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Sample records for methylphenidate mp ritalin

  1. Methylphenidate (Ritalin-associated Cataract and Glaucoma

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    Chao-Kung Lu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin is the drug of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, an association of Ritalin with glaucoma has been reported. We report a case of Ritalin-associated cataract and glaucoma. A 10-year-old boy was diagnosed with ADHD and had received methylphenidate hydrochloride, 60 mg/day for 2 years. He presented with blurred vision. Best-corrected visual acuity was 6/60 in both eyes. Ocular examinations revealed intraocular pressure (IOP of 30 mmHg under medication, dense posterior subcapsular opacity of lens, pale disc with advanced cupping, and marked constriction of visual field. Despite maximal anti-glaucomatous medication, IOP still could not be controlled. The patient then received combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. Visual acuity improved and IOP was within normal limits in both eyes postoperatively. Large dose of methylphenidate may cause cataract and glaucoma. The mechanism remains unclear. Doctors should be aware of the possible ocular side effects of methylphenidate.

  2. Severe Recurrent Pancreatitis in a Child with ADHD after Starting Treatment with Methylphenidate (Ritalin

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    Suheil Artul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 10-year-old boy, who had severe relapsing pancreatitis, three times in two months within 3 weeks after starting treatment with methylphenidate (Ritalin due to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Pancreatitis due to the use of (methylphenidate Ritalin was never published before. Attention must be made by the physicians regarding this possible complication, and this complication should be taken into consideration in every patient with abdominal pain who was newly treated with Ritalin.

  3. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled methylphenidate, p-hydroxy-methylphenidate, ritalinic acid and p-hydroxyritalinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, K.; Kilts, C.; Breese, G.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of threo-dl-methylphenidate (Ritalin 1), threo-dl-p-hydroxy-methylphenidate (3), threo-dl-ritalinic acid (2), and threo-dl-p-hydroxyritalinic acid (4) with deuterium incorporated in the piperidine ring is described. These compounds were synthesized for use as internal standards for mass fragmentographic assays of methylphenidate and its metabolites. The synthetic scheme described resulted in less than 0.05% 2 H 0 in the piperidine ring in any of the preparations. (author)

  4. Alterations in pain response are partially reversed by methylphenidate (Ritalin) in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Roi; Eisenberg, Elon; Demeter, Naor; Pud, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by dysregulation of sensory processing and neurobiology of dopamine. Although cumulative evidence suggests that dopamine is involved in pain processing, pain perception in ADHD subjects and the effect of dopamine agonists such as methylphenidate (MP, Ritalin) on it have rarely been studied. The aims of this study were to (1) psychophysically assess sensitivity to pain in ADHD subjects as compared to controls and (2) examine the effects of MP on pain response in ADHD subjects. Thirty subjects with ADHD and 30 age- and gender-matched controls participated in a preliminary trial. Pain threshold, intensity, and tolerance in response to cold pain stimulation were measured for both groups (ADHD with no treatment). In addition, the ADHD group was reassessed following a single dose of MP treatment. The ADHD subjects "without MP" in comparison with controls displayed significantly shorter cold pain threshold (2.8 ± 2.1 vs. 5.8 ± 2.5 seconds, respectively, P ADHD subjects increased significantly compared to those with no treatment (3.6 ± 2.5 seconds, P = 0.011, and 46.4 ± 53.3 seconds, P ADHD are more sensitive to pain compared with controls and that MP may exert antinociceptive properties in these subjects. Randomized, controlled trials are warranted to verify these findings. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  5. Enantioselective determination of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in whole blood from forensic cases using automated solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ragnar; B. Rasmussen, Henrik; Linnet, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    A chiral liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) method was developed and validated for quantifying methylphenidate and its major metabolite ritalinic acid in blood from forensic cases. Blood samples were prepared in a fully automated system by protein precipitation followed...... methylphenidate was not determined to be related to the cause of death, the femoral blood concentration of d-methylphenidate ranged from 5 to 58 ng/g, and from undetected to 48 ng/g for l-methylphenidate (median d/l-ratio 5.9). Ritalinic acid was present at concentrations 10–20 times higher with roughly equal...

  6. METHYLPHENIDATE (RITALIN) USE AND ABUSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University ofthe Witwatersrand Medical School and Johannesburg Hospital. James A TemIett, MB BCh, .... other substances such as heroin, cocaine, LSD or cannabis. Intravenous substance ... intractable cancer pain. Attempts to get addicted ...

  7. Development and validation of an UFLC-MS/MS method for enantioselectivity determination of d,l-thero-methylphenidate, d,l-thero-ethylphenidate and d,l-thero-ritalinic acid in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenghao; Luo, Huafei; Wu, Yubo; Zhang, Junyun; Zhang, Furong; Lin, Guobei; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-01

    A chiral UFLC-MS/MS method was established and validated for quantifying d-threo-methylphenidate (d-threo-MPH), l-threo-methylphenidate (l-threo-MPH), d-threo-ethylphenidate (d-threo-EPH), l-threo-ethylphenidate (l-threo-EPH) and d,l-threo-ritalinic acid (d,l-threo-RA) in rat plasma over the linearity range of 1-500ng/mL. Chiral separation was performed on an Astec Chirobiotic V2 column (5μm, 250×2.1mm) with isocratic elution using methanol containing 0.003% ammonium acetate (w/v) and 0.003% trifluoroacetic acid (v/v) at a flow of 0.3mL/min. All analytes and IS were extracted from rat plasma by a one-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method. The intra- and inter-run accuracies were within 85-115%, and the intra- and inter-run precision were <10% for all analytes. Extraction recoveries were 55-62% for d-threo-MPH, 54-60% for l-threo-MPH, 55-60% for d-threo-EPH, 53-57% for l-threo-EPH and 25-30% for d,l-threo-RA. The validated UFLC-MS/MS method successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic interaction study of oral d-threo-MPH and l-threo-MPH (alone or in combination) in female Sprague Dawley rats. The EPH was not detected in rat plasma following oral administrated MPH without EtOH. As far as it is known to the authors, this study is the first one step liquid-liquid extraction method to extract and UFLC-MS/MS method to quantify d-threo-MPH, l-threo-MPH, d-threo-EPH, l-threo-EPH and d,l-threo-RA simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Concerta cf Ritalin Effects on Driving Performance

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different methylphenidate (MPH delivery profiles on driving performance of 6 male ADHD adolescents, aged 16 to 19 years, were evaluated by a randomized, crossover, single-blind study comparing controlled-release (OROS MPH (Concerta given q.d. to immediate-release MPH (Ritalin in equal doses t.i.d. in a study at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

  9. Methylphenidate Enhances Extinction of Contextual Fear

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    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show…

  10. [{sup 11}C]d-threo-Methylphenidate, a new radiotracer for the dopamine transporter. Characterization in baboon and human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    dl-threo Methylphenidate (MP, Ritalin) is a psychostimulant drug which binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT). We evaluated [{sup 11}C]d-threo-methylphenidate ([{sup 11}C]d-MP), the more active enantiomer, as a radiotracer for the DAT in baboons and human brain. Stereoselectivity, saturability and pharmacological specificity and reproducibility were examined. Stereoselectivity was examined in baboons by comparing [{sup 11C}]d-MP,[{sup 11}C]l-MP and [{sup 11}C]dl-MP. Unlabeled MP was used to assess the reversibility and saturability of the binding. GBR 12909,{beta}-(4-iodophenyl)tropane-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester ({beta}-CIT), tomoxetine and citalopram were used to assess the specificity of the binding. The ratios between the radioactivity in the striatum to that in cerebellum (ST/CB) were 3.3,2.2 and 1.1 for [{sup 11}C]d-MP,[{sup 11}C]dl-MP and [{sup 11}C]l-MP respectively. Most of the striatal binding of [{sup 11}C]d-threo-MP was displaced by injection of nonradioactive MP demonstrating reversibility. Pretreatment with MP (0.5 mg/kg), GBR12909 (1.5 mg/kg) or {beta}-CIT (0.3 mg/kg) reduced ST/CB by about 60% and the ratios of distribution volumes at the steady-state for the triatum to cerebellum (DV{sub st/}DV{sub cb}) by about 50%. Pretreatment with tomoxetine (3.0 mg/kg) or citalopram (2.0 mg/kg), inhibitors of the norepinephrine and serotonin transporter, had no effect. Studies of [{sup 11}C]d-MP in the human brain showed highest uptake in basal ganglia with a half clearance time of about 60 minutes. Repeated studies in 6 normal human subjects showed differences in DV{sub st/}DV{sub cb} between -7% and 8%. MP pretreatment decreased BG but no cortical or cerebellar binding and reduced Bmax/Kd by 91%.

  11. Methylphenidate enhances extinction of contextual fear

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Antony D.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin) is a norepinephrine and dopamine transporter blocker that is widely used in humans for treatment of attention deficit disorder and narcolepsy. Although there is some evidence that targeted microinjections of MPH may enhance fear acquisition, little is known about the effect of MPH on fear extinction. Here, we show that MPH, administered before or immediately following extinction of contextual fear, will enhance extinction retention in C57BL/6 mice. Animals that ...

  12. Comparative Efficacy of Iranian and Foreign Methylphenidate in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

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    M Karahmadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Methylphenidate is one of the basic drugs in treating ADHD. According to many clinical studies, the foreign form of methylphenidate (ritalin is more efficient than the Iranian form of the drug (stimidate. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of stimidate and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Materials & Methods: In this double blind, randomized clinical trial, 200 children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder who referred to Isfahan psychiatric clinics were studied. For 100 of these patients ritalin was prescribed while others received stimidate. After 4 weeks, changes in severity of symptoms were evaluated with parental form of Conner's questionnaire. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean decrease of Conner's number in Ritalin group was 19.63±13.5 and in Stimidate group was 3.29±7.2. Ritalin had effectiveness in treatment of 83.3 percent of the patients ( 6 reduction in Conner's number, but Stimidate was only effective in treating 37.5 percent of the patients. Conclusion: This study showed that foreign methylphenidate (ritalin is more effective than the Iranian form of the medicine (stimidate.

  13. Pulmonary emphysema induced by methylphenidate: experimental study.

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    Rapello, Gabriel Victor Guimarães; Antoniolli, Andréia; Pereira, Daniel Martins; Facco, Gilberto; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Pazetti, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate is the most widely used drug for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, it has important side effects, such as abdominal pain, insomnia, anorexia and loss of appetite, and also some cases of early severe emphysema after drug abuse have been reported. Our aim was to investigate the development of pulmonary emphysema in rats that were subjected to different doses of methylphenidate. Experimental study carried out at the laboratory of a public university. Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (0.9% saline solution); MP 0.8 (methylphenidate, 0.8 mg/kg); MP 1.2 (methylphenidate, 1.2 mg/kg). After 90 days of daily gavage, the animals were sacrificed and lung tissue samples were prepared for analysis on the mean alveolar diameter (Lm). The Lm was greater in MP 0.8 (47.91 ± 3.13; P pulmonary emphysema.

  14. High dose methylphenidate treatment in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case report

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    Liebrenz Michael

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stimulant medication improves hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity in both pediatric and adult populations with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. However, data regarding the optimal dosage in adults is still limited. Case presentation We report the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian patient who was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder when he was nine years old. He then received up to 10 mg methylphenidate (Ritalin® and 20 mg sustained-release methylphenidate (Ritalin SR® daily. When he was 13, his medication was changed to desipramine (Norpramin®, and both Ritalin® and Ritalin SR® were discontinued; and at age 18, when he developed obsessive-compulsive symptoms, his medication was changed to clomipramine (Anafranil® 75 mg daily. Still suffering from inattention and hyperactivity, the patient began college when he was 19, but did not receive stimulant medication until three years later, when Ritalin® 60 mg daily was re-established. During the 14 months that followed, he began to use Ritalin® excessively, both orally and rectally, in dosages from 4800-6000 mg daily. Four years ago, he was referred to our outpatient service, where his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was re-evaluated. At that point, the patient’s daily Ritalin® dosage was reduced to 200 mg daily orally, but he still experienced pronounced symptoms of, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder so this dosage was raised again. The patient’s plasma levels consistently remained between 60–187 nmol/l—within the recommended range—and signs of his obsessive-compulsive symptoms diminished with fluoxetine 40 mg daily. Finally, on a dosage of 378 mg extended-release methylphenidate (Concerta®, his symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have improved dramatically and no further use of methylphenidate has been recorded during the 24 months preceding this report. Conclusions Symptoms of

  15. Long-Term Effects of Chronic Oral Ritalin Administration on Cognitive and Neural Development in Adolescent Wistar Kyoto Rats

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    Jennifer L. Cornish

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD often results in chronic treatment with psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®. With increases in misdiagnosis of ADHD, children may be inappropriately exposed to chronic psychostimulant treatment during development. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chronic Ritalin treatment on cognitive and neural development in misdiagnosed “normal” (Wistar Kyoto, WKY rats and in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR, a model of ADHD. Adolescent male animals were treated for four weeks with oral Ritalin® (2 × 2 mg/kg/day or distilled water (dH2O. The effect of chronic treatment on delayed reinforcement tasks (DRT and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-ir in the prefrontal cortex was assessed. Two weeks following chronic treatment, WKY rats previously exposed to MPH chose the delayed reinforcer significantly less than the dH2O treated controls in both the DRT and extinction task. MPH treatment did not significantly alter cognitive performance in the SHR. TH-ir in the infralimbic cortex was significantly altered by age and behavioural experience in WKY and SHR, however this effect was not evident in WKY rats treated with MPH. These results suggest that chronic treatment with MPH throughout adolescence in “normal” WKY rats increased impulsive choice and altered catecholamine development when compared to vehicle controls.

  16. Ritalin®: Panic in the USA

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    Toby Miller

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ritalin® is a popular pharmaceutical. It keeps young people quiet and focused, but attracts intense opprobrium. Beginning with an account of the dimensions of Ritalin®’s use in the United States and controversies surrounding it, this article outlines how this might be understood in moral-panic terms and examines the role of the psy-function and various conflicts of interest, coverage in popular culture, and governmental responses. In many cases, progressive academics and activists have criticised moral panics, recuperating moral-panic folk devils as semiotic guerrillas struggling against authority. In this instance, however, the scene is too complex and multifaceted for that heroisation. There are no good guys; there is lots of panic, from all political-economic quarters. Some of it is justified—and none of it is straightforward.

  17. Ritalin®: Panic in the USA

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    Toby Miller

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available  Ritalin® is a popular pharmaceutical. It keeps young people quiet and focused, but attracts intense opprobrium. Beginning with an account of the dimensions of Ritalin®’s use in the United States and controversies surrounding it, this article outlines how this might be understood in moral-panic terms and examines the role of the psy-function and various conflicts of interest, coverage in popular culture, and governmental responses. In many cases, progressive academics and activists have criticised moral panics, recuperating moral-panic folk devils as semiotic guerrillas struggling against authority. In this instance, however, the scene is too complex and multifaceted for that heroisation. There are no good guys; there is lots of panic, from all political-economic quarters. Some of it is justified—and none of it is straightforward.

  18. Synthesis of the racemate and individual enantiomers of [11C]methylphenidate for studying presynaptic dopaminergic neutron with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.-S.; Sugano, Y.; Fowler, J.S.; Salata, C.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-11 labeled dl-threo-methylphenidate (methyl-2-phenyl-2-(2-piperidyl)acetate, Ritalin), a psychostimulant drug widely used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, was prepared in two steps: O-methylation of the N-protected dl-threo-ritalinic acid derivative with [ 11 C]methyl iodide followed by deprotection. The same strategy was applied for the preparation of C-11 labeled individual enantiomers of threo-methylphenidate from N-protected d-threo-l-threo-ritalinic acid. The subsequent C18 sep-pak and reverse-phase HPLC purification resulted in ca. 40% radiochemical yield with a total synthesis time of 40 minutes and an average specific activity of 1.5 Ci/μmole (at EOB). (author)

  19. Synthesis of the racemate and individual enantiomers of [[sup 11]C]methylphenidate for studying presynaptic dopaminergic neutron with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y -S; Sugano, Y; Fowler, J S; Salata, C [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Carbon-11 labeled dl-threo-methylphenidate (methyl-2-phenyl-2-(2-piperidyl)acetate, Ritalin), a psychostimulant drug widely used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, was prepared in two steps: O-methylation of the N-protected dl-threo-ritalinic acid derivative with [[sup 11]C]methyl iodide followed by deprotection. The same strategy was applied for the preparation of C-11 labeled individual enantiomers of threo-methylphenidate from N-protected d-threo-l-threo-ritalinic acid. The subsequent C18 sep-pak and reverse-phase HPLC purification resulted in ca. 40% radiochemical yield with a total synthesis time of 40 minutes and an average specific activity of 1.5 Ci/[mu]mole (at EOB). (author).

  20. The Effects of Methylphenidate Administration on the Histological Alterations of the Lymphatic System in the Mice

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    Ali Louei Monfared

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The lymphatic system as a key component in the organism's body can be affected by used drugs. Methylphenidate or Ritalin is widely used for treatment of behavioral disorders in children and some depressed people. This study carried out to examine the immunotoxic effects of Ritalin. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 healthy adult female mice were selected and randomly divided into a control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups received Ritalin as 0.5,5 and 50 mg/kg body weight and control groups received distillated water by gavage method for 21 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, the structure and function of the lymphoid organs were evaluated. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s test (p<0.05. Results: Significant alterations including a reduction in the size and number of lymphoid follicles, increasing in the megakaryocytes numbers as well as spleen capsular thickens were seen following Ritalin administration. The atrophy of the lymph nodes together with significant reduction in the number and size of lymph follicles but an increasing in the parenchyma hyperemia were seen. Also lymphocyte numbers increased while the monocytes numbers decreased (p<0.05. Conclusion: The consumption of Ritalin could be exerted detrimental effects on the lymphoid organs in the mouse model.

  1. Methylphenidate: increased abuse or appropriate use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana, M E; Crismon, M L

    1999-01-01

    To address the question of the significant increase in methylphenidate (MPD) prescriptions being written and to make recommendations for health care providers involved in providing care for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families. Medline search 1966-1998 for professional articles using the following search terms--methylphenidate, children, adolescents, abuse; Internet search using MPD, Ritalin, and ADHD; and Paper Chase search using methylphenidate. The available literature regarding potential abuse or diversion of MPD consists of case reports, review articles, newspaper articles, and a Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) publication. All available literature sources were used. Although the media and DEA report significant abuse and diversion of prescribed MPD, a review of the available literature did not reveal data to substantiate these claims. Nonetheless, there are reasons to suspect that abuse and diversion occur. A potential contributing factor to abuse is the reported similarities in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between MPD and cocaine. Recommendations are made to decrease the possibility of abuse and diversion of prescribed MPD. A balanced middle ground must be found regarding the benefits of MPD and its abuse potential. Education of clinicians, patients, and family members is key in ensuring that MPD is used appropriately.

  2. Panlobular emphysema in young intravenous Ritalin abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.A.; Glenny, R.W.; Godwin, J.D.; Hampson, N.B.; Cantino, M.E.; Reichenbach, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    We studied a distinctive group of young intravenous Ritalin abusers with profound obstructive lung disease. Clinically, they seemed to have severe emphysema, but the pathologic basis of their symptoms had not been investigated previously. Seven patients have died and been autopsied: in four, the lungs were fixed, inflated, dried, and examined in detail radiologically, grossly, microscopically, and by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. All seven patients had severe panlobular (panacinar) emphysema that tended to be more severe in the lower lung zones and that was associated with microscopic talc granulomas. Vascular involvement by talc granulomas was variable, but significant interstitial fibrosis was not present. Five patients were tested for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and found to be normal, as were six similar living patients. These findings indicate that some intravenous drug abusers develop emphysema that clinically, radiologically, and pathologically resembles that caused by alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but which must have a different pathogenesis. Talc from the Ritalin tablets may be important, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated

  3. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, b...

  4. Methylphenidate misuse in adult patients and the impact of therapeutic use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Pagsberg, Anne Katrine; Dalhoff, Kim

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate (MPH) prescription rates for adults increase, but the extent of a parallel rise in toxic exposures and their causes and distribution between different MPH trade names are unexplored. METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed adult MPH exposures reported to the Danish Poison...... Information Centre from January 2006 to July 2012 and the association with MPH sales and the number of patients prescribed MPH. RESULTS: Of the 394 exposures (57% males, median age 27 years) reported, MPH status was available in 249 of whom 65.5% were prescribed MPH. Exposure was in 54% motivated by suicidal...... (particularly Ritalin(®)/Ritalin(®) Uno). Most exposures were intentional and motivated by suicide attempts or recreational use....

  5. Methylphenidate Modulates Functional Network Connectivity to Enhance Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S.; Shen, Xilin; Constable, R. Todd; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Chun, Marvin M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that human whole-brain functional connectivity patterns measured with fMRI contain information about cognitive abilities, including sustained attention. To derive behavioral predictions from connectivity patterns, our group developed a connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) approach (Finn et al., 2015; Rosenberg et al., 2016). Previously using CPM, we defined a high-attention network, comprising connections positively correlated with performance on a sustained attention task, and a low-attention network, comprising connections negatively correlated with performance. Validating the networks as generalizable biomarkers of attention, models based on network strength at rest predicted attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in an independent group of individuals (Rosenberg et al., 2016). To investigate whether these networks play a causal role in attention, here we examined their strength in healthy adults given methylphenidate (Ritalin), a common ADHD treatment, compared with unmedicated controls. As predicted, individuals given methylphenidate showed patterns of connectivity associated with better sustained attention: higher high-attention and lower low-attention network strength than controls. There was significant overlap between the high-attention network and a network with greater strength in the methylphenidate group, and between the low-attention network and a network with greater strength in the control group. Network strength also predicted behavior on a stop-signal task, such that participants with higher go response rates showed higher high-attention and lower low-attention network strength. These results suggest that methylphenidate acts by modulating functional brain networks related to sustained attention, and that changing whole-brain connectivity patterns may help improve attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent work identified a promising neuromarker of sustained attention based on whole

  6. Cognitive enhancement with methylphenidate and modafinil: conceptual advances and societal implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljević V

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Veljko Dubljević,1 Christopher James Ryan2 1Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Discipline of Psychiatry and the Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: “Cognition enhancement” (CE drugs are pharmaceuticals taken by healthy people with the aim of sustaining attention, augmenting memory, or improving other cognitive capacities. This paper focuses on two CE drugs – methylphenidate and modafinil. It analyzes their mechanism of action, the evidence for their efficacy in nonsleep deprived individuals, and reviews their adverse effects. It then addresses the normative stances and social issues surrounding CE drug use. Currently, there is little evidence that either methylphenidate or modafinil provide any useful cognitive enhancement to well-rested users. However, it is very possible that future research may reveal cognitive benefits for these agents or for other pharmaceuticals. Public attitudes on CE mirror those evident in academic debate. Even though the majority seem to be opposed to enhancement based on issues of authenticity, utility, and fairness, a steady minority take the view that cognitive enhancer usage is both acceptable and fair. Current legal regimes do not adequately address the social phenomenon of CE use. While the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances defines limits of methylphenidate use across the globe, no such guide exists for modafinil. Keywords: cognitive enhancement, psychopharmacological neuroenhancement, Ritalin, Provigil, neuroethics

  7. Effect of Simultaneous Use of Ritalin with Grape Seed Extract on Passive Avoidance Learning in Adult Male Rats

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    Tooba Karimizadeh Moneh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Ritalin is one of the drugs used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of Ritalin with grape seed extract on passive avoidance learning in adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into 5 groups of 8 rats including control, sham and three experimental groups. The control group received no treatment. The sham group received 1 ml of distilled water per day. At the same time the experimental groups received 100 mg/kg grape seed extract, 1 mg/kg Ritalin or 100 mg/kg grape seed extract together with 1 mg/kg of Ritalin by gavage for 28 days. For measuring the amount of avoidance learning, Shuttle box was used. Data analyzed by ANOVA and consistent Tukey's tests using SPSS-18 software and p>0.05 considered as significant. Results: The results showed that Ritalin decreases the passive avoidance learning, while the grape seed extract alone or together with Ritalin increases passive avoidance learning. Conclusion:  The outcome of this research shows that taking Ritalin leads to decreasing passive avoidance learning. However, the simultaneous taking Ritalin with grape seed extract inhibits the Ritalin effect and increasing the learning.

  8. Methylphenidate enhances NMDA-receptor response in medial prefrontal cortex via sigma-1 receptor: a novel mechanism for methylphenidate action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPH, commercially called Ritalin or Concerta, has been widely used as a drug for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Noteworthily, growing numbers of young people using prescribed MPH improperly for pleasurable enhancement, take high risk of addiction. Thus, understanding the mechanism underlying high level of MPH action in the brain becomes an important goal nowadays. As a blocker of catecholamine transporters, its therapeutic effect is explained as being due to proper modulation of D1 and α2A receptor. Here we showed that higher dose of MPH facilitates NMDA-receptor mediated synaptic transmission via a catecholamine-independent mechanism, in layer V∼VI pyramidal cells of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (PFC. To indicate its postsynaptic action, we next found that MPH facilitates NMDA-induced current and such facilitation could be blocked by σ1 but not D1/5 and α2 receptor antagonists. And this MPH eliciting enhancement of NMDA-receptor activity involves PLC, PKC and IP3 receptor mediated intracellular Ca(2+ increase, but does not require PKA and extracellular Ca(2+ influx. Our additional pharmacological studies confirmed that higher dose of MPH increases locomotor activity via interacting with σ1 receptor. Together, the present study demonstrates for the first time that MPH facilitates NMDA-receptor mediated synaptic transmission via σ1 receptor, and such facilitation requires PLC/IP3/PKC signaling pathway. This novel mechanism possibly explains the underlying mechanism for MPH induced addictive potential and other psychiatric side effects.

  9. Melatonin Effects in Methylphenidate Treated Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine melatonin effects on sleep patterns, symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficiency in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: Children with age range of 7-12 years who had a combined form of ADHD were randomly divided in to 2 groups according to gender blocks. One group took melatonin (3 or 6mg combined with methylphenidate (Ritalin (1mg/kg, and the other group took placebo combined with methylphenidate (1mg/kg. ADHD rating scale and sleep patterns questionnaires were completed. Research hypotheses were assessed at the baseline, the second, fourth and eighth weeks after the treatment.Results: The mean sleep latency and total sleep disturbance scores were reduced in melatonin group, while the scores increased in the placebo group (p≥0.05. Data analysis, using ANOVA with repeated measures, did not show any statistically significant differences between the two groups in ADHD scores.Conclusion: Administration of melatonin along with methylphenidate can partially improve symptoms of sleep disturbance. However, it does not seem to reduce attention deficiency and hyperactivity behavior of children with ADHD.

  10. A Comparative Study of Effectiveness of Neurofeedback and Ritalin on Improving Conduct Problems and Hyperactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khoushabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There are varieties of interventions to treatment of ADHD, among which drug therapy, behavior therapy, parental management training and neurofeedback can be cited. The present study designed to investigate and compare the effectiveness of neurofeedback and Ritalin on improving conduct problems and hyperactivity. Materials & Methods: Quasi-experimental research method with pretest-post test design has been applied in the research. Statistical population of the study consisted of ADHD children of Tehran. The study samples of the study were patients referred to children psychiatric clinic. Based on the purpose of the study' 20 children were randomly selected and classified into 2 groups according to random assignment. CPRS-48 (parent form was administered by parents before and after the treatments as research tools. Recruited data was analyzed by SPSS-19 in two sections of descriptive and inferential statistics. ANCOVA revealed some differences in the groups. Results: The findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference between Ritalin and neurofeedback on improving conduct problems; in other words, Ritalin was more effective in alleviating the problems. Also there was no significant difference between the interventions on improving hyperactivity index. Conclusion: With respect to more efficiency of Ritalin than neurofeedback on certain continuum of signs/symptoms of ADHD, as a whole, preferences of interventions should be based on type, magnitude and severity of the syndrome(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:53-59

  11. MP Joint Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy MP Joint Arthritis Email to a friend * required ...

  12. Methylphenidate Actively Induces Emergence from General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ken; Cotten, Joseph F.; Cimenser, Aylin; Wong, Kin F.K.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Brown, Emery N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although accumulating evidence suggests that arousal pathways in the brain play important roles in emergence from general anesthesia, the roles of monoaminergic arousal circuits are unclear. In this study we tested the hypothesis that methylphenidate (an inhibitor of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters) induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methods Using adult rats we tested the effect of methylphenidate IV on time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. We then performed experiments to test separately for methylphenidate-induced changes in arousal and changes in minute ventilation. A dose-response study was performed to test for methylphenidate–induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. Surface electroencephalogram recordings were performed to observe neurophysiological changes. Plethysmography recordings and arterial blood gas analysis were performed to assess methylphenidate-induced changes in respiratory function. Droperidol IV was administered to test for inhibition of methylphenidate's actions. Results Methylphenidate decreased median time to emergence from 280 to 91 s. The median difference in time to emergence without compared to with methylphenidate was 200 [155, 331] s (median, [95% confidence interval]). During continuous inhalation of isoflurane, methylphenidate induced return of righting in a dose-dependent manner, induced a shift in electroencephalogram power from delta to theta, and induced an increase in minute ventilation. Administration of droperidol (0.5 mg/kg IV) prior to methylphenidate (5 mg/kg IV) largely inhibited methylphenidate-induced emergence behavior, electroencephalogram changes, and changes in minute ventilation. Conclusions Methylphenidate actively induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia by increasing arousal and respiratory drive, possibly through activation of dopaminergic and adrenergic arousal circuits. Our findings suggest that methylphenidate may be clinically

  13. [11C]d-threo-methylphenidate PET in patients with Parkinson's disease and essential tremor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breit, S.; Reimold, M.; Reischl, G.; Klockgether, T.; Wuellner, U.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, 6 patients with essential tremor and 10 healthy controls were studied with the dopamine transporter ligand [ 11 C]d-threo-methylphenidate ([ 11 C]dMP) and positron emission tomography (PET) to assess dopamine terminal loss in relation to disease duration and motor disability. Dopamine transporter availability was expressed as [11C]dMP binding potential (BP dMP ) in percentage of the mean of healthy controls. In PD patients (age at onset 57.7 ± 8.9 ys; disease duration 5.2 ± 3.3 ys; UPDRS motor score 24.2 ± 9.8; Hoehn and Yahr 2.1 ± 0.8; mean ± SD) BP dMP was reduced to 30 % (range: 11 - 55 %) in the putamen and 52 % (range: 14 - 96 %) in the caudate nucleus. BPdMP in the putamen closely correlated with the UPDRS motor score (r = -0.79, p dMP . Interestingly, when plotted over disease duration, PD patients with severe asymmetry of symptoms showed significantly lower BP dMP in the contralateral putamen (exponential fit: 34 % at onset) than the other PD patients (41 % at onset), indicating a different symptomatic threshold of these subgroups and an even closer correlation with the hypothetical 'true' disease duration. The exponential fit across all patients indicated a mean symptomatic threshold of 37 % contra- and 62 % ipsilateral, corresponding with an observed mean BP dMP of 51 % (average contra- and ipsilateral) in those patients with disease duration less than one year. No differences in BP dMP were observed between patients with essential tremor and healthy controls. [ 11 C]dMP appears to be a useful and sensitive marker of dopaminergic dysfunction in PD and can be used to assess and monitor disease severity. (author)

  14. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthur, Cody J

    2016-08-17

    As the first drug to see widespread use for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methylphenidate was the forerunner and catalyst to the modern era of rapidly increasing diagnosis, treatment, and medication development for this condition. During its often controversial history, it has variously elucidated the importance of dopamine signaling in memory and attention, provoked concerns about pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement, driven innovation in controlled-release technologies and enantiospecific therapeutics, and stimulated debate about the impact of pharmaceutical sales techniques on the practice of medicine. In this Review, we will illustrate the history and importance of methylphenidate to ADHD treatment and neuroscience in general, as well as provide key information about its synthesis, structure-activity relationship, pharmacological activity, metabolism, manufacturing, FDA-approved indications, and adverse effects.

  15. Methylphenidate and the response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renes, Judith S; de Ridder, Maria A J; Breukhoven, Petra E; Lem, Annemieke J; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment has become a frequently applied growth promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children born SGA have a higher risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate (MP) has greatly increased in recent years, therefore more children are being treated with GH and MP simultaneously. Some studies have found an association between MP treatment and growth deceleration, but data are contradictory. To explore the effects of MP treatment on growth in GH-treated short SGA children Anthropometric measurements were performed in 78 GH-treated short SGA children (mean age 10.6 yr), 39 of whom were also treated with MP (SGA-GH/MP). The SGA-GH/MP group was compared to 39 SGA-GH treated subjects. They were matched for sex, age and height at start of GH, height SDS at start of MP treatment and target height SDS. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels were yearly determined. Growth, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels during the first three years of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures regression analysis. The SGA-GH/MP group had a lower height gain during the first 3 years than the SGA-GH subjects, only significant between 6 and 12 months of MP treatment. After 3 years of MP treatment, the height gain was 0.2 SDS (± 0.1 SD) lower in the SGA-GH/MP group (P = 0.17). Adult height was not significantly different between the SGA-GH/MP and SGA-GH group (-1.9 SDS and -1.9 SDS respectively, P = 0.46). Moreover, during the first 3 years of MP treatment IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements were similar in both groups. MP has some negative effect on growth during the first years in short SGA children treated with GH, but adult height is not affected.

  16. Methylphenidate and the response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Renes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA. Children born SGA have a higher risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate (MP has greatly increased in recent years, therefore more children are being treated with GH and MP simultaneously. Some studies have found an association between MP treatment and growth deceleration, but data are contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of MP treatment on growth in GH-treated short SGA children METHODS: Anthropometric measurements were performed in 78 GH-treated short SGA children (mean age 10.6 yr, 39 of whom were also treated with MP (SGA-GH/MP. The SGA-GH/MP group was compared to 39 SGA-GH treated subjects. They were matched for sex, age and height at start of GH, height SDS at start of MP treatment and target height SDS. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels were yearly determined. Growth, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels during the first three years of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures regression analysis. RESULTS: The SGA-GH/MP group had a lower height gain during the first 3 years than the SGA-GH subjects, only significant between 6 and 12 months of MP treatment. After 3 years of MP treatment, the height gain was 0.2 SDS (± 0.1 SD lower in the SGA-GH/MP group (P = 0.17. Adult height was not significantly different between the SGA-GH/MP and SGA-GH group (-1.9 SDS and -1.9 SDS respectively, P = 0.46. Moreover, during the first 3 years of MP treatment IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: MP has some negative effect on growth during the first years in short SGA children treated with GH, but adult height is not affected.

  17. Methylphenidate alters selective attention by amplifying salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Huurne, Niels; Fallon, Sean James; van Schouwenburg, Martine; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Buitelaar, Jan; Jensen, Ole; Cools, Roshan

    2015-12-01

    Methylphenidate, the most common treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is increasingly used by healthy individuals as a "smart drug" to enhance cognitive abilities like attention. A key feature of (selective) attention is the ability to ignore irrelevant but salient information in the environment (distractors). Although crucial for cognitive performance, until now, it is not known how the use of methylphenidate affects resistance to attentional capture by distractors. The present study aims to clarify how methylphenidate affects distractor suppression in healthy individuals. The effect of methylphenidate (20 mg) on distractor suppression was assessed in healthy subjects (N = 20), in a within-subject double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design. We used a visuospatial attention task with target faces flanked by strong (faces) or weak distractors (scrambled faces). Methylphenidate increased accuracy on trials that required gender identification of target face stimuli (methylphenidate 88.9 ± 1.4 [mean ± SEM], placebo 86.0 ± 1.2 %; p = .003), suggesting increased processing of the faces. At the same time, however, methylphenidate increased reaction time when the target face was flanked by a face distractor relative to a scrambled face distractor (methylphenidate 34.9 ± 3.73, placebo 26.7 ± 2.84 ms; p = .027), suggesting enhanced attentional capture by distractors with task-relevant features. We conclude that methylphenidate amplifies salience of task-relevant information at the level of the stimulus category. This leads to enhanced processing of the target (faces) but also increased attentional capture by distractors drawn from the same category as the target.

  18. Adding methylphenidate to prism-adaptation improves outcome in neglect patients. A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jacques; Villeneuve, Laurent; Roux, Adeline; Nash, Stuart; Bar, Jean-Yves; Chabanat, Eric; Cotton, François; Ciancia, Sophie; Sancho, Pierre-Olivier; Hovantruc, Patrick; Quelard, François; Sarraf, Thierry; Cojan, Yann; Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Farné, Alessandro; Janoly-Dumenil, Audrey; Boisson, Dominique; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Rode, Gilles; Rossetti, Yves

    2018-04-04

    Spatial neglect is one of the main predictors of poor functional recovery after stroke. Many therapeutic interventions have been developed to alleviate this condition, but to date the evidence of their effectiveness is still scarce. The purpose of this study was to test whether combining prism adaptation (PA) and methylphenidate (MP) could enhance the recovery of neglect patients at a functional level. RITAPRISM is a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing PA plus placebo (control) versus PA plus MP. 24 patients were prospectively enrolled (10 in the placebo group and 14 in the MP group). The main result is a long-term functional improvement (on the functional independence measure (FIM) and on Bergego's scale) induced by MP combined with PA. No serious adverse event occurred. The long-term benefit on activities of daily living (ADL) obtained in this randomized controlled trial set this intervention apart from previous attempts and supports with a high level of evidence the value of combining PA and MP in order to improve the autonomy of neglect patients. Further studies will be needed to clarify the mechanism of this improvement. Although not specifically assessed at this stage, a part of the improvement in ADL might be related to the collateral effect of MP on mood, executive functions or fatigue, and/or the combined effect of PA and MP on motor intentional bias of neglect patients. This study provides Class I evidence that adding MP to PA improves the functional outcome of neglect patients. EUCTR2008-000325-20-FR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Working memory capacity predicts effects of methylphenidate on reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.E. van der; Fallon, S.J.; Huurne, N.P. ter; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cools, R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased use of stimulant medication, such as methylphenidate, by healthy college students has raised questions about its cognitive-enhancing effects. Methylphenidate acts by increasing extracellular catecholamine levels and is generally accepted to remediate cognitive and reward deficits in

  20. Methylphenidate-induced erections in a prepubertal child.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2013-02-01

    Methylphenidate is a medication used routinely in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We report a case of a prepubertal child who developed unwanted erections after commencing a response-adjusted dosing regimen of sustained release methylphenidate. Despite priapism being a rare adverse reaction associated with methylphenidate, physicians and parents need to be aware as it can have significant long-term complications.

  1. Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. It works by changing the amounts of certain ... a day in the morning with or without food. The long-acting suspension (Quillivant XR) will begin ...

  2. The effects of clinically relevant doses of amphetamine and methylphenidate on signal detection and DRL in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Spencer, Robert C.; Harris, Rachel L.; Feit, Elizabeth C.; McKee, Brenda L.; Berridge, Craig W.

    2014-01-01

    Low dose amphetamine (AMPH) and methylphenidate (MPH, Ritalin®) are the most widely prescribed and most effective pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Certain low, clinically relevant doses of MPH improve sustained attention and working memory in normal rats, in contrast to higher doses that impair cognitive ability and induce locomotor activity. However, the effects of AMPH of MPH on sustained attention and behavioral inhibition remain poorly characterized. The present experiments examined the actions of AMPH (0.1 and 0.25 mg/kg) and MPH (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) in a rat model of 1) sustained attention, where signal and blank trials were interspersed randomly and occurred at unpredictable times, and 2) behavioral inhibition, using a differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) schedule. In a signal detection paradigm, both 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg MPH and 0.25 mg/kg AMPH improve sustained attention, however neither AMPH nor MPH improve behavioral inhibition on DRL. Taken together with other recent studies, it appears that clinically-relevant doses of AMPH and MPH may preferentially improve attention-related behavior while having little effect on behavioral inhibition. These observations provide additional insight into the basic behavioral actions of low-dose psychostimulants and further suggest that the use of sustained attention tasks may be important in the development of novel pharmacological treatments for ADHD. PMID:24467844

  3. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2009-07-06

    There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates.

  4. Application of Physiologically Based Absorption Modeling to Characterize the Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Oral Extended Release Methylphenidate Products in Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Yang

    Full Text Available A previously presented physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for immediate release (IR methylphenidate (MPH was extended to characterize the pharmacokinetic behaviors of oral extended release (ER MPH formulations in adults for the first time. Information on the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal (GI tract, together with the biopharmaceutical properties of MPH, was integrated into the original model, with model parameters representing hepatic metabolism and intestinal non-specific loss recalibrated against in vitro and in vivo kinetic data sets with IR MPH. A Weibull function was implemented to describe the dissolution of different ER formulations. A variety of mathematical functions can be utilized to account for the engineered release/dissolution technologies to achieve better model performance. The physiological absorption model tracked well the plasma concentration profiles in adults receiving a multilayer-release MPH formulation or Metadate CD, while some degree of discrepancy was observed between predicted and observed plasma concentration profiles for Ritalin LA and Medikinet Retard. A local sensitivity analysis demonstrated that model parameters associated with the GI tract significantly influenced model predicted plasma MPH concentrations, albeit to varying degrees, suggesting the importance of better understanding the GI tract physiology, along with the intestinal non-specific loss of MPH. The model provides a quantitative tool to predict the biphasic plasma time course data for ER MPH, helping elucidate factors responsible for the diverse plasma MPH concentration profiles following oral dosing of different ER formulations.

  5. Infusion of methylphenidate into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala or anterior cingulate cortex enhances fear memory consolidation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD; also called Ritalin) is a blocker of dopamine and norepi-nephrine transporter. It has been clinically used for treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of systemically adminis-tered MPD on learning and memory, either in animals or humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of direct infusion of MPD into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) or the anterior cin-gulate cortex (ACC) on conditioned fear memory. Rats were trained on a one-trial step-through inhibi-tory avoidance task. MPD was infused bilaterally into the BLA or the ACC, either at ‘0’ or 6 h post-training. Saline was administered as control. Memory retention was tested 48 h post-training. In-tra-BLA or intra-ACC infusion of MPD ‘0’ h but not 6 h post-training significantly improved 48-h memory retention: the MPD-treated rats had significant longer step-through latency than controls. The present results indicate that action of MPD in the BLA or the ACC produces a beneficial effect on the consoli-dation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  6. Does Methylphenidate Affect Cystometric Parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khae Hawn Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methylphenidate (MPH is one of the most commonly prescribed psychostimulants for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, there is limited research on its effects on lower urinary tract function. This study investigated changes in cystometric parameters after intragastric administration of MPH in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs, an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Fourteen- to 16-week-old male SHRs (n=10, weighing between 280 and 315 g, were used. Three micturition cycles were recorded before administering MPH. One hour after each intragastric MPH injection, three cycles of cystometrogram were obtained in the awake condition. Various cystometric parameters were evaluated, including basal pressure (BP, maximal pressure (MP, threshold pressure (TP, bladder capacity (BC, micturition volume (MV, micturition interval (MI, and residual volume (RV. The data were analyzed using paired Student t-tests. Results: Five SHRs were each administered a dose of 3-mg/kg MPH, and the other five received a dose of 6-mg/kg MPH. BP and MP increased significantly in the rats that received the 3-mg/kg MPH injection, but not in those that received the 6-mg/kg injection. BC, MV, and MI significantly increased in the rats that received the 6-mg/kg MPH injection, but not in those that received the 3-mg/kg injection. There were no significant changes in TP after either injection. Conclusions: Significant increases in BC, MV, and MI after the 6-mg/kg MPH injection suggest that the peripheral and the central nervous systems may play important roles in bladder function in those receiving MPH for ADHD.

  7. OpenMP for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J C; Stotzer, E J; Hart, A; de Supinski, B R

    2011-03-15

    OpenMP [13] is the dominant programming model for shared-memory parallelism in C, C++ and Fortran due to its easy-to-use directive-based style, portability and broad support by compiler vendors. Similar characteristics are needed for a programming model for devices such as GPUs and DSPs that are gaining popularity to accelerate compute-intensive application regions. This paper presents extensions to OpenMP that provide that programming model. Our results demonstrate that a high-level programming model can provide accelerated performance comparable to hand-coded implementations in CUDA.

  8. Deviant patterns of methylphenidate use in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte; Zoëga, Helga; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    of drugs used in addictive disorders (OR2 2.08) or opioids (OR2 1.75). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the number of different prescribers alone does not seem to effectively identify deviant users of methylphenidate. CONCLUSION: We have identified characteristics associated with deviant patterns...

  9. Prescribing Patterns of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prescribing pattern of methylphenidate and atomoxetine to patients with. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in South Africa. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted based on the data from a medical aid administrator in South Africa for ...

  10. Prescribing Patterns of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prescribing pattern of methylphenidate and atomoxetine to patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in South Africa. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted based on the data from a medical aid administrator in South Africa for ...

  11. OROS Methylphenidate in Adolescents with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy and tolerability of osmotic-release oral system (OROS methylphenidate in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were evaluated in a multisite controlled study at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, and other centers in the United States.

  12. Methylphenidate modulates activity within cognitive neural networks of patients with post-stroke major depression: A placebo-controlled fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamannar Ramasubbu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Rajamannar Ramasubbu1, Bradley G Goodyear21Departments of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences; 2Department of Radiology and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, AB, CanadaBackground: Methylphenidate (MP is a dopamine- and noradrenaline-enhancing agent beneficial for post-stroke depression (PSD and stroke recovery due to its therapeutic effects on cognition, motivation, and mood; however, the neural mechanisms underlying its clinical effects remain unknown. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the effect of MP on brain activity in response to cognitive tasks in patients with PSD.Methods: Nine stroke outpatients with DSM IV defined major depression underwent fMRI during two cognitive tasks (2-back and serial subtraction on four occasions, on the first and third day of a three-day treatment of MP and placebo. Nine healthy control (HC subjects matched for age and sex scanned during a single session served as normative data for comparison. The main outcome measure was cognitive task-dependent brain activity.Results: For the 2-back task, left prefrontal, right parietal, posterior cingulate, and temporal and bilateral cerebellar regions exhibited significantly greater activity during the MP condition relative to placebo. Less activity was detected in rostral prefrontal and left parietal regions. For serial subtraction, greater activity was detected in medial prefrontal, biparietal, bitemporal, posterior cingulate, and bilateral cerebellar regions, as well as thalamus, putamen, and insula. Further, underactivation observed during the placebo condition relative to HC improved or reversed during MP treatment. No significant differences in behavioral measures were found between MP and placebo conditions or between patients and HC.Conclusions: Short-term MP treatment may improve and normalize activity in cognitive neuronal networks in patients with PSD

  13. Perioperative Outcome of Dyssomnia Patients on Chronic Methylphenidate Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Stoicea MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate is frequently prescribed for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and other sleep disorders requiring psychostimulants. Our report is based on 2 different clinical experiences of patients with chronic methylphenidate use, undergoing general anesthesia. These cases contrast different strategies of taking versus withholding the drug treatment on the day of surgery. From the standpoint of anesthetic management and patient safety, the concerns for perioperative methylphenidate use are mainly related to cardiovascular stability and possible counteraction of sedatives and anesthetics.

  14. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines.

  15. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory

  16. Pharmacogenetics of Methylphenidate Response in Preschoolers with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, James; McCracken, James; Swanson, James; Riddle, Mark; Kollins, Scott; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Wigal, Tim; Wigal, Sharon; Posner, Kelly; Skrobala, Anne; Kastelic, Elizabeth; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Cunningham, Charles; Shigawa, Sharon; Moyzis, Robert; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored genetic moderators of symptom reduction and side effects in methylphenidate-treated preschool-age children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: DNA was isolated from 81 subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover methylphenidate titration. Parents and teachers…

  17. A Randomized, Single-Blind, Substitution Study of OROS Methylphenidate (Concerta) in ADHD Adults Receiving Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Mick, Eric; Surman, Craig B. H.; Hammerness, Paul; Doyle, Robert; Aleardi, Megan; Kotarski, Meghan; Williams, Courtney G.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the efficacy, tolerability, and compliance of an extended-release formulation of methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in adults with ADHD receiving immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH). Method: Participants were outpatient adults with ADHD who were stable on IR-MPH-administered TID. Participants…

  18. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of methylphenidate and MDMA administered alone or in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysek, Cédric M; Simmler, Linda D; Schillinger, Nathalie; Meyer, Nicole; Schmid, Yasmin; Donzelli, Massimiliano; Grouzmann, Eric; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-03-01

    Methylphenidate and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') are widely misused psychoactive drugs. Methylphenidate increases brain dopamine and norepinephrine levels by blocking the presynaptic reuptake transporters. MDMA releases serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine through the same transporters. Pharmacodynamic interactions of methylphenidate and MDMA are likely. This study compared the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of methylphenidate and MDMA administered alone or in combination in healthy subjects using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Methylphenidate did not enhance the psychotropic effects of MDMA, although it produced psychostimulant effects on its own. The haemodynamic and adverse effects of co-administration of methylphenidate and MDMA were significantly higher compared with MDMA or methylphenidate alone. Methylphenidate did not change the pharmacokinetics of MDMA and vice versa. Methylphenidate and MDMA shared some subjective amphetamine-type effects; however, 125 mg of MDMA increased positive mood more than 60 mg of methylphenidate, and methylphenidate enhanced activity and concentration more than MDMA. Methylphenidate and MDMA differentially altered facial emotion recognition. Methylphenidate enhanced the recognition of sad and fearful faces, whereas MDMA reduced the recognition of negative emotions. Additionally, the present study found acute pharmacodynamic tolerance to MDMA but not methylphenidate. In conclusion, the combined use of methylphenidate and MDMA does not produce more psychoactive effects compared with either drug alone, but potentially enhances cardiovascular and adverse effects. The findings may be of clinical importance for assessing the risks of combined psychostimulant misuse. Trial registration identification number: NCT01465685 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01465685).

  19. Dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD in a randomized clinical trial of Ritalin and Melatonin co-administration: Through circadian cycle modification or appetite enhancement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Ranjbar, Elham; Kooshesh, Seyed Mohammad-Ali; Keshavarz, Seyed-Ali

    2012-01-01

    It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms. After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: one received melatonin (3 or 6 mg based on weight) combined with ritalin (1mg/kg) and the other took placebo combined with ritalin (1mg/kg) in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Three-day food record, and standard weight and height of children were evaluated prior to the treatment and 8 weeks after the treatment. Children's appetite and sleep were evaluated in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8. Hypotheses were then analyzed using SPSS17. Paired sample t-test showed significant changes in sleep latency (23.15±15.25 vs. 17.96±11.66; p=0.047) and total sleep disturbance score (48.84±13.42 vs. 41.30±9.67; p=0.000) before and after melatonin administration, respectively. However, appetite and food intake did not change significantly during the study. Sleep duration and appetite were significantly correlated in melatonin group (Pearson r=0.971, p=0.029). Mean height (138.28±16.24 vs. 141.35±16.78; P=0.000) and weight (36.73±17.82 vs. 38.97±17.93; P=0.005) were significantly increased in melatonin treated children before and after the trial. Administration of melatonin along with ritalin improves height and weight growth of children. These effects may be attributed to circadian cycle modification, increasing sleep duration and the consequent more growth hormone release during sleep.

  20. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Results Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Conclusion Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates. PMID:19580661

  1. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racine Eric

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin, is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Results Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Conclusion Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates.

  2. The adolescent outcome of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treated with methylphenidate or methylphenidate combined with multimodal behaviour therapy: Results of a naturalistic follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oord, S.; Prins, P.J.M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who participated in a randomized clinical trial, which compared a brief intensive multimodal behaviour therapy combined with optimally titrated methylphenidate to optimally titrated methylphenidate alone (n=45), were

  3. Metabolism of methylphenidate in dog and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, H.; Bartlett, F.; Dreyfuss, R.; Karliner, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary metabolites of methylphenidate in the dog and rat were investigated. After oral administration of 14C-labeled methylphenidate, approximately 86% and 63% of the dose was recovered in the urine of the dog and rat, respectively. Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug. Metabolism involved oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation processes. The primary hydrolytic product was alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid (24%, dog; 35-40%, rat). The primary metabolites of oxidation were methyl 6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (3%, dog; 1.5%, rat) and the glucuronide of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-piperidineacetic acid (10%, rat). The former also underwent extensive biotransformation, including: 1) hydrolysis to the lactam acid (27%, dog; 7-10%, rat) and subsequent carboxylic acid O-glucuronidation (15%, dog); or 2) hydroxylation at the 5-position (1%, dog; 2%, rat) and subsequent hydrolysis (4%, dog; 15-17%, rat); or 3) 5-O-glucuronidation (12%, dog). Additional minor metabolites from methyl-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate were the phenolic O-glucuronide of methyl alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the 4-O-glucuronide of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the taurine amide conjugate of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetic acid (1%, dog). Additional products from methylphenidate conjugation included methyl 1-carbamoyl-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog or rat) and its carboxylic acid hydrolysis product (1%, rat). The chirality of the major metabolites isolated from dog urine showed that metabolism was partially stereoselective in all investigated cases, except in the formation of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid

  4. MR imaging of the effects of methylphenidate on brain structure and function in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweren, Lizanne J. S.; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Durston, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate is the first-choice pharmacological intervention for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The pharmacological and behavioral effects of methylphenidate are well described, but less is known about neurochemical brain changes induced by methylphenidate.

  5. Dopamine D4 receptors modulate brain metabolic activity in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum at rest and in response to methylphenidate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, M.; Wang, G.; Michaelides, M.; Pascau, J.; Gispert, J.-D.; Delis, F.; Grandy, D.K.; Wang, G.-J.; Desco, M.; Rubinstein, M.; Volkow, N.D.; Thanos, P.K.

    2010-07-16

    Methylphenidate (MP) is widely used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Variable number of tandem repeats polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor (D{sub 4}) gene have been implicated in vulnerability to ADHD and the response to MP. Here we examined the contribution of dopamine D4 receptors (D4Rs) to baseline brain glucose metabolism and to the regional metabolic responses to MP. We compared brain glucose metabolism (measured with micro-positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) at baseline and after MP (10 mg/kg, i.p.) administration in mice with genetic deletion of the D{sub 4}. Images were analyzed using a novel automated image registration procedure. Baseline D{sub 4}{sup -/-} mice had lower metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and greater metabolism in the cerebellar vermis (CBV) than D{sub 4}{sup +/+} and D{sub 4}{sup +/-} mice; when given MP, D{sub 4}{sup -/-} mice increased metabolism in the PFC and decreased it in the CBV, whereas in D{sub 4}{sup +/+} and D{sub 4}{sup +/-} mice, MP decreased metabolism in the PFC and increased it in the CBV. These findings provide evidence that D4Rs modulate not only the PFC, which may reflect the activation by dopamine of D4Rs located in this region, but also the CBV, which may reflect an indirect modulation as D4Rs are minimally expressed in this region. As individuals with ADHD show structural and/or functional abnormalities in these brain regions, the association of ADHD with D4Rs may reflect its modulation of these brain regions. The differential response to MP as a function of genotype could explain differences in brain functional responses to MP between patients with ADHD and healthy controls and between patients with ADHD with different D{sub 4} polymorphisms.

