’ speaking ability. Participants were 50 (27 males and 23 females third-semester students, enrolled in a three-year diploma program in Travel and Tourism Business, State Polytechnic of Bali in 2017/2018 academic year. The students in the experimental group were given communicative activities such as brainstorming, business games, simulation, WebQuest, problem-solving, which were carefully designed to necessitate the implementation of the scaffolding technique. The students in the control group were taught by the deductive method of the lesson book. The students’ performance in the post-test was compared for both groups in order to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups in relation to the treatment. Significant differences occurring in the experimental group’s post-test speaking performance when compared to the pre-test indicate that the implementation of scaffolding technique can improve students’ speaking ability. The result of this study indicates scaffolding technique has the potential for use in promoting students’ speaking ability

  18. Methods for Evaluation of Some Psychomotor Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For estimation of psychomotor and sensor abilities different kinds of tests are used in the form of devices representing different technical devices which help examining sensomotor and psychomotor functions in certain conditions, as well as more complex motor abilities and skills that depend on CNS characteristics, vegetative nervous system and other functional systems and body states. These devices can be used for examining some parameters of psychomotor functions-such as speed of reaction through reactiometer or devices for examining sensor abilities-such as audiometer, ortoriter, color tests etc. In the scope of examining psychomotor skills and abilities, frequently used are different kinds of tests in the forms of devices serving for measuring ocultomotor coordination-such as Omega and Sinusoida, then Tumer`s device for measuring coordination and dissociation of hands` movements with visible control, O-Conor`s dexterimeter and Medeo`s dexterimeter-used for examining dexterity of fingers, Tremometer for examining hand stability and preciseness of movements, Minesota test for examining dexterity of hands and taping tests like “paper-pen” for examining speed and accuracy of simple movements. For examining more complex sensomotor abilities or different motor skills, special tests are used in the form of simulator, simulator and different technical devices, adjusted to specific sports situation. This category of tests includes different kinds of simulators and simulators used for examining certain aspects of sports activity.

  19. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  20. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension : Single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Twisk, W.R.; Heymans, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP.

  1. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension: single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; van Rhenen, W.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Heymans, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. Methods This

  2. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension : single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Heymans, Martijn W.

    Objectives Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. Methods This

  3. A comparison of the relationships between psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability among 4 ethnic teacher groups in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Guan, Suzhen; Li, Fuye; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang Province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared with Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strains caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multiethnic workplaces.

  4. Reduced ability to detect surface-related biofilm bacteria after antibiotic exposure under in vitro conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Christen; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Bétrisey, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    and microcalorimetry methods. Patients and methods - Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Propionibacterium acnes were formed on porous glass beads and exposed for 24 h to antibiotic concentrations from 1 to 1,024 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin......, daptomycin, rifampin, flucloxacillin, or ciprofloxacin. The beads were then sonicated to dislodge biofilm, followed by culture and measurement of growth-related heat flow by microcalorimetry of the resulting sonication fluid. Results - Vancomycin did not inhibit the heat flow of staphylococci and P. acnes...... at concentrations ≤1,024 μg/mL, whereas flucloxacillin at >128 μg/mL inhibited S. aureus. Daptomycin inhibited heat flow of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and P. acnes at lower concentrations (32-128 times MIC, p

  5. Reducing the Sex Difference in Math Anxiety: The Role of Spatial Processing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A.; Waechter, Stephanie; Risko, Evan F.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that women experience higher rates of math anxiety--that is, negative affect when performing tasks involving numerical and mathematical skill--than men. Researchers have largely attributed this sex difference in math anxiety to factors such as social stereotypes and propensity to report anxiety. Here we…

  6. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ WRITING ABILITY THROUGH STORYBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftahul Janah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is a classroom action research which intended to improve students’ writing ability through Storyboard. The participants were the fourth semester students of English Department of STKIP Muhammadiyah Pringsewu in academic year 2014/ 2015. The instruments used in collecting data were observation, questionnaire, and documents.  Observation is used to know what is really happening in the class and the condition when the class activity is taking place. Questionnaire is used to know the students’ perception towards Storyboard in improving their writing ability, and documents is used to get students’ written texts. Then, 1 assembling the data, 2 coding the data, 3 comparing the data, 4 building meanings and interpretations, and 5 reporting the outcomes, are the steps in analyzing the data. Having analyzed the data, it was found that there was improvement of the students’ activeness in writing activity and in writing ability.

  7. STUDENTS’ SELF ESTEEM IN SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Rosyida MR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of principle of communicative competence is the students know how to uselanguage according to the setting and the participants. Actually, to be able to speaktarget language, the students ar not only expected to have a great ability in grammar,vocabulary, or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use target languageto others. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate students’ self esteem to theirspeaking ability This study was carried out at Hadist major at the fourth semester ofIAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The researcher used questionnaire, test, and interview.The data collected were analyzed quantitatively, and described to know clearly theprocess which was occurred during the research. The results indicate that students’self esteem influence their speaking ability.Key Words: speaking, self esteem, communicative competence

  8. Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J; Horrocks, J; Britton, P G; Kernahan, J

    1999-04-01

    Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for measures of sustained attention and the ability to shift attention. These results indicate that children who have received treatment for leukaemia may experience highly specific attentional deficits that could have an impact on academic performance, particularly mathematical and reading skills. It is suggested that this underlying attentional deficit might be the source of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with the disease. Future attempts at remediation should incorporate activities specifically designed to ameliorate focusing difficulties.

  9. Creativity, synthetic intelligence and high ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sainz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the construct of creativity and its relationship with high ability, presenting different definitions, assessment tools and strategies to encourage their development in the school context. The paper is structured into five sections: firstly, we define the concept of creativity. Secondly, we present the most relevant instruments used in the analysis of high ability students’ creativity. Thirdly, we look into several studies on creativity and high abilitiy, highlighting the main limitations of the research carried out. Fourthly, we present principles and strategies in order to foster creativity in the school context. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the relationship between creativity and high ability.

  10. Intensity of musculoskeletal pain and (in) ability to work in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; de Lima, Ana Cláudia Soares; Prochnow, Andrea; Ceron, Marinez Diniz da Silva; Tavares, Juliana Petri; Urbanetto, Janete de Souza

    2012-01-01

    the aim was to evaluate the association between the intensity of musculoskeletal pain and reduction in work ability among nursing workers. a cross-sectional study, involving 592 nursing staff in a public university hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The Brazilian version of the Finnish questionnaire for calculating Work Ability Index was used, whose score varies from 7 to 49 points. The score was dichotomized as reduced work ability (7 to 36 points) and good/excellent ability (37 to 49 points). The intensity of musculoskeletal pain over the previous week was evaluated, using a numerical pain scale. 43.3% of the participants had reduced work ability and 48.8% reported strong to unbearable pain. Even after adjusting for potentially confounding factors (function and length of service in the function), the workers who mentioned strong to unbearable pain were four times more likely to be classified in the group with reduced work ability. A positive association was determined between intensity of musculoskeletal pain and reduction in work ability. It is necessary to adopt intervention measures in the organizational structure, so as to promote/restore work ability.

  11. Analogical reasoning abilities of recovering alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, M K; Clark, E; Bowman, M A; Miller, P J

    1989-08-01

    This study investigated analogical reasoning abilities of alcoholics who had been abstinent from alcohol for at least 1 year. Their performance was compared to that of nonalcoholic controls matched as a group for education, age, and gender. Solution times and error rates were modeled using a regression model. Results showed a nonsignificant trend for alcoholics to be faster, but more error prone, than controls. The same componential model applied to both groups, and fit them equally well. Although differences have been found in analogical reasoning ability between controls and alcoholics immediately following detoxification, we find no evidence of differences after extended periods of sobriety.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF GRAPH INTERPRETATION ABILITY USING HYPERTEXT-ASSISTED KINEMATIC LEARNING AND FORMAL THINKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Manurung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of hypertext media in improving graph interpretation ability is investigated in this paper. In addition, joint ability of the formal thinking to improve the graph ability of prospective students is considered. The research design used is the one-group pretest-posttest experimental design is carried out in the research by taking 36 students on from Physics Education Program in one institute for teacher education in Medan. The test consists of graph interpretation ability test in the topic of kinematics and Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT or formal thinking before learning and graph interpretation ability test after learning. The data are then analysed by using SPSS based two ways Analisys of Variance (ANOVA method. The results show that the ability to interpretate graph is significantly improved by using hypertext media assisted kinematic learning.

  13. Musical Activity Tunes Up Absolute Pitch Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard

    2014-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce pitches of musical tones without an external reference. Active AP (i.e., pitch production or pitch adjustment) and passive AP (i.e., pitch identification) are considered to not necessarily coincide, although no study has properly compared...

  14. Unmasking Abilities Hidden by Developmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Kalisankar, Ed.; Shaver, Elaine M., Ed.

    This document contains 16 papers that were scheduled to be presented at a conference (which was canceled) on approaches and programs for helping developmentally disabled persons to be more self-sufficient. The book is divided into three sections: (1) unmasking vocational abilities, (2) enhancing functional independence, and (3) medical and…

  15. Emotional intelligence and leadership abilities | Herbst | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (defined from a cognitive perspective, as a set of abilities). Given the increased recognition of the importance of the role of emotions in the leadership literature, the question arises whether the concept of emotional intelligence has significance for leadership effectiveness. In a pioneering study in the South African context, we

  16. Spatial Ability Improvement and Curriculum Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Patrick E.

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant history of research on spatial ability and visualization improvement and related curriculum content presented by members of the Engineering Design Graphics Division over the past decade. Recently, interest in this topic has again been heightened thanks to the work of several division members on research such as the…

  17. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  18. Evaluation of nuclear power plant operator's ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the quantitative research on nuclear power plant (NPP) operator's psychological characteristics and performance, the Borda's method of fuzzy mathematics combined with the character of operator's task is used to evaluate their abilities. The result provides the reference for operator's reliability research and psychological evaluation. (author)

  19. Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability of the nation's preservice agricultural education teachers. Based on the results of this study, preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems, and agricultural teacher education programs require basic and intermediate mathematics as their…

  20. Spatial Ability through Engineering Graphics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marunic, Gordana; Glazar, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability has been confirmed to be of particular importance for successful engineering graphics education and to be a component of human intelligence that can be improved through instruction and training. Consequently, the creation and communication by means of graphics demand careful development of spatial skills provided by the balanced…

  1. Information Behavior: A Socio-Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available How has human information behavior evolved? Our paper explores this question in the form of notions, models and theories about the relationship between information behavior and human evolution. Alexander's Ecological Dominance and Social Competition/Cooperation (EDSC model currently provides the most comprehensive overview of human traits in the development of a theory of human evolution and sociality. His model provides a basis for explaining the evolution of human socio-cognitive abilities, including ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. Our paper examines the human trait of information behavior as a socio-cognitive ability related to ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper first outlines what is meant by information behavior from various interdisciplinary perspectives. We propose that information behavior is a socio-cognitive ability that is related to and enables other socio-cognitive abilities such as human ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper reviews the current state of evolutionary approaches to information behavior and future directions for this research

  2. Work ability in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie M; Hetland, Merete Lund; Pedersen, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to study work ability in patients with RA compared with the general population by investigating the rates and risks of long-term sickness absence, unemployment and disability pension, and the chance of returning to work and the changes in these risks over time (1994-2011)....

  3. Triplex-forming ability of modified oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Torben; Babu, Bolle Ravindra; Bryld, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    We present our studies on the ability of several different nucleotide analogs as triplex-forming oligonucleotides. The modifications tested include 4'-C-hydroxymethyl, LNA, 2'-amino-LNA and N2'-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA. Triplexes containing monomers of N2'-glycyl-functionalized 2'-amino-LNA ar...

  4. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  5. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Users' abilities to review website pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elling, Sanne; Lentz, Leo; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Web sites increasingly encourage users to provide comments on the quality of the content by clicking on a feedback button and filling out a feedback form. Little is known about users’ abilities to provide such feedback. To guide the development of evaluation tools, this study examines to what extent

  7. THE OSMOREGULATORY ABILITY OF THREE GRAPSOID CRAB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the upper reaches of estuaries. C.lIl111&1lltlll was shown to be capable of maintainios its baemolymph osmotic pressure above that of tile environmental medium in loweRd salinities, but without the desrcc of constancy cbaracteristic of the two Se6tlntlll species. It does, however. show a marked ability to tolerate lowered ...

  8. Improving teamwork abilities across cultural differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Mirjam Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Belbin method has been applied at the education in Arctic Technology in Greenland as a way of improving the student’s teamwork abilities. The feedback from the students is that Belbin is a meaningful and relevant tool and they are very engaged during the teamwork exercises. They get...

  9. Numerical abilities in fish: A methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrillo, Christian; Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    The ability to utilize numerical information can be adaptive in a number of ecological contexts including foraging, mating, parental care, and anti-predator strategies. Numerical abilities of mammals and birds have been studied both in natural conditions and in controlled laboratory conditions using a variety of approaches. During the last decade this ability was also investigated in some fish species. Here we reviewed the main methods used to study this group, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods used. Fish have only been studied under laboratory conditions and among the methods used with other species, only two have been systematically used in fish-spontaneous choice tests and discrimination learning procedures. In the former case, the choice between two options is observed in a biologically relevant situation and the degree of preference for the larger/smaller group is taken as a measure of the capacity to discriminate the two quantities (e.g., two shoals differing in number). In discrimination learning tasks, fish are trained to select the larger or the smaller of two sets of abstract objects, typically two-dimensional geometric figures, using food or social companions as reward. Beyond methodological differences, what emerges from the literature is a substantial similarity of the numerical abilities of fish with those of other vertebrates studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A

    2011-09-06

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.

  11. Host country language ability and expatriate adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    countries, one with an easy, relatively simple language and the other with a difficult, highly complex language. Consistent with Goal-Setting Theory, results indicated a relative advantage of expatriates’ language ability in terms of their adjustment in the host country with the difficult language...

  12. Does Listening to Mozart Affect Listening Ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…

  13. Assessing functional ability in older patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møldrup; Maribo, Thomas; Nielsen, Hanne Grethe

    2014-01-01

    from the hospital expressed a need for a fast and simple screening tool to identify those in need of further rehabilitation and care after discharge. Participants from the municipality expressed a need for a more detailed assessment tool to capture information about patients’ ability to perform daily...

  14. What Next? Promoting Alternatives to Ability Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Anne; Hawley, Willis D.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests ways to eliminate ability grouping in the schools, and explores new alternatives to improve schooling for all students. Specific guidelines are given for the development of academically and racially heterogeneous schooling. The elimination of grouping practices that deny equal access to education is a goal worth pursuing. (SLD)

  15. Development of hospital nurses' work ability over a 2 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Nieuwenhuijsen, K; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2015-10-01

    A new approach to the study of work ability is an individually oriented approach. This approach increases our understanding of how work ability develops over time among individuals with a different level of work ability. To increase knowledge about individuals' work ability trajectories by studying hospital nurses' development of work ability over a 2 year period and factors associated with these trajectories. We used a data set of a prospective cohort study of hospital nurses, which was surveyed for 2 years by means of three questionnaires on work characteristics, health and work ability. The outcome variable was the general work ability trajectory over the course of 2 years (favourable/unfavourable). The predictors were the individual, physical and mental work ability and health characteristics at baseline. A multivariate backwards stepwise logistic regression analysis was used. Of 572 nurses in the cohort, nearly one-third (31%, 179/572) showed an unfavourable general work ability trajectory. Low physical work ability (odds ratio (OR) 1.82; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.12-2.95) and high level of fatigue (OR 1.52; 95% CI 0.97-2.40) at baseline were predictors for the unfavourable course of self-reported general work ability. A substantial proportion of this cohort of hospital nurses experienced a reduction in work ability over the course of 2 years. Baseline physical work ability and level of fatigue were related to this. The next step is to address these factors when counselling nurses and evaluate the effect of interventions aimed at improving physical work ability and reducing fatigue. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The impact of depression on musical ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, Paul; Domschke, Katharina; Zwanzger, Peter; Evers, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    While there is sustained effort to refine the models and to further decrypt the neuronal underpinnings of cerebral music perception, empirical investigations on the associations of music perception with diagnoses others than focal brain damage need to be amplified. In the present study, a validated and standardized clinical test of musical ability was applied to a sample of severely depressed patients. Basic musical capacities of rhythm, melody and pitch perception, recognition of emotions, and musical memory were evaluated and compared to matched healthy controls and reassessed in a follow-up examination after clinical remission. We enroled 21 in-patients with major depression according to ICD-10 (F32 and F33). The score in the test of musical ability (maximum score 70) was 52.3±7.8 for the patient group and 57.8±4.3 for the control group (p=0.010). In particular, melody comparison, rhythm perception, and emotional categorising of music were impaired in patients. In the longitudinal study, patients improved from 53.6±7.8 to 56.2±6.7 (p=0.038); this improvement could be related to clinical improvement on the Hamilton Depression Scale. The sample size is small, in particular in the follow-up study. The results clearly revealed a significant reduction of musical ability in patients with depression. A part of the patients could even be diagnosed with a clinically relevant amusia. Along with significant decrease of depressive symptoms, the patients significantly improved with respect to musical ability. These findings suggest a systematic impact of depression on musical ability, they are of importance for the application of music therapy in depressive patients and for the function of music to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The genetic basis of music ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi Ting; McPherson, Gary E.; Peretz, Isabelle; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Music is an integral part of the cultural heritage of all known human societies, with the capacity for music perception and production present in most people. Researchers generally agree that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the broader realization of music ability, with the degree of music aptitude varying, not only from individual to individual, but across various components of music ability within the same individual. While environmental factors influencing music development and expertise have been well investigated in the psychological and music literature, the interrogation of possible genetic influences has not progressed at the same rate. Recent advances in genetic research offer fertile ground for exploring the genetic basis of music ability. This paper begins with a brief overview of behavioral and molecular genetic approaches commonly used in human genetic analyses, and then critically reviews the key findings of genetic investigations of the components of music ability. Some promising and converging findings have emerged, with several loci on chromosome 4 implicated in singing and music perception, and certain loci on chromosome 8q implicated in absolute pitch and music perception. The gene AVPR1A on chromosome 12q has also been implicated in music perception, music memory, and music listening, whereas SLC6A4 on chromosome 17q has been associated with music memory and choir participation. Replication of these results in alternate populations and with larger samples is warranted to confirm the findings. Through increased research efforts, a clearer picture of the genetic mechanisms underpinning music ability will hopefully emerge. PMID:25018744

  18. Experiences of work ability in young workers: an exploratory interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Maria; Holmgren, Kristina; Sluiter, Judith K; Hagberg, Mats; Grimby-Ekman, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of and influences on work ability in young workers related to their work and life situation. In a qualitative study of a strategic sample of 12 young female and 12 young male workers, aged 25-30 years, in work or recently left work, recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a Swedish cohort, semi-structured interviews were performed to explore the experiences of work ability in these young workers. Systematic text condensation inspired by phenomenology was used in the analysis. Work ability was experienced as complex, consisting of four themes, each with three subthemes. To be alert and have energy, to possess sufficient education, skills and working life experience and experience meaningfulness and engagement in work, were perceived to be fundamental for work ability and were seen as the worker's own responsibility. Moreover, work ability can be improved or reduced by the psychosocial work climate, the work organization and the private life. Optimal work ability was experienced when all themes integrated in a positive way. Work ability was experienced as the worker's own responsibility that could be influenced by work circumstances and private life. To promote good work ability among young workers, work ability has to be understood in its specific context. Whether the understanding of work ability found in this study is explicit for the group of young adults needs to be explored in a more general population in further research.

  19. [Job satisfaction and work ability index in nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Fiorella; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-01-22

    Job satisfaction and work ability are important in the nursing profession to ensure good working conditions and to reduce work-related diseases and illness. Psychosocial factors such as social support and decision latitude (autonomy) could have a role in cardiovascular diseases, low back pain, injuries and sick leave. To evaluate work ability, job satisfaction, psychosocial factors and diseases in 10 departments of the Monfalcone Hospital. The Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire and Karasek Job Content Questionnaire with other questions related to working conditions and diseases were administered to 160 nurses working in 10 departments. The response rate was 90%. SPSS Statistic packaging was used for statistical analysis. The study population had a mean age of 41.1 ± 7 years and the majority were female (81.25%). WAI gave a rating of over 37 points (good and excellent) for 86.4%, with an average of 39.9 ± 5.9 in women and 40.6 ± 6.4 in men. The WAI differences between the departments were significant with Medicine and Surgery showing lower values (p=0.012). WAI was significantly lower in subjects with sick leave higher than 10 days per year (p=0.000) and in subjects with cardiovascular diseases (p=0.031). Our study showed very good working conditions for nurses. A follow-up of the analyzed population over time will add further information on this aspect.

  20. Walking drawings and walking ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jimmy; Mackey, Anna H; Stott, N Susan; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    To investigate whether drawings of the self walking by children with cerebral palsy (CP) were associated with walking ability and illness perceptions. This was an exploratory study in 52 children with CP (M:F = 28:24), mean age 11.1 years (range 5-18), who were attending tertiary level outpatient clinics. Children were asked to draw a picture of themselves walking. Drawing size and content was used to investigate associations with clinical walk tests and children's own perceptions of their CP assessed using a CP version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Larger drawings of the self were associated with less distance traveled, higher emotional responses to CP, and lower perceptions of pain or discomfort, independent of age. A larger self-to-overall drawing height ratio was related to walking less distance. Drawings of the self confined within buildings and the absence of other figures were also associated with reduced walking ability. Drawing size and content can reflect walking ability, as well as symptom perceptions and distress. Drawings may be useful for clinicians to use with children with cerebral palsy to aid discussion about their condition. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Fluid Ability (Gf and Complex Problem Solving (CPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Kyllonen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex problem solving (CPS has emerged over the past several decades as an important construct in education and in the workforce. We examine the relationship between CPS and general fluid ability (Gf both conceptually and empirically. A review of definitions of the two factors, prototypical tasks, and the information processing analyses of performance on those tasks suggest considerable conceptual overlap. We review three definitions of CPS: a general definition emerging from the human problem solving literature; a more specialized definition from the “German School” emphasizing performance in many-variable microworlds, with high domain-knowledge requirements; and a third definition based on performance in Minimal Complex Systems (MCS, with fewer variables and reduced knowledge requirements. We find a correlation of 0.86 between expert ratings of the importance of CPS and Gf across 691 occupations in the O*NET database. We find evidence that employers value both Gf and CPS skills, but CPS skills more highly, even after controlling for the importance of domain knowledge. We suggest that this may be due to CPS requiring not just cognitive ability but additionally skill in applying that ability in domains. We suggest that a fruitful future direction is to explore the importance of domain knowledge in CPS.

  2. Asymmetry in species regional dispersal ability and the neutral theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Liu

    Full Text Available The neutral assumption that individuals of either the same or different species share exactly the same birth, death, migration, and speciation probabilities is fundamental yet controversial to the neutral theory. Several theoretical studies have demonstrated that a slight difference in species per capita birth or death rates can have a profound consequence on species coexistence and community structure. Whether asymmetry in migration, a vital demographic parameter in the neutral model, plays an important role in community assembly still remains unknown. In this paper, we relaxed the ecological equivalence assumption of the neutral model by introducing differences into species regional dispersal ability. We investigated the effect of asymmetric dispersal on the neutral local community structure. We found that per capita asymmetric dispersal among species could reduce species richness of the local community and result in deviations of species abundance distributions from those predicted by the neutral model. But the effect was moderate compared with that of asymmetries in birth or death rates, unless very large asymmetries in dispersal were assumed. A large difference in species dispersal ability, if there is, can overwhelm the role of random drift and make local community dynamics deterministic. In this case, species with higher regional dispersal abilities tended to dominate in the local community. However, the species abundance distribution of the local community under asymmetric dispersal could be well fitted by the neutral model, but the neutral model generally underestimated the fundamental biodiversity number but overestimated the migration rate in such communities.