  6. Long Withdrawal of Methylphenidate Induces a Differential Response of the Dopaminergic System and Increases Sensitivity to Cocaine in the Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício dos Santos Pereira

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPD is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours and long-term (10 days MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally, (iii to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p. presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult

  7. Effects of methylphenidate on memory functions of adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychological research on adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) revealed considerable impairments in memory functions related to executive control. However, only limited evidence exists supporting the effects of pharmacological treatment using methylphenidate (MPH) on

  8. Active Emergence from Propofol General Anesthesia is Induced by Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica J.; Van Dort, Christa J.; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. Isoflurane and propofol are general anesthetics that may have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that methylphenidate actively induces emergence from propofol general anesthesia. METHODS Using adult rats, the effect of methylphenidate on time to emergence after a single bolus of propofol was determined. The ability of methylphenidate to restore righting during a continuous target controlled infusion of propofol was also tested. In a separate group of rats, a target controlled infusion of propofol was established and spectral analysis was performed on electroencephalogram recordings taken before and after methylphenidate administration. RESULTS Methylphenidate decreased median time to emergence after a single dose of propofol from 735 seconds (95% CI: 598 to 897 seconds, n=6) to 448 seconds (95% CI: 371 to 495 seconds, n=6). The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0051). During continuous propofol anesthesia with a median final target plasma concentration of 4.0 μg/ml (95%CI: 3.2 to 4.6, n=6), none of the rats exhibited purposeful movements after injection of normal saline. After methylphenidate, however, all 6 rats promptly exhibited arousal and had restoration of righting with a median time of 82 seconds (95% CI: 30 to 166 seconds). Spectral analysis of electroencephalogram data demonstrated a shift in peak power from delta (anesthesia in rats. Further study is warranted to test the hypothesis that methylphenidate induces emergence from propofol general anesthesia in humans. PMID:22446983

  9. How Good is OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy G. Mattson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The OpenMP standard defines an Application Programming Interface (API for shared memory computers. Since its introduction in 1997, it has grown to become one of the most commonly used API's for parallel programming. But success in the market doesn't necessarily imply successful computer science. Is OpenMP a "good" programming environment? What does it even mean to call a programming environment good? And finally, once we understand how good or bad OpenMP is; what can we do to make it even better? In this paper, we will address these questions.

  10. Conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in response to methylphenidate, amphetamine and cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Thanos, P.K.; Bermeo, C.; Rubinstein, M.; Suchland, K.L.; Wang, G.-J.; Grandy, D.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) and amphetamine (AMPH) are the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs are believed to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of their dopamine (DA)-enhancing effects, yet an explanation for the observation that some patients with ADHD respond well to one medication but not to the other remains elusive. The dopaminergic effects of MP and AMPH are also thought to underlie their reinforcing properties and ultimately their abuse. Polymorphisms in the human gene that codes for the DA D4 receptor (D4R) have been repeatedly associated with ADHD and may correlate with the therapeutic as well as the reinforcing effects of responses to these psychostimulant medications. Conditioned place preference (CPP) for MP, AMPH and cocaine were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice and their genetically engineered littermates, congenic on the C57Bl/6J background, that completely lack D4Rs (knockout or KO). In addition, the locomotor activity in these mice during the conditioning phase of CPP was tested in the CPP chambers. D4 receptor KO and WT mice showed CPP and increased locomotor activity in response to each of the three psychostimulants tested. D4R differentially modulates the CPP responses to MP, AMPH and cocaine. While the D4R genotype affected CPP responses to MP (high dose only) and AMPH (low dose only) it had no effects on cocaine. Inasmuch as CPP is considered an indicator of sensitivity to reinforcing responses to drugs these data suggest a significant but limited role of D4Rs in modulating conditioning responses to MP and AMPH. In the locomotor test, D4 receptor KO mice displayed attenuated increases in AMPH-induced locomotor activity whereas responses to cocaine and MP did not differ. These results suggest distinct mechanisms for D4 receptor modulation of the reinforcing (perhaps via attenuating dopaminergic signalling) and locomotor properties of these stimulant drugs

  11. MP3 the meaning of a format

    CERN Document Server

    Sterne, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Jonathan Sterne shows that understanding the historical meaning of the MP3, the world's most common format for recorded audio, involves rethinking the place of digital technologies in the broader universe of twentieth-century communication history.

  12. Methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Krogh, Helle B; Ramstad, Erica

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is methylphenidate beneficial or harmful for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents? METHODS: Electronic databases were searched up to February 2015 for parallel and crossover randomised clinical trials comparing methylphenidate...

  13. Methylphenidate for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole J; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2016-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Is treatment with methylphenidate associated with benefits or harms for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? BOTTOM LINE: Methylphenidate is associated with improvement in ADHD symptoms, general behavior, and quality of life; however, due...

  14. First-Trimester Exposure to Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Andersen, Jon T

    2014-01-01

    conducted this study to estimate the risk of major congenital malformations following first-trimester in utero exposure to methylphenidate. METHOD: Data from 2005 to 2012 were extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Medical Birth Registry...... subjects with respect to maternal age, smoking status, body mass index, length of education, calendar year of completion of pregnancy, and concomitant use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. RESULTS: We included 222 exposed and 2,220 unexposed...... pregnancies in the analysis. There was no statistically significant increase in major malformations (point prevalence ratio = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-1.8) or cardiac malformations (point prevalence ratio = 0.9; 95% CI, 0.2-3.0). Sensitivity analyses using different definitions of exposure or previous users...

  15. Dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD in a randomized clinical trial of Ritalin and Melatonin co-administration: Through circadian cycle modification or appetite enhancement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Mostafavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is postulated that ritalin may adversely affect sleep, appetite, weight and growth of some children with ADHD. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate melatonin supplementation effects on dietary intake, growth and development of children with ADHD treated with ritalin through circadian cycle modification and appetite mechanisms.Method: After obtaining consent from parents, 50 children aged 7-12 with combined form of AD/HD were randomly divided into two groups based on gender blocks: one received melatonin (3 or 6 mg based on weight combined with ritalin (1mg/kg and the other took placebo combined with ritalin (1mg/kg in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Three-day food record, and standard weight and height of children were evaluated prior to the treatment and 8 weeks after the treatment. Children’s appetite and sleep were evaluated in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 8. Hypotheses were then analyzed using SPSS17.Results: Paired sample t-test showed significant changes in sleep latency (23.15±15.25 vs. 17.96±11.66; p=0.047 and total sleep disturbance score (48.84±13.42 vs. 41.30±9.67; p=0.000 before and after melatonin administration, respectively. However, appetite and food intake did not change significantly during the study. Sleep duration and appetite were significantly correlated in melatonin group (Pearson r=0.971, p=0.029. Mean height (138.28±16.24 vs. 141.35±16.78; P=0.000 and weight (36.73±17.82 vs. 38.97±17.93; P=0.005 were significantly increased in melatonin treated children before and after the trial.Conclusion: Administration of melatonin along with ritalin improves height and weight growth of children. These effects may be attributed to circadian cycle modification, increasing sleep duration and the consequent more growth hormone release during sleep.

  16. Registration of Mp718 and Mp719 germplasm lines of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm lines Mp718 (Reg. No. GP-xxxx, PI 662045) and Mp719 (Reg. No. GP-xxxx, PI 662046) were developed and released by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State, Mississippi, as sources of resistance to aflat...

  17. Prevalence of methylphenidate use by university students in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fraga Pessanha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant commonly prescribed for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of methylphenidate users among college students, as well as the main reasons for it, ways of acquisition, and possible side effects. The study demonstrated a 60% prevalence of the use of methylphenidate by university students in Campos dos Goytacazes. We conclude that there is a high rate of use of methylphenidate among students in this city. The authors suggest an awareness campaign on the risks of inappropriate use of methylphenidate.

  18. NUHOMS registered - MP197 transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, P.; Sicard, D.; Michels, L.

    2004-01-01

    The NUHOMS registered -MP197 cask is an optimized transport design which can be loaded in the spent fuel pool (wet loading) or loaded the canister from the NUHOMS concrete modules at the ISFSI site. With impact limiters attached, the package can be transported within the states or world-wide. The NUHOMS registered -MP197 packaging can be used to transport either BWR or PWR canisters. The NUHOMS registered -MP197 cask is designed to the ASME B and PV Code and meets the requirements of Section III, Division 3 for Transport Packaging. The cask with impact limiters has undergone drop testing to verify the calculated g loadings during the 9m drops. The test showed good correlation with analytical results and demonstrate that the impact limiters stay in place and protect the package and fuel during the hypothetical accidents

  19. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Salles Neves Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

  20. Prevalence of methylphenidate use among Canadian children following parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohschein, Lisa A

    2007-06-05

    Evidence suggests that children living in single-parent or step-parent households are more likely than children in households with 2 biological parents to be prescribed methylphenidate. I conducted a study of prospective data to investigate parental divorce as a predictor of methylphenidate use. I used data for children who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth from 1994 to 2000. The sample was restricted to children who remained in the survey in 2000 and who, at initial interview, lived in a household with 2 biological parents (n = 4784). A generalized estimating equation model was used to compare the odds ratios of methylphenidate use among children whose parents obtained a divorce between 1994 and 2000 relative to children whose parents remained married during this period. Between 1994 and 2000, 633 children (13.2%) experienced the divorce of their parents. The proportion of children who received methylphenidate at any time between 1994 and 2000 was 3.3% among those whose parents remained married and 6.1% among those whose parents divorced during this period. After adjustment for age of the mother and sex and age of the child, I found that methylphenidate use was significantly higher among children whose parents subsequently divorced than among those whose parents remained married (odds ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.33). The increased risk of children receiving a prescription for methylphenidate in the period following parental divorce raises questions about the causal links in this association. Future research is needed to replicate these findings and to investigate possible explanations.

  1. Early long-term exposure with caffeine induces cross-sensitization to methylphenidate with involvement of DARPP-32 in adulthood of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Carina R; Marques, Virgínia B; Valvassori, Samira S; Constantino, Leandra C; Rosa, Daniela V F; Lima, Fabrício F; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Quevedo, João

    2009-09-01

    Chronic ingestion of caffeine causes dependence and sleep disturbance in children and adolescents. In rodents, the administration of caffeine may produce behavioral cross-sensitization to some psychostimulants, such as dopaminergic psychoactive drugs. Methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) is a psychostimulant used in pediatric- and adult human populations to manage the symptoms associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies have suggested that dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoproteins of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) participate in the manifestation of behavioral activity following ingestion of caffeine or MPH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether long-term administration of low doses of caffeine in rodents during their adolescence induces cross-sensitization to MPH challenge in their adulthood and investigate the involvement of DARPP-32 in this model. Young rats (P25) consumed water or caffeine (0.3 g/L; mean consumption was 7.5 mg/day/kg) for 28 days. The caffeine consumption was then suspended for 14 days (washout period) when the animals received saline solution or MPH (1, 2, or 10 mg/kg) (P67) intraperitoneally. The locomotor activity of these rats was assessed using the open-field test, following which the immunocontent of DARPP-32 was evaluated in samples of their prefrontal cortex, striatum, or hippocampus. Rats chronically exposed to caffeine in their adolescent period and to inactive doses of MPH (1mg/kg) in adulthood showed augmented locomotor activity. The behavioral effect observed was accompanied by increased levels of DARPP-32 in the striatum and prefrontal cortex compared to control groups (saline or caffeine). However, no alteration caused by these treatments was noted in the hippocampus. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure induces likely long-term cross-sensitization to MPH in a DARPP-32-dependent pathway.

  2. O metifenidato no Brasil: uma década de publicações Methylphenidate in Brazil: a decade of publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ortega

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O metilfenidato é um estimulante comercializado desde os anos 50 na Suíça, na Alemanha e nos EUA. Mas foi somente a partir de sua associação com o Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção e Hiperatividade (TDAH que suas vendas alavancaram, tornando-se o estimulante mais consumido no mundo. Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar os resultados de uma análise das publicações brasileiras sobre os usos do metilfenidato no Brasil, ao longo da última década. Com isto, visa compreender como as informações são apresentadas ou omitidas nos diferentes espaços de divulgação impressa. Para tal análise, foram pesquisadas publicações científicas, nos principais periódicos de psiquiatria brasileiros, e reportagens de jornais e revistas nacionais destinados ao público em geral. A pesquisa inclui as publicações do período de 1998 a 2008. Destaca-se como ponto relevante da análise a importante participação dos laboratórios no financiamento dos grupos e pesquisas sobre TDAH. Os achados indicam que a combinação do uso do medicamento com psicoterapias, a dependência do medicamento e a ideia de que existe excesso de prescrição no Brasil são temas controversos nas publicações analisadas.Methylphenidate is frequently associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, though this psychostimulant has been on the market in Switzerland, Germany and the US since the 1950s. After its association with ADHD, Ritalin has become the world's most widely used psychostimulant. The scope of this article is to present the results of an analysis of publications concerning the use of Methylphenidate in Brazil over a decade. It seeks to understand how the information is presented or omitted in the different printed materials. For the analysis, the most important Brazilian psychiatric journals as well as major Brazilian newspapers and magazines for the general public for the 1998-2008 period were consulted. One important point that resulted

  3. A Multiprogramming Aware OpenMP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios K. Barekas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present an OpenMP implementation suitable for multiprogrammed environments on Intel-based SMP systems. This implementation consists of a runtime system and a resource manager, while we use the NanosCompiler to transform OpenMP-coded applications into code with calls to our runtime system. The resource manager acts as the operating system scheduler for the applications built with our runtime system. It executes a custom made scheduling policy to distribute the available physical processors to the active applications. The runtime system cooperates with the resource manager in order to adapt each application's generated parallelism to the number of processors allocated to it, according to the resource manager scheduling policy. We use the OpenMP version of the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite in order to evaluate the performance of our implementation. In our experiments we compare the performance of our implementation with that of a commercial OpenMP implementation. The comparison proves that our approach performs better both on a dedicated and on a heavily multiprogrammed environment.

  4. Extending OpenMP for NUMA Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bircsak

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes extensions to OpenMP that implement data placement features needed for NUMA architectures. OpenMP is a collection of compiler directives and library routines used to write portable parallel programs for shared-memory architectures. Writing efficient parallel programs for NUMA architectures, which have characteristics of both shared-memory and distributed-memory architectures, requires that a programmer control the placement of data in memory and the placement of computations that operate on that data. Optimal performance is obtained when computations occur on processors that have fast access to the data needed by those computations. OpenMP -- designed for shared-memory architectures -- does not by itself address these issues. The extensions to OpenMP Fortran presented here have been mainly taken from High Performance Fortran. The paper describes some of the techniques that the Compaq Fortran compiler uses to generate efficient code based on these extensions. It also describes some additional compiler optimizations, and concludes with some preliminary results.

  5. Methylphenidate use and school performance among primary school children: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Çiçek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens Hj; de Vries, Tjalling W; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hak, Eelko

    2017-03-29

    There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various parameters of methylphenidate use. We linked children from a pharmacy prescription database with standardized achievement test results at the end of primary school. We explored differences in test scores between current methylphenidate users versus never users and methylphenidate users who stopped treatment at least 6 months before the test, early versus late starters, different dosage of methylphenidate, and concurrent antipsychotic or asthma treatment. Out of the 7736 children, 377 (4.9%) children were treated with methylphenidate at the time of the test. After adjusting for confounders the methylphenidate users (532.58 ± .48) performed significantly lower on the test than never users (534.72 ± .11). Compared with late starters of methylphenidate treatment (536.94 ± 1.51) we found significantly lower test scores for the early starters (532.33 ± .50). Our study indicates that children using methylphenidate still perform less at school compared to their peers. Our study also suggests that earlier start of methylphenidate treatment is associated with a lower school performance compared to children starting later with the treatment. This result could either indicate a limited effect of long term treatment or a more strongly affected group of early starters.

  6. Clinical effect of venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride on narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Bin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the clinical effect of venlafaxine sustained-release capsules combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets on narcolepsy. Thirty-eight cases of narcoleptic patients were randomly divided into venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment group (observation group, N = 19 and methylphenidate hydrochloride and clomipramine treatment group (control group, N = 19. After a total of 12-week treatment, clinical curative effect and adverse drug reactions were observed in 2 groups of patients. The results showed that effective rate of the treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in observation group was higher than that of the control group (15/19 vs 8/19, P = 0.044, and effective rate of the treatment for cataplexy in observation group was higher than that of the control group (13/19 vs 6/19, P = 0.048. The rate of adverse drug reactions in observation group was lower than that in the control group (χ2 = 8.889, P = 0.003. It was indicated that venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate had good curative effect on narcolepsy with EDS and cataplexy symptoms.

  7. Methylphenidate as a cognitive enhancer in healthy young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Batistela

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The so-called cognitive enhancers have been widely and increasingly used by healthy individuals who seek improvements in cognitive performance despite having no pathologies. One drug used for this purpose is methylphenidate, a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of acute administration of varying doses of methylphenidate (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg and placebo on a wide range of cognitive functions in healthy young people. Methods: A total of 36 young university students and graduates participated in the study. The participants underwent tests of attention and of episodic, and working memory. Results: No differences in performance were observed on any of the tests. There was a dose-dependent (40 mg > placebo effect on self-reported wellbeing. Conclusions: According to the recent literature, psychostimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, improve performance when cognitive processes are below an optimal level, which was not the case for the subjects of the present study. We suggest the impression that methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in healthy young people, justifying its use, may be due to improvements in subjective wellbeing promoted by the drug.

  8. Differential effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Simmler, Linda D; Crockett, Molly J; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition is important in everyday-life social interactions. The social cognitive effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate (both used for neuroenhancement and as party drugs) are largely unknown. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA (75 mg), methylphenidate (40 mg) and placebo using the Facial Emotion Recognition Task, Multifaceted Empathy Test, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Social Value Orientation Test and the Moral Judgment Task in a cross-over study in 30 healthy subjects. Additionally, subjective, autonomic, pharmacokinetic, endocrine and adverse drug effects were measured. MDMA enhanced emotional empathy for positive emotionally charged situations in the MET and tended to reduce the recognition of sad faces in the Facial Emotion Recognition Task. MDMA had no effects on cognitive empathy in the Multifaceted Empathy Test or social cognitive inferences in the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition. MDMA produced subjective 'empathogenic' effects, such as drug liking, closeness to others, openness and trust. In contrast, methylphenidate lacked such subjective effects and did not alter emotional processing, empathy or mental perspective-taking. MDMA but not methylphenidate increased the plasma levels of oxytocin and prolactin. None of the drugs influenced moral judgment. Effects on emotion recognition and emotional empathy were evident at a low dose of MDMA and likely contribute to the popularity of the drug. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Atomoxetine/Methylphenidate Effects on Social Play Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at Utrecht University, The Netherlands, and University “Roma Tre,” Rome, Italy, studied the neural substrates of the previously identified social play-suppressant effects of methylphenidate (MPH and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.

  10. Effects of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine on Cortical Inhibition in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of methylphenidate (MPH, a psychostimulant, and atomoxetine (ATX, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, on short interval-cortical inhibition (SICI were measured in motor cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation, in a study at Cincinnati Children’s Medical Center, OH, and other centers.

  11. Anxiety, Methylphenidate Response, and Working Memory in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Anne-Claude; Tannock, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on components of working memory (WM) in children with ADHD and determine whether MPH produces differential effects on WM in children with comorbid anxiety (ANX). Method: Participants were a clinical sample of 130 children with ADHD, aged 6 to 12 years old (32% comorbid ANX). Each child…

  12. Effects of Methylphenidate on Working Memory Components: Influence of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Anne-Claude; Jain, Umesh; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    Background: To investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on components of working memory (WM) in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and determine the responsiveness of WM measures to MPH. Methods: Participants were a clinical sample of 50 children and adolescents with ADHD, aged 6 to 16 years old, who participated in an acute…

  13. Methylphenidate as a cognitive enhancer in healthy young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistela, Silmara; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Vaz, Leonardo José; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The so-called cognitive enhancers have been widely and increasingly used by healthy individuals who seek improvements in cognitive performance despite having no pathologies. One drug used for this purpose is methylphenidate, a first-line drug for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the effect of acute administration of varying doses of methylphenidate (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg and placebo) on a wide range of cognitive functions in healthy young people. Methods: A total of 36 young university students and graduates participated in the study. The participants underwent tests of attention and of episodic, and working memory. Results: No differences in performance were observed on any of the tests. There was a dose-dependent (40 mg > placebo) effect on self-reported wellbeing. Conclusions: According to the recent literature, psychostimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, improve performance when cognitive processes are below an optimal level, which was not the case for the subjects of the present study. We suggest the impression that methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in healthy young people, justifying its use, may be due to improvements in subjective wellbeing promoted by the drug. PMID:29213444

  14. Methylphenidate in Treatment of ADHD and Comorbid Chronic Tic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children (ages 6-12 years with Tourette's syndrome (96% or chronic motor tic disorder (4% were evaluated at State University of New York, Stony Brook.

  15. Prescribing of methylphenidate to children and adolescents in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-13

    Nov 13, 2008 ... Background: Pharmacoepidemiological studies on ADHD are limited in South Africa. The primary aim was to analyse the prescribing of methylphenidate to patients aged 18 years and younger in the private health care sector. Methods: Data for a one-month period in 2004 were obtained from a large ...

  16. Prescribing of methylphenidate to children and adolescents in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pharmacoepidemiological studies on ADHD are limited in South Africa. The primary aim was to analyse the prescribing of methylphenidate to patients aged 18 years and younger in the private health care sector. Methods: Data for a one-month period in 2004 were obtained from a large medical aid ...

  17. Methylphenidate use and poly-substance use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-22

    Mar 22, 2016 ... Methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Prescriptions for and usage of MPH products have increased sharply since the early 1990s with accompanying concerns about potential misuse.1,2,3 While peer pressure and experimentation ...

  18. Prescribing patterns of methylphenidate in a South African patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADHD) in children. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the prescribing patterns of methylphenidate of a medical aid patient population in a private sector and to compare the results with previous studies. An exposure cohort drug ...

  19. Striatal Activation Predicts Differential Therapeutic Responses to Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Stein, Mark A; Ivanov, Iliyan; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Methylphenidate has prominent effects in the dopamine-rich striatum that are absent for the selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitor atomoxetine. This study tested whether baseline striatal activation would predict differential response to the two medications in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 36 youth with ADHD performed a Go/No-Go test during functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and were treated with methylphenidate and atomoxetine using a randomized cross-over design. Whole-brain task-related activation was regressed on clinical response. Task-related activation in right caudate nucleus was predicted by an interaction of clinical responses to methylphenidate and atomoxetine (F 1,30  = 17.00; p atomoxetine. The rate of robust response was higher for methylphenidate than for atomoxetine in youth with high (94.4% vs. 38.8%; p = .003; number needed to treat = 2, 95% CI = 1.31-3.73) but not low (33.3% vs. 50.0%; p = .375) caudate activation. Furthermore, response to atomoxetine predicted motor cortex activation (F 1,30  = 14.99; p atomoxetine in youth with ADHD, purportedly reflecting the dopaminergic effects of methylphenidate but not atomoxetine in the striatum, whereas motor cortex activation may predict response to atomoxetine. These data do not yet translate directly to the clinical setting, but the approach is potentially important for informing future research and illustrates that it may be possible to predict differential treatment response using a biomarker-driven approach. Stimulant Versus Nonstimulant Medication for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children; https://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00183391. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. North-American MP Tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1977-01-01

    There are six North-American MP Tandem accelerators: Yale; Minnesota; Chalk River; Rochester; and two at Brookhaven. The current status and operating characteristics of these six tandem accelerators are discussed. Upgrade and special improvements of the different machines is reviewed and new developments since the last Electrostatic Conference are discussed in detail. The overall operating characteristics of the different machines during the last year of operation are compared

  1. MP3 compression of Doppler ultrasound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poepping, Tamie L; Gill, Jeremy; Fenster, Aaron; Holdsworth, David W

    2003-01-01

    The effect of lossy, MP3 compression on spectral parameters derived from Doppler ultrasound (US) signals was investigated. Compression was tested on signals acquired from two sources: 1. phase quadrature and 2. stereo audio directional output. A total of 11, 10-s acquisitions of Doppler US signal were collected from each source at three sites in a flow phantom. Doppler signals were digitized at 44.1 kHz and compressed using four grades of MP3 compression (in kilobits per second, kbps; compression ratios in brackets): 1400 kbps (uncompressed), 128 kbps (11:1), 64 kbps (22:1) and 32 kbps (44:1). Doppler spectra were characterized by peak velocity, mean velocity, spectral width, integrated power and ratio of spectral power between negative and positive velocities. The results suggest that MP3 compression on digital Doppler US signals is feasible at 128 kbps, with a resulting 11:1 compression ratio, without compromising clinically relevant information. Higher compression ratios led to significant differences for both signal sources when compared with the uncompressed signals. Copyright 2003 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology

  2. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylphenidate on circulating steroid levels in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Seibert Julia; Hysek Cédric M; Penno Carlos A; Schmid Yasmin; Kratschmar Denise V; Liechti Matthias E; Odermatt Alex

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate are widely used psychoactive substances. MDMA primarily enhances serotonergic neurotransmission, and methylphenidate increases dopamine but has no serotonergic effects. Both drugs also increase norepinephrine, resulting in sympathomimetic properties. Here we studied the effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on 24-h plasma steroid profiles. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight men, eight women) were treated with single doses of M...

  3. Cardiac Arrest following a Myocardial Infarction in a Child Treated with Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Kim; Gormsen, Lise Kirstine; Kim, Won Yong

    2015-01-01

    -years, did not report any cases of myocardial infarction in current users of methylphenidate, and the risk of serious adverse cardiac events was not found to be increased. We present a case with an 11-year-old child, treated with methylphenidate, who suffered cardiac arrest and was diagnosed with a remote...... myocardial infarction. This demonstrates that myocardial infarction can happen due to methylphenidate exposure in a cardiac healthy child, without cardiovascular risk factors....

  4. Comparison of Stimdate with Ritalin in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Khosrovan Mehr

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of stimdate compared to ritalin in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. "nMethod: Sixty four subjects (45 boys and 15 girls aged 5-13 who were diagnosed with ADHD based on (DSM-IV-TR criteria were selected for this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: one group with 30 subjects received stimdate and the other group of 30 subjects received ritalin for 6 weeks. Treatment outcomes were assessed using the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Rating Scale administered at baseline and on weeks 2, 4 and 6 following the treatment. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (time- treatment interaction was used. "nResults: There were no significant differences between sex, age, weight, and ethnicity of the participants in the 2 groups. Both groups showed a significant improvement during the 6 weeks of the treatment period, and this improvement was due to the parents' ADHD Rating Scale during the treatment. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, no significant difference was observed between the two medications, and it seems both drugs behave[M1]  in a similar way. In addition, stimdate appears to be effective and well tolerated for ADHD in children and adolescents in Iran. "n 

  5. OpenMP 4.5 Validation and Verification Suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-15

    OpenMP, a directive-based programming API, introduce directives for accelerator devices that programmers are starting to use more frequently in production codes. To make sure OpenMP directives work correctly across architectures, it is critical to have a mechanism that tests for an implementation's conformance to the OpenMP standard. This testing process can uncover ambiguities in the OpenMP specification, which helps compiler developers and users make a better use of the standard. We fill this gap through our validation and verification test suite that focuses on the offload directives available in OpenMP 4.5.

  6. Use of methylphenidate among medical students: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Finger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of methylphenidate on cognitive enhancement, memory, and performance in medical students. METHODS: A review of four databases (LILACS, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SciELO, analyzing the title and of all articles published between 1990 and 2012 in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Selected articles were read in entirety, including in the review those that met the established criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of use among medical students reached 16%, with no gender difference. Most students began using the drug after entering the university, and the reasons cited to justify it are related to enhancing academic performance. CONCLUSION: There is no evidence in the literature that the use of methylphenidate is beneficial in terms of memory or learning. The drug simply increases wakefulness and alertness, reducing the time of sleep.

  7. Methylphenidate and stimulus control of avoidance behavior1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretch, Roger; Skinner, Nicholas

    1967-01-01

    The introduction of a warning signal that preceded a scheduled shock modified the temporal distribution of free-operant avoidance responses. With response-shock and shock-shock intervals held constant, response rates increased only slightly when the response-signal interval was reduced. The result is consistent with Sidman's (1955) findings under different conditions, but at variance with Ulrich, Holz, and Azrin's (1964) findings under similar conditions. Methylphenidate in graded doses increased response rates, modifying frequency distributions of interresponse times. Drug treatment may have disrupted a “temporal discrimination” formed within the signal-shock interval. More simply, methylphenidate influenced response rates by increasing short response latencies after signal onset; this effect was more prominent than the drug's tendency to increase the frequency of pre-signal responses. When signal-onset preceded shock by 2 sec, individual differences in performance were marked; methylphenidate suppressed responding in one rat as a function of increasing dose levels to a greater degree than in a second animal, but both subjects received more shocks than under control conditions. PMID:6050059

  8. LETTER TO THE EDITOR - COMMENTS ON CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS IN CHILDREN TREATED WITH METHYLPHENIDATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent report by El-Zein et al. suggests that chromosome alterations may be a consequence of short-term methylphenidate use for the treatment of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The report concludes that 3 months of treatment with methylphenidate...

  9. Methylphenidate produces selective enhancement of declarative memory consolidation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linssen, A M W; Vuurman, E F P M; Sambeth, A; Riedel, W J

    2012-06-01

    Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline and is used to treat children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Besides reducing behavioral symptoms, it improves their cognitive function. There are also observations of methylphenidate-induced cognition enhancement in healthy adults, although studies in this area are relatively sparse. We assessed the possible memory-enhancing properties of methylphenidate. In the current study, the possible enhancing effects of three doses of methylphenidate on declarative and working memory, attention, response inhibition and planning were investigated in healthy volunteers. In a double blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 19 healthy young male volunteers were tested after a single dose of placebo or 10, 20 or 40 mg of methylphenidate. Cognitive performance testing included a word learning test as a measure of declarative memory, a spatial working memory test, a set-shifting test, a stop signal test and a computerized version of the Tower of London planning test. Declarative memory consolidation was significantly improved relative to placebo after 20 and 40 mg of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate also improved set shifting and stopped signal task performance but did not affect spatial working memory or planning. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting enhanced declarative memory consolidation after methylphenidate in a dose-related fashion over a dose range that is presumed to reflect a wide range of dopamine reuptake inhibition.

  10. Core ADHD Symptom Improvement with Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Direct Comparison Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Dickson, Ruth; Walton, Richard J.; Granger, Renee E.; van Wyk, Gregory W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies comparing atomoxetine and methylphenidate to treat ADHD symptoms have been equivocal. This noninferiority meta-analysis compared core ADHD symptom response between atomoxetine and methylphenidate in children and adolescents. Method: Selection criteria included randomized, controlled design; duration 6 weeks; and…

  11. Effect of Methylphenidate on Retention and Retrieval of Passive Avoidance Memory in Young and Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Several studies showed that dopamine and norepinephrine improve retention and retrieval of memory. Methylphenidate is an enhancer of dopamine and norepinephrine in brain. Objectives In the present study, the effect of methylphenidate was evaluated on retention and retrieval of memory in young and aged mice using passive avoidance apparatus. Materials and Methods Animals were divided into groups (n = 8 as follows: test groups received electric shock plus methylphenidate (2.5, 5 and 10mg kg-1, i. P., control group received electric shock plus normal saline and blank group received only electric shock. In all groups, step-down latency for both retention and retrieval test of memory was measured. Methylphenidate was administered immediately after receiving electric shock in the retention test, but methylphenidate was administered 23.5 hours after receiving electric shock in the retrieval test. Results The mean of step-down latency on day 4 was significantly higher compared to day 2 (P < 0.05 in all young and aged groups of mice. The best response was attained with 5 mg/kg of methylphenidate. In memory retention test, the mean of step-down latency in young groups that received 2.5 and 5 mg/kg methylphenidate was significantly longer(P < 0.05 than aged groups. However, this difference was not significant in memory retrieval test. Conclusions Methylphenidate may improve memory retention and retrieval.

  12. Predictors of treatment outcome in adults with ADHD treated with OROS(R) methylphenidate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Kooij, J.J.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Dejonckheere, J.; Casas, M.; Oene, J.C. van; Schauble, B.; Trott, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of the Long-Acting MethylpheniDate in Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (LAMDA) study to investigate predictors of response in adults with ADHD randomly assigned to Osmotic Release Oral System (OROS)((R))-methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH)

  13. Compression of surface myoelectric signals using MP3 encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adrian D C

    2011-01-01

    The potential of MP3 compression of surface myoelectric signals is explored in this paper. MP3 compression is a perceptual-based encoder scheme, used traditionally to compress audio signals. The ubiquity of MP3 compression (e.g., portable consumer electronics and internet applications) makes it an attractive option for remote monitoring and telemedicine applications. The effects of muscle site and contraction type are examined at different MP3 encoding bitrates. Results demonstrate that MP3 compression is sensitive to the myoelectric signal bandwidth, with larger signal distortion associated with myoelectric signals that have higher bandwidths. Compared to other myoelectric signal compression techniques reported previously (embedded zero-tree wavelet compression and adaptive differential pulse code modulation), MP3 compression demonstrates superior performance (i.e., lower percent residual differences for the same compression ratios).

  14. The Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate and Dexmethylphenidate in Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Sopko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To review the literature on the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate, OROS-methylphenidate, methylphenidate ER, and dexmethylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. To analyze the effects of different doses of methylphenidate, it's various formulations, and methylphenidate on efficacy and safety in this population. Data Sources Literature retrieval was performed through Pubmed/MEDLINE (Up to May 2010 using the terms methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. Study Selection and Data Extraction Double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trials, as well as crossover and open-label trials found using the search criteria listed above were included for review. Case reports were not included in this review. Data Synthesis Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a psychiatric condition that is commonly seen in children and adolescents, that persists into adulthood for about 50% of patients. Methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate are often prescribed to treat the symptoms associated with ADHD. The literature validating the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD is substantial. However, the literature specifically addressing the safety and efficacy of these medications in the adult population is less extensive and prescribing is often anecdotal based on child and adolescent data. Understanding the literature regarding methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate and its effects in adults can enhance evidence-based medicine (EBM and improve treatment outcomes Conclusion Methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate are safe and effective medications to treat the symptoms of ADHD in adults. Based on the literature, increased doses are associated with better treatment response with moderate safety concerns. The different dosage forms

  15. Analytical gradients for tensor hyper-contracted MP2 and SOS-MP2 on graphical processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chenchen; Martínez, Todd J.

    2017-10-01

    Analytic energy gradients for tensor hyper-contraction (THC) are derived and implemented for second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), with and without the scaled-opposite-spin (SOS)-MP2 approximation. By exploiting the THC factorization, the formal scaling of MP2 and SOS-MP2 gradient calculations with respect to system size is reduced to quartic and cubic, respectively. An efficient implementation has been developed that utilizes both graphics processing units and sparse tensor techniques exploiting spatial sparsity of the atomic orbitals. THC-MP2 has been applied to both geometry optimization and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. The resulting energy conservation in micro-canonical AIMD demonstrates that the implementation provides accurate nuclear gradients with respect to the THC-MP2 potential energy surfaces.

  16. Comparison of 3MP medical-grade to 1MP office grade LCD monitors in mammographic diagnostic and perceptual performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Aaron; Tan, Shu.; Gledhill, Samuel; Hennessy, Oliver; Lui, Belinda; Lee, Alan; Lemish, Wayne; Styles, Colin; Pun, Emma; Padmanabhan, Meenakshi; Pitman, Alexander G.; Tauro, Paul; Waugh, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Picture archiving and communication systems images designed to be viewed on high-resolution medical-grade monitors are routinely viewed on office-grade monitors on the wards or at home. This study aimed to determine whether a statistically significant difference in diagnostic (cancer detection) and perceptual (microcalcification detection) performance exists between 3MP grade and 1MP office-grade monitors. 3MP Dome medical-grade liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors (Planar, Beaverton, OR, USA) were compared to 1MP Dell office-grade LCD monitors (Dell Inc, Round Rock, TX, USA). Eight radiologists (reader experi ence 8-30 years) read the same set of 100 mammograms (23/100 with proven cancers and 52/100 with microcalcifications) presented in random order on three occasions separated by two time intervals of 12 weeks. Reads 1 and 3 utilised 3MP monitors and formed the baseline read. Read 2 utilised 1MP monitors and constituted the experimental read. Reading conditions were standardised. Readers were aware of which monitors they were using. Mul tivariate logistic regression analysis (to account for reader variability and monitor impact) was performed to assess for statistical significance. At a = 5%, confidence intervals analysis comparing the measured parameters between 1MP to 3MP monitors demonstrated no statistically significant difference in diagnostic and perceptual performance for the reader group. In cancer detection (the diagnostic task), reader accuracy remained high irrespective of monitor type. Regression analysis comparing performance with 1MP against 3MP monitors found P values of 0.693 and 0.324 for diagnostic and perceptual performance, respectively. There were no statistically and clinically significant differences between 3MP and 1MP monitors in mammographic diagnostic and perceptual performance. Comparable performance may be due to compensatory behav iour by readers.

  17. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: The MP-1 and MP-2 late phase melt progression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tautges, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRs. As a part of an ongoing assessment program, MELCOR has been used to model the MP-1 and MP-2 experiments, which provided data for late-phase melt progression in PWR geometries. Core temperature predicted by MELCOR were within 250--500 K of measured data in both MP-1 and MP-2. Relocation in the debris bed and metallic crust regions of MP-2 was predicted accurately compared to PIE data. Temperature gradients in lower portions of the test bundle were not predicted well in both MP-1 and MP-2, due to the lack of modeling of the heat transfer path to the cooling jacket in those portions of the test bundles. Fifteen sensitivity studies were run on various core (COR), control volume hydrodynamics (CVH) and heat structures (HS) package parameters. No unexpected sensitivities were found, and in particular there were no sensitivities to reduced time step, finer nodalization or to computer platform. Calculations performed by the DEBRIS and TAC2D codes for MP-1 and MP-2 showed better agreement with measured data than those performed by MELCOR. This was expected, through, due to the fully 2-dimensional modeling used in the other codes

  18. Adolescents risky MP3-player listening and its psychosocial correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2011-01-01

    Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily

  19. Adolescents Risky MP3-Player Listening and Its Psychosocial Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily informed by protection motivation theory. We invited…

  20. Screening of snoring with an MP3 recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreivi, Hanna-Riikka; Salmi, Tapani; Maasilta, Paula; Bachour, Adel

    2013-03-01

    Snoring patients seeking medical assistance represent a wide range of clinical and sleep study findings from nonsleepy nonapneic snoring to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The prevalence of snoring is high and it significantly impacts quality of life. Its objective diagnosis usually requires a sleep study. We developed a system to analyze snoring sounds with a Moving Picture Experts Group Layer-3 Audio (MP3) recorder device and present its value in the screening of snoring. We recorded snoring sounds during in-lab polysomnography (PSG) in 200 consecutive patients referred for a suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea. Snoring was recorded during the PSG with two microphones: one attached to the throat and the other to the ceiling; an MP3 device was attached to the patient's collar. Snoring was confirmed when the MP3 acoustic signal exceeded twice the median value of the acoustic signal for the entire recording. Results of the MP3 snoring recording were compared to the snoring recordings from the PSG. MP3 recording proved technically successful for 87% of the patients. The Pearson correlation between PSG snoring and MP3 snoring was highly significant at 0.77 (p MP3 recording device underestimated the snoring time by a mean ± SD of 32 ± 55 min. The recording of snoring with an MP3 device provides reliable information about the patient's snoring.

  1. Effects of methylphenidate and MDMA on appraisal of erotic stimuli and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Yasmin; Hysek, Cédric M; Preller, Katrin H; Bosch, Oliver G; Bilderbeck, Amy C; Rogers, Robert D; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate mainly enhances dopamine neurotransmission whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") mainly enhances serotonin neurotransmission. However, both drugs also induce a weaker increase of cerebral noradrenaline exerting sympathomimetic properties. Dopaminergic psychostimulants are reported to increase sexual drive, while serotonergic drugs typically impair sexual arousal and functions. Additionally, serotonin has also been shown to modulate cognitive perception of romantic relationships. Whether methylphenidate or MDMA alter sexual arousal or cognitive appraisal of intimate relationships is not known. Thus, we evaluated effects of methylphenidate (40 mg) and MDMA (75 mg) on subjective sexual arousal by viewing erotic pictures and on perception of romantic relationships of unknown couples in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 30 healthy adults. Methylphenidate, but not MDMA, increased ratings of sexual arousal for explicit sexual stimuli. The participants also sought to increase the presentation time of implicit sexual stimuli by button press after methylphenidate treatment compared with placebo. Plasma levels of testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone were not associated with sexual arousal ratings. Neither MDMA nor methylphenidate altered appraisal of romantic relationships of others. The findings indicate that pharmacological stimulation of dopaminergic but not of serotonergic neurotransmission enhances sexual drive. Whether sexual perception is altered in subjects misusing methylphenidate e.g., for cognitive enhancement or as treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is of high interest and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Inhibit Social Play Behavior through Prefrontal and Subcortical Limbic Mechanisms in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, E.J. Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W.M.; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed to identify the neural substrates of the play-suppressant effects of these drugs. Methylphenidate is thought to exert its effects on cognition and emotion through limbic corticostriatal systems. Therefore, methylphenidate was infused into prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical regions as well as into several subcortical limbic areas implicated in social play. Infusion of methylphenidate into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, and habenula inhibited social play, but not social exploratory behavior or locomotor activity. Consistent with a noradrenergic mechanism of action of methylphenidate, infusion of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine into these same regions also reduced social play. Methylphenidate administration into the prelimbic, medial/ventral orbitofrontal, and ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, or nucleus accumbens shell was ineffective. Our data show that the inhibitory effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on social play are mediated through a distributed network of prefrontal and limbic subcortical regions implicated in cognitive control and emotional processes. These findings increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of this developmentally important social behavior, as well as the mechanism of action of two widely used treatments for ADHD. PMID:25568111

  3. Methylphenidate decreased the amount of glucose needed by the brain to perform a cognitive task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of stimulants (methylphenidate and amphetamine as cognitive enhancers by the general public is increasing and is controversial. It is still unclear how they work or why they improve performance in some individuals but impair it in others. To test the hypothesis that stimulants enhance signal to noise ratio of neuronal activity and thereby reduce cerebral activity by increasing efficiency, we measured the effects of methylphenidate on brain glucose utilization in healthy adults. We measured brain glucose metabolism (using Positron Emission Tomography and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in 23 healthy adults who were tested at baseline and while performing an accuracy-controlled cognitive task (numerical calculations given with and without methylphenidate (20 mg, oral. Sixteen subjects underwent a fourth scan with methylphenidate but without cognitive stimulation. Compared to placebo methylphenidate significantly reduced the amount of glucose utilized by the brain when performing the cognitive task but methylphenidate did not affect brain metabolism when given without cognitive stimulation. Whole brain metabolism when the cognitive task was given with placebo increased 21% whereas with methylphenidate it increased 11% (50% less. This reflected both a decrease in magnitude of activation and in the regions activated by the task. Methylphenidate's reduction of the metabolic increases in regions from the default network (implicated in mind-wandering was associated with improvement in performance only in subjects who activated these regions when the cognitive task was given with placebo. These results corroborate prior findings that stimulant medications reduced the magnitude of regional activation to a task and in addition document a "focusing" of the activation. This effect may be beneficial when neuronal resources are diverted (i.e., mind-wandering or impaired (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but it could be detrimental when

  4. Assessment of Mercaptopurine (6MP) Metabolites and 6MP Metabolic Key-Enzymes in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojtuszkiewicz, A.; Barcelos, A.; Dubbelman, B.; Abreu, R.A. de; Brouwer, C.; Bökkerink, J.P.M.; Haas, V. de; Groot-Kruseman, H. de; Jansen, G.; Kaspers, G.L.; Cloos, J.; Peters, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is treated with combination chemotherapy including mercaptopurine (6MP) as an important component. Upon its uptake, 6MP undergoes a complex metabolism involving many enzymes and active products. The prognostic value of all the factors engaged in this

  5. Developmental rates of immatures of three Chrysomya species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under the effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and methylphenidate hydrochloride associated with phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Fábio; Alonso, Marcela A; Souza, Carina M; Thyssen, Patrícia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2014-05-01

    Entomotoxicology is focused on obtaining data on necrophagous entomofauna, for criminal investigations purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and their association on the developmental rate, larval and pupal survivorship, and the interval of emergence of adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Considering the therapeutic dose (TD) of methylphenidate hydrochloride (0.29 mg/Kg), the concentrations tested were 10× TD, 50× TD, and 100× TD. For phenobarbital, the concentrations used were 1× TD (=150 mg/Kg), 3.3× TD, and 6.7× TD. For the association of the drugs, the combinations used were 10× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 1× TD-phenobarbital, 50× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 3.3× TD-phenobarbital, and 100× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 6.7× TD-phenobarbital. The control group, without addition of drug, was maintained under the same conditions of temperature (25 ± 1 °C), humidity (70 ± 10%), and photoperiod (12 h). Specimens of each group were weighed every 12 h until pupariation. The developmental rate of the three Chrysomya species immatures was monitored. For C. albiceps the developmental time was delayed in 24 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 12 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The effect was observed only at specific ages for C. megacephala, without altering the developmental time. For C. putoria, the developmental time was delayed in 12 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 24 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The emergence interval was similar among all experimental groups, but larval and pupal viabilities were affected in different ways.

  6. Combined methylphenidate and atomoxetine pharmacotherapy in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Kose, Sezen; Yuzuguldu, Onur; Atar, Burcu; Aydin, Cahide

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) includes stimulant and non-stimulant medications. Our purpose in this study is to investigate efficacy, safety and tolerability of combined methylphenidate and atomoxetine pharmacotherapy. We included 12 patients of the 824 patients with ADHD using methylphenidate and atomoxetine combined therapy between the years 2010 and 2014. Kiddie-SADS, Turgay DSM-IV Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale, Child Behavior Checklist, Clinic Global Impression Scale Severity and Impression (CGIS-S-I) scales were used. Patients were between the ages of 7 and 17 years. Before combined pharmacotherapy the CGIS-S score mean was 5.08. Mean CGIS-S score after the combined pharmacotherapy was 3.08 (P = 0.03; -2,980). The most common side effects were irritability (n = 5, 41.6%), appetite reduction (n = 3, 25%), palpitations (n = 2, 16.7%), headache (n = 1, 8.3%). Nine of these 12 patients showed significant improvement in their symptoms, combined therapy enhanced the effectiveness of monotherapy.

  7. Dissociation between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) andWistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats in baseline performance and methylphenidate response on measures of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-08

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely accepted rodent model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate (MP) is a central nervous systemstimulant that has been shown to have a dose-related positive effect on attention task performance in humans with ADHD. The current study was undertaken to compare SHR to its typical control strain, Wistar-Kyoto(WKY) rats, on the performance of a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task (VSPDT) as well as of the responsiveness of the two rat strains to MP treatment. The rats were initially trained on the VSPDT, in which a light cue was presented randomly at three different cue-light intervals (1 s, 300 ms and 100 ms) over one of two levers, and presses on the lever corresponding to the light cue were reinforced with a food pellet. Once rats reached stable performance, the treatment phase of the study began, during which they received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline, 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg of MP in a randomized order immediately prior to being tested on the VSPDT. Baseline performance accuracy on the VSPDT did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, a striking strain dissociation was evident in the response of the two strains to treatment; VSPDT performance was substantially disrupted by the 5 and 10 mg/kg dose in the WKY rats but only mildly in the SHR rats. Response omissions were also increased only in WKY rats. Finally, both strains had increased locomotor activity in the operant chamber following MP treatment. These findings point to an important difference in response tendency toMP in the two strains that supports a view that a critical difference between these strains may suggest neurochemical and neuroadaptive differences associated with the behavioral impairments of ADHD.

  8. Methylphenidate use and school performance among primary school children : a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Cicek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens H. J.; de Vries, Tjalling W.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various

  9. Dextroamphetamine and Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Hyperactive/Agressive Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsberg, Bertrand G.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Studied was the comparative effectiveness of dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate for the treatment of severe behavior disorders among 18 children (from 5 to 10 1/2 years of age) hospitalized for neuropsychiatric conditions. (Author)

  10. Anxiety and methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-drug trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshe, Keren; Karni, Avi; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between attention and anxiety and the response to methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a total of 57 boys, between the ages of 7-12 years, were assessed for their attention and level of anxiety. Methylphenidate was administered for a week in a randomized double-blind drug/placebo-drug cross-over design. The levels of anxiety were evenly distributed between the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive types. Anxiety was significantly correlated with the attention as reported by both teachers and parents. The response to methylphenidate was inversely correlated with the reported anxiety level only in boys with the hyperactive/impulsive and combined types. The higher the level of anxiety, the lower level of response to methylphenidate was observed. In the assessment and treatment of children with ADHD, the level of anxiety should be evaluated and taken into account while planning and monitoring treatment regiment.

  11. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Storebø, Ole Jakob; Rosendal, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:To assess beneficial and harmful effects of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with ADHD.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:To assess beneficial and harmful effects of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with ADHD....

  12. Laboratory measures of methylphenidate effects in cocaine-dependent patients receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roache, J D; Grabowski, J; Schmitz, J M; Creson, D L; Rhoades, H M

    2000-02-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of methylphenidate in male and female patients enrolled in an outpatient treatment program for primary cocaine dependence. The first study was a component of a double-blind efficacy trial wherein 57 patients were first tested in a human laboratory for their initial responsiveness to medication. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or methylphenidate treatment and received their first dose in the human laboratory environment before continuing in outpatient treatment. Methylphenidate was given as a 20-mg sustained-release dose (twice daily) plus an additional 5-mg immediate-release dose combined with the morning dose. Methylphenidate increased heart rate and subjective ratings; however, the subjective effects were primarily of a "dysphoric" nature, and significant effects were limited to increases in anxiety, depression, and anger on the Profile of Mood States; shaky/jittery ratings on a visual analog scale; and dysphoria on the lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) scale of the Addiction Research Center Inventory. Methylphenidate did not increase cocaine craving nor ratings suggesting abuse potential (i.e., Morphine-Benzedrine Group or drug-liking scores, etc.). None of the drug effects observed in the human laboratory was of clinical concern, and no subject was precluded from continuing in the outpatient study. After outpatient treatment completion, 12 patients were brought back into a second double-blind human laboratory study in which three doses (15, 30, and 60 mg) of immediate-release methylphenidate were administered in an ascending series preceded and followed by placebo. Methylphenidate produced dose-related increases in heart rate, subjective ratings of shaky/jittery, and LSD/dysphoria without significantly altering cocaine craving or stimulant euphoria ratings. These results suggest that stimulant substitution-type approaches to the treatment of cocaine dependence are not necessarily contraindicated

  13. Non-medical use of methylphenidate among medical students of the University of the Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshini Jain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Faced with demanding training programmes, medical students may be more prone to use methylphenidate for non-medical purposes in order to improve concentration, alertness and academic performance. Aim: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the non-medical use of methylphenidate and knowledge of this drug among undergraduate medical students of the University of the Free State. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed during lectures to all students in the five year groups of the undergraduate medical programme. Results: Of the 643 undergraduate medical students, 541 completed the questionnaire (response rate: 84.1%. Approximately 11.0% of surveyed students were using methylphenidate at the time of the study, of which the majority (67.9% used it for academic purposes and 70.6% received it from a medical health professional. Less than a third of users had been diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Methylphenidate users’ median knowledge was greater than non-users, and methylphenidate knowledge increased from first-year and second-year students to third-year to fifth-year students. Median knowledge scores per year group ranged from 52.0% to 60.0%. Conclusion: Methylphenidate is mainly used for non-medical purposes by medical students. Students generally have a low level of knowledge on methylphenidate. Specific information on methylphenidate should be included in lectures on stress management and study methods during the course of the medical curriculum.

  14. Non-medical use of methylphenidate among medical students of the University of the Free State

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Roshini; Chang, Chiech; Koto, Mpho; Geldenhuys, Alden; Nichol, Richard; Joubert, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Faced with demanding training programmes, medical students may be more prone to use methylphenidate for non-medical purposes in order to improve concentration, alertness and academic performance. Aim: The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the non-medical use of methylphenidate and knowledge of this drug among undergraduate medical students of the University of the Free State. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire...

  15. Effects of Methylphenidate on Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine Pathways in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2013-08-01

    Cocaine addiction is associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity among regions of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathways. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, an indirect dopamine agonist, normalizes task-related regional brain activity and associated behavior in cocaine users; however, the neural systems–level effects of methylphenidate in this population have not yet been described. To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine changes in mesocorticolimbic connectivity with methylphenidate and how connectivity of affected pathways relates to severity of cocaine addiction.

  16. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  17. Numeric experiments on the Cray X-MP/48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, Y.; David, J.; Meurant, G.

    1985-06-01

    In this paper, evaluation tests for the CRAY X-MP/48 are presented. We use parallel algorithms for solving the transport equation with Monte-Carlo and the conjugate gradient method for solving linear systems [fr

  18. Overlapping Communication and Computation with OpenMP and MPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy H. Kaiser

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Machines comprised of a distributed collection of shared memory or SMP nodes are becoming common for parallel computing. OpenMP can be combined with MPI on many such machines. Motivations for combing OpenMP and MPI are discussed. While OpenMP is typically used for exploiting loop-level parallelism it can also be used to enable coarse grain parallelism, potentially leading to less overhead. We show how coarse grain OpenMP parallelism can also be used to facilitate overlapping MPI communication and computation for stencil-based grid programs such as a program performing Gauss-Seidel iteration with red-black ordering. Spatial subdivision or domain decomposition is used to assign a portion of the grid to each thread. One thread is assigned a null calculation region so it was free to perform communication. Example calculations were run on an IBM SP using both the Kuck & Associates and IBM compilers.

  19. CHaMP metrics - Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of CHaMP is to generate and implement a standard set of fish habitat monitoring (status and trend) methods in up to 26 watersheds across the Columbia River...

  20. Differences in methylphenidate abuse rates among methadone maintenance treatment patients in two clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Linzy, Shirley; Domani, Yoav; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    Methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like prescription medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was suspected as being abused among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. We tested its presence in the routine urine monitoring of all patients in both Tel Aviv and Las Vegas MMT clinics. Data on demographic and addiction history, ADHD (Wender Utah Rating Scale), cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Exam), and lifetime DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnosis from admission were retrieved, and retention following 6 months. None of the 190 patients in Las Vegas tested positive for methylphenidate, while 14.7% (45/306) did in Tel Aviv. Abusers were less educated (p = 0.01), had higher ADHD scores (p = 0.02), lower cognitive scores (p = 0.05), and a higher benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse rate (p cannabis, opiates, and cocaine abuse and infectious disease. Of the methylphenidate abuse 42.2% have take-home methadone dose privileges. Not like opiate use, being methylphenidate positive did not relate to 6-months retention. Compared to Tel Aviv, Las Vegas patients were more educated, with lower BDZ, and cocaine abuse. The greater abuse of methylphenidate among ADHD subjects might indicate their using it as self-medication, raising a possible indication for its prescription for that subgroup of MMT patients. The high rate of methylphenidate abuse in Israel needs future study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Facilitation of the USHPRR Program MP-1 Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolstenhulme, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the activities necessary to support the numerous transportation tasks involved with the successful completion of the mini-plate MP-1 and future MP experiments for the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor HEU to LEU conversion program. It includes information about the general activities necessary to implement equipment, operational processes, and safety basis changes required at the shipping facility and receipt facilities to support the shipments.

  2. Facilitation of the USHPRR Program MP-1 Shipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolstenhulme, Eric C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This report describes the activities necessary to support the numerous transportation tasks involved with the successful completion of the mini-plate MP-1 and future MP experiments for the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor HEU to LEU conversion program. It includes information about the general activities necessary to implement equipment, operational processes, and safety basis changes required at the shipping facility and receipt facilities to support the shipments.

  3. Concurrent object-oriented programming: The MP-Eiffel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Miguel Augusto Mendes Oliveira e

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates several possible approaches for integrating concurrency into object-oriented programming languages, presenting afterwards, a new language named MP-Eiffel. MP-Eiffel was designed attempting to include all the essential properties of both concurrent and object-oriented programming with simplicity and safety. A special care was taken to achieve the orthogonality of all the language mechanisms, allowing their joint use without unsafe side-effects (such as inh...

  4. Incidence of tinnitus in mp3 player users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; Azevedo, Andreia Aparecida de; Oliveira, Patrícia Mello de; Amorim, Sandro Pereira Vasconcellos; Rios, Artur Guedes; Baptista, Vanderlei

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to loud noise is one of the main causes of tinnitus. To analyze the incidence of tinnitus in mp3 player users and non-users. One hundred subjects aged from 15 to 30 years were enrolled, 54 of them were regular mp3 player users and 46 were not. Patients with continuous tinnitus for at least 6 months completed the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and were tested with high frequency audiometry and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TAOE). A cross-sectional cohort study. The incidence of tinnitus in non-users was about 8 %; in mp3 player users it was about 28 %, a statistically significant difference. Hearing thresholds at 8 kHz were significantly higher in tinnitus patients that used mp3 portable players.TAOE were reduced at 2 kHz in the users group. No statistically significant difference was found in the THI scores between the two groups. Tinnitus was more frequent in teenagers and young adults who regularly listen to mp3 music in players. Moreover, the incidence of tinnitus among mp3 player users was associated with higher hearing thresholds at 8 kHz and lower TOAE at 2 kHz.

  5. Methylphenidate-Related Improvements in Math Performance Cannot Be Explained by Better Cognitive Functioning or Higher Academic Motivation : Evidence From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas-Rijlaarsdam, Anne Fleur; Luman, Marjolein; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Bet, Pierre; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether improvements in working memory, reaction time, lapses of attention, interference control, academic motivation, and perceived competence mediated effects of methylphenidate on math performance. METHOD: Sixty-three children (ADHD diagnosis; methylphenidate

  6. Age-Dependent Effects of Methylphenidate on the Human Dopaminergic System in Young vs Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Clincal Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A.; Tamminga, H.G.H.; Bouziane, C.; Bottelier, M.A.; Bron, E.E.; Mutsaerts, H.-J.M.M.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Groote, I.R.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Lindauer, R.J.L.; Klein, S.; Niessen, W.J.; Opmeer, B.C.; Boer, F.; Lucassen, P.J.; Andersen, S.L.; Geurts, H.M.; Reneman, L.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Although numerous children receive methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. Objectives: To determine whether

  7. Age-Dependent Effects of Methylphenidate on the Human Dopaminergic System in Young vs Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, Anouk; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Bouziane, Cheima; Bottelier, Marco A.; Bron, Esther E.; Mutsaerts, Henk-Jan M. M.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Groote, Inge R.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; Klein, Stefan; Niessen, Wiro J.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Boer, Frits; Lucassen, Paul J.; Andersen, Susan L.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous children receive methylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. To determine whether the effects of

  8. Assessment of mercaptopurine (6MP) metabolites and 6MP metabolic key-enzymes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuszkiewicz, Anna; Barcelos, Ana; Dubbelman, Boas; De Abreu, Ronney; Brouwer, Connie; Bökkerink, Jos P; de Haas, Valerie; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester; Jansen, Gerrit; Kaspers, Gertjan L; Cloos, Jacqueline; Peters, G J

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is treated with combination chemotherapy including mercaptopurine (6MP) as an important component. Upon its uptake, 6MP undergoes a complex metabolism involving many enzymes and active products. The prognostic value of all the factors engaged in this pathway still remains unclear. This study attempted to determine which components of 6MP metabolism in leukemic blasts and red blood cells are important for 6MP's sensitivity and toxicity. In addition, changes in the enzymatic activities and metabolite levels during the treatment were analyzed. In a cohort (N=236) of pediatric ALL patients enrolled in the Dutch ALL-9 protocol, we studied the enzymes inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) as well as thioguanine nucleotides (TGN) and methylthioinosine nucleotides (meTINs). Activities of selected enzymes and levels of 6MP derivatives were measured at various time points during the course of therapy. The data obtained and the toxicity related parameters available for these patients were correlated with each other. We found several interesting relations, including high concentrations of two active forms of 6MP--TGN and meTIN--showing a trend toward association with better in vitro antileukemic effect of 6MP. High concentrations of TGN and elevated activity of HGPRT were found to be significantly associated with grade III/IV leucopenia. However, a lot of data of enzymatic activities and metabolite concentrations as well as clinical toxicity were missing, thereby limiting the number of assessed relations. Therefore, although a complex study of 6MP metabolism in ALL patients is feasible, it warrants more robust and strict data collection in order to be able to draw more reliable conclusions.

  9. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Parents Behavioral Training and Medication with Ritalin on the Rate of the Signs of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shahrbanian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present research is to determine the effectiveness of parents’ behavioral training in compare to medication on the rate of the signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Materials & Methods: Our population in this research was all boys in the elementary school (third, fourth and fifth grades and finally a sample of 630 subjects were included. We used a questionnaire of children’s morbid signs (CSI-4 which was completed by parents. For determination of acceptable scores in this scale, all subjects who obtained score 6 and more were selected and out of these subjects by use of random method as many as 45 subjects were chosen and 15 subjects were considered as the behavioral experimental group (under special care of a psychiatrist and the other 15 subjects were randomly put as the control group. The parents participated in seven sessions of behavioral training program, while for control group no kinds of training and medication intervention were carried out. Results: The results showed that both parent’s behavioral training program and medication have been effective meaningfully on ADHD (P=0.0005, also considering the averages differences, medication with Ritalin has caused more reduction of the signs of ADHD than parent’s behavioral training. Conclusion: At present, for children afflicted with ADHD, multi interventions are recommended that contains medication and parents training.

  10. Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-01-01

    Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs......). The rapid increase in use of medications for treatment of ADHD symptoms has created concern due to lack of information about effects from long-term use. The aim of this study was to compare ADR information in product information (PI)/summary of product characteristics (SPC) for oral formulations...... of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted...

  11. Immunomodulation of Parkinson's disease using Mucuna pruriens (Mp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sachchida Nand; Birla, Hareram; Zahra, Walia; Singh, Saumitra Sen; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2017-11-01

    Immune control is associated with nigrostriatal neuroprotection for Parkinson's disease (PD); though its direct cause and effect relationships have not yet been realized and modulating the immune system for therapeutic gain has been openly discussed. While the pathobiology of PD remains in study, neuroinflammation is thought to speed nigrostriatal degeneration. The neuroinflammatory cascade associated with PD begins with aggregation of misfolded or post-translationally modified α-synuclein (α-syn). Such aggregation results in neuronal cell death and the presence of chronically activated glia (microglia and astroglia), leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). These changes in the glial phenotype can affect the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment by producing a pro-inflammatory milieu that speeds PD pathogenesis. Mucuna pruriens (Mp) is the most popular drug in Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine. Several reports have suggested that it possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-epileptic and anti-microbial activities. Mp contain L-DOPA and ursolic acid which has an anti-inflammatory property. There are very few literatures which show the immunomodulatory activity of Mp in PD, several researchers have tried to work on the immunomodulatory activity of Mp in some other diseases. The results of several studies show that Mp modulate the immune components like TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-λ, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-2 in the CNS. It also modulates the activity of the transcription factor NF-kB which plays an important role in the progression of the PD. Thus, by altering these cytokines or transcription factors, Mp protects or prevents the progression of PD. Thus in this review we try to explore the immunomodulatory activity of Mp in PD. Copyright © 2017

  12. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (phasic release is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function was measured with PET and (18FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg. The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68% and with methylphenidate (64%. In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005 in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005, amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05. This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes, which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  13. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylphenidate on circulating steroid levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Julia; Hysek, Cédric M; Penno, Carlos A; Schmid, Yasmin; Kratschmar, Denise V; Liechti, Matthias E; Odermatt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate are widely used psychoactive substances. MDMA primarily enhances serotonergic neurotransmission, and methylphenidate increases dopamine but has no serotonergic effects. Both drugs also increase norepinephrine, resulting in sympathomimetic properties. Here we studied the effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on 24-hour plasma steroid profiles. 16 healthy subjects (8 men, 8 women) were treated with single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), MDMA + methylphenidate, and placebo on 4 separate days using a cross-over study design. Cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, and testosterone were repeatedly measured up to 24 h using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. MDMA significantly increased the plasma concentrations of cortisol, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone and also tended to moderately increase aldosterone levels compared with placebo. MDMA also increased the sum of cortisol + cortisone and the cortisol/cortisone ratio, consistent with an increase in glucocorticoid production. MDMA did not alter the levels of cortisone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, or testosterone. Methylphenidate did not affect any of the steroid concentrations, and it did not change the effects of MDMA on circulating steroids. In summary, the serotonin releaser MDMA has acute effects on circulating steroids. These effects are not observed after stimulation of the dopamine and norepinephrine systems with methylphenidate. The present findings support the view that serotonin rather than dopamine and norepinephrine mediates the acute pharmacologically induced stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the absence of other stressors. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Pradhan, K.; Jayne, M.; Logan, J.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and 18 FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  15. Implementation of MPICH on Top of MP_Lite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvarajan, Shoba [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to develop a new Channel Interface device for the MPICH Implementation of the MPI (Message Passing Interface) standard using MP_Lite. MP_Lite is a lightweight message-passing library that is not a full MPI implementation, but offers high performance MPICH (Message Passing Interface CHameleon) is a full implementation of the MPI standard that has the p4 library as the underlying communication device for TCP/IP networks. By integrating MP_Lite as a Channel Interface device in MPICH, a parallel programmer can utilize the full MPI implementation of MPICH as well as the high bandwidth offered by MP_Lite. There are several layers in the MPICH library where one can tie a new device. The Channel Interface is the lowest layer that requires very few functions to add a new device. By attaching MP_Lite to MPICH at the lowest level, the Channel Interface, almost all of the performance of the MP_Lite library can be delivered to the applications using MPICH. MP_Lite can be implemented either as a blocking or a non-blocking Channel Interface device. The performance was measured on two separate test clusters, the PC and the Alpha miniclusters, having Gigabit Ethernet connections. The PC cluster has two 1.8 GHz Pentium 4 PCs and the Alpha cluster has two 500 MHz Compaq DS20 workstations. Different network interface cards like Netgear, TrendNet and SysKonnect Gigabit Ethernet cards were used for the measurements. Both the blocking and non-blocking MPICH-MP_Lite Channel Interface devices perform close to raw TCP, whereas a performance loss of 25-30% is seen in the MPICH-p4 Channel Interface device for larger messages. The superior performance offered by the MPICH-MP_Lite device compared to the MPICH-p4 device can be easily seen on the SysKonnect cards using jumbo frames. The throughput curve also improves considerably by increasing the Eager/Rendezvous threshold.

  16. Implementation of MP_Lite for the VI Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Weiyi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    MP_Lite is a light weight message-passing library designed to deliver the maximum performance to applications in a portable and user friendly manner. The Virtual Interface (VI) architecture is a user-level communication protocol that bypasses the operating system to provide much better performance than traditional network architectures. By combining the high efficiency of MP_Lite and high performance of the VI architecture, they are able to implement a high performance message-passing library that has much lower latency and better throughput. The design and implementation of MP_Lite for M-VIA, which is a modular implementation of the VI architecture on Linux, is discussed in this thesis. By using the eager protocol for sending short messages, MP_Lite M-VIA has much lower latency on both Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. The handshake protocol and RDMA mechanism provides double the throughput that MPICH can deliver for long messages. MP_Lite M-VIA also has the ability to channel-bonding multiple network interface cards to increase the potential bandwidth between nodes. Using multiple Fast Ethernet cards can double or even triple the maximum throughput without increasing the cost of a PC cluster greatly.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Extended-Release Methylphenidate in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Sub-Optimally Treated with Immediate Release Methylphenidate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Kotsopoulos, Niko; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at

  18. Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of cocaine and methylphenidate have been linked to their ability to block dopamine transporters (DAT). Though cocaine and methylphenidate have similar in vitro affinities for DAT the abuse of methylphenidate in humans is substantially lower than of cocaine. To test if differences in in vivo potency at the DAT between these two drugs could account for the differences in their abuse liability the authors compared the levels of DAT occupancies that they had previously reported separately for intravenous methylphenidate in controls and for intravenous cocaine in cocaine abusers. DAT occupancies were measured with Positron Emission Tomography using [ 11 C]cocaine, as a DAT ligand, in 8 normal controls for the methylphenidate study and in 17 active cocaine abusers for the cocaine study. The ratio of the distribution volume of [ 11 C]cocaine in striatum to that in cerebellum, which corresponds to Bmax/Kd+1, was used as measure of DAT availability. Parallel measures were obtained to assess the cardiovascular effects of these two drugs. Methylphenidate and cocaine produced comparable dose-dependent blockage of DAT with an estimated ED 50 for methylphenidate of 0.07 mg/kg and for cocaine of 0.13 mg/kg. Both drugs induced similar increases in heart rate and blood pressure but the duration of the effects were significantly longer for methylphenidate than for cocaine

  19. Methylphenidate intoxications in children and adults: exposure circumstances and evidence-based dose threshold for pre-hospital triage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, Laura; Rietjens, Saskia J; Hunault, Claudine C; Pereira, Rob R; Kelleci, Nuriye; Yasar, Gulhan; Ghebreslasie, Ariam; Lo-A-Foe, Cindy; De Vries, Irma; Meulenbelt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Methylphenidate intoxications mostly have a relatively mild course, although serious complications can occur. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize methylphenidate exposures and reassess our current dose threshold for hospital referral (2 mg/kg). METHODS: In a prospective follow-up study, we

  20. Influence of Methylphenidate on Motor Performance and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Daniel, Liron; Dan, Orrie; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) often have coexisting developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The positive therapeutic effect of methylphenidate on ADHD symptoms is well documented, but its effects on motor coordination are less studied. We assessed the influence of methylphenidate on motor performance in children…

  1. Methylphenidate intoxications in children and adults : Exposure circumstances and evidence-based dose threshold for pre-hospital triage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondebrink, Laura; Rietjens, Saskia J.; Hunault, Claudine C.; Pereira, Rob R.; Kelleci, Nuriye; Yasar, Gulhan; Ghebreslasie, Ariam; Lo-A-Foe, Cindy; De Vries, Irma; Meulenbelt, Jan

    Context. Methylphenidate intoxications mostly have a relatively mild course, although serious complications can occur. Objective. We aimed to characterize methylphenidate exposures and reassess our current dose threshold for hospital referral (2 mg/kg). Methods. In a prospective follow-up study, we

  2. Buspirone versus Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Double-Blind and Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari-Ashtiani, Rozita; Shahrbabaki, Mahin Eslami; Razjouyan, Katayoon; Amini, Homayoun; Mazhabdar, Homa

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy and side effects of buspirone compared with methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 34 children with ADHD as defined by DSM-IV-TR were randomized to buspirone or methylphenidate dosed on weight-adjusted basis at buspirone (0.5 mg/kg/day) and methylphenidate…

  3. Generation new MP3 data set after compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoum, Mohammed Salem; Almahameed, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    The success of audio steganography techniques is to ensure imperceptibility of the embedded secret message in stego file and withstand any form of intentional or un-intentional degradation of secret message (robustness). Crucial to that using digital audio file such as MP3 file, which comes in different compression rate, however research studies have shown that performing steganography in MP3 format after compression is the most suitable one. Unfortunately until now the researchers can not test and implement their algorithm because no standard data set in MP3 file after compression is generated. So this paper focuses to generate standard data set with different compression ratio and different Genre to help researchers to implement their algorithms.

  4. Implementation of MP3 player for music therapy on hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J Y; Huang, D F; Li, Y; Zhang, Y T

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a common clinical disease and a major risk to human health. Many clinical findings indicate that certain types of music can reduce blood pressure (BP), and music therapy is considered as an important part of anti-hypertension treatment. We integrate our former related research achievement into the new MP3 player, which can also detect the current BP value with a cuffless measurement method. According to the current BP value, the MP3 player selects certain types of music for playing in order to alleviate the hypertension of patients.

  5. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: focus on methylphenidate hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasree Nair

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Rajasree Nair, Shannon B MossBaylor Family Medicine Residency at Garland, Garland, Texas, USAAbstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in young adults and causes significant psychosocial impairment and economic burden to society. Because of the paucity of long-term evidence and lack of national guidelines for diagnosis and management of adult ADHD, most of the data are based on experience derived from management of childhood ADHD. This article reviews the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of adult ADHD with special emphasis on the role of methylphenidate hydrochloride preparations in its treatment. Methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant that acts through the dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways, has shown more than 75% efficacy in controlling the symptoms of adult ADHD. Although concern for diversion of the drug exists, recent data have shown benefits in preventing substance use disorders in patients with adult ADHD.Keywords: adult ADHD, treatment, stimulants, methylphenidate hydrochloride

  6. Analytic energy gradients for orbital-optimized MP3 and MP2.5 with the density-fitting approximation: An efficient implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, Uğur

    2018-03-15

    Efficient implementations of analytic gradients for the orbital-optimized MP3 and MP2.5 and their standard versions with the density-fitting approximation, which are denoted as DF-MP3, DF-MP2.5, DF-OMP3, and DF-OMP2.5, are presented. The DF-MP3, DF-MP2.5, DF-OMP3, and DF-OMP2.5 methods are applied to a set of alkanes and noncovalent interaction complexes to compare the computational cost with the conventional MP3, MP2.5, OMP3, and OMP2.5. Our results demonstrate that density-fitted perturbation theory (DF-MP) methods considered substantially reduce the computational cost compared to conventional MP methods. The efficiency of our DF-MP methods arise from the reduced input/output (I/O) time and the acceleration of gradient related terms, such as computations of particle density and generalized Fock matrices (PDMs and GFM), solution of the Z-vector equation, back-transformations of PDMs and GFM, and evaluation of analytic gradients in the atomic orbital basis. Further, application results show that errors introduced by the DF approach are negligible. Mean absolute errors for bond lengths of a molecular set, with the cc-pCVQZ basis set, is 0.0001-0.0002 Å. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Early Experiences Writing Performance Portable OpenMP 4 Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Hernandez, Oscar R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the recently available directives in OpenMP 4 to parallelize a computational kernel using both the traditional shared memory approach and the newer accelerator targeting capabilities. In addition, we explore various transformations that attempt to increase application performance portability, and examine the expressiveness and performance implications of using these approaches. For example, we want to understand if the target map directives in OpenMP 4 improve data locality when mapped to a shared memory system, as opposed to the traditional first touch policy approach in traditional OpenMP. To that end, we use recent Cray and Intel compilers to measure the performance variations of a simple application kernel when executed on the OLCF s Titan supercomputer with NVIDIA GPUs and the Beacon system with Intel Xeon Phi accelerators attached. To better understand these trade-offs, we compare our results from traditional OpenMP shared memory implementations to the newer accelerator programming model when it is used to target both the CPU and an attached heterogeneous device. We believe the results and lessons learned as presented in this paper will be useful to the larger user community by providing guidelines that can assist programmers in the development of performance portable code.

  8. A Transparent Runtime Data Distribution Engine for OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two important contributions. First, the paper investigates the performance implications of data placement in OpenMP programs running on modern NUMA multiprocessors. Data locality and minimization of the rate of remote memory accesses are critical for sustaining high performance on these systems. We show that due to the low remote-to-local memory access latency ratio of contemporary NUMA architectures, reasonably balanced page placement schemes, such as round-robin or random distribution, incur modest performance losses. Second, the paper presents a transparent, user-level page migration engine with an ability to gain back any performance loss that stems from suboptimal placement of pages in iterative OpenMP programs. The main body of the paper describes how our OpenMP runtime environment uses page migration for implementing implicit data distribution and redistribution schemes without programmer intervention. Our experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework and provide a proof of concept that it is not necessary to introduce data distribution directives in OpenMP and warrant the simplicity or the portability of the programming model.

  9. Methylphenidate Has Superior Efficacy Over Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Preschool Children with Disruptive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Nauta, Maaike H; Emmelkamp, Paul; Hoekstra, Pieter J

    2018-02-01

    To compare the effectiveness between parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) and methylphenidate in preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and disruptive behaviors who had remaining significant behavior problems after previous behavioral parent training. We included 35 preschool children, ranging in age between 3.4 and 6.0 years. Participants were randomized to PCIT (n = 18) or methylphenidate (n = 17). Outcome measures were maternal ratings of the intensity and number of behavior problems and severity of ADHD symptoms. Changes from pretreatment to directly posttreatment were compared between groups using two-way mixed analysis of variance. We also made comparisons of both treatments to a nonrandomized care as usual (CAU) group (n = 17) regarding intensity and number of behavior problems. All children who started one of the treatments were included in the analyses. Mothers reported a significantly more decreased intensity of behavior problems after methylphenidate (pre-post effect size d = 1.50) compared with PCIT (d = 0.64). ADHD symptoms reduced significantly over time only after methylphenidate treatment (d = 0.48) and not after PCIT. Changes over time of children in the CAU treatment were nonsignificant. Although methylphenidate was more effective than PCIT, both interventions may be effective in the treatment of preschool children with disruptive behaviors. Our findings are preliminary as our sample size was small and the use of methylphenidate in preschool children lacks profound safety data as reflected by its off-label status. More empirical support is needed from studies with larger sample sizes.

  10. The Risk of Treatment-Emergent Mania With Methylphenidate in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorin, Alexander; Rydén, Eleonore; Thase, Michael E; Chang, Zheng; Lundholm, Cecilia; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Almqvist, Catarina; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Landén, Mikael

    2017-04-01

    The authors sought to determine the risk of treatment-emergent mania associated with methylphenidate, used in monotherapy or with a concomitant mood-stabilizing medication, in patients with bipolar disorder. Using linked Swedish national registries, the authors identified 2,307 adults with bipolar disorder who initiated therapy with methylphenidate between 2006 and 2014. The cohort was divided into two groups: those with and those without concomitant mood-stabilizing treatment. To adjust for individual-specific confounders, including disorder severity, genetic makeup, and early environmental factors, Cox regression analyses were used, conditioning on individual to compare the rate of mania (defined as hospitalization for mania or a new dispensation of stabilizing medication) 0-3 months and 3-6 months after medication start following nontreated periods. Patients on methylphenidate monotherapy displayed an increased rate of manic episodes within 3 months of medication initiation (hazard ratio=6.7, 95% CI=2.0-22.4), with similar results for the subsequent 3 months. By contrast, for patients taking mood stabilizers, the risk of mania was lower after starting methylphenidate (hazard ratio=0.6, 95% CI=0.4-0.9). Comparable results were observed when only hospitalizations for mania were counted. No evidence was found for a positive association between methylphenidate and treatment-emergent mania among patients with bipolar disorder who were concomitantly receiving a mood-stabilizing medication. This is clinically important given that up to 20% of people with bipolar disorder suffer from comorbid ADHD. Given the markedly increased hazard ratio of mania following methylphenidate initiation in bipolar patients not taking mood stabilizers, careful assessment to rule out bipolar disorder is indicated before initiating monotherapy with psychostimulants.

  11. Comparison of duloxetine and methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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    Nasrin Dodangi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common and mostly chronic mental health condition that affects children, adolescents, and adults. Stimulants and atomoxetine are first-line agents for the treatment of ADHD. Despite the impressive track record of stimulants in the treatment of ADHD, they fail in 25% of patients due to lack of efficacy or the emergence of unwanted side effects. Accordingly, this study carried out to compare efficacy and safety of duloxetine (a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and methylphenidate (a short acting stimulant in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Methods: Twenty-four children diagnosed with ADHD participated in this 6 weeks open clinical trial. Patients were between 6 to 11 years old that had been referred to psychiatry clinic at Akhavan and Rofide Medical and Rehabilitation Center in Tehran from September 2012 to July 2014. Diagnosis was made by two child psychiatrist according to DSM-IV TR criteria. Thirteen patients received duloxetine and others received methylphenidate. Conner’ parent rating scale-revised-short form (CPRS-RS and ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS were used at the beginning and then each two weeks to assess efficacy of treatment. Routine laboratory tests and electrocardiogram (ECG was carried out in the beginning and end of the trial. Results: Twenty children with ADHD completed the study (Ten in methylphenidate and ten in duloxetine group. In both groups, scales of CPRS-RS and ADHD-RS were reduced from baseline to endpoint, but this reduction in methylphenidate group was significantly greater than duloxetine group (P= 0.000. The most common side effect was gastrointestinal problems in duloxetine group and anorexia in methylphenidate group. No serious side effects and no changes in laboratory and ECG indexes were seen in both groups. Conclusion: Duloxetine is not efficacious as well as methylphenidate in treatment of

  12. Working Memory after Traumatic Brain Injury: The Neural Basis of Improved Performance with Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manktelow, Anne E; Menon, David K; Sahakian, Barbara J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments for patients. The aim of this proof of concept study was to establish the nature of abnormalities, in terms of activity and connectivity, in the working memory network of TBI patients and how these relate to compromised behavioral outcomes. Further, this study examined the neural correlates of working memory improvement following the administration of methylphenidate. We report behavioral, functional and structural MRI data from a group of 15 Healthy Controls (HC) and a group of 15 TBI patients, acquired during the execution of the N-back task. The patients were studied on two occasions after the administration of either placebo or 30 mg of methylphenidate. Between group tests revealed a significant difference in performance when HCs were compared to TBI patients on placebo [ F (1, 28) = 4.426, p performance demonstrated the most benefit from methylphenidate. Changes in the TBI patient activation levels in the Left Cerebellum significantly and positively correlated with changes in performance ( r = 0.509, df = 13, p = 0.05). Whole-brain connectivity analysis using the Left Cerebellum as a seed revealed widespread negative interactions between the Left Cerebellum and parietal and frontal cortices as well as subcortical areas. Neither the TBI group on methylphenidate nor the HC group demonstrated any significant negative interactions. Our findings indicate that (a) TBI significantly reduces the levels of activation and connectivity strength between key areas of the working memory network and (b) Methylphenidate improves the cognitive outcomes on a working memory task. Therefore, we conclude that methylphenidate may render the working memory network in a TBI group more consistent with that of an intact working memory network.

  13. Methylphenidate improves motor functions in children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

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    Iversen Synnøve

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study showed that a high percentage of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD displayed a consistent pattern of motor function problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH on such motor performance in children with HKD Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 yr with a HKD-F90.0 diagnosis, were randomly assigned into two groups within a double blind cross-over design, and tested with a motor assessment instrument, during MPH and placebo conditions. Results The percentage of MFNU scores in the sample indicating 'severe motor problems' ranged from 44–84%, typically over 60%. Highly significant improvements in motor performance were observed with MPH compared to baseline ratings on all the 17 subtests of the MFNU 1–2 hr after administration of MPH. There were no significant placebo effects. The motor improvement was consistent with improvement of clinical symptoms. Conclusion The study confirmed our prior clinical observations showing that children with ADHD typically demonstrate marked improvements of motor functions after a single dose of 10 mg MPH. The most pronounced positive MPH response was seen in subtests measuring either neuromotor inhibition, or heightened muscular tone in the gross movement muscles involved in maintaining the alignment and balance of the body. Introduction of MPH generally led to improved balance and a generally more coordinated and controlled body movement.

  14. Methylphenidate administration determines enduring changes in neuroglial network in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Carlo; Cirillo, Giovanni; Bianco, Maria Rosaria; Adriani, Walter; De Simone, Antonietta; Leo, Damiana; Perrone-Capano, Carla; Papa, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Repeated exposure to psychostimulant drugs induces complex molecular and structural modifications in discrete brain regions of the meso-cortico-limbic system. This structural remodeling is thought to underlie neurobehavioral adaptive responses. Administration to adolescent rats of methylphenidate (MPH), commonly used in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), triggers alterations of reward-based behavior paralleled by persistent and plastic synaptic changes of neuronal and glial markers within key areas of the reward circuits. By immunohistochemistry, we observe a marked increase of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression and a down-regulation of glial glutamate transporter GLAST in dorso-lateral and ventro-medial striatum. Using electron microscopy, we find in the prefrontal cortex a significant reduction of the synaptic active zone length, paralleled by an increase of dendritic spines. We demonstrate that in limbic areas the MPH-induced reactive astrocytosis affects the glial glutamatergic uptake system that in turn could determine glutamate receptor sensitization. These processes could be sustained by NO production and synaptic rearrangement and contribute to MPH neuroglial induced rewiring. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Mesenteric panniculitis (MP) in CT. A predictor of malignancy?; Mesenteriale Pannikulitis (MP) im CT-Schnittbild. Ein Praediktor fuer ein Malignom?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, F.; Wissgott, C.; Andresen, R. [Westkuestenklinikum Heide (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology/Neuroradiology; Spunar, P. [Radiology Center Peine (Germany); Wiggermann, P. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-10-15

    The exact etiology of mesenteric panniculitis (MP) is still unknown and has been discussed in relation to different causes. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate a coherence between MP and malignancy. Retrospective analysis of consecutive CT abdomen examinations of 5595 patients in terms of MP over a period of 3 years was performed. To make the diagnosis of MP, three of five typical signs were obligatory: hyperdense mass lesion with intercalated nodules, a ''fat-ring sign'' or halo sign, a hyperdense pseudocapsule and displacement of bowel loops. The patient cohort (mean age: 64.7 years) consisted of 1974 (35.2 %) patients with histologically confirmed cancer and 3621 patients (64.8 %) without known underlying oncological disease. A total of 143 cases were diagnosed with MP (2.55 %). The average age of patients was 69.9 years with a male to female ratio of 2:1. In this group oncological disease was confirmed in 107 patients (74.8 %). In 36 patients with MP (25.2 %), no malignancy was present. In the group of patients with an underlying oncological disease, the prevalence of MP was 5.42 % and was significantly higher (p < 0.005) than in the patients with MP and without an oncological disease. The highest prevalence of MP (29 cases) was observed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (22.6 %). The statistically calculated risk of a tumor disease in this collective is about 5 times higher if MP was demonstrated (p < 0.001). Based on the data of the collective, the risk of malignancy is five times higher in the presence of MP than in an inconspicuous mesentery. MP seems to frequently occur with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. MP can be seen on the basis of typical morphological features on the CT image. MP must be differentiated from a wide range of benign and malignant diseases of the mesentery.

  16. Gastrointestinal adverse events during methylphenidate treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmskov, Mathilde; Storebø, Ole Jakob; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study in more depth the relationship between type, dose, or duration of methylphenidate offered to children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their risks of gastrointestinal adverse events based on our Cochrane systematic review. METHODS AND FINDINGS...... differences in the risk according to type, dose, or duration of administration. The required information size was achieved in three out of four outcomes. CONCLUSION: Methylphenidate increases the risks of decreased appetite, weight loss, and abdominal pain in children and adolescents with attention deficit...... hyperactivity disorder. No differences in the risks of gastrointestinal adverse events according to type, dose, or duration of administration were found....

  17. A Comparative Study on the Effectiveness of Stimulant Therapy (Ritalin Neurofeedback, and Parental Management Training and Interaction of the Three Approaches on Improving ADHD and Quality of Mother -Child Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Basteh Hoseini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: This research was designed to investigate and compare the effective-ness of stimulant therapy (Ritalin, neurofeedback, parental management training and interac-tion of the treatments on the improvement of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, and quality of mother-child communication. Materials & Methods: This is a pseudo-experimental research with pretest-posttest de-sign including ADHD children living in Tehran; 40 subjects were randomly selected from clients of child psychiatric/psychological clinic, and then placed in 4 intervention groups based on objectives of the research. The subjects were measured by Conner's Parenting Scale-48 and Parental Stress Index before and after the interventions. Recruited data were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings of the research reveals that there is a significant difference among the treatments on improving conduct and attention/concentrationproblems; in other words, interaction of the treatments caused more therapeutic effect than other treatments. Also, there was no significant difference among the treatments on improving psychosomatic problems, impulsivity, anxiety, parent reinforcement, parental attachment, and parental competency. Conclusion: Finally, interaction of treatments and then ritalin had the most therapeutic effect compared to other treatments. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:133-143

  18. Orbital-Optimized MP3 and MP2.5 with Density-Fitting and Cholesky Decomposition Approximations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, Uğur

    2016-03-08

    Efficient implementations of the orbital-optimized MP3 and MP2.5 methods with the density-fitting (DF-OMP3 and DF-OMP2.5) and Cholesky decomposition (CD-OMP3 and CD-OMP2.5) approaches are presented. The DF/CD-OMP3 and DF/CD-OMP2.5 methods are applied to a set of alkanes to compare the computational cost with the conventional orbital-optimized MP3 (OMP3) [Bozkaya J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 135, 224103] and the orbital-optimized MP2.5 (OMP2.5) [Bozkaya and Sherrill J. Chem. Phys. 2014, 141, 204105]. Our results demonstrate that the DF-OMP3 and DF-OMP2.5 methods provide considerably lower computational costs than OMP3 and OMP2.5. Further application results show that the orbital-optimized methods are very helpful for the study of open-shell noncovalent interactions, aromatic bond dissociation energies, and hydrogen transfer reactions. We conclude that the DF-OMP3 and DF-OMP2.5 methods are very promising for molecular systems with challenging electronic structures.

  19. Adverse reactions of Methylphenidate in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: Report from a referral center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehpiri, Zahra; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Faghihi, Toktam; Karimzadeh, Iman; Khalili, Hossein; Mohammadi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine various aspects of methylphenidate adverse reactions in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Iran. Methods: During the 6 months period, all children under methylphenidate treatment alone or along with other agents attending a university-affiliated psychology clinic were screened regarding all subjective and objective adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of methylphenidate. Causality and seriousness of detected ADRs were assessed by relevant World Health Organization definitions. The Schumock and Thornton questionnaire was used to determine preventability of ADRs. Findings: Seventy-one patients including 25 girls and 46 boys with ADHD under methylphenidate treatment were enrolled within the study period. All (100%) ADHD children under methylphenidate treatment developed at least one ADR. Anorexia (74.3%), irritability (57.1%), and insomnia (47.2%) were the most frequent methylphenidate-related adverse reactions. Except for one, all other detected ADRs were determined to be mild. In addition, no ADR was considered to be preventable and serious. Conclusion: Our data suggested that although methylphenidate related adverse reactions were common in children with ADHD, but they were mainly mild and nonserious. PMID:25535621

  20. Methylphenidate and brain activity in a reward/conflict paradigm: role of the insula in task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Liu, Xun; Clerkin, Suzanne; Schulz, Kurt; Fan, Jin; Friston, Karl; London, Edythe D; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2014-06-01

    Psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate, are thought to improve information processing in motivation-reward and attention-activation networks by enhancing the effects of more relevant signals and suppressing those of less relevant ones; however the nature of such reciprocal influences remains poorly understood. To explore this question, we tested the effect of methylphenidate on performance and associated brain activity in the Anticipation, Conflict, Reward (ACR) task. Sixteen healthy adult volunteers, ages 21-45, were scanned twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as they performed the ACR task under placebo and methylphenidate conditions. A three-way repeated measures analysis of variance, with cue (reward vs. non-reward), target (congruent vs. incongruent) and medication condition (methylphenidate vs. placebo) as the factors, was used to analyze behaviors on the task. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals, reflecting task-related neural activity, were evaluated using linear contrasts. Participants exhibited significantly greater accuracy in the methylphenidate condition than the placebo condition. Compared with placebo, the methylphenidate condition also was associated with lesser task-related activity in components of attention-activation systems irrespective of the reward cue, and less task-related activity in components of the reward-motivation system, particularly the insula, during reward trials irrespective of target difficulty. These results suggest that methylphenidate enhances task performance by improving efficiency of information processing in both reward-motivation and in attention-activation systems. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Monte Carlo MP2 on Many Graphical Processing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Alexander E; Hirata, So

    2016-10-11

    In the Monte Carlo second-order many-body perturbation (MC-MP2) method, the long sum-of-product matrix expression of the MP2 energy, whose literal evaluation may be poorly scalable, is recast into a single high-dimensional integral of functions of electron pair coordinates, which is evaluated by the scalable method of Monte Carlo integration. The sampling efficiency is further accelerated by the redundant-walker algorithm, which allows a maximal reuse of electron pairs. Here, a multitude of graphical processing units (GPUs) offers a uniquely ideal platform to expose multilevel parallelism: fine-grain data-parallelism for the redundant-walker algorithm in which millions of threads compute and share orbital amplitudes on each GPU; coarse-grain instruction-parallelism for near-independent Monte Carlo integrations on many GPUs with few and infrequent interprocessor communications. While the efficiency boost by the redundant-walker algorithm on central processing units (CPUs) grows linearly with the number of electron pairs and tends to saturate when the latter exceeds the number of orbitals, on a GPU it grows quadratically before it increases linearly and then eventually saturates at a much larger number of pairs. This is because the orbital constructions are nearly perfectly parallelized on a GPU and thus completed in a near-constant time regardless of the number of pairs. In consequence, an MC-MP2/cc-pVDZ calculation of a benzene dimer is 2700 times faster on 256 GPUs (using 2048 electron pairs) than on two CPUs, each with 8 cores (which can use only up to 256 pairs effectively). We also numerically determine that the cost to achieve a given relative statistical uncertainty in an MC-MP2 energy increases as O(n 3 ) or better with system size n, which may be compared with the O(n 5 ) scaling of the conventional implementation of deterministic MP2. We thus establish the scalability of MC-MP2 with both system and computer sizes.

  2. Caracterização de MP2,5 e MP10 em Ar Ambiente de Estacionamento Fechado de Estabelecimento Comercial em Londrina-Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Pereira Pinto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Para investigar o perfil de concentração do MP em diferentes tamanhos aerodinâmicos presentes na atmosfera impactada pelo tráfego veicular leve, foram coletadas amostras de MP (MP2,5 e MP10 em um estacionamento comercial fechado onde circulam somente veículos leves em baixa velocidade. Foram realizadas quatro campanhas de amostragem em junho e dezembro de 2011 e 2012. O MP foi coletado utilizando ciclones (URG para MP2,5 e Low-Vol para MP10. Os filtros foram pesados em ultra balança analítica com precisão de 1,0 µg. As concentrações medias para MP2,5 e MP10 obtidas para a campanha de junho de 2011 foi de 41,9±10,1 µg m-3 e 56,4±12,6 µg m-3. Para a campanha de dezembro de 2011 obtiveram-se as concentrações médias 30,6±11,7 µg m-3 para o MP2,5 e para o MP10 52,8±12,7 µg m-3.  Em junho de 2012 o valor médio foi de 39,6 ± 9,1 µg m-3 para MP2,5 e 71,4 ± 10,9 µg m-3 de MP10. Em dezembro de 2012 as concentrações médias foram 21,3±7,2 µg m-3 para o MP2,5 e 49,9±10,6 µg m-3 para o MP10. As razões MP2,5 /MP10 com valores entre 0,42 e 0,75 mostram a variabilidade das emissões da frota veicular brasileira e da contribuição de emissões consideradas fugitivas.

  3. Methylphenidate effects in the young brain: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro-Vieira, Sara; Costa, Vera Marisa; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carvalho, Félix; Capela, João Paulo

    2017-08-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatry disorders in children and adolescents, and methylphenidate (MPH) is a first-line stimulant drug available worldwide for its treatment. Despite the proven therapeutic efficacy, concerns have been raised regarding the possible consequences of chronic MPH exposure during childhood and adolescence. Disturbances in the neurodevelopment at these crucial stages are major concerns given the unknown future life consequences. This review is focused on the long-term adverse effects of MPH to the brain biochemistry. Reports conducted with young and/or adolescent animals and studies with humans are reviewed in the context of long-term consequences after early life-exposure. MPH pharmacokinetics is also reviewed as there are differences among laboratory animals and humans that may be relevant to extrapolate the findings. Studies reveal that exposure to MPH in laboratory animals during young and/or adolescent ages can impact the brain, but the outcomes are dependent on MPH dose, treatment period, and animal's age. Importantly, the female sex is largely overlooked in both animal and human studies. Unfortunately, human reports that evaluate adults following adolescent or child exposure to MPH are very scarce. In general, human data indicates that MPH is generally safe, although it can promote several brain changes in early ages. Even so, there is a lack of long course patient evaluation to clearly establish whether MPH-induced changes are friendly or foe to the brain and more human studies are needed to assess the adult brain changes that arise from early MPH treatment. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescent Exposure to Methylphenidate Increases Impulsive Choice Later in Life

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    Zarish Abbas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH is known to temporarily reduce impulsive choice and promote self-control. What is not sufficiently understood is how repeated treatment with MPH affects impulsive choice in the long run, and whether any such effect is contingent on exposure at certain developmental stages.Methods: Using an animal model for impulsive choice, we examined first whether giving MPH through early adolescence alters delay discounting, an operational measure of impulsive choice, later in adulthood. We then tested whether equivalent long-term effects are observed if exposure to the drug occurred during adulthood. Starting on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, male rats received one of a range of doses of MPH for 10 consecutive days. Twenty-six days later, all rats were trained to choose between a lever that produced a small immediate reward and a lever that produced a large reward after a range of delays.Results: Rats showed a long-term decrease in the selection of the delayed larger reward when treated with moderate doses of MPH during early adolescence, but not when treated with the lower or higher doses. In contrast, no differences were observed in the selection of the delayed larger reward in animals that were treated with various doses of MPH during adulthood.Conclusions: Our findings suggest effects of MPH on impulsive choice that are contingent on dosage and on the developmental period of exposure. When administered during adolescence, moderate doses of MPH increase impulsive choice long after the end of treatment, whereas these same doses administered during adulthood were without effect

  5. Methylphenidate alleviates manganese-induced impulsivity but not distractibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Strupp, Barbara J.; Uribe, Walter; Ysais, Lauren; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies from our lab have demonstrated that postnatal manganese (Mn) exposure in a rodent model can cause lasting impairments in fine motor control and attention, and that oral methylphenidate (MPH) treatment can effectively treat the dysfunction in fine motor control. However, it is unknown whether MPH treatment can alleviate the impairments in attention produced by Mn exposure. Here we used a rodent model of postnatal Mn exposure to determine whether (1) oral MPH alleviates attention and impulse control deficits caused by postnatal Mn exposure, using attention tasks that are variants of the 5-choice serial reaction time task, and (2) whether these treatments affected neuronal dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed orally to 0 or 50 mg Mn/kg/d throughout life starting on PND 1, and tested as young adults (PND 107 – 115) on an attention task that specifically tapped selective attention and impulse control. Animals were treated with oral MPH (2.5 mg/kg/d) throughout testing on the attention task. Our findings show that lifelong postnatal Mn exposure impaired impulse control and selective attention in young adulthood, and that a therapeutically relevant oral MPH regimen alleviated the Mn-induced dysfunction in impulse control, but not selective attention, and actually impaired focused attention in the Mn group. In addition, the effect of MPH was qualitatively different for the Mn-exposed versus control animals across a range of behavioral measures of inhibitory control and attention, as well as dendritic spine density in the mPFC, suggesting that postnatal Mn exposure alters catecholaminergic systems modulating these behaviors. Collectively these findings suggest that MPH may hold promise for treating the behavioral dysfunction caused by developmental Mn exposure, although further research is needed with multiple MPH doses to determine whether a dose can be identified that

  6. Immediate-Release Methylphenidate for ADHD in Children with Comorbid Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Sverd, Jeffrey; Nolan, Edith E.; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schneider, Jayne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the safety and efficacy of immediate-release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children (ages 6-12 years) with Tourette's syndrome (96%) or chronic motor tic disorder (4%). Method: Two cohorts of prepubertal children (N = 71) received placebo and three doses of…

  7. Predicting Response of ADHD Symptoms to Methylphenidate Treatment Based on Comorbid Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…

  8. Reversible Dopamine Transporter Modifications in Response to Methylphenidate Treatment of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to monitor the dopamine transporter activity in 5 males, ages 8 to 10, with ADHD, after cessation of methylphenidate (MPH treatment, in a study at the University Hospital Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  9. The Cochrane Collaboration withdraws a review on methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Kim; Saiz, Luis Carlos; Erviti, Juan

    2017-01-01

    A Cochrane systematic review on immediate-release methylphenidate for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was withdrawn from the Cochrane Library on 26 May 2016 after substantial criticism of its methods and flawed conclusions. Retraction of scientific papers on this basis...

  10. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood. Typically, children with ADHD find it difficult to pay attention, they are hyperactive and impulsive.Methylphenidate is the drug most often prescribed...

  11. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adults with Past Stimulant Misuse: An Open-Label Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.; White, Kathleen; Carter, Rickey E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This 8-week, open-label trial assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) in 14 adult individuals diagnosed with ADHD and with a history of stimulant misuse, abuse, or dependence. Method: The primary efficacy endpoint was the Wender-Reimherr Adult ADHD Scale (WRAADS), and secondary efficacy endpoints included the…

  12. First-Trimester In Utero Exposure to Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients...

  13. How Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity Affect Response to Atomoxetine versus Methylphenidate: A Pooled Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Gregory W.; Hazell, Philip L.; Kohn, Michael R.; Granger, Renee E.; Walton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess how threshold oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity affect the response to atomoxetine versus methylphenidate. Method: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs; greater than or equal to 6 weeks follow-up). The primary measure was core symptom response--greater than or…

  14. 78 FR 40484 - Determination That METADATE ER (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride) Extended-Release Tablet, 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... marketing for reasons other than safety or effectiveness. ANDAs that refer to METADATE ER (methylphenidate... Withdrawn From Sale for Reasons of Safety or Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... safety or effectiveness. This determination will allow FDA to approve abbreviated new drug applications...

  15. Methylphenidate and Comorbid Anxiety Disorder in Children with both Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Nolan, Edith E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Method: Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial…

  16. Methylphenidate Improves Visual-Spatial Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit- hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Anne-Claude; Martinussen, Rhonda; Ickowicz, Abel; Tannock, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on visual-spatial memory, as measured by subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB), in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Visual-spatial memory is a core component of working memory that has been shown to be impaired in…

  17. The effect of methylphenidate on three forms of response inhibition in boys with AD/HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, A.; Oosterlaan, J.; Swanson, J.; Morein-Zamir, S.; Meiran, N.; Schut, H.; Vlasveld, L.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The current study was aimed at (a) investigating the effect of three doses methylphenidate (MPH) and placebo on inhibition of a prepotent response, inhibition of an ongoing response, and interference control in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), and (b) studying dose-response

  18. The impact of methylphenidate and its enantiomers on dopamine synthesis and metabolism in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartl, Jasmin; Palazzesi, Ferruccio; Parrinello, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), a psychostimulant, is an effective first-line treatment for the symptoms associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although most MPH formulations are composed of the racemic 1:1 mixture of the two enantiomers (d- and l-threo), converging lines of evid...... to the stereoselectivity of the investigated enzymes and pharmacological effects of MPH enantiomers....

  19. Effect of repeated oral therapeutic doses of methylphenidate on food intake and growth rate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nausheen; Najam, Rahila

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system stimulants are known to produce anorexia. Previous data suggest that methylphenidate can have variable effects on caloric intake and growth rate. A dose-response study was performed to monitor caloric intake, liquid intake and growth rate in rats following repeated administration of human oral therapeutic doses 2 mg/kg/day, 5mg/kg/day and 8mg/kg/day of methylphenidate. We found that food intake and water intake, increased in all weeks and at all doses used in the study. Growth rate increased more at higher dose (8mg/kg/day) and at low dose (2mg/kg/day) of methylphenidate in 1(st) and 2(nd) week whereas more decreased by the above doses in 3(rd) week, suggesting that food stimulation leads to initial increase in growth rate but long term administration of methylphenidate attenuate growth rate that is not due to modulation of appetite but may be due to anxiety and increased activity produce by stimulants. A possible role of DA, 5HT receptors in modulation of appetite and anxiety is discussed.

  20. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  1. Methylphenidate for ADHD in children and adolescents: throwing the baby out with the bathwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaschewski, T.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Chui, C.S.; Coghill, D.; Cortese, S.; Simonoff, E.; Wong, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    A recent Cochrane review assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Notwithstanding the moderate-to-large effect sizes for ADHD symptom reduction found in the meta-analysis, the authors concluded that the quality of the

  2. Animal Model of Methylphenidate's Longterm Memory-Enhancing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, Stephanie A.; Howell, Kristin K.; Rasaei, Kleou; Reas, Emilie T.; Anagnostaras, Stephan G.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH), introduced more than 60 years ago, accounts for two-thirds of current prescriptions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although many studies have modeled MPH's effect on executive function, almost none have directly modeled its effect on long-term memory (LTM), even though improvement in LTM is a…

  3. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Methylphenidate Dose-Response in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Tanya E.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Nick, Todd G.; Melguizo Castro, Maria S.; Stein, Mark A.; Brinkman, William B.; Graham, Amanda J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because of significant individual variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, there is increasing interest in identifying genetic predictors of treatment effects. This study examined the role of four catecholamine-related candidate genes in moderating methylphenidate (MPH) dose-response. Method:…

  4. Methylphenidate Transdermal System in Adult ADHD and Impact on Emotional and Oppositional Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Barrie K.; Reimherr, Frederick W.; Robison, Reid J.; Olsen, John L.; Kondo, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This trial evaluated the effect of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on the full spectrum of adult symptoms (attention-disorganization, hyperactivity-impulsivity, emotional dysregulation [ED], and oppositional-defiant disorder [ODD]) found in this disorder. Method: This placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose, crossover…

  5. MP-Division health and safety reference handbook. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putnam, T.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the objectives, organization, policies, and essential rules and procedures that have been adopted by MP Division and that form the basis of the Health and Safety Program of the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The facility includes the beam-delivery systems for the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center and the Weapons Neutron Research Facility (LANSCE/WNR). The program is designed not only to assure the health and safety of all personnel, including users, in their work at LAMPF, and of MP-Division staff in their work on the LANSCE/WNR beam lines, but also to protect the facility (buildings and equipment) and the environment. 33 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. MP-Division health and safety reference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnam, T.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the objectives, organization, policies, and essential rules and procedures that have been adopted by MP Division and that form the basis of the Health and Safety Program of the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The facility includes the beam-delivery systems for the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center and the Weapons Neutron Research Facility (LANSCE/WNR). The program is designed not only to assure the health and safety of all personnel, including users, in their work at LAMPF, and of MP-Division staff in their work on the LANSCE/WNR beam lines, but also to protect the facility (buildings and equipment) and the environment. 33 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Light Weight MP3 Watermarking Method for Mobile Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Koichi; Sakazawa, Shigeyuki; Takishima, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes a novel MP3 watermarking method which is applicable to a mobile terminal with limited computational resources. Considering that in most cases the embedded information is copyright information or metadata, which should be extracted before playing back audio contents, the watermark detection process should be executed at high speed. However, when conventional methods are used with a mobile terminal, it takes a considerable amount of time to detect a digital watermark. This paper focuses on scalefactor manipulation to enable high speed watermark embedding/detection for MP3 audio and also proposes the manipulation method which minimizes audio quality degradation adaptively. Evaluation tests showed that the proposed method is capable of embedding 3 bits/frame information without degrading audio quality and detecting it at very high speed. Finally, this paper describes application examples for authentication with a digital signature.

  8. Penetrating adolescents' mental models of mp3 with ZMET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, I-Ling; Yang, Chun-Ming; Liu, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates the application of the Zaltman metaphor-elicitation technique (ZMET) to help adolescent consumers delve into their unconscious thoughts and provide them with insights into the use of mp3. An analysis of interview transcripts and images revealed that the ZMET process provides a description of how the knowledge structures of adolescent consumers are subdivided and grouped around important themes that frame and motivate their involvement with a product. The findings reveal that there are 33 themes of consumer knowledge structure toward mp3. Furthermore, among these themes, there are four major concepts: size/form, convenience, relaxation, comfort, and appearance. The respondents' minds include not only rational components but emotional ingredients. Notably, the results also show that music can be an effective metaphor in the application of the ZMET method.

  9. Benchmarking MILC code with OpenMP and MPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, Steven; Tamhankar, Sonali

    2001-01-01

    A trend in high performance computers that is becoming increasingly popular is the use of symmetric multi-processing (SMP) rather than the older paradigm of MPP. MPI codes that ran and scaled well on MPP machines can often be run on an SMP machine using the vendor's version of MPI. However, this approach may not make optimal use of the (expensive) SMP hardware. More significantly, there are machines like Blue Horizon, an IBM SP with 8-way SMP nodes at the San Diego Supercomputer Center that can only support 4 MPI processes per node (with the current switch). On such a machine it is imperative to be able to use OpenMP parallelism on the node, and MPI between nodes. We describe the challenges of converting MILC MPI code to using a second level of OpenMP parallelism, and benchmarks on IBM and Sun computers

  10. Search for the lepton-flavor violating decays $B^0_s \\rightarrow e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves Jr, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R.B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J.J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P.M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G.A.; Craik, D.C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P.N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S.C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S.T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C.R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T.M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R.F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V.N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marconi, U.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; Mc Skelly, B.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M.J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A.D.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J.M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B.K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C.J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G.N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M.S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M.M.; dos Reis, A.C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D.A.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Salzmann, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Sirendi, M.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.A.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V.K.; Sun, L.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Urner, D.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Van Dijk, M.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Watson, N.K.; Webber, A.D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Wotton, S.A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2013-01-01

    A search for the lepton-flavour violating decays $B^0_s \\rightarrow e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\rightarrow e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ is performed with a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$, TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. The observed number of $B^0_s \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ and $B^0 \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}$ candidates is consistent with background expectations. Upper limits on the branching fractions of both decays are determined to be $BR(B^0_s \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp} 107$ TeV/c$^2$ and $M_{\\rm LQ} (B^0 \\to e^{\\pm} \\mu^{\\mp}) > 126$ TeV/c$^2$ at 95% C.L., and are a factor of two higher than the previous bounds.

  11. Atomic structure calculations on the CRAY X-MP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Atomic structure calculations require both radial and angular integrations, where the latter are often based on Racah algebra. With relatively minor modifications, good performance is obtained on vector machines for radial integrations. Angular integrations, however, present the bottleneck. In this paper some recent improvements in the algorithms for angular integrations are described, as well as some multitasking experiments on the CRAY X-MP and CRAY 2. These show that the workload can easily be distributed evenly among available processors with dynamic scheduling

  12. Experiences with OpenMP in tmLQCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deuzeman, A. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Kostrzewa, B. [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Urbach, C. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). HISKP (Theory); Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    An overview is given of the lessons learned from the introduction of multi-threading using OpenMP in tmLQCD. In particular, programming style, performance measurements, cache misses, scaling, thread distribution for hybrid codes, race conditions, the overlapping of communication and computation and the measurement and reduction of certain overheads are discussed. Performance measurements and sampling profiles are given for different implementations of the hopping matrix computational kernel.

  13. MP.EXE Microphone pressure sensitivity calibration calculation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1999-01-01

    MP.EXE is a program which calculates the pressure sensitivity of LS1 microphones as defined in IEC 61094-1, based on measurement results performed as laid down in IEC 61094-2.A very early program was developed and written by K. Rasmussen. The code of the present heavily extended version is writte...... by E.S. Olsen.The present manual is written by K.Rasmussen and E.S. Olsen....

  14. Experiences with OpenMP in tmLQCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuzeman, A.

    2013-11-01

    An overview is given of the lessons learned from the introduction of multi-threading using OpenMP in tmLQCD. In particular, programming style, performance measurements, cache misses, scaling, thread distribution for hybrid codes, race conditions, the overlapping of communication and computation and the measurement and reduction of certain overheads are discussed. Performance measurements and sampling profiles are given for different implementations of the hopping matrix computational kernel.