  3. Bias Correction for the Maximum Likelihood Estimate of Ability. Research Report. ETS RR-05-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinming

    2005-01-01

    Lord's bias function and the weighted likelihood estimation method are effective in reducing the bias of the maximum likelihood estimate of an examinee's ability under the assumption that the true item parameters are known. This paper presents simulation studies to determine the effectiveness of these two methods in reducing the bias when the item…

  4. Loss of ability to work and ability to live independently in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Heckman, Michael G; Wider, Christian; Putzke, John D; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Uitti, Ryan J

    2012-02-01

    Ability to work and live independently is of particular concern for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied a series of PD patients able to work or live independently at baseline, and evaluated potential risk factors for two separate outcomes: loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently. The series comprised 495 PD patients followed prospectively. Ability to work and ability to live independently were based on clinical interview and examination. Cox regression models adjusted for age and disease duration were used to evaluate associations of baseline characteristics with loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently. Higher UPDRS dyskinesia score, UPDRS instability score, UPDRS total score, Hoehn and Yahr stage, and presence of intellectual impairment at baseline were all associated with increased risk of future loss of ability to work and loss of ability to live independently (P ≤ 0.0033). Five years after initial visit, for patients ≤70 years of age with a disease duration ≤4 years at initial visit, 88% were still able to work and 90% to live independently. These estimates worsened as age and disease duration at initial visit increased; for patients >70 years of age with a disease duration >4 years, estimates at 5 years were 43% able to work and 57% able to live independently. The information provided in this study can offer useful information for PD patients in preparing for future ability to perform activities of daily living. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interoceptive ability predicts aversion to losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hartley, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jeffrey R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Emotions have been proposed to inform risky decision-making through the influence of affective physiological responses on subjective value. The ability to perceive internal body states, or "interoception" may influence this relationship. Here, we examined whether interoception predicts participants' degree of loss aversion, which has been previously linked to choice-related arousal responses. Participants performed both a heartbeat-detection task indexing interoception and a risky monetary decision-making task, from which loss aversion, risk attitudes and choice consistency were parametrically measured. Interoceptive ability correlated selectively with loss aversion and was unrelated to the other value parameters. This finding suggests that specific and separable component processes underlying valuation are shaped not only by our physiological responses, as shown in previous findings, but also by our interoceptive access to such signals.

  6. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  7. On the Origins of Calculation Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical review of calculation abilities is presented. Counting, starting with finger sequencing, has been observed in different ancient and contemporary cultures, whereas number representation and arithmetic abilities are found only during the last 5000–6000 years. The rationale for selecting a base of ten in most numerical systems and the clinical association between acalculia and finger agnosia are analyzed. Finger agnosia (as a restricted form of autotopagnosia, right–left discrimination disturbances, semantic aphasia, and acalculia are proposed to comprise a single neuropsychological syndrome associated with left angular gyrus damage. A classification of calculation disturbances resulting from brain damage is presented. It is emphasized that using historical/anthropological analysis, it becomes evident that acalculia, finger agnosia, and disorders in right–left discrimination (as in general, in the use of spatial concepts must constitute a single clinical syndrome, resulting from the disruption of some common brain activity and the impairment of common cognitive mechanisms.

  8. Giving Devices the Ability to Exercise Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Keeley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the capabilities that separates humans from computers has been the ability to exercise "reason / judgment". Computers and computerized devices have provided excellent platforms for following rules. Computer programs provide the scripts for processing the rules. The exercise of reason, however, is more of an image processing function than a function composed of a series of rules. The exercise of reason is more right brain than left brain. It involves the interpretation of information and balancing inter-related alternatives. This paper will discuss a new way to define and process information that will give devices the ability to exercise human-like reasoning and judgment. The paper will discuss the characteristics of a "dynamic graphical language" in the context of addressing judgment, since judgment is often required to adjust rules when operating in a dynamic environment. The paper will touch on architecture issues and how judgment is integrated with rule processing.

  9. SELF-REGULATORY ABILITIES IN PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Ozhiganova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The self-regulation is considered by the author as a general ability of the person. The levels of self-regulation relating to any professional activity, and corresponding to these levels self-regulatory capacities are distinguished: 1 psychophysiological - the ability for self-regulation of emotional and psycho- physiological states; 2 socio-psychological - the ability for self-regulation in the process of social interaction; 3 psychological (the ability to regulate activities; the capacity for personal self-control;spiritual - the highest capacity for self-regulation due to the higher values and meanings of existence. Self-regulation at the highest spiritual level is considered in this research in connection with the actualization of higher self-regulatory capacities, leading to self-realization of the person including professional activity. Processes, levels, components of self-regulation, associated with different conditions of professional activities (for example, in extreme situations, as well as with different types of professions (teachers, sales managers, etc. are described. A particular attention is given to self- regulation in the teaching activities: levels, techniques of teachers’ self-regulatory skills are presented; the importance of teachers’ personal self-regulation is emphasized, because it determines self-development, self-improvement and self-fulfillment in their chosen profession, and is associated with the manifestation of higher self-regulatory capacities. It is noted that in the process of professional activities different levels and types of self-regulation are demanded. The self-regulation in professional activities is carried out due to various self-regulatory capabilities - from simple to complex, including the highest.

  10. Managing emotions - an ability of emotional intelligence.

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Ana Almeida; Veiga-Branco, Augusta

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the concept Managing Emotions from Emotional Intelligence (I.E.), (Mayer-Salovey, 1990, 1997, Goleman, 1995), also identified as Emotional Regulation (Bisquerra, 2000), to obtain recognition and practical use of this concept, through the use of Emotional Fitness charts (Bimbela-Pedrola, 2008), to develop these abilities and manage emotions in contexts of practical life. Objective: To train preschool teachers, as well as primary and lower secondary sc...

  11. Quantile forecast discrimination ability and value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben Bouallègue, Zied; Pinson, Pierre; Friederichs, Petra

    2015-01-01

    While probabilistic forecast verification for categorical forecasts is well established, some of the existing concepts and methods have not found their equivalent for the case of continuous variables. New tools dedicated to the assessment of forecast discrimination ability and forecast value are ...... is illustrated based on synthetic datasets, as well as for the case of global radiation forecasts from the high resolution ensemble COSMO-DE-EPS of the German Weather Service....

  12. Teachers’ ability in using math learning media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masniladevi; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Helsa, Y.; Dalais, M.

    2017-12-01

    The studies aim to enhance teachers’ knowledge and skill in making math instructional media, develop math instructional media, train and assist the use of instructional media in learning math in the classroom. The method used in the activities adopted the pattern of preventive implementation, planning stage, program implementation, observation and evaluation and reflection. The research results show that the evaluation of teachers’ ability is still in average category. The result required more intensive training.

  13. Cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding.

    OpenAIRE

    Golledge, Reginald G.; Jacobson, R. Daniel; Kitchin, Rob; Blades, Mark

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relations between cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding, particularly in the context of traveling without the use of sight. Initially we discuss the nature of cognitive maps and the process of cognitive mapping as mechanisms for developing person to object (egocentric) and object to object (allocentric) internal representations. Imperfections in encoding either relations can introduce imperfections in representations of environments in memory. Thi...

  14. Improving English Speaking Ability Through Classroom Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Afrizal, M

    2015-01-01

    Speaking is one of important parts in teaching language because it includes one of four basic language skills. Nevertheless, in MA NU BANAT Kudus, the writer found that most of students there still get the difficulties in studying speaking. It may be caused by the method used in teaching English, especially speaking. Classroom Discussion is a method that can be applied in teaching English, especially to improve the ability of speaking. In this method, hopefully, the students get a big opportu...

  15. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309

  16. Glass forming ability of calcium aluminosilicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of......The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite......-wollastonite-tridymite and that of anorthite-wollastonite-gehlenite. The series includes the eutectic compositions as end members. The second series consists of five compositions on a line parallel to the joining line on the alumina rich side. In the present work, GFA is described in terms of glass stability, i.e., the ability of a glass...... to resist crystallization during reheating. In addition, the fragility index (m) is derived by fitting the viscosity data with the Avramov-Milchev equation. The results show that m is inversely proportional to the glass stability for the two series of melts, implying that m is an indirect measure of GFA...

  17. Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSARIO eCABELLO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists, whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists. The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688, implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT. Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people’s implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training.

  18. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of motor imagery ability and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Felix Rodacki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in motor imagery ability in response to a specific dart throwing training. Twelve subjects (17-22 years with no previous experience in dart throwing or imagery agreed to participate. Changes in imagery ability were assessed using the Sports Imagery Questionnaire before (pretreatment and after (post-treatment an imagery training program consisting of 10 sessions. Retention (RET was assessed 2 weeks after training. The program included mental exercises designed to develop vivid images, to control one’s own images, and to increase perception about performance. Comparison of the imagery training conditions (training alone, training accompanied, observing a colleague, and during assessment showed no differences between the pretreatment, post-treatment and RET evaluations. Although imagery ability did not respond to training, significant differences between imagery domains (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and animic were found (p<0.05, except between the visual and animic domains (p=0.58. These differences might be related to subject’s domain preference subject during the imagery process and to the nature of the task in which the skill technique used seems to be a relevant aspect.

  20. Evaluation of hearing ability in Danish children at the time of school start and at the end of school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities...... in North Jutland County, Denmark were evaluated for hearing ability by a review of 1,605 school health records. We found a higher prevalence of impaired hearing ability in children who started school 1987 and 1997 compared to those who started school 1977. Reduced hearing was typically at high frequencies....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....

  1. Measuring Work Ability with Its Antecedents: Evaluation of the Work Ability Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, Jan-Bennet; Deller, Jürgen

    2017-07-24

    Purpose The revised version of the Work Ability Survey (WAS-R) assesses work ability on several sub-scales at the intersection of personal and organizational capacity, thus adding to the measurement of work ability by integrating the holistic model. It, therefore, improves on two features of the current standard measurement tool of work ability, the Work Ability Index (WAI): (1) a ceiling effect and (2) limited detail due to a focus on physical health and personal capacity. Method In two samples (n 1  = 1093, n 2  = 359), psychometric properties and the structure of the WAS-R were analyzed. To evaluate construct validity, inter-correlations of the WAS-R and WAI, sickness absence, expected and desired retirement age, and post-retirement work intention were calculated. Results The WAS-R was found to be distributed closer to normality than the WAI. The structural analyses yielded acceptable results for the hypothesized model. The WAS-R was adequately correlated with the WAI, negatively with sickness absence, and positively with desired retirement age. Conclusions The WAS-R extends the measurement of work ability, reflecting organizations' work demands. Its broad sub-scales lead to high acceptance of the results within the participating companies. In particular, the organizational capacity scales can be used to guide interventions aiming at organizational characteristics to improve work ability.

  2. Is there a relationship between ultrasound scanning ability (sonography) and visuospatial perception or psychomotor ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Suzanne; Gallagher, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background Competent sonography is thought to include a unique combination of skills not yet fully defined. This presents challenges when recruiting the correct people for training. Skills are thought to include visuospatial perception and psychomotor skills, but little is known about the relationship between these aptitudes and scanning ability. This feasibility study explored such relationships, to identify evaluation techniques which may improve selection and recruitment. Methods A sample of 30 experienced ultrasound practitioners and 30 trainees at commencement and on completion of training were administered eight tests. Results No significant relationships between experienced practitioners’ or trainees’ visuospatial abilities or psychomotor abilities and scanning abilities were found. Results demonstrated that two of the visuospatial perception tests were not influenced by training and therefore, may be measuring the innate skills of ultrasound practitioners. As ultrasound practitioners had not performed any of the tests previously, ranges of scores for each of the eight tests were established for this group. This included measures for psychomotor skills which added to the current body of knowledge for sonography. Conclusions Although no significant correlations were found between participants’ visuospatial perception or psychomotor abilities and scanning ability, performance on the Obstetric Structured Assessment Test (combining all the skills required) pre-training gave the best indication of post-training scanning performance. The Obstetric Structured Assessment Test may prove a useful tool for initial assessment of potential trainees but abilities will require further investigation. PMID:27847536

  3. Detecting reduced renal function in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Erlandsen, Erland J

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the ability of renal indicators [serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (SCysC)] and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-models to discriminate normal and reduced renal function. As a single cut-off level will always lead to false classifications, we propose...... function was defined as a GFR ofcreatinine (SCr-ratio), and eight published GFR-models were compared for their ability to correctly classify renal function as normal or reduced. Cut-off levels were determined so as to give 99 % certainty outside the gray zone...

  4. Work ability and associated factors of Brazilian technical-administrative workers in education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Guerra, Maximiliano Ribeiro; Chaoubah, Alfredo

    2016-01-02

    Studies about work ability have grown in importance owing to the worldwide aging of active populations. Research has shown that measuring work ability has a predictive value in cases of long-term sickness absence and early retirement. Our goal was to analyze the work ability and associated factors of civil servants from a higher education institution in Brazil. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 600 technical-administrative workers at a public university. Work ability was measured using the work ability index. The participants were as follows: 51.8% male; mean age of 45 years (SD = ±11); married or in a stable union (61.5%); holding a graduate degree (56.7%); having only one job (83.3%), working 40 h a week or less (78.6%); not working evenings (79.8%); and having direct contact with the public (58.3%). The prevalence of reduced work ability was 13.9%. The following factors were found to be associated with reduced work ability: age 50 years old or above (PR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.25-5.09); female (PR = 2.77; 95% CI 1.25-3.60); education up to secondary school (PR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.13-3.59); overall poor self-assessed health (PR = 2.96; 95% CI 1.32-3.93); signs and symptoms of depression (PR = 4.86; 95% CI 2.23-6.55); sedentariness (PR = 3.00; 95% CI 1.38-4.68) and poor social support at work (PR = 4.01; 95% CI 1.66-4.37). Most of the participants showed good work ability, but some subjects had reduced work ability. This study makes a contribution to expanding the discussion about the factors associated with work ability toward proposing actions for maintaining that ability or helping recovery in the case of diminished ability. Such actions can help reduce work absenteeism and early retirement, both of which have a social and economic impact in Brazil. Studying the determinants of work ability and recommendations to address those determinants will help efforts to improve the quality of life of individuals, both at work and personally, and promote healthy

  5. Evaluation of hearing ability in Danish children at the time of school start and at the end of school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.

    2002-01-01

    Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....

  6. STIR: Assessing and Training Response Inhibition Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Learning to stop responding to alcohol cues reduces alcohol intake via reduced affective associations rather than increased response inhibition. Addiction ...requires an abstract application of the core learning principle1,2, and viable examples are often hard to find and/or assess. If exposure to non...inhibition training that expands upon previous successful “near transfer” response inhibition training efforts—such as treating alcohol addictions by

  7. Relationship between balance ability, training and sports injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, balance training has been used as part of the rehabilitation programme for ankle injuries. More recently, balance training has been adopted to try and prevent injuries to the ankle and knee joints during sport. The purpose of this review is to synthesise current knowledge in the area of balance ability, training and injury risk, highlight the findings and identify any future research needs. A number of studies have found that poor balance ability is significantly related to an increased risk of ankle injuries in different activities. This relationship appears to be more common in males than females. Multifaceted intervention studies that have included balance training along with jumping, landing and agility exercises have resulted in a significant decrease in ankle or knee injuries in team handball, volleyball and recreational athletes. It is unknown which component of the multifaceted intervention was most effective and whether the effects are additive. As a single intervention, balance training has been shown to significantly reduce the recurrence of ankle ligament injuries in soccer, volleyball and recreational athletes; however, it has not been clearly shown to reduce ankle injuries in athletes without a prior ankle injury. Balance training on its own has also been shown to significantly reduce anterior cruciate ligament injuries in male soccer players. Surprisingly, it was also found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of major knee injuries in female soccer players and overuse knee injuries in male and female volleyball players. The studies with the contrasting findings differed in aspects of their balance training programmes. It would appear that balance training, as a single intervention, is not as effective as when it is part of a multifaceted intervention. Research is required to determine the relative contribution of balance training to a multifaceted intervention so as to generate an effective and efficient preventative

  8. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  9. Refining and Delegating Strategic Ability in ATL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar P. Guelev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose extending Alternating-time Temporal Logic (ATL by an operator F to express that agent i can distribute its powers to a set of sub-agents G in a way which satisfies ATL condition f on the strategic ability of the coalitions they may form, possibly together with others agents. We prove the decidability of model-checking of formulas whose subformulas with this operator as the main connective have the form ... f, with no further occurrences of this operator in f.

  10. Weed suppression ability of spring barley varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend

    1995-01-01

    , Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize...... both yielding and competitive ability may be possible. Non-linear regression models were fitted to canopy height and light interception data for each variety in all three years. The canopy height model provided a precise description of development and maximum canopy height of the varieties. A light...

  11. Genetic component in learning ability in bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, W E; Moura Duarte, F A; Oliveira, R S

    1975-10-01

    Twenty-five bees, five from each of five hives, were trained to collect food at a table. When the bee reached the table, time was recorded for 12 visits. Then a blue and yellow pan was substituted for the original metal pan, and time and correct responses were recorded for 30 trips (discrimination phase). Finally, food was taken from the pan and extinction was recorded as incorrect responses for 20 visits. Variance analysis was carried out, and genetic variance was undetected for discrimination, but was detected for extinction. It is concluded that learning is very important for bees, so that any impairment in such ability affects colony survival.

  12. System structure and cognitive ability as predictors of performance in dynamic system control tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hundertmark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In dynamic system control, cognitive mechanisms and abilities underlying performance may vary depending on the nature of the task. We therefore investigated the effects of system structure and its interaction with cognitive abilities on system control performance. A sample of 127 university students completed a series of different system control tasks that were manipulated in terms of system size and recurrent feedback, either with or without a cognitive load manipulation. Cognitive abilities assessed included reasoning ability, working memory capacity, and cognitive reflection. System size and recurrent feedback affected overall performance as expected. Overall, the results support that cognitive ability is a good predictor of performance in dynamic system control tasks but predictiveness is reduced when the system structure contains recurrent feedback. We discuss this finding from a cognitive processing perspective as well as its implications for individual differences research in dynamic systems.

  13. Demand-specific work ability, poor health and working conditions in middle-aged full-time employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of reduced demand-specific work ability, its association with age, gender, education, poor health, and working conditions, and the interaction between poor health and working conditions regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from 3381 full-time employees responding to questions about vocational education, job demands and social support (working conditions), musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and major depression (MD) (poor health) and seven questions about difficulty managing different job demands (reduced demand-specific work ability). Reduced demand-specific work ability varied from 9% to 19% among the 46-year old and from 11% to 21% among the 56-year old. Age was associated with two, gender with four, and education with all measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. MSP was associated with four and MD was associated with six measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. We found no interaction between working conditions and poor health regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Controversial Embodiment: Sport, Masculinity, Dis/Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Parlati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an attempt at investigating visible forms of complex, indeed controversial embodiment, with the specific intention of concentrating on the ways they interrogate delicate issues such as disability, masculinity and prosthetic sport performance. I intend to sound the shifting boundaries between dis-ability and super-ability as manifested in iconic figures such as Stelarc and, in other fields, Oscar Pistorius, whose unsteady position as privileged/disabled bladerunner seems to require – and indeed to gather – particularly intense scrutiny. I shall introduce a few contemporary discourses on corporeality and embodiment, which focus on the ‘troubling’ nature of auxiliary organs Freud refers to in the much contended paragraph I adopt as epigraph and guiding procedural light; I shall move from Butler and Giddens to Jean-Luc Nancy’s work on transplants and/as prostheses to include theoretical debates on disintegrating embodiment and disability studies, in order to proceed towards an analysis of the short-circuiting of allegedly secure practices of (masculine embodiment in sport culture and theory.

  15. Nature versus Nurture in Determining Athletic Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Lidor, Ronnie; Eynon, Nir

    2016-01-01

    This overview provides a general discussion of the roles of nature and nurture in determining human athletic ability. On the nature (genetics) side, a review is provided with emphasis on the historical research and on several areas which are likely to be important for future research, including next-generation sequencing technologies. In addition, a number of well-designed training studies that could possibly reveal the biological mechanism ('cause') behind the association between gene variants and athletic ability are discussed. On the nurture (environment) side, we discuss common environmental variables including deliberate practice, family support, and the birthplace effect, which may be important in becoming an elite athlete. Developmental effects are difficult to disassociate with genetic effects, because the early life environment may have long-lasting effects in adulthood. With this in mind, the fetal programming hypothesis is also briefly reviewed, as fetal programming provides an excellent example of how the environment interacts with genetics. We conclude that the traditional argument of nature versus nurture is no longer relevant, as it has been clearly established that both are important factors in the road to becoming an elite athlete. With the availability of the next-generation genetics (sequencing) techniques, it is hoped that future studies will reveal the relevant genes influencing performance, as well as the interaction between those genes and environmental (nurture) factors. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  17. Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiying; Wu, Hanrong

    2011-02-01

    Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups by gender and age, and the match ratio was 1:1. Psychological testing software named DMDX was used to measure inhibitory ability of the subjects. The differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks and differences of accuracy in incongruent condition of color-word Stroop tasks and object inhibition tasks between DD-only children and their controls reached significant levels (P<0.05), and the differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks between dyscalculic and normal children did not disappear after controlling the non-executive components. The difference of accuracy in color-word incongruent tasks between children with DD&RD and normal children reached significant levels (P<0.05). Children with DD-only confronted with general inhibitory deficits, while children with DD&RD confronted with word inhibitory deficits only.

  18. Spatial ability and training in virtual neuroanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumley, Leah; Armstrong, Ryan; De Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomy is one of the most challenging sections of anatomy to learn, partially related to the intricate relation of multiple 3D structures. As part of the medical student curriculum, it is usually taught in 2D using illustrations and plastinated brain section, since the number of hours devoted to anatomy have dropped in the curriculum, making the dissection of brain too time-consuming to be done. In this study we are analyzing the role of innate spatial ability of novices in learning some basic structures and placing them back in a 3D volumetric brain. Two tasks are performed after a short training session: the first one is to localize the ventricular tip as would be required during a temporal lobectomy, and the second task requires that the subject 'reconstruct' 3D anatomical structures within the context of our 3D brain model. We report our findings on the performance scores obtained from a population of subjects of differing backgrounds and spatial abilities.

  19. Ability to Reach Orgasm in Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østby-Deglum, Marie; Axcrona, Karol; Brennhovd, Bjørn; Dahl, Alv A

    2016-06-01

    To study the ability to reach orgasm after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) in relation to demographic, cancer-related, and surgical variables, and the use of erectile aids. In this cross-sectional study at a mean of 3 years after RALP at Oslo University Hospital, 982 men were invited to complete a mailed questionnaire, and 777 responded. Respondents who reported postoperative radiotherapy or hormone treatment, or did not report on orgasm were omitted, leaving 609 patients for analysis. Ability to reach orgasm was rated on 1 question from The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite 26-item version, and dichotomized into "good" or "poor." Overall, 27% of the men reported good ability to reach orgasm: 22% among those did not use erectile aids and 34% among those did (P = .001). Univariate analysis of men with good versus poor ability to reach orgasm showed many significant differences. In multivariate analysis, being older, having a reduced physical quality of life, and erectile dysfunction were significantly associated with poor ability to reach orgasm. Erectile dysfunction showed an odds ratio of 4.86 for poor orgasmic ability. The 48% of men who used erectile aids had significantly better orgasmic ability than the nonusers. In our sample, 27% had good ability to reach orgasm at a mean of 3 years after RALP. Poor orgasmic ability was associated with being older, poor erectile function, and a reduced physical quality of life. Using erectile aids increased the rate of good ability to reach orgasm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does social environment influence learning ability in a family-living lizard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Julia L; Noble, Daniel W A; Byrne, Richard W; Whiting, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Early developmental environment can have profound effects on individual physiology, behaviour, and learning. In birds and mammals, social isolation during development is known to negatively affect learning ability; yet in other taxa, like reptiles, the effect of social isolation during development on learning ability is unknown. We investigated how social environment affects learning ability in the family-living tree skink (Egernia striolata). We hypothesized that early social environment shapes cognitive development in skinks and predicted that skinks raised in social isolation would have reduced learning ability compared to skinks raised socially. Offspring were separated at birth into two rearing treatments: (1) raised alone or (2) in a pair. After 1 year, we quantified spatial learning ability of skinks in these rearing treatments (N = 14 solitary, 14 social). We found no effect of rearing treatment on learning ability. The number of skinks to successfully learn the task, the number of trials taken to learn the task, the latency to perform the task, and the number of errors in each trial did not differ between isolated and socially reared skinks. Our results were unexpected, yet the facultative nature of this species' social system may result in a reduced effect of social isolation on behaviour when compared to species with obligate sociality. Overall, our findings do not provide evidence that social environment affects development of spatial learning ability in this family-living lizard.

  1. Do motor ability and handwriting kinematic measures predict organizational ability among children with Developmental Coordination Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara

    2015-10-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) exhibit deficient daily performance concealed in their perception-action mechanism. The aim of this study was to analyze behavior organization of children with DCD, in varied tasks that require generating and monitoring mental representations related to space and time inputs/requirements, for achieving better insight about their perception-action mechanism. Participants included 42 children aged 7-10, half of whom were defined with DCD and half were typically developing (TD). The children were matched for age, gender and school. They were evaluated using the Movement-ABC and performed three handwriting tasks on an electronic tablet that is part of a computerized system (ComPET - Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool). In addition, their teachers completed the Questionnaire for Assessing Students' Organizational Abilities-Teachers (QASOA-T) to assess the children's daily organizational ability. Significant group differences (DCD versus controls) were found for all handwriting kinematic measures across the three handwriting tasks and for the children's organizational abilities. Motor ability predicted a considerable percentage of the variance of the kinematic handwriting measures (30-37%), as well as a high percentage of the variance of their organizational abilities (67%). The coefficient of variance of the pen tilt added an additional 3% to the prediction of their organizational abilities. The results of this study exhibited deficient ability among children with DCD in organizing their behavior in varied real-world tasks requiring generation and monitoring representation related to space and time. The significance of the results to understanding the performance mechanism and implication to the clinical field are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Melissa E; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children's precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the current study, we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of 2years. In addition, at the final time point, we tested children's informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3). We found that children's numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned nonsymbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematics reasoning that children come to master through instruction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. TIE: An Ability Test of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S.

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions. PMID:25072656

  5. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmieja, Magdalena; Orzechowski, Jarosław; Stolarski, Maciej S

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE) is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  6. TIE: an ability test of emotional intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Śmieja

    Full Text Available The Test of Emotional Intelligence (TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information. Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action. Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: professional psychotherapists, trainers, and HR specialists. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment. Its internal consistency measures were as high as .88. In line with theoretical model of emotional intelligence, the results of the TIE shared about 10% of common variance with a general intelligence test, and were independent of major personality dimensions.

  7. Accommodative Ability in Prepresbyopic Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Etezad Razavi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To compare various accommodative parameters in prepresbyopic diabetic patients with age-matched healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Study populationconsisted of 32 younger-onset diabetic patients (30-40 years of age and 28 age-matched healthy normal individuals. Using the best correction for distance visual acuity (20.20 by Snellen chart, multiple accommodative ability tests such as near point of accommodation, accommodative amplitude, negative or positive accommodative facility and near point of convergence were measured in both groups. Results: Mean near point of accommodation in diabetic patients was significantly greater than the control group (18.5±4.4 centimeters [cm] versus 9.5±2 centimeters, p= 0.000. Mean accommodative amplitude was (5.93±1.75 Diopter (D and (10.95±2.16 Diopter in diabetics and normal individuals, respectively (p=0.000. Mean accommodation facility was (3.19±3.04 cycle/minute [cyl/min] in patients and 10.01±5.09 cycle/minute in the control group (p= 0.000. Mean positive relative accommodation was (–3.37±1.19 D in diabetic and (-2.11±0.99 D in healthy participants (p=0.000. Mean negative relative accommodation was lower in diabetic patients compared with the control group, however, this difference did not reach statistical significance (2.61±0.65 D versus (2.61±0.60 D, p= 0.23. Mean near point of convergence was (8.23±1.43 cm and (7.13±0.67 cm in normal and diabetic groups, respectively which had insignificant difference (p= 0.45. Conclusion: Majority of accommodative ability functions decreased in prepresbyopic diabetic patients. Early detection and rehabilitation of such patients with corrective near spectacles are strongly recommended.

  8. Study on uranium adsorption ability of tannix resin from solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thi Kim Dung; Le Quang Thai; Nguyen Lanh; Le Ngoc Thuy

    2004-01-01

    During past years, generated liquid waste from uranium ore processing has been treated by co-precipitation method in ITRRE. In this liquid waste treatment process, mixing liquid waste and lime, decantation, filtration of precipitate were implemented. The treated fluid has underlimited toxic concentration and ensures for moving into environment. Residue was dried and packed into drums as low level radioactive waste. Next to the advantages of this method such as simplest technology, cheapest cost, easy operation. Some amount of secondary radioactive waste as noncombustible materials must be stored with complicated technologies a highly cost. We have been researching a new liquid waste treatment system replaceable precipitation system. In the new process, insoluble tannin is utilized as adsorbent of uranium liquid waste. Advantage of insoluble tannin is expected to be possible to reduce its volume incineration as well as its adsorption ability. Those are the reasons why tannix resin is used this research subject. In this subject, we have studied adsorption capacity of uranium in Tannix, relation of adsorption rate and pH, the change of adsorption ability of column system, the pyrolysis curve of dried Tannix (author)

  9. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF BEAN CULTIVARS WITH HAIRY BEGGARTICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO GALON

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weed interference is a factor that limits the productivity of beans and, among these, hairy beggarticks is one of the main species competing with the crop for environmental resources. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the competitive ability of black bean cultivars (BRS Campeiro, IPR Uirapuru, SCS204 Predileto and BRS Supremo in the presence of a biotype of hairy beggarticks. The experimental design is a completely randomized block with four replications. Treatments were arranged in a replacement series, consisting of a proportion of the crop and the hairy beggarticks: 100:0; 75:25; 50:50: 24:75, and 0:100, which corresponds to 40:0, 30:10, 20:20, 10:30, and 0:40 plant pots1. We accomplished competitive analysis through diagrams applied to the replacement series, as well as using relative competitive indices. The leaf area and shoot dry mass were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the species. There was competition between bean cultivars and hairy beggarticks for the same environmental resources, causing negative interference in the growth of the species, independent of the proportion of plants. Bean cultivars had a lower relative loss by reducing the morphological variables of the hairy beggarticks, thereby demonstrating superiority in its competitive ability in relation to the weed. Interspecific competition is less damaging than intraspecific competition for both species.

  10. Video games and surgical ability: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jeremy; Aughwane, Paul; Hammond, Toby M

    2010-01-01

    Surgical training is rapidly evolving because of reduced training hours and the reduction of training opportunities due to patient safety concerns. There is a popular conception that video game usage might be linked to improved operating ability especially those techniques involving endoscopic modalities. If true this might suggest future directions for training. A search was made of the MEDLINE databases for the MeSH term, "Video Games," combined with the terms "Surgical Procedures, Operative," "Endoscopy," "Robotics," "Education," "Learning," "Simulators," "Computer Simulation," "Psychomotor Performance," and "Surgery, Computer-Assisted,"encompassing all journal articles before November 2009. References of articles were searched for further studies. Twelve relevant journal articles were discovered. Video game usage has been studied in relationship to laparoscopic, gastrointestinal endoscopic, endovascular, and robotic surgery. Video game users acquire endoscopic but not robotic techniques quicker, and training on video games appears to improve performance. Copyright (c) 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL GROUP TREATMENT IMPROVED WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE FUNCTIONAL SOMATIC SYNDROMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndrome often disrupt employment and may lead to long-term dependence on social benefits and permanently reduced work ability. Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) relief symptoms and improve...... before to 3 years after treatment by means of random effects modelling allowing individual levels and slopes. Results: Compared with the general population, FSS patients showed a continuous decline in self-support, leading to markedly reduced work ability at trial entry. In the following years, EUC...

  12. Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Spatial Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2017-01-01

    Spatial abilities are used in many aspects of everyday life, thus developing these abilities should be one of the most important goal of Mathematics Education. These abilities should be developed starting with early school years, thus pre-school and primary school teachers have an important role in setting the foundation of these abilities. A…

  13. Occupational Choice and the Endogenous Supply of Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klynge, Alice Heegaard

    I develop a selection model in which the individual’s supply of ability is endogenous and subject to selection along with occupation. Additionally, I identify and estimate the returns to creative and innovative ability, communication ability, and reading and math ability for white-collar and blue...

  14. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  15. Group Innovation Ability of Agricultural Technological Innovation Strategic Alliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chishun; MA; Jintian; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance, as an important form of strategic alliance, has steadily strengthened the collaborative management among organizations and raised competitive power with the backing of improved group innovation ability. This article studies innovation ability from individual innovation ability to the group innovation ability. Firstly, basic connotation of group innovation ability is to be concluded through the comparison of individual and group innovation ability. Secondly, evaluation index system is to be established based on the influencing factors of the group innovation ability of agricultural technological innovation strategic alliance and evaluation is based on three dimensions, namely organization technological innovation ability, alliance collaborative innovation ability as well as innovation environment. Furthermore, basic methods for promoting the group innovation ability of alliance are to be proposed.

  16. Skill level, Cognitive Ability, Unemployment and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    -biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....

  17. EFFECT OF TEACHERS’ ABILITIES ON STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION WITH VARYING LEVELS OF INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES IN THE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence and motivation are two crucial components of the education process that can significantly influence its efficiency. The level of intelligence determines our ability to learn from experience and to solve a problem successfully, whereas motivational processes energize and organize our behavior to reach our goals. This paper is connected to our previous article focused on the influence of teachers’ abilities on secondary business schools’ students’ motivation in the Economics. In our current study, we monitored the motivational potential of teachers’ abilities in a connection with students’ level of intelligence, measured by Vienna Matrices Test. As we would expect according to the results of our previous study, the expertise of teachers has the most important influence in the groups of both the above-average intelligent and the average intelligent students. Nevertheless, we found some differences in other preferences of both groups: except the teachers’ expertise, the average intelligent students refer to be motivated mostly by exposition of curriculum and ability to develop thinking, whereas above-average students refer only about the exposition of curriculum (except the teachers’ expertise. The next factor that we observed in our study is an amount of time that students spend on preparation to school.

  18. Engineering Play: Exploring Associations with Executive Function, Mathematical Ability, and Spatial Ability in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Zachary Samuel

    Engineering play is a new perspective on preschool education that views constructive play as an engineering design process that parallels the way engineers think and work when they develop engineered solutions to human problems (Bairaktarova, Evangelou, Bagiati, & Brophy, 2011). Early research from this perspective supports its use in framing play as a key learning context. However, no research to date has examined associations between engineering play and other factors linked with early school success, such as executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Additionally, more research is needed to further validate a new engineering play observational measure. This study had two main goals: (1) to gather early validity data on the engineering play measure as a potentially useful instrument for documenting the occurrence of children's engineering play behaviors in educational contexts, such as block play. This was done by testing the factor structure of the engineering play behaviors in this sample and their association with preschoolers' planning, a key aspect of the engineering design process; (2) to explore associations between preschoolers' engineering play and executive function, mathematical ability, and spatial ability. Participants included 110 preschoolers (62 girls; 48 boys; M = 58.47 months) from 10 classrooms in the Midwest United States coded for their frequency of engagement in each of the nine engineering play behaviors. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in one engineering play factor including six of the engineering play behaviors. A series of marginal regression models revealed that the engineering play factor was significantly and positively associated with the spatial horizontal rotation transformation. However, engineering play was not significantly related to planning ability, executive function, informal mathematical abilities, or other spatial transformation skills. Follow-up analyses revealed significant positive

  19. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  20. Abilities of preschoolers: comparing different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappedi Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong need for studies evaluating tests in terms both of psychometric properties (i.e. their efficacy or ability to be helpful in reaching a diagnosis and of their cost-effectiveness (i.e. their efficiency. These data are essential for planning a correct evaluation to identify children's needs (both educational and abilitative. Methods We evaluated 58 children attending for the first time the last year of the Scuola dell'Infanzia. Parental view was obtained with Child Behaviour Check-List and Conners' Rating Scales - Revised, and family socio-economic status was evaluated using Hollingshead's Four Factor Index; teacher compiled the IPDA questionnaire; children were administered Raven's Progressive Matrices, Modified Bell Cancellation Test, BVN 5-11 (a neuropsychological battery. Results A correlational analysis was conducted using Spearman's Rho (since variables were not normally distributed. These asymptomatic children show a good global cognitive functioning, but also a deficit of attention and of Executive Functions. Some of the tests used seem more cost-effective than others and there are some redundancies in information obtained. Conclusions Our data show that there are significant correlations between different neuropsychological and behavioural measures. It is therefore possible to rationalize diagnostic protocols without a significant information reduction. A deeper analysis will require a preliminary definition of the psychometric properties of used tools.

  1. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Béatrice; Urbanski, Marika; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Levy, Richard; Volle, Emmanuelle

    2018-01-01

    Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  2. Adjusting ability and sensibility for an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Adjusting ability (technical competence) and sensibility (consciousness) are the two most important priorities any staff member of any organization should bear in mind while acting during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The discussion is aimed at the national authorities of states which do not have a major nuclear power reactor programme, and especially at the IAEA and WHO: although a decade has gone by, the lessons from the radiological accident in Goiania have not been fully learned. The events which unravelled in the fall of 1987 took the population of the city of Goiania completely by surprise: they did not comprehend what had happened and failed to grasp what measures needed to be taken, a situation which precipitated a very complex psychological reaction, coupled with discrimination. To ensure the safety of radiation sources and nuclear installations, national and international organizations should direct their efforts towards educating and training staff in developing countries who work with ionizing radiation and promoting organizational capacity. This should be done first, by improving safety qualitatively so as to better control the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industry and research, and secondly, by assisting countries without a major nuclear power reactor programme to develop an objective and realistic emergency response training programme. (author)

  3. Cancer Chemopreventive Ability of Conjugated Linolenic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Miyashita

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated fatty acids (CFA have received increased interest because of their beneficial effects on human health, including preventing cancer development. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA are such CFA, and have been reviewed extensively for their multiple biological activities. In contrast to other types of CFAs including CLA that are found at low concentrations (less than 1% in natural products, conjugated linolenic acids (CLN are the only CFAs that occur in higher quantities in natural products. Some plant seeds contain a considerably high concentration of CLN (30 to 70 wt% lipid. Our research group has screened CLN from different plant seed oils to determine their cancer chemopreventive ability. This review describes the physiological functions of CLN isomers that occur in certain plant seeds. CLN are able to induce apoptosis through decrease of Bcl-2 protein in certain human cancer cell lines, increase expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ, and up-regulate gene expression of p53. Findings in our preclinical animal studies have indicated that feeding with CLN resulted in inhibition of colorectal tumorigenesis through modulation of apoptosis and expression of PPARγ and p53. In this review, we summarize chemopreventive efficacy of CLN against cancer development, especially colorectal cancer.

  4. Visual Abilities in Children with Developmental Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom three had......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI...

  5. Anterior Temporal Lobe Morphometry Predicts Categorization Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Garcin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri. Semantic categorization tasks were associated with more rostral temporal regions than shape categorization tasks. A significant relationship was also shown between white matter volume in the right temporal lobe and performance in the semantic tasks. Tractography revealed that this white matter region involved several projection and association fibers, including the arcuate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. These results suggest that categorization abilities are supported by the anterior portion of the right temporal lobe and its interaction with other areas.

  6. The ability to mentally represent action is associated with low motor ability in children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Caçola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2012-05-01

    Theory and anatomical research suggest that the ability to mentally represent intended actions affect level of execution. This study presents preliminary data examining the association between children's ability to mentally represent action and general motor ability. Children aged 7- to 10 years were assessed for motor imagery ability using a simulation of reach task and motor ability via the Movement ABC-2. Motor ability values, based on percentile rank, ranged from 2 to 91, with a mean of 36. The overall correlation between mental representation and motor ability yielded a moderately positive relationship (r = .39). Interestingly, when looking at motor ability subcategories, only Balance was significant in the model, explaining 20% of the variance. These results provide preliminary evidence that children's motor ability and the ability to mentally represent action are associated in a positive direction. Furthermore, given the results for Balance, we speculate that there are clinical implications regarding work with potentially at-risk children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  8. Work ability in nursing: relationship with psychological demands and control over the work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, Andrea; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Urbanetto, Janete de Souza; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; Lima, Suzinara Beatriz Soares de; Greco, Patrícia Bitencourt Toscani

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate the association between psychological demands, control over the work and the reduction of work ability of nursing professionals. this cross-sectional study involved 498 nursing professionals of a university hospital in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Data collection was carried out in 2009 using the Brazilian versions of the Work Ability Index and Job Stress Scale, with logistic regression models used for the data analysis. the prevalence of 43.3% for reduced work ability and 29.7% for high-strain in the job (high psychological demand and low control) were observed. The chances for professionals presenting reduced work ability under high-strain were higher and significant when compared to those classified as being under low-strain, even after adjusting for potential confounders, except for age and gender. a high prevalence of reduced work ability was observed. This evidence indicates the need for investigation and detailed analysis of the psychosocial aspects of the professionals with regard to the health/disease process of nursing professionals.

  9. Are sick individuals weak competitors? Competitive ability of snails parasitized by a gigantism-inducing trematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Seppälä

    Full Text Available Parasitized individuals are often expected to be poor competitors because they are weakened by infections. Many trematode species, however, although extensively exploiting their mollusc hosts, also induce gigantism (increased host size by diverting host resources towards growth instead of reproduction. In such systems, alternatively to reduced competitive ability due to negative effects of parasitism on host performance, larger size could allow more efficient resource acquisition and thus increase the relative competitive ability of host individuals. We addressed this hypothesis by testing the effect of a trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on the competitive ability of its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis. We experimentally examined the growth of snails kept in pairs in relation to their infection status and intensity of resource competition (i.e. food availability. We found that parasitized snails grew faster and their reproduction was reduced compared to unparasitized individuals indicating parasite-induced gigantism. However, growth of the snails was faster when competing with parasitized individuals compared to unparasitized snails indicating reduced competitive ability due to parasitism. The latter effect, however, was relatively weak suggesting that the effects of the parasite on snail physiology may partly override each other in determining competitive ability.

  10. Towards Objective Measures of Functional Hearing Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes-Brown, Hamish; Tsongas, Renee; Marozeau, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Aims People with impaired hearing often have difficulties in hearing sounds in a noisy background. This problem is partially a result of the auditory systems reduced capacity to process temporal information in the sound signal. In this study we examined the relationships between perceptual...... was positively correlated with TFS sensitivity, and negatively correlated with age. TFS sensitivity was also positively correlated with stimulus encoding accuracy for the complex harmonic stimulus, while increasing age was associated with lower stimulus encoding accuracy for the modulated tone stimulus...

  11. Keratinolytic abilities of Micrococcus luteus from poultry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laba, Wojciech; Choinska, Anna; Rodziewicz, Anna; Piegza, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Keratinolytic microorganisms have become the subject of scientific interest due to their ability to biosynthesize specific keratinases and their prospective application in keratinic waste management. Among several bacterial classes, actinobacteria remain one of the most important sources of keratin-degrading strains, however members of the Micrococcaceae family are rarely scrutinized in regard to their applicatory keratinolytic potential. The tested Micrococcus sp. B1pz isolate from poultry feather waste was identified as M. luteus. The strain, grown in the medium with 1-2% chicken feathers and a yeast extract supplement, produced keratinases of 32 KU and lower level of proteases, 6 PU. It was capable to effectively decompose feathers or "soft" keratin of stratum corneum, in contrast to other "hard" hair-type keratins. The produced keratinolytic enzymes were mainly a combination of alkaline serine or thiol proteases, active at the optimum pH 9.4, 55 °C. Four main protease fractions of 62, 185, 139 and 229 kDa were identified in the crude culture fluid. The research on the auxiliary role of reducing factors revealed that reducing sulfur compounds could be applied in keratinolysis enhancement during enzymatic digestion of keratin, rather than in culture conditions. The presented M. luteus isolate exhibits a significant keratinolytic potential, which determines its feasible applicatory capacity towards biodegradation of poultry by-products or formulation of keratin-based feed components.

  12. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all PBMAT variables and weight status. Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children.

  13. Implicit theory of athletic ability and self-handicapping in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Chen, Mei-Yen; Lin, Meng-Shyan; Kee, Ying Hwa; Kuo, Chin Fang; Shui, Shang-Hsueh

    2008-10-01

    Self-handicapping is a maladaptive behavior which undermines students' achievements, but the antecedents of self-handicapping are not well studied in physical education. The aim was to examine the relations of implicit theory of abilities and self-handicapping in physical education. 264 college students, whose mean age was 20.3 yr. (SD = 1.7), completed the Conceptions of the Nature of Athletic Ability Questionnaire-2 and Self-handicapping Scale for Sport. Analysis indicated entity beliefs positively predicted reduced effort and making excuses. Also, incremental beliefs negatively predicted reduced effort. Results are discussed in terms of implicit theory of ability and self-handicapping. Directions for research and implications are stated.

  14. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  15. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  16. The Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work Ability among Midwives in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Kordi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Occupational stress is one of the key factors in reducing staff productivity in organizations with physical and psychological impacts on employees. Nursing and midwifery are among the most stressful professions. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the relationship between occupational stress and work ability of midwives in Mashhad, Iran in 2011. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 123 midwives employed in the public hospitals and health centres in Mashhad, Iran using two-stage sampling method. Demographic and work-related data were obtained through a self-structured questionnaire. Occupational stress and work ability were measured using Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire (OSAQ and Work Ability Index Questionnaire (WAIQ. The statistical analysis was performed using student’s t-test, One Way ANOVA, correlation coefficient, and linear regression model through SPSS statistical software (version 11.5.   Results: The results showed that the mean score of occupational stress and work ability was 149 ± 0.01 and 38.81±0.05, respectively. There was a negative correlation between job-related stress and work ability. Midwives with higher occupational stress experienced poorer work ability (P=0.021, r=-0.061.   Conclusion: Sever work stress is associated with reduced work ability. So it is recommended to eliminate or decrease occupational stress and increase work ability among Iranian midwives using preventive measures, although identification of sources of occupational stress seems necessary in order to adopt appropriate stress management strategies.

  17. Evaluation of Narrative Abilities in Patients Suffering from Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, A.; Lorusso, M. L.; D'Angelo, M. G.; Civati, F.; Turconi, A. C.; Fabbro, F.; Bresolin, N.