  15. Survey of college students' MP3 listening: Habits, safety issues, attitudes, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Alicia; Krishnamurti, Sridhar

    2010-06-01

    To survey listening habits and attitudes of typical college students who use MP3 players and to investigate possible safety issues related to MP3 player listening. College students who were frequent MP3 player users (N = 428) filled out a 30-item online survey. Specific areas probed by the present survey included frequency and duration of MP3 player use, MP3 player volume levels used, types of earphones used, typical environments in which MP3 player was worn, specific activities related to safety while listening to MP3 players, and attitudes toward MP3 player use. The majority of listeners wore MP3 players for less than 2 hr daily at safe volume levels. About one third of respondents reported being distracted while wearing an MP3 player, and more than one third of listeners experienced soreness in their ears after a listening session. About one third of respondents reported occasionally using their MP3 players at maximum volume levels. Listeners indicated willingness to (a) reduce volume levels, (b) decrease listening duration, and (c) buy specialized earphones to conserve their hearing. The study found concerns regarding the occasional use of MP3 players at full volume and reduced environmental awareness among some college student users.

  16. Acute oral administration of low doses of methylphenidate targets calretinin neurons in the rat septal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro eGarcía-Aviles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPD is a commonly administered drug to treat children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Alterations in septal driven hippocampal theta rhythm may underlie attention deficits observed in these patients. Amongst others, the septo-hippocampal connections have long been acknowledged to be important in preserving hippocampal function. Thus, we wanted to ascertain if methylphenidate administration, which improves attention in patients, could affect septal areas connecting with hippocampus. We used low and orally administered methylphenidate doses (1.3; 2.7 and 5mg/Kg to rats what mimics the dosage range in humans. In our model, we observed no effect when using 1.3mg/Kg methylphenidate; whereas 2.7 and 5 mg/Kg induced a significant increase in c-fos expression specifically in the medial septum, an area intimately connected to the hippocampus. We analyzed dopaminergic areas such as nucleus accumbens and striatum, and found that only 5mg/Kg induced c-fos levels increase. In these areas tyrosine hydroxylase correlated well with c-fos staining, whereas in the medial septum the sparse tyrosine hydroxylase fibres did not overlap with c-fos positive neurons. Double immunofluorescence of c-fos with neuronal markers in the septal area revealed that co-localization with choline acethyl transferase, parvalbumin, and calbindin with c-fos did not change with MPD treatment; whereas, calretinin and c-fos double labeled neurons increased after MPD administration. Altogether, these results suggest that low and acute doses of methylphenidate primary target specific populations of caltretinin medial septal neurons.

  17. ADHD in childhood epilepsy: Clinical determinants of severity and of the response to methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheims, Sylvain; Herbillon, Vania; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Auvin, Stéphane; Napuri, Silvia; Cances, Claude; Berquin, Patrick; Castelneau, Pierre; Nguyen The Tich, Sylvie; Villega, Frédéric; Isnard, Hervé; Nabbout, Rima; Gaillard, Ségolène; Mercier, Catherine; Kassai, Behrouz; Arzimanoglou, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly observed in children with epilepsy. However, factors associated with the development of ADHD and which might help to guide its therapeutic management, remain an issue of debate. We conducted a multicenter prospective observational study that included children, aged 6-16 years, with both epilepsy and ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. After inclusion, patients entered a 12-16 week follow-up period during which they were either treated with methylphenidate or they did not receive specific ADHD treatment. ADHD was evaluated with the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. One hundred sixty-seven patients were included, of which 91 were seizure-free during the preinclusion baseline period. At inclusion, the ADHD Rating Scale-IV total score was 30.4 ± (standard deviation) 9.2, the inattentive subscore was 17.3 ± 4.4, and the hyperactive subscore was 13.2 ± 6.6. We did not detect any difference of ADHD Rating Scale-IV scores across patients' age or gender, age at epilepsy onset, epilepsy syndrome, seizure frequency, or number of ongoing antiepileptic drugs. Methylphenidate was initiated in 61 patients, including 55 in whom a follow-up evaluation was available. At the last follow-up, 41 patients (75%) treated with methylphenidate and 39 (42%) of those who did not received ADHD therapy demonstrated ≥25% decrease of ADHD Rating Scale-IV total score (p < 0.001). Response to methylphenidate was greater in girls but was not influenced by any epilepsy-related variables. We did not detect any epilepsy-related factor associated with the severity of ADHD. Twenty-five percent of patients did not respond to methylphenidate. A better understanding of the pathologic process that underlies ADHD development in childhood epilepsy might be required to improve therapeutic strategies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  18. Methylphenidate during early consolidation affects long-term associative memory retrieval depending on baseline catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Isabella C; van Buuren, Mariët; Bovy, Leonore; Morris, Richard G; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-02-01

    Synaptic memory consolidation is thought to rely on catecholaminergic signaling. Eventually, it is followed by systems consolidation, which embeds memories in a neocortical network. Although this sequence was demonstrated in rodents, it is unclear how catecholamines affect memory consolidation in humans. Here, we tested the effects of catecholaminergic modulation on synaptic and subsequent systems consolidation. We expected enhanced memory performance and increased neocortical engagement during delayed retrieval. Additionally, we tested if this effect was modulated by individual differences in a cognitive proxy measure of baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. Fifty-three healthy males underwent a between-subjects, double-blind, placebo-controlled procedure across 2 days. On day 1, subjects studied and retrieved object-location associations and received 20 mg of methylphenidate or placebo. Drug intake was timed so that methylphenidate was expected to affect early consolidation but not encoding or retrieval. Memory was tested again while subjects were scanned three days later. Methylphenidate did not facilitate memory performance, and there was no significant group difference in activation during delayed retrieval. However, memory representations differed between groups depending on baseline catecholamines. The placebo group showed increased activation in occipito-temporal regions but decreased connectivity with the hippocampus, associated with lower baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. The methylphenidate group showed stronger activation in the postcentral gyrus, associated with higher baseline catecholamine synthesis capacity. Altogether, methylphenidate during early consolidation did not foster long-term memory performance, but it affected retrieval-related neural processes depending on individual levels of baseline catecholamines.

  19. Low dopamine transporter occupancy by methylphenidate as a possible reason for reduced treatment effectiveness in ADHD patients with cocaine dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crunelle, Cleo L.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Schoevers, Robert A.; Booij, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) occupies brain striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) and is an effective treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, patients with ADHD and comorbid cocaine dependence do not benefit significantly from treatment with MPH. To better understand the

  20. Long-term oral methylphenidate treatment in adolescent and adult rats: differential effects on brain morphology and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, K. van der; Klomp, A.; Meerhoff, G.F.; Schipper, P.; Lucassen, P.J.; Homberg, J.R.; Dijkhuizen, R.M.; Reneman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a widely prescribed psychostimulant for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, which raises questions regarding its potential interference with the developing brain. In the present study, we investigated effects of 3 weeks oral

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the impact of methylphenidate on working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfer, Cristiana; Pacheco, Sandra Pasquali; Tsunemi, Miriam Harumi; Carreira, Walter Souza; Casella, Beatriz Borba; Casella, Erasmo Barbante

    2017-04-01

    To compare children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), before and after the use of methylphenidate, and a control group, using tests of working memory, inhibition capacity and mental flexibility. Neuropsychological tests were administrated to 53 boys, 9-12 years old: the WISC-III digit span backward, and arithmetic; Stroop Color; and Trail Making Tests. The case group included 23 boys with ADHD, who were combined type, treatment-naive, and with normal intelligence without comorbidities. The control group (n = 30) were age and gender matched. After three months on methylphenidate, the ADHD children were retested. The control group was also retested after three months. Before treatment, ADHD children had lower scores than the control group on the tests (p ≤ 0.001) and after methylphenidate had fewer test errors than before (p ≤ 0.001). Methylphenidate treatment improves the working memory, inhibitory control and mental flexibility of ADHD boys.

  2. Analysis of the MPEG-1 Layer III (MP3) Algorithm using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Thiagarajan, Jayaraman

    2011-01-01

    The MPEG-1 Layer III (MP3) algorithm is one of the most successful audio formats for consumer audio storage and for transfer and playback of music on digital audio players. The MP3 compression standard along with the AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) algorithm are associated with the most successful music players of the last decade. This book describes the fundamentals and the MATLAB implementation details of the MP3 algorithm. Several of the tedious processes in MP3 are supported by demonstrations using MATLAB software. The book presents the theoretical concepts and algorithms used in the MP3 stand

  3. Mp1p Is a Virulence Factor in Talaromyces (Penicillium marneffei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C Y Woo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Talaromyces marneffei is an opportunistic dimorphic fungus prevalent in Southeast Asia. We previously demonstrated that Mp1p is an immunogenic surface and secretory mannoprotein of T. marneffei. Since Mp1p is a surface protein that can generate protective immunity, we hypothesized that Mp1p and/or its homologs are virulence factors.We examined the pathogenic roles of Mp1p and its homologs in a mouse model. All mice died 21 and 30 days after challenge with wild-type T. marneffei PM1 and MP1 complemented mutant respectively. None of the mice died 60 days after challenge with MP1 knockout mutant (P<0.0001. Seventy percent of mice died 60 days after challenge with MP1 knockdown mutant (P<0.0001. All mice died after challenge with MPLP1 to MPLP13 knockdown mutants, suggesting that only Mp1p plays a significant role in virulence. The mean fungal loads of PM1 and MP1 complemented mutant in the liver, lung, kidney and spleen were significantly higher than those of the MP1 knockout mutant. Similarly, the mean load of PM1 in the liver, lung and spleen were significantly higher than that of the MP1 knockdown mutant. Histopathological studies showed an abundance of yeast in the kidney, spleen, liver and lung with more marked hepatic and splenic necrosis in mice challenged with PM1 compared to MP1 knockout and MP1 knockdown mutants. Likewise, a higher abundance of yeast was observed in the liver and spleen of mice challenged with MP1 complemented mutant compared to MP1 knockout mutant. PM1 and MP1 complemented mutant survived significantly better than MP1 knockout mutant in macrophages at 48 hours (P<0.01 post-infection. The mean fungal counts of Pichia pastoris GS115-MP1 in the liver (P<0.001 and spleen (P<0.05 of mice were significantly higher than those of GS115 at 24 hours post-challenge.Mp1p is a key virulence factor of T. marneffei. Mp1p mediates virulence by improving the survival of T. marneffei in macrophages.

  4. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents - assessment of harmful effects in non-randomised studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakob, Storebø Ole; Nadia, Pedersen; Erica, Ramstad

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies.......This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:To assess the harmful effects of methylphenidate treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in non-randomised studies....

  5. Embrittlement phenomenon of Ag core MP35N cable as lead conductor in medical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Li, Bernie; Zhang, Haitao

    2013-02-01

    Ag core MP35N (Ag/MP35N) wire has been used in lead electric conductor wires in the medical device industry for many years. Recently it was noticed that the combination of silver and MP35N restricts its wire drawing process. The annealing temperature in Ag/MP35N has to be lower than the melting temperature of pure Ag (960 °C), which cannot fully anneal MP35N. The lower annealing temperature results in a highly cold worked MP35N, which significantly reduces Ag/MP35N ductility. The embrittlement phenomenon of Ag/MP35N cable was observed in tension and bending deformation. The effect of the embrittlement on the wire flex fatigue life was evaluated using a newly developed flex fatigue testing method. The Ag/MP35N cable fatigue results was analyzed with a Coffin-Manson approach and compared to the MP35N cable fatigue results. The root causes of the Ag/Mp35N embrittlement phenomenon are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methylphenidate alleviates manganese-induced impulsivity but not distractibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudin, Stephane A; Strupp, Barbara J; Uribe, Walter; Ysais, Lauren; Strawderman, Myla; Smith, Donald R

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies from our lab have demonstrated that postnatal manganese (Mn) exposure in a rodent model can cause lasting impairments in fine motor control and attention, and that oral methylphenidate (MPH) treatment can effectively treat the dysfunction in fine motor control. However, it is unknown whether MPH treatment can alleviate the impairments in attention produced by Mn exposure. Here we used a rodent model of postnatal Mn exposure to determine whether (1) oral MPH alleviates attention and impulse control deficits caused by postnatal Mn exposure, using attention tasks that are variants of the 5-choice serial reaction time task, and (2) whether these treatments affected neuronal dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed orally to 0 or 50Mn/kg/d throughout life starting on PND 1, and tested as young adults (PND 107-115) on an attention task that specifically tapped selective attention and impulse control. Animals were treated with oral MPH (2.5mg/kg/d) throughout testing on the attention task. Our findings show that lifelong postnatal Mn exposure impaired impulse control and selective attention in young adulthood, and that a therapeutically relevant oral MPH regimen alleviated the Mn-induced dysfunction in impulse control, but not selective attention, and actually impaired focused attention in the Mn group. In addition, the effect of MPH was qualitatively different for the Mn-exposed versus control animals across a range of behavioral measures of inhibitory control and attention, as well as dendritic spine density in the mPFC, suggesting that postnatal Mn exposure alters catecholaminergic systems modulating these behaviors. Collectively these findings suggest that MPH may hold promise for treating the behavioral dysfunction caused by developmental Mn exposure, although further research is needed with multiple MPH doses to determine whether a dose can be identified that ameliorates the

  7. Oral and transdermal DL-methylphenidate-ethanol interactions in C57BL/6J mice: potentiation of locomotor activity with oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Guinevere H; Griffin, William C; Patrick, Kennerly S

    2011-12-01

    Many abusers of dl-methylphenidate co-abuse ethanol. The present animal study examined behavioral effects of oral or transdermal DL-methylphenidate in combination with a high, depressive dose of ethanol to model co-abuse. Locomotor activity of C57BL/6J mice was recorded for 3 h following dosing with either oral DL-methylphenidate (7.5 mg/kg) or transdermal DL-methylphenidate (Daytrana®;1/4 of a 12.5 cm(2) patch; mean dose 7.5 mg/kg), with or without oral ethanol (3 g/kg). Brains were enantiospecifically analyzed for the isomers of methylphenidate and the transesterification metabolite ethylphenidate. An otherwise depressive dose of ethanol significantly potentiated oral DL-methylphenidate induced increases in total distance traveled for the first 100 min (pbrain D-methylphenidate concentrations were significantly elevated by ethanol in both the oral (65% increase) and transdermal (88% increase) groups. The corresponding L-ethylphenidate concentrations were 10 ng/g and 130 ng/g. Stimulant induced motor activity in rodents may correlate with abuse liability. Potentiation of DL-methylphenidate motor effects by concomitant ethanol carries implications regarding increased abuse potential of DL-methylphenidate when combined with ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effective Vectorization with OpenMP 4.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Joseph N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hernandez, Oscar R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lopez, Matthew Graham [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes how the Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) model and its extensions in OpenMP work, and how these are implemented in different compilers. Modern processors are highly parallel computational machines which often include multiple processors capable of executing several instructions in parallel. Understanding SIMD and executing instructions in parallel allows the processor to achieve higher performance without increasing the power required to run it. SIMD instructions can significantly reduce the runtime of code by executing a single operation on large groups of data. The SIMD model is so integral to the processor s potential performance that, if SIMD is not utilized, less than half of the processor is ever actually used. Unfortunately, using SIMD instructions is a challenge in higher level languages because most programming languages do not have a way to describe them. Most compilers are capable of vectorizing code by using the SIMD instructions, but there are many code features important for SIMD vectorization that the compiler cannot determine at compile time. OpenMP attempts to solve this by extending the C++/C and Fortran programming languages with compiler directives that express SIMD parallelism. OpenMP is used to pass hints to the compiler about the code to be executed in SIMD. This is a key resource for making optimized code, but it does not change whether or not the code can use SIMD operations. However, in many cases critical functions are limited by a poor understanding of how SIMD instructions are actually implemented, as SIMD can be implemented through vector instructions or simultaneous multi-threading (SMT). We have found that it is often the case that code cannot be vectorized, or is vectorized poorly, because the programmer does not have sufficient knowledge of how SIMD instructions work.

  9. The Apathy in Dementia Methylphenidate Trial 2 (ADMET 2): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Roberta W; Drye, Lea; Mintzer, Jacobo; Lanctôt, Krista; Rosenberg, Paul; Herrmann, Nathan; Padala, Prasad; Brawman-Mintzer, Olga; Burke, William; Craft, Suzanne; Lerner, Alan J; Levey, Allan; Porsteinsson, Anton; van Dyck, Christopher H

    2018-01-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized not only by cognitive and functional decline, but also often by the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Apathy, which can be defined as a lack of motivation, is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD and typically leads to a worse quality of life and greater burden for caregivers. Treatment options for apathy in AD are limited, but studies have examined the use of the amphetamine, methylphenidate. The Apathy in Dementia Methylphenidate Trial (ADMET) found that treatment of apathy in AD with methylphenidate was associated with significant improvement in apathy in two of three outcome measures, some evidence of improvement in global cognition, and minimal adverse events. However, the trial only enrolled 60 participants who were followed for only 6 weeks. A larger, longer-lasting trial is required to confirm these promising findings. The Apathy in Dementia Methylphenidate Trial 2 (ADMET 2) is a phase III, placebo-controlled, masked, 6-month, multi-center, randomized clinical trial targeted to enroll 200 participants with AD and apathy. Participants are randomly assigned 1:1 to 20 mg methylphenidate per day prepared as four over-encapsulated tablets or to matching placebo. The primary outcomes include (1) the mean difference in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Apathy subscale scores measured as change from baseline to 6 months, and (2) the odds of having a given rating or better on the modified AD Cooperative Study Clinical Global Impression of Change ratings at month 6 compared with the baseline rating. Other outcomes include change in cognition, safety, and cost-effectiveness measured at monthly follow-up visits up to 6 months. Given the prevalence of apathy in AD and its impact on both patients and caregivers, an intervention to alleviate apathy would be of great benefit to society. ADMET 2 follows on the promising results from the original ADMET to evaluate the efficacy of methylphenidate as a

  10. Methylphenidate, cognition, and epilepsy: A 1-month open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jesse; Alipio-Jocson, Valerie; Inoyama, Katherine; Bartlett, Victoria; Sandhu, Saira; Oso, Jemima; Barry, John J; Loring, David W; Meador, Kimford J

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive difficulties are common in epilepsy. Beyond reducing seizures and adjusting antiepileptic medications, no well-validated treatment exists in adults. Methylphenidate is used effectively in children with epilepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but its effects in adults have not been systematically evaluated. We hypothesized that methylphenidate can safely improve cognition in adults with epilepsy. We detail here the open-label follow-up to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose study. Thirty epilepsy patients entered a 1-month open-label methylphenidate trial after a double-blind phase. Doses were titrated according to clinical practice and patient tolerance, ranging 20-40 mg/day. Primary measures included: Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and Medical College of Georgia Memory Test (MCG). Secondary measures were: Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd Edition (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES), Stimulant Side-Effect Checklist, Adverse Events Profile, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-89 (QOLIE-89), and seizure frequency. Fourteen healthy, nonmedicated controls were tested concurrently. Twenty-eight participants with epilepsy (13 men/15 women) completed the trial. Withdrawals occurred due to anxiety (n = 1) and fatigue (n = 1). Mean age was 36.4 years (range = 20-60). Epilepsy types were: focal (n = 21), generalized (n = 6), or unclassified (n = 1). Mean epilepsy duration was 12.3 years. Mean baseline seizure frequency was 2.8/month. There were significant improvements on methylphenidate for SDMT, MCG, CPT (the ability to discriminate between targets and nontargets [d'] hits, hit reaction time standard deviation, omissions, and commissions), and QOLIE subscales (energy/fatigue, attention/concentration, memory, and language; paired t tests; p ≤ 0.002). BDI-II and additional subscales also improved, at a lower level of statistical significance. Effect

  11. Heart Rate Monitor for Portable MP3 Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaywoo; Lee, Mi-Hee; Lee, Hyoung-Ki; Choi, Kiwan; Bang, Seokwon; Kim, Sangryong

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a photoplethysmography sensor based on a heart rate monitor for a portable MP3 player. Two major design issues are addressed: one is to acquire the sensor signal with a proper amplitude despite a wide range of variation and the other is to handle the noise contaminated signal which is caused by a motion artifact. A benchmarking test with a professional medical photoplethysmography sensor shows that our device performs very well in calculating heart rate even though our photoplethysmography sensor module was designed to be cost effective.

  12. An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chi-Yung; Pan, Yi-Lei; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Huang, Lin-Wan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-09-01

    The efficacy of both methylphenidate and atomoxetine has been established in placebo-controlled trials. The present study aimed to directly compare the efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in improving symptoms among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study sample included 160 drug-naïve children and adolescents 7-16 years of age, with DSM-IV-defined ADHD, randomly assigned to osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) (n=80) and atomoxetine (n=80) in a 24 week, open-label, head-to-head clinical trial. The primary efficacy measure was the score of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Parents Version: Investigator Administered and Scored (ADHD-RS-IV). The secondary efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) and Chinese Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV scale (SNAP-IV), based on the ratings of investigators, parents, teachers, and subjects. At week 24, mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Inattention scores were 13.58 points (Cohen's d, -3.08) for OROS-methylphenidate and 12.65 points (Cohen's d, -3.05) for atomoxetine; and mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores were 10.16 points (Cohen's d, -1.75) for OROS-methylphenidate and 10.68 points (Cohen's d, -1.87) for atomoxetine. In terms of parent-, teacher-, and self-ratings on behavioral symptoms, both of the two treatment groups significantly decreased on the SNAP-IV scores at the end-point, with effect sizes ranging from 0.9 to 0.96 on the Inattention subscale and from 0.61 to 0.8 on the Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale for OROS-methylphenidate; and from 0.51 to 0.88 on the Inattention subscale and from 0.29 to 0.57 on the Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale for atomoxetine. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups were observed on the outcome measures. Vomiting, somnolence, and dizziness were reported more often for atomoxetine than for OROS-methylphenidate, whereas insomnia was reported

  13. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B; Nilausen, Trine Danvad; Skoog, Maria; Holmskov, Mathilde; Rosendal, Susanne; Groth, Camilla; Magnusson, Frederik L; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R; Gillies, Donna; Buch Rasmussen, Kirsten; Gauci, Dorothy; Zwi, Morris; Kirubakaran, Richard; Forsbøl, Bente; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2015-11-25

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood. Typically, children with ADHD find it difficult to pay attention, they are hyperactive and impulsive.Methylphenidate is the drug most often prescribed to treat children and adolescents with ADHD but, despite its widespread use, this is the first comprehensive systematic review of its benefits and harms. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of methylphenidate for children and adolescents with ADHD. In February 2015 we searched six databases (CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Conference Proceedings Citations Index), and two trials registers. We checked for additional trials in the reference lists of relevant reviews and included trials. We contacted the pharmaceutical companies that manufacture methylphenidate to request published and unpublished data. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing methylphenidate versus placebo or no intervention in children and adolescents aged 18 years and younger with a diagnosis of ADHD. At least 75% of participants needed to have an intellectual quotient of at least 70 (i.e. normal intellectual functioning). Outcomes assessed included ADHD symptoms, serious adverse events, non-serious adverse events, general behaviour and quality of life. Seventeen review authors participated in data extraction and risk of bias assessment, and two review authors independently performed all tasks. We used standard methodological procedures expected within Cochrane. Data from parallel-group trials and first period data from cross-over trials formed the basis of our primary analyses; separate analyses were undertaken using post-cross-over data from cross-over trials. We used Trial Sequential Analyses to control for type I (5%) and type II (20%) errors, and we assessed and downgraded evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE

  14. Early MIMD experience on the CRAY X-MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Clifford E.; Stevens, K. G.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes some early experience with converting four physics simulation programs to the CRAY X-MP, a current Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data (MIMD) computer consisting of two processors each with an architecture similar to that of the CRAY-1. As a multi-processor, the CRAY X-MP together with the high speed Solid-state Storage Device (SSD) in an ideal machine upon which to study MIMD algorithms for solving the equations of mathematical physics because it is fast enough to run real problems. The computer programs used in this study are all FORTRAN versions of original production codes. They range in sophistication from a one-dimensional numerical simulation of collisionless plasma to a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code with heat flow to a couple of three-dimensional fluid dynamics codes with varying degrees of viscous modeling. Early research with a dual processor configuration has shown speed-ups ranging from 1.55 to 1.98. It has been observed that a few simple extensions to FORTRAN allow a typical programmer to achieve a remarkable level of efficiency. These extensions involve the concept of memory local to a concurrent subprogram and memory common to all concurrent subprograms.

  15. Shelf life of irradiated minimally processed (MP) watercress (Nasturtium officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.G.; Behrens, J.H.; Aragon-Alegro, L.C.; Vieira, V.S.; Costa-Sobrinho, P.S.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.; Franco, B.D.G. de M.; Destro, M.T.; Landgraf, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the shelf life of minimally processed (MP) watercress exposed to gamma radiation with doses of 1.0; 3.0; 4.0 kGy. Packaged irradiated and non-irradiated MP watercress was subject to sensory analysis. A panel consisting of 25-30 non-trained members, aged 20-55 years, was used. Sensory evaluation was carried out on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 9 and 12 after treatment with packages maintained at 7 °C. The members of the panel rated each sample for overall liking on a hybrid 10 hedonic scale (0 = extremely dislike; 10 = extremely like). Microbiological analyses were also conducted. Compared to the non-irradiated sample, 1 kGy irradiated watercress increased its shelf life by one day (16 days). Shelf lives of samples exposed to higher doses were reduced to 9 days (3 kGy) and 6 days (4 kGy) due to changes in appearance. The microbiological quality was good throughout the experiment

  16. Development of Mixed Mode MPI / OpenMP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Smith

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available MPI / OpenMP mixed mode codes could potentially offer the most effective parallelisation strategy for an SMP cluster, as well as allowing the different characteristics of both paradigms to be exploited to give the best performance on a single SMP. This paper discusses the implementation, development and performance of mixed mode MPI / OpenMP applications. The results demonstrate that this style of programming will not always be the most effective mechanism on SMP systems and cannot be regarded as the ideal programming model for all codes. In some situations, however, significant benefit may be obtained from a mixed mode implementation. For example, benefit may be obtained if the parallel (MPI code suffers from: poor scaling with MPI processes due to load imbalance or too fine a grain problem size, memory limitations due to the use of a replicated data strategy, or a restriction on the number of MPI processes combinations. In addition, if the system has a poorly optimised or limited scaling MPI implementation then a mixed mode code may increase the code performance.

  17. Numerical simulation system for environmental studies: SPEEDI-MP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Terada, Hiroaki; Harayama, Takaya; Kobayashi, Takuya; Tsuduki, Katsunori; Kim, Keyong-Ok; Furuno, Akiko

    2006-09-01

    A numerical simulation system SPEEDI-MP has been developed to apply for various environmental studies. SPEEDI-MP consists of dynamical models and material transport models for the atmospheric, terrestrial, and oceanic environments, meteorological and geographical database for model inputs, and system utilities for file management, visualization, analysis, etc., using graphical user interfaces (GUIs). As a numerical simulation tool, a model coupling program (model coupler) has been developed. It controls parallel calculations of several models and data exchanges among them to realize the dynamical coupling of the models. A coupled model system for water circulation has been constructed with atmosphere, ocean, wave, hydrology, and land-surface models using the model coupler. System utility GUIs are based on the Web technology, allowing users to manipulate all the functions on the system using their own PCs via the internet. In this system, the source estimation function in the atmospheric transport model can be executed on the grid computer system. Performance tests of the coupled model system for water circulation were also carried out for the flood event at Saudi Arabia in January 2005 and the storm surge case by the hurricane KATRINA in August 2005. (author)

  18. Methylphenidate treatment beyond adolescence maintains increased cocaine self-administration in the spontaneously hypertensive rat model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Britahny M; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2015-04-01

    Past research with the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed that adolescent methylphenidate treatment enhanced cocaine abuse risk in SHR during adulthood. The acquisition of cocaine self-administration was faster, and cocaine dose-response functions were shifted upward under fixed-ratio and progressive ratio schedules compared to adult SHR that received adolescent vehicle treatment or to control strains that received adolescent methylphenidate treatment. The current study determined if extending treatment beyond adolescence would ameliorate long-term consequences of adolescent methylphenidate treatment on cocaine abuse risk in adult SHR. Treatments (vehicle or 1.5mg/kg/day oral methylphenidate) began on postnatal day 28. Groups of male SHR were treated with vehicle during adolescence and adulthood, with methylphenidate during adolescence and vehicle during adulthood, or with methylphenidate during adolescence and adulthood. The group receiving adolescent-only methylphenidate was switched to vehicle on P56. Cocaine self-administration began on postnatal day 77, and groups receiving methylphenidate during adolescence and adulthood were treated either 1-h before or 1-h after daily sessions. At baseline under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule, cocaine self-administration (2h sessions; 0.3mg/kg unit dose) did not differ among the four treatment groups. Under a progressive ratio schedule (4.5h maximum session length; 0.01-1.0mg/kg unit doses), breakpoints for self-administered cocaine in SHR receiving the adult methylphenidate treatment 1-h pre-session were not different from the vehicle control group. However, compared to the vehicle control group, breakpoints for self-administered cocaine at the 0.3 and 1.0mg/kg unit doses were greater in adult SHR that received adolescent-only methylphenidate or received methylphenidate that was continued into adulthood and administered 1-h post-session. These findings suggest that

  19. Mass Spectrometry Imaging Shows Cocaine and Methylphenidate Have Opposite Effects on Major Lipids in Drosophila Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Mai H; Phan, Nhu T N; Fletcher, John S; Malmberg, Per; Ewing, Andrew G

    2018-03-20

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to study the effects of cocaine versus methylphenidate administration on both the localization and abundance of lipids in Drosophila melanogaster brain. A J105 ToF-SIMS with a 40 keV gas cluster primary ion source enabled us to probe molecular ions of biomolecules on the fly with a spatial resolution of ∼3 μm, giving us unique insights into the effect of these drugs on molecular lipids in the nervous system. Significant changes in phospholipid composition were observed in the central brain for both. Principal components image analysis revealed that changes occurred mainly for phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, and phosphatidylinositols. When the lipid changes caused by cocaine were compared with those induced by methylphenidate, it was shown that these drugs exert opposite effects on the brain lipid structure. We speculate that this might relate to the molecular mechanism of cognition and memory.

  20. Gastrointestinal adverse events during methylphenidate treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmskov, Mathilde; Storebø, Ole Jakob; Moreira-Maia, Carlos R

    2017-01-01

    : We use data from our review including 185 randomised clinical trials. Randomised parallel-group trials and cross-over trials reporting gastrointestinal adverse events associated with methylphenidate were included. Data were extracted and quality assessed according to Cochrane guidelines. Data were...... summarised as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the inverse variance method. Bias risks were assessed according to domains. Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) was used to control random errors. Eighteen parallel group trials and 43 cross-over trials reported gastrointestinal adverse...... differences in the risk according to type, dose, or duration of administration. The required information size was achieved in three out of four outcomes. CONCLUSION: Methylphenidate increases the risks of decreased appetite, weight loss, and abdominal pain in children and adolescents with attention deficit...

  1. Methylphenidate Attenuates Limbic Brain Inhibition after Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Cocaine Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Pradhan, Kith; Jayne, Millard; Logan, Jean; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Wong, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and...

  2. The Effects of Methylphenidate on Goal-Directed Behavior in a Rat Model of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joman Y. Natsheh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although attentional and motor alterations in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been well characterized, less is known about how this disorder impacts goal-directed behavior. To investigate whether there is a misbalance between goal-directed and habitual behaviors in an animal model of ADHD, we tested adult [P75-P105] Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR (ADHD rat model and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, the normotensive control strain, on an instrumental conditioning paradigm with two phases: a free-operant training phase in which rats separately acquired two distinct action-outcome contingencies, and a choice test conducted in extinction prior to which one of the food outcomes was devalued through specific satiety. To assess the effects of Methylphenidate, a commonly used ADHD medication, on goal-directed behavior, we injected rats with either Methylphenidate or saline prior to the choice test. Both rat strains acquired an instrumental response, with SHR responding at greater rates over the course of training. During the choice test WKY demonstrated goal-directed behavior, responding more frequently on the lever that delivered, during training, the still-valued outcome. In contrast, SHR showed no goal-directed behavior, responding equally on both levers. However, methylphenidate administration prior to the choice test restored goal-directed behavior in SHR, and disrupted this behavior in WKY rats. This study provides the first experimental evidence for selective impairment in goal-directed behavior in rat models of ADHD, and how methylphenidate acts differently on SHR and WKY animals to restore or impair this behavior, respectively.

  3. Motivational effects of methylphenidate are associated with GABRA2 variants conferring addiction risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora eDuka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variations in the GABRA2 gene, encoding α2 subunits of GABAA receptors, have been associated with risk for addiction to several drugs, but the mechanisms by which variations in non-coding regions of GABRA2 increase risk for addictions are not understood. Mice with deletion of Gabra2 show deficits in the ability of psychostimulants to facilitate responding for conditioned reinforcers, offering a potential explanation. Methods: We report human and mouse studies investigating a potential endophenotype underlying this association. Healthy human volunteers carrying either cocaine-addiction risk or protective GABRA2 SNPs were tested for their subjective responses to methylphenidate, and methylphenidate’s ability to facilitate conditioned reinforcement (CRf for visual stimuli (CS+ associated with monetary reward. In parallel, methylphenidate’s ability to facilitate responding for a visual CRf was studied in wildtype and α2 knockout (α2-/- mice. Results: Methylphenidate increased the number of CS+ presentations obtained by human subjects carrying protective, but not risk SNPs. In mice, methylphenidate increased responding for a CS+ in wildtype, but not α2-/- mice. Human subjects carrying protective SNPs felt stimulated, aroused and restless following methylphenidate, while individuals carrying risk SNPs did not. Conclusion: Human risk SNP carriers were insensitive to methylphenidate’s effects on mood or in facilitating CRf. That mice with the gene deletion were also insensitive to methylphenidate’s ability to increase responding for CRf, suggests a potential mechanism whereby low α2-subunit levels increase risk for addictions. Circuits employing GABAA-α2 subunit-containing receptors may protect against risk for addictions.

  4. Risperidone Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arabgol, Fariba; Panaghi, Leily; Nikzad, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric diagnosis among preschool children. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the Risperidone treatment compared to Methylphenidate (MPH) in preschool children with ADHD. Patients and Methods: Thirty three outpatient preschool children, aged 3-6 years, diagnosed with ADHD (The diagnosis of ADHD was established by two child and adolescent psychiatrists according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria), participated i...

  5. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as methylphenidate (Ritalin) or dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), which are stimulants that decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity and increase attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the generic versions ...

  6. A study of $CP$ violation in $B^\\mp \\rightarrow Dh^\\mp$ ($h=K,\\pi$) with the modes $D \\rightarrow K^\\mp \\pi^\\pm \\pi^0$, $D \\rightarrow \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ and $D \\rightarrow K^+K^-\\pi^0$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Ninci, Daniele; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-06-26

    An analysis of the decays of $B^\\mp \\rightarrow D K^\\mp$ and $B^\\mp \\rightarrow D \\pi^\\mp $ is presented in which the $D$ meson is reconstructed in the three-body final states $K^\\mp \\pi^\\pm \\pi^0$, $\\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0$ and $K^+ K^- \\pi^0$. Using data from LHCb corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0~fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions, measurements of several $CP$ observables are performed. First observations are obtained of the suppressed ADS decay $B^\\mp \\rightarrow [\\pi^\\mp K^\\pm \\pi^0]_D \\pi^\\mp$ and the quasi-GLW decay $B^\\mp \\rightarrow [K^+ K^- \\pi^0]_D \\pi^\\mp$. The results are interpreted in the context of the unitarity triangle angle $\\gamma$ and related parameters.

  7. Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 vaccine encoding Toscana virus NSs retains neuroinvasiveness in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indran, Sabarish V; Lihoradova, Olga A; Phoenix, Inaia; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Kalveram, Birte; Head, Jennifer A; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Smith, Jennifer K; Zhang, Lihong; Juelich, Terry L; Gong, Bin; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    Rift Valley fever is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) causes high rates of abortion and fetal malformation in pregnant ruminants, and haemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans. The MP-12 strain is a highly efficacious and safe live-attenuated vaccine candidate for both humans and ruminants. However, MP-12 lacks a marker to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. In this study, we originally aimed to characterize the efficacy of a recombinant RVFV MP-12 strain encoding Toscana virus (TOSV) NSs gene in place of MP-12 NSs (rMP12-TOSNSs). TOSV NSs promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and inhibits interferon-β gene up-regulation without suppressing host general transcription. Unexpectedly, rMP12-TOSNSs increased death in vaccinated outbred mice and inbred BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice. Immunohistochemistry showed diffusely positive viral antigens in the thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem, including the medulla. No viral antigens were detected in spleen or liver, which is similar to the antigen distribution of moribund mice infected with MP-12. These results suggest that rMP12-TOSNSs retains neuroinvasiveness in mice. Our findings demonstrate that rMP12-TOSNSs causes neuroinvasion without any hepatic disease and will be useful for studying the neuroinvasion mechanism of RVFV and TOSV.

  8. Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerboom, Jasper; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Wardill, Trevor J; Tian, Lin; Marvin, Jonathan S; Mutlu, Sevinç; Calderón, Nicole Carreras; Esposti, Federico; Borghuis, Bart G; Sun, Xiaonan Richard; Gordus, Andrew; Orger, Michael B; Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian; Macklin, John J; Filosa, Alessandro; Aggarwal, Aman; Kerr, Rex A; Takagi, Ryousuke; Kracun, Sebastian; Shigetomi, Eiji; Khakh, Baljit S; Baier, Herwig; Lagnado, Leon; Wang, Samuel S-H; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Kimmel, Bruce E; Jayaraman, Vivek; Svoboda, Karel; Kim, Douglas S; Schreiter, Eric R; Looger, Loren L

    2012-10-03

    Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) are powerful tools for systems neuroscience. Recent efforts in protein engineering have significantly increased the performance of GECIs. The state-of-the art single-wavelength GECI, GCaMP3, has been deployed in a number of model organisms and can reliably detect three or more action potentials in short bursts in several systems in vivo. Through protein structure determination, targeted mutagenesis, high-throughput screening, and a battery of in vitro assays, we have increased the dynamic range of GCaMP3 by severalfold, creating a family of "GCaMP5" sensors. We tested GCaMP5s in several systems: cultured neurons and astrocytes, mouse retina, and in vivo in Caenorhabditis chemosensory neurons, Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction and adult antennal lobe, zebrafish retina and tectum, and mouse visual cortex. Signal-to-noise ratio was improved by at least 2- to 3-fold. In the visual cortex, two GCaMP5 variants detected twice as many visual stimulus-responsive cells as GCaMP3. By combining in vivo imaging with electrophysiology we show that GCaMP5 fluorescence provides a more reliable measure of neuronal activity than its predecessor GCaMP3. GCaMP5 allows more sensitive detection of neural activity in vivo and may find widespread applications for cellular imaging in general.

  9. Radiocarbon dating with the Chalk River MP Tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, G.C.; Andrews, H.R.; Brown, R.M.; Burn, N.; Davies, W.G.; Imahori, Y.; Milton, J.C.D.

    1981-01-01

    During the past three years an automated radiocarbon dating system based on the MP Tandem accelerator has been developed for the analysis of 14 C in groundwater samples from the nuclear waste disposal research program and other small samples of scientific interest. At the present time 14 C/ 12 C ratio measurements can be determined with an accuracy of about 5% and the system background levels (approx. 35000 to 45000 years) are totally determined by sample and/or ion source contamination. Our goal has been to develop a dedicated reliable system for routine analysis that will produce accurate results with a minimum expenditure of human resources and accelerator beam time. Improvements required to operate the tandem accelerator as a quantitative tool have also benefited the rest of the experimental nuclear physics program. The early evolution of the dating facility was described previously. This paper is a brief report of the current status at Chalk River

  10. [The first physician MP of the Hungarian Parliament, Vince Zomborcsevics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörnyei, Sándor

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Vince Zomborcsevics (1810-1890) was the first practising physician elected--in 1847 for the town Szabadka--as MP of the Hungarian Parliament. He spoke up twice at parliamentary sessions: first for enlarging the weight of towns in the Parliament (and thereby that of the bourgeoisie), while second time for radical changes to be made in serfs' circumstances. Both prior and following his parliamentary activity he worked as a medical officer, later he pursued private practice. In the 1840-ies he joined the contemporary national professional and cultural movements, from the 50-ies however he worked only for his local community. Later he retired from public life entirely. He left his remarkable book-collection to the local secondary school.

  11. A Comparison of Effectiveness of Parent Behavioral Management Training and Methylphenidate on Reduction of Symptomsof Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common psychological disorders of childhood. Methylphenidate is highly effective in the treatment of ADHD. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combined Parent behavioral management training (PBMT and medication treatment (Methylphenidate in reducing ADHD symptoms in 6-12-year-old children, using randomized sampling. A total of 50 children with ADHD were assigned into two groups: an experimental group of PBMT and a control group of medication treatment (Methylphenidate without other interventions. Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-48 was employed before and after interventions to determine the effects. Descriptive Statistics method (consisting of Mean and Standard deviation and Statistical inference method, (including t-test and Levene's Test were used for data analysis.  Findings revealed that the combined behavioral intervention of PBMT and methylphenidate treatment is more effective in reduction of ADHD in children. The difference of means between pre-test and post-test of CPRS in the experimental group was equal to 10.77, and it was equal to 1.88 in the control group. In addition, PBMT was more effective in the case of younger parents (P<0.025. However, parents’ education level did not affect the behavioral intervention (P<0.025.The findings suggest that combined intervention of PBMT and methylphenidate is effective in reducing the symptoms of ADHD in children.

  12. Acute effects of methylphenidate on impulsivity and attentional behavior among adolescents comorbid for ADHD and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M; Olvera, Rene L; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Ryan, Stacy R; Mathias, Charles W

    2016-12-01

    Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) experience deficits in neuropsychological measures of attention, inhibition, and reward processes. Methylphenidate treatment for ADHD and CD has acute effects on these processes. Some of these same aspects of performance are separately described in the Behavioral Model of Impulsivity, which uses a modified approach to measurement. This study characterized the acute effects of methylphenidate attention, initiation, inhibition, and reward processes described in this model of impulsivity. Thirty-one adolescents from the United States of America with comorbid ADHD and CD completed measures of impulsivity (response initiation, response inhibition, and consequence) and attention following placebo, 20 mg, and 40 mg of a long-acting dose of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate effects on attentional performance was more robust than on any of the measures of impulsivity. Adolescent performance from this behavioral perspective is interpreted in the context of divergence from previous neuropsychological tests of acute methylphenidate effects. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Venkataramana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic and undesired (side effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose, each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' Global Index for parents (CGI-Parents and teachers (CGI-Teachers, while side effects were assessed using the Barkley Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS. Results The side effect profile as assessed by the SERS was similar to that of previous studies with insomnia, decreased appetite, and headaches showing significant treatment effects (p Conclusion The greater "mood/anxiety" side effects on methylphenidate and placebo, the less the parents observe improvement of their children while treated with methylphenidate. This suggests that the correlations between "mood/anxiety" side effects and poor response to treatment may be driven by observer effects rather than biological commonalities between therapeutic and side effects of methylphenidate.

  14. The pharmacology of amphetamine and methylphenidate: Relevance to the neurobiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V

    2018-04-01

    Psychostimulants, including amphetamines and methylphenidate, are first-line pharmacotherapies for individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review aims to educate physicians regarding differences in pharmacology and mechanisms of action between amphetamine and methylphenidate, thus enhancing physician understanding of psychostimulants and their use in managing individuals with ADHD who may have comorbid psychiatric conditions. A systematic literature review of PubMed was conducted in April 2017, focusing on cellular- and brain system-level effects of amphetamine and methylphenidate. The primary pharmacologic effect of both amphetamine and methylphenidate is to increase central dopamine and norepinephrine activity, which impacts executive and attentional function. Amphetamine actions include dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition, vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2) inhibition, and monoamine oxidase activity inhibition. Methylphenidate actions include dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibition, agonist activity at the serotonin type 1A receptor, and redistribution of the VMAT-2. There is also evidence for interactions with glutamate and opioid systems. Clinical implications of these actions in individuals with ADHD with comorbid depression, anxiety, substance use disorder, and sleep disturbances are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Virtual Remediation Versus Methylphenidate to Improve Distractibility in Children With ADHD: A Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioulac, Stéphanie; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Maire, Jenna; Bouvard, Manuel P; Rizzo, Albert A; Sagaspe, Patricia; Philip, Pierre

    2018-03-01

    Virtual environments have been used to assess children with ADHD but have never been tested as therapeutic tools. We tested a new virtual classroom cognitive remediation program to improve symptoms in children with ADHD. In this randomized clinical trial, 51 children with ADHD (7-11 years) were assigned to a virtual cognitive remediation group, a methylphenidate group, or a psychotherapy group. All children were evaluated before and after therapy with an ADHD Rating Scale, a Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and a virtual classroom task. After therapy by virtual remediation, children exhibited significantly higher numbers of correct hits on the virtual classroom and CPT. These improvements were equivalent to those observed with methylphenidate treatment. Our study demonstrates for the first time that a cognitive remediation program delivered in a virtual classroom reduces distractibility in children with ADHD and could replace methylphenidate treatment in specific cases.

  16. PredMP: A Web Resource for Computationally Predicted Membrane Proteins via Deep Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Sheng; Fei, Shiyang; Zongan, Wang; Li, Yu; Zhao, Feng; Gao, Xin

    2018-01-01

    structures in Protein Data Bank (PDB). To elucidate the MP structures computationally, we developed a novel web resource, denoted as PredMP (http://52.87.130.56:3001/#/proteinindex), that delivers one-dimensional (1D) annotation of the membrane topology

  17. MP3-e leiutajatele jäävad näpud / Patrick Jenkins

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jenkins, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Tänu MP3-mängija iPod edukale müügile suurenes Apple Computeri I kvartali kasum 368% ning oli 295 miljonit dollarit. MP3 tehnoloogia leiutati Saksamaal peaaegu 20 aastat tagasi, kuid tookord ei saadud tehnoloogia rakendamiseks Euroopas tuge. Lisa: MPEG Layer 3 kodeerimine

  18. MP3 Players: Applications and Implications for the Use of Popular Technology in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiler, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores potential uses for MP3 players in secondary classrooms. It presents an overview of current applications and describes an exploratory study of classroom uses. Seven high school teachers and one teacher educator participated in a three-month project to examine MP3 technology as applied to high school instruction. Their ideas…

  19. MP3 - A Meteorology and Physical Properties Package for Titan Air-Sea Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Stofan, E.; Lunine, J. I.; Zarnecki, J. C.; Harri, A.-M.; Karkoschka, E.; Newman, C. E.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Clark, B. C.; Yelland, M.; Leese, M. R.; Boldt, J.; Darlington, E.; Neish, C. D.; Sotzen, K.; Arvelo, J.; Rasbach, C.; Kretsch, W.; Strohbehn, K.; Grey, M.; Mann, J.; Zimmerman, H.; Reed, C.

    2012-10-01

    MP3 is a sensor suite for the proposed Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Discovery mission to Ligeia Mare. MP3 will measure temperatures, and wind velocity, methane humidity, and pressure, as well as sea turbidity, dielectric properties, and depth via sonar.

  20. Multi-core job submission and grid resource scheduling for ATLAS AthenaMP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    A study into the effectiveness and scalability of AthenaMP in a production environment will be presented. Submitting AthenaMP tasks to the Tier-0 and candidate Tier-2 sites will allow detailed measurement of worker node performance and also highlight the relative performance of local resource management system...

  1. Multitasking and microtasking experience on the NA S Cray-2 and ACF Cray X-MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Farhad

    1987-01-01

    The fast Fourier transform (FFT) kernel of the NAS benchmark program has been utilized to experiment with the multitasking library on the Cray-2 and Cray X-MP/48, and microtasking directives on the Cray X-MP. Some performance figures are shown, and the state of multitasking software is described.

  2. Cocaine-seeking behavior in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following adolescent methylphenidate or atomoxetine treatments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Chloe J.; Harvey, Roxann C.; Baskin, Britahny B.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with cocaine abuse. Controversy exists regarding long-term consequences of ADHD medications on cocaine abuse liability. Whereas childhood methylphenidate treatment may be preventative, methylphenidate in teens appears to further increase later cocaine abuse risk. In rodents, adolescent methylphenidate treatment further increases adult cocaine self-administration in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD, whereas adolescent atomoxetine treatment does not. Effects of ADHD medications on cocaine cue reactivity, a critical component of addiction, are unknown. Methods To investigate this, SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (inbred control) and Wistar (outbred control) rats received therapeutically relevant doses of methylphenidate (1.5 mg/kg, oral) and atomoxetine (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), or respective vehicles from post-natal day 28–55. Cocaine seeking, reflecting cue reactivity, was measured in adulthood during self-administration maintenance and cue-induced reinstatement tests conducted under a second-order schedule. Results Compared to control strains, SHR earned more cocaine infusions, emitted more cocaine-seeking responses during maintenance and reinstatement testing, and required more sessions to reach the extinction criterion. Compared to vehicle, adolescent methylphenidate, but not atomoxetine, further increased cocaine intake during maintenance testing in SHR. Adolescent atomoxetine, but not methylphenidate, decreased cocaine seeking during reinstatement testing in SHR. Neither medication had effects on cocaine intake or cue reactivity in control strains. Conclusions The SHR successfully model ADHD and cocaine abuse comorbidity and show differential effects of adolescent ADHD medications on cocaine intake and cue reactivity during adulthood. Thus, SHR have heuristic value for assessing neurobiology underlying the ADHD phenotype and for evaluating pharmacotherapeutics for ADHD

  3. RENAP-MP: national PWR - medium nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldonian, N.L.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kosaka, N.; Moreira, J.M.L.

    1994-01-01

    In this work are presented the main characteristics of a medium nuclear power plant, named RENAP - MP which has been developed by the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN - SP) and Coordenadoria para Projetos Especiais (COPESP) from de Brazilian Navy. The study aims at determining the necessary conditions for such a plant complete, in Brazil, technically and economically with other means of thermal power generation, such as coal, gas and oil. Results show that the energy average cost should be around 59 dollars/MWh; the construction time should be less than 5 years in order to reduce financial costs; and the design should emphasize the use of inherently safe technology, in order to reduce substantially the risks of nuclear accidents. It should be pointed out that the nuclear power technology has some environmental and social advantages when compared to hydro and other thermal power technologies, since it does not require flooding of large areas, reduces green house and acid rain effects, and can be located near consumption areas. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  4. OpenMP parallelization of a gridded SWAT (SWATG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Hou, Jinliang; Cao, Yongpan; Gu, Juan; Huang, Chunlin

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale, long-term and high spatial resolution simulation is a common issue in environmental modeling. A Gridded Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU)-based Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWATG) that integrates grid modeling scheme with different spatial representations also presents such problems. The time-consuming problem affects applications of very high resolution large-scale watershed modeling. The OpenMP (Open Multi-Processing) parallel application interface is integrated with SWATG (called SWATGP) to accelerate grid modeling based on the HRU level. Such parallel implementation takes better advantage of the computational power of a shared memory computer system. We conducted two experiments at multiple temporal and spatial scales of hydrological modeling using SWATG and SWATGP on a high-end server. At 500-m resolution, SWATGP was found to be up to nine times faster than SWATG in modeling over a roughly 2000 km2 watershed with 1 CPU and a 15 thread configuration. The study results demonstrate that parallel models save considerable time relative to traditional sequential simulation runs. Parallel computations of environmental models are beneficial for model applications, especially at large spatial and temporal scales and at high resolutions. The proposed SWATGP model is thus a promising tool for large-scale and high-resolution water resources research and management in addition to offering data fusion and model coupling ability.

  5. Methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine for cognitive enhancement in chess: A double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Andreas G; Gränsmark, Patrik; Agricola, Alexandra; Schühle, Kai; Rommel, Thilo; Sebastian, Alexandra; Balló, Harald E; Gorbulev, Stanislav; Gerdes, Christer; Frank, Björn; Ruckes, Christian; Tüscher, Oliver; Lieb, Klaus

    2017-03-01

    Stimulants and caffeine have been proposed for cognitive enhancement by healthy subjects. This study investigated whether performance in chess - a competitive mind game requiring highly complex cognitive skills - can be enhanced by methylphenidate, modafinil or caffeine. In a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 39 male chess players received 2×200mg modafinil, 2×20mg methylphenidate, and 2×200mg caffeine or placebo in a 4×4 crossover design. They played twenty 15-minute games during two sessions against a chess program (Fritz 12; adapted to players' strength) and completed several neuropsychological tests. Marked substance effects were observed since all three substances significantly increased average reflection time per game compared to placebo resulting in a significantly increased number of games lost on time with all three treatments. Treatment effects on chess performance were not seen if all games (n=3059) were analysed. Only when controlling for game duration as well as when excluding those games lost on time, both modafinil and methylphenidate enhanced chess performance as demonstrated by significantly higher scores in the remaining 2876 games compared to placebo. In conjunction with results from neuropsychological testing we conclude that modifying effects of stimulants on complex cognitive tasks may in particular result from more reflective decision making processes. When not under time pressure, such effects may result in enhanced performance. Yet, under time constraints more reflective decision making may not improve or even have detrimental effects on complex task performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential effects of psychomotor stimulants on attentional performance in rats: nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, L; Patel, S; Murtagh, C; Stolerman, I P

    2004-05-01

    Nicotine can improve attentional performance in the rat as assessed by a modified five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), but it is not known if the effect is shared with other psychomotor stimulants. This study compared the effects of nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate on performance in the 5-CSRTT and determined whether presenting stimuli at unpredictable times by using variable inter-trial intervals (ITI) influenced the sensitivity of the task to the drugs. One group of male hooded rats was trained to obtain food reinforcers by nose-poking in response to 1 s light stimuli presented randomly in one of five apertures, with fixed ITI; for a second group of rats, ITI varied randomly (n=12 per group). As observed previously, nicotine (tested in doses of 0.05-0.2 mg/kg) produced dose-related improvements in accuracy, reduced omission errors and response latencies, but increased anticipatory responding. Amphetamine (0.1-0.8 mg/kg) and methylphenidate (2.5-10 mg/kg) increased accuracy and reduced response latency, and decreased anticipatory responding. Caffeine (2.5-20 mg/kg) did not improve performance except at a small dose that decreased omission errors only. Training at different levels of stimulus predictability influenced performance in the undrugged state but had little impact on profiles of responses to the drugs. The findings with methylphenidate support the potential value of the 5-CSRTT for testing drugs that may be useful in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  7. Haloperidol attenuates Methylphenidate and Modafinil induced behavioural sensitization and cognitive enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nausheen; Choudhary, Kulsoom

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that repeated psychostimulant administration produces behavioural sensitization and cognitive tolerance. Brain dopaminergic system and the involvement of dopamine D 2 -receptors are considered to be important in psychostimulant-induced sensitization. Study designed to compared the motor activity by using familiar and novel enviroments and cognitive effects by water maze and passive avoidance test after long term administration of methylphenidate(at the dose 0.6 mg/kg/day, 2.5 mg/kg/day and 10 mg/kg/day) and modafinil (50 mg/kg/day, 64 mg/kg/day and 75 mg/kg/day) in rats. The effects of challenge dose of haloperidol (at the dose of 1 mg/kg i.p.) has monitored to visualize any subsensitization or supersensitization of D 2 receptors. We found that motor activity and cognitive performance was increased in all doses and sensitization effect was more pronounced after 13 days of drug administration were greater at high than low and medium doses.Challenge dose of haloperidol attenuate motor activity in familiar and novel environment and impaired cognition in water maze and passive avoidance test in all treated rats. The effect of Haloperidol in high dose treated rats were however somewhat greater than low and medium dose treated rats following methylphenidate and modafinil administration. Increased response of haloperidol in methylphenidate treated rats can be explained in term of supersensitization of D 2 receptors which is greater in high dose treated rats. The results show that the role of D 2 receptors to develop side effects such as behavioural sensitization and cognitive tolerance by the long term administration of psychostimulants is of sufficient importance and helpful in understanding the mechanisms underlying the undesirable effects of psychostimulants.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of extended-release methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sub-optimally treated with immediate release methylphenidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen van der Schans

    Full Text Available Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH is the medical treatment of first choice. The necessity to use several IR-MPH tablets per day and associated potential social stigma at school often leads to reduced compliance, sub-optimal treatment, and therefore economic loss. Replacement of IR-MPH with a single-dose extended release (ER-MPH formulation may improve drug response and economic efficiency.To evaluate the cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective of a switch from IR-MPH to ER-MPH in patients who are sub-optimally treated.A daily Markov-cycle model covering a time-span of 10 years was developed including four different health states: (1 optimal response, (2 sub-optimal response, (3 discontinued treatment, and (4 natural remission. ER-MPH options included methylphenidate osmotic release oral system (MPH-OROS and Equasym XL/Medikinet CR. Both direct costs and indirect costs were included in the analysis, and effects were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs. Univariate, multivariate as well as probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted and the main outcomes were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.Switching sub-optimally treated patients from IR-MPH to MPH-OROS or Equasym XL/Medikinet CR led to per-patient cost-savings of €4200 and €5400, respectively, over a 10-year treatment span. Sensitivity analysis with plausible variations of input parameters resulted in cost-savings in the vast majority of estimations.This study lends economic support to switching patients with ADHD with suboptimal response to short-acting IR-MPH to long-acting ER-MPH regimens.