    2007-01-01

    The present work investigated cognitive, linguistic and narrative abilities in a group of children suffering from Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, an allelic X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. The patients showed mildly reduced IQ with lower Verbal than Performance Intelligence Quotient and were mildly…

  18. Mobility scooter driving ability in visually impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel A; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M

    2018-06-01

    To investigate how well visually impaired individuals can learn to use mobility scooters and which parts of the driving task deserve special attention. A mobility scooter driving skill test was developed to compare driving skills (e.g. reverse driving, turning) between 48 visually impaired (very low visual acuity = 14, low visual acuity = 10, peripheral field defects = 11, multiple visual impairments = 13) and 37 normal-sighted controls without any prior experience with mobility scooters. Performance on this test was rated on a three-point scale. Furthermore, the number of extra repetitions on the different elements were noted. Results showed that visually impaired participants were able to gain sufficient driving skills to be able to use mobility scooters. Participants with visual field defects combined with low visual acuity showed most problems learning different skills and needed more training. Reverse driving and stopping seemed to be most difficult. The present findings suggest that visually impaired individuals are able to learn to drive mobility scooters. Mobility scooter allocators should be aware that these individuals might need more training on certain elements of the driving task. Implications for rehabilitation Visual impairments do not necessarily lead to an inability to acquire mobility scooter driving skills. Individuals with peripheral field defects (especially in combination with reduced visual acuity) need more driving ability training compared to normal-sighted people - especially to accomplish reversing. Individual assessment of visually impaired people is recommended, since participants in this study showed a wide variation in ability to learn driving a mobility scooter.

  19. Current Trends in Developing Medical Students' Critical Thinking Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Harasym

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Health care is fallible and prone to diagnostic and management errors. The major categories of diagnostic errors include: (1 no-fault errors—the disease is present but not detected; (2 system errors—a diagnosis is delayed or missed because of the imperfection in the health care system; and (3 cognitive errors—a misdiagnosis from faulty data collection or interpretation, flawed reasoning, or incomplete knowledge. Approximately one third of patient problems are mismanaged because of diagnostic errors. Part of the solution lies in improving the diagnostic skills and critical thinking abilities of physicians as they progress through medical school and residency training. However, this task is challenging since both medical problem-solving and the learning environments are complex and not easily understood. There are many interacting variables including the motivation of the medical student (e.g. deep versus surface learning, the acquisition and evolution of declarative and conditional knowledge (e.g. reduced, dispersed, elaborated, scheme, and scripted, problem-solving strategies (e.g. procedural knowledge—guessing, hypothetical deductive, scheme inductive, and pattern recognition, curricular models (e.g. apprenticeship, discipline-based, body system-based, case-based, clinical presentation-based, teaching strategies (e.g. teaching general to specific or specific to general, the presented learning opportunities (PBL versus scheme inductive PBL, and the nature of the learning environment (e.g. modeling critical thinking and expert problem-solving. This paper elaborates on how novices differ from experts and how novices can be educated in a manner that enhances their level of expertise and diagnostic abilities as they progress through several years of medical training.

  20. managerial ability and farming success : an analysis of small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research and analysis drew from the field of Industrial Psychology to determine and ... capital and sound financial structure within farmers' business, market access, ... managerial ability and strong entrepreneurial instinct; ability to handle.

  1. Spatial ability in computer-aided design courses

    OpenAIRE

    Torner Ribé, Jordi; Alpiste Penalba, Francesc; Brigos Hermida, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that spatial ability is an important factor in the study of Industrial Engineering. Spatial ability is fundamentally important to the work of an engineer, as it is vital for project design. Among other elements, spatial ability correlates with factors such as good academic results and a natural ability to learn how to use I.T systems and computer programs. Furthermore, the new framework drawn up by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) guides us as to the...

  2. Shared-Environmental Contributions to High Cognitive Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measur...

  3. The importance of job control for workers with decreased work ability to remain productive at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Tilja I; Robroek, Suzan J; Plat, Jan F; Koopmanschap, Marc A; Burdorf, Alex

    2011-08-01

    Workers with decreased work ability are at greater risk of reduced productivity at work. We hypothesized that work-related characteristics play an important role in supporting workers to remain productive despite decreased work ability. The study population consisted of 10,542 workers in 49 different companies in the Netherlands in 2005-2009. Productivity loss at work was defined on a 10-point scale by asking how much work was actually performed during regular hours on the last regular workday when compared with normal. Independent variables in the logistic regression analysis were individual characteristics, work-related factors, and the work ability index. Additive interactions between work-related factors and decreased work ability were evaluated by the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of productivity loss at work were 2.03 (1.85-2.22), 3.50 (3.10-3.95), and 5.54 (4.37-7.03) for a good, moderate, and poor work ability, compared with an excellent work ability (reference group). Productivity loss at work was associated with lack of job control, poor skill discretion, and high work demands. There was a significant interaction between decreased work ability and lack of job control (RERI = 0.63 95% CI 0.11-1.16) with productivity loss at work. The negative effects on work performance of decreased work ability may be partly counterbalanced by increased job control. This suggests that interventions among workers with (chronic) disease that cause a decreased work ability should include enlargement of possibilities to plan and pace their own activities at work.

  4. 20 CFR 604.4 - Application-ability to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application-ability to work. 604.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.4 Application—ability to work. (a) A State may consider an... all or a portion of the week claimed, provided any limitation on his or her ability to work does not...

  5. Visuospatial ability factors and performance variables in laparoscopic simulator training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Verwey, Willem B.; Burie, Remke

    2012-01-01

    Visuospatial ability has been shown to be important to several aspects of laparoscopic performance, including simulator training. Only a limited subset of visuospatial ability factors however has been investigated in such studies. Tests for different visuospatial ability factors differ in stimulus

  6. Re-Conceiving Ability in Physical Education: A Social Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan; Burrows, Lisette

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we explore how "ability" is currently conceptualised in physical education and with what effects for different groups of young people. We interrogate approaches to theorising ability in physical education that draw on sociological and phenomenological "foundations" together with notions of ability as…

  7. QTL mapping for combining ability in different population-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-13

    Dec 13, 2013 ... ability and for geneticists to research the genetic basis of combining ability. [Li L., Sun C., ... population-based NCII designs by a simulation study. J. Genet. ... combining ability could also be applied to other population- based NCII ... was to estimate how different base populations, sample sizes, heritability ...

  8. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Luralyn

    2013-01-01

    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  9. Socioeconomic Position Across the Life Course and Cognitive Ability Later in Life: The Importance of Considering Early Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foverskov, Else; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Holm, Anders; Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke

    2017-11-01

    Investigate direct and indirect associations between markers of socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and midlife cognitive ability while addressing methodological limitations in prior work. Longitudinal data from the Danish Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953 ( N = 2,479) who completed ability tests at age 12, 18, and 56-58 linked to register-based information on paternal occupational class, educational attainment, and occupational level. Associations were assessed using structural equation models, and different models were estimated to examine the importance of accounting for childhood ability and measurement error. Associations between adult SEP measures and midlife ability decreased significantly when adjusting for childhood ability and measurement error. The association between childhood and midlife ability was by far the strongest. The impact of adult SEP on later life ability may be exaggerated when not accounting for the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability and measurement error in test scores.

  10. Communication on radiation safety: ability and sensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozental, Jose de Julio; Ministry of Environment

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Communication Issues today, combine aspects of nuclear science, public approach and psychological subjects. The principal objectives are to systematize nuclear public information and to prepare researchers or communicators in a position to comment on the nuclear issues of our stage. The programme should focused on progress of nuclear energy, public perception of risk, conflicts among scientists, as the radiation effect at low doses, and how nuclear industry and scientists may better communicate information concerning the potential for hazard to property, health and the environment. There will be occasions where the competent authority should have formal link with other organizations, as in case of abnormal situation or emergency. Particular attention should be paid to the exchange of distinct parts in order to avoid misinterpretation or mistakes when divulging information to the public.Communication is emphasized in the IAEA Basic Safety Standards, [1] as well as, the current approach created to enlarge the relationship between man, practices and protection by the encouragement of a better understanding and implementation of the Safety Culture concept. The application of this concept involves better protection on Radiation Safety to workers, public and environment not only reducing accidents, but also avoiding unnecessary stresses and strains due to intensified operations. This means an advance towards the humanization of practices, equally observed by industrialized and developing countries. Finally, this paper also comment about two very important lessons that there were not yet learned as in reality necessary, considering the goals for a competent Nuclear Communication: the psychological effects of Chernobyl accident in April 1986 resulted from the lack of public information; the psychological effects of the Radiological Accident in Goiania resulted from the misunderstanding of the basic concept of ionizing radiation, which was translated into fear and

  11. In-vitro effect of estrogen-antagonist on motility and penetration ability of human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, I S; Rangari, K

    1997-08-01

    Antiestrogens affect spermatozoa through their action on Leydig and Sertoli cells. Direct effect of antiestrogens namely tamoxifen and centchroman in concentration of 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 micrograms/ml in incubation medium was determined on motility and penetration ability of human spermatozoa. Motility (%) was invariably reduced after 15, 30 and 60 min. of incubation. Addition of 17 beta-estradiol to medium with antagonist caused inhibition of motility in dose related manner. The distance travelled by spermatozoa treated with tamoxifen or centchroman in media was reduced by 30% and addition of estradiol along with antiestrogen reduced it to 50% compared to that of untreated spermatozoa.

  12. Determinants of work ability and its predictive value for disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavinia, S M; de Boer, A G E M; van Duivenbooden, J C; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Burdorf, A

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of work ability on receiving a work-related disability pension. A longitudinal study was conducted among 850 construction workers aged 40 years and older, with average follow-up period of 23 months. Disability was defined as receiving a disability pension, granted to workers unable to continue working in their regular job. Work ability was assessed using the work ability index (WAI). Associations between work-related factors and individual characteristics with work ability at baseline were evaluated using linear regression analysis, and Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of work ability for disability. Work-related factors were associated with a lower work ability at baseline, but had little prognostic value for disability during follow-up. The hazard ratios for disability among workers with a moderate and poor work ability at baseline were 8 and 32, respectively. All separate scales in the WAI had predictive power for future disability with the highest influence of current work ability in relation to job demands and lowest influence of diseases diagnosed by a physician. A moderate or poor work ability was highly predictive for receiving a disability pension. Preventive measures should facilitate a good balance between work performance and health in order to prevent quitting labour participation.

  13. ANS acuity and mathematics ability in preschoolers from low-income homes: contributions of inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhs, Mary Wagner; McNeil, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings by Libertus, Feigenson, and Halberda (2011) suggest that there is an association between the acuity of young children's approximate number system (ANS) and their mathematics ability before exposure to instruction in formal schooling. The present study examined the generalizability and validity of these findings in a sample of preschoolers from low-income homes. Children attending Head Start (N = 103) completed measures to assess ANS acuity, mathematics ability, receptive vocabulary, and inhibitory control. Results showed only a weak association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability that was reduced to non-significance when controlling for a direct measure of receptive vocabulary. Results also revealed that inhibitory control plays an important role in the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics ability. Specifically, ANS acuity accounted for significant variance in mathematics ability over and above receptive vocabulary, but only for ANS acuity trials in which surface area conflicted with numerosity. Moreover, this association became non-significant when controlling for inhibitory control. These results suggest that early mathematical experiences prior to formal schooling may influence the strength of the association between ANS acuity and mathematics ability and that inhibitory control may drive that association in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  15. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  16. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Longitudinal Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. John

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS, the relations among different pragmatic abilities and the relations between pragmatic ability and expressive vocabulary ability have yet to be addressed. In addition, analyses of the relations between the same type of pragmatic ability over time have not been reported. The present study was designed to address these questions. We considered the pragmatic language abilities of 14 children with WS at two time points: as 4-year-olds during a 30-minute play-session with their mothers (Time 1 and an average of 5.87 years later during a one-on-one conversation with a familiar researcher (Time 2. Children’s intellectual and expressive vocabulary abilities were assessed at both time points. Results indicated that the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was required in response to a question was significantly related to the ability to verbally contribute new information in the absence of a question both at age 4 years and during primary school. At age 4, both the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity and expressive vocabulary ability were related to the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was expected within a social interaction. Finally, the ability to verbally contribute new information to a social interaction beyond what was required to answer a question and the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity at age 4 years predicted the ability to verbally contribute new information beyond what was required to answer a question at age 9 – 12 years. The theoretical implications of our findings and the importance of early pragmatic language intervention for children who have WS are discussed.

  17. Children with Williams syndrome: Developmental trajectories for intellectual abilities, vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervis, Carolyn B; Pitts, C Holley

    2015-06-01

    To examine longitudinal trajectories of intellectual abilities, single-word vocabulary abilities, and adaptive behavior for 76 children with Williams syndrome (WS) aged 4-15 years, we compared their standard scores (SSs) at two time points approximately 3 years apart on the same standardized measures. At the group level, mean SS declined significantly for 8 of the 12 measures and showed a slight (nonsignificant) increase or decrease for 4 measures. However, for most measures significant changes in SS were found for only a small proportion of the children, with some children evidencing significant declines and a smaller proportion evidencing significant increases. Significant SS changes were most common for adaptive behavior. For all measures, the mean magnitude of SS change was smaller for older children (>7.5 years at Time 1) than for younger children (general population peers who earned the same SS at Time 1, there was little evidence either of regression (loss of skills) or stagnation (failure to increase raw scores). The relations of these results to those of previous smaller-sample longitudinal studies of children with WS and the implications of the findings are considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  19. Preserving Cognition, Quality of Life, Physical Health and Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna Aue

    2013-01-01

    ('Preserving Cognition, Quality of Life, Physical Health and Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: the Effect of Physical Exercise') trial is to establish whether aerobic exercise is effective in improving cognition as well as in reducing the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among patients......Exercise is hypothesized to improve cognition, physical performance, functional ability and quality of life, but evidence is scarce. Previous studies were of short duration, often underpowered and involving home-based light exercise programs in patients with undefined dementia. The aim of the ADEX...

  20. Landscape structure shapes habitat finding ability in a butterfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Öckinger

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification and habitat fragmentation is predicted to impact on the search strategies animals use to find habitat. We compared the habitat finding ability between populations of the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria L. from landscapes that differ in degree of habitat fragmentation. Naïve butterflies reared under standardized laboratory conditions but originating from either fragmented agricultural landscapes or more continuous forested landscapes were released in the field, at fixed distances from a target habitat patch, and their flight paths were recorded. Butterflies originating from fragmented agricultural landscapes were better able to find a woodlot habitat from a distance compared to conspecifics from continuous forested landscapes. To manipulate the access to olfactory information, a subset of individuals from both landscape types were included in an antennae removal experiment. This confirmed the longer perceptual range for butterflies from agricultural landscapes and indicated the significance of both visual and olfactory information for orientation towards habitat. Our results are consistent with selection for increased perceptual range in fragmented landscapes to reduce dispersal costs. An increased perceptual range will alter the functional connectivity and thereby the chances for population persistence for the same level of structural connectivity in a fragmented landscape.

  1. Spontaneous brain activity predicts learning ability of foreign sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán, Ana; González, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo; Ávila, César

    2013-05-29

    Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were replicated, demonstrating that this learning recruited the left insula/frontal operculum and the left superior parietal lobe, among other areas of the brain. Crucially, resting-state FC (rs-FC) between these two areas at pretraining predicted individual differences in learning outcomes after distributed (Experiment 1) and intensive training (Experiment 2). Furthermore, this rs-FC was reduced at posttraining, a change that may also account for learning. Finally, resting-state network analyses showed that the mechanism underlying this reduction of rs-FC was mainly a transfer in intrinsic activity of the left frontal operculum/anterior insula from the left frontoparietal network to the salience network. Thus, rs-FC may contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain. The discovery of this correspondence between initial spontaneous brain activity in task-related areas and posttraining performance opens new avenues to find predictors of learning capacities in the brain using task-related fMRI and rs-fMRI combined.

  2. Landscape Structure Shapes Habitat Finding Ability in a Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öckinger, Erik; Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Land-use intensification and habitat fragmentation is predicted to impact on the search strategies animals use to find habitat. We compared the habitat finding ability between populations of the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria L.) from landscapes that differ in degree of habitat fragmentation. Naïve butterflies reared under standardized laboratory conditions but originating from either fragmented agricultural landscapes or more continuous forested landscapes were released in the field, at fixed distances from a target habitat patch, and their flight paths were recorded. Butterflies originating from fragmented agricultural landscapes were better able to find a woodlot habitat from a distance compared to conspecifics from continuous forested landscapes. To manipulate the access to olfactory information, a subset of individuals from both landscape types were included in an antennae removal experiment. This confirmed the longer perceptual range for butterflies from agricultural landscapes and indicated the significance of both visual and olfactory information for orientation towards habitat. Our results are consistent with selection for increased perceptual range in fragmented landscapes to reduce dispersal costs. An increased perceptual range will alter the functional connectivity and thereby the chances for population persistence for the same level of structural connectivity in a fragmented landscape. PMID:22870227

  3. Comparative Lateralizing Ability of Multimodality MRI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabekir Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective is to compare lateralizing ability of three quantitative MR (qMRI modalities to depict changes of hippocampal architecture with clinical entities in temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods. We evaluated 14 patients with clinical and EEG proven diagnosis of unilateral TLE and 15 healthy volunteers. T1-weighted 3D dataset for volumetry, single-voxel 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI were performed for bilateral hippocampi of all subjects. Results. Individual volumetric measurements provided accurate lateralization in 85% of the patients, spectroscopy in 57%, and DTI in 57%. Higher lateralization ratios were acquired combining volumetry-spectroscopy (85%, spectroscopy-DTI (85%, and volumetry-DTI (100%. Significantly decreased NAA/(Cho+Cr ratios (p=0.002 and increased FA (p=0.001 values were obtained in ipsilateral to epileptogenic hippocampus. Duration of epilepsy and FA values showed a significant negative correlation (p=0.016, r=-0.847. The history of febrile convulsion associated with ipsilateral increased ADC values (p=0.015, r=0.851 and reduced NAA/(Cho+Cr ratios (p=0.047, r=-761. Conclusion. Volumetry, MRS, and DTI studies provide complementary information of hippocampal pathology. For lateralization of epileptogenic focus and preoperative examination, volumetry-DTI combination may be indicative of diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Cognitive Abilities, Monitoring Confidence, and Control Thresholds Explain Individual Differences in Heuristics and Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon A; Kleitman, Sabina; Howie, Pauline; Stankov, Lazar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgments, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants ( N = 250) completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and Resistance to Framing. Using structural equation modeling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence, and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence, and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision-making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation.

  5. Cognitive abilities, monitoring, and control explain individual differences in heuristics and biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Anthony Jackson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate whether individual differences in performance on heuristic and biases tasks can be explained by cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence and control thresholds. Current theories explain individual differences in these tasks by the ability to detect errors and override automatic but biased judgements, and deliberative cognitive abilities that help to construct the correct response. Here we retain cognitive abilities but disentangle error detection, proposing that lower monitoring confidence and higher control thresholds promote error checking. Participants (N = 250 completed tasks assessing their fluid reasoning abilities, stable monitoring confidence levels, and the control threshold they impose on their decisions. They also completed seven typical heuristic and biases tasks such as the cognitive reflection test and resistance to framing. Using structural equation modelling, we found that individuals with higher reasoning abilities, lower monitoring confidence and higher control threshold performed significantly and, at times, substantially better on the heuristic and biases tasks. Individuals with higher control thresholds also showed lower preferences for risky alternatives in a gambling task. Furthermore, residual correlations among the heuristic and biases tasks were reduced to null, indicating that cognitive abilities, monitoring confidence and control thresholds accounted for their shared variance. Implications include the proposal that the capacity to detect errors does not differ between individuals. Rather, individuals might adopt varied strategies that promote error checking to different degrees, regardless of whether they have made a mistake or not. The results support growing evidence that decision making involves cognitive abilities that construct actions and monitoring and control processes that manage their initiation.

  6. Lexical and metaphonological abilities in preschoolers with phonological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ranilde Cristiane Cavalcante; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2010-01-01

    lexical and metaphonological abilities of phonologically disordered preschoolers. to investigate the influence of Phonological Disorder on the lexical and metaphonological abilities of a group of preschoolers and the correlation between them. participants were 56 preschoolers - 32 boys and 24 girls - with ages between 4 years and 6 months and 6 years and 11 months, divided into two different groups: the Research Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with Phonological Disorder, and the Control Group, composed of 28 preschoolers with normal speech and no oral speech-related complaints, paired to the research group by gender and age. All of the participants were initially assessed by the ABFW Test - Phonology. After that, they were assessed on their lexical and metaphonological abilities by the ABFW Test - Vocabulary and phonological awareness test: sequential assessment instrument, CONFIAS - identification tasks and, rhyme and alliteration production, respectively. regarding lexical ability, the preschoolers from both groups presented similar behavior. The disordered preschoolers presented the worst performance on the overall analysis of the metaphonological ability. Age had an influence on the performance of lexical ability for both groups and the metaphonological abilities only for the Control Group. Correlations were identified, mostly positive, good to moderate between lexical and metaphonological abilities. the influence of Phonological Disorder may only be observed on the metaphonological performance. Phonological Disorder did not interfere with the development of the lexical ability of this group of preschoolers. Positive correlations were identified between both abilities in the studied age group.

  7. Cow biological type affects ground beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C; Unruh, John A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of cow biological type on colour stability of ground beef, M. semimembranosus from beef-type (BSM) and dairy-type (DSM) cows was obtained 5d postmortem. Three blends (100% BSM, 50% BSM+50% DSM, 100% DSM) were adjusted to 90% and 80% lean points using either young beef trim (YBT) or beef cow trim (BCT), then packaged in high oxygen (High-O(2); 80% O(2)) modified atmosphere (MAP). The BSM+YBT patties had the brightest colour initially, but discoloured rapidly. Although DSM+BCT patties had the darkest colour initially, they discoloured least during display. Metmyoglobin reducing ability of ground DSM was up to fivefold greater than ground BSM, and TBARS values of BSM was twofold greater than DSM by the end of display (4d). Though initially darker than beef cow lean, dairy cow lean has a longer display colour life and may be advantageous to retailers using High-O(2) MAP.

  8. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  9. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  10. Reducing The Nuclear Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    off convention • Eliminate the civil use of HEU (includes RERTR ) • Reduce stockpiles of civil HEU and plutonium • Promote alternatives to the...these countries. ANL supports the Department’s Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor ( RERTR ) Program by providing the technical means to...scientists and engineers at 60 institutes in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. The United States and Russia have agreed to pursue a joint RERTR

  11. Using reduce in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.P. dos.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure which allows one to do Supersymmetry calculus in REDUCE is described. Using the concept of an eight-dimensional 'superspace' (spanned by four space-time and four anticommuting coordinates) and of 'superfields' (which represent an entire supermultiplet of particles that transform among themselves), covariant derivatives with respect to supersymmetry are defined. Then, combining the vector facility and LET statement in REDUCE, spinors are simulated in a way to control the algebraic manipulation. (G.D.F.) [pt

  12. Engaging in cultural activities compensates for educational differences in cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the current project was to examine whether engagement in intellectual/cultural activities explains the long-term effects of education on cognitive abilities throughout adulthood, and whether it compensates for educational differences in cognitive abilities throughout adulthood. Participants between 18 and 96 years of age completed a comprehensive questionnaire about intellectual/cultural activities that they participated in and performed a wide variety of cognitive tests. There were no mediation effects of engagement in intellectual/cultural activities on the relationship between education and cognitive functioning. In contrast, engagement in intellectual/cultural activities was found to moderate the relations between education and the level of fluid ability, working memory, speed of processing, and episodic memory. Findings suggest that the risk of cognitive decline in people with less education can be reduced via engagement in intellectual and cultural activities throughout adulthood.