  9. The effect of methylphenidate on sustained attention among adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, Dubi; Bassin-Savion, Shiry; Rubel, Lilach

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven adolescents diagnosed as having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were tested twice with a computerized MATH-CPT (mathematics continuous performance test). In one administration, the participants took medication (methylphenidate, MPH) 1.5 hr before being tested. In another administration, the MATH-CPT was administered without the medication. Treatment with MPH improved the "overall attention level" and in measures of "reaction time" and "impulsivity." MPH did not improve the performance in the four measures of sustained attention. Knowing that treatment with MPH does not improve sustained attention can be helpful in reaching a decision of whether or not a child should be treated with MPH.

  10. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.W.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and ( 11 C)raclopride (D 2 /D 3 receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D 2 /D 3 receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  11. Methylphenidate-Elicited Dopamine Increases in Ventral Striatum Are Associated with Long-Term Symptom Improvement in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Kollins, S.H.; Wigal, T.L.; Newcorn, J.H.; Telang, F.W.; Fowler, J.S.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2012-01-18

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate, which are effective treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enhance brain dopamine signaling. However, the relationship between regional brain dopamine enhancement and treatment response has not been evaluated. Here, we assessed whether the dopamine increases elicited by methylphenidate are associated with long-term clinical response. We used a prospective design to study 20 treatment-naive adults with ADHD who were evaluated before treatment initiation and after 12 months of clinical treatment with a titrated regimen of oral methylphenidate. Methylphenidate-induced dopamine changes were evaluated with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride (D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor radioligand sensitive to competition with endogenous dopamine). Clinical responses were assessed using the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale and revealed a significant reduction in symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity with long-term methylphenidate treatment. A challenge dose of 0.5 mg/kg intravenous methylphenidate significantly increased dopamine in striatum (assessed as decreases in D{sub 2}/D{sub 3} receptor availability). In the ventral striatum, these dopamine increases were associated with the reductions in ratings of symptoms of inattention with clinical treatment. Statistical parametric mapping additionally showed dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices with intravenous methylphenidate that were also associated with decreases in symptoms of inattention. Our findings indicate that dopamine enhancement in ventral striatum (the brain region involved with reward and motivation) was associated with therapeutic response to methylphenidate, further corroborating the relevance of the dopamine reward/motivation circuitry in ADHD. It also provides preliminary evidence that methylphenidate-elicited dopamine increases in prefrontal and temporal cortices may also contribute to the clinical response.

  12. Prefrontal cortical and striatal transcriptional responses to the reinforcing effect of repeated methylphenidate treatment in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Peña, Ike; Kim, Hee Jin; Sohn, Aeree; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Noh, Minsoo; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-05-06

    Methylphenidate is the most commonly used stimulant drug for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Research has found that methylphenidate is a "reinforcer" and that individuals with ADHD also abuse this medication. Nevertheless, the molecular consequences of long-term recreational methylphenidate use or abuse in individuals with ADHD are not yet fully known. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the most validated and widely used ADHD animal model, were pretreated with methylphenidate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) during their adolescence (post-natal day [PND] 42-48) and tested for subsequent methylphenidate-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration. Thereafter, the differentially expressed genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum of representative methylphenidate-treated SHRs, which showed CPP to and self-administration of methylphenidate, were analyzed. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling analyses revealed 30 differentially expressed genes in the PFC, which include transcripts involved in apoptosis (e.g. S100a9, Angptl4, Nfkbia), transcription (Cebpb, Per3), and neuronal plasticity (Homer1, Jam2, Asap1). In contrast, 306 genes were differentially expressed in the striatum and among them, 252 were downregulated. The main functional categories overrepresented among the downregulated genes include those involved in cell adhesion (e.g. Pcdh10, Ctbbd1, Itgb6), positive regulation of apoptosis (Perp, Taf1, Api5), (Notch3, Nsbp1, Sik1), mitochondrion organization (Prps18c, Letm1, Uqcrc2), and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis (Nedd4, Usp27x, Ube2d2). Together, these changes indicate methylphenidate-induced neurotoxicity, altered synaptic and neuronal plasticity, energy metabolism and ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation in the brains of methylphenidate-treated SHRs, which showed methylphenidate CPP and self-administration. In addition, these findings may also reflect cognitive impairment associated with chronic

  13. Digital radiograph of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3 region as a tool for skeletal maturity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Y Hegde

    2012-01-01

    Results: The correlation determined between the MP3 stages and cervical vertebrae maturity index (CVMI stages, the peak-wise distribution of the MP3 stages, and the correlation between the MP3 stages and the chronological age were found to be highly significant. Conclusions: Digital radiograph of the MP3 region is definitely a simple, reliable, cost-effective, and time-saving technique for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

  14. The use of MP3 recorders to log data from equine hoof mounted accelerometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, K J; Wilson, A M

    2006-11-01

    MP3 recorders are readily available, small, lightweight and low cost, providing the potential for logging analogue hoof mounted accelerometer signals for the characterisation of equine locomotion. These, however, require testing in practice. To test whether 1) multiple MP3 recorders can maintain synchronisation, giving the ability to synchronise independent recorders for the logging of multiple limbs simultaneously; and 2) features of a foot mounted accelerometer signal attributable to foot-on and foot-off can be accurately identified from horse foot mounted accelerometers logged directly into an MP3 recorder. Three experiments were performed: 1) Maintenance of synchronisation was assessed by counting the number of samples recorded by each of 4 MP3 recorders while mounted on a trotting horse and over 2 consecutive 30 min periods in 8 recorders on a bench. 2) Foot-on and foot-off times obtained from manual transcription of MP3 logged data and directly logged accelerometer signal were compared. 3) MP3/accelerometer acquisition units were used to log accelerometer signals from racehorses during extended training sessions. Mean absolute error of synchronisation between MP3 recorders was 10 samples per million (compared to mean number of samples, range 1-32 samples per million). Error accumulation showed a linear correlation with time. Features attributable to foot on and foot off were equally identifiable from the MP3 recorded signal over a range of equine gaits. Multiple MP3 recorders can be synchronised and used as a relatively cheap, robust, reliable and accurate logging system when combined with an accelerometer and external battery for the specific application of the measurement of stride timing variables across the range of equine gaits during field locomotion. Footfall timings can be used to identify intervals between the fore and hind contacts, the identification of diagonal advanced placement and to calculate stride timing variables (stance time, protraction

  15. MR imaging in epilepsy with use of 3D MP-RAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akio; Ohno, Sigeru; Sei, Tetsuro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Yasui, Koutaro; Kuroda, Masahiro; Hiraki, Yoshio; Oka, Eiji

    1996-01-01

    The patients were 40 males and 33 females; their ages ranged from 1 month to 39 years (mean: 15.7 years). The patients underwent MR imaging, including spin-echo T 1 -weighted, turbo spin-echo proton density/T 2 -weighted, and 3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D MP-RAGE) images. These examinations disclosed 39 focal abnormalities. On visual evaluation, the boundary of abnormal gray matter in the neuronal migration disorder (NMD) cases was most clealy shown on 3D MP-RAGE images as compared to the other images. This is considered to be due to the higher spatial resolution and the better contrast of the 3D MP-RAGE images than those of the other techniques. The relative contrast difference between abnormal gray matter and the adjacent white matter was also assessed. The results revealed that the contrast differences on the 3D MP-RAGE images were larger than those on the other images; this was statistically significant. Although the sensitivity of 3D MP-RAGE for NMD was not specifically evaluated in this study, the possibility of this disorder, in cases suspected on other images, could be ruled out. Thus, it appears that the specificity with respect to NMD was at least increased with us of 3D MP-RAGE. 3D MP-RAGE also enabled us to build three-dimensional surface models that were helpful in understanding the three-dimensional anatomy. Furthermore. 3D MP-RAGE was considered to be the best technique for evaluating hippocampus atrophy in patients with MTS. On the other hand, the sensitivity in the signal change of the hippocampus was higher on T 2 -weighted images. In addition, demonstration of cortical tubers of tuberous sclerosis in neurocutaneous syndrome was superior on T 2 -weighted images than on 3D MP-RAGE images. (K.H.)

  16. A Comparison of Skeletal Maturation assessed from MP3 and Its Correlation with Dental Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Vardhan Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the various ossification stages of middle phalanges of third finger (MP3 and developmental stages of 2nd mandibular molar during the entire process of pubertal growth spurt. Evaluate the feasibility of recording MP3 stages using standard dental X-ray film. The mandibular 2nd molar exhibited highly significant correlation for both the males and females. This study showed a good correlation between the MP3 and dental maturity indicators. Therefore, 2nd molar tooth could be used as maturity indicator for the entire period of pubertal growth spurt. It can be used as an adjunct to the hand and wrist radiograph.

  17. Methylphenidate, Interstimulus Interval, and Reaction Time Performance of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, J. J.; Shalev, R. S.; Borger, N.; Wiersema, J.R

    2009-01-01

    Thirteen children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD: DSM-IV-TR) participated in the pilot study. They carried out a Go/No-Go test with a short (2 seconds) and long (6 seconds) interstimulus interval (ISI) when on placebo and a therapeutic dose of methylphenidate (MPH). For the

  18. A pilot study for augmenting atomoxetine with methylphenidate: safety of concomitant therapy in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball Susan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined augmenting atomoxetine with extended-release methylphenidate in children whose attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD previously failed to respond adequately to stimulant medication. Methods Children with ADHD and prior stimulant treatment (N = 25 received atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg/day plus placebo. After 4 weeks, patients who were responders (n = 4 were continued on atomoxetine/placebo while remaining patients were randomly assigned to either methylphenidate (ATX/MPH (1.1 mg/kg/day or placebo augmentation (ATX/PB for another 6 weeks. Patients and sites were blind to timing of active augmentation. Safety measures included vital signs, weight, and adverse events. Efficacy was assessed by ADHD rating scales. Results Categorical increases in vital signs occurred for 5 patients (3 patients in ATX/MPH, 2 patients in ATX/PBO. Sixteen percent discontinued the study due to AE, but no difference between augmentation groups. Atomoxetine treatment was efficacious on outcome measures (P ≤ .001, but methylphenidate did not enhance response. Conclusion Methylphenidate appears to be safely combined with atomoxetine, but conclusions limited by small sample. With atomoxetine treatment, 43% of patients achieved normalization on ADHD ratings.

  19. The Acute Effect of Methylphenidate in Brazilian Male Children and Adolescents with ADHD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szobot, C. M.; Ketzer, C.; Parente, M. A.; Biederman, J.; Rohde, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH) in Brazilian male children and adolescents with ADHD. Method: In a 4-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, fix dose escalating, parallel-group trial, 36 ADHD children and adolescents were allocated to two groups: MPH (n = 19) and placebo (n = 17). Participants were…

  20. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Enhance Prefrontal Function through alpha[subscript 2]-Adrenergic and Dopamine D[subscript 1] Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, Nao J.; Wang, Min; Arnsten, Amy F. T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatments, methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATM), on prefrontal cortex (PFC) function in monkeys and explored the receptor mechanisms underlying enhancement of PFC function at the behavioral and cellular levels. Method: Monkeys performed a working…

  1. Assessment of endogenous dopamine release by methylphenidate challenge using iodine-123 iodobenzamide single-photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, J.; Korn, P.; Linszen, D.H.; Royen, E.A. van

    1997-01-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed pharmacologically induced endogenous dopamine (DA) release in healthy male volunteers (n=12). Changes in endogenous DA release after injection of the psychostimulant drug methylphenidate were evaluated by single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and constant infusion of iodine-123 iodobenzamide ([ 123 I[IBZM), a D 2 receptor radioligand that is sensitive to endogenous DA release. Methylphenidate induced displacement of striatal [ 123 I[IBZM binding, resulting in a significantly decrease in the specific to non-specific [ 123 I[IBZM uptake ratio (average: 8.6%) in comparison with placebo (average: -1.9%). Moreover, injection of methylphenidate induced significant behavioural responses on the following items: excitement, anxiety, tension, and mannerisms and posturing. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of using constant infusion of [ 123 I[IBZM and SPET imaging to measure endogenous DA release after methylphenidate challenge and to investigate neurochemical aspects of behaviour. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Anxiety and depression symptoms and response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E; Sverd, Jeffrey; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schwartz, Joseph

    2002-06-01

    This study examined response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic multiple tic disorder. The primary goal was to determine if children with anxiety or depression symptoms showed a less favorable response to treatment. Subjects were 38 prepubertal children who participated in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, methylphenidate crossover evaluation. Treatment effects were assessed with direct observations of child behavior in public school and clinic settings; rating scales completed by parents, teachers, and clinicians; and laboratory analogue tasks. There was little evidence (group data) that children with anxiety or depression symptoms responded in a clinically different manner to methylphenidate than youngsters who did not exhibit these symptoms, particularly in school observations of the core features of ADHD. Seeming differences between children with and without comorbid anxiety or depression symptoms and drug response are likely explained by differences in pretreatment levels of negativistic behaviors (i.e., symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder). Methylphenidate appears to be effective for the management of ADHD behaviors in children with mild to moderate anxiety or depression symptoms; nevertheless, much research remains to be performed in this area.

  3. Impact of Methylphenidate Delivery Profiles on Driving Performance of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J.; Merkel, R. Lawrence; Penberthy, Jennifer Kim; Kovatchev, Boris; Hankin, Cheryl S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at high risk for driving accidents. One dose of methylphenidate (MPH) improves simulator driving performances of ADHD-diagnosed adolescents at 1.5 hours post-dose. However, little is known about the effects of different MPH delivery profiles on driving performance…

  4. [Methylphenidate use in dogs with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A case report of a Weimaraner bitch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piturru, P

    2014-04-16

    A 10-month-old Weimaraner bitch was presented at the practice exhibiting agitation, hyperactivity, inability to learn and attention deficit. The diagnostic findings were excessive, long-lasting acoustic and locomotory activity with unexpected inappropriate reactions. Hematological and biochemical blood analyses did not demonstrate abnormal findings. The first attempts at behavioral therapy and fluoxetine application were unsatisfactory. Therefore, a test was conducted with medication for central nervous system stimulation to confirm a diagnosis of hyperkinesis. Following the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the therapy was continued with behavioral modifications, with special consideration of rehabituation and resocialization as well as the use of methylphenidate. During the course of the therapy the bitch developed hyperactivity again when on heat. After changing the dosage of methylphenidate and additionally using dog appeasing pheromone, the behavior of the bitch became normal after 8 days. Two months later endoscopic ovarioectomy was performed. Twelve months after the initial use of methylphenidate the medication could be discontinued completely and the dog's behavior was normal. The methylphenidate dosage used during this therapy was much higher than recommended in the literature.

  5. The effectiveness of methylphenidate in the treatment of encopresis independent from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Ömer Faruk; Yılmaz, Savaş

    2015-01-01

    Several medications are reported to be effective in treatment of encopresis. However, mechanisms of action related to these drugs are not known. We report a patient with ADHD and encopresis whose encopretic signs have disappeared with long acting methylphenidate while they have not changed with atomoxetine.

  6. The Effectiveness of Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Encopresis Independent from Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Ak?a, ?mer Faruk; Y?lmaz, Sava?

    2015-01-01

    Several medications are reported to be effective in treatment of encopresis. However, mechanisms of action related to these drugs are not known. We report a patient with ADHD and encopresis whose encopretic signs have disappeared with long acting methylphenidate while they have not changed with atomoxetine.

  7. Methylphenidate Improves Working Memory and Set-Shifting in AD/HD: Relationships to Baseline Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mitul A.; Goodyer, Ian M.; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Catecholamine stimulant drugs are highly efficacious treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD). Catecholamine modulation in humans influences performance of numerous cognitive tasks, including tests of attention and working memory (WM). Clear delineation of the effects of methylphenidate upon such cognitive…

  8. Effects of Methylphenidate and Bupropion on DHEA-S and Cortisol Plasma Levels in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated plasma levels of DHEA-S and cortisol before and after treating ADHD patients with one of two medications: methylphenidate (n = 12) or bupropion (n = 10). Boys with ADHD (combined type) were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS) and the computerized ADHD diagnostic system (ADS). All assessments were measured at baseline…

  9. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.; Niemela, A.; Konofal, E.; Dejonckheere, J.; Challis, B.H.; Medori, R.

    2009-01-01

    The osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety

  10. Risperidone Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Preschool Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabgol, Fariba; Panaghi, Leily; Nikzad, Vahid

    2015-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric diagnosis among preschool children. The aim of this study was to examine the Risperidone treatment compared to Methylphenidate (MPH) in preschool children with ADHD. Thirty three outpatient preschool children, aged 3-6 years, diagnosed with ADHD (The diagnosis of ADHD was established by two child and adolescent psychiatrists according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria), participated in a 6-week, double-blind clinical trial with risperidone (0.5-1.5 mg/d) and methylphenidate (5-20 mg/d), in two divided doses. Treatment outcomes were assessed using the Parent ADHD Rating Scale and Conners Rating Scale. Patients were assessed by a child psychiatrist at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the medication started. Side effects were also rated by side effects questionnaire. There were no significant differences between the two protocols on the Parent ADHD Rating Scale scores (P > 0.05) and Parent Conners Rating Scale scores (P > 0.05). Both groups showed a significant improvement in ADHD symptoms over the 6 weeks of treatment for parent ADHD Rating Scale (P benefits and adverse effects in long term use and comorbid conditions.

  11. Predicting methylphenidate response in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Blair A; Coghill, David; Matthews, Keith; Steele, J Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is established as the main pharmacological treatment for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whilst MPH is generally a highly effective treatment, not all patients respond, and some experience adverse reactions. Currently, there is no reliable method to predict how patients will respond, other than by exposure to a trial of medication. In this preliminary study, we sought to investigate whether an accurate predictor of clinical response to methylphenidate could be developed for individual patients, using sociodemographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures. Of the 43 boys with ADHD included in this proof-of-concept study, 30 were classed as responders and 13 as non-responders to MPH, with no significant differences in age nor verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) between the groups. Here we report the application of a multivariate analysis approach to the prediction of clinical response to MPH, which achieved an accuracy of 77% (p = 0.005). The most important variables to the classifier were performance on a 'go/no go' task and comorbid conduct disorder. This preliminary study suggested that further investigation is merited. Achieving a highly significant accuracy of 77% for the prediction of MPH response is an encouraging step towards finding a reliable and clinically useful method that could minimise the number of children needlessly being exposed to MPH. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Quality of life of methylphenidate treatment-responsive adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Chen Yang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life (QOL in methylphenidate treatment-responsive adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was assessed. Patients were 12- to 18-year-old adolescents with ADHD (total n = 45 who had been on methylphenidate treatment for at least 3 months and were clinically judged to be improved. The self-completed Taiwanese Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adolescents (TQOLQA was used, and the resulting measures were compared between adolescents with ADHD and: (1 community adolescents (n = 2316; (2 treatment-responsive adolescents with a chronic medical condition (i.e., adolescents with leukemia in its first and complete continuous remission for at least 3 years after chemotherapy (n = 39. Patients’ cognitive profile and their daily executive functioning were also obtained for analysis. The QOL of the treated adolescents with ADHD was reported to be worse than that of both the community healthy adolescents and the adolescent leukemia survivors in the self-reported TQOLQA domain of “psychological well-being”. Treated adolescents with ADHD still had impaired executive skills in natural, everyday environments, and the scores for daily executive abilities could predict the QOL measures. Factors besides pharmacotherapy should be explored to further improve the QOL of medication-treated adolescents with ADHD.

  13. Methylphenidate poisoning: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharman, Elizabeth J; Erdman, Andrew R; Cobaugh, Daniel J; Olson, Kent R; Woolf, Alan D; Caravati, E Martin; Chyka, Peter A; Booze, Lisa L; Manoguerra, Anthony S; Nelson, Lewis S; Christianson, Gwenn; Troutman, William G

    2007-01-01

    A review of US poison center data for 2004 showed over 8,000 ingestions of methylphenidate. A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and prehospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial out-of-hospital management of patients with suspected ingestions of methylphenidate by 1) describing the process by which a specialist in poison information should evaluate an exposure to methylphenidate, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of methylphenidate ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This review focuses on the ingestion of more than a single therapeutic dose of methylphenidate and the effects of an overdose and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) All patients with suicidal intent, intentional abuse, or in cases in which

  14. Methylphenidate for ADHD in children and adolescents: throwing the baby out with the bathwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Chui, Celine S L; Coghill, David; Cortese, Samuele; Simonoff, Emily; Wong, Ian C K

    2016-11-01

    A recent Cochrane review assessed the efficacy of methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Notwithstanding the moderate-to-large effect sizes for ADHD symptom reduction found in the meta-analysis, the authors concluded that the quality of the evidence is low and therefore the true magnitude of these effects remains uncertain. We identified a number of major concerns with the review, in the domains of study inclusion, approaches to quality assessment and interpretation of data relating to serious adverse events as well as of the clinical implications of the reported effects. We also found errors in the extraction of data used to estimate the effect size of the primary outcome. Considering all the shortcomings, the conclusion in the Cochrane review that the status of the evidence is uncertain is misplaced. Professionals, parents and patients should refer to previous reviews and existing guidelines, which include methylphenidate as one of the safe and efficacious treatment strategies for ADHD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Use of partial AUC (PAUC) to evaluate bioequivalence--a case study with complex absorption: methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie Zirkelbach, Jeanne; Jackson, Andre J; Wang, Yaning; Schuirmann, Donald J

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate modified-release products produce early and late peak concentrations critical for treatment of morning and afternoon symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Standard bioequivalence (BE) criteria cannot be applied to these products. The performance of partial area under the drug concentration-time curve (PAUC), Cmax and AUCINF to assess BE were independently evaluated for two products. A two-stage analysis was performed on plasma data for two methylphenidate modified-release products (Product 1 and 2). Simulations using the fitted parameters determined how changes in fast absorption rate constant (K0Fast) and fraction available (F1) affected curve shape and BE determination using Cmax, AUCINF and PAUC. The sensitivity of the mean PAUC(test)/PAUC(reference) ratios to changes in K0Fast(test) are product dependent. Product 1 mean PAUC(test)/PAUC(reference) ratios for PAUC0-4h are more responsive to both decreases and increases in K0Fast(test) than Product 2. Product 2 showed a greater response in the mean PAUC(test)/PAUC(reference) ratio for PAUC0-4h when the K0Fast(test) is decreased and less response as the value is increased. PAUC estimated curve shape is sensitive to changes in absorption and are product specific, and may require a new PAUC metric for each drug. A non-product specific metric to assess curve shape is warranted.

  16. Association of Finnish Members of Parliament and Researchers: Social Democratic Parliamentary group MP K. Olin, Former Finnish MP M. Tiuri, Finnish Centre Party MP P. Vilkuna, Senior Assistant Professor I. Ruostetsaari and Finnish Parliament Committee of Future Researcher U. Gabrielsson at ATLAS experiment with P. Jenn, M. Nordberg and M. Kotamaki on 15 September 2006.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Association of Finnish Members of Parliament and Researchers: Social Democratic Parliamentary group MP K. Olin, Former Finnish MP M. Tiuri, Finnish Centre Party MP P. Vilkuna, Senior Assistant Professor I. Ruostetsaari and Finnish Parliament Committee of Future Researcher U. Gabrielsson at ATLAS experiment with P. Jenn, M. Nordberg and M. Kotamaki on 15 September 2006.

  17. Identification of Candida Species Using MP65 Gene and Evaluation of the Candida albicans MP65 Gene Expression in BALB/C Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bineshian, Farahnaz; Yadegari, Mohammad Hossien; Sharifi, Zohre; Akbari Eidgahi, Mohammadreza; Nasr, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Systemic candidiasis is a major public health concern. In particular, in immunocompromised people, such as patients with neutropenia, patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and cancer who are undergoing antiballistic chemotherapy or bone marrow transplants, and people with diabetes. Since the clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific, early diagnosis is often difficult. The 65-kDa mannoprotein (MP65) gene of Candida albicans is appropriate for detection and identification of systemic candidiasis. This gene encodes a putative b-glucanase mannoprotein of 65 kDa, which plays a major role in the host-fungus relationship, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. The current study aimed to identify different species of Candida (C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis) using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique and also to evaluate C. albicans MP65 gene expression in BALB/C mice. All yeast isolates were identified on cornmeal agar supplemented with tween-80, germ tube formation in serum, and assimilation of carbon sources in the API 20 C AUX yeast identification system. Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed on all samples using species-specific primers for the MP65 65 kDa gene. After RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis was performed by the Maxime RT Pre Mix kit. Candida albicans MP65 gene expression was evaluated by quantitative Real-Time (q Real-Time) and Real-Time (RT) PCR techniques. The 2-ΔΔCT method was used to analyze relative changes in gene expression of MP65. For statistical analysis, nonparametric Wilcoxon test was applied using the SPSS version 16 software. Using biochemical methods, one hundred, six and one isolates of clinical samples were determined as C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis, respectively. Species-specific primers for PCR experiments were applied to clinical specimens, and in all cases a single expected band for C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis was obtained (475, 361 and 124 base pairs, respectively

  18. Rationalising polymer selection for supersaturated film forming systems produced by an aerosol spray for the transdermal delivery of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A; Qi, S; Liu, F; Brown, M B; McAuley, W J

    2017-05-01

    Film forming systems offer a number of advantages for topical and transdermal drug delivery, in particular enabling production of a supersaturated state which can greatly improve drug absorption and bioavailability. However the suitability of individual film forming polymers to stabilise the supersaturated state and optimise delivery of drugs is not well understood. This study reports the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to measure the solubility of methylphenidate both as the free base and as the hydrochloride salt in two polymethacrylate copolymers, Eudragit RS (EuRS) and Eudragit E (EuE) and relates this to the ability of films formed using these polymers to deliver methylphenidate across a model membrane. EuRS provided greater methylphenidate delivery when the drug was formulated as the free base in comparison EuE because the lower solubility of the drug in EuRS provided a higher degree of drug saturation in the polymeric film. In contrast EuE provided greater delivery of methylphenidate hydrochloride as EuRS could not prevent its crystallisation from a supersaturated state. Methylphenidate flux across the membrane could be directly related to degree of saturation of the drug in the film formulation as estimated by the drug solubility in the individual polymers demonstrating the importance of drug solubility in the polymer included in film forming systems for topical/transdermal drug delivery. In addition DSC has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for determining the solubility of drugs in polymers used in film forming systems and the approaches outlined here are likely to be useful for predicting the suitability of polymers for particular drugs in film forming transdermal drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Selegiline in Comparison with Methylphenidate in Treatment of Adults with Attention Deficit yperactivity Disorder: A Double-blind, Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: "n "nAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood and it continues to adulthood without proper treatment. Stimulants have been used in treatment of ADHD for many years and the efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH in the treatment of adults with ADHD has been proven to be acceptable according to meta-analysis studies. However, there are some concerns about stimulants. Finding other effective medications for the treatment of adult ADHD seems necessary. We tried a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Selegiline, as there are some theoretical and experimental evidences for the efficacy of this medication . "nMethod: Forty patients were randomized to receive Selegiline or methylphenidate in an equal ratio for an 8-week double-blind clinical trial. Each patient filled the CAARS self report screening form before starting to take the medication and in weeks 2-4-6 and 8. Patients were also assessed by a psychiatrist at the baseline and on each 14 days up to the 8 weeks period. "nResults: The mean score of the two groups- receiving Selegiline or methylphenidate- decreased over the 8 weeks. There was not a significant difference between the two groups. The most prevalent side-effect of methylphenidate was decrease of appetite and for Selegiline change in sleep pattern . "nConclusion: Selegiline is as effective as methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Selegiline can be an alternative medication for the treatment of adult ADHD If its clinical efficacy is proven by other larger studies .

  20. The effects of methylphenidate on prepulse inhibition during attended and ignored prestimuli among boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Larry W; Yartz, Andrew R; Pelham, William E; Lock, Thomas M

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated attentional modification of prepulse inhibition of startle among boys with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) whether ADHD is associated with diminished prepulse inhibition during attended prestimuli, but not ignored prestimuli, and (2) whether methylphenidate selectively increases prepulse inhibition to attended prestimuli among boys with ADHD. Participants were 17 boys with ADHD and 14 controls. Participants completed a tone discrimination task in each of two sessions separated by 1 week. ADHD boys were administered methylphenidate (0.3 mg/kg) in one session and placebo in the other session in a randomized, double-blind fashion. During each series of 72 tones (75 dB; half 1200-Hz, half 400-Hz), participants were paid to attend to one pitch and ignore the other. Bilateral eyeblink electromyogram startle responses were recorded in response to acoustic probes (50-ms, 102-dB white noise) presented following the onset of two-thirds of tones, and during one-third of intertrial intervals. Relative to controls, boys with ADHD exhibited diminished prepulse inhibition 120 ms after onset of attended but not ignored prestimuli following placebo administration. Methylphenidate selectively increased prepulse inhibition to attended prestimuli at 120 ms among boys with ADHD to a level comparable to that of controls, who did not receive methylphenidate. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that ADHD involves diminished selective attention and suggest that methylphenidate ameliorates the symptoms of ADHD, at least in part, by altering an early attentional mechanism.

  1. Treatment effect of methylphenidate on intrinsic functional brain network in medication-naïve ADHD children: A multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dohyun; Choi, Jeewook; Jeong, Bumseok

    2018-04-01

    Methylphenidate is a first-line therapeutic option for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, elicited changes on resting-state functional networks (RSFNs) are not well understood. This study investigated the treatment effect of methylphenidate using a variety of RSFN analyses and explored the collaborative influences of treatment-relevant RSFN changes in children with ADHD. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from 20 medication-naïve ADHD children before methylphenidate treatment and twelve weeks later. Changes in large-scale functional connectivity were defined using independent component analysis with dual regression and graph theoretical analysis. The amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was measured to investigate local spontaneous activity alteration. Finally, significant findings were recruited to random forest regression to identify the feature subset that best explains symptom improvement. After twelve weeks of methylphenidate administration, large-scale connectivity was increased between the left fronto-parietal RSFN and the left insula cortex and the right fronto-parietal and the brainstem, while the clustering coefficient (CC) of the global network and nodes, the left fronto-parietal, cerebellum, and occipital pole-visual network, were decreased. ALFF was increased in the bilateral superior parietal cortex and decreased in the right inferior fronto-temporal area. The subset of the local and large-scale RSFN changes, including widespread ALFF changes, the CC of the global network and the cerebellum, could explain the 27.1% variance of the ADHD Rating Scale and 13.72% of the Conner's Parent Rating Scale. Our multivariate approach suggests that the neural mechanism of methylphenidate treatment could be associated with alteration of spontaneous activity in the superior parietal cortex or widespread brain regions as well as functional segregation of the large-scale intrinsic functional

  2. LHCb: The search for $D^0\\rightarrow e^\\pm \\mu^\\mp$

    CERN Multimedia

    Bird, T

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012 LHCb collected a total of $3\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$-collisions, making LHCb the perfect place to look for rare charm decays. The lepton flavour violating decay $D^0\\rightarrow{}e^\\pm\\mu^\\mp$ is forbidden in the Standard Model and so it's detection would be a clear sign of new physics. In this poster an overview of the method used measure $\\mathcal{B}\\left(D^0\\rightarrow{}e^\\pm\\mu^\\mp\\right)$ with respect to $\\mathcal{B}\\left(D^0\\rightarrow{}\\pi^\\pm\\pi^\\mp\\right)$ is presented. It is estimated that this analysis will be able to set a limit on $\\mathcal{B}\\left(D^0\\rightarrow{}e^\\pm\\mu^\\mp\\right) < 10^{-8}$ at a $90\\%$ confidence level.

  3. A modified CoSaMP algorithm for electromagnetic imaging of two dimensional domains

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran; Bagci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP) algorithm is used for solving the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on two-dimensional sparse domains. Since the scattering matrix, which is computed by sampling the Green function, does

  4. [Hearing the impact of MP3 on a survey of middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhan; Li, Zonghua; Chen, Yang; He, Ya; Chunyu, Xiujie; Wang, Fangyuan; Zhang, Pengzhi; Gao, Lei; Qiu, Shuping; Liu, Shunli; Qiao, Li; Qiu, Jianhua

    2011-02-01

    To understand the usage of MP3 and effects on hearing of middle school students in Xi'an, and discuss controlling strategies. Stratified random cluster sampling method was used in the 1567 middle school students in Xi'an through questionnaire survey, ear examination and hearing examination, data were analysed by the SPSS13.0 statistical software. 1) The rate of holding MP3 in the middle school students was 85.2%. Average daily use time was (1.41 +/- 1.11) h. 2) The noise group of pure tone hearing threshold was significantly higher compared with the control group (PMP3. 3) The detection rate of symptoms increased with the increasing use of MP3. The usage of MP3 can harm hearing in middle school students, which can result in neurasthenic syndrome.

  5. MP3 audio-editing software for the department of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Qingfen; Sun Canhui; Li Ziping; Meng Quanfei; Jiang Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MP3 audio-editing software in the daily work in the department of radiology. Methods: The audio content of daily consultation seminar, held in the department of radiology every morning, was recorded and converted into MP3 audio format by a computer integrated recording device. The audio data were edited, archived, and eventually saved in the computer memory storage media, which was experimentally replayed and applied in the research or teaching. Results: MP3 audio-editing was a simple process and convenient for saving and searching the data. The record could be easily replayed. Conclusion: MP3 audio-editing perfectly records and saves the contents of consultation seminar, and has replaced the conventional hand writing notes. It is a valuable tool in both research and teaching in the department. (authors)

  6. Benchmarking Hydrogen and Carbon NMR Chemical Shifts at HF, DFT, and MP2 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaig, Denis; Maurer, Marina; Hanni, Matti; Braunger, Katharina; Kick, Leonhard; Thubauville, Matthias; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2014-02-11

    An extensive study of error distributions for calculating hydrogen and carbon NMR chemical shifts at Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT), and Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2) levels is presented. Our investigation employs accurate CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ calculations for providing reference data for 48 hydrogen and 40 carbon nuclei within an extended set of chemical compounds covering a broad range of the NMR scale with high relevance to chemical applications, especially in organic chemistry. Besides the approximations of HF, a variety of DFT functionals, and conventional MP2, we also present results with respect to a spin component-scaled MP2 (GIAO-SCS-MP2) approach. For each method, the accuracy is analyzed in detail for various basis sets, allowing identification of efficient combinations of method and basis set approximations.

  7. Mp3 Player Applications Using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 Interface with Windows Media Player Format

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyono Supriyono; Ir. Fitri Sjafrina, MM

    2002-01-01

    Multimedia technology, MP3 (MPEG Audio Layer-3) is someone that a storage ofmusic in digital form offers many advantages compared to analog form. MP3 Playeris a media used for computer users who like the music, especially MP3.MP3 is a digital audio compression standard developed by the Institute and ThomsonMultimedia Freunhofer. With MP3, a digital music that can be encoded into a tenkaliatau reduced in size even more by simply reducing the existing sound quality.Although the interface of Win...

  8. EEG Brain Wave Activity at Rest and during Evoked Attention in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Effects of Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bianca Lee; Viljoen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess baseline EEG brain wave activity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the effects of evoked attention and methylphenidate on this activity. Children with ADHD (n = 19) were tested while they were stimulant free and during a period in which they were on stimulant (methylphenidate) medication. Control subjects (n = 18) were tested once. EEG brain wave activity was tested both at baseline and during focussed attention. Attention was evoked and EEG brain wave activity was determined by means of the BioGraph Infiniti biofeedback apparatus. The main finding of this study was that control subjects and stimulant-free children with ADHD exhibited the expected reactivity in high alpha-wave activity (11-12 Hz) from baseline to focussed attention; however, methylphenidate appeared to abolish this reactivity. Methylphenidate attenuates the normal cortical response to a cognitive challenge. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Age-dependent effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system in young vs adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A. (Anouk); Tamminga, H.G.H. (Hyke G. H.); C. Bouziane (Cheima); Bottelier, M.A. (Marco A.); E.E. Bron (Esther); H.J.M.M. Mutsaerts (Henri J. M.); A.H. Zwinderman (Ailko); Groote, I.R. (Inge R.); S.A.R.B. Rombouts (Serge); Lindauer, R.J.L. (Ramon J. L.); S. Klein (Stefan); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); B.C. Opmeer (Brent); Boer, F. (Frits); P.J. Lucassen; Andersen, S.L. (Susan L.); H.M. Geurts (Hilde ); L. Reneman (Liesbeth)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Although numerous children receivemethylphenidate hydrochloride for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about age-dependent and possibly lasting effects of methylphenidate on the human dopaminergic system. OBJECTIVES To determine

  10. Chronic methylphenidate-effects over circadian cycle of young and adult rats submitted to open-field and object recognition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Karin M; Souza, Renan P; Valvassori, Samira S; Réus, Gislaine Z; Inácio, Cecília G; Martins, Márcio R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João

    2009-11-01

    In this study age-, circadian rhythm- and methylphenidate administration- effect on open field habituation and object recognition were analyzed. Young and adult male Wistar rats were treated with saline or methylphenidate 2.0 mg/kg for 28 days. Experiments were performed during the light and the dark cycle. Locomotor activity was significantly altered by circadian cycle and methylphenidate treatment during the training session and by drug treatment during the testing session. Exploratory activity was significantly modulated by age during the training session and by age and drug treatment during the testing session. Object recognition memory was altered by cycle at the training session; by age 1.5 h later and by cycle and age 24 h after the training session. These results show that methylphenidate treatment was the major modulator factor on open-field test while cycle and age had an important effect on object recognition experiment.

  11. The effects of surgical and chemical lesions on striatal [3H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding: correlation with [3H]dopamine uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janowsky, A.; Berger, P.; Long, R.; Paul, S.M.; Schweri, M.M.; Skolnick, P.

    1985-01-01

    The specific binding of [ 3 H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate to membranes prepared from rat striatum was significantly reduced following either surgical lesions of the medial forebrain bundle or intracerebroventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine. The decrease in the density of [ 3 H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding sites in striatum following chemical or surgical denervation was highly correlated with the decrease in [ 3 H]dopamine uptake. In contrast, intracerebroventricular administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, AF64A, or chronic parenteral administration of reserpine did not alter either the number or apparent affinity of [ 3 H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate binding sites. These data suggest that the specific binding sites for [ 3 H]threo-(+-)-methylphenidate in striatum are localized to dopaminergic nerve terminals, and may be associated with the dopamine transport complex. (orig.)

  12. NMR, MP2 and DFT Study of Thiophenoxyketenimines (o-ThioSchiff bases)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Bahjat Ali; Elias, Rita Sabah; Kamounah, Fadhil S.

    2018-01-01

    Five new thiophenoxyketinimines have been synthesized. 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra as well as deuterium isotope effects on 13 C chemical shifts are determined, and spectra are assigned. DFT and MP2 calculations of both structures, chemical shifts, and isotope effects on chemical shifts are done...... that calculations at the MP2 level are best to obtain correct "C═S" chemical shifts....

  13. Statistical Characterization of MP3 Encoders for Steganalysis: ’CHAMP3’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-27

    compression exceeds those of typical stegano- graphic tools (e. g., LSB image embedding), the availability of commented source codes for MP3 encoders...developed by testing the approach on known and unknown reference data. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Steganography , Digital Watermarking...Pages kbps Kilobits per Second LGPL Lesser General Public License LSB Least Significant Bit MB Megabyte MDCT Modified Discrete Cosine Transformation MP3

  14. Radar Precoder Design for Spectral Coexistence with Coordinated Multi-point (CoMP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Mahal, Jasmin A.; Khawar, Awais; Abdelhadi, Ahmed; Clancy, T. Charles

    2015-01-01

    This paper details the design of precoders for a MIMO radar spectrally coexistent with a MIMO cellular network. We focus on a coordinated multi-point (CoMP) system where a cluster of base stations (BSs) coordinate their transmissions to the intended user. The radar operates in two modes, interference-mitigation mode when it avoids interference with the CoMP system and cooperation mode when it exchanges information with it. Using either the conventional Switched Null Space Projection (SNSP) or...

  15. Beam transmission in MP equipment. New measurements. Main effects and application to VIVITRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.; Muller, C.; Nadji, A.; Rebmeister, R.

    1989-01-01

    The MP equipment is presented and the vacuum values at different measuring points are indicated. The low energy transmission stage (foil and gas strippers) high energy stage (5, 10, and 15 micro-g/cm 2 foils and gas stripper) are described, as well as the global system. For the Vivitron, in order to reach equilibrium thickness, pression in the stripping channel should be higher than that in the MP channel, and pump power should be planned accordingly [fr

  16. Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photos 01,04,06,07: Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory, April 2003. Photos 02,03: From left to right: Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory with Prof. Steinar Stapnes, Physicist in the ATLAS experiment, April 2003. Photos 02,09: Mrs Kerrye Nairn, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory, April 2003

  17. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth; Meléndez Gélvez, Iván; Quijano Parra, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic a...

  18. MP98, an innovative reactivity control system for LWR and VHTR, tests results on prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, M.; Gagne, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    MP98' Reactivity Control System is now a technology tested on a real scale prototypes. Demonstrator is working at PWR real conditions (155 bars, 320 degree C), and many accidents configurations could be simulated. This paper presents the technology, describes the demonstrator design and presents some results. Mock up and demonstrator have permitted to optimize the design of MP98' devices to prepare industrialization. (authors)

  19. Scaled MP3 non-covalent interaction energies agree closely with accurate CCSD(T) benchmark data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitonák, Michal; Neogrády, Pavel; Cerný, Jirí; Grimme, Stefan; Hobza, Pavel

    2009-01-12

    Scaled MP3 interaction energies calculated as a sum of MP2/CBS (complete basis set limit) interaction energies and scaled third-order energy contributions obtained in small or medium size basis sets agree very closely with the estimated CCSD(T)/CBS interaction energies for the 22 H-bonded, dispersion-controlled and mixed non-covalent complexes from the S22 data set. Performance of this so-called MP2.5 (third-order scaling factor of 0.5) method has also been tested for 33 nucleic acid base pairs and two stacked conformers of porphine dimer. In all the test cases, performance of the MP2.5 method was shown to be superior to the scaled spin-component MP2 based methods, e.g. SCS-MP2, SCSN-MP2 and SCS(MI)-MP2. In particular, a very balanced treatment of hydrogen-bonded compared to stacked complexes is achieved with MP2.5. The main advantage of the approach is that it employs only a single empirical parameter and is thus biased by two rigorously defined, asymptotically correct ab-initio methods, MP2 and MP3. The method is proposed as an accurate but computationally feasible alternative to CCSD(T) for the computation of the properties of various kinds of non-covalently bound systems.

  20. Atomic orbital-based SOS-MP2 with tensor hypercontraction. II. Local tensor hypercontraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chenchen; Martínez, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    In the first paper of the series [Paper I, C. Song and T. J. Martinez, J. Chem. Phys. 144, 174111 (2016)], we showed how tensor-hypercontracted (THC) SOS-MP2 could be accelerated by exploiting sparsity in the atomic orbitals and using graphical processing units (GPUs). This reduced the formal scaling of the SOS-MP2 energy calculation to cubic with respect to system size. The computational bottleneck then becomes the THC metric matrix inversion, which scales cubically with a large prefactor. In this work, the local THC approximation is proposed to reduce the computational cost of inverting the THC metric matrix to linear scaling with respect to molecular size. By doing so, we have removed the primary bottleneck to THC-SOS-MP2 calculations on large molecules with O(1000) atoms. The errors introduced by the local THC approximation are less than 0.6 kcal/mol for molecules with up to 200 atoms and 3300 basis functions. Together with the graphical processing unit techniques and locality-exploiting approaches introduced in previous work, the scaled opposite spin MP2 (SOS-MP2) calculations exhibit O(N2.5) scaling in practice up to 10 000 basis functions. The new algorithms make it feasible to carry out SOS-MP2 calculations on small proteins like ubiquitin (1231 atoms/10 294 atomic basis functions) on a single node in less than a day.

  1. Assessment of Growth Using Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Its Correlation with Modified MP3 Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Reshma; Nayak, Us Krishna; Hegde, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. A total of 160 periapical radiographs (80 males and 80 females), of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian's stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. The correlation between the developmental stages of MP3 and the mandibular right canine in male and female groups, is of high statistical significance (p = 0.001). The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine and chronological age in male and females was found to be not significant. The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages and MP3 stages was found to be significant. The developmental stages of the mandibular canine could be used very reliably as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  2. Safety of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data from the Italian National ADHD Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Panei, Pietro; Arcieri, Romano; Germinario, Elena A P; Capuano, Annalisa; Margari, Lucia; Chiarotti, Flavia; Curatolo, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the type and frequency of adverse events (AEs) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with methylphenidate or atomoxetine over a 5-year period in a large naturalistic study. We draw on data from the Italian ADHD Registry, a national database for postmarketing phase IV pharmacovigilance of ADHD medications across 90 centers. AEs were defined as severe or mild as per the classification of the Italian Medicines Agency. AE frequency in the two treatment groups was compared using incidence rates per 100 person-years (IR100PY) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Mantel-Haenszel adjusted IRRs were calculated to control for psychiatric comorbidity. A total of 1350 and 753 participants (aged 6-18 years, mean age 10.7 ± 2.8) were treated with methylphenidate and atomoxetine, respectively, from 2007 to 2012. Ninety participants (7 %) were switched from methylphenidate to atomoxetine, and 138 (18 %) from atomoxetine to methylphenidate. Thirty-seven children treated with atomoxetine and 12 with methylphenidate had their medication withdrawn. Overall, 645 patients (26.8 %) experienced at least one mild AE (including decreased appetite and irritability, for both drugs) and 95 patients (3.9 %) experienced at least one severe AE (including severe gastrointestinal events). IR100PY were significantly higher in the atomoxetine-treated group compared with the methylphenidate-treated group for a number of mild and severe AEs and for any severe or mild AEs. After controlling for comorbidities, IRR was still significantly higher in the atomoxetine group compared with the methylphenidate group for a number of mild (decreased appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, stomach ache, irritability, mood disorder and dizziness) and severe (gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular) AEs. In this naturalistic study, methylphenidate had a better safety profile than atomoxetine.

  3. Characterization of Rift Valley fever virus MP-12 strain encoding NSs of Punta Toro virus or sandfly fever Sicilian virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoradova, Olga A; Indran, Sabarish V; Kalveram, Birte; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Head, Jennifer A; Gong, Bin; Tigabu, Bersabeh; Juelich, Terry L; Freiberg, Alexander N; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen which can cause hemorrhagic fever, neurological disorders or blindness in humans, and a high rate of abortion in ruminants. MP-12 strain, a live-attenuated candidate vaccine, is attenuated in the M- and L-segments, but the S-segment retains the virulent phenotype. MP-12 was manufactured as an Investigational New Drug vaccine by using MRC-5 cells and encodes a functional NSs gene, the major virulence factor of RVFV which 1) induces a shutoff of the host transcription, 2) inhibits interferon (IFN)-β promoter activation, and 3) promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). MP-12 lacks a marker for differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Although MP-12 lacking NSs works for DIVA, it does not replicate efficiently in type-I IFN-competent MRC-5 cells, while the use of type-I IFN-incompetent cells may negatively affect its genetic stability. To generate modified MP-12 vaccine candidates encoding a DIVA marker, while still replicating efficiently in MRC-5 cells, we generated recombinant MP-12 encoding Punta Toro virus Adames strain NSs (rMP12-PTNSs) or Sandfly fever Sicilian virus NSs (rMP12-SFSNSs) in place of MP-12 NSs. We have demonstrated that those recombinant MP-12 viruses inhibit IFN-β mRNA synthesis, yet do not promote the degradation of PKR. The rMP12-PTNSs, but not rMP12-SFSNSs, replicated more efficiently than recombinant MP-12 lacking NSs in MRC-5 cells. Mice vaccinated with rMP12-PTNSs or rMP12-SFSNSs induced neutralizing antibodies at a level equivalent to those vaccinated with MP-12, and were efficiently protected from wild-type RVFV challenge. The rMP12-PTNSs and rMP12-SFSNSs did not induce antibodies cross-reactive to anti-RVFV NSs antibody and are therefore applicable to DIVA. Thus, rMP12-PTNSs is highly efficacious, replicates efficiently in MRC-5 cells, and encodes a DIVA marker, all of which are

  4. A network meta-analysis of atomoxetine and osmotic release oral system methylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushe, Chris; Day, Kathleen; Reed, Victoria; Karlsdotter, Kristina; Berggren, Lovisa; Pitcher, Ashley; Televantou, Foula; Haynes, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    The lack of head-to-head clinical studies powered to compare atomoxetine and osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate necessitates treatment comparison by methods that include indirect evidence such as network meta-analysis (NMA). A NMA assessing the relative treatment effects of atomoxetine and OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was conducted. Studies were identified by systematic literature review. Analyses summarised improvements in efficacy, measured by ADHD-specific scales, using Cohen'sdto calculate the standardised mean difference (SMD), and all cause discontinuations. Results showed effect sizes (SMD, 95% credible interval (CrI)) relative to placebo that did not differ significantly between atomoxetine (0.46, 0.36-0.56) and OROS methylphenidate (0.51, 0.40-0.63) in clinical studies of up to 12 weeks' duration (SMD, 95% CrI for atomoxetine versus OROS methylphenidate: -0.05, -0.18-0.08). Patients treated with these medications responded better than those given placebo across all analyses. There was also no significant difference in discontinuation rates between atomoxetine and OROS methylphenidate (odds ratio, 95% CrI: 0.85, 0.53-1.35). Between-study heterogeneity was low overall. Results of this NMA suggest that the efficacy of atomoxetine and OROS methylphenidate in adults does not differ significantly. Clinical guidelines may require amendment to reflect these recent data. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Effects of methylphenidate on attention in Wistar rats treated with the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Joachim; Reissmann, Andreas; Sontag, Thomas-A; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) on attention in rats as measured using the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time task (5CSRTT) and to investigate whether methylphenidate has effects on DSP4-treated rats. Methylphenidate is a noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitor and commonly used in the pharmacological treatment of individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Wistar rats were trained in the 5CSRTT and treated with one of three doses of DSP4 or saline. Following the DSP4 treatment rats were injected with three doses of methylphenidate or saline and again tested in the 5CSRTT. The treatment with DSP4 caused a significant decline of performance in the number of correct responses and a decrease in response accuracy. A reduction in activity could also be observed. Whether or not the cognitive impairments are due to attention deficits or changes in explorative behaviour or activity remains to be investigated. The treatment with methylphenidate had no beneficial effect on the rats' performance regardless of the DSP4 treatment. In the group without DSP4 treatment, methylphenidate led to a reduction in response accuracy and bidirectional effects in regard to parameters related to attention. These findings support the role of noradrenaline in modulating attention and call for further investigations concerning the effects of methylphenidate on attentional processes in rats.

  6. Methylphenidate for Apathy in Community-Dwelling Older Veterans With Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padala, Prasad R; Padala, Kalpana P; Lensing, Shelly Y; Ramirez, Daniel; Monga, Varun; Bopp, Melinda M; Roberson, Paula K; Dennis, Richard A; Petty, Frederick; Sullivan, Dennis H; Burke, William J

    2018-02-01

    Apathy is a common behavioral problem in Alzheimer's disease. Apathy has profound consequences, such as functional impairment, higher service utilization, higher caregiver burden, and increased mortality. The authors' objective was to study the effects of methylphenidate on apathy in Alzheimer's disease. A 12-week, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (methylphenidate versus placebo) was conducted in community-dwelling veterans (N=60) with mild Alzheimer's disease. The primary outcome for apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale-Clinician) and secondary outcomes for cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination), functional status (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living), improvement and severity (Clinical Global Impressions Scale [CGI]), caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Scale), and depression (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia) were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Participants were all men (77 years old, SD=8). After adjusting for baseline, the methylphenidate group had significantly greater improvement in apathy than the placebo group at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, there was also greater improvement in cognition, functional status, caregiver burden, CGI scores, and depression in the methylphenidate group compared with the placebo group. Methylphenidate improved apathy in a group of community-dwelling veterans with mild Alzheimer's disease. Methylphenidate also improved cognition, functional status, caregiver burden, CGI scores, and depression.

  7. Short-Term Effects of Methylphenidate on Math Productivity in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are Mediated by Symptom Improvements: Evidence From a Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortekaas-Rijlaarsdam, Anne Fleur; Luman, Marjolein; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Bet, Pierre M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    Although numerous studies report positive effects of methylphenidate on academic performance, the mechanism behind these improvements remains unclear. This study investigates the effects of methylphenidate on academic performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the mediating and moderating influence of ADHD severity, academic performance, and ADHD symptom improvement. Sixty-three children with ADHD participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study comparing the effects of long-acting methylphenidate and placebo. Dependent variables were math, reading, and spelling performance. The ADHD group performance was compared with a group of 67 typically developing children. Methylphenidate improved math productivity and accuracy in children with ADHD. The effect of methylphenidate on math productivity was partly explained by parent-rated symptom improvement, with greater efficacy for children showing more symptom improvement. Further, children showing below-average math performance while on placebo profited more from methylphenidate than children showing above-average math performance. The results from this study indicate positive effects of methylphenidate on academic performance, although these were limited to math abilities. In light of these results, expectations of parents, teachers, and treating physicians about the immediate effects of methylphenidate on academic improvement should be tempered. Moreover, our results implicate that positive effects of methylphenidate on math performance are in part due directly to effects on math ability and in part due to reductions in ADHD symptoms.