  13. Physical exercise at the workplace prevents deterioration of work ability among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imbalance between individual resources and work demands can lead to musculoskeletal disorders and reduced work ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on work ability among healthcare workers. METHODS: Two...... hundred female healthcare workers (Age: 42.0, BMI: 24.1, work ability index [WAI]: 43.1) from 18 departments at three Danish hospitals participated (Copenhagen, Denmark, Aug 2013-Jan 2014). Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: 1) workplace physical exercise (WORK...... of lifting aides. The main outcome measure was the change from baseline to 10-week follow-up in WAI. RESULTS: Significant group by time interaction was observed for WAI (p effect size (Cohens'd = 0...

  14. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  15. Healthy Adult Ageing: Multitasking Abilities and the Impact of Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nevay, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The ability to multitask plays a significant role within everyday life. This experiment investigated whether multitasking abilities are impaired in healthy adult ageing. Neuropsychological literature has shown that patients with frontal lobe damage are impaired in their ability to multitask on tests designed to assess cognitive functions used in real-life multitasking situations. Age-related reductions in brain volume are most pronounced in the frontal lobes. Therefore, it’s assumed that olde...

  16. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  17. The impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Marije; van Aalst, Mariëlle P; Nauta, Mary C E; Oosterhof, Henk

    2012-03-01

    Menopause is an important life event that may have a negative influence on quality of life. Work ability, a concept widely used in occupational health, can predict both future impairment and duration of sickness absence. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of menopausal symptoms on work ability. This was a cross-sectional study that used a sample of healthy working Dutch women aged 44 to 60 years. Work ability was measured using the Work Ability Index, and menopausal symptoms were measured using the Greene Climacteric Scale. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between menopausal symptoms and work ability. A total of 208 women were included in this study. There was a significant negative correlation between total Greene Climacteric Scale score and Work Ability Index score. Total Greene Climacteric Scale score predicted 33.8% of the total variance in the Work Ability Index score. Only the psychological and somatic subscales of the Greene Climacteric Scale were significant predictors in multiple linear regression analysis. Together, they accounted for 36.5% of total variance in Work Ability Index score. Menopausal symptoms are negatively associated with work ability and may increase the risk of sickness absence.

  18. Effect of clinical practice on self-learning development ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon; Kim, Nak Sang

    2017-01-01

    In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity

  19. Innovation ability and innovation spirit in photoelectric comprehensive experiment teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dexing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The traditional experimental teaching methods have some shortcomings in the training the student innovation ability. In order to improve the student practical ability in the photoelectric technology, in this paper new experimental teaching modes are tried and reformed for cultivating the innovative ability of students in the linear CCD experiment. The photoelectric experiment systems are independently designed and completed by students. Compared with the traditional experimental teaching methods, this new methods have a great role in the development of the ability of creative thinking.

  20. Fire Fighters' Ability and Willingness to Participate in a Pandemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delaney, Jr, John

    2008-01-01

    .... Issues that may influence fire fighters ability and willingness to work include childcare, concern of family, adequate personal protective equipment, worker's compensation coverage, and availability...

  1. Effect of clinical practice on self-learning development ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Yang, Han Joon [Dept. of International Radiological Science, Hallym University of Graduate Studies, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nak Sang [Dept. of Radiological Science, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    In order to analyze the degree of self-learning development ability after the clinical training curriculum, the results of 121 questionnaires were analyzed for 3rd and 4th grade students in radiology in the metropolitan area. The overall average of self-learning ability according to gender was 3.07±0.85, which was statistically significant according to gender. However, the results according to educational system showed that the overall average was 3.07±0.85, which was higher than the average level of self-learning development ability. There was no statistically significant difference according to educational system. The results of the self-learning development ability according to the motivation for selecting the department showed that the students who have chosen their department due to their higher employment rate after graduation had high self-development ability level(3.58±0.85) but the students who entered the school due to self-aptitude had relatively lower self-development ability level (2.30±0.40). The overall average of self-learning ability according to direction of career path was 3.08±0.76, which was over-average of self-learning development ability. Thus, there was statistically significant difference according to career path. It is necessary to improve the self-learning ability in clinical practice. In addition, the lack of statistical significance suggests problems and diversity.

  2. Feeling Better About Self After Receiving Negative Feedback: When the Sense That Ability Can Be Improved Is Activated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinyi; Chen, Yinghe; Tian, Baowei

    2016-01-01

    Past studies suggest that managers and educators often consider negative feedback as a motivator for individuals to think about their shortcomings and improve their work, but delivering negative feedback does not always achieve desired results. The present study, based on incremental theory, employed an intervention method to activate the belief that a particular ability could be improved after negative feedback. Three experiments tested the intervention effect on negative self-relevant emotion. Study 1 indicated conveying suggestions for improving ability reduced negative self-relevant emotion after negative feedback. Study 2 tested whether activating the sense of possible improvement in the ability could reduce negative self-relevant emotion. Results indicated activating the belief that ability could be improved reduced negative self-relevant emotion after failure, but delivering emotion management information alone did not yield the same effect. Study 3 extended the results by affirming the effort participants made in doing the test, and found the affirmation reduced negative self-relevant emotion. Collectively, the findings indicated focusing on the belief that the ability could be improved in the future can reduce negative self-relevant emotion after negative feedback.

  3. Item bias in self-reported functional ability among 75-year-old men and women in three Nordic localities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Era, P; Davidsen, M

    1996-01-01

    to geographical locality and gender. Information about self-reported functional ability was gathered from surveys on 75-year-old men and women in Glostrup (Denmark), Göteborg (Sweden) and Jyväskylä (Finland). The data were collected by structured home interviews about mobility and Physical activities of daily......The purpose of this article is to analyse item bias in a measure of self-reported functional ability among 75-year-old people in three Nordic localities. The present item bias analysis examines whether the construction of a functional ability index from several variables results in bias in relation...... living (PADL) in relation to tiredness, reduced speed and dependency and combined into three tiredness-scales, three reduced speed-scales and two dependency-scales. The analysis revealed item bias regarding geographical locality in seven out of eight of the functional ability scales, but nearly no bias...

  4. The mechanism of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to remove fumonisins B1 and B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfei; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Junwen; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bolin

    2016-11-01

    Two Lactobacillus strains, L. plantarum B7 and L. pentosus X8, exhibited high efficiency in removing fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) from aqueous medium. 52.9% FB1 and 85.2% FB2 were bound by L. plantarum B7, and 58.0% FB1 and 86.5% FB2 by L. pentosus X8, respectively. Temperature, incubation time, and pH affected the binding ability of two strains. Cell viability was not necessary for the binding ability. The various components of cell wall were determined for their ability to absorb FBS. The results revealed that the intact peptidoglycans exhibited the greatest capacity in binding FBs. Especially the better structural integrity of the peptidoglycans the more FBs was bound. Thus, the absorption of two bacterial cells to FBs is proposed to be a physical process, and peptidoglycans should be the main binding site. Additionally, Caco-2 cell lines were used to evaluate the ability of the two strains to reduce the damage of FBs in vitro. Caco-2 cell's death was reduced after the cell lines were subjected to both viable and non-viable L. pentosus X8, respectively. The two Lactobacillus strains might be used as a biological detoxification for the removal of FBs from diet and feed in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between candidate communication ability and oral certification examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunz, Mary E; Bashook, Philip G

    2008-12-01

    Structured case-based oral examinations are widely used in medical certifying examinations in the USA. These orals assess the candidate's decision-making skills using real or realistic patient cases. Frequently mentioned but not empirically evaluated is the potential bias introduced by the candidate's communication ability. This study aimed to assess the relationship between candidate communication ability and medical certification oral examination scores. Non-doctor communication observers rated a random sample of 90 candidates on communication ability during a medical oral certification examination. The multi-facet Rasch model was used to analyse the communication survey and the oral examination data. The multi-facet model accounts for observer and examiner severity bias. anova was used to measure differences in communication ability between passing and failing candidates and candidates grouped by level of communication ability. Pearson's correlations were used to compare candidate communication ability and oral certification examination performance. Candidate separation reliability values for the communication survey and the oral examination were 0.85 and 0.97, respectively, suggesting accurate candidate measurement. The correlation between communication scores and oral examination scores was 0.10. No significant difference was found between passing and failing candidates for measured communication ability. When candidates were grouped by high, moderate and low communication ability, there was no significant difference in their oral certification examination performance. Candidates' communication ability has little relationship to candidate performance on high-stakes, case-based oral examinations. Examiners for this certifying examination focused on assessing candidate decision-making ability and were not influenced by candidate communication ability.

  6. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are ...

  7. The work ability divide: holistic and reductionistic approaches in Swedish interdisciplinary rehabilitation teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Christian; Svensson, Tommy; Petersson, Gunilla; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2009-09-01

    Stakeholder cooperation in return to work has been increasingly emphasised in research, while studies on how such cooperation works in practise are scarce. This article investigates the relationship between professionals in Swedish interdisciplinary rehabilitation teams, and the aim of the article is to determine the participants' definitions and uses of the concept of work ability. The methods chosen were individual interviews with primary health care centre managers and focus groups with twelve interdisciplinary teams including social insurance officers, physicians, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, medical social workers and coordinators. The results show that the teams have had problems with reaching a common understanding of their task, due to an inherent tension between the stakeholders. This tension is primarily a result of two factors: divergent perspectives on work ability between the health professionals and the Social Insurance Agency, and different approaches to cooperative work among physicians. Health professionals share a holistic view on work ability, relating it to a variety of factors. Social insurance officers, on the other hand, represent a reductionistic stance, where work ability is reduced to medical status. Assessments of work ability therefore tend to become a negotiation between insurance officers and physicians. A suggestion from the study is that the teams, with proper education, could be used as an arena for planning and coordinating return-to-work, which would strengthen their potential in managing the prevention of work disability.

  8. Consumer Decision-Making Abilities and Long-Term Care Insurance Purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Brian E; Tempkin-Greener, Helena; Grabowski, David C; Chapman, Benjamin P; Li, Yue

    2018-04-16

    To determine the impact of consumer decision-making abilities on making a long-term care insurance (LTCi) purchasing decision that is consistent with normative economic predictions regarding policy ownership. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, multivariate analyses are implemented to estimate the effect of decision-making ability factors on owning LTCi. Stratified multivariate analyses are used to examine the effect of decision-making abilities on the likelihood of adhering to economic predictions of LTCi ownership. In the full sample, better cognitive capacity was found to significantly increase the odds of ownership. When the sample was stratified based on expected LTCi ownership status, cognitive capacity was positively associated with ownership among those predicted to own and negatively associated with ownership among those predicted not to own who could likely afford a policy. Consumer decision-making abilities, specifically cognitive capacity, are an important determinant of LTCi decision outcomes. Deficits in this ability may prevent individuals from successfully preparing for future long-term care expenses. Policy makers should consider changes that reduce the cognitive burden of this choice, including the standardization of the LTCi market, the provision of consumer decision aids, and alternatives to voluntary and private insuring mechanisms.

  9. A cohort study of psychosocial work stressors on work ability among Brazilian hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-07-01

    Hospital work is characterized by stressors that can influence work ability. The present study aims to assess the association between psychosocial work stressors and changes in work ability in a group of Brazilian hospital employees. From 1,022 workers included in a 3-year cohort started in 2009, 423 (41.4%) returned the applied questionnaires in 2012. Changes in work ability were considered as the dependent variable and the investigated psychosocial work stressors as independent variables. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential con-founders (demographic, occupational features, social support, overcommitment, and situations liable to cause pain/injury). High levels of exposure to psychosocial work stressors were significantly associated with decreased work ability: job strain (OR = 2.81), effort-reward imbalance (OR = 3.21). Strategies to reduce psychosocial work stressors should be considered to maintain hospital employees' work ability. Such strategies have implications for institutional and social policies and might be included in quality management programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Perspective-taking abilities in the balance between autism tendencies and psychosis proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akel, Ahmad M; Wood, Stephen J; Hansen, Peter C; Apperly, Ian A

    2015-06-07

    Difficulties with the ability to appreciate the perspective of others (mentalizing) is central to both autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. While the disorders are diagnostically independent, they can co-occur in the same individual. The effect of such co-morbidity is hypothesized to worsen mentalizing abilities. The recent influential 'diametric brain theory', however, suggests that the disorders are etiologically and phenotypically diametrical, predicting opposing effects on one's mentalizing abilities. To test these contrasting hypotheses, we evaluated the effect of psychosis and autism tendencies on the perspective-taking (PT) abilities of 201 neurotypical adults, on the assumption that autism tendencies and psychosis proneness are heritable dimensions of normal variation. We show that while both autism tendencies and psychosis proneness induce PT errors, their interaction reduced these errors. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first to observe that co-occurring autistic and psychotic traits can exert opposing influences on performance, producing a normalizing effect possibly by way of their diametrical effects on socio-cognitive abilities. This advances the notion that some individuals may, to some extent, be buffered against developing either illness or present fewer symptoms owing to a balanced expression of autistic and psychosis liability. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the link between child maltreatment and reappraisal ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, A C; Cărnuţă, M; Vulturar, R; Szekely-Copîndean, R D; Bîlc, M I; Chiş, A; Cioară, M; Fernandez, K C; Szentágotai-Tătar, A; Gross, J J

    2017-04-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for virtually all common mental disorders, but it is not yet clear why. One possible mechanism is emotion regulation ability. The present study investigated for the first time the influence of a BDNF Val66Met genotype × child maltreatment interaction on emotion regulation, and compared differential susceptibility and diathesis-stress models. A sample of N = 254 healthy volunteers were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and underwent an experimental assessment of reappraisal ability (i.e. the success of using reappraisal to downregulate negative affect). A self-report instrument previously validated against a clinical interview was used to investigate child maltreatment. There was a significant BDNF Val66Met genotype × child maltreatment interaction (B = -0.31, P maltreated participants, and the highest level of reappraisal ability in non-maltreated participants. By assessing alternative models, we found that the best fitting model was in line with strong differential susceptibility. As expected, reappraisal ability was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. Therefore, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the link between child maltreatment and emotion regulation ability. Future studies could investigate whether improving reappraisal in maltreated BDNF Met carriers results in reduced risk for mental disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. Cognitive ability predicts motor learning on a virtual reality game in patients with TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Rochelle L; Skeel, Reid L; Ustinova, Ksenia I

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality games and simulations have been utilized successfully for motor rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known, however, how TBI-related cognitive decline affects learning of motor tasks in virtual environments. To fill this gap, we examined learning within a virtual reality game involving various reaching motions in 14 patients with TBI and 15 healthy individuals with different cognitive abilities. All participants practiced ten 90-second gaming trials to assess various aspects of motor learning. Cognitive abilities were assessed with a battery of tests including measures of memory, executive functioning, and visuospatial ability. Overall, participants with TBI showed both reduced performance and a slower learning rate in the virtual reality game compared to healthy individuals. Numerous correlations between overall performance and several of the cognitive ability domains were revealed for both the patient and control groups, with the best predictor being overall cognitive ability. The results may provide a starting point for rehabilitation programs regarding which cognitive domains interact with motor learning.

  13. The impact of adjustment latitude on self-assessed work ability in regard to gender and occupational type

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Gun; Hultin, Hanna; Möller, Jette; Hallqvist, Johan; Kjellberg, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Adjustment latitude describes opportunities to change demands at work when ill and may affect work ability. The aim here is to study the association between adjustment latitude and self-assessed work ability among men and women and employees from different occupational sectors. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from a questionnaire sent to 3020 employees in three occupational sectors in Sweden; 1430 responded. Subjects were divided into: full, moderately reduced, and gr...

  14. What the Nose Knows: Olfaction and Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Roberts, Richard D.; Pallier, Gerry; Stankov, Lazar

    2001-01-01

    Studied the role of olfactory processes within the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence by testing 107 Australian college students with a battery of psychometric and olfactory tests. Results indicate the likely existence of an olfactory memory ability that is structurally independent of established higher-order abilities and not related…

  15. Pattern of mathematic representation ability in magnetic electricity problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, R. R. H.; Marwoto, P.; Putra, N. M. D.

    2018-03-01

    The mathematic representation ability in solving magnetic electricity problem gives information about the way students understand magnetic electricity. Students have varied mathematic representation pattern ability in solving magnetic electricity problem. This study aims to determine the pattern of students' mathematic representation ability in solving magnet electrical problems.The research method used is qualitative. The subject of this study is the fourth semester students of UNNES Physics Education Study Program. The data collection is done by giving a description test that refers to the test of mathematical representation ability and interview about field line topic and Gauss law. The result of data analysis of student's mathematical representation ability in solving magnet electric problem is categorized into high, medium and low category. The ability of mathematical representations in the high category tends to use a pattern of making known and asked symbols, writing equations, using quantities of physics, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answers. The ability of mathematical representation in the medium category tends to use several patterns of writing the known symbols, writing equations, using quantities of physics, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answers. The ability of mathematical representations in the low category tends to use several patterns of making known symbols, writing equations, substituting quantities into equations, performing calculations and final answer.

  16. Brain structure mediates the association between height and cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Franz, Carol E; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Lyons, Michael J; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2018-05-11

    Height and general cognitive ability are positively associated, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Both height and general cognitive ability are positively associated with brain size. Still, the neural substrate of the height-cognitive ability association is unclear. We used a sample of 515 middle-aged male twins with structural magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate whether the association between height and cognitive ability is mediated by cortical size. In addition to cortical volume, we used genetically, ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct cortical metrics of total cortical surface area and mean cortical thickness. Height was positively associated with general cognitive ability and total cortical volume and cortical surface area, but not with mean cortical thickness. Mediation models indicated that the well-replicated height-general cognitive ability association is accounted for by individual differences in total cortical volume and cortical surface area (highly heritable metrics related to global brain size), and that the genetic association between cortical surface area and general cognitive ability underlies the phenotypic height-general cognitive ability relationship.

  17. A Study on Improving Information Processing Abilities Based on PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Du Gyu; Lee, JaeMu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined an instruction method for the improvement of information processing abilities in elementary school students. Current elementary students are required to develop information processing abilities to create new knowledge for this digital age. There is, however, a shortage of instruction strategies for these information processing…

  18. Does Doxastic Responsibility Entail the Ability to Believe Otherwise?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2013-01-01

    Whether responsibility for actions and omissions requires the ability to do otherwise is an important issue in contemporary philosophy. However, a closely related but distinct issue, namely whether doxastic responsibility requires the ability to believe otherwise, has been largely neglected. This

  19. nutritional status, functional ability and food habits of institutionalised

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-05-05

    May 5, 2004 ... Objective: To determine nutritional status, food habits and functional abilities of the institutionalised ... with special family work such as caring for young children, food ... The ability to get around in one' s environment is a basic ...

  20. Communication Related Abilities and Upward Mobility: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypher, Beverly Davenport; Zorn, Theodore E., Jr.

    To provide a clearer understanding of the relationship between various communication and communication related abilities and individuals' work performance, a four-year investigation was conducted to examine the relationships among four measures of social cognitive and communication abilities, and the relationships of these measures to job level…

  1. Drop Jumping as a Training Method for Jumping Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.

    1990-01-01

    Vertical jumping ability is of importance for good performance in sports such as basketball and volleyball. Coaches are in need of exercises that consume only little time and still help to improve their players’ jumping ability, without involving a high risk of injury. Drop jumping is assumed to

  2. Associations between insomnia, sleep duration and poor work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yan; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2820 Chinese manufacturing workers were categorized as insomnia patients and individuals with normal sleeping pattern by interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Sleep duration was classified into four categories: ≥7h, 6-7h, 5-6h, and Work ability was assessed using the Chinese Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Regression analysis examined the independent and joint association of sleep duration and insomnia with poor work ability, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Insomnia and objective short sleep duration were both independently associated with poor work ability. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥7h sleep duration group, the highest risk of poor work ability was in the insomnia patients with work ability. Objective sleep duration should be taken into consideration when assessing the work ability of people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  4. Language and Academic Abilities in Children with Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Evans, Mary Ann; Edison, Shannon; St. Pierre, Jeff; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a…

  5. Text Recall in Adulthood: The Role of Intellectual Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, David F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines age-related predictive relationships among an array of psychometric intellectual ability markers and text recall performance. Women from three age groups (ranging from 21 to 78 years) read and recalled four narratives at three delay intervals and completed a battery of intellectual ability tests. (Author/CB)

  6. 22 CFR 41.55 - Aliens with extraordinary ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens with extraordinary ability. 41.55... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.55 Aliens with extraordinary ability. (a) Requirements for O classification. An alien shall be classifiable under the provisions of INA 101...

  7. Deleterious Effects of Chronic Under-Nutrition on Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashem, Beatrice; Janes, Margaret D.

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of malnutrition on children's cognitive abilities, the McCarthy Scale of Abilities was administered to 118 Nigerian children between the ages of 2 1/2 and 6 years who came from "well-to-do" urban and "poor" urban and rural environments. Scores of malnourished children were lower than those of…

  8. University Students' Problem Posing Abilities and Attitudes towards Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmeier, Todd A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the problem posing abilities and attitudes towards mathematics of students in a university pre-calculus class and a university mathematical proof class. Reports a significant difference in numeric posing versus non-numeric posing ability in both classes. (Author/MM)

  9. Measurement of Spatial Ability in an Introductory Graphic Communications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Walter F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Published articles on spatial ability can be found in the fields of psychology and graphics education. In the "Engineering Design Graphics Journal" for 1936-1978, six articles concerning visualization (spatial ability) were listed. As published graphics research increased, the journal (1975-1996) listed 28 articles in the visualization…

  10. Indicators that influence prospective mathematics teachers representational and reasoning abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darta; Saputra, J.

    2018-01-01

    Representational and mathematical reasoning ability are very important ability as basic in mathematics learning process. The 2013 curriculum suggests that the use of a scientific approach emphasizes higher order thinking skills. Therefore, a scientific approach is required in mathematics learning to improve ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The objectives of this research are: (1) to analyze representational and reasoning abilities, (2) to analyze indicators affecting the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning, (3) to analyze scientific approaches that can improve the ability of representation and mathematical reasoning. The subject of this research is the students of mathematics prospective teachers in the first semester at Private Higher Education of Bandung City. The research method of this research was descriptive analysis. The research data were collected using reasoning and representation tests on sixty-one students. Data processing was done by descriptive analysis specified based on the indicators of representation ability and mathematical reasoning that influenced it. The results of this first-year study showed that students still had many weaknesses in reasoning and mathematical representation that were influenced by the ability to understand the indicators of both capabilities. After observing the results of the first-year research, then in the second and third year, the development of teaching materials with a scientific approach in accordance with the needs of prospective students was planned.

  11. Prosodic Awareness and Punctuation Ability in Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Lindsay; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2018-01-01

    We examined the relationship between two metalinguistic tasks: prosodic awareness and punctuation ability. Specifically, we investigated whether adults' ability to punctuate was related to the degree to which they are aware of and able to manipulate prosody in spoken language. English-speaking adult readers (n = 115) were administered a receptive…

  12. Are Spatial Visualization Abilities Relevant to Virtual Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chwen Jen

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment on learners of different spatial visualization abilities. The findings of the aptitude-by-treatment interaction study have shown that learners benefit most from the Guided VR mode, irrespective of their spatial visualization abilities. This indicates that…

  13. Gray and White Matter Correlates of Navigational Ability in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, J.B.T.; Fonteijn, H.M.; Ekert, J. van; Tyborowska, A.B.; Jansen, C.; Janzen, G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans differ widely in their navigational abilities. Studies have shown that self-reports on navigational abilities are good predictors of performance on navigation tasks in real and virtual environments. The caudate nucleus and medial temporal lobe regions have been suggested to subserve different

  14. Determinants of work ability and its predictive value for disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alavinia, S. M.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Burdorf, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. Aims To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of

  15. Effect of weight on osmoregulation ability in Rutilus frisii kutum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to study the downstream migratory behavior and effects of weight on osmoregulation ability of hatchery-reared Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings during adaptation to the seawater. Accordingly, blood osmotic pressure regulation ability in kutum fingerlings with weights of 1, 3, 5 and 7 g in three ...

  16. The osmoregulatory ability of three grapsoid crab species in relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The osmoregulatory abilities of the grapsoid crabs Cyclograpsus punctata, Sesarma catenata and Sesarma eulimene were studied comparatively in an attempt to explain, at least in part, their distribution in estuaries. Both survival and haemorymph osmotic pressure were used as indices of hyperosmotic regulatory ability.

  17. Combining Ability for Yield and its Components in Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of variance revealed that mean squares due to genotypes, parents and crosses were highly significant (P<0.01) for all the traits except for 100 kernel weight that were significant for crosses. Mean squares due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for all ...

  18. Profile of student critical thinking ability on static fluid concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulasih; Suparmi, A.; Sarwanto

    2017-11-01

    Critical thinking ability is an important part of educational goals. It has higher complex processes, such as analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflection. This study is aimed to know the critical thinking ability of students in learning static fluids of senior high school students. This research uses the descriptive method which its instruments based on the indicator of critical thinking ability developed according to Ennis. The population of this research is XIth grade science class Public Senior High School, SMA N 1, Sambungmacan, Sragen, Central Java. The static fluid teaching material is delivered using Problem Based Learning Model through class experiment. The results of this study shows that the average student of XIth science class have high critical thinking skills, particularly in the ability of providing simple explanation, build basic skill, and provide advanced explanation, but they do not have high enough in ability of drawing conclusion and strategic and tactical components of critical thinking ability in the study of static fluid teaching material. The average of students critical thinking ability is 72.94, with 27,94% of students are in a low category and 72,22% of students in the high category of critical thinking ability.

  19. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  20. Cognitive Trait Modelling: The Case of Inductive Reasoning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinshuk, Taiyu Lin; McNab, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have regarded inductive reasoning as one of the seven primary mental abilities that account for human intelligent behaviours. Researchers have also shown that inductive reasoning ability is one of the best predictors for academic performance. Modelling of inductive reasoning is therefore an important issue for providing adaptivity in…

  1. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated

  2. Dispersal ability determines the scaling properties of species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borda-De-Água, Luís; Whittaker, Robert James; Cardoso, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    with computer simulations, low dispersal ability species generate a hump for intermediate abundance classes earlier than the distributions of high dispersal ability species. Importantly, when plotted as function of sample size, the raw moments of the SADs of arthropods have a power law pattern similar...

  3. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  4. At risk for dyslexia: the role of phonological abilities, letter knowledge,

    OpenAIRE

    Eleveld, Martha Annechiena

    2005-01-01

    The study described in this thesis is part of a national Dutch longitudinal Intervention study, in which it was attempted, first, to reduce reading and spelling disabilities of children at familial risk for dyslexia (as well as accompanying cognitive, behavioral, social and educational problems) via early intervention, and, second, to explore the role of some basic reading-related abilities in the prediction of dyslexia. The specific contribution of the study described in this thesis is an ex...

  5. Work ability in multiple sclerosis : the impact of immunomodulating treatments and adjusted working conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wickström, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory, demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and is considered to be of autoimmune origin. The prevalence in Sweden is estimated to be about 1 in 500. The inflammation leads to demyelination as well as neurodegeneration and with time the patients often suffer from increasing neurological disability. The young age of onset makes MS one of the major causes of reduced ability to work in the Western society. Several...

  6. Hamiltonian formulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1983-07-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has become a principal tool for understanding nonlinear processes, including disruptions, in tokamak plasmas. Although analytical studies of RMHD turbulence have been useful, the model's impressive ability to simulate tokamak fluid behavior has been revealed primarily by numerical solution. The present work describes a new analytical approach, not restricted to turbulent regimes, based on Hamiltonian field theory. It is shown that the nonlinear (ideal) RMHD system, in both its high-beta and low-beta versions, can be expressed in Hanmiltonian form. Thus a Poisson bracket, [ , ], is constructed such that each RMHD field quantitity, xi/sub i/, evolves according to xi/sub i/ = [xi/sub i/,H], where H is the total field energy. The new formulation makes RMHD accessible to the methodology of Hamiltonian mechanics; it has lead, in particular, to the recognition of new RMHD invariants and even exact, nonlinear RMHD solutions. A canonical version of the Poisson bracket, which requires the introduction of additional fields, leads to a nonlinear variational principle for time-dependent RMHD

  7. Changes in work situation and work ability in young female and male workers. A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Maria; Sluiter, Judith K; Hagberg, Mats

    2012-08-24

    Good work ability is very important in young workers, but knowledge of work situations that influence work ability in this group is poor. The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in self-reported work factors are associated with self-reported work ability among young female and male workers. A sample of 1,311 (718 women and 593 men) was selected from a Swedish cohort of workers aged 21-25 years. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire including ratings of physical and psychosocial work factors and current work ability. Prevalence ratios were calculated to assess univariate and multivariate associations between changes in work factors and changes in work ability. Decreased job control (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.49-2.12) and increased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.25-1.69) were associated with reduced work ability for both female and male workers in the multivariate analyses. Among female workers, an association was found between improved work ability and increased social support at work (PR 2.4, CI 1.43-3.95). For male workers, increased job control (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.21-4.54) and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life (PR 2.1, 95% CI 1.10-3.87) were associated with improved work ability in the multivariate analyses. Decreased job control and increased negative influence of job demands on private life over time seem to be the most important work factors associated with reduced work ability among young workers of both sexes. Increased social support at work, increased job control, and decreased negative influence of job demands on private life were also found to be the main work factors associated with improved work ability, although with possible gender differences.

  8. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  9. Shared-environmental contributions to high cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Robert M; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2009-07-01

    Using a combined sample of adolescent twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings, we estimated and compared the differential shared-environmentality for high cognitive ability and the shared-environmental variance for the full range of ability during adolescence. Estimates obtained via multiple methods were in the neighborhood of 0.20, and suggest a modest effect of the shared environment on both high and full-range ability. We then examined the association of ability with three measures of the family environment in a subsample of adoptive siblings: parental occupational status, parental education, and disruptive life events. Only parental education showed significant (albeit modest) association with ability in both the biological and adoptive samples. We discuss these results in terms of the need for cognitive-development research to combine genetically sensitive designs and modern statistical methods with broad, thorough environmental measurement.

  10. Demographic and occupational determinants of the work ability of firemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozeh, Marjan; Saremi, Mahnaz; Kavousi, Amir; Maleki, Azam

    2017-01-24

    Firefighters tackle various stressors that affect their health and job performance; therefore, assessment of their work ability is necessary. This study aimed to investigate the demographic and occupational determinants of the work ability of firemen. In this cross-sectional study, 375 firemen working in Tehran Fire Department were randomly selected. Demographic, occupational, and work ability index (WAI) questionnaires were applied as research tools. The mean firemen's WAI score was relatively high. There were significant relationships between WAI and age, body mass index, work experience, and weekly leisure-time physical exercise hours. Single employees, those who did not have extra jobs and did not smoke, had greater scores compared to their counterparts. Poisson regression revealed that age and weekly leisure-time physical exercise hours could affect WAI significantly. Although Iranian firemen revealed good work ability, recognizing factors affecting this ability and preparing facilities to promote their function is necessary.

  11. Reduced Braginskii equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite {beta} that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm`s law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation {del} {center_dot} j = 0.

  12. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm's law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation ∇ · j = 0

  13. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  14. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  15. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1994-01-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure ∇·j=0 for energy conservation

  16. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Angela E.; Dobson, Lauren A.; Thomas, Lauren E.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). To further address this aspect of the WS social phenotype, we used an individual differences approach to consider both cross-sectional and longitudinal relations among different pragmatic abilities for 14 children with WS, taking into account individual differences in non-verbal reasoning abilities. We also considered the relations between pragmatic abilities and expressive vocabulary ability. Participants were tested at two time points: as 4-year-olds during a 30-min play session with their mothers (Time 1) and an average of 5.87 years later during a one-on-one conversation with a familiar researcher (Time 2). Children’s intellectual and expressive vocabulary abilities were assessed at both time points. Results indicated that the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was required in response to a question (ExtendQ) was significantly related to the ability to verbally contribute new information in the absence of a question (ExtendS) both at age 4 years and during primary school. At age 4, both the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact in triadic interactions (secondary intersubjectivity) and expressive vocabulary ability were related to both ExtendQ and ExtendS. Finally, both ExtendQ and the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity) at age 4 years predicted ExtendQ at age 9–12 years. The theoretical implications of our findings and the importance of early pragmatic language intervention for children who have WS are discussed. PMID:22719734

  17. Social exclusion weakens storage capacity and attentional filtering ability in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Qiao, Lei; Qi, Senqing; Li, Zhiai; Diao, Liuting; Fan, Lingxia; Zhang, Lijie; Yang, Dong

    2018-01-01

    Social exclusion has been found to impair visual working memory (WM), while the underlying neural processes are currently unclear. Using two experiments, we tested whether the poor WM performance caused by exclusion was due to reduced storage capacity, impaired attentional filtering ability or both. The Cyberball game was used to manipulate social exclusion. Seventy-four female participants performed WM tasks while event-related potentials were recorded. In Experiment 1, participants were made to remember the orientations of red rectangles while ignoring salient green rectangles. Results showed that exclusion impaired the ability to filter out irrelevant items from WM, as reflected by the similar contralateral delay activity (CDA) amplitudes for one-target-one-distractor condition and two-targets condition, as well as the similar CDA amplitudes for two-targets-two-distractors condition and four-targets condition in excluded individuals. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to remember 1-5 colored squares. Results showed that exclusion reduced storage capacity, as the CDA amplitudes reached asymptote at loads of two items for exclusion group and at loads of three items for inclusion group. Together, these two experiments provided complementary evidence that WM deficits caused by social exclusion were due to reduced storage capacity and impaired attentional filtering ability. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  19. Validation of the NOSCA - nurses' observation scale of cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoon, Anke; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Melis, Rene J F; van Achterberg, Theo; Kessels, Roy P C; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde

    2012-11-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities. Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities is a behavioural rating scale comprising eight subscales that represent different cognitive domains. It is based on observations during contact between nurse and patient. Observational study. A total of 50 patients from two geriatric wards in acute care hospitals participated in this study. Reliability was examined via internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Construct validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities and its subscales were explored by means of convergent and divergent validity and post hoc analyses for group differences. Cronbach's αs of the total Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities and its subscales were 0·98 and 0·66-0·93, respectively. The item-total correlations were satisfactory (overall > 0·4). The intra-class coefficients were good (37 of 39 items > 0·4). The convergent validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities against cognitive ratings (MMSE, NOSGER) and severity of dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating) demonstrated satisfactory correlations (0·59-0·70, p 0·05). The divergent validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities against depressive symptoms was low (0·12, p > 0·05). The construct validity of the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales against 13 specific neuropsychological tests showed correlations varying from poor to fair (0·18-0·74; 10 of 13 correlations p Validity and reliability of the total Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities are excellent. The correlations between the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales and standard neuropsychological tests were moderate. More conclusive results may be found if the Nurses' Observation Scale for Cognitive Abilities subscales were to be validated using more ecologically valid tests and in a patient

  20. Work ability as prognostic risk marker of disability pension: single-item work ability score versus multi-item work ability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné A M; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac J L; Twisk, Jos W R; Heymans, Martijn W

    2014-07-01

    Work ability predicts future disability pension (DP). A single-item work ability score (WAS) is emerging as a measure for work ability. This study compared single-item WAS with the multi-item work ability index (WAI) in its ability to identify workers at risk of DP. This prospective cohort study comprised 11 537 male construction workers, who completed the WAI at baseline and reported DP after a mean 2.3 years of follow-up. WAS and WAI were calibrated for DP risk predictions with the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) test and their ability to discriminate between high- and low-risk construction workers was investigated with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). At follow-up, 336 (3%) construction workers reported DP. Both WAS [odds ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.66-0.78] and WAI (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.52-0.63) scores were associated with DP at follow-up. The WAS showed miscalibration (H-L model χ (�)=10.60; df=3; P=0.01) and poorly discriminated between high- and low-risk construction workers (AUC 0.67, 95% CI 0.64-0.70). In contrast, calibration (H-L model χ �=8.20; df=8; P=0.41) and discrimination (AUC 0.78, 95% CI 0.75-0.80) were both adequate for the WAI. Although associated with the risk of future DP, the single-item WAS poorly identified male construction workers at risk of DP. We recommend using the multi-item WAI to screen for risk of DP in occupational health practice.

  1. The Relationship between a Linear Combination of Intelligence, Musical Background, Rhythm Ability and Tapping Ability to Typewriting Speed and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Cheryl H.

    This study was conducted in an attempt to identify any predictor or combination of predictors of a beginning typewriting student's success. Variables of intelligence, rhythmic ability, musical background, and tapping ability were combined to study their relationship to typewriting speed and accuracy. A sample of 109 high school students was…

  2. The ABCs of Math: A Genetic Analysis of Mathematics and Its Links With Reading Ability and General Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this first major report from the Western Reserve Reading Project Math component is to explore the etiology of the relationship among tester-administered measures of mathematics ability, reading ability, and general cognitive ability. Data are available on 314 pairs of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins analyzed across 5 waves of assessment. Univariate analyses provide a range of estimates of genetic (h2 = .00 –.63) and shared (c2 = .15–.52) environmental influences across math calculation, fluency, and problem solving measures. Multivariate analyses indicate genetic overlap between math problem solving with general cognitive ability and reading decoding, whereas math fluency shares significant genetic overlap with reading fluency and general cognitive ability. Further, math fluency has unique genetic influences. In general, math ability has shared environmental overlap with general cognitive ability and decoding. These results indicate that aspects of math that include problem solving have different genetic and environmental influences than math calculation. Moreover, math fluency, a timed measure of calculation, is the only measured math ability with unique genetic influences. PMID:20157630

  3. The Interrelationship of Sex, Visual Spatial Abilities, and Mathematical Problem Solving Ability in Grade Seven. Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann Koch

    This three-volume report deals with the hypothesis that males are more successful at solving mathematical and spatial problems than females. The general relationship between visual spatial abilities and mathematical problem-solving ability is also investigated. The research sample consisted of seventh graders. Each pupil took five spatial tests…

  4. Why reduce health inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A; Kawachi, I

    2000-12-01

    It is well known that social, cultural and economic factors cause substantial inequalities in health. Should we strive to achieve a more even share of good health, beyond improving the average health status of the population? We examine four arguments for the reduction of health inequalities.1 Inequalities are unfair. Inequalities in health are undesirable to the extent that they are unfair, or unjust. Distinguishing between health inequalities and health inequities can be contentious. Our view is that inequalities become "unfair" when poor health is itself the consequence of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health (for example, unequal opportunities in education or employment).2 Inequalities affect everyone. Conditions that lead to marked health disparities are detrimental to all members of society. Some types of health inequalities have obvious spillover effects on the rest of society, for example, the spread of infectious diseases, the consequences of alcohol and drug misuse, or the occurrence of violence and crime.3 Inequalities are avoidable. Disparities in health are avoidable to the extent that they stem from identifiable policy options exercised by governments, such as tax policy, regulation of business and labour, welfare benefits and health care funding. It follows that health inequalities are, in principle, amenable to policy interventions. A government that cares about improving the health of the population ought therefore to incorporate considerations of the health impact of alternative options in its policy setting process.3 Interventions to reduce health inequalities are cost effective. Public health programmes that reduce health inequalities can also be cost effective. The case can be made to give priority to such programmes (for example, improving access to cervical cancer screening in low income women) on efficiency grounds. On the other hand, few programmes designed to reduce health inequalities have been formally

  5. Concept mapping learning strategy to enhance students' mathematical connection ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Kadir, Fatra, Maifalinda

    2017-05-01

    The concept mapping learning strategy in teaching and learning mathematics has been investigated by numerous researchers. However, there are still less researchers who have scrutinized about the roles of map concept which is connected to the mathematical connection ability. Being well understood on map concept, it may help students to have ability to correlate one concept to other concept in order that the student can solve mathematical problems faced. The objective of this research was to describe the student's mathematical connection ability and to analyze the effect of using concept mapping learning strategy to the students' mathematical connection ability. This research was conducted at senior high school in Jakarta. The method used a quasi-experimental with randomized control group design with the total number was 72 students as the sample. Data obtained through using test in the post-test after giving the treatment. The results of the research are: 1) Students' mathematical connection ability has reached the good enough level category; 2) Students' mathematical connection ability who had taught with concept mapping learning strategy is higher than who had taught with conventional learning strategy. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that concept mapping learning strategycould enhance the students' mathematical connection ability, especially in trigonometry.

  6. Evaluation of the combining ability of mutant maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valkova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The study shows the results of a preliminary evaluation of the combining ability for grain yield of 17 mutant maize lines. For the purpose the top cross method for early testing and the mathematical model of Savchenko for analysis of the general and the specific combining ability were used. The lines were tested on three testers with high general combining ability that belong to two genetic groups: K 46 52 and XM 552 from SSS and N 192 – Lancaster. For the purposes of evaluation of the productive abilities of the received top cross two preliminary varietal experiments were carried out at the experimental field of Maize Research Institute, Knezha As a result of the conducted experimental work and the analysis it was found that the highest general combining ability have lines XM 11 6 and XM 12 1. These lines can be included as components of high-yielding synthetics or as testers in analyzing crosses to determine general combining ability in early stages of the selection process. The above lines with high specific combining ability – XM 11 13 and XM 11 46 are suitable for inclusion in combinations to develop high-yielding hybrids. Three of the tested lines XM 11 7 11 XM 10 and XM 11 11 have both high GCA and SCA. These lines can be used in corresponding breeding in the selection programs.

  7. Effects of bench step exercise intervention on work ability in terms of cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masanori; Eguchi, Yasumasa; Inoue, Tomohiro; Honda, Toru; Morita, Yusaku; Konno, Yoshimasa; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Work ability is partly determined by physical and mental fitness. Bench step exercise can be practiced anywhere at any time. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a bench step exercise on work ability by examining cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress. Thirteen volunteers working in a warehousing industry comprised the bench step exercise group (n=7) and the control group (n=6). The participants in the step exercise group were encouraged to practice the step exercise at home for 16 weeks. The step exercise improved glucose metabolism and antioxidative capacity and increased work ability by reducing absences from work and improving the prognosis of work ability. The improvement in work ability was related to a reduction in oxidative stress. These results suggest that a bench step exercise may improve work ability by reducing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress.

  8. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  9. Work ability, effort-reward imbalance and disability pension claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, J; Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Bethge, M

    2017-12-30

    Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and self-rated work ability are known independent correlates and predictors of intended disability pension claims. However, little research has focused on the interrelationship between the three and whether self-rated work ability mediates the relationship between ERI and intended disability pension claims. To investigate whether self-rated work ability mediates the association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Baseline data from participants of the Third German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, a 5-year cohort study that investigates determinants of work ability, rehabilitation utilization and disability pensions in employees who have previously received sickness benefits, were analysed. We tested direct associations between ERI with intended disability pension claims (Model 1) and self-rated work ability (Model 2). Additionally, we tested whether work ability mediates the association between ERI and intended disability pension claims (Model 3). There were 2585 participants. Model 1 indicated a significant association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Model 2 showed a significant association between ERI and self-rated work ability. The mediation in Model 3 revealed a significant indirect association between ERI and intended disability pension claims via self-rated work ability. There was no significant direct association between ERI and intended disability pension claims. Our results support the adverse health-related impact of ERI on self-rated work ability and intended disability pension claims. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Work ability among Finnish workers with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, P; Moilanen, L; Hänninen, V; Heikkinen, J; Räsänen, K

    2016-08-01

    Work ability represents the balance between individual resources, health status and job demands. As far as we are aware, these issues have not been examined in working people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). To examine how work-related and diabetes-related factors are associated with work ability among male and female workers. Questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 2500 people with T1D from the Medication Reimbursement Register of The Social Insurance Institution of Finland. The associations of the predictors of poor work ability were examined in a logistic regression analysis. The final sample comprised 767 working people aged 18-64 with T1D; overall response rate 49%. One in every three working men and women with T1D had poor work ability. High job demands and low job control were associated with poor work ability in both genders. Physical work and low worktime control were significantly associated with poor work ability in men but not in women with T1D. A self-reported high value of glycosylated haemoglobin was the only diabetes-related variable associated with poor work ability in both men and women. Work-related factors and poor glycaemic control were associated with poor work ability in individuals with T1D. Thus, job control and worktime control should be taken into account in supporting the work ability of workers with T1D. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Infant motor and cognitive abilities and subsequent executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Liang, Xi; Lu, Shan; Wang, Zhengyan

    2017-11-01

    Although executive function (EF) is widely considered crucial to several aspects of life, the mechanisms underlying EF development remain largely unexplored, especially for infants. From a behavioral or neurodevelopmental perspective, motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with EF. EF development is a multistage process that starts with sensorimotor interactive behaviors, which become basic cognitive abilities and, in turn, mature EF. This study aims to examine how infant motor and general cognitive abilities are linked with their EF at 3 years of age. This work also aims to explore the potential processes of EF development from early movement. A longitudinal study was conducted with 96 infants (55 girls and 41 boys). The infants' motor and general cognitive abilities were assessed at 1 and 2 years of age with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Second and Third Editions, respectively. Infants' EFs were assessed at 3 years of age with Working Memory Span task, Day-Night task, Wrapped Gift task, and modified Gift-in-Bag task. Children with higher scores for cognitive ability at 2 years of age performed better in working memory, and children with higher scores for gross motor ability at 2 years performed better in cognitive inhibitory control (IC). Motor ability at 1 year and fine/gross motor ability at 2 years indirectly affected cognitive IC via general cognitive ability at 2 years and working memory. EF development is a multistage process that originates from physical movement to simple cognitive function, and then to complex cognitive function. Infants and toddlers can undergo targeted motor training to promote EF development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the ability of water resources to reduce the urban heat island in the Tokyo megalopolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu, E-mail: nakat@nies.go.jp [Asian Environment Research Group, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Process Hydrology Section, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Hashimoto, Shizuka [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Simulation procedure integrated with multi-scale in horizontally regional-urban-point levels and in vertically atmosphere-surface-unsaturated-saturated layers, was newly developed in order to predict the effect of urban geometry and anthropogenic exhaustion on the hydrothermal changes in the atmospheric/land and the interfacial areas of the Japanese megalopolis. The simulated results suggested that the latent heat flux in new water-holding pavement (consisting of porous asphalt and water-holding filler made of steel by-products based on silica compound) has a strong impact on hydrologic cycle and cooling temperature in comparison with the observed heat budget. We evaluated the relationship between the effect of groundwater use as a heat sink to tackle the heat island and the effect of infiltration on the water cycle in the urban area. The result indicates that effective management of water resources would be powerful for ameliorating the heat island and recovering sound hydrologic cycle there. - Highlights: > Simulation procedure with multi-scale was newly developed. > Latent heat flux in water-holding pavement had strong impact on hydrothermal changes. > Model predicted effect of urban geometry and anthropogenic exhaustion. > Effective management of water resources is powerful for ameliorating heat island. - This study indicates that effective management of water resources would be powerful for ameliorating the heat island and recovering sound hydrologic cycle in urban area.