  8. Short-term auditory effects of listening to an MP3 player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Maes, Leen; D'haenens, Wendy; Bockstael, Annelies; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Vinck, Bart

    2010-06-01

    To determine the output levels of a commercially available MPEG layer-3 (MP3) player and to evaluate changes in hearing after 1 hour of listening to the MP3 player. First, A-weighted sound pressure levels (measured in decibels [dBA]) for 1 hour of pop-rock music on an MP3 player were measured on a head and torso simulator. Second, after participants listened to 1 hour of pop-rock music using an MP3 player, changes in hearing were evaluated with pure-tone audiometry, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Twenty-one participants were exposed to pop-rock music in 6 different sessions using 2 types of headphones at multiple preset gain settings of the MP3 player. Output levels of an MP3 player and temporary threshold and emission shifts after 1 hour of listening. The output levels at the full gain setting were 97.36 dBA and 102.56 dBA for the supra-aural headphones and stock earbuds, respectively. In the noise exposure group, significant changes in hearing thresholds and transient-evoked otoacoustic emission amplitudes were found between preexposure and postexposure measurements. However, this pattern was not seen for distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitudes. Significant differences in the incidence of significant threshold or emission shifts were observed between almost every session of the noise exposure group compared with the control group. Temporary changes in hearing sensitivity measured by audiometry and otoacoustic emissions indicate the potential harmful effects of listening to an MP3 player. Further research is needed to evaluate the long-term risk of cumulative noise exposure on the auditory system of adolescents and adults.

  9. Ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest produces a chronic striatal hyperdopaminergic state that is worsened by methylphenidate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Gerald J; Harun, Rashed; Fine, David F; Hutchison, Daniel; Grobart, Adam C; Stezoski, Jason P; Munoz, Miranda J; Kochanek, Patrick M; Leak, Rehana K; Drabek, Tomas; Wagner, Amy K

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac arrest survival rates have improved with modern resuscitation techniques, but many survivors experience impairments associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). Currently, little is understood about chronic changes in striatal dopamine (DA) systems after HIBI. Given the common empiric clinical use of DA enhancing agents in neurorehabilitation, investigation evaluating dopaminergic alterations after cardiac arrest (CA) is necessary to optimize rehabilitation approaches. We hypothesized that striatal DA neurotransmission would be altered chronically after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA). Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used with median forebrain bundle (MFB) maximal electrical stimulations (60Hz, 10s) in rats to characterize presynaptic components of DA neurotransmission in the dorsal striatum (D-Str) and nucleus accumbens 14 days after a 5-min VF-CA when compared to Sham or Naïve. VF-CA increased D-Str-evoked overflow [DA], total [DA] released, and initial DA release rate versus controls, despite also increasing maximal velocity of DA reuptake (V max ). Methylphenidate (10 mg/kg), a DA transporter inhibitor, was administered to VF-CA and Shams after establishing a baseline, pre-drug 60 Hz, 5 s stimulation response. Methylphenidate increased initial evoked overflow [DA] more-so in VF-CA versus Sham and reduced D-Str V max in VF-CA but not Shams; these findings are consistent with upregulated striatal DA transporter in VF-CA versus Sham. Our work demonstrates that 5-min VF-CA increases electrically stimulated DA release with concomitant upregulation of DA reuptake 2 weeks after brief VF-CA insult. Future work should elucidate how CA insult duration, time after insult, and insult type influence striatal DA neurotransmission and related cognitive and motor functions. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Methylphenidate dose optimization for ADHD treatment: review of safety, efficacy, and clinical necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huss M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Huss,1 Praveen Duhan,2 Preetam Gandhi,3 Chien-Wei Chen,4 Carsten Spannhuth,3 Vinod Kumar5 1Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Medicine, Mainz, Germany; 2Global Medical Affairs, Novartis Healthcare Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, India; 3Development Franchise, Established Medicine Neuroscience, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 4Biostatistics Cardio-Metabolic & Established Medicine, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 5Established Medicines, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by hyperactivity and/or inattention and is often associated with a substantial impact on psychosocial functioning. Methylphenidate (MPH, a central nervous system stimulant, is commonly used for pharmacological treatment of adults and children with ADHD. Current practice guidelines recommend optimizing MPH dosage to individual patient needs; however, the clinical benefits of individual dose optimization compared with fixed-dose regimens remain unclear. Here we review the available literature on MPH dose optimization from clinical trials and real-world experience on ADHD management. In addition, we report safety and efficacy data from the largest MPH modified-release long-acting Phase III clinical trial conducted to examine benefits of dose optimization in adults with ADHD. Overall, MPH is an effective ADHD treatment with a good safety profile; data suggest that dose optimization may enhance the safety and efficacy of treatment. Further research is required to establish the extent to which short-term clinical benefits of MPH dose optimization translate into improved long-term outcomes for patients with ADHD. Keywords: methylphenidate, dose optimization, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD

  11. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial of oros-methylphenidate (CONCERTA(®)) and generic novo-methylphenidate ER-C (NOVO-generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallu, Angelo; Dabouz, Farida; Furtado, Melissa; Anand, Leena; Katzman, Martin A

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child's development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA(®) to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C(®). Randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial consisted of two phases in which participants with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 3 weeks of treatment with CONCERTA or generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. Following 3 weeks of treatment, participants were crossed-over to receive the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. Primary efficacy was assessed through the use of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Version II (TSQM-II). Participants with ADHD treated with CONCERTA were more satisfied in terms of efficacy and side effects compared to those receiving an equivalent dose of generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. All participants chose to continue with CONCERTA treatment at the conclusion of the study. Although CONCERTA and generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C have been deemed bioequivalent, however the present findings demonstrate clinically and statistically significant differences between generic and branded CONCERTA. Further investigation of these differences is warranted.

  12. PCR melting profile (PCR MP - a new tool for differentiation of Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Magdalena

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported the use of PCR Melting Profile (PCR MP technique based on using low denaturation temperatures during ligation mediated PCR (LM PCR for bacterial strain differentiation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this method for intra-species differentiation of Candida albicans strains. Methods In total 123 Candida albicans strains (including 7 reference, 11 clinical unrelated, and 105 isolates from patients of two hospitals in Poland were examined using three genotyping methods: PCR MP, macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques. Results The genotyping results of the PCR MP were compared with results from REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques giving 27, 26 and 25 unique types, respectively. The results showed that the PCR MP technique has at least the same discriminatory power as REA-PFGE and RAPD. Conclusion Data presented here show for the first time the evaluation of PCR MP technique for candidial strains differentiation and we propose that this can be used as a relatively simple and cheap technique for epidemiological studies in short period of time in hospital.

  13. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu; Taylor, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel's MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Cross Layer Analysis of P2MP Hybrid FSO/RF Network

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer

    2017-02-22

    This paper presents and analyzes a point-tomultipoint (P2MP) network that uses a number of freespace optical (FSO) links for data transmission from the central node to the different remote nodes of the network. A common backup radio frequency (RF) link can be used by the central node for data transmission to any remote node in case any one of the FSO links fails. Each remote node is assigned a transmit buffer at the central node. Considering the transmission link from the central node to a tagged remote node, we study various performance metrics. Specifically,we study the throughput from the central node to the tagged node, the average transmit buffer size, the symbol queuing delay in the transmit buffer, the efficiency of the queuing system, the symbol loss probability, and the RF link utilization. Numerical examples are presented to compare the performance of the proposed P2MP hybrid FSO/RF network with that of a P2MP FSO-only network and show that the P2MP hybrid FSO/RF network achieves considerable performance improvement over the P2MP FSO-only network.

  15. Music-listening habits with MP3 player in a group of adolescents: a descriptive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, E; Lorini, C; Allodi, G; Buonamici, C; Garofalo, G; Bonaccorsi, G

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music through portable MP3 players has become a very popular mode among young people and adolescents. The aim of this study is to investigate the behaviors of adolescents engaged in listening to music with MP3 player and the attendance at clubs (pubs, discotheques) where music is played at high volume. Among the 1470 students attending a secondary school in Scandicci (FI) during the school year 2009/2010, 1278 (86.9%) were at school the day of the examination and 1276 completely filled in the questionnaire. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to calculate the degree of association (OR) among the sociodemographic characteristics, listening habits and some factors identified as risky or protective as regards the possibility of developing health disorders. MP3 player users are 88.2% of the sample. Among these, a high proportion engaged behaviours that increase the risk of presenting disorders, including the exposure to high-volume (27.4%). Furthermore, 44.6% use the MP3 while driving. From the regression analysis it emerges that MP3 users showed a sort of addiction: by increasing the time and the occasions of exposure to music, they increased the volume, used maximum or medium-high volume, did not take breaks and did not decrease the volume. The study points out the spread of risky behavior in music listening, so it is necessary to better inform especially the youngsters and achieve specific preventive interventions.

  16. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: The role of MP3 players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Strand Skånland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners’ mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  17. On the applicability of MP2.5 method in atmospheric reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, S.; Novotny, M.; Cernusak, I.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum chemical study has been performed on the reaction energies of the reactions of methyl iodide CH_3I and di-iodomethane CH_2I_2 with hydroxide radical. Both series of reactions were treated using the following methods: MP2, MP3, CCSD, CCSD(T) and also with the so-called MP2.5 approximation which is expected to be a good approximation to CCSD(T) within either chemical (±4 kJ/mol) or sub-chemical accuracy (±10 kJ/mol). We have used the correlation consistent cc-pvtz basis set in all calculations. In these atmospheric reactions, we considered various types of products. These reactions represent either isogyric processes or processes leading to atomic species. When comparing the MP2.5 and CCSD(T) data for reaction energies, our results indicate that there are some differences in reaction energies when the reaction contains different number of radicals and/or atoms on both sides. In addition, all the reactions including IO species do not fit into the 'MP2.5 computational philosophy'. (authors)

  18. Everyday music listening and affect regulation: the role of MP3 players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skånland, Marie Strand

    2013-08-07

    The use of digital portable music devices such as MP3 players has rapidly increased during the last decade, and the sheer availability of music offered by such players raises questions about their impact on listeners' mental and physical health and well-being. This article explores MP3 player use as an everyday tactic for affect regulation, here understood as an individual's efforts to maintain or change the intensity or duration of a given affect. The ability to understand and regulate affects has significant health implications, and among the tactics relevant to such regulation, engagement with music has proven to be particularly successful. The material presented in this article is based on a qualitative interview study focused on MP3 player use as a medium for musical self-care. Because MP3 users can listen to whatever they want, whenever they want, and target their music in the interests of managing and regulating moods and emotions, the MP3 player represents a valuable and convenient technology of affect regulation.

  19. Optimising preoperative risk stratification tools for prostate cancer using mpMRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisaeter, Lars A.R.; Losnegaard, Are; Biermann, Martin; Roervik, Jarle [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nygaard, Yngve [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Urology, Bergen (Norway); Monssen, Jan [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Gravdal, Karsten [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bergen (Norway); Halvorsen, Ole J.; Akslen, Lars A. [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bergen (Norway); Centre for Cancer Biomarkers CCBIO, Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen (Norway); Haukaas, Svein; Beisland, Christian [University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Urology, Bergen (Norway)

    2018-03-15

    To improve preoperative risk stratification for prostate cancer (PCa) by incorporating multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) features into risk stratification tools for PCa, CAPRA and D'Amico. 807 consecutive patients operated on by robot-assisted radical prostatectomy at our institution during the period 2010-2015 were followed to identify biochemical recurrence (BCR). 591 patients were eligible for final analysis. We employed stepwise backward likelihood methodology and penalised Cox cross-validation to identify the most significant predictors of BCR including mpMRI features. mpMRI features were then integrated into image-adjusted (IA) risk prediction models and the two risk prediction tools were then evaluated both with and without image adjustment using receiver operating characteristics, survival and decision curve analyses. 37 patients suffered BCR. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and radiological extraprostatic extension (rEPE) from mpMRI were both significant predictors of BCR. Both IA prediction models reallocated more than 20% of intermediate-risk patients to the low-risk group, reducing their estimated cumulative BCR risk from approximately 5% to 1.1%. Both IA models showed improved prognostic performance with a better separation of the survival curves. Integrating ADC and rEPE from mpMRI of the prostate into risk stratification tools improves preoperative risk estimation for BCR. (orig.)

  20. Performance modeling of hybrid MPI/OpenMP scientific applications on large-scale multicore supercomputers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xingfu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a performance modeling framework based on memory bandwidth contention time and a parameterized communication model to predict the performance of OpenMP, MPI and hybrid applications with weak scaling on three large-scale multicore supercomputers: IBM POWER4, POWER5+ and BlueGene/P, and analyze the performance of these MPI, OpenMP and hybrid applications. We use STREAM memory benchmarks and Intel\\'s MPI benchmarks to provide initial performance analysis and model validation of MPI and OpenMP applications on these multicore supercomputers because the measured sustained memory bandwidth can provide insight into the memory bandwidth that a system should sustain on scientific applications with the same amount of workload per core. In addition to using these benchmarks, we also use a weak-scaling hybrid MPI/OpenMP large-scale scientific application: Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code (GTC) in magnetic fusion to validate our performance model of the hybrid application on these multicore supercomputers. The validation results for our performance modeling method show less than 7.77% error rate in predicting the performance of hybrid MPI/OpenMP GTC on up to 512 cores on these multicore supercomputers. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents - assessment of adverse events in non-randomised studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Nadia; Ramstad, Erica

    2018-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. The psychostimulant methylphenidate is the most frequently used medication to treat it. Several studies have investigated the benefits of methylphenidate, showing possible favourable...... of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or the 9th or 10th edition of theInternational Classification of Diseases, with or without comorbid diagnoses. We required that at least 75% of participants had a normal intellectual capacity (intelligence quotient of more than 70 points) and were aged.......36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17 to 1.57; 2 studies, 72,005 participants); any psychotic disorder (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.57; 1 study, 71,771 participants); and arrhythmia (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.74; 1 study, 1224 participants) compared to no intervention. In the non-comparative cohort studies...

  2. Evidence on methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD is in fact of ‘very low quality’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, O. J.; Zwi, Morris; Krogh, Helle B

    2016-01-01

    Banaschewski and colleagues from the European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) guideline group make a number of critical comments regarding our systematic review on methylphenidate for children and adolescents with ADHD. In this article, we present our views, showing that our trial...... selection was not flawed and was undertaken with scientific justification. Similarly, our data collection and interpretation was systematic and correct. We have followed a sound methodology for assessing risk of bias and our conclusions are not misleading. We acknowledge that different researchers might...... such errors and to engage in debate on methodological and ethical issues. In terms of clinical implications, we are advocating that clinicians, patients and their relatives should weight carefully risks and benefits of methylphenidate. Clinical experience seems to suggest that there are people who benefit...

  3. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of bupropion versus methylphenidate in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneeton N

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Narong Maneeton,1 Benchalak Maneeton,1 Suthi Intaprasert,1 Pakapan Woottiluk2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, 2Psychiatric Nursing Division, Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: Some trials have suggested that bupropion, as well as methylphenidate, is bene­ficial in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Objectives: The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of bupropion in comparison with methylphenidate for ADHD treatment. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared bupropion and methylphenidate. Clinical studies conducted between January 1991 and January 2014 were reviewed.Data sources: MEDLINE®, EMBASE™, CINAHL, PsycINFO®, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched in January 2014. Additionally, clinical trials were identified from the databases of ClinicalTrials.gov and the EU Clinical Trials Register.Study eligible criteria, participants, and interventions: All RCTs of bupropion and methylphenidate reporting final outcomes relevant to 1 ADHD severity, 2 response or remission rates, 3 overall discontinuation rate, or 4 discontinuation rate due to adverse events. Language restriction was not applied.Study appraisal and synthesis methods: The relevant clinical trials were examined and the data of interest were extracted. Additionally, the risks of bias were also inspected. The efficacy outcomes were the mean changed scores of ADHD rating scales, the overall response rate, and the overall remission rates. The overall discontinuation rate and the discontinuation rate due to adverse events were determined. Relative risks and weighted mean differences or standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a random effect model.Results: A total of 146 subjects in four RCTs comparing bupropion with methylphenidate in the treatment of

  4. Behavioral and stimulant treatment of hyperactive children: a therapy study with methylphenidate probes in a within-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, W E; Schnedler, R W; Bologna, N C; Contreras, J A

    1980-01-01

    Eight hyperactive children were treated with a behavioral intervention focusing on teacher and parent training over a period of 5 months. Three times, before therapy and after 3 weeks and 13 weeks of intervention, children received methylphenidate during 3-week probe periods. Each week in a probe they received either a placebo, .25 mg/kg, or .75 mg/kg methylphenidate. Classroom observation of on-task behavior suggested that effectiveness of the behavioral intervention was between that of the two dosages of medication before therapy. Both dosages resulted in higher levels of on-task behavior when administered after 13 weeks of behavioral intervention than when administered before therapy. Teacher rating data showed equivalent effects of therapy and the low dosage of methylphenidate alone but a stronger effect of the high dose alone; only the high dose resulted in improved behavior after 13 weeks of behavioral intervention. As a group, only when they received the high dose of methylphenidate after 13 weeks of behavioral intervention did children reach the level of appropriate behavior shown by nonhyperactive controls. However, this level was also reached by two children with the low dose and by one child without medication, and it was not reached by one child. The results suggest that the combination of psychostimulant medication and behavior therapy may be more effective in the short-term than either treatment alone for hyperactive children in school settings. In addition, parent ratings and clinic observation of parent-child interactions suggested that children had improved in the home setting, high-lighting the importance of behavioral parent training in the treatment of hyperactivity.

  5. Resolution of methylphenidate osmotic release oral system-induced hair loss in two siblings after dose escalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, Ulku Akyol; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2017-11-01

    This report describes the cases of two siblings who experienced hair loss after treatment with methylphenidate (MPH) osmotic release oral system (OROS). Hair loss was resolved after discontinuation of the drug, but the children re-initiated treatment, after which hair loss again occurred, but they continued the treatment. After dose escalation, the hair loss resolved. This is the first report to describe resolution of OROS-MPH-induced hair loss after dose escalation. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. The Influence of Methylphenidate on Hyperactivity and Attention Deficits in Children With ADHD. A Virtual Classroom Test

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlberger, Andreas; Jekel, K.; Probst, Thomas; Schecklmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study compares the performance in a continuous performance test within a virtual reality classroom (CPT-VRC) between medicated children with ADHD, unmedicated children with ADHD, and healthy children. Method: N = 94 children with ADHD (n = 26 of them received methylphenidate and n = 68 were unmedicated) and n = 34 healthy children performed the CPT-VRC. Omission errors, reaction time/variability, commission errors, and body movements were assessed. Furthermore, ADHD...

  7. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwella Raveen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychostimulants and non stimulants are effective in the treatment of ADHD. Efficacy of both methylphenidate and atomoxetine has been established in placebo controlled trials. Direct comparison of efficacy is now possible due to availability of results from several head-to-head trials of these two medications. Methods All published, randomized, open label or double blind trials, comparing efficacy of methylphenidate with atomoxetine, in treatment of ADHD in children, diagnosed using DSM-IV™ criteria were included. The outcome studied was ADHDRS-IVParent:Inv score. The standardized mean difference (SMD was used as a measure of effect size. Results Nine randomized trials comparing methylphenidate and atomoxetine, with a total of 2762 participants were included. Meta-analysis did not find a significant difference in efficacy between methylphenidate and atomoxetine (SMD = 0.09, 95% CI -0.08-0.26 (Z = 1.06, p = 0.29. Synthesis of data from eight trials found no significant difference in response rates (RR = 0.93 95% CI 0.76-1.14, p = 0.49. Sub group analysis showed a significant standardized mean difference favouring OROS methylphenidate (SMD = 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.53 (Z = 3.05, p I2 = 67%. Subgroup analysis demonstrated the heterogeneity to be due to the open label trials (p = 0.001, I2 = 81%. Conclusions In general atomoxetine and methylphenidate have comparable efficacy and equal acceptability in treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. However OROS methylphenidate is more effective than atomoxetine and may be considered as first line treatment in treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents.

  8. Execution Model of Three Parallel Languages: OpenMP, UPC and CAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Marowka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a qualitative evaluation of three state-of-the-art parallel languages: OpenMP, Unified Parallel C (UPC and Co-Array Fortran (CAF. OpenMP and UPC are explicit parallel programming languages based on the ANSI standard. CAF is an implicit programming language. On the one hand, OpenMP designs for shared-memory architectures and extends the base-language by using compiler directives that annotate the original source-code. On the other hand, UPC and CAF designs for distribute-shared memory architectures and extends the base-language by new parallel constructs. We deconstruct each language into its basic components, show examples, make a detailed analysis, compare them, and finally draw some conclusions.

  9. Arduino-lämpömittari ZigBee-yhteydellä

    OpenAIRE

    Laukkanen, Jani-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli toteuttaa lämpötila-anturilla varustettu Arduino, joka lähettää anturin tiedot langattomalla ZigBee-yhteydellä toiselle Arduinolle. Toinen Arduino vastaanottaa datan ja tulostaa sen näytölle. Lämpötila-anturi ja näyttö voivat siis olla fyysisesti eri paikoissa ZigBee-yhteyden kantaman sisällä. Valmis tuotos jäi omaan käyttöön ja sitä käytetään varastotilan lämpötilan seurantaan. Teoriaosuudessa käsiteltiin Arduino-kehitysalustan ja ZigBee-tekniikan perusteita. ...

  10. Quartic scaling MP2 for solids: A highly parallelized algorithm in the plane wave basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Tobias; Ramberger, Benjamin; Kresse, Georg

    2017-03-01

    We present a low-complexity algorithm to calculate the correlation energy of periodic systems in second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory. In contrast to previous approximation-free MP2 codes, our implementation possesses a quartic scaling, O ( N 4 ) , with respect to the system size N and offers an almost ideal parallelization efficiency. The general issue that the correlation energy converges slowly with the number of basis functions is eased by an internal basis set extrapolation. The key concept to reduce the scaling is to eliminate all summations over virtual orbitals which can be elegantly achieved in the Laplace transformed MP2 formulation using plane wave basis sets and fast Fourier transforms. Analogously, this approach could allow us to calculate second order screened exchange as well as particle-hole ladder diagrams with a similar low complexity. Hence, the presented method can be considered as a step towards systematically improved correlation energies.

  11. Search for the decay $B_s^0 \\to D^{*\\mp} \\pi^\\pm$

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Oyanguren Campos, M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lohn, S; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Mcnab, A; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    A search for the decay $B_s^0 \\to D^{*\\mp} \\pi^\\pm$ is presented using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1.0 \\ {\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions collected by LHCb. This decay is expected to be mediated by a $W$-exchange diagram, with little contribution from rescattering processes, and therefore a measurement of the branching fraction will help to understand the mechanism behind related decays such as $B_s^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $B_s^0 \\to D \\overline{D}$. Systematic uncertainties are minimised by using $B^0 \\to D^{*\\mp} \\pi^\\pm$ as a normalisation channel. We find no evidence for a signal, and set an upper limit on the branching fraction of ${\\cal B}(B_s^0 \\to D^{*\\mp} \\pi^\\pm) < 6.1\\,\\left(7.8\\right) \\times 10^{-6}$ at 90% (95%) confidence level.

  12. Performance monitoring and analysis of task-based OpenMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ding

    Full Text Available OpenMP, a typical shared memory programming paradigm, has been extensively applied in high performance computing community due to the popularity of multicore architectures in recent years. The most significant feature of the OpenMP 3.0 specification is the introduction of the task constructs to express parallelism at a much finer level of detail. This feature, however, has posed new challenges for performance monitoring and analysis. In particular, task creation is separated from its execution, causing the traditional monitoring methods to be ineffective. This paper presents a mechanism to monitor task-based OpenMP programs with interposition and proposes two demonstration graphs for performance analysis as well. The results of two experiments are discussed to evaluate the overhead of monitoring mechanism and to verify the effects of demonstration graphs using the BOTS benchmarks.

  13. Mineral distribution in rice: Measurement by Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MP-AES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Nerissa C.; Ramos, R.G.A.; Quirit, L.L.; Arcilla, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MP-AES) is a new technology with comparable performance and sensitivity to Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Both instrument use plasma as the energy source that produces atomic and ionic emission lines. However, MP-AES uses nitrogen as the plasma gas instead of argon which is an additional expense for ICP-OES. Thus, MP-AES is more economical. This study quantified six essential minerals (Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and K) in rice using MP-AES. Hot plate digestion was used for sample extraction and the detection limit for each instrument was compared with respect to the requirement for routine analysis in rice. Black, red and non-pigmented rice samples were polished in various intervals to determine the concentration loss of minerals. The polishing time corresponds to the structure of the rice grains such as outer bran layer (0 to 15), inner bran layer (15 to 30), outer endosperm layer (30 to 45), and middle endosperm layer (45 to 60). Results of MP-AES analysis showed that black rice had all essential materials (except K) in high concentration at the outer bran layer. The red and non-pigmented rice samples on the other hand, contained high levels of Se, Zn, Fe, and Mn in the whole bran portion. After 25 seconds, the mineral concentrations remained constant. The concentration of Cu however, gave consistent value in all polishing intervals, hence Cu might be located in the inner endosperm layer. Results also showed that K was uniformly distributed in all samples where 5% loss was consistently observed for every polishing interval. Therefore, the concentration of K was also affected by polishing time. Thus, the new MP-AES technology with comparable performance to ICP-OES is a promising tool for routine analysis in rice. (author)

  14. MP3: a software tool for the prediction of pathogenic proteins in genomic and metagenomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankit; Kapil, Rohan; Dhakan, Darshan B; Sharma, Vineet K

    2014-01-01

    The identification of virulent proteins in any de-novo sequenced genome is useful in estimating its pathogenic ability and understanding the mechanism of pathogenesis. Similarly, the identification of such proteins could be valuable in comparing the metagenome of healthy and diseased individuals and estimating the proportion of pathogenic species. However, the common challenge in both the above tasks is the identification of virulent proteins since a significant proportion of genomic and metagenomic proteins are novel and yet unannotated. The currently available tools which carry out the identification of virulent proteins provide limited accuracy and cannot be used on large datasets. Therefore, we have developed an MP3 standalone tool and web server for the prediction of pathogenic proteins in both genomic and metagenomic datasets. MP3 is developed using an integrated Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach to carry out highly fast, sensitive and accurate prediction of pathogenic proteins. It displayed Sensitivity, Specificity, MCC and accuracy values of 92%, 100%, 0.92 and 96%, respectively, on blind dataset constructed using complete proteins. On the two metagenomic blind datasets (Blind A: 51-100 amino acids and Blind B: 30-50 amino acids), it displayed Sensitivity, Specificity, MCC and accuracy values of 82.39%, 97.86%, 0.80 and 89.32% for Blind A and 71.60%, 94.48%, 0.67 and 81.86% for Blind B, respectively. In addition, the performance of MP3 was validated on selected bacterial genomic and real metagenomic datasets. To our knowledge, MP3 is the only program that specializes in fast and accurate identification of partial pathogenic proteins predicted from short (100-150 bp) metagenomic reads and also performs exceptionally well on complete protein sequences. MP3 is publicly available at http://metagenomics.iiserb.ac.in/mp3/index.php.

  15. 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) entrapped stealth liposomes for improvement of leukemic treatment without hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umrethia, Manish; Ghosh, Pradip Kumar; Majithya, Rita; Murthy, R S R

    2007-03-01

    6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a purine analogue used in childhood leukemia. Because of the oral bioavailability of 6-MP is low and highly variable, the aim of this study was to develop a new parenteral formulation that can prolong the biological half-life of the drug, improve its therapeutic efficacy, and its associated reduce side effects. Conventional and stealth 6-MP liposomes were prepared by a thin film hydration technique followed by a high-pressure homogenization process and characterized for percent entrapment efficiency (%EE), particle size, and stability in human plasma. Pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution, and biochemical analysis were performed after intravenous (IV) administration of all formulations of 6-MP on rats. The conventional liposomes were found less stable than stealth liposomes in human plasma at 37 degrees C. Stealth liposomes exhibited high peak plasma concentration (C(max)), and long circulating capacity in blood and biological half-life. The uptake of stealth liposomes by the liver and spleen and accumulation in the kidney were significantly less than that of conventional liposomes and the free drug. Serum urea, creatinine, GOT (Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase), and GPT (Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase) increased significantly in rats given an IV injection of conventional liposomes and the free drug, but not in those administered with the same dose of stealth liposomes. Stealth liposomes may help to increase therapeutic efficacy of 6-MP and to reduce total amount of dose as well as frequency of the dose. It also may reduce the possibility of the risk of toxicity to the liver and kidney generally associated with free 6-MP.

  16. Transdermal and oral dl-methylphenidate-ethanol interactions in C57BL/6J mice: transesterification to ethylphenidate and elevation of d-methylphenidate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Guinevere H; Novak, Andrew J; Griffin, William C; Patrick, Kennerly S

    2011-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that C57BL/6J mice will model human metabolic interactions between dl-methylphenidate (MPH) and ethanol, placing an emphasis on the MPH transdermal system (MTS). Specifically, we asked: (1) will ethanol increase d-MPH biological concentrations, (2) will MTS facilitate the systemic bioavailability of l-MPH, and (3) will l-MPH enantioselectively interact with ethanol to yield l-ethylphenidate (l-EPH)? Mice were dosed with MTS (¼ of a 12.5 cm(2) patch on shaved skin) or a comparable oral dl-MPH dose (7.5 mg/kg), with or without ethanol (3.0 g/kg), and then placed in metabolic cages for 3 h. MPH and EPH isomer concentrations in blood, brain, and urine were analyzed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometry monitoring of N-(S)-prolylpiperidyl fragments. As in humans, MTS greatly facilitated the absorption of l-MPH in this mouse strain. Similarly, ethanol led to the enantioselective formation of l-EPH and to an elevation in d-MPH concentrations with both MTS and oral MPH. Although only guarded comparisons between MTS and oral MPH can be made due to route-dependent drug absorption rate differences, MTS was associated with significant MPH-ethanol interactions. Ethanol-mediated increases in circulating concentrations of d-MPH carry toxicological and abuse liability implications should this animal model hold for ethanol-consuming attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder patients or coabusers. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  17. The VLSI design of the sub-band filterbank in MP3 decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Xin; Luo, Li

    2018-03-01

    The sub-band filterbank is one of the most important modules which has the largest amount of calculation in MP3 decoding. In order to save CPU resources and integrate the sub-band filterbank part into MP3 IP core, the hardware circuit of the sub-band filterbank module is designed in this paper. A fast algorithm suit for hardware implementation is proposed and achieved on FPGA development board. The results show that the sub-band filterbank function is correct in the case of using very few registers and the amount of calculation and ROM resources are reduced greatly.

  18. Implementation of IMDCT Block of an MP3 Decoder through Optimization on the DCT Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Galabov

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an attempt to create an efficient dedicatedMP3-decoder, according to the MPEG-1 Layer III standard. A new methodof Inverse Modified Discrete Cosine Transform by optimization on theDiscrete Cosine Transform (DCT matrix is proposed and an assemblerprogram for Digital Signal Processor is developed. In addition, aprogram to calculate DCT using Lee's algorithm for any matrix of thesize 2M is created. The experimental results have proven that thedecoder is able to stream and decode MP3 in real time.

  19. A modified CoSaMP algorithm for electromagnetic imaging of two dimensional domains

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran

    2017-05-13

    The compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP) algorithm is used for solving the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on two-dimensional sparse domains. Since the scattering matrix, which is computed by sampling the Green function, does not satisfy the restricted isometry property, a damping parameter is added to the diagonal entries of the matrix to make the CoSaMP work. The damping factor can be selected based on the level of noise in the measurements. Numerical experiments, which demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the proposed algorithm, are presented.

  20. CLT-koetalon lämpö- ja kosteusteknisen toiminnan analysointiraportti Q2/2014

    OpenAIRE

    Autioniemi, Juha; Pirttinen, Valtteri; Vatanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    CLT-koetalo-projektin yhtenä päätavoitteena on tutkia CLT-materiaalin rakennusfysikaalista toimintaa Suomen haastavissa olosuhteissa. Tämä Q2-raportti on toinen CLT-koetalon lämpö- ja kosteusteknisen toiminnan analysointiraportista, joita julkaistaan vuoden 2014 aikana yhteensä neljä. Q2/2014 -raportissa analysoidaan Kemissä sijaitsevasta CLT-koetalon rakenteista saatua mittausdataa. Koetalon rakenteissa sijaitsee yhteensä 48 mittausanturia, jotka mittaavat lämpötilaa ja suhteellista kosteutt...

  1. Resource Letter MP-3: The Manhattan Project and Related Nuclear Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2016-10-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to the earlier Resource Letters MP-1 and MP-2, and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related research. Books, review papers, journal articles, videos, and websites are cited for the following topics: general works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime nuclear programs and related allied intelligence, the use of the bombs against Hiroshima and Nagasaki, technical papers of historical interest, postwar policy and technical developments, and educational materials. Together, these three Resource Letters describe nearly 400 sources of information on the Manhattan Project.

  2. Improving Security at Work with Software that Uses OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Polishuk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A model of the offender and the list of major types of threats, the conditions for the realization of which are created by using the software that uses OpenMP is considered. A method for verification of software using OpenMP for the presence of vulnerabilities associated with multi-threaded execution is offered. We give basic algorithms and the system architecture that implements the proposed method. The results of testing the method on various programs, including those containing malicious code, as well as assessment of the possibilities of applying the method in different computing environments are given.

  3. Autonomic correlates at rest and during evoked attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and effects of methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrao, Bianca Lee; Bipath, Priyesh; van der Westhuizen, Deborah; Viljoen, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess autonomic nervous system functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the effects of methylphenidate and focussed attention. Children with ADHD (n = 19) were tested while they were stimulant free and during a period in which they were on stimulants. On both occasions, autonomic nervous system functioning was tested at baseline and during focussed attention. Autonomic nervous system functioning of control subjects was also tested at baseline and during focussed attention. Autonomic nervous system activity was determined by means of heart rate variability (HRV) and skin conductivity analyses. Attention was evoked by means of the BioGraph Infiniti biofeedback apparatus. HRV was determined by time domain, frequency domain and Poincaré analysis of RR interval data. Skin conductivity was determined by the BioGraph Infiniti biofeedback apparatus. The main findings of this study were (a) that stimulant-free children with ADHD showed a sympathetic underarousal and parasympathetic overarousal of the sympathovagal balance relative to control subjects; (b) methylphenidate shifted the autonomic balance of children with ADHD towards normal levels; however, a normal autonomic balance was not reached, and (c) stimulant-free children with ADHD exhibited a shift in the sympathovagal balance towards the sympathetic nervous system from baseline to focussed attention; however, methylphenidate appeared to abolish this shift. Stimulant-free children with ADHD have a parasympathetic dominance of the autonomic balance, relative to control subjects. Methylphenidate attempts to restore the normal autonomic balance in children with ADHD, but inhibits the normal autonomic nervous system response to a cognitive challenge. These results indicate that methylphenidate may have a suppressive effect on the normal stress response. Although this may be of benefit to those who interact with children who suffer from ADHD

  4. Buspirone Versus Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children with Attention- Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Randomized Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent randomized clinical trial showed buspirone efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children. However, results from a recent multi-site controlled clinical trial of transdermal buspirone failed to separate it from placebo in a large sample of children with ADHD. Therefore, due to these inconsistent findings, this study was designed to assess the efficacy of buspirone in the treatment of children with ADHD compared to methylphenidate in a double blind randomized clinical trial. Forty outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were study population of this trial. Subjects were recruited from an outpatient child and adolescent clinic for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. All study subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment using tablet of buspirone at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for 30kg (group 1 or methylphenidate at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight (20 mg/day for 30kg (group 2 for a 6 week double blind, randomized clinical trial. The principal measure of outcome was the Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale IV. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 21 and 42 days after the medication started. Significant differences were observed between the two groups on the Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -8.95±8.73 (mean±SD and -15.60±7.81 (mean±SD for buspirone and methyphenidate, for Parent ADHD Rating Scale. The changes at the endpoint compared to baseline were: -9.80 ±7.06 (mean±SD and -22.40±9.90 (mean±SD for buspirone and methyphenidate, respectively for Teacher ADHD Rating Scale. The difference between the buspirone and methylphenidate groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant except for decreased appetite, headache and insomnia that were observed more frequently in the methylphenidate group. The results of this study suggest that administration of

  5. Hiccup Due to Aripiprazole Plus Methylphenidate Treatment in an Adolescent with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuk, Meryem Ozlem; Guler, Gulen; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kutuk, Ozgur

    2017-11-30

    Our case had hiccups arising in an adolescent with the attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) after adding aripiprazole treatment to extended-release methylphenidate. Actually, antipsychotics are also used in the treatment of hiccups, but studies suggest that they can cause hiccups as well. Within 12 hours of taking 2.5 mg aripiprazole added to extended-release methylphenidate at a dose of 54 mg/day, 16-year-old boy began having hiccups in the morning, which lasted after 3-4 hours. As a result, aripiprazole was discontinued and methylphenidate was continued alone because we could not convince the patient to use another additional drug due to this side effect. Subsequently, when his behavior got worsened day by day, his mother administered aripiprazole alone again at the dose of 2.5 mg/day at the weekend and continued treatment because hiccup did not occur again. But when it was administered with methylphenidate on Monday, hiccup started again next morning and lasted one hour at this time. In conclusion, we concluded that concurrent use of methylphenidate and aripiprazole in this adolescent led to hiccups.

  6. Cognitive Improvement of Attention and Inhibition in the Late Afternoon in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Treated With Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Hichem; Fery, Patrick; Verheulpen, Denis; Vanzeveren, Nathalie; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Long-acting medications have been developed and approved for use in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These compounds are intended to optimize and maintain symptoms control throughout the day. We tested prolonged effects of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate on both attention and inhibition, in the late afternoon. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 36 boys (7-12 years) with ADHD and 40 typically developing children. The ADHD children received an individualized dose of placebo or osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate. They were tested about 8 hours after taking with 2 continuous performance tests (continuous performance test-X [CPT-X] and continuous performance test-AX [CPT-AX]) and a counting Stroop. A positive effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate was present in CPT-AX with faster and less variable reaction times under osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate than under placebo, and no difference with typically developing children. In the counting Stroop, we found a decreased interference with osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate but no difference between children with ADHD under placebo and typically developing children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Search for the lepton-flavour violating decay $D^0 \\to e^\\pm\\mu^\\mp$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-03-10

    A search for the lepton-flavour violating decay $D^0 \\to e^\\pm \\mu^\\mp$ is made with a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0$ fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ TeV and $8$ TeV, collected by the LHCb experiment. Candidate $D^0$ mesons are selected using the decay $D^{*+} \\to D^0 \\pi^+$ and the $D^0 \\to e^\\pm \\mu^\\mp$ branching fraction is measured using the decay mode $D^0 \\to K^- \\pi^+$ as a normalisation channel. No significant excess of $D^0 \\to e^\\pm \\mu^\\mp$ candidates over the expected background is seen, and a limit is set on the branching fraction, $\\mathcal{B}(D^0 \\to e^\\pm \\mu^\\mp) < 1.3 \\times 10^{-8}$, at 90 % confidence level. This is an order of magnitude lower than the previous limit and it further constrains the parameter space in some leptoquark models and in supersymmetric models with R-parity violation.

  8. THC-MP: High performance numerical simulation of reactive transport and multiphase flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaohui; Li, Weishan; Tian, Hailong; Li, Hongliang; Xu, Haixiao; Xu, Tianfu

    2015-07-01

    The numerical simulation of multiphase flow and reactive transport in the porous media on complex subsurface problem is a computationally intensive application. To meet the increasingly computational requirements, this paper presents a parallel computing method and architecture. Derived from TOUGHREACT that is a well-established code for simulating subsurface multi-phase flow and reactive transport problems, we developed a high performance computing THC-MP based on massive parallel computer, which extends greatly on the computational capability for the original code. The domain decomposition method was applied to the coupled numerical computing procedure in the THC-MP. We designed the distributed data structure, implemented the data initialization and exchange between the computing nodes and the core solving module using the hybrid parallel iterative and direct solver. Numerical accuracy of the THC-MP was verified through a CO2 injection-induced reactive transport problem by comparing the results obtained from the parallel computing and sequential computing (original code). Execution efficiency and code scalability were examined through field scale carbon sequestration applications on the multicore cluster. The results demonstrate successfully the enhanced performance using the THC-MP on parallel computing facilities.

  9. Resolution of the Identity and Cholesky Representation of EOM-MP2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2017-10-23

    Oct 23, 2017 ... like excitation energy (EE), ionization energy (IP) and electron affinity (EA). ... the method would lead to loss of size-extensivity unless an appropriate .... technique74 can avoid the four-particle integrals in EOM-. EA-MP2 ..... the sigma vector update procedure should be three times faster in the canonical ...

  10. MP3 Players and Hearing Loss: Adolescents' Perceptions of Loud Music and Hearing Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Hosli, E.J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescents' behaviors and opinions about exposure to loud music from MP3 players. Study design: We conducted a qualitative analysis of focus-group discussions with adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from 2 large secondary schools (1 urban and 1 rural) for pre-vocational and

  11. Multi-core job submission and grid resource scheduling for ATLAS AthenaMP

    CERN Document Server

    Crooks, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Harrington, R; Purdie, S; Severini, H; Skipsey, S; Tsulaia, V; Washbrook, A

    2012-01-01

    AthenaMP is the multi-core implementation of the ATLAS software framework and allows the efficient sharing of memory pages between multiple threads of execution. This has now been validated for production and delivers a significant reduction on overall memory footprint with negligible CPU overhead. Before AthenaMP can be routinely run on the LHC Computing Grid, it must be determined how the computing resources available to ATLAS can best exploit the notable improvements delivered by switching to this multi-process model. In particular, there is a need to identify and assess the potential impact of scheduling issues where single core and multi-core job queues have access to the same underlying resources. A study into the effectiveness and scalability of AthenaMP in a production environment will be presented. Submitting AthenaMP tasks to the Tier-0 and candidate Tier-2 sites will allow detailed measurement of worker node performance and also highlight the relative performance of local resource management system...

  12. Hybrid RHF/MP2 geometry optimizations with the effective fragment molecular orbital method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A. S.; Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Fedorov, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    while the rest of the system is treated at the RHF level. MP2 geometry optimization is found to lower the barrier by up to 3.5 kcal/mol compared to RHF optimzations and ONIOM energy refinement and leads to a smoother convergence with respect to the basis set for the reaction profile. For double zeta...

  13. T1 mapping of the mouse brain following fractionated manganese administration using MP2RAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driencourt, Luc; Romero, Carola Jacqueline; Lepore, Mario; Eggenschwiler, Florent; Reynaud, Olivier; Just, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing development of transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases allowing improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these disorders, robust quantitative mapping techniques are also needed in rodents. MP2RAGE has shown great potential for structural imaging in humans at high fields. In the present work, MP2RAGE was successfully implemented at 9.4T and 14.1T. Following fractionated injections of MnCl 2 , MP2RAGE images were acquired allowing simultaneous depiction and T 1 mapping of structures in the mouse brain at both fields. In addition, T 1 maps demonstrated significant T 1 shortenings in different structures of the mouse brain (p < 0.0008 at 9.4T, p < 0.000001 at 14.1T). T 1 values recovered to the levels of saline-injected animals 1 month after the last injection except in the pituitary gland. We believe that MP2RAGE represents an important prospective translational tool for further structural MRI.

  14. Wavelet transform of generalized functions in K ′{Mp} spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using convolution theory in K{Mp} space we obtain bounded results for the wavelet transform. Calderón-type reproducing formula is derived in distribution sense as an application of the same. An inversion formula for the wavelet transform of generalized functions is established. Keywords. Continuous wavelet transform ...

  15. NASA: A generic infrastructure for system-level MP-SoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Z.J.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.; Bautista, T.; Núñez, A.

    2010-01-01

    System-level simulation and design space exploration (DSE) are key ingredients for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded systems. The efforts in this area, however, typically use ad-hoc software infrastructures to facilitate and support the system-level DSE experiments.

  16. Mutagenic and genotoxic activity of particulate matter MP2,5, in Pamplona, North Santander, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Montañez, Mónica Liseth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate material (MP2,5 collected in Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia.Materials and methods: MP2,5 was monitored by means of a Partisol 2025 sequential air sampler with Plus Palmflex quartz filters. The latter were subjected to two extraction procedures: Soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane-acetone; and ultrasonic extraction using dichloromethane, acetone and dichloromethane/ acetone mix. The mutagenic and genotoxic activities were determined for each extract.Results: This is the first study conducted in Colombia that reports the mutagenic and genotoxic activities associated with particulate matter (MP2,5 taken from vehicular emissions in Pamplona, Norte de Santander. The mutagenic assay determined by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 showed a high direct mutagenic activity in the analyzed extracts. On the other hand, the genotoxic activity, determined by means of the comet assay, was high too.Conclusion: Particulate material (MP2,5 present in air samples in Pamplona (northeastern Colombia is a risk factor for the exposed population because it can directly induce mutations and also cause genotoxic damage.

  17. MP Finance Group CC (In Liquidation) V C: SARS: Adding to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the interpretation of the phrase “received by, accrued to or in favour of” in the gross income definition of the Income Tax Act, as applied to illegal receipts. During the last few decades, South Africans have been victims of a number of Ponzi-type schemes. In MP Finance, the Supreme Court of Appeal ...

  18. Redox poly[Ni(saldMp)] modified activated carbon electrode in electrochemical supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Fei [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Li Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.c [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Yakun; Wang Xindong [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang Feiyu [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-08-01

    The complex (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediaminebis(salicylideneaminato))-nickel(II), [Ni(saldMp)], was oxidatively electropolymerized on activated carbon (AC) electrode in acetonitrile solution. The poly[Ni(saldMp)] presented an incomplete coated film on the surface of carbon particles of AC electrode by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of poly[Ni(saldMp)] modified activated carbon (PAC) electrode were evaluated in different potential ranges by cyclic voltammetry. Counterions and solvent swelling mainly occurred up to 0.6 V for PAC electrode by the comparison of D{sup 1/2}C values calculated from chronoamperometry experiments. Both the Ohmic resistance and Faraday resistance of PAC electrode gradually approached to those of AC electrode when its potential was ranging from 1.2 V to 0.0 V. Galvanostatic charge/discharge experiments indicated that both the specific capacitance and energy density were effectively improved by the reversible redox reaction of poly[Ni(saldMp)] film under the high current density up to 10 mA cm{sup -2} for AC electrode. The specific capacitance of PAC electrode decreased during the first 50 cycles but thereafter it remained constant for the next 200 cycles. This study showed the redox polymer may be an attractive material in supercapacitors.

  19. Benchmarking and Evaluating Unified Memory for OpenMP GPU Offloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Alok [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Li, Lingda [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kong, Martin [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chapman, Barbara [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Here, the latest OpenMP standard offers automatic device offloading capabilities which facilitate GPU programming. Despite this, there remain many challenges. One of these is the unified memory feature introduced in recent GPUs. GPUs in current and future HPC systems have enhanced support for unified memory space. In such systems, CPU and GPU can access each other's memory transparently, that is, the data movement is managed automatically by the underlying system software and hardware. Memory over subscription is also possible in these systems. However, there is a significant lack of knowledge about how this mechanism will perform, and how programmers should use it. We have modified several benchmarks codes, in the Rodinia benchmark suite, to study the behavior of OpenMP accelerator extensions and have used them to explore the impact of unified memory in an OpenMP context. We moreover modified the open source LLVM compiler to allow OpenMP programs to exploit unified memory. The results of our evaluation reveal that, while the performance of unified memory is comparable with that of normal GPU offloading for benchmarks with little data reuse, it suffers from significant overhead when GPU memory is over subcribed for benchmarks with large amount of data reuse. Based on these results, we provide several guidelines for programmers to achieve better performance with unified memory.

  20. Adolescents and MP3 players: too many risks, too few precautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Verschuure, Hans; van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Brug, Johannes; Raat, Hein

    2009-06-01

    The goal was to assess risky and protective listening behaviors of adolescent users of MP3 players and the association of these behaviors with demographic characteristics and frequency of use. In 2007, 1687 adolescents (12-19 years of age) in 68 classes in 15 Dutch secondary schools were invited to complete questionnaires about their music-listening behaviors. . Ninety percent of participants reported listening to music through earphones on MP3 players; 32.8% were frequent users, 48.0% used high volume settings, and only 6.8% always or nearly always used a noise-limiter. Frequent users were >4 times more likely to listen to high-volume music than were infrequent users, and adolescents in practical prevocational schools were more than twice as likely to listen to high-volume music as were those attending preuniversity education. When using MP3 players, adolescents are very likely to engage in risky listening behaviors and are unlikely to seek protection. Frequent MP3 player use is an indicator of other risky listening behaviors, such as listening at high volumes and failing to use noise-limiters.

  1. Adolescents and MP3 players : Too many risks, too few precautions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Verschuure, H.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Brug, J.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The goal was to assess risky and protective listening behaviors of adolescent users of MP3 players and the association of these behaviors with demographic characteristics and frequency of use. METHODS. In 2007, 1687 adolescents (12-19 years of age) in 68 classes in 15 Dutch secondary

  2. MP3 players and hearing loss: adolescents' perceptions of loud music and hearing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Hosli, Esther J; van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein

    2008-03-01

    To explore adolescents' behaviors and opinions about exposure to loud music from MP3 players. We conducted a qualitative analysis of focus-group discussions with adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from 2 large secondary schools (1 urban and 1 rural) for pre-vocational and pre-university education. The semi-structured question route was theoretically framed within the protection motivation theory. Most adolescents-especially male students and students from pre-vocational schools-indicated that they often played their MP3 players at maximum volume. Although they appeared to be generally aware of the risks of exposure to loud music, they expressed low personal vulnerability to music-induced hearing loss. Most adolescents said that they would not accept any interference with their music-exposure habits. Interventions should target students from pre-vocational schools and should focus on increasing adolescents' knowledge of the risks of loud music and how to protect themselves. Besides hearing education for adolescents and technical modifications of MP3 players, volume-level regulations for MP3 players may be warranted.

  3. A comparison between cervical vertebrae and modified MP3 stages for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mandava; Ganji, Venkata Suresh Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of skeletal maturity in human individuals is an important aspect in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics because, growth guidance and fundamental structural changes are essential for treatment of skeletal discrepancies in all the three planes. Among various growth assessment methods, cervical vertebra maturation stages and hand wrist have been correlated with the individual growth changes during puberty. The purpose of this study is to determine correlation of the CVM index with the modified median phalanx index (MP3) as described by Rajagopal and Kansal. 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) of Nellore, Indian origin boys aged between 10 to 19 years and girls of 8 to 16 years were selected for the study. The subjects are selected randomly from patients visiting the Departments of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Pediatric dentistry and Oral medicine and Radiology at Narayana Dental College and Hospital. Nellore. Radiographs of left hand MP3 and lateral cephalogram were taken. Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess the agreement between the two measurements based on categorical variables. There was a good concordance between 6 stages of CVMI (Hassel and Farman) and the 6 stages of MP3 (Rajagopal and Kansal). Physiological maturity was earlier in females than in males when compared to the individuals of opposite sex of same chronological age. Chronological age was not a valid predictor of assessing the skeletal maturity because of significant variations in the distribution of CVMI and MP3 stages with respect to individual chronological age distribution.

  4. MythBusters, Musicians, and MP3 Players: A Middle School Sound Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putney, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Create your own speakers for an MP3 player while exploring the science of sound. Review of science notebooks, students' intriguing cabinet designs, and listening to students talk with a musician about the physics of an instrument show that complex concepts are being absorbed and extended with each new iteration. Science that matters to students…

  5. Adolescents and MP3 Players: Too Many Risks, Too Few Precautions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vogel (Ineke); H. Verschuure (Hans); C.P.B. van der Ploeg (Catharina); J. Brug (Hans); H. Raat (Hein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE. The goal was to assess risky and protective listening behaviors of adolescent users of MP3 players and the association of these behaviors with demographic characteristics and frequency of use. METHODS. In 2007, 1687 adolescents (12–19 years of age) in 68 classes in 15

  6. Preliminary comparison of MP sparking characteristics for SF6 insulating gas mixtures and pure SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, R.; Wegner, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Operation of the Brookhaven MP-7 tandem Van de Graaff accelerator with pure SF 6 insulating gas is described. Sparking and terminal voltage were monitored and are compared for operation with a mixture of SF 6 , N 2 , CO 2 and O 2 . The accelerator was found to be more difficult to operate with pure SF 6

  7. An introduction to the Micrel Micropump MP Daily portable syringe driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Karen E

    2003-11-01

    In this article the author describes the Micrel Micropump MP Daily (MP Daily) portable syringe driver. This follows the author's experience of a 4-month pilot of the device by an inpatient palliative care unit. Portable syringe drivers are commonly used to deliver continuous subcutaneous infusions in palliative care situations. Those in current use are not without problems and serious adverse events have occasionally been reported, mainly resulting from confusion between models. The MP Daily syringe driver addresses some of these issues while remaining small, lightweight and inexpensive, with a long battery life and fitting into the pocket of a shirt of pyjama jacket. Improvements over current models include an on/off button, the absence of facilities to set a zero rate or change the rate once the syringe driver is running, and the absence of a boost button. In addition, there are improved alarms, a message display system and a configuration menu. Although confusion remains a problem, and the ideal has not yet been reached, the MP Daily goes some considerable way towards reducing risks and opportunities for human error.

  8. Cross Layer Analysis of P2MP Hybrid FSO/RF Network

    KAUST Repository

    Rakia, Tamer; Gebali, Fayez; Yang, Hong-Chuan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents and analyzes a point-tomultipoint (P2MP) network that uses a number of freespace optical (FSO) links for data transmission from the central node to the different remote nodes of the network. A common backup radio frequency (RF

  9. Innovative Language-Based & Object-Oriented Structured AMR Using Fortran 90 and OpenMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, C.; Balsara, D.

    1999-01-01

    Parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is an important numerical technique that leads to the efficient solution of many physical and engineering problems. In this paper, we describe how AMR programing can be performed in an object-oreinted way using the modern aspects of Fortran 90 combined with the parallelization features of OpenMP.