  13. Can Perceptions of Similarity Reduce the Ability to See the Other's Needs? The Case of Immigrant Students' Integration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpaizman, Ilana; Kogut, Tehila

    2010-01-01

    In this age of wide migration waves all over the world, when schools' populations become more diverse, educators often make policies regarding groups of immigrant students (from the same origin) with unique needs. Perceptions of homogeneity of the group, as well as perceptions of similarity between the decision maker and the group members are…

  14. Evaluation of point-of-care analyzers' ability to reduce bias in conductivity-based hematocrit measurement during cardiopulmonary bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Gunnewiek, J.K.; Weerwind, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Most point-of-care testing analyzers use the conductivity method to measure hematocrit (hct). During open-heart surgery, blood-conductivity is influenced by shifts in electrolyte and colloid concentrations caused by infusion media used, and this may lead to considerable bias in the hct measurement.

  15. Analysis of the ability of water resources to reduce the urban heat island in the Tokyo megalopolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu; Hashimoto, Shizuka

    2011-01-01

    Simulation procedure integrated with multi-scale in horizontally regional-urban-point levels and in vertically atmosphere-surface-unsaturated-saturated layers, was newly developed in order to predict the effect of urban geometry and anthropogenic exhaustion on the hydrothermal changes in the atmospheric/land and the interfacial areas of the Japanese megalopolis. The simulated results suggested that the latent heat flux in new water-holding pavement (consisting of porous asphalt and water-holding filler made of steel by-products based on silica compound) has a strong impact on hydrologic cycle and cooling temperature in comparison with the observed heat budget. We evaluated the relationship between the effect of groundwater use as a heat sink to tackle the heat island and the effect of infiltration on the water cycle in the urban area. The result indicates that effective management of water resources would be powerful for ameliorating the heat island and recovering sound hydrologic cycle there. - Highlights: → Simulation procedure with multi-scale was newly developed. → Latent heat flux in water-holding pavement had strong impact on hydrothermal changes. → Model predicted effect of urban geometry and anthropogenic exhaustion. → Effective management of water resources is powerful for ameliorating heat island. - This study indicates that effective management of water resources would be powerful for ameliorating the heat island and recovering sound hydrologic cycle in urban area.

  16. Does social network site use buffer against well-being loss when older adults face reduced functional ability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen, Erik; Rains, Stephen A; Wright, Kevin B

    2017-01-01

    We examine the role of the Internet in dealing with problems in later life by analyzing whether direct and buffering models of social support can be applied to social network site (SNS) use. Whereas the direct model implies a positive effect of time spent using SNSs on subjective well-being, and a

  17. Does plant trait diversity reduce the ability of herbivores to defend against predators? The plant variability-gut acclimation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, William C; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2016-04-01

    Variability in plant chemistry has long been believed to suppress populations of insect herbivores by constraining herbivore resource selection behavior in ways that make herbivores more vulnerable to predation. The focus on behavior, however, overlooks the pervasive physiological effects of plant variability on herbivores. Here we propose the plant variability-gut acclimation hypothesis, which posits that plant chemical variability constrains herbivore anti-predator defenses by frequently requiring herbivores to acclimate their guts to changing plant defenses and nutrients. Gut acclimation, including changes to morphology and detoxification enzymes, requires time and nutrients, and we argue these costs will constrain how and when herbivores can mount anti-predator defenses. A consequence of this hypothesis is stronger top-down control of herbivores in heterogeneous plant populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  19. Longitudinal associations between stressors and work ability in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen Martinez, Maria; da Silva Alexandre, Tiago; Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario; Marina Fischer, Frida

    This study sought to assess associations between work stressors and work ability in a cohort (2009-2012) of 498 hospital workers. Time-dependent variables associated with the Work Ability Index (WAI) were evaluated using general linear mixed models. Analyses included effects of individual and work characteristics. Except for work demands, the work stressors (job control, social support, effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and work-related activities that cause pain/injury) were associated with WAI (p work and morning shift work were associated with decreased WAI (p Work stressors negatively affected work ability over time independently of other variables.

  20. Adsorption factor effect on dispersive ability of polymethylmethylmethacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokhovskij, G.A.; Samsonov, G.V.; Gorshunov, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    A relationhsip between the rate of polymer macromolecules absorption on some refractory compounds and the dispersion ability of polymer-abrasive compositions was investigated at various contents of the polymethacrylate polymer in an abrasive composition. The solid phase used was powders of Al 2 O 3 , WC, W 2 B 5 , TiB 2 . It was established that the dispersion ability of the polymer-abrasive compositions was a function not only of the cutting properties of the abrasives and the dispersion ability of the polymers, but also of the adsorption properties of the solid phase and of its capacity to transport macromolecules to the surface being worked

  1. A practice course to cultivate students' comprehensive ability of photoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yong; Liu, Yang; Niu, Chunhui; Liu, Lishuang

    2017-08-01

    After the studying of many theoretical courses, it's important and urgent for the students from specialty of optoelectronic information science and engineering to cultivate their comprehensive ability of photoelectricity. We set up a comprehensive practice course named "Integrated Design of Optoelectronic Information System" (IDOIS) for the purpose that students can integrate their knowledge of optics, electronics and computer programming to design, install and debug an optoelectronic system with independent functions. Eight years of practice shows that this practice course can train students' ability of analysis, design/development and debugging of photoelectric system, improve their ability in document retrieval, design proposal and summary report writing, teamwork, innovation consciousness and skill.

  2. [Management abilities of the head surgeon: essential for survival!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähne, J

    2012-04-01

    Due to increased economic challenges in the management of hospitals head surgeons do not only need excellent surgical expertise but also significant management qualities. The personality of head surgeons should include authenticity, sincerity, fairness and the ability to cooperate. Visionary leadership, strategic thinking and strategic management of the personnel are further prerequisites for success. Besides good abilities in communication head surgeons need knowledge of the operating figures for interpretation. To keep up with the own capabilities time and self-management is essential. A survival as head surgeon is likely if these qualities and abilities exist.

  3. The utility of covariance of combining ability in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, V

    1976-11-01

    The definition of covariances of half- and full sibs, and hence that of variances of general and specific combining ability with regard to a quantitative character, is extended to take into account the respective covariances between a pair of characters. The interpretation of the dispersion and correlation matrices of general and specific combining ability is discussed by considering a set of single, three- and four-way crosses, made using diallel and line × tester mating systems in Pennisetum typhoides. The general implications of the concept of covariance of combining ability in plant breeding are discussed.

  4. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-12-01

    A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Naming abilities: Differentiation between objects and verbs in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carmen Spezzano

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive Neuropsychology aims to understand the processing mechanisms of normal and injured brain, by means of functional architectural models of information processing. Naming is one of the most important abilities in linguistic processing. Naming of different semantic and grammatical categories differ in their lexical properties and have distinct neuroanatomical substrates. We reviewed literature data on the differences between nouns and verbs in aphasic subjects reported by scientific publications in the form of indexed articles. Studies on naming abilities tended to emphasize the differentiation between nouns and verbs both in their lexical properties and neuroanatomical substrates. Functional neuroimaging studies have improved the state of knowledge regarding category-specific naming abilities, but further studies on different types of aphasia and the use of naming abilities in different contexts are warranted.

  6. Intelligence quotient and perceptual ability: an inter-relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Cognitive ability refers to the characteristic approach by the brain in processing ... The study is based on resting brainwave of fifty samples and focused on the left and right prefrontal cortex.

  7. Gender and age do not influence the ability to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..

  8. Politsei hakkab kiiruskaamera abil kihutajaid trahvima / Ingvar Bärenklau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bärenklau, Ingvar, 1967-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 13. apr. lk. 5. Politsei alustab Eesti teedel teste eravärvides politseiautole paigutatud mobiilse kiiruskaameraga, mille abil saab tuvastada kiiruseületajaid ja neid trahvida

  9. Improving activities of daily living ability in women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; Bandak, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare the outcomes of adaptation and physical activity programmes regarding activities of daily living (ADL) ability following interdisciplinary rehabilitation in women with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Participants (n = 85) were quasi-randomized to 16-week adaptation (ADAPT...

  10. Relationship between motor and cognitive learning abilities among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama Abdelkarim

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... the cognitive learning abilities (i.e. mathematical thinking, r = 0.62 and ...... exercise was efficient both in the promotion of learning English .... Ishigawara K, Ishizuka H. Effects of Brain Activation through Physical Exercise.

  11. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  12. Work ability of Dutch employees with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, E. M.; Sluiter, J. K.; Nijssen, T. F.; Kammeijer, M.; Dijkmans, B. A. C.; Lankhorst, G. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To ( i) examine the association between fatigue, psychosocial work characteristics ( job control, support, participation in decision making, psychological job demands), and physical work requirements on the one hand and work ability of employees with rheumatoid arthritis ( RA) on the

  13. Sensorimotor abilities predict on-field performance in professional baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Kyle; Vittetoe, Kelly; Ramger, Benjamin; Suresh, Sunith; Tokdar, Surya T; Reiter, Jerome P; Appelbaum, L Gregory

    2018-01-08

    Baseball players must be able to see and react in an instant, yet it is hotly debated whether superior performance is associated with superior sensorimotor abilities. In this study, we compare sensorimotor abilities, measured through 8 psychomotor tasks comprising the Nike Sensory Station assessment battery, and game statistics in a sample of 252 professional baseball players to evaluate the links between sensorimotor skills and on-field performance. For this purpose, we develop a series of Bayesian hierarchical latent variable models enabling us to compare statistics across professional baseball leagues. Within this framework, we find that sensorimotor abilities are significant predictors of on-base percentage, walk rate and strikeout rate, accounting for age, position, and league. We find no such relationship for either slugging percentage or fielder-independent pitching. The pattern of results suggests performance contributions from both visual-sensory and visual-motor abilities and indicates that sensorimotor screenings may be useful for player scouting.

  14. ANALYSIS OF RELATIONS BETWEEN JUDO TECHNIQUES AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Drid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific physical preparation affects the development of motor abilities required for execution of specific movements in judo. When selecting proper specific exercises for judo for a target motor ability, it is necessary to precede it with the study of the structure of specific judo techniques and activities of individual muscle groups engaged for execution of the technique. On the basis of this, one can understand which muscles are most engaged during realization of individual techniques, which serves as a standpoint for selection of a particular complex of specific exercises to produce the highest effects. In addition to the development of particular muscle groups, the means of specific preparation will take effect on the development of those motor abilities which are evaluated as the indispensable for the development of particular qualities which are characteristic for judo. This paper analyses the relationship between judo techniques field and specific motor abilities.

  15. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  16. An investigation of the morpho-syntactic abilities of Afrikaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At present, no such data are available on the morphosyntactic abilities of ... of grammatical features related to number, person, case and tense as well as questions ... for genitive case and tense comprehension, simple wh-question production, ...

  17. Learning Abilities and Disabilities: Generalist Genes, Specialist Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Twin studies comparing identical and fraternal twins consistently show substantial genetic influence on individual differences in learning abilities such as reading and mathematics, as well as in other cognitive abilities such as spatial ability and memory. Multivariate genetic research has shown that the same set of genes is largely responsible for genetic influence on these diverse cognitive areas. We call these "generalist genes." What differentiates these abilities is largely the environment, especially nonshared environments that make children growing up in the same family different from one another. These multivariate genetic findings of generalist genes and specialist environments have far-reaching implications for diagnosis and treatment of learning disabilities and for understanding the brain mechanisms that mediate these effects.

  18. Human face recognition ability is specific and highly heritable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F; Chatterjee, Garga; Williams, Mark; Loken, Eric; Nakayama, Ken; Duchaine, Bradley

    2010-03-16

    Compared with notable successes in the genetics of basic sensory transduction, progress on the genetics of higher level perception and cognition has been limited. We propose that investigating specific cognitive abilities with well-defined neural substrates, such as face recognition, may yield additional insights. In a twin study of face recognition, we found that the correlation of scores between monozygotic twins (0.70) was more than double the dizygotic twin correlation (0.29), evidence for a high genetic contribution to face recognition ability. Low correlations between face recognition scores and visual and verbal recognition scores indicate that both face recognition ability itself and its genetic basis are largely attributable to face-specific mechanisms. The present results therefore identify an unusual phenomenon: a highly specific cognitive ability that is highly heritable. Our results establish a clear genetic basis for face recognition, opening this intensively studied and socially advantageous cognitive trait to genetic investigation.

  19. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.

  20. Animation, audio, and spatial ability: Optimizing multimedia for scientific explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol May

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation and spatial ability in a computer based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via text or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a biology course were blocked by spatial ability and randomly assigned to one of four treatments (Text-Static Illustration Audio-Static Illustration, Text-Animation, Audio-Animation). The study examined the effects of instructional mode (Text vs. Audio), illustration mode (Static Illustration vs. Animation) and spatial ability (Low vs. High) on practice and posttest achievement, attitude and time. Results for practice achievement indicated that high spatial ability participants achieved more than low spatial ability participants. Similar results for posttest achievement and spatial ability were not found. Participants in the Static Illustration treatments achieved the same as participants in the Animation treatments on both the practice and posttest. Likewise, participants in the Text treatments achieved the same as participants in the Audio treatments on both the practice and posttest. In terms of attitude, participants responded favorably to the computer based instructional program. They found the program interesting, felt the static illustrations or animations made the explanations easier to understand and concentrated on learning the material. Furthermore, participants in the Animation treatments felt the information was easier to understand than participants in the Static Illustration treatments. However, no difference for any attitude item was found for participants in the Text as compared to those in the Audio treatments. Significant differences were found by Spatial Ability for three attitude items concerning concentration and interest. In all three items, the low spatial ability participants responded more positively

  1. The construction and experience of ability in physical education

    OpenAIRE

    Croston, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis explores how notions of ability are socially constructed, defined and experienced within physical education (PE). Pierre Bourdieu’s concepts are used to examine the processes through an acknowledgement and consideration of the culture where pupils’ and teachers’ notions of ability are configured, reconfigured, and experienced. The study covered one academic school year in a North ...

  2. Predicting absenteeism: screening for work ability or burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteten, R

    2017-01-01

    In determining the predictors of occupational health problems, two factors can be distinguished: personal (work ability) factors and work-related factors (burnout, job characteristics). However, these risk factors are hardly ever combined and it is not clear whether burnout or work ability best predicts absenteeism. To relate measures of work ability, burnout and job characteristics to absenteeism as the indicators of occupational health problems. Survey data on work ability, burnout and job characteristics from a Dutch university were related to the absenteeism data from the university's occupational health and safety database in the year following the survey study. The survey contained the Work Ability Index (WAI), Utrecht Burnout Scale (UBOS) and seven job characteristics from the Questionnaire on Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW). There were 242 employees in the study group. Logistic regression analyses revealed that job characteristics did not predict absenteeism. Exceptional absenteeism was most consistently predicted by the WAI dimensions 'employees' own prognosis of work ability in two years from now' and 'mental resources/vitality' and the burnout dimension 'emotional exhaustion'. Other significant predictors of exceptional absenteeism frequency included estimated work impairment due to diseases (WAI) and feelings of depersonalization or emotional distance from the work (burnout). Absenteeism among university personnel was best predicted by a combination of work ability and burnout. As a result, measures to prevent absenteeism and health problems may best be aimed at improving an individual's work ability and/or preventing the occurrence of burnout. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Does training with beat gestures favour children's narrative discourse abilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Vilà Giménez, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    There is consensus evidence that gestures and prosody are important precursors of children’s early language abilities and development. Previous literature has investigated the beneficial role of beat gestures in the recall of information by preschoolers (Igualada, Esteve-Gibert, & Prieto, under review; Austin & Sweller, 2014). However, to our knowledge, little is known about whether the use of beat gestures can promote children’s later linguistic abilities and specifically whether training wi...

  4. Development of engineering drawing ability for emerging engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Wen; Cao, Xiao-Chang; Xie, Li; Jin, Jian-Jun; Wang, Chu-Diao

    2017-09-01

    Students majoring in engineering is required by the emerging engineering education (3E) in the aspect of their ability of engineering drawing. This paper puts forward training mode of engineering drawing ability for 3E. This mode consists of three kinds of training including training in courses, training in competitions and training in actual demand. We also design the feasible implementation plan and supplies viable references to carry out the mode.

  5. Factors that determine development of the ability to draw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Dahik Cabrera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the necessary factors are determined to structure a drawing representing an object, a brief description of the functions of the cerebral hemispheres, the theory of multiple bits of intelligence Gardner, capacities of representation and perception involved in the skill is reviewed and ability to draw. This work aims to be the beginning of a larger study, where they plan to measure the ability to draw in students, in order to experiment with alternative methodologies for teaching drawing.

  6. Predictors of fatigue and work ability in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Muijen, P; Duijts, S F A; Bonefaas-Groenewoud, K; van der Beek, A J; Anema, J R

    2017-12-30

    Workers diagnosed with cancer are at risk for job loss or work disability. To determine predictors of fatigue and work ability at 36 months after diagnosis in a population of cancer survivors. Individuals diagnosed with cancer and who applied for work disability benefit at 24 months of sick leave were surveyed at the time of application and again 12 months later. Fatigue was measured using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness-Fatigue scale questionnaire and work ability was measured using the work ability index. Linear regression analyses were applied to identify predictors. There were 336 participants. Participants who were divorced or widowed had more physical limitations, more depressive symptoms and were more fatigued at baseline, and who worked in health care demonstrated higher levels of fatigue. Lower fatigue was predicted by having received chemotherapy. A higher level of work ability was predicted by having received chemotherapy, better global health and better work ability at baseline. Lower work ability was predicted by being principal wage earner, insecurity about being free of disease, having more physical limitations and having greater wage loss. Socio-demographic, health- and work-related factors were associated with fatigue and work ability in cancer survivors on long-term sick leave. As fatigue and poor work ability are important risk factors for work disability, addressing the identified predictive factors may assist in mitigation of work disability in cancer survivors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Active Listening Improve Your Ability to Listen and Lead

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership

    2011-01-01

    Active listening is a person's willingness and ability to hear and understand. At its core, active listening is a state of mind that involves paying full and careful attention to the other person, avoiding premature judgment, reflecting understanding, clarifying information, summarizing, and sharing. By learning and committing to the skills and behaviors of active listening, leaders can become more effective listeners and, over time, improve their ability to lead.

  8. Coordinating abilities in structure of special preparation of combat athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko A.I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development tendency of modern sport assumes high competition and as a result, training and competitive pressure. This requires from the coach to search for new methods of increasing effectiveness of the training process without increasing the pressure volume and intensiveness. One of the ways of solving this problem is the development of a method of increasing coordinating abilities. Several types of coordinating abilities of wrestlers. Deals with methodical peculiarities or perfection and means of increasing coordinating of sambo.

  9. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  10. Reduced cost of ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, W.H.; Newton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    There is common drive throughout industry towards reduced costs of ownership of plant and equipment. Rolls-Royce and Associates Ltd. has developed the systems and expertise necessary to achieve these objectives. This Paper outlines the methods being used on existing facilities, and describes a new all embracing process called Planned Lifetime Management. This process, based on the military standard Integrated Logistic Support, ensures that all aspects of support are clearly identified at the design stage and that support is monitored to allow through-life support costs to be optimized. (author)

  11. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  12. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I.M.; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees; Waninge, Aly

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to the quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  13. The impact of visual impairment on the ability to perform activities of daily living for persons with severe/profound intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Schans, van der Cees P.; Waninge, Aly

    Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) as a component of participation is one of the factors that contribute to quality of life. The ability to perform ADL for persons experiencing severe/profound intellectual disability (ID) may be reduced due to their cognitive and

  14. Are teachers' judgements of pupils' ability influenced by body shape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, N L; Campbell, T

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that teachers can judge pupils on the basis of their physical appearance, including their body shape. Teacher bias towards obese pupils has been suggested as a potential pathway through which obese children attain relatively lower academic levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by the body shape of the child. The sample includes English, singleton children in state schools from the Millennium Cohort Study. The data were taken from the fourth wave of data collection, when the children were approximately 7 years old. In all, 5086/5072 children had teacher ability ratings of reading and maths. Logistic regression analyses were used to test whether teachers' perceptions of the child's reading and mathematics ability were influenced by the pupil's waist circumference, conditional upon cognitive test scores of reading and maths ability. After adjustment for cognitive test scores, no significant overall relationship was found between the pupil's waist circumference and the teacher's judgements of ability. No statistically significant differences were observed in the probability of being judged as above average after further adjustments were made for potential confounders. There is little evidence that teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by obesity.

  15. Experiences that develop the ability to think strategically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ellen; Cahill, Terrence; Filho, Rubens Pessanha

    2009-01-01

    The ability to think strategically is an admired and a sought-after leadership requirement, yet we know little about how it develops. The purpose of this study is to identify specific experiences that contribute to the development of an individual's ability to think strategically. We identified eight work experiences, including different types of organizational projects, processes, and relationships, that contribute to an individual's strategic thinking ability. We also delineate specific characteristics material to each experience. These characteristics indicate that considerable time and focus are required to develop the ability to think strategically. In addition, the experiences are not all accessed equally: Women are less likely to have nonrelational experiences, while chief executive officers are more likely to have the most challenging ones. In addition, we found differences regarding work-related continuing education activities. Respondents rated nonhealthcare conferences and reading behind all other identified experiences that contribute to strategic thinking ability. Individuals can implement several strategies to improve their strategic thinking ability, including deliberately incorporating the requisite experiences into their development plans, ensuring that the experiences incorporate the required characteristics, and improving the benefit received from attending educational programs in nonhealthcare industries. Organizations can implement several strategies to ensure the experiences are as effective as possible, such as appraising gender differences across the experiences and reviewing the organization's strategic planning processes for the characteristics that best encourage strategic thinking.

  16. Oral Cancer Knowledge and Diagnostic Ability Among Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassona, Y; Scully, C; Abu Tarboush, N; Baqain, Z; Ismail, F; Hawamdeh, S; Sawair, F

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence the diagnostic ability of dental students with regards to oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. Dental students at different levels of study were directly interviewed to examine their oral cancer knowledge and diagnostic ability using a validated and pre-tested survey instrument containing validated clinical images of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders. An oral cancer knowledge scale (0 to 31) was generated from correct responses on oral cancer general knowledge, and a diagnostic ability scale (0 to 100) was generated from correct selections of suspicious oral lesions. Knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 27 (mean 10.1 ± 6.0); mean knowledge scores increased with year of study; 5th year students had the highest mean knowledge score (19.1 ± 4.0), while 1st year students had the lowest (5.6 ± 3.5). Diagnostic ability scores increased with year of study and ranged from 0 to 88.5 % (mean 41.8 % ± 15.6). The ability to recognize suspicious oral lesions was significantly correlated with knowledge about oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders (r = 0.28; P oral cancer education curricula; increasing students' contact with patients who have oral lesions including oral cancer will help to improve their future diagnostic ability and early detection practices.

  17. Chuck Watson's ``differential psychoacoustics:'' Individual differences in auditory abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Gary R.

    2004-05-01

    Chuck Watson was among the first in the psychoacoustic community to seriously address the topic of individual differences. At a time when there was little concern with variation among ``normal listeners'' in psychoacoustic research, Watson began a research program to document the range of human auditory abilities. The primary goals were to determine the number of distinct abilities, to specify the nature of each ability, and to document the distribution of these abilities in the general population. Thanks to Watson's talent for organizing and directing large-scale projects and his workmanlike approach to science, a large and valuable body of data on human individual differences has been collected. The research program began about 20 years ago with the study of basic auditory abilities, and it has expanded to include other modalities and cognitive/intellectual abilities in adults and children. A somewhat biased view of the importance of this work will be presented by one of Watson's many colleagues in this endeavor. The talk will provide an overview of this ongoing research program as well as a brief review of some related research by other investigators. New findings from recent extensions of this work will also be discussed.