  10. Measurement of $H{\\to}W^\\pm W^{\\mp\\ast}{\\to}\\ell^-\\bar{\

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00423318; Köneke, Karsten

    This thesis presents and discusses measurements of the coupling of the Higgs boson to vector bosons, using data collected at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV by the ATLAS detector. A full analysis of the first $5.8$ fb${}^{-1}$ of LHC Run 2 data investigating the $H{\\to}W^\\pm W^{\\mp\\ast}{\\to}\\ell^-\\bar{\

  11. Adverse pregnancy outcomes after exposure to methylphenidate or atomoxetine during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bro SP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Søren Pauli Bro,1 Maiken Ina Siegismund Kjaersgaard,2 Erik Thorlund Parner,2 Merete Juul Sørensen,3 Jørn Olsen,4 Bodil Hammer Bech,4 Lars Henning Pedersen,4,5 Jakob Christensen,6,7 Mogens Vestergaard11Research Unit and Section for General Practice, Department of Public Health, 2Section for Biostatistics, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, 3Regional Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aarhus University Hospital, 4Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, 5Department of Clinical Medicine – Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University, 6Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 7Department of Neurology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkObjective: To determine if prenatal exposure to methylphenidate (MPH or atomoxetine (ATX increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Materials and methods: This was a population-based cohort study of all pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. Information on use of ADHD medication, ADHD diagnosis, and pregnancy outcomes was obtained from nationwide registers.Results: We identified 989,932 pregnancies, in which 186 (0.02% women used MPH/ATX and 275 (0.03% women had been diagnosed with ADHD but who did not take MPH/ATX. Our reference pregnancies had no exposure to MPH/ATX and no ADHD diagnosis. Exposure to MPH/ATX was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SA; ie, death of an embryo or fetus in the first 22 weeks of gestation (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–2.36. The risk of SA was also increased in pregnancies where the mother had ADHD but did not use MPH/ATX (aRR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11–2.20. The aRR of Apgar scores <10 was increased among exposed women (aRR 2.06, 95% CI 1.11–3.82 but not among unexposed women with ADHD (aRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.48–2.05.Conclusion: MPH/ATX was associated with a higher risk of SA, but our study indicated that it may at

  12. PredMP: A Web Resource for Computationally Predicted Membrane Proteins via Deep Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Sheng

    2018-02-06

    Experimental determination of membrane protein (MP) structures is challenging as they are often too large for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments and difficult to crystallize. Currently there are only about 510 non-redundant MPs with solved structures in Protein Data Bank (PDB). To elucidate the MP structures computationally, we developed a novel web resource, denoted as PredMP (http://52.87.130.56:3001/#/proteinindex), that delivers one-dimensional (1D) annotation of the membrane topology and secondary structure, two-dimensional (2D) prediction of the contact/distance map, together with three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the MP structure in the lipid bilayer, for each MP target from a given model organism. The precision of the computationally constructed MP structures is leveraged by state-of-the-art deep learning methods as well as cutting-edge modeling strategies. In particular, (i) we annotate 1D property via DeepCNF (Deep Convolutional Neural Fields) that not only models complex sequence-structure relationship but also interdependency between adjacent property labels; (ii) we predict 2D contact/distance map through Deep Transfer Learning which learns the patterns as well as the complex relationship between contacts/distances and protein features from non-membrane proteins; and (iii) we model 3D structure by feeding its predicted contacts and secondary structure to the Crystallography & NMR System (CNS) suite combined with a membrane burial potential that is residue-specific and depth-dependent. PredMP currently contains more than 2,200 multi-pass transmembrane proteins (length<700 residues) from Human. These transmembrane proteins are classified according to IUPHAR/BPS Guide, which provides a hierarchical organization of receptors, channels, transporters, enzymes and other drug targets according to their molecular relationships and physiological functions. Among these MPs, we estimated that our approach could predict correct folds for 1

  13. Disruption of murine mp29/Syf2/Ntc31 gene results in embryonic lethality with aberrant checkpoint response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsin Chen

    Full Text Available Human p29 is a putative component of spliceosomes, but its role in pre-mRNA is elusive. By siRNA knockdown and stable overexpression, we demonstrated that human p29 is involved in DNA damage response and Fanconi anemia pathway in cultured cells. In this study, we generated p29 knockout mice (mp29(GT/GT using the mp29 gene trap embryonic stem cells to study the role of mp29 in DNA damage response in vivo. Interruption of mp29 at both alleles resulted in embryonic lethality. Embryonic abnormality occurred as early as E6.5 in mp29(GT/GT mice accompanied with decreased mRNA levels of α-tubulin and Chk1. The reduction of α-tubulin and Chk1 mRNAs is likely due to an impaired post-transcriptional event. An aberrant G2/M checkpoint was found in mp29 gene trap embryos when exposed to aphidicolin and UV light. This embryonic lethality was rescued by crossing with mp29 transgenic mice. Additionally, the knockdown of zfp29 in zebrafish resulted in embryonic death at 72 hours of development postfertilization (hpf. A lower level of acetylated α-tubulin was also observed in zfp29 morphants. Together, these results illustrate an indispensable role of mp29 in DNA checkpoint response during embryonic development.

  14. Methylphenidate treatment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbid social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubchik, Pavel; Sever, Jonathan; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response of social phobia (SP) symptoms to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-one ADHD patients with SP, aged between 8 and 18 years, received 12 weeks of MPH treatment. The severity of SP symptoms were assessed by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA), and the severity of ADHD symptoms was assessed by the ADHD Rating Scale at baseline and at endpoint. MPH treatment was associated with a significant decrease in the ADHD Rating Scale scores (P<0.0001) and in the total LSAS-CA scores (P=0.013), as well as the school-related items of LSAS-CA (P=0.011). A significant correlation was found between the reductions in ADHD score and total LSAS-CA score (P=0.038), especially in school-related SP. The improvement in ADHD symptoms because of MPH treatment correlates with a parallel improvement in SP. MPH treatment appears to be safe and effective in ADHD/SP children.

  15. Prediction of methylphenidate treatment outcome in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Wolfgang; Retz-Junginger, Petra

    2014-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent mental disorder of childhood, which often persists in adulthood. Methylphenidate (MPH) is one of the most effective medications to treat ADHD, but also few adult patients show no sufficient response to this drug. In this paper, we give an overview regarding genetic, neuroimaging, clinical and other studies which have tried to reveal the reasons for non-response in adults with ADHD, based on a systematic literature search. Although MPH is a well-established treatment for adults with ADHD, research regarding the prediction of treatment outcome is still limited and has resulted in inconsistent findings. No reliable neurobiological markers of treatment response have been identified so far. Some findings from clinical studies suggest that comorbidity with substance use disorders and personality disorders has an impact on treatment course and outcome. As MPH is widely used in the treatment of adults with ADHD, much more work is needed regarding positive and negative predictors of long-term treatment outcome in order to optimize the pharmacological treatment of adult ADHD patients.

  16. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, D.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  17. Methylphenidate does not enhance visual working memory but benefits motivation in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oemisch, Mariann; Johnston, Kevin; Paré, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Working memory is a limited-capacity cognitive process that retains relevant information temporarily to guide thoughts and behavior. A large body of work has suggested that catecholamines exert a major modulatory influence on cognition, but there is only equivocal evidence of a direct influence on working memory ability, which would be reflected in a dependence on working memory load. Here we tested the contribution of catecholamines to working memory by administering a wide range of acute oral doses of the dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate (MPH, 0.1-9 mg/kg) to three female macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta), whose working memory ability was measured from their performance in a visual sequential comparison task. This task allows the systematic manipulation of working memory load, and we therefore tested the specific hypothesis that MPH modulates performance in a manner that depends on both dose and memory load. We found no evidence of a dose- or memory load-dependent effect of MPH on performance. In contrast, significant effects on measures of motivation were observed. These findings suggest that an acute increase in catecholamines does not seem to affect the retention of visual information per se. As such, these results help delimit the effects of MPH on cognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model of methylphenidate responsive ADHD-associated cognitive phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinmin; Fan, Fangfang; McCarthy, Deirdre M; Zhang, Lin; Cannon, Elisa N; Spencer, Thomas J; Biederman, Joseph; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to nicotine via cigarette smoke or other forms of tobacco use is a significant environmental risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) and ADHD are not well understood. Animal models, especially rodent models, are beginning to bridge this gap in knowledge. Although ADHD is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity and working memory deficits, the majority of the animal models are based on only one or two ADHD associated phenotypes, in particular, hyperactivity or inattention. We report a PNE mouse model that displays the full range of ADHD associated behavioral phenotypes including working memory deficit, attention deficit and impulsive-like behavior. All of the ADHD-associated phenotypes respond to a single administration of a therapeutic equivalent dose of methylphenidate. In an earlier study, we showed that PNE produces hyperactivity, frontal cortical hypodopaminergic state and thinning of the cingulate cortex. Collectively, these data suggest that the PNE mouse model recapitulates key features of ADHD and may be a suitable preclinical model for ADHD research. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of methylphenidate on very low frequency electroencephalography oscillations in adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ruth E; Skirrow, Caroline; Tye, Charlotte; McLoughlin, Grainne; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Banaschweski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna; Asherson, Philip

    2014-04-01

    Altered very low-frequency electroencephalographic (VLF-EEG) activity is an endophenotype of ADHD in children and adolescents. We investigated VLF-EEG case-control differences in adult samples and the effects of methylphenidate (MPH). A longitudinal case-control study was conducted examining the effects of MPH on VLF-EEG (.02-0.2Hz) during a cued continuous performance task. 41 untreated adults with ADHD and 47 controls were assessed, and 21 cases followed up after MPH treatment, with a similar follow-up for 38 controls (mean follow-up=9.4months). Cases had enhanced frontal and parietal VLF-EEG and increased omission errors. In the whole sample, increased parietal VLF-EEG correlated with increased omission errors. After controlling for subthreshold comorbid symptoms, VLF-EEG case-control differences and treatment effects remained. Post-treatment, a time by group interaction emerged; VLF-EEG and omission errors reduced to the same level as controls, with decreased inattentive symptoms in cases. Reduced VLF-EEG following MPH treatment provides preliminary evidence that changes in VLF-EEG may relate to MPH treatment effects on ADHD symptoms; and that VLF-EEG may be an intermediate phenotype of ADHD. Further studies of the treatment effect of MPH in larger controlled studies are required to formally evaluate any causal link between MPH, VLF-EEG and ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ethylphenidate as a selective dopaminergic agonist and methylphenidate-ethanol transesterification biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kennerly S; Corbin, Timothy R; Murphy, Cristina E

    2014-12-01

    We review the pharmaceutical science of ethylphenidate (EPH) in the contexts of drug discovery, drug interactions, biomarker for dl-methylphenidate (MPH)-ethanol exposure, potentiation of dl-MPH abuse liability, contemporary "designer drug," pertinence to the newer transdermal and chiral switch MPH formulations, as well as problematic internal standard. d-EPH selectively targets the dopamine transporter, whereas d-MPH exhibits equipotent actions at dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. This selectivity carries implications for the advancement of tailored attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) pharmacotherapy in the era of genome-based diagnostics. Abuse of dl-MPH often involves ethanol coabuse. Carboxylesterase 1 enantioselectively transesterifies l-MPH with ethanol to yield l-EPH accompanied by significantly increased early exposure to d-MPH and rapid potentiation of euphoria. The pharmacokinetic component of this drug interaction can largely be avoided using dexmethylphenidate (dexMPH). This notwithstanding, maximal potentiated euphoria occurs following dexMPH-ethanol. C57BL/6 mice model dl-MPH-ethanol interactions: an otherwise depressive dose of ethanol synergistically increases dl-MPH stimulation; a substimulatory dose of dl-MPH potentiates a low, stimulatory dose of ethanol; ethanol elevates blood, brain, and urinary d-MPH concentrations while forming l-EPH. Integration of EPH preclinical neuropharmacology with clinical studies of MPH-ethanol interactions provides a translational approach toward advancement of ADHD personalized medicine and management of comorbid alcohol use disorder. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  1. The effects of methylphenidate on cognitive performance of healthy male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Rostron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the effects of methylphenidate (MPH in healthy rats on two distinct radial maze tasks which rely on brain structures and neurotransmitters known to be affected by MPH: the Random Foraging Non-Delay Task (RFNDT and the Delay Spatial Win Shift Task (DSWT. Hooded Lister rats were trained to complete either the RFNDT or the DSWT having received oral treatment of either a vehicle or MPH (3.0 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg for RFNDT, 3.0 mg/kg for DSWT. We found no effect of MPH on the RFNDT relative to the control group. However, those treated with 5.0 mg/kg MPH did take significantly longer to reach criterion performance than those treated with the 3.0 mg/kg MPH, suggesting some doses of MPH can have detrimental effects. For the DSWT, if MPH was present in both phases, performance did not differ from when it was absent in both phases. However, when present in only one phase there was an increase in errors made, although this only reached significance for when MPH was present only in the test-phase. These data suggest that MPH may have detrimental effects on task performance and can result in state dependent effects in healthy individuals.

  2. Effects of methylphenidate on acute math performance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizenko, Natalie; Cai, Emmy; Jolicoeur, Claude; Ter-Stepanian, Mariam; Joober, Ridha

    2013-11-01

    Examine the short-term (acute) effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on math performance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and what factors predict improvement in math performance. One hundred ninety-eight children with ADHD participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover MPH trial. Math response to MPH was determined through administration of math problems adjusted to their academic level during the Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS). Student t tests were conducted to assess change in math performance with psychostimulants. Correlation between change on the RASS and change on the math performance was also examined. Linear regression was performed to determine predictor variables. Children with ADHD improved significantly in their math with MPH (P math performance on MPH was highly correlated. A child's age at baseline and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT)-Numerical Operations standard scores at baseline accounted for 15% of variances for acute math improvement. MPH improves acute math performance in children with ADHD. Younger children with lower math scores (as assessed by the WIAT) improved most on math scores when given psychostimulants. NCT00483106.

  3. Mediators of methylphenidate effects on math performance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Tanya E; Antonini, Tanya N; Brinkman, William B; Langberg, Joshua M; Simon, John O; Adams, Ryan; Fredstrom, Bridget; Narad, Megan E; Kingery, Kathleen M; Altaye, Mekibib; Matheson, Heather; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2014-01-01

    Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate (MPH), improve the academic performance of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the mechanism by which MPH exerts an effect on academic performance is unclear. We examined MPH effects on math performance and investigated possible mediation of MPH effects by changes in time on-task, inhibitory control, selective attention, and reaction time variability. Children with ADHD aged 7 to 11 years (N = 93) completed a timed math worksheet (with problems tailored to each individual's level of proficiency) and 2 neuropsychological tasks (Go/No-Go and Child Attention Network Test) at baseline, then participated in a 4-week, randomized, controlled, titration trial of MPH. Children were then randomly assigned to their optimal MPH dose or placebo for 1 week (administered double-blind) and repeated the math and neuropsychological tasks (posttest). Baseline and posttest videorecordings of children performing the math task were coded to assess time on-task. Children taking MPH completed 23 more math problems at posttest compared to baseline, whereas the placebo group completed 24 fewer problems on posttest versus baseline, but the effects on math accuracy (percent correct) did not differ. Path analyses revealed that only change in time on-task was a significant mediator of MPH's improvements in math productivity. MPH-derived math productivity improvements may be explained in part by increased time spent on-task, rather than improvements in neurocognitive parameters, such as inhibitory control, selective attention, or reaction time variability.

  4. Prior methylphenidate self-administration alters the subsequent reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; Umpierre, Anthony; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-12-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is clinically effective in treating the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; however, its relatively widespread availability has raised public health concerns on nonmedical use of MPD among certain adult populations. Most preclinical studies investigate whether presumed therapeutically relevant doses of MPD alter sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of other drugs, but it remains unclear whether doses of MPD likely exceeding therapeutic relevance impact the subsequent reinforcing effects of drugs. To begin to address this question, the effect of prior MPD self-administration (0.56 mg/kg/infusion) on the subsequent reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (METH, 0.032 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. For comparison, it was also determined whether prior experimenter-administered MPD, injected daily at a presumed therapeutically relevant dose (2 mg/kg), altered the subsequent reinforcing effects of METH. Results indicated that, under the current conditions, only a history of MPD self-administration increased sensitivity to the subsequent reinforcing effects of METH. Furthermore, MPD did not impact food-maintained responding, suggesting that the effect of MPD might be specific to drug reinforcers. These data suggest that short-term, nonmedical use of MPD might alter the positive reinforcing effects of METH in a manner relevant to vulnerability to drug use in humans.

  5. Effects of methylphenidate during emotional processing in amphetamine users: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottelier, M A; Schouw, M L J; de Ruiter, M B; Ruhe, H G; Lindauer, R J L; Reneman, L

    2015-12-01

    D-amphetamine (dAMPH) and methylphenidate (MPH) are stimulants used in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Preclinical studies have shown that in healthy animals, dAMPH induces dopamine (DA) dysfunction, as evidenced for instance by loss of DA levels and its transporters. It has also been suggested that DA plays an important role in emotional processing, and that altered DA-ergic intervention may modulate amygdala function. To explore the role of the DA system in emotional processing we examined emotional processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight male recreational users of dAMPH and eight male healthy controls. We compared brain activation between both groups during an emotional face-processing task with and without an oral MPH challenge. All subjects were abstinent for at least 2 weeks during the baseline scan. The second scan was performed on the same day 1½ hours after receiving an oral dose of 35 mg MPH. A significant Valence*Group interaction (p = .037) indicated amygdala hyperreactivity to fearful facial expressions in dAMPH users that was robust against adjustment for age (p = .015). Furthermore, duration of amphetamine use in years was positively correlated with amygdala reactivity in dAMPH users (r = .76; p = .029). These exploratory findings are in line with previous findings suggesting that DA plays a role in emotional processing.

  6. Cognitive and emotional behavioural changes associated with methylphenidate treatment: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Gabrielle B

    2012-02-01

    There is evidence from animal studies that repeated exposure to methylphenidate (MPH), a widely used psychostimulant for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), produces behavioural, structural and neurochemical changes that persist long after drug administration has ended. However, the translational utility of much of this work is compromised by the use of drug doses and routes of administration that produce plasma and brain MPH levels that fall outside the clinical range, i.e. experimental parameters more relevant to drug abuse than ADHD. We used PubMed to identify pre-clinical studies that employed repeated MPH administration at low doses in young rodents and examined long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and brain structure and function. A review of this work suggests that repeated MPH treatment during early development can modify a number of cognitive, behavioural and brain processes, but these are reduced when low therapeutic doses are employed. Moreover, MPH sites of action extend beyond those implicated in ADHD. Studies that combined neurobiological and behavioural approaches provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying MPH-produced effects on cognitive and behavioural processes, which may be relevant to MPH therapeutic efficacy. There is an emerging consensus that pharmacological treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders produces persistent neuroadaptations, highlighting the need for studies that assess long-term effects of early developmental pharmacotherapy. In this regard, studies that mimic clinical therapy with rodents are useful experimental approaches for defining the behavioural and neural plasticity associated with stimulant therapy in paediatric populations.

  7. Effectiveness of atomoxetine and methylphenidate for problematic online gaming in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Lee, Young Sik; Sohn, Ji Hyun; Han, Doug Hyun

    2016-11-01

    There is a high prevalence of problematic online gaming in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the current study, we compared the effectiveness of atomoxetine (ATM) and methylphenidate (MPH) on problematic online gaming in adolescents with ADHD. We recruited 86 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD together with Internet gaming disorder. These participants were divided into two treatment groups: 44 participants were treated with MPH for 12 weeks, and 42 participants were treated with ATM for 12 weeks. During the 3-month study period, the MPH group showed greater improvement in Korean ADHD rating scale scores than the ATM group. The ATM group showed greater improvement in Child Depression Inventory scores than the MPH group. However, Young Internet Addiction Scale and Behavioral Inhibition & Activation Scales score changes did not differ significantly between the MPH and ATM groups. In both groups, changes in Young Internet Addiction Scale scores were positively correlated with the changes in Behavioral Inhibition & Activation Scales scores. Both MPH and ATM reduced the severity of Internet gaming disorder symptoms, and this reduction was correlated with impulsivity reduction, which also resulted from both ADHD medications. These findings suggest impulsivity plays a critical role in the development of problematic online gaming. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Determinants of adherence to methylphenidate and the impact of poor adherence on maternal and family measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan S F; Shen, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Miao-Churn; Tang, Ching-Shu; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Churn-Shiouh

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between adherence to immediate-release methylphenidate (IR MPH) and maternal psychological distress, parenting style, parent- child relationship, and perceived family support. The sample consisted of 307 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (271 boys and 36 girls), 6-17 years of age, who had been treated with IR MPH for the past 6 months. The measures included the Chinese Health Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, Family APGAR, and Home Behaviors of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents. Reasons for poor adherence (n = 79; 25.7%) included forgetting medication (72.7%), the medication having no effect (20.0%), and refusing medication (12.7%). Increased age and three-times-daily administration were the major predictors for poor adherence to IR MPH. Poor adherence was associated with increased degree of maternal psychological distress, indifferent parenting, maternal overprotection/control, poor family support, decreased interaction with parents, and increased problems at home. Findings indicate that multiple daily dosing of MPH increases the likelihood of poor adherence, particularly in adolescents, and that poor adherence is associated with impaired maternal/family process. Once-daily administration of MPH is necessary to improve adherence and to decrease the possible exacerbation of tense parent-child relationships caused by poor drug adherence.

  9. Novelty-seeking trait predicts the effect of methylphenidate on creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirts, Hila Z; Mayseless, Naama; Segev, Aviv; Lewis, D Yael; Feffer, Kfir; Barnea, Yael; Bloch, Yuval; Shamay-Tsoory, Simon G

    2017-05-01

    In recent years the use of psychostimulants for cognitive enhancement in healthy individuals with no psychiatric disorders has been on the rise. However, it is still unclear whether psychostimulants improve certain cognitive functions at the cost of others, and how these psychostimulants interact with individual personality differences. In the current study, we investigated whether the effect of one common stimulant, methylphenidate (MPH), on creativity is associated with novelty seeking. Thirty-six healthy adults, without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomology, were assigned randomly in a double-blind fashion to receive MPH or placebo. We found that the effect of MPH on creativity was dependent on novelty-seeking (NS) personality characteristics of the participants. MPH increased creativity in individuals with lower NS, while it reduced creativity levels in individuals with high NS. These findings highlight the role of the dopaminergic system in creativity, and indicate that among healthy individuals NS can be seen as a predictor of the effect of MPH on creativity.

  10. Effect of methylphenidate on enhancement of spatial learning by novel alternated dual task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veetil, Praveen Kottath; Mukkadan, Joseph Kurian

    2011-01-01

    The novel alternated dual task (ADT) arranged rats to learn T-maze spontaneous alternation task and radial arm maze (RAM) task alternatively, and by doing ADT, rats could acquire the tasks more easily than non alternated dual task (NADT) group. Also retention capacity of ADT group was significantly more and ADT help to learn a complex task faster than learning it in isolation from other tasks. In the present study effect of methylphenidate (MPD), a mood elevator, known to enhance learning and memory, on ADT procedure is assessed. Also effect of ADT procedure and MPD on spatial learning and memory are compared. Different groups were assigned by administering MPD (intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight) during different phases of behavioural experiments, and control groups received saline injection. MPD administration increased both acquisition and retention capacities. The amelioration attained for retention of complex task by ADT procedure, could be achieved by NADT rats only by administration of MPD. The influence of ADT procedure on acquisition and retention of TM and RAM tasks were similar to the effects of MPD, especially for the RAM task. MPD at low dose is found to enhance the learning and memory capacity in rats, than deteriorating it, supporting the use of MPD as a drug to treat attention deficit hyperactive disorder. The recent reports suggesting the effect of MPD only on retention and not on acquisition could not be confirmed, as enhancement for both acquisition and retention was found in this study.

  11. Methylphenidate-induced improvements of various measures of attention in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, O; Mecklinger, L; Laufkötter, R; Klein, H E; Walitza, S; Lange, K W

    2006-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of the stimulant medication methylphenidate (MPH) on attentional functioning of adults with ADHD. Sixteen adults with a diagnosed ADHD without comorbidity were assessed twice, at baseline off MPH and following MPH treatment. The assessment battery consisted of reaction time tasks of low complexity, including measures of alertness--subdivided into tonic and phasic alertness, vigilance, divided attention, flexibility and such aspects of selective attention as including focused attention, inhibition and integration of sensory information. In addition, 16 healthy participants who were matched to adults with ADHD according to sex, age, education level and intellectual functions were also assessed twice using the same test battery. The results of the present study suggest that adults with ADHD off stimulant medication are seriously impaired in various components of attention including vigilance, divided attention, selective attention and flexibility. These impairments of attention were observed primarily in regard to reaction time and its variability. Treatment of adults with ADHD using individually tailored doses of MPH has a positive effect on measures of alertness, vigilance, selective attention, divided attention and flexibility. However, even on MPH adults with ADHD displayed considerable deficits in vigilance and integration of sensory information. The present findings indicate that adults with ADHD are not differentially impaired in attentional processes but may suffer from a more global deficit of attention. Although MPH treatment has been found to be effective in the treatment of the attention deficit of adults with ADHD, additional treatment appears to be necessary.

  12. Methylphenidate and comorbid anxiety disorder in children with both chronic multiple tic disorder and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E

    2011-04-01

    To determine if comorbid anxiety disorder is associated with differential response to immediate release methylphenidate (MPH-IR) in children with both ADHD and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD). Children with (n = 17) and without (n = 37) diagnosed anxiety disorder (ANX) were evaluated in an 8-week, placebo-controlled trial with rating scales and laboratory measures. The +ANX group obtained more severe parent, teacher, and child ratings of anxiety and more severe parent ratings of depression, tics, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and peer aggression than the -ANX group. Treatment with short-term MPH-IR was associated with improvement in ADHD, ODD, and peer aggression in the +ANX group. When controlling for ODD severity, there were no apparent group differences in therapeutic response to MPH-IR in children ±ANX. There was little evidence that MPH-IR contributed to improvement in anxiety or depression symptoms in the +ANX group. There was some indication that children with comorbid anxiety may differentially experience greater increase in systolic blood pressure (0.5 mg/kg of MPH-IR > placebo). Findings suggest that the co-occurrence of diagnosed CMTD+ADHD+ANX represents a particularly troublesome clinical phenotype, at least in the home setting. Comorbid anxiety disorder was not associated with a less favorable response to MPH-IR in children with ADHD+CMTD, but replication with larger samples is warranted before firm conclusions can be drawn about potential group differences.

  13. Methylphenidate and emotional-motivational processing in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzelmann, Annette; Woidich, Eva; Mucha, Ronald F; Weyers, Peter; Müller, Mathias; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Jacob, Christian P; Pauli, Paul

    2016-08-01

    In line with the assumption that emotional-motivational deficits are one core dysfunction in ADHD, in one of our previous studies we observed a reduced reactivity towards pleasant pictures in adult ADHD patients as compared to controls. This was indicated by a lack of attenuation of the startle reflex specifically during pleasant pictures in ADHD patients. The first choice medical agents in ADHD, methylphenidate (MPH), is discussed to normalize these dysfunctions. However, experimental evidence in the sense of double-blind placebo-controlled study designs is lacking. Therefore, we investigated 61 adult ADHD patients twice, one time with placebo and one time with MPH with the same experimental design as in our study previously and assessed emotion processing during the presentation of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. We obtained startle reflex data as well as valence and arousal ratings in association with the pictures. As previously shown, ADHD patients showed a diminished startle attenuation during pleasant pictures while startle potentiation during unpleasant pictures was normal. Valence and arousal ratings unsuspiciously increased with increasing pleasantness and arousal of the pictures, respectively. There were no significant influences of MPH. The study replicates that ADHD patients show a reduced reactivity towards pleasant stimuli. MPH did not normalize this dysfunction. Possibly, MPH only influences emotions during more complex behavioural tasks that involve executive functions in adults with ADHD. Our results emphasize the importance for the use of double-blind placebo-controlled designs in psychopharmacological research.

  14. Methylphenidate-risperidone combination in child psychiatry: A retrospective analysis of 44 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javelot, H; Glay-Ribau, C; Ligier, F; Weiner, L; Didelot, N; Messaoudi, M; Socha, M; Body-Lawson, F; Kabuth, B

    2014-05-01

    Psychotimulant-antipyschotic combinations are frequently used in child psychiatry, but have been rarely described in the literature. We propose here a retrospective study of 44 children who received the combination methylphenidate (MPH)-risperidone (RIS). The sample is composed of children who received either MPH (n=28) or RIS (n=16) as primary treatment. A vast majority of the children had a comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. For over 60% of patients, regardless of their initial monotherapy, bitherapy decreased the symptoms of ADHD and conduct disorder, sleep disorders and anxiety. Concerning the safety of the bitherapy, a compensation effect on weight gain and appetite was respectively observed in 70% and 50% of patients. Even though iatrogenic tachycardia can be encountered with both drugs, it has never been reported when they are associated and we have reported a total of 3 cases in our study. We have also observed a case of dyskinesia resolved with the discontinuation of the treatment. MPH-RIS bitherapy appears to be particularly effective in ADHD with conduct disorder symptoms. Although tolerance may limit its use, the benefit/risk ratio seems favourable for a number of children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Methylphenidate on the Frequency of Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaeys, Henk; Bijleveld, Henny-Annie; Devroey, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Recently, a case report described a decrease in frequency of stuttering after intake of methylphenidate (MPH). This study was undertaken to investigate if this effect could again be reproduced in a population of young healthy male adult persons with developmental stuttering. A double-blind randomized crossover trial, with a 2-week washout period, including 15 Dutch-speaking young healthy persons with developmental stuttering, assessed the effects of a single dose of 20 mg MPH compared with placebo on stuttering. Dependent and 1-sample t tests were used to detect significant differences. The end point was the number of stutter moments and self-perceived improvement. MPH yielded a significant decrease in the number of stutter moments when reading and speaking (P = 0.002), which was not the case with placebo (P = 0.090). There was a significant improvement from baseline after intake of MPH as compared with placebo (P = 0.003). Self-perceived improvement with MPH was not significantly better as compared with placebo (P = 0.28). This study showed that the participants had an objective statistically significant decrease in the frequency of stuttering with MPH, and this was not the case with placebo. This was also the case for a reduction in stutter moments when reading out loud and speaking spontaneously. However, this result was not subjectively perceived by the participants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Methylphenidate disintegration from oral formulations for intravenous use by experienced substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadottir, G D; Johannsson, M; Magnusson, A; Rafnar, B O; Sigurdsson, E; Steingrimsson, S; Asgrimsson, V; Snorradottir, I; Bragadottir, H; Haraldsson, H M

    2017-09-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a prescription stimulant used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. MPH is currently the preferred substance among most intravenous (i.v.) substance users in Iceland. Four types of MPH preparations were available in Iceland at the time of study: Immediate-release (IR), sustained-release (SR), osmotic controlled-release oral delivery (OROS) tablet and osmotic-controlled release (OCR). MPH OROS has previously been rated the least desirable by i.v. users and we hypothesized that this was associated with difficulty of disintegrating MPH from OROS formulation. The aim of the study was to measure the amount of MPH and the viscosity of the disintegrated solutions that were made from the four MPH formulations by four i.v.-users and non-users. A convenience sample of four i.v. substance users and 12 non-users. Non-users imitated the methods applied by experienced i.v. substance users for disintegrated MPH formulations. Both groups managed to disintegrate over 50% of MPH from IR and SR formulations but only 20% from OROS (pusers and non-users. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of viscosity and the amount of disintegrated MPH from prescription drugs for i.v. use. The results indicate that the ease of disintegration, amount of MPH and viscosity may explain the difference in popularity for i.v. use between different MPH formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, d.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-09-21

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  18. User's Guide for TOUGH2-MP - A Massively Parallel Version of the TOUGH2 Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earth Sciences Division; Zhang, Keni; Zhang, Keni; Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    TOUGH2-MP is a massively parallel (MP) version of the TOUGH2 code, designed for computationally efficient parallel simulation of isothermal and nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one, two, and three-dimensional porous and fractured media. In recent years, computational requirements have become increasingly intensive in large or highly nonlinear problems for applications in areas such as radioactive waste disposal, CO2 geological sequestration, environmental assessment and remediation, reservoir engineering, and groundwater hydrology. The primary objective of developing the parallel-simulation capability is to significantly improve the computational performance of the TOUGH2 family of codes. The particular goal for the parallel simulator is to achieve orders-of-magnitude improvement in computational time for models with ever-increasing complexity. TOUGH2-MP is designed to perform parallel simulation on multi-CPU computational platforms. An earlier version of TOUGH2-MP (V1.0) was based on the TOUGH2 Version 1.4 with EOS3, EOS9, and T2R3D modules, a software previously qualified for applications in the Yucca Mountain project, and was designed for execution on CRAY T3E and IBM SP supercomputers. The current version of TOUGH2-MP (V2.0) includes all fluid property modules of the standard version TOUGH2 V2.0. It provides computationally efficient capabilities using supercomputers, Linux clusters, or multi-core PCs, and also offers many user-friendly features. The parallel simulator inherits all process capabilities from V2.0 together with additional capabilities for handling fractured media from V1.4. This report provides a quick starting guide on how to set up and run the TOUGH2-MP program for users with a basic knowledge of running the (standard) version TOUGH2 code. The report also gives a brief technical description of the code, including a discussion of parallel methodology, code structure, as well as mathematical and numerical methods used

  19. Treatment outcomes after methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate or atomoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alain Joseph,1 Martin Cloutier,2 Annie Guérin,2 Roy Nitulescu,2 Vanja Sikirica3 1Global HEOR and Epidemiology, Shire, Zählerweg, Zug, Switzerland; 2Analysis Group, Inc., Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 3Global HEOR and Epidemiology, Shire, Wayne, PA, USA Purpose: To compare treatment adherence, discontinuation, add-on, and daily average consumption (DACON among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder receiving second-line lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX or atomoxetine (ATX, following methylphenidate.Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study using US commercial claims databases (Q2/2009–Q3/2013.Results: At month 12, the LDX cohort (N=2,718 had a higher adherence level (proportion of days covered: 0.48 versus 0.30, P<0.001 and was less likely to discontinue (Kaplan–Meier estimate: 63% versus 85%, P<0.001 than the ATX cohort (N=674. There were no statistical differences in treatment add-on rates between cohorts (Kaplan–Meier estimate: 26% versus 25%, P=0.297. The LDX cohort had a lower DACON (1.10 versus 1.31, P<0.001 and was less likely to have a DACON >1 (adjusted odds ratio: 0.20, 95% confidence interval: 0.15–0.25, P<0.001 than the ATX cohort.Conclusion: Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treated with LDX following methylphenidate had a higher treatment adherence and lower discontinuation and DACON relative to those treated with ATX following methylphenidate. Keywords: ADHD, adult, adherence, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, atomoxetine

  20. Methylphenidate Ameliorates Depressive Comorbidity in ADHD Children without any Modification on Differences in Serum Melatonin Concentration between ADHD Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cubero-Millán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD patients have other associated pathologies, with depressive symptoms as one of the most prevalent. Among the mediators that may participate in ADHD, melatonin is thought to regulate circadian rhythms, neurological function and stress response. To determine (1 the serum baseline daily variations and nocturnal excretion of melatonin in ADHD subtypes and (2 the effect of chronic administration of methylphenidate, as well as the effects on symptomatology, 136 children with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR criteria were divided into subgroups using the “Children’s Depression Inventory” (CDI. Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 h, and urine was collected between 21:00 and 09:00 h, at inclusion and after 4.61 ± 2.29 months of treatment. Melatonin and its urine metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay RIA. Factorial analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Melatonin was higher predominantly in hyperactive-impulsive/conduct disordered children (PHI/CD of the ADHD subtype, without the influence of comorbid depressive symptoms. Methylphenidate ameliorated this comorbidity without induction of any changes in the serum melatonin profile, but treatment with it was associated with a decrease in 6-s-melatonin excretion in both ADHD subtypes. Conclusions: In untreated children, partial homeostatic restoration of disrupted neuroendocrine equilibrium most likely led to an increased serum melatonin in PHI/CD children. A differential cerebral melatonin metabolization after methylphenidate may underlie some of the clinical benefit.

  1. The community Noah land surface model with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP): 1. Model description and evaluation with local-scale measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Niu, Guo-Yue; Yang, Zong-Liang; Mitchell, Kenneth E.; Chen, Fei; Ek, Michael B.; Barlage, Michael; Kumar, Anil; Manning, Kevin; Niyogi, Dev; Rosero, Enrique; Tewari, Mukul; Xia, Youlong

    2011-01-01

    processes, and introduces a framework for multiple options to parameterize selected processes (Noah-MP). The Noah-MP's performance is evaluated at various local sites using high temporal frequency data sets, and results show the advantages of using multiple

  2. Analysis of histological findings obtained combining US/mp-MRI fusion-guided biopsies with systematic US biopsies: mp-MRI role in prostate cancer detection and false negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiella, Eliodoro; Santucci, Domiziana; Greco, Federico; Frauenfelder, Giulia; Giacobbe, Viola; Muto, Giovanni; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Grasso, Rosario Francesco

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of mp-MRI correlating US/mp-MRI fusion-guided biopsy with systematic random US-guided biopsy in prostate cancer diagnosis. 137 suspected prostatic abnormalities were identified on mp-MRI (1.5T) in 96 patients and classified according to PI-RADS score v2. All target lesions underwent US/mp-MRI fusion biopsy and prostatic sampling was completed by US-guided systematic random 12-core biopsies. Histological analysis and Gleason score were established for all the samples, both target lesions defined by mp-MRI, and random biopsies. PI-RADS score was correlated with the histological results, divided in three groups (benign tissue, atypia and carcinoma) and with Gleason groups, divided in four categories considering the new Grading system of the ISUP 2014, using t test. Multivariate analysis was used to correlate PI-RADS and Gleason categories to PSA level and abnormalities axial diameter. When the random core biopsies showed carcinoma (mp-MRI false-negatives), PSA value and lesions Gleason median value were compared with those of carcinomas identified by mp-MRI (true-positives), using t test. There was statistically significant difference between PI-RADS score in carcinoma, atypia and benign lesions groups (4.41, 3.61 and 3.24, respectively) and between PI-RADS score in Gleason  7 group (4.14 and 4.79, respectively). mp-MRI performance was more accurate for lesions > 15 mm and in patients with PSA > 6 ng/ml. In systematic sampling, 130 (11.25%) mp-MRI false-negative were identified. There was no statistic difference in Gleason median value (7.0 vs 7.06) between this group and the mp-MRI true-positives, but a significant lower PSA median value was demonstrated (7.08 vs 7.53 ng/ml). mp-MRI remains the imaging modality of choice to identify PCa lesions. Integrating US-guided random sampling with US/mp-MRI fusion target lesions sampling, 3.49% of false-negative were identified.

  3. Effect of methylphenidate on ICU and hospital length of stay in patients with severe and moderate traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Houshang; Khalili, Hossein A; Keramatian, Kamyar

    2006-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury is one of the major causes of death and disability among young people. Methylphenidate, a neural stimulant and protective drug, which has been mainly used for childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, has shown some benefits in late psychosocial problems in patients with traumatic brain injury. Its effect on arousal and consciousness has been also revealed in the sub-acute phase of traumatic brain injury. We studied its effect on the acute phase of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in relation to the length of ICU and hospital admission. Severely and moderately TBI patients (according to inclusion and exclusion criteria) were randomized to treatment and control groups. The treatment group received methylphenidate 0.3mg/kg per dose PO BID by the second day of admission until the time of discharge, and the control group received a placebo. Admission information and daily Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) were recorded. Medical, surgical, and discharge plans for patients were determined by the attending physician, blinded to the study. Forty patients with severe TBI (GCS = 5-8) and 40 moderately TBI patients (GCS = 9-12) were randomly divided into treatment and control groups on the day of admission. In the severely TBI patients, both hospital and ICU length of stay, on average, were shorter in the treatment group compared with the control group. In the moderately TBI patients while ICU stay was shorter in the treatment group, there was no significant reduction of the period of hospitalization. There were no significant differences between the treatment and control groups in terms of age, sex, post resuscitation GCS, or brain CT scan findings, in either severely or moderately TBI patients. Methylphenidate was associated with reductions in ICU and hospital length of stay by 23% in severely TBI patients (P = 0.06 for ICU and P = 0.029 for hospital stay time). However, in the moderately TBI patients who received methylphenidate

  4. Additional biological therapies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: repetitive transcranical magnetic stimulation of 1 Hz helps to reduce methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Niederhofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive hyperactivity, impulsiveness and attentional difficulties characterize attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The aim of this case report is to signal the possible therapeutic effectiveness of the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Low frequency (1Hz, 1200 stim/die for five days was applied on the impending scalp in the motor additional area of a patient suffering from combined type ADHD who received methylphenidate (MPH. We saw a significant improvement, especially according to criteria associated with hyperactivity. The improvement lasted for at least three weeks and suggested the final reduction in dosage of MPH.to 10 mg.

  5. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan K Buitelaar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Jan K Buitelaar1, J Antoni Ramos-Quiroga2, Miguel Casas2, J J Sandra Kooij3, Asko Niemelä4, Eric Konofal5, Joachim Dejonckheere6, Bradford H Challis7, Rossella Medori81Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center, St. Radboud and Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron and Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3PsyQ, Psycho-Medical Programs, Program Adult ADHD, Den Haag, The Netherlands; 4Oulu University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Oulu, Finland; 5Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris, France; 6SGS Life Sciences, Mechelen, Belgium; 7Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Titusville, NJ, USA; 8Janssen-Cilag EMEA, Neuss, GermanyAbstract: The osmotic release oral system (OROS methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety and tolerability of OROS methylphenidate in a flexible dose regimen (18–90 mg daily for the treatment of adults diagnosed with ADHD (N = 370. Medication was adjusted to optimize efficacy and tolerability for each patient. Adverse events, vital signs, and laboratory parameters were assessed. Most patients (337; 91% completed the seven-week treatment and the final dispensed dose was 18 mg (8%, 36 mg (29%, 54 mg (34%, 72 mg (20%, or 90 mg (9%. Adverse events were reported in 253 (68% patients and most were mild or moderate in severity; most frequently reported included headache (17%, decreased appetite (13%, and insomnia (11%. Adverse events were rarely serious (<1%; 2/370. Small mean increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (both 2.4 mmHg and pulse (3.2 bpm were observed. Body weight decreased

  6. Running ATLAS workloads within massively parallel distributed applications using Athena Multi-Process framework (AthenaMP)

    CERN Document Server

    Calafiura, Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration; Seuster, Rolf; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter

    2015-01-01

    AthenaMP is a multi-process version of the ATLAS reconstruction and data analysis framework Athena. By leveraging Linux fork and copy-on-write, it allows the sharing of memory pages between event processors running on the same compute node with little to no change in the application code. Originally targeted to optimize the memory footprint of reconstruction jobs, AthenaMP has demonstrated that it can reduce the memory usage of certain confugurations of ATLAS production jobs by a factor of 2. AthenaMP has also evolved to become the parallel event-processing core of the recently developed ATLAS infrastructure for fine-grained event processing (Event Service) which allows to run AthenaMP inside massively parallel distributed applications on hundreds of compute nodes simultaneously. We present the architecture of AthenaMP, various strategies implemented by AthenaMP for scheduling workload to worker processes (for example: Shared Event Queue and Shared Distributor of Event Tokens) and the usage of AthenaMP in the...

  7. Post-exposure vaccination with MP-12 lacking NSs protects mice against lethal Rift Valley fever virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Brian B; Bailey, Kevin W; Scharton, Dionna; Vest, Zachery; Westover, Jonna B; Skirpstunas, Ramona; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-05-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe disease in humans and livestock. There are currently no approved antivirals or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of RVF disease in humans. A major virulence factor of RVFV is the NSs protein, which inhibits host transcription including the interferon (IFN)-β gene and promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. We analyzed the efficacy of the live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine strain and MP-12 variants that lack the NSs protein as post-exposure vaccinations. Although parental MP-12 failed to elicit a protective effect in mice challenged with wild-type (wt) RVFV by the intranasal route, significant protection was demonstrated by vaccination with MP-12 strains lacking NSs when they were administered at 20-30 min post-exposure. Viremia and virus replication in liver, spleen and brain were also inhibited by post-exposure vaccination with MP-12 lacking NSs. The protective effect was mostly lost when vaccination was delayed 6 or 24 h after intranasal RVFV challenge. When mice were challenged subcutaneously, efficacy of MP-12 lacking NSs was diminished, most likely due to more rapid dissemination of wt RVFV. Our findings suggest that post-exposure vaccination with MP-12 lacking NSs may be developed as a novel post-exposure treatment to prevent RVF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents: expert opinions from a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein

    2009-05-01

    To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth work, music entertainment, and enforcement authorities participated in a qualitative, electronic, 3-round, Web-based Delphi study. Multiple parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents were identified; the most relevant are the adolescents themselves, their parents, manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones, and the authorities. The experts did not expect that adolescents in general would perform the necessary protective behaviors to prevent MP3-induced hearing loss. Two environmental health protection measures were identified as both relevant and feasible to be implemented (ie, authorities encourage manufacturers to produce safer products, and public health campaigns will be held to improve knowledge of the risks of high-volume music, possible protective measures, and consequences of hearing loss). Authorities, the music industry in general, and especially manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones should recognize their responsibility and create a safer MP3-listening environment by taking measures to protect today's youth from the dangers of listening to high-volume music on MP3 players.

  9. Fungal lectin MpL enables entry of protein drugs into cancer cells and their subcellular targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Å Urga, Simon; Nanut, Milica Perišić; Kos, Janko; Sabotič, Jerica

    2017-04-18

    Lectins have been recognized as promising carrier molecules for targeted drug delivery. They specifically bind carbohydrate moieties on cell membranes and trigger cell internalization. Fungal lectin MpL (Macrolepiota procera lectin) does not provoke cancer cell cytotoxicity but is able to bind aminopeptidase N (CD13) and integrin α3β1, two glycoproteins that are overexpressed on the membrane of tumor cells. Upon binding, MpL is endocytosed in a clathrin-dependent manner and accumulates initially in the Golgi apparatus and, finally, in the lysosomes. For effective binding and internalization a functional binding site on the α-repeat is needed. To test the potential of MpL as a carrier for delivering protein drugs to cancer cells we constructed fusion proteins consisting of MpL and the cysteine peptidase inhibitors cystatin C and clitocypin. The fused proteins followed the same endocytic route as the unlinked MpL. Peptidase inhibitor-MpL fusions impaired both the intracellular degradation of extracellular matrix and the invasiveness of cancer cells. MpL is thus shown in vitro to be a lectin that can enable protein drugs to enter cancer cells, enhance their internalization and sort them to lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus.

  10. A new system for assessment of growth using mandibular canine calcification stages and its correlation with modified MP3 stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Gautham; Hegde, Nanditha; Kumar, Anil; Keshavaraj

    2014-07-01

    Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. A total of 160 periapical radiographs, of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian's stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine was found to be significant in both male and female groups. When the canine calcification stages were compared with the MP3 stages it was found that with the exception of the D stage of canine calcification the remaining stages showed a very high correlation with the modified MP3 stages. The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages, and the MP3 stages was found to be significant. The canine calcification could be used as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ChaMP X-ray point source catalog (Kim+, 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.; Kim, D.-W.; Wilkes, B. J.; Green, P. J.; Kim, E.; Anderson, C. S.; Barkhouse, W. A.; Evans, N. R.; Ivezic, Z.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; Lee, M. G.; Maksym, P.; Mossman, A. E.; Silverman, J. D.; Tananbaum, H. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present the Chandra Multiwavelength Project (ChaMP) X-ray point source catalog with ~6800 X-ray sources detected in 149 Chandra observations covering ~10deg2. The full ChaMP catalog sample is 7 times larger than the initial published ChaMP catalog. The exposure time of the fields in our sample ranges from 0.9 to 124ks, corresponding to a deepest X-ray flux limit of f0.5-8.0=9x10-16ergs/cm2/s. The ChaMP X-ray data have been uniformly reduced and analyzed with ChaMP-specific pipelines and then carefully validated by visual inspection. The ChaMP catalog includes X-ray photometric data in eight different energy bands as well as X-ray spectral hardness ratios and colors. To best utilize the ChaMP catalog, we also present the source reliability, detection probability, and positional uncertainty. (10 data files).

  12. OpenMP performance for benchmark 2D shallow water equations using LBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Khairul; Rabbani, Hasbi; Gunawan, Putu Harry

    2018-03-01

    Shallow water equations or commonly referred as Saint-Venant equations are used to model fluid phenomena. These equations can be solved numerically using several methods, like Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), SIMPLE-like Method, Finite Difference Method, Godunov-type Method, and Finite Volume Method. In this paper, the shallow water equation will be approximated using LBM or known as LABSWE and will be simulated in performance of parallel programming using OpenMP. To evaluate the performance between 2 and 4 threads parallel algorithm, ten various number of grids Lx and Ly are elaborated. The results show that using OpenMP platform, the computational time for solving LABSWE can be decreased. For instance using grid sizes 1000 × 500, the speedup of 2 and 4 threads is observed 93.54 s and 333.243 s respectively.

  13. 3D-mainosvideo teollisuusyritykselle : Case: Leppäkosken Lämpö

    OpenAIRE

    Utriainen, Sari

    2015-01-01

    Toimeksiantajana opinnäytetyölle toimi biolämmitysjärjestelmiä valmistava ja markkinoiva Ariterm Oy. Tavoitteena oli tuottaa messu- ja markkinointikäyttöön 3D-mainosvideo Ariterm Oy:n toimittamasta, elokuussa 2014 käyttöönotetusta Leppäkosken Lämpö Oy:n pellettilämpölaitoksesta. Opinnäytetyössä käsiteltiin 3D-mallien hyödyntämistä eri teollisuuden aloilla sekä tutustuttiin 3D-mainosvideoprojektissa käytettyihin ohjelmistoihin ja teollisuuden 3D-suunnitteluohjelmien eri tiedostomuotoihin se...

  14. A Proposal for User-defined Reductions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A; Ferrer, R; Klemm, M; de Supinski, B R; Ayguade, E

    2010-03-22

    Reductions are commonly used in parallel programs to produce a global result from partial results computed in parallel. Currently, OpenMP only supports reductions for primitive data types and a limited set of base language operators. This is a significant limitation for those applications that employ user-defined data types (e. g., objects). Implementing manual reduction algorithms makes software development more complex and error-prone. Additionally, an OpenMP runtime system cannot optimize a manual reduction algorithm in ways typically applied to reductions on primitive types. In this paper, we propose new mechanisms to allow the use of most pre-existing binary functions on user-defined data types as User-Defined Reduction (UDR) operators. Our measurements show that our UDR prototype implementation provides consistently good performance across a range of thread counts without increasing general runtime overheads.

  15. An efficient parallel algorithm for the calculation of unrestricted canonical MP2 energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jon; Wolinski, Krzysztof

    2011-11-30

    We present details of our efficient implementation of full accuracy unrestricted open-shell second-order canonical Møller-Plesset (MP2) energies, both serial and parallel. The algorithm is based on our previous restricted closed-shell MP2 code using the Saebo-Almlöf direct integral transformation. Depending on system details, UMP2 energies take from less than 1.5 to about 3.0 times as long as a closed-shell RMP2 energy on a similar system using the same algorithm. Several examples are given including timings for some large stable radicals with 90+ atoms and over 3600 basis functions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An efficient parallel algorithm for the calculation of canonical MP2 energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jon; Pulay, Peter

    2002-09-01

    We present the parallel version of a previous serial algorithm for the efficient calculation of canonical MP2 energies (Pulay, P.; Saebo, S.; Wolinski, K. Chem Phys Lett 2001, 344, 543). It is based on the Saebo-Almlöf direct-integral transformation, coupled with an efficient prescreening of the AO integrals. The parallel algorithm avoids synchronization delays by spawning a second set of slaves during the bin-sort prior to the second half-transformation. Results are presented for systems with up to 2000 basis functions. MP2 energies for molecules with 400-500 basis functions can be routinely calculated to microhartree accuracy on a small number of processors (6-8) in a matter of minutes with modern PC-based parallel computers. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 23: 1150-1156, 2002

  17. Performance Tuning of x86 OpenMP Codes with MAQAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthou, Denis; Charif Rubial, Andres; Jalby, William; Koliai, Souad; Valensi, Cédric

    Failing to find the best optimization sequence for a given application code can lead to compiler generated codes with poor performances or inappropriate code. It is necessary to analyze performances from the assembly generated code to improve over the compilation process. This paper presents a tool for the performance analysis of multithreaded codes (OpenMP programs support at the moment). MAQAO relies on static performance evaluation to identify compiler optimizations and assess performance of loops. It exploits static binary rewriting for reading and instrumenting object files or executables. Static binary instrumentation allows the insertion of probes at instruction level. Memory accesses can be captured to help tune the code, but such traces require to be compressed. MAQAO can analyze the results and provide hints for tuning the code. We show on some examples how this can help users improve their OpenMP applications.

  18. Steganography on multiple MP3 files using spread spectrum and Shamir's secret sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoeseph, N. M.; Purnomo, F. A.; Riasti, B. K.; Safiie, M. A.; Hidayat, T. N.

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of steganography is how to hide data into another media. In order to increase security of data, steganography technique is often combined with cryptography. The weakness of this combination technique is the data was centralized. Therefore, a steganography technique is develop by using combination of spread spectrum and secret sharing technique. In steganography with secret sharing, shares of data is created and hidden in several medium. Medium used to concealed shares were MP3 files. Hiding technique used was Spread Spectrum. Secret sharing scheme used was Shamir's Secret Sharing. The result showed that steganography with spread spectrum combined with Shamir's Secret Share using MP3 files as medium produce a technique that could hid data into several cover. To extract and reconstruct the data hidden in stego object, it is needed the amount of stego object which more or equal to its threshold. Furthermore, stego objects were imperceptible and robust.

  19. Ikon. iPod er kongen over mp3. Hvad er hemmeligheden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    iPod er blevet ikonet for det 21. århundrede. Men iPod var hverken den første mp3-afspiller eller den første veldesignede af slagsen. Før iPod så dagens lys var Bang & Olufsen på banen med sin næsten lige så lækre BeoSound2.......iPod er blevet ikonet for det 21. århundrede. Men iPod var hverken den første mp3-afspiller eller den første veldesignede af slagsen. Før iPod så dagens lys var Bang & Olufsen på banen med sin næsten lige så lækre BeoSound2....

  20. OpenMP Issues Arising in the Development of Parallel BLAS and LAPACK Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Addison

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense linear algebra libraries need to cope efficiently with a range of input problem sizes and shapes. Inherently this means that parallel implementations have to exploit parallelism wherever it is present. While OpenMP allows relatively fine grain parallelism to be exploited in a shared memory environment it currently lacks features to make it easy to partition computation over multiple array indices or to overlap sequential and parallel computations. The inherent flexible nature of shared memory paradigms such as OpenMP poses other difficulties when it becomes necessary to optimise performance across successive parallel library calls. Notions borrowed from distributed memory paradigms, such as explicit data distributions help address some of these problems, but the focus on data rather than work distribution appears misplaced in an SMP context.

  1. Comparing the OpenMP, MPI, and Hybrid Programming Paradigm on an SMP Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Hao-Qiang; anMey, Dieter; Hatay, Ferhat F.

    2003-01-01

    Clusters of SMP (Symmetric Multi-Processors) nodes provide support for a wide range of parallel programming paradigms. The shared address space within each node is suitable for OpenMP parallelization. Message passing can be employed within and across the nodes of a cluster. Multiple levels of parallelism can be achieved by combining message passing and OpenMP parallelization. Which programming paradigm is the best will depend on the nature of the given problem, the hardware components of the cluster, the network, and the available software. In this study we compare the performance of different implementations of the same CFD benchmark application, using the same numerical algorithm but employing different programming paradigms.

  2. Multitasking domain decomposition fast Poisson solvers on the Cray Y-MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tony F.; Fatoohi, Rod A.

    1990-01-01

    The results of multitasking implementation of a domain decomposition fast Poisson solver on eight processors of the Cray Y-MP are presented. The object of this research is to study the performance of domain decomposition methods on a Cray supercomputer and to analyze the performance of different multitasking techniques using highly parallel algorithms. Two implementations of multitasking are considered: macrotasking (parallelism at the subroutine level) and microtasking (parallelism at the do-loop level). A conventional FFT-based fast Poisson solver is also multitasked. The results of different implementations are compared and analyzed. A speedup of over 7.4 on the Cray Y-MP running in a dedicated environment is achieved for all cases.

  3. Position Paper: OpenMP scheduling on ARM big.LITTLE architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Butko , Anastasiia; Bessad , Louisa; Novo , David; Bruguier , Florent; Gamatié , Abdoulaye; Sassatelli , Gilles; Torres , Lionel; Robert , Michel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Single-ISA heterogeneous multicore systems are emerging as a promising direction to achieve a more suitable balance between performance and energy consumption. However, a proper utilization of these architectures is essential to reach the energy benefits. In this paper, we demonstrate the ineffectiveness of popular OpenMP scheduling policies executing Rodinia benchmark on the Exynos 5 Octa (5422) SoC, which integrates the ARM big.LITTLE architecture.

  4. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients: An Evaluation of Robustness of MP3 Encoded Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue

    2006-01-01

    the influence of MP3 coding for the Mel frequency cepstral coeficients (MFCCs). The main result is that the widely used subset of the MFCCs is robust at bit rates equal or higher than 128 kbits/s, for the implementations we have investigated. However, for lower bit rates, e.g., 64 kbits/s, the implementation...... of the Mel filter bank becomes an issue....

  5. Low temperature physical properties of Co-35Ni-20Cr-10Mo alloy MP35N®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Toplosky, V. J.; Goddard, R. E.; Han, K.

    2017-09-01

    Multiphase Co-35Ni-20Cr-10Mo alloy MP35N® is a high strength alloy with excellent corrosion resistance. Its applications span chemical, medical, and food processing industries. Thanks to its high modulus and high strength, it found applications in reinforcement of ultra-high field pulsed magnets. Recently, it has also been considered for reinforcement in superconducting wires used in ultra-high field superconducting magnets. For these applications, accurate measurement of its physical properties at cryogenic temperatures is very important. In this paper, physical properties including electrical resistivity, specific heat, thermal conductivity, and magnetization of as-received and aged samples are measured from 2 to 300 K. The electrical resistivity of the aged sample is slightly higher than the as-received sample, both showing a weak linear temperature dependence in the entire range of 2-300 K. The measured specific heat Cp of 430 J/kg-K at 295 K agrees with a theoretical prediction, but is significantly smaller than the values in the literature. The thermal conductivity between 2 and 300 K is in good agreement with the literature which is only available above 77 K. Magnetic property of MP35N® changes significantly with aging. The as-received sample exhibits Curie paramagnetism with a Curie constant C = 0.175 K. While the aged sample contains small amounts of a ferromagnetic phase even at room temperature. The measured MP35N® properties will be useful for the engineering design of pulsed magnets and superconducting magnets using MP35N® as reinforcement.

  6. The potential of digital dental radiography in recording the adductor sesamoid and the MP3 stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, H M

    1999-12-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of using a recent advance in clinical radiographic technique, digital dental radiography, in recording two growth indicators: the adductor sesamoid and MP3 stages. With an exposure time five times less than that used in the conventional approach, this method shows greatest flexibility in providing a high quality digitized radiographic images of the two growth indicators under investigation. Refereed Paper

  7. Analysis of the Pelletron charging chain break in the Chalk River MP tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, N.; Greiner, B.F.; Coleman, C.E.

    1980-11-01

    On February 7, 1980 one of the three Pelletron charging chains in the Low Energy end of the Chalk River MP Tandem Accelerator broke during normal operation. The chains had been in use for 38 000 h at the time of the break. Tensile tests were carried out on pieces of the broken chain as well as unused pieces of chain. Several possible reasons for the chain break are suggested; ways of improving performance and reliability are proposed. (auth)

  8. Fundamental Frequency Estimation of the Speech Signal Compressed by MP3 Algorithm Using PCC Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILIVOJEVIC, Z. N.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the fundamental frequency estimation results of the MP3 modeled speech signal are analyzed. The estimation of the fundamental frequency was performed by the Picking-Peaks algorithm with the implemented Parametric Cubic Convolution (PCC interpolation. The efficiency of PCC was tested for Catmull-Rom, Greville and Greville two-parametric kernel. Depending on MSE, a window that gives optimal results was chosen.

  9. Resource Letter MP-2: The Manhattan project and related nuclear research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2011-02-01

    This Resource Letter is a supplement to my earlier Resource Letter MP-1 and provides further sources on the Manhattan Project and related nuclear research. Books and journal articles are cited for the following topics: General works, technical works, biographical and autobiographical works, foreign wartime programs and allied intelligence, technical papers of historical interest, and postwar policy and technical developments. I also give a list of videos and websites dealing with the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons, and nuclear issues.

  10. Experiment of X-MP CRAY multitasking with vectorial Monte Carlo algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, Y.

    1984-08-01

    After a short comparison between CRAY-1S and CRAY X-MP we present the main multitasking tools available with FORTRAN. Next we present the main characteristics of the algorithm used and the principles of its parallelization. At last we show the measured results on the two computers and we prove that tasks should be long enough to get a good speed-up factor [fr

  11. Surprising performance for vibrational frequencies of the distinguishable clusters with singles and doubles (DCSD) and MP2.5 approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesharwani, Manoj K.; Sylvetsky, Nitai; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2017-11-01

    We show that the DCSD (distinguishable clusters with all singles and doubles) correlation method permits the calculation of vibrational spectra at near-CCSD(T) quality but at no more than CCSD cost, and with comparatively inexpensive analytical gradients. For systems dominated by a single reference configuration, even MP2.5 is a viable alternative, at MP3 cost. MP2.5 performance for vibrational frequencies is comparable to double hybrids such as DSD-PBEP86-D3BJ, but without resorting to empirical parameters. DCSD is also quite suitable for computing zero-point vibrational energies in computational thermochemistry.

  12. Surprising Performance for Vibrational Frequencies of the Distinguishable Clusters with Singles and Doubles (DCSD) and MP2.5 Approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Kesharwani, Manoj K.; Sylvetsky, Nitai; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2017-01-01

    We show that the DCSD (distinguishable clusters with all singles and doubles) correlation method permits the calculation of vibrational spectra at near-CCSD(T) quality but at no more than CCSD cost, and with comparatively inexpensive analytical gradients. For systems dominated by a single reference configuration, even MP2.5 is a viable alternative, at MP3 cost. MP2.5 performance for vibrational frequencies is comparable to double hybrids such as DSD-PBEP86-D3BJ, but without resorting to empir...

  13. Evaluating anorexia-related brain atrophy using MP2RAGE-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boto, Jose; Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Vargas, Maria Isabel [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Neuroradiology and Faculty of Medicine of Geneva; Gkinis, Georgios; Ortiz, Nadia [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland). Dept. of Mental Health and Psychiatry; Roche, Alexis; Kober, Tobias; Marechal, Benedicte [Siemens Healthcare HC CEMEA SUI DI BM PI, Lausanne (Switzerland). Siemens ACIT, Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology; University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland). Dept. of Radiology; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). LTS5; Lazeyras, Francois [Geneva University Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Radiology and Faculty of Medicine of Geneva

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate brain atrophy in anorexic patients by automated cerebral segmentation with the magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) MRI sequence. Twenty patients (female; mean age, 27.9 years), presenting consecutively for brain MRI between August 2014-December 2016 with clinical suspicion of anorexia nervosa and BMI<18.5 kg/m{sup 2} were included. Controls were ten healthy females (mean age, 26.5 years). Automated brain morphometry was performed based on MP2RAGE. Means of morphometric results in the two groups were compared and correlation with BMI was analysed. Significantly lower volumes of total brain, grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebellum and insula were found in anorexic patients. Anorexics had higher volumes of CSF, ventricles, lateral ventricles and third ventricle. When adjusted means for weight and height were compared, the volume of WM and cerebellum were not significantly different. However, volume of WM was significantly affected by weight and positively correlated with BMI. Significant positive correlations were found between BMI and volumes of total brain, GM, cortical GM and WM. BMI was negatively correlated with volumes of CSF and third ventricle. Brain atrophy was demonstrated in anorexic patients with MP2RAGE-based automated segmentation, which seems to reliably estimate brain volume. (orig.)

  14. Evaluating anorexia-related brain atrophy using MP2RAGE-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boto, Jose; Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Gkinis, Georgios; Ortiz, Nadia; Roche, Alexis; Kober, Tobias; Marechal, Benedicte; University Hospital; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Lazeyras, Francois

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate brain atrophy in anorexic patients by automated cerebral segmentation with the magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) MRI sequence. Twenty patients (female; mean age, 27.9 years), presenting consecutively for brain MRI between August 2014-December 2016 with clinical suspicion of anorexia nervosa and BMI<18.5 kg/m 2 were included. Controls were ten healthy females (mean age, 26.5 years). Automated brain morphometry was performed based on MP2RAGE. Means of morphometric results in the two groups were compared and correlation with BMI was analysed. Significantly lower volumes of total brain, grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebellum and insula were found in anorexic patients. Anorexics had higher volumes of CSF, ventricles, lateral ventricles and third ventricle. When adjusted means for weight and height were compared, the volume of WM and cerebellum were not significantly different. However, volume of WM was significantly affected by weight and positively correlated with BMI. Significant positive correlations were found between BMI and volumes of total brain, GM, cortical GM and WM. BMI was negatively correlated with volumes of CSF and third ventricle. Brain atrophy was demonstrated in anorexic patients with MP2RAGE-based automated segmentation, which seems to reliably estimate brain volume. (orig.)

  15. Early MIMD experience with a plasma physics simulation program on the CRAY X-MP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, C.E. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    This paper describes some early experience with converting a plasma physics simulation program to the CRAY X-MP, a current multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computer consisting of two processors with architecture similar to that of the CRAY-1. The computer program used in this study is an all Fortran version of SELF, a two species, one space, two velocity, electromagnetic, Newtonian, particle in cell, plasma simulation code. The approach to converting SELF to use both processors of the CRAY X-MP is described in some detail. The resulting multiprocessor version of SELF is nearly a factor of two faster in real time than the single processor version. The multiprocessor version obtains 58.2+-.1 seconds of central processor time in 30+-.5 seconds of real time. For comparison, the CRAY-1 execution time if 74.5 seconds. For SELF, which is mostly scalar coding, the CRAY X-MP is about 2.5 times faster overall than the CRAY-1

  16. Insight into Potential Probiotic Markers Predicted in Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 Genome Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmate Abriouel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus pentosus MP-10 is a potential probiotic lactic acid bacterium originally isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives. The entire genome sequence was annotated to in silico analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of L. pentosus MP-10 to the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT, such as carbohydrate metabolism (related with prebiotic utilization and the proteins involved in bacteria–host interactions. We predicted an arsenal of genes coding for carbohydrate-modifying enzymes to modify oligo- and polysaccharides, such as glycoside hydrolases, glycoside transferases, and isomerases, and other enzymes involved in complex carbohydrate metabolism especially starch, raffinose, and levan. These enzymes represent key indicators of the bacteria’s adaptation to the GIT environment, since they involve the metabolism and assimilation of complex carbohydrates not digested by human enzymes. We also detected key probiotic ligands (surface proteins, excreted or secreted proteins involved in the adhesion to host cells such as adhesion to mucus, epithelial cells or extracellular matrix, and plasma components; also, moonlighting proteins or multifunctional proteins were found that could be involved in adhesion to epithelial cells and/or extracellular matrix proteins and also affect host immunomodulation. In silico analysis of the genome sequence of L. pentosus MP-10 is an important initial step to screen for genes encoding for proteins that may provide probiotic features, and thus provides one new routes for screening and studying this potentially probiotic bacterium.

  17. Optimizing the magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MP-RAGE sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Wang

    Full Text Available The three-dimension (3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MP-RAGE sequence is one of the most popular sequences for structural brain imaging in clinical and research settings. The sequence captures high tissue contrast and provides high spatial resolution with whole brain coverage in a short scan time. In this paper, we first computed the optimal k-space sampling by optimizing the contrast of simulated images acquired with the MP-RAGE sequence at 3.0 Tesla using computer simulations. Because the software of our scanner has only limited settings for k-space sampling, we then determined the optimal k-space sampling for settings that can be realized on our scanner. Subsequently we optimized several major imaging parameters to maximize normal brain tissue contrasts under the optimal k-space sampling. The optimal parameters are flip angle of 12°, effective inversion time within 900 to 1100 ms, and delay time of 0 ms. In vivo experiments showed that the quality of images acquired with our optimal protocol was significantly higher than that of images obtained using recommended protocols in prior publications. The optimization of k-spacing sampling and imaging parameters significantly improved the quality and detection sensitivity of brain images acquired with MP-RAGE.

  18. Extinction memory is facilitated by methylphenidate and regulated by dopamine and noradrenaline receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Cristiane R G; Behling, Jonny A K; Zinn, Carolina G; Zanini, Mara Lise; Assis Brasil, Eduardo; Pereira, Luiza Doro; Izquierdo, Ivan; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane

    2017-05-30

    Extinction is defined as the learned inhibition of retrieval and is the mainstay of exposure therapy, which is widely used to treat drug addiction, phobias and fear disorders. The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPH) is known to increase extracellular levels of noradrenaline and dopamine by blocking their reuptake and studies have demonstrated that MPH can modulate hippocampal physiology and/or functions including long-term potentiation (LTP), learning and memory. However, the influence of MPH on fear extinction memory has been insufficiently studied. Here we investigate the effect of MPH infused into the CA1 region of the hippocampus on extinction memory in animals normally incapable of showing contextual fear conditioning (CFC) extinction because of weak training, and the possible mechanisms through which it acts during this process. For this, male Wistar rats with infusion cannulae stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region were submitted to a weak extinction protocol in a CFC apparatus. Animals that received intra-CA1 infusion of MPH (12.5μg/side) 20min before the extinction training (Ext Tr) expressed less freezing behavior than Veh-treated animals during both Ext Tr and extinction retention Test (Ext Test). Additionally, the administration of MPH+Timolol (1μg/side) or MPH+SCH23390 (1.5μg/side) intra-CA1 20min before the Ext Tr blocked the enhancing effect of the MPH on extinction learning. These results suggest that MPH in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is able to induce the consolidation of extinction memory and this process occurs through both β-adrenergic and D1/D5 dopaminergic receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Motor deficits, impaired response inhibition, and blunted response to methylphenidate following neonatal exposure to decabromodiphenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowski, Vincent P; Miller-Rhodes, Patrick; Cheung, Randy; Goeke, Calla; Pecoraro, Vincent; Cohen, Gideon; Small, Deena J

    2017-09-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) is an applied brominated flame retardant that is widely-used in electronic equipment. After decades of use, decaBDE and other members of its polybrominated diphenyl ether class have become globally-distributed environmental contaminants that can be measured in the atmosphere, water bodies, wildlife, food staples and human breastmilk. Although it has been banned in Europe and voluntarily withdrawn from the U.S. market, it is still used in Asian countries. Evidence from epidemiological and animal studies indicate that decaBDE exposure targets brain development and produces behavioral impairments. The current study examined an array of motor and learning behaviors in a C57BL6/J mouse model to determine the breadth of the developmental neurotoxicity produced by decaBDE. Mouse pups were given a single daily oral dose of 0 or 20mg/kg decaBDE from postnatal day 1 to 21 and were tested in adulthood. Exposed male mice had impaired forelimb grip strength, altered motor output in a circadian wheel-running procedure, increased response errors during an operant differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) procedure and a blunted response to an acute methylphenidate challenge administered before DRL testing. With the exception of altered wheel-running output, exposed females were not affected. Neither sex had altered somatic growth, motor coordination impairments on the Rotarod, gross learning deficits during operant lever-press acquisition, or impaired food motivation. The overall pattern of effects suggests that males are more sensitive to developmental decaBDE exposure, especially when performing behaviors that require effortful motor output or when learning tasks that require sufficient response inhibition for their successful completion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Methylphenidate increases glucose uptake in the brain of young and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Scaini, Giselli; Titus, Stephanie E; Furlanetto, Camila B; Wessler, Leticia B; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Jeremias, Gabriela C; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2015-10-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is the drug of choice for pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Studies have pointed to the role of glucose and lactate as well as in the action mechanisms of drugs used to treat these neuropsychiatric diseases. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the effects of MPH administration on lactate release and glucose uptake in the brains of young and adult rats. MPH (1.0, 2.0 and 10.0mg/kg) or saline was injected in young and adult Wistar male rats either acutely (once) or chronically (once daily for 28 days). Then, the levels of lactate release and glucose uptake were assessed in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Chronic MPH treatment increased glucose uptake at the dose of 10.0mg/kg in the prefrontal cortex and striatum, and at the dose of 2.0mg/kg in the cerebral cortex of young rats. In adult rats, an increase in glucose uptake was observed after acute administration of MPH at the dose of 10.0mg/kg in the prefrontal cortex. After chronic treatment, there was an increase in glucose uptake with MPH doses of 2.0 and 10.0mg/kg in the prefrontal cortex, and at an MPH dose of 2.0mg/kg in the striatum of adult rats. The lactate release did not change with either acute or chronic treatments in young or adult rats. These findings indicate that MPH increases glucose consumption in the brain, and that these changes are dependent on age and posology. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of methylphenidate and its enantiomers on dopamine synthesis and metabolism in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Jasmin; Palazzesi, Ferruccio; Parrinello, Michele; Hommers, Leif; Riederer, Peter; Walitza, Susanne; Grünblatt, Edna

    2017-10-03

    Methylphenidate (MPH), a psychostimulant, is an effective first-line treatment for the symptoms associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although most MPH formulations are composed of the racemic 1:1 mixture of the two enantiomers (d- and l-threo), converging lines of evidence indicate that d-threo MPH seems to be superior to the l-isomer. We aimed to investigate whether MPH racemic mixture or pure enantiomers influence the enzyme activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in vitro in homogenates of rat PC12 cells incubated with racemic, d- and l-threo MPH (1nM up to 100μM), or a vehicle for control. We could observe dose dependent enhancement of TH activity with d-threo MPH, probably due to its higher affinity to the enzyme, which we could confirm for d-threo versus l-threo MPH via docking and molecular dynamic simulations analysis. MAO-B enzyme activity was found to be enhanced when incubated with both d- and l-isomers but not with the racemic mixture. This conflicting result was hypothesized to be due to possible aggregation of the two enantiomers or other molecular conformations. Such a possible interaction was observed indirectly, when TH was incubated with constant d-threo MPH while increasing l-isomer (increasing total MPH concentrations). Hence, TH activity was slightly decreased with increased l-isomer. In conclusion, the current in vitro investigation points to the stereoselectivity of the investigated enzymes and pharmacological effects of MPH enantiomers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Methylphenidate use and poly-substance use among undergraduate students attending a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Steyn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The non-medical use of MPH by learners and students has been reported by numerous studies from abroad. The practice stems from beliefs about the benefits of MPH in achieving academic success. Little is known about the use of MPH in South African student populations. Objectives: The study set out to determine (1 the extent and dynamics associated with MPH use and (2 poly-substance use among undergraduate students attending a South African university. Methods: 818 students took part in a written, group-administered survey. Data analysis resulted in descriptive results regarding MPH use and tests of association identified differences in MPH and poly-substance use among respondents. Results: One in six respondents (17.2% has used MPH in the past, although only 2.9% have been diagnosed with ADHD. Nearly a third (31.7% of users obtained MPH products illegally. The majority (69.1% used MPH only during periods of academic stress. A significant association ( p < 0.001 was found between MPH use and the frequency of using alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, hard drugs (e.g. cocaine and prescription medication. Conclusion: MPH use among students appears similar to experiences abroad, especially in the absence of clinical diagnosis for ADHD. Institutions of higher education should inform parents and students about the health risks associated with the illicit use of MPH. Prescribers and dispensers of MPH products should pay close attention to practices of stockpiling medication and poly-substance use among students who use MPH.

  3. Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicolas; Rolland, Benjamin; Karila, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopment disorder occurring during childhood. However, ADHD persists into adulthood in 45.7% of cases. The global prevalence of adult ADHD is estimated to 5.3%, with no difference between Europe and North America. ADHD is often comorbid with substance use disorder (SUD), with Odds Ratio ranges from 1.5 to 7.9, depending on the substance and the dependence level. Conversely, the prevalence of ADHD among patients with SUD is 10.8%, versus 3.8% for patients without SUD. Methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates ADHD symptoms and, as such, is currently considered as a first choice medication. MPH blocks the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters leading to an increase in extracellular dopamine. It should be noted that its subjective effects are highly dependent on the pharmacokinetic and especially on the rate of input, which highlights the importance of choosing a sustained-release formulation. Meanwhile, prescribing MPH to patients with comorbid SUD has always been challenging for clinicians. The aim of this review is to address the benefits and pitfalls of using MPH in adults with ADHD comorbid SUD, depending on each of the following types of SUD: amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, cannabis and opiates. Overall, due to the prevalence of ADHD in SUD and to the benefits of MPH observed in this population, and considering the mild or low side effects observed, the response to MPH treatment should be evaluated individually in adults with comorbid ADHD and SUD. The choice of the formulation should favor sustained- release MPH over immediate release MPH. Cardiovascular parameters also have to be monitored during long-term use.

  4. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and interictal epileptiform discharges: it is safe to use methylphenidate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socanski, Dobrinko; Aurlien, Dag; Herigstad, Anita; Thomsen, Per Hove; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated whether interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) on a baseline routine EEG in children with ADHD was associated with the occurrence of epileptic seizures (Sz) or influenced the use of methylphenidate (MPH) during 2 years follow-up. A retrospective chart-review of 517 ADHD children with EEG revealed IED in 39 cases. These patients (IED group) were matched on age and gender with 39 patients without IED (non-IED group). We measured at baseline, 1 year and 2 years Sz occurrence, the use of MPH and antiepileptic drug (AED). At baseline, 12 patients in the IED group had active epilepsy and three of them had Sz during the last year. 36 (92.3%) patients were treated with MPH. Initial positive response to MPH was achieved in 83.3% compared with 89.2% in the non-IED group. At 1 and 2 years follow-up, three patients who also had Sz at baseline and difficult to treat epilepsy, had Sz, without changes in seizure frequency. We found no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to MPH use at 1 year and at 2 years. Ten patients from IED group, who did not have confirmed epilepsy diagnosis, temporarily used AEDs during the first year of follow-up. Despite the occurrence of IED, the use of MPH was safe during 2 years follow-up. IED predict the Sz occurrence in children with previous epilepsy, but does not necessarily suggest an increased seizure risk. A caution is warranted in order not to overestimate the significance of temporarily occurrence of IED. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Auditory Processing Assessment in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An Open Study Examining Methylphenidate Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzetta-Valdo, Bianca Pinheiro; Oliveira, Giselle Alves de; Ferreira, Jane Tagarro Correa; Palacios, Ester Miyuki Nakamura

    2017-01-01

    Introduction  Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can present Auditory Processing (AP) Disorder. Objective  The study examined the AP in ADHD children compared with non-ADHD children, and before and after 3 and 6 months of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in ADHD children. Methods  Drug-naive children diagnosed with ADHD combined subtype aging between 7 and 11 years, coming from public and private outpatient service or public and private school, and age-gender-matched non-ADHD children, participated in an open, non-randomized study from February 2013 to December 2013. They were submitted to a behavioral battery of AP tests comprising Speech with white Noise, Dichotic Digits (DD), and Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) and were compared with non-ADHD children. They were followed for 3 and 6 months of MPH treatment (0.5 mg/kg/day). Results  ADHD children presented larger number of errors in DD ( p  < 0.01), and less correct responses in the PPS ( p  < 0.0001) and in the SN ( p  < 0.05) tests when compared with non-ADHD children. The treatment with MPH, especially along 6 months, significantly decreased the mean errors in the DD ( p  < 0.01) and increased the correct response in the PPS ( p  < 0.001) and SN ( p  < 0.01) tests when compared with the performance before MPH treatment. Conclusions  ADHD children show inefficient AP in selected behavioral auditory battery suggesting impaired in auditory closure, binaural integration, and temporal ordering. Treatment with MPH gradually improved these deficiencies and completely reversed them by reaching a performance similar to non-ADHD children at 6 months of treatment.

  6. Plasma methylphenidate concentrations in youths treated with high-dose osmotic release oral system formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jonathan R; George, Robert A; Fusillo, Steven; Stern, Theodore A; Wilens, Timothy E

    2010-02-01

    Children and adolescents are being treated increasingly for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with a variety of stimulants in higher than Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved doses and in combination with other medications. We sought to determine methylphenidate (MPH) concentrations in children and adolescents treated with high-dose, extended-release osmotic release oral system (OROS) MPH plus concomitant medications, and to examine MPH concentrations with respect to the safety and tolerability of treatment. Plasma MPH concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry 4-5 hours after administration of medication in a sample of youths diagnosed with ADHD. These youths were treated naturalistically with higher than FDA-approved doses of OROS MPH in addition to their concomitant medications. Markers of safety and tolerability (e.g., measures of blood pressure and heart rate) were also examined. Among the 17 patients (with a mean age of 16.2 +/- 2 years and a mean number of concurrent medications of 2.23 +/- 0.94), the mean plasma MPH concentration was 28 +/- 9.1 ng/mL, despite a mean daily dose of OROS MPH of 169 +/- 5 mg (3.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg per day). No patient had a plasma MPH level >or=50 ng/mL or clinical signs of stimulant toxicity. No correlation was found between plasma MPH concentrations and OROS MPH dose or changes in vital signs. High-dose OROS MPH, used in combination with other medications, was not associated with either unusually elevated plasma MPH concentrations or with clinically meaningful changes in vital signs. Study limitations include a single time-point sampling of MPH concentrations, a small sample size, and a lack of outcome measures to address treatment effectiveness.

  7. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  8. Effect of OROS methylphenidate on encopresis in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Savaş; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Hergüner, Sabri

    2014-04-01

    Although encopresis shows a high rate of comorbidity in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the etiologic origin of this relationship and the effect of ADHD drugs on encopresis are unclear. In this chart review, we explored the effect of OROS long-acting methylphenidate (MPH) treatment on encopresis in children with ADHD. We also evaluated the relationship between the clinical variables of ADHD and encopresis. The sample consisted of 21 children and adolescents (20 boys and 1 girl) with encopresis and coexisting ADHD 7-15 years of age. Their clinical characteristics and baseline (visit 1) and end of the second months' (visit 2) Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) subscores were recorded. Retrospective clinician determinations were made using the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity subscale (CGI-S) for encopresis severity and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement subscale (CGI-I) for encopresis response. According to the CGI-I, 14 subjects (71.4 %) showed much or very much improvement in their encopresis at the second visit. All of the CPRS scores showed a significant reduction during the second visit. No association was found between the CGI-I score and the changes in any of the CPRS scores. Baseline oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) scores were correlated with the CGI-S score; however, no association was found between core ADHD symptom severity and the CGI-S score. With regard to the encopresis outcome, the baseline CD score was negatively correlated with the CGI-I score, and the baseline ODD score was prone to show a negative correlation with the CGI-I score. These results suggest that coexisting behavioral problems may be a vulnerability factor based on the severity of encopresis, and that MPH treatment may have a positive effect on encopresis in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  9. The association between methylphenidate treatment and the risk for fracture among young ADHD patients: A nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Chin-Hung Chen

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is associated with higher risk for fracture. Whether the medical treatment for ADHD would mitigate the risk remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of methylphenidate treatment on risk for fracture, as well the moderational role of treatment duration on the risk of fracture, in a large national sample. Cases less than 18 years old were identified from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database with a new primary diagnosis of ADHD (ICD-9:314 between 1996 and 2013. A total of 6201 cases with ADHD were included as the study cohort. The cases were divided into 3 groups according to the duration of methylphenidate treatment (0, 1-180, and more than 180 days. All groups were followed until the end of 2013 for first diagnoses of fracture (ICD-9 codes 800 to 829. Cox proportional hazards models were applied. Compared to the group without methylphenidate treatment, the risk for fracture was lower among the group treated for more than 180 days. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.77 (95% Confidence interval: 0.63-0.94. The groups treated for 180 days or fewer had no significant difference in the risk for fracture. In conclusion, methylphenidate treatment was associated with lower risk for fracture among ADHD patients. The association was evident only in the cohort treated for more than 180 days.

  10. Association of Carboxylesterase 1 Gene (CES1) Polymorphism with Weight loss in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder during Methylphenidate Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Maria; Kaalund-Jørgensen, Kristine; Rasmussen, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) show large variations in response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment, which may result from genetic factors associated with MPH metabolism. We aimed at investigating a possible link between the -75 T>G polymorphism in the 5’ untranslated...

  11. An Analysis of Patient Adherence to Treatment during a 1-Year, Open-Label Study of OROS[R] Methylphenidate in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Zimmerman, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Treatment adherence is an important aspect of ADHD symptom management, but there are many factors that may influence adherence. Method: This analysis assessed adherence to OROS methylphenidate during a 1-year, open-label study in children. Adherence was defined as the number of days medication was taken divided by the number of days in…

  12. Age-dependent effects of acute methylphenidate on amygdala reactivity in stimulant treatment-naive patients with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottelier, Marco A.; Schrantee, Anouk; Ferguson, Bart; Tamminga, Hyke G. H.; Bouziane, Cheima; Kooij, J. J. Sandra; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate whether methylphenidate (MPH) affects emotional processing and whether this effect is modulated by age. We measured amygdala reactivity with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during processing of angry and fearful facial expressions in male stimulant

  13. The age-dependent effects of a single-dose methylphenidate challenge on cerebral perfusion in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A.; Mutsaerts, H.J.M.M.; Bouziane, C.; Tamminga, H.G.H.; Bottelier, M.A.; Reneman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a stimulant drug and an effective treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in both children and adults. Pre-clinical studies suggest that the response to stimulants is dependent on age, which may reflect the ontogeny of the dopamine (DA) system, which

  14. Effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System Methylphenidate on Different Domains of Attention and Executive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nathan J.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Clarke, Angela T.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated whether components of attention and executive functioning improve when children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are treated with osmotic-release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate. Method: Thirty children (24 males, six females; mean age 8y 6mo, SD 1y 11mo; range 6y 5mo-12y 6mo) with ADHD combined…

  15. High sibling correlation on methylphenidate response but no association with DAT1-10R homozygosity in Dutch sibpairs with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Emma M; Bakker, Steven C; Pauls, David L; Oteman, Nicole; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; Pearson, Peter L; Sinke, Richard J; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A minority of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not respond favorably to methylphenidate. This has been partially associated with homozygosity for the Dopamine transporter (DAT1) 10-repeat allele and the presence of one or two Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4)

  16. High sibling correlation on methylphenidate response but no association with DAT1-10R homozygosity in Dutch sibpairs with ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, E.M. van der; Bakker, S.C.; Pauls, D.L.; Oteman, N.; Kruitwagen, C.L.J.J.; Pearson, P.L.; Sinke, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A minority of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not respond favorably to methylphenidate. This has been partially associated with homozygosity for the Dopamine transporter (DAT1) 10-repeat allele and the presence of one or two Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4)

  17. Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on the Social and Academic Behavior of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: The Moderating Role of Callous/Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether response to behavior modification with and without methylphenidate differed for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct problems (CP) depending on the presence of callous/unemotional (CU) traits. Participants were 37 children ages 7 to 12, including 19 with ADHD/CP-only and 18 with…

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Haminton, Nancy; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared with placebo for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method: This was a…

  19. OROS-methylphenidate efficacy on specific executive functioning deficits in adults with ADHD: A randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, T.I.; Bijlenga, D.; Boonstra, A. M.; Breuk, M.; Pardoen, W.F.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to impaired executive functioning (EF). This is the first study to objectively investigate the effects of a long-acting methylphenidate on neurocognitive test performance of adults with ADHD. Twenty-two adults with ADHD participated in a

  20. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of three fixed dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medori, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.S.; Niemela, A.; Trott, G.E.; Lee, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and the need to evaluate efficacy and safety of methylphenidate treatment in these patients. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, 401 adults with ADHD (218 men; 18-63 years) were randomly

  1. Immunogenicity of a recombinant Rift Valley fever MP-12-NSm deletion vaccine candidate in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, John C; Laughlin, Richard C; Lokugamage, Nandadeva; Wu, Jing; Pugh, Roberta; Kanani, Pooja; Adams, L Garry; Makino, Shinji; Peters, C J

    2013-10-09

    The safety and immunogenicity of an authentic recombinant (ar) of the live, attenuated MP-12 Rift Valley fever (RVF) vaccine virus with a large deletion of the NSm gene in the pre-Gn region of the M RNA segment (arMP-12ΔNSm21/384) was tested in 4-6 month old Bos taurus calves. Phase I of this study evaluated the neutralizing antibody response, measured by 80% plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT80), and clinical response of calves to doses of 1 × 10(1) through 1 × 10(7) plaque forming units (PFU) administered subcutaneously (s.c.). Phase II evaluated the clinical and neutralizing antibody response of calves inoculated s.c. or intramuscularly (i.m.) with 1 × 10(3), 1 × 10(4) or 1 × 10(5)PFU of arMP-12ΔNSm21/384. No significant adverse clinical events were observed in the animals in these studies. Of all specimens tested, only one vaccine viral isolate was recovered and that virus retained the introduced deletion. In the Phase I study, there was no statistically significant difference in the PRNT80 response between the dosage groups though the difference in IgG response between the 1 × 10(1)PFU group and the 1 × 10(5)PFU group was statistically significant (pPFU dose group showing the least response. The Phase II study also showed no statistically significant difference in PRNT80 response between the dosage groups though the difference in RVFV-specific IgG values was significantly increased (pPFU versus those inoculated s.c. with 1 × 10(3) or 1 × 10(5)PFU. Although the study groups were small, these data suggest that 1 × 10(4) or 1 × 10(5)PFU of arMP-12ΔNSm21/384 administered i.m. to calves will consistently stimulate a presumably protective PRNT80 response for at least 91 days post inoculation. Further studies of arMP-12ΔNSm21/384 are warranted to explore its suitability as an efficacious livestock vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of methylphenidate on body index and physical fitness in Korean children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyoung Doo; Yun, Sin Weon; Chung, Unsun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Jeong Ha; Park, In Hui; Han, Doug Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The side effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on growth remain a controversial concern. This study aimed to investigate the effect of MPH on clinical symptoms, growth, and physical fitness in Korean children. Fifty male children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treated with methylphenidate (MPH-ADHD), 69 MPH-naïve male children with ADHD (Naïve-ADHD), and 60 age-matched and sex-matched healthy control subjects were recruited. Intelligence quotient (IQ), clinical symptoms of ADHD, body index (height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]), and physical fitness (muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, agility, speed, and balance) were assessed. Total IQ and performance IQ scores were significantly different among the three groups, as were mean Korean Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (K-ARS)-total, K-ARS-inattention, and K-ARS-hyperactivity scores. There was no significant difference in height, weight, or BMI among the three groups. There were significant differences in skill-related fitness scores for balance (healthy controls > MPH-ADHD > Naïve-ADHD) and agility shuttle test time (healthy controls attention, and balance and agility measures of skill-related fitness in Korean children with ADHD. MPH was not associated with growth delays in height, weight, and BMI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Association Between 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism and Tics after Treatment with Methylphenidate in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seo Yeon; Kim, Eun Joo; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism (44-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of serotonin transporter gene) and methylphenidate (MPH) treatment response, as well as the association between the adverse events of MPH treatment and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 114 children with ADHD (mean age 9.08 ± 1.94 years) were recruited from the child psychiatric clinic in a hospital in South Korea. We have extracted the genomic DNA of the subjects from their blood lymphocytes and analyzed 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene. All children were treated with MPH for 8 weeks, with clinicians monitoring both the improvement of ADHD symptoms and the side effects. We compared the response to MPH treatment and adverse events among those with the genotype of 5-HRRLPR polymorphism. There was no significant association between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and the response to MPH treatment in children with ADHD. Subjects with the S/L+L/L genotype tended to have tics and nail biting (respectively, p tics and nail-biting as an adverse event of methylphenidate. This may aid in our understanding of the genetic contribution and genetic susceptibility of a particular allele in those ADHD patients with tics or nail biting.

  4. Solution of finite element problems using hybrid parallelization with MPI and OpenMP Solution of finite element problems using hybrid parallelization with MPI and OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Vargas-Félix

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to solve problems like solid deformation and heat diffusion in domains with complex geometries. This kind of geometries requires discretization with millions of elements; this is equivalent to solve systems of equations with sparse matrices and tens or hundreds of millions of variables. The aim is to use computer clusters to solve these systems. The solution method used is Schur substructuration. Using it is possible to divide a large system of equations into many small ones to solve them more efficiently. This method allows parallelization. MPI (Message Passing Interface is used to distribute the systems of equations to solve each one in a computer of a cluster. Each system of equations is solved using a solver implemented to use OpenMP as a local parallelization method.The Finite Element Method (FEM is used to solve problems like solid deformation and heat diffusion in domains with complex geometries. This kind of geometries requires discretization with millions of elements; this is equivalent to solve systems of equations with sparse matrices and tens or hundreds of millions of variables. The aim is to use computer clusters to solve these systems. The solution method used is Schur substructuration. Using it is possible to divide a large system of equations into many small ones to solve them more efficiently. This method allows parallelization. MPI (Message Passing Interface is used to distribute the systems of equations to solve each one in a computer of a cluster. Each system of equations is solved using a solver implemented to use OpenMP as a local parallelization method.

  5. Effects of Groundwater Dynamics on Hydrometeorological Conditions over South America: Analysis of Offline NoahMP and Fully-coupled WRF-NoahMP Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Agudelo, J. A.; Dominguez, F.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2014-12-01

    Renalysis data suggests that nearly 20% of the atmospheric moisture over the La Plata basin comes from Amazonian Evapotranspiration (ET). However, these estimates of ET are model dependent. Simulations using land-surface models (LSMs) in off-line mode (i.e. with prescribed atmospheric forcing) have shown that Amazonian ET depends on the groundwater dynamics. In this study we use the NoahMP LSM in off-line mode and the coupled system WRF-NoahMP to assess the role of groundwater on South American ET. In particular, we study the role of the groundwater in sustaining ET during the dry season in the southern Amazon and the La Plata basin. We compare simulations that do not account for the groundwater reservoir (free drainage approach) with simulations that include the Miguez-Macho and Fan parameterization to represent the groundwater storage, its lateral flow, and its interaction with the unsaturated zone. The off-line simulations show the effects associated solely with groundwater dynamics (as opposed to coupled land-atmosphere processes), while the coupled simulations provide information about the regulation and/or response from the atmosphere. Preliminary results from the coupled system suggest that the largest effects of the groundwater on ET are observed during the austral dry season. ET is larger over regions of Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina when groundwater is included, due to the existence of a relatively shallow water table over these regions, which via upward capillary fluxes reduces drainage during the rainy season and increases soil moisture availability in the dry season. These differences in the simulated ET could have an impact on the estimates of the transport of atmospheric moisture to La Plata basin.

  6. Non-medical use of methylphenidate: a review Uso não terapêutico do metilfenidato: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Freese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant medication used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. However, it has also been used for non-medical purposes, e.g. to produce euphoria, to increase self-esteem, and to achieve the so-called neurocognitive enhancement, decreasing the feeling of tiredness and increasing focus and attention. OBJECTIVE: To describe, from theoretical and contextual points of view, the potential for abuse and non-medical use of methylphenidate. METHOD: The PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords in Portuguese: metilfenidato, transtorno do déficit de atenção com hiperatividade, facilitadores dos processos cognitivos or agentes nootrópicos, and abuso de substâncias; and in English: methylphenidate, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, cognitive enhancement or nootropic agents, and substance abuse. Studies published between 1990 and 2010 were selected for review. RESULTS: Non-medical use of methylphenidate is a relevant topic that raises important ethical and scientific questions in several areas, e.g. pharmacological and neurobiological characteristics, evidence of methylphenidate use, forms of non-medical use of methylphenidate, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic application of methylphenidate. According to the review, methylphenidate can generally influence performance as a result of its stimulatory effect. Notwithstanding, evidence does not support the conclusion that it can enhance cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: Health professionals need to acquire expert knowledge and inform patients and their families on the methylphenidate potential for abuse when used with non-medical purposes.INTRODUÇÃO: O metilfenidato é um medicamento psicoestimulante usado no tratamento do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e da narcolepsia. No entanto, a droga também vem sendo utilizada com fins não terap

  7. Atomic orbital-based SOS-MP2 with tensor hypercontraction. I. GPU-based tensor construction and exploiting sparsity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chenchen; Martínez, Todd J

    2016-05-07

    We present a tensor hypercontracted (THC) scaled opposite spin second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (SOS-MP2) method. By using THC, we reduce the formal scaling of SOS-MP2 with respect to molecular size from quartic to cubic. We achieve further efficiency by exploiting sparsity in the atomic orbitals and using graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate integral construction and matrix multiplication. The practical scaling of GPU-accelerated atomic orbital-based THC-SOS-MP2 calculations is found to be N(2.6) for reference data sets of water clusters and alanine polypeptides containing up to 1600 basis functions. The errors in correlation energy with respect to density-fitting-SOS-MP2 are less than 0.5 kcal/mol for all systems tested (up to 162 atoms).

  8. Atomic orbital-based SOS-MP2 with tensor hypercontraction. I. GPU-based tensor construction and exploiting sparsity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chenchen; Martínez, Todd J. [Department of Chemistry and the PULSE Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-05-07

    We present a tensor hypercontracted (THC) scaled opposite spin second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (SOS-MP2) method. By using THC, we reduce the formal scaling of SOS-MP2 with respect to molecular size from quartic to cubic. We achieve further efficiency by exploiting sparsity in the atomic orbitals and using graphical processing units (GPUs) to accelerate integral construction and matrix multiplication. The practical scaling of GPU-accelerated atomic orbital-based THC-SOS-MP2 calculations is found to be N{sup 2.6} for reference data sets of water clusters and alanine polypeptides containing up to 1600 basis functions. The errors in correlation energy with respect to density-fitting-SOS-MP2 are less than 0.5 kcal/mol for all systems tested (up to 162 atoms).

  9. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth

  10. An Ultra-High Field Study of Cerebellar Pathology in Early Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Using MP2RAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fartaria, Mário João; OʼBrien, Kieran; Şorega, Alexandra; Bonnier, Guillaume; Roche, Alexis; Falkovskiy, Pavel; Krueger, Gunnar; Kober, Tobias; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Granziera, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to study focal cerebellar pathology in early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) using ultra-high-field magnetization-prepared 2 inversion-contrast rapid gradient-echo (7T MP2RAGE). Twenty early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients underwent an MP2RAGE acquisition at 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (images acquired at 2 different resolutions: 0.58 × 0.58 × 0.58 mm, 7T_0.58, and 0.75 × 0.75 × 0.90 mm, 7T_0.75) and 3 T MRI (1.0 × 1.0 × 1.2 mm, 3T_1.0). Total cerebellar lesion load and volume and mean cerebellar lesion volume were compared across images using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mean T1 relaxation times in lesions and normal-appearing tissue as well as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements were also compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A multivariate analysis was applied to assess the contribution of MRI metrics to clinical performance in MS patients. Both 7T_0.58 and 7T_0.75 MP2RAGE showed significantly higher lesion load compared with 3T_1.0 MP2RAGE (P < 0.001). Plaques that were judged as leukocortical in 7T_0.75 and 3T_1.0 MP2RAGEs were instead identified as WM lesions in 7T_0.58 MP2RAGE. Cortical lesion CNR was significantly higher in MP2RAGEs at 7 T than at 3 T. Total lesion load as well as total and mean lesion volume obtained at both 7 T and 3 T MP2RAGE significantly predicted attention (P < 0.05, adjusted R = 0.5), verbal fluency (P < 0.01, adjusted R = 0.6), and motor performance (P = 0.01, adjusted R = 0.7). This study demonstrates the value of 7 T MP2RAGE to study the cerebellum in early MS patients. 7T_0.58 MP2RAGE provides a more accurate anatomical description of white and gray matter pathology compared with 7T_0.75 and 3T_1.0 MP2RAGE, likely due to the improved spatial resolution, lower partial volume effects, and higher CNR.

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: binding of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 to the dopamine transporter before and after methylphenidate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; LaFougere, C.; Brinkbaeumer, K.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K.; Krause, J.; Krause, K.-H.; Kung, H.F.

    2000-01-01

    Involvement of the dopaminergic system has been suggested in patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since the symptoms can be successfully treated with methylphenidate, a potent blocker of the dopamine transporter (DAT). This study reports the findings on the status of the DAT in adults with ADHD before and after commencement of treatment with methylphenidate, as measured using [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1. Seventeen patients (seven males, ten females, aged 21-64 years, mean 38 years) were examined before and after the initiation of methylphenidate treatment (3 x 5 mg/day). All subjects were injected with 800 MBq [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 and imaged 3 h p.i. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans were acquired using a triple-headed gamma camera. For semi-quantitative evaluation of the DAT, transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate specific binding in the striatum, with the cerebellum used as background [(STR-BKG)/BKG]. Data were compared with an age-matched control group. It was found that untreated patients presented with a significantly increased specific binding of [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 to the DAT as compared with normal controls [(STR-BKG)/BKG: 1.43±0.18 vs 1.22±0.06, P<0.001]. Under treatment with methylphenidate, specific binding decreased significantly in all patients [(STR-BKG)/BKG: 1.00±0.14, P<0.001]. Our findings suggest that the number of DAT binding sites is higher in drug-naive patients suffering from ADHD than in normal controls. The decrease in available DAT binding sites under treatment with methylphenidate correlates well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. The data of this study help to elucidate the complex dysregulation of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in patients suffering from ADHD and the effect of treatment with psychoactive drugs. (orig.)

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: binding of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 to the dopamine transporter before and after methylphenidate treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, S; LaFougere, C; Brinkbaeumer, K; Hahn, K; Tatsch, K [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Munich (Germany); Krause, J; Krause, K -H [Inst. for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ottobrunn (Germany); Friedrich Baur Inst., Univ. of Munich (Germany); Kung, H F [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Pennsylvania (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Involvement of the dopaminergic system has been suggested in patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) since the symptoms can be successfully treated with methylphenidate, a potent blocker of the dopamine transporter (DAT). This study reports the findings on the status of the DAT in adults with ADHD before and after commencement of treatment with methylphenidate, as measured using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1. Seventeen patients (seven males, ten females, aged 21-64 years, mean 38 years) were examined before and after the initiation of methylphenidate treatment (3 x 5 mg/day). All subjects were injected with 800 MBq [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and imaged 3 h p.i. Single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans were acquired using a triple-headed gamma camera. For semi-quantitative evaluation of the DAT, transverse slices corrected for attenuation were used to calculate specific binding in the striatum, with the cerebellum used as background [(STR-BKG)/BKG]. Data were compared with an age-matched control group. It was found that untreated patients presented with a significantly increased specific binding of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 to the DAT as compared with normal controls [(STR-BKG)/BKG: 1.43{+-}0.18 vs 1.22{+-}0.06, P<0.001]. Under treatment with methylphenidate, specific binding decreased significantly in all patients [(STR-BKG)/BKG: 1.00{+-}0.14, P<0.001]. Our findings suggest that the number of DAT binding sites is higher in drug-naive patients suffering from ADHD than in normal controls. The decrease in available DAT binding sites under treatment with methylphenidate correlates well with the improvement in clinical symptoms. The data of this study help to elucidate the complex dysregulation of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in patients suffering from ADHD and the effect of treatment with psychoactive drugs. (orig.)

  13. Improvement by methylphenidate and atomoxetine of social interaction deficits and recognition memory impairment in a mouse model of valproic acid-induced autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Taruta, Atsuki; Katashiba, Keisuke; Hasebe, Shigeru; Takano, Erika; Onaka, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Rodents exposed prenatally to valproic acid (VPA) show autism-related behavioral abnormalities. We recently found that prenatal VPA exposure causes a reduction of dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex of male, but not female, mice. This suggests that reduced prefrontal dopaminergic activity is associated with behavioral abnormalities in VPA-treated mice. In the present study, we examined whether the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs methylphenidate and atomoxetine (which increase dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex, but not striatum, in mice) could alleviate the behavioral abnormalities and changes in dendritic spine morphology induced by prenatal VPA exposure. We found that methylphenidate and atomoxetine increased prefrontal dopamine and noradrenaline release in VPA-treated mice. Acute treatment with methylphenidate or atomoxetine did not alleviate the social interaction deficits or recognition memory impairment in VPA-treated mice, while chronic treatment for 2 weeks did. Methylphenidate or atomoxetine for 2 weeks also improved the prenatal VPA-induced decrease in dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex. The effects of these drugs on behaviors and dendritic spine morphology were antagonized by concomitant treatment with the dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist SCH39166 or the dopamine-D2 receptor antagonist raclopride, but not by the α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan. These findings suggest that chronic treatment with methylphenidate or atomoxetine improves abnormal behaviors and diminishes the reduction in spine density in VPA-treated mice via a prefrontal dopaminergic system-dependent mechanism. Autism Res 2016, 9: 926-939. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Risk analysis of inter-species reassortment through a Rift Valley fever phlebovirus MP-12 vaccine strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoai J Ly

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The causative agent, Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV, belongs to the genus Phlebovirus in the family Phenuiviridae and causes high rates of abortions in ruminants, and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or blindness in humans. Viral maintenance by mosquito vectors has led to sporadic RVF outbreaks in ruminants and humans in endemic countries, and effective vaccination of animals and humans may minimize the impact of this disease. A live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine strain is one of the best characterized RVFV strains, and was conditionally approved as a veterinary vaccine in the U.S. Live-attenuated RVF vaccines including MP-12 strain may form reassortant strains with other bunyavirus species. This study thus aimed to characterize the occurrence of genetic reassortment between the MP-12 strain and bunyavirus species closely related to RVFV. The Arumowot virus (AMTV and Gouleako goukovirus (GOLV, are transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa. The results of this study showed that GOLV does not form detectable reassortant strains with the MP-12 strain in co-infected C6/36 cells. The AMTV also did not form any reassortant strains with MP-12 strain in co-infected C6/36 cells, due to the incompatibility among N, L, and Gn/Gc proteins. A lack of reassortant formation could be due to a functional incompatibility of N and L proteins derived from heterologous species, and due to a lack of packaging via heterologous Gn/Gc proteins. The MP-12 strain did, however, randomly exchange L-, M-, and S-segments with a genetic variant strain, rMP12-GM50, in culture cells. The MP-12 strain is thus unlikely to form any reassortant strains with AMTV or GOLV in nature.

  15. Fungal lectin MpL enables entry of protein drugs into cancer cells and their subcellular targeting

    OpenAIRE

    ?urga, Simon; Nanut, Milica Peri?i?; Kos, Janko; Saboti?, Jerica

    2017-01-01

    Lectins have been recognized as promising carrier molecules for targeted drug delivery. They specifically bind carbohydrate moieties on cell membranes and trigger cell internalization. Fungal lectin MpL (Macrolepiota procera lectin) does not provoke cancer cell cytotoxicity but is able to bind aminopeptidase N (CD13) and integrin ?3?1, two glycoproteins that are overexpressed on the membrane of tumor cells. Upon binding, MpL is endocytosed in a clathrin-dependent manner and accumulates initia...

  16. The MP65 gene is required for cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Antonietta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MP65 gene of Candida albicans (orf19.1779 encodes a putative β-glucanase mannoprotein of 65 kDa, which plays a main role in a host-fungus relationship, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. In this study, we performed an extensive analysis of a mp65Δ mutant to assess the role of this protein in cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation. Results The mp65Δ mutant showed a high sensitivity to a range of cell wall-perturbing and degrading agents, especially Congo red, which induced morphological changes such as swelling, clumping and formation of hyphae. The mp65Δ mutant showed an activation of two MAPKs (Mkc1p and Cek1p, a high level of expression of two stress-related genes (DDR48 and SOD5, and a modulated expression of β-glucan epitopes, but no gross changes in cell wall polysaccharide composition. Interestingly, the mp65Δ mutant displayed a marked reduction in adhesion to BEC and Caco-2 cells and severe defects in biofilm formation when compared to the wild type. All of the mentioned properties were totally or partially recovered in a revertant strain, demonstrating the specificity of gene deletion. Conclusions We demonstrate that the MP65 gene of Candida albicans plays a significant role in maintaining cell wall integrity, as well as in adherence to epithelia and biofilm formation, which are major virulence attributes of this fungus.

  17. Running ATLAS workloads within massively parallel distributed applications using Athena Multi-Process framework (AthenaMP)

    CERN Document Server

    Calafiura, Paolo; Seuster, Rolf; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; van Gemmeren, Peter

    2015-01-01

    AthenaMP is a multi-process version of the ATLAS reconstruction, simulation and data analysis framework Athena. By leveraging Linux fork and copy-on-write, it allows for sharing of memory pages between event processors running on the same compute node with little to no change in the application code. Originally targeted to optimize the memory footprint of reconstruction jobs, AthenaMP has demonstrated that it can reduce the memory usage of certain configurations of ATLAS production jobs by a factor of 2. AthenaMP has also evolved to become the parallel event-processing core of the recently developed ATLAS infrastructure for fine-grained event processing (Event Service) which allows to run AthenaMP inside massively parallel distributed applications on hundreds of compute nodes simultaneously. We present the architecture of AthenaMP, various strategies implemented by AthenaMP for scheduling workload to worker processes (for example: Shared Event Queue and Shared Distributor of Event Tokens) and the usage of Ath...

  18. Cu2+ triggers reversible aggregation of a disordered His-rich dehydrin MpDhn12 from Musa paradisiaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Peiqiang; Feng, Dongru; Su, Jianbin; Zhang, Yang; Dai, Jinran; Jin, Honglei; Liu, Bing; He, Yanming; Qi, Kangbiao; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Jinfa

    2011-11-01

    Copper is an essential nutrient, but it is toxic in excess. Here, we cloned and characterized a His-rich low molecular weight dehydrin from Musa paradisiaca, MpDhn12. Analysis by circular dichroism (CD) spectra and a thermal stability assay showed that MpDhn12 is an intrinsically disordered protein, and immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) analysis revealed that MpDhn12 can bind Cu(2+) both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, MpDhn12 aggregated under excess Cu(2+) conditions, and the aggregation was reversible and impaired by histidine modification with diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), while the disordered structure of another dehydrin ERD14 (as a control) was not changed. Furthermore, MpDhn12 could complement the copper-sensitive phenotype of yeast mutant Δsod1. These results together suggested that MpDhn12 may take part in buffering copper levels through chelation and formation of aggregates in excess Cu(2+) conditions. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report that a dehydrin interchanged between disordered and aggregated state triggered by copper.

  19. Digital radiograph of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3) region as a tool for skeletal maturity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Deepa Y; Baliga, Sudhindra; Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Munshi, A K

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of the digital radiograph of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3) in skeletal maturity assessment. Fifty children (24 girls and 26 boys) belonging to the circumpubertal age-group were selected for the study. Two radiographs - lateral cephalogram and digital radiograph of the MP3 region - were taken in each child. Age assessment was based on the changes in shape of the cervical vertebrae and the epiphysis of the middle phalanx of the third finger of the left hand. The radiographs were assessed by three examiners. The inter- and intraexaminer variability were determined by the Wilcoxon rank sign test and the Kruskal-Wallis test and were found to be nonsignificant. Examiner 3 showed the best intraexaminer agreement and was selected to evaluate the radiographs for the entire study. The correlation determined between the MP3 stages and cervical vertebrae maturity index (CVMI) stages, the peak-wise distribution of the MP3 stages, and the correlation between the MP3 stages and the chronological age were found to be highly significant. Digital radiograph of the MP3 region is definitely a simple, reliable, cost-effective, and time-saving technique for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

  20. A study of the effectiveness of MP3 players to support family carers of people living with dementia at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Virginia; Bauer, Michael; Winbolt, Margaret; Chenco, Carol; Hanley, Francine

    2015-03-01

    Music can be therapeutic to people with dementia; however, little is known about its effect on the family carers. This project aimed to (1) assess the effects of MP3 player use by a person with dementia on caregivers' mental health and wellbeing, including their self-care and health-promoting behavior and (2) determine whether MP3 player use increases caregivers' self-reported capacity to cope with their role. A pre-post quantitative and qualitative design was used. Carers completed a survey prior to commencing and four weeks after using the player. The survey included validated measures to assess the level of stress and coping among carers. Carers also kept a diary of the way they used the MP3 player. Half of the carers were interviewed about their experiences at the end of the study. Of 59 people who started using the MP3 player, 51 carers completed the four-week study period and surveys. Use of the MP3 player significantly decreased psychological distress, significantly improved the mental health and wellbeing of carers, significantly increased caregiver self-efficacy to manage symptoms of dementia, and was reported to provide valued respite from the high level of vigilance required for caring for a person with dementia. An MP3 player loaded with music can be a low cost and relatively simple and effective additional strategy to support families caring for people with dementia in the community.