  18. Testing the "Work Ability House" Model in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2016-01-01

    To test the Work Ability House model, verifying the hierarchy of proposed dimensions, among a group of hospital workers. A cohort study (2009-2011) was conducted with a sample of 599 workers from a hospital in the city of São Paulo. A questionnaire including sociodemographics, lifestyle and working conditions was used. The Brazilian versions of Job Stress Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance, Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury, and the Work Ability Index (WAI) were also used. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed: the independent variables were allocated into levels according to the dimensions of the theoretical model in order to evaluate the factors associated with work ability. Variables associated with impairment of work ability in each dimension were as follows: (a) sociodemographics: age work injuries (p = 0.029), (c) professional competence: low educational level (p = 0.008), (d) values : intensified in overcommitment (p work: intensification of effort-reward imbalance (p = 0.009) and high demands (p = 0.040). The results confirmed the dimensions proposed for the Work Ability House model, indicating that it is valid as a representation of a multidimensional construct of multifactorial determination and can be used in the management of work ability.

  19. Number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Ariel; Libertus, Melissa E; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-05

    Human infants in the first year of life possess an intuitive sense of number. This preverbal number sense may serve as a developmental building block for the uniquely human capacity for mathematics. In support of this idea, several studies have demonstrated that nonverbal number sense is correlated with mathematical abilities in children and adults. However, there has been no direct evidence that infant numerical abilities are related to mathematical abilities later in childhood. Here, we provide evidence that preverbal number sense in infancy predicts mathematical abilities in preschool-aged children. Numerical preference scores at 6 months of age correlated with both standardized math test scores and nonsymbolic number comparison scores at 3.5 years of age, suggesting that preverbal number sense facilitates the acquisition of numerical symbols and mathematical abilities. This relationship held even after controlling for general intelligence, indicating that preverbal number sense imparts a unique contribution to mathematical ability. These results validate the many prior studies purporting to show number sense in infancy and support the hypothesis that mathematics is built upon an intuitive sense of number that predates language.

  20. Childhood Cognitive Ability Predicts Adult Financial Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Furnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to investigate to what extent childhood cognitive ability, along with personality traits, education and occupational status, as well as marital status influence adult financial success. Data were drawn from a large, prospective birth cohort in the UK, the National Child Development Study (NCDS. The analytic sample was comprised of 4537 cohort members with data on parental social class (at birth, cognitive ability (at age 11, educational qualifications (at age 33, personality traits (at age 50, current marital status and occupational prestige, and salary/wage earning level (all measured at age 54. Correlational results showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, traits extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and openness, being married positively, being divorced or separated negatively, education and occupation as well as gender were all significantly associated with adult earning ability (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001. Effect sizes for the relationship between intelligence and income was moderate. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that childhood cognitive ability, traits conscientiousness and openness, educational qualifications and occupational prestige were significant and independent predictors of adult earning ability accounting for 30% of the total variance. There was also a gender effect on the outcome variable. Numerous limitations are noted.

  1. Use of Response Time for Measuring Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Kyllonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key literature on response time as it has played a role in cognitive ability measurement, providing a historical perspective as well as covering current research. We discuss the speed-level distinction, dimensions of speed and level in cognitive abilities frameworks, speed–accuracy tradeoff, approaches to addressing speed–accuracy tradeoff, analysis methods, particularly item response theory-based, response time models from cognitive psychology (ex-Gaussian function, and the diffusion model, and other uses of response time in testing besides ability measurement. We discuss several new methods that can be used to provide greater insight into the speed and level aspects of cognitive ability and speed–accuracy tradeoff decisions. These include item-level time limits, the use of feedback (e.g., CUSUMs, explicit scoring rules that combine speed and accuracy information (e.g., count down timing, and cognitive psychology models. We also review some of the key psychometric advances in modeling speed and level, which combine speed and ability measurement, address speed–accuracy tradeoff, allow for distinctions between response times on items responded to correctly and incorrectly, and integrate psychometrics with information-processing modeling. We suggest that the application of these models and tools is likely to advance both the science and measurement of human abilities for theory and applications.

  2. Spatial Ability Differences in Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cynthia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive processes, specifically spatial abilities, are responsible for integration of daily activities. Many factors contribute to the plasticity of the brain which, furthermore, alter the spatial ability. Physical activity, which can be further grouped into sport and exercise, is a modifiable factor that enhances the cognitive processes through a divergent mechanism. This study aimed to gain further understanding on whether sport differs from exercise in altering spatial ability in athletes and non-athletes. Methods: This observational study compared the spatial ability score of athletes of Indonesia National Sport Comitte (Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia, KONI in West Java (n= 21 and non-athletes (n= 21. Sampling were performed using stratified random technique and data were collected between August and October 2015 which included spatial scores and demographic of subjects. Results: The difference in spatial scores between athletes and non-athletes were not significant (p=0.432. Conclusions: This study suggests an insignificant difference in spatial ability in athletes performing sport and non-athletes performing exercise. Hence, the cognitive component skills in sport experience do not alter the spatial ability.

  3. Secondary school teachers' attitudes towards and beliefs about ability grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Ireson, Judith

    2003-09-01

    Internationally and historically considerable research has been undertaken regarding the attitudes of secondary school teachers towards different types of ability grouping. There has been no recent research taking account of the changing educational context in the UK. This paper aims to explore secondary school teachers' attitudes and beliefs about ability grouping taking account of school type, gender, experience and qualifications. The sample comprised over 1,500 teachers from 45 schools divided into three groups based on their ability grouping practices in years 7-9 (the students were aged 11-14). The sample included all the lower school teachers of mathematics, science and English and a random sample of teachers from other subjects in each school. Teachers responded to a questionnaire which explored their attitudes towards ability grouping through the use of rating scales and open-ended questions. The findings showed that the teachers' beliefs broadly reflected research findings on the actual effects of ability grouping, although there were significant differences relating to the type of school they taught in and the subject that they taught. Separate analysis of school types showed that length of time teaching, individual school differences and teacher qualifications were also significant predictors of attitudes. Teachers' beliefs about ability grouping are influenced by the type of groupings adopted in the school where they work, the subject that they teach, their experience and qualifications. As pedagogical practices are known to be influenced by beliefs these findings have important implications for teacher training.

  4. Students’ Cognitive Abilities in Plant Anatomy Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiono, S.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Rahmat, A.; Anggraeni, S.

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive abilities is fundamental for the students, as it is closely related to higher thinking skills such as the ability to think critically, creatively, and problem solving. This descriptive study aims to investigate the cognitive abilities of biology prospective teachers in the course of Plant Anatomy Practicum based on the cognitive process dimension and dimensions of knowledge the using the framework of Revision of Bloom taxonomy. A number of biology prospective teachers was involved in this study (n=42). The instrument used to collect data for students’ cognitive process mastery in the form of multiple choice with 5 options. Research finding shows that the average student’s cognitive ability is 68.10. The acquisition of knowledge mastery of cognitive ability is still under the criterion of mastery in the course of the Plant Anatomy Practicum (75). Validity and reliability of the instrument (0,71) and (0,81). It is necessary to design lecture programs both in the class and laboratory to develop student’ cognitive abilities.

  5. Writing Abilities Longitudinally Predict Academic Outcomes of Adolescents with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Stephen J.; Langberg, Joshuah M.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Evans, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    Students with ADHD often experience a host of negative academic outcomes and deficits in reading and mathematics abilities contribute to these academic impairments. Students with ADHD may also have difficulties with written expression but there has been minimal research in this area and it is not clear whether written expression abilities uniquely contribute to the academic functioning of students with ADHD. The current study included a sample of 104 middle school students diagnosed with ADHD (grades 6–8). Participants were followed longitudinally to evaluate whether written expression abilities at baseline predicted student GPA and parent ratings of academic impairment 18 months later, after controlling for reading ability and additional relevant covariates. Written expression abilities longitudinally predicted both academic outcomes above and beyond ADHD and ODD symptoms, medication use, reading ability, and baseline values of GPA and parent-rated academic impairment. Follow-up analyses revealed that no single aspect of written expression was demonstrably more impactful on academic outcomes than the others, suggesting that writing as an entire process should be the focus of intervention. PMID:26783650

  6. Desirable characteristics for teachers of High Ability/Gifted students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra da Costa Souza Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the desirable educational background for a teacher to work with high ability/gifted students, desirable characteristics these teachers should present and conceptions on high ability/giftedness. The participants were 20 public school teachers from a city surrounding Brasilia. Of this group, ten were elementary school teachers working with initial grades and ten were undergraduate Pedagogy teachers. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. A content analysis was then conducted. In relation to the desirable educational background for a teach of high ability/gifted students, participants indicated the need of continuous training, under graduation curriculum adapted to the theme and graduation courses in the area. The desirable features for teachers of high ability/gifted students were related to personological attributes (personality traits and intellectual ability, as well as professional characteristics. The conceptions on high ability/giftedness presented by the participants were, in general, close to those found in the literature and used as reference for this study. However, there was lack of information on how to apply the theory into real practice, as well as several wrong ideas on the topic.

  7. Ability to manage everyday technology after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassberg, Ann-Charlotte; Malinowsky, Camilla; Jacobsson, Lars; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2013-01-01

    To investigate and describe how persons with an acquired brain injury (ABI) manage everyday technology (ET) in their daily activities and to explore whether the ability to manage ET was related to the severity of the disability. Eighty-one persons with ABI were observed while managing ET by using the Management of Everyday Technology Assessment (META). The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE) was used to assess the severity of disability after the ABI. A computer application of a Rasch measurement model was used to generate measures of the participants' ability to manage ET and the measures were compared groupwise with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The degree of severity of disability had a significant main effect on the ability to manage ET. The groups with severe and moderate disability exhibited a significantly lower ability to manage ET compared to the group with good recovery. The result indicates that the ability to manage ET in daily activities can be related to the global severity of disability after ABI. This demonstrates the importance of considering the ability to manage ET to support the performance of activities at home, at work and in society in persons with ABI.

  8. Relationships between mind-wandering and attentional control abilities in young adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, David; Majerus, Steve; Catale, Corinne; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2014-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that mind-wandering-the occurrence of thoughts that are both stimulus-independent and task-unrelated-corresponds to temporary failures in attentional control processes involved in maintaining constant task-focused attention. Studies supporting this proposal are, however, limited by a possible confound between mind-wandering episodes and other kinds of conscious experiences, such as external distractions (i.e., interoceptive sensations and exteroceptive perceptions). In the present study, we addressed this issue by examining, in adolescents and young adults, the relations between tasks measuring attentional control abilities and a measure of mind-wandering that is distinct from external distractions. We observed (1) that adolescents experienced more frequent external distractions, but not more mind-wandering, than young adults during the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) and (2) that, in young adults, the influence of external distractions on SART performance was fully accounted for by attentional control abilities, whereas mind-wandering was associated with decreases in SART performance above and beyond what was explained by attentional control abilities. These results show that mind-wandering cannot be entirely reduced to failures in the ability to maintain one's attention focused on task, and suggest that external distractions rather than mind-wandering are due to attentional control failures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A disparity between locomotor economy and territory-holding ability in male house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeremy S; Ruff, James S; Potts, Wayne K; Carrier, David R

    2017-07-15

    Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other. Here, we tested for a predicted disparity between locomotor economy and competitive ability in wild-derived house mice ( Mus musculus ). We used 8 week social competition trials in semi-natural enclosures to directly measure male competitive ability through territorial control and female occupancy within territories. We also measured oxygen consumption during locomotion for each mouse using running trials in an enclosed treadmill and open-flow respirometry. Our results show that territory-holding males have higher absolute and mass-specific oxygen consumption when running (i.e. reduced locomotor economy) compared with males that do not control territories. This relationship was present both before and after 8 week competition trials in semi-natural enclosures. This disparity between physical competitive ability and economical locomotion may impose viability costs on males in species for which competition over mates is common and may constrain the evolution of behavioral and phenotypic diversity, particularly in natural settings with environmental and resource variability. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Assessing Workplace Emotional Intelligence: Development and Validation of an Ability-based Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Sukumarakurup; Hopkins, Kay; Szmerekovsky, Joseph G; Robinson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Existing measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), defined as the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions for productive purposes, have displayed limitations in predicting workplace outcomes, likely in part because they do not target this context. Such considerations led to the development of an ability EI measure with work-related scenarios in which respondents infer the likely emotions (perception) and combinations of emotion (understanding) that would occur to protagonists while rating the effectiveness of ways of responding (management). Study 1 (n = 290 undergraduates) used item-total correlations to select scenarios from a larger pool and Study 2 (n = 578) reduced the measure-termed the NEAT-to 30 scenarios on the basis of structural equation modeling. Study 3 (n = 96) then showed that the NEAT had expected correlations with personality and cognitive ability and Study 4 (n = 85) demonstrated convergent validity with other ability EI measures. Last, study 5 (n = 91) established that the NEAT had predictive validity with respect to job satisfaction, job stress, and job performance. The findings affirm the importance of EI in the workplace in the context of a valid new instrument for assessing relevant skills.

  11. Effects of Work-Related Stress on Work Ability Index among Iranian Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibi, Vahid; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Taban, Abrahim; Yazdani Aval, Mohsen; Samimi, Kazem; Salesi, Mahmood

    2016-03-01

    Work Ability Index (WAI) is a well-known and valid self-report tool that has been widely used in various studies to identify and avoid early retirement and work-related disability. Nevertheless, very few studies have been carried out to evaluate work ability in Iran. We aimed to investigate the WAI and the effect of work-related stress on it among Iranian workers. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study was carried out among 449 workers from five working sectors in three big cities of Iran. Work ability and work-related stress were measured using the Persian version of WAI and the Persian version of Health and Safety Executive Stress Indicator Tool. More than a third of the workers surveyed (34.70%) did not have an appropriate level of work ability (WAI work-related stress and the mean score of WAI. Furthermore, the variables of body mass index, sleep quality, exercise activity, job tenure, and three subscales of work-related stress including demands, supervisor support, and role were significant predictors of WAI. According to the results of this study, the interventional programs must be focused on improving supervisors support, eliminating ambiguity and conflicts in the role of workers in their job and organization, reducing job demands, improving sleep quality, and increasing exercise activity.

  12. Paternal antisocial behavior and sons' cognitive ability: a population-based quasiexperimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latvala, Antti; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Parents' antisocial behavior is associated with developmental risks for their offspring, but its effects on their children's cognitive ability are unknown. We used linked Swedish register data for a large sample of adolescent men (N = 1,177,173) and their parents to estimate associations between fathers' criminal-conviction status and sons' cognitive ability assessed at compulsory military conscription. Mechanisms behind the association were tested in children-of-siblings models across three types of sibling fathers with increasing genetic relatedness (half-siblings, full siblings, and monozygotic twins) and in quantitative genetic models. Sons whose fathers had a criminal conviction had lower cognitive ability than sons whose fathers had no conviction (any crime: Cohen's d = -0.28; violent crime: Cohen's d = -0.49). As models adjusted for more genetic factors, the association was gradually reduced and eventually eliminated. Nuclear-family environmental factors did not contribute to the association. Our results suggest that the association between men's antisocial behavior and their children's cognitive ability is not causal but is due mostly to underlying genetic factors. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. [Relationship between occupational stress and working ability of workers in a petroleum processing enterprise in high altitude area].

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    Ma, X M; Kang, H L; Shi, C B; Li, Y; Wu, Y F; Liu, Z H; Wang, G; Lei, H Y

    2017-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between occupational stress and working ability of workers in a petroleum processing enterprise in a high altitude area. Methods: A total of 728 workers in a petroleum processing enterprise at an altitude of 2850 m were subjected to a survey using Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) , Work Ability Index (WAI) Scale, Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) , Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ) , and Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) from May 2014 to August 2016. Results: Of the 728 workers, 55 (7.6%) had a poor working ability, moderate in 262 (35.9%) , and good in 411 (56.5%). There were significant differences in WAI between the workers with different types of work, sexes, ages, and working years ( P occupational stress groups ( P Occupational stress is an influencing factor for the working ability of workers in the petroleum processing enterprise in the high altitude area. Hypoxia in high altitude area may further reduce the working ability. In order to reduce occupational stress and improve work ability, it should be considered to strengthen skills training, improve the working environment, and pay attention to mental health.

  14. Mnemonic abilities of primary school children with delayed mental development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa S.V.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research regarding the mnemonic abilities of primary school children with developmental delays. Empirical studies of impaired mental development offer an opportunity to elucidate the psychological mechanisms underlying the process of normal development and enable us to consider at a micro level the formation of mental processes in ontogeny, which would, under normal conditions, be nondescript and not always amenable to psychological analysis. The research addresses an experimental investigation of productivity and qualitative characteristics of mnemonic abilities among primary school students with developmental delays. V.D. Shadrikov’s Theory of Abilities, developed in a systemic approach framework, is the theoretical basis of the research. The method of deploying a memorization activity, as elaborated by V.D. Shadrikov and L.V. Cheremoshkina, was the investigation tool used. The sample included students in grades 1 to 4 between ages 7 to 12 and included a total of 100 children (66 boys and 34 girls. The control group of primary school students with typical development included 105 children (50 boys and 55 girls. The research consisted of several stages: a pilot study, experimental research (the test task was to memorize card #1; the basic task was to memorize cards #2 and #3; to reproduce cards #2 and #3; and to poll the students, mathematical data processing, and a description of the levels of mnemonic ability development among primary students with developmental delays. The following procedures were employed during statistical analysis: Spearman r3, Mann-Whitney U-test, Jonckheere-Terpstra test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The structure of mnemonic abilities in primary schoolchildren with developmental delays was determined to vary according to the underdevelopment of their operational mechanisms. For example, memory functions are based on the use of inborn mechanisms, and a portion of children differ in the

  15. Factors associated with work ability index (WAI) among intensive care units' (ICUs') nurses.

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    Rostamabadi, Akbar; Zamanian, Zahra; Sedaghat, Zahra

    2017-03-28

    Work ability is a crucial occupational health issue in health care settings where a high physical and psychosocial work capacity is required and a high risk of disabling injuries and illnesses is predictable. This study aims to examine the association between the work ability index (WAI) and individual characterizations, workload, fatigue, and diseases among intensive care units' (ICUs') nurses. The study sample included 214 nurses selected by a random sampling method from a target population consisting of 321 registered nurses working in eight ICUs. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to test the association between WAI scores and each of the independent variables. Results of multivariate analysis revealed a strong and negative association between WAI scores and diseases (B=-5.82, 95% CI=-7.16, -4.48, Pindex (BMI) was significantly and inversely associated with WAI scores. A significant and negative association was also found between WAI scores and dimensions of MFI-20, such as general fatigue (B=-0.31, 95% CI=-0.53, -0.09, P=0.005) and physical fatigue (B=-0.44, 95% CI=-0.65, -0.23, Pwork environment characterized by a well-structured preventive attitude toward controlling diseases, and a well-designed organizational framework toward increasing the level of performance and motivation, reducing the level of fatigue, as well as reducing the workload, is necessary to promote work ability among ICUs' nurses.

  16. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, R; Subathradevi, P; Marimuthu, S; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K

    2008-07-01

    Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Free-radical scavenging abilities of kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea waste material (TWK) along with pH, phenolic compounds and reducing power were investigated during fermentation period. Phenolic compounds, scavenging activity on DPPH radical, superoxide radical (xanthine-xanthine oxidase system) and inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radical mediated linoleic acid oxidation (ammonium thiocyanate assay) were increased during fermentation period, whereas pH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (ascorbic acid-iron EDTA) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (thiobarbituric assay) were decreased. From the present study, it is obvious that there might be some chances of structural modification of components in tea due to enzymes liberated by bacteria and yeast during kombucha fermentation which results in better scavenging performance on nitrogen and superoxide radicals, and poor scavenging performance on hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Making judgments about ability: the role of implicit theories of ability in moderating inferences from temporal and social comparison information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, R

    2000-05-01

    Two studies examined the novel proposal that implicit theories of intelligence (C. S. Dweck & E. L. Leggett, 1988) moderate both the effects of performance trends on ability inferences and the perceived diagnosticity of temporal versus normative feedback. Results from 613 adolescents and 42 teachers confirmed that entity theorists perceived initial outcome as more diagnostic and inferred higher ability in another (Study 1) and in the self (Study 2) in a declining outcome condition; incremental theorists perceived last outcome as more diagnostic and inferred higher ability in an ascending condition. Experimental induction of beliefs about ability had similar effects. As predicted, self-appraisal was affected more by temporal feedback among incremental theorists and by normative feedback among entity theorists. Results help resolve prior mixed findings regarding order effects and responses to temporal and normative evaluation.

  18. Direct and indirect effects of organizational justice on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Gutenbrunner, C; Bethge, M

    2014-12-01

    Organizational justice (OJ), involving transparent workplace procedures and treating staff members with respect, has been of growing concern in recent epidemiological research as a determinant of health-related outcomes. To examine the factorial validity of the German version of Moorman's Organizational Justice Questionnaire (OJQ), to investigate the direct cross-sectional effect of OJ on self-rated work ability and to analyse if there is an additional indirect effect of OJ on work ability mediated by effort-reward imbalance. An analysis of cross-sectional data from the Second German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, involving white-collar workers employed at least half time. We performed confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the OJQ and analysed the direct and indirect associations of OJ and self-rated work ability by path model analysis. Of the 1217 participants (47% female; mean age: 51) 36% had poor work ability. Factor analyses confirmed the two-factor structure of the German OJQ. Work ability was explained directly by OJ (β = 0.30) and effort-reward imbalance (β = -0.27). Additionally, we identified an indirect effect of OJ that was mediated by effort-reward imbalance (β = 0.14). The total effect of OJ on work ability was remarkably strong (β = 0.44). Associations remained unchanged after adjustment for socio-demographic parameters. This study showed the importance of considering additional indirect pathways when examining the impact of OJ on the work ability of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Early motor development and cognitive abilities among Mexican preschoolers.

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    Osorio-Valencia, Erika; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Schnaas, Lourdes

    2017-07-18

    Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale). 148 children whose motor performance was determined at age 3 and was evaluated later at age 5 to determine their cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities (verbal, quantitative, and memory) measured by McCarthy Scales. Significant positive associations were observed between stationary balance at age 3 with verbal abilities (β = 0.67, p = .04) and memory (β = 0.81, p = .02) at 5 years. Grasping and visual-motor integration were significant and positively associated with quantitative abilities (β = 0.74, p = .005; β = 0.61, p = .01) and memory (β = 2.11, p = .001; β = 1.74, p = .004). The results suggest that early motor performance contributes to the establishment of cognitive abilities at 5 years. Evaluation and early motor stimulation before the child is faced with formal learning likely helps to create neuronal networks that facilitate the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  20. LATENT STRUCTURE OF MOTOR ABILITIES AND SKILLS OF DEAF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnija Hasanbegović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work surveys of latent motility abilities and skills of school children are shown. The sample for this survey was consisted of two subsamples. First one has consisted of deaf children N=29, and the second one has consisted hearing children of same age N=69. Subsamples of deaf is chosen according to model of applied sample, and subsample is chosen randomly, so two stages group sample N=90 has been created. After quantitative differences have been discovered between subsamples, hearing pupils have shown statistically better results at motility skills and techniques than deaf children and cumulative results have been subjected to inter correlation of variables. The target of using this method was determination of saturation of common variability through saturation of variables and their correlation by Ortoblique rotation for determination of latent information that are going to serve as practical guides at education and deaf children treatment, because of improvement of their motility abilities and skills according to hearing children. Three factors have been singled out as main preview of measurement on manifest variables. According to first review of measuring it has been established that at deaf children is needed to work on improving of physical abilities and mobility and then developed motility abilities and skills. Their information has been gained most probably by non system fluctuations as information about ability of balance maintaining which is most probably non dependable of motility abilities and skills as at deaf and hearing children too. According to this survey by entering the structure of measuring instrument it is possible to create programs for improving motility abilities and skills at deaf children.