WorldWideScience

Sample records for methylmethane sulfonate mms

  1. MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that two more months could be needed to restore Gulf of Mexico oil and gas production shut in because of Hurricane Andrew, Minerals Management Service estimates. Hurricane Andrew swept west across South Florida into the gulf, then turned north and struck the Louisiana coast Aug. 25. Operators last week continued filing with MMS district offices in the New Orleans region reports of newly discovered damage to offshore oil and gas structures. By midweek, MMS listed more that 241 platforms, well satellites, and other offshore structures and 135 pipelines damaged by the storm

  2. Methylmethane-sulphonate and X-ray-induced mutations in the Chinese hamster hprt gene: mRNA phenotyping using polymerase chain reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.A.; Fox, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Alterations in the hprt gene of Chinese hamster cells were determined in 71 spontaneous, methylmethane sulphonate (MMS)-and X-ray induced mutants, using the Southern blot hybridization technique. To investigate the possibility of small deletions, MMS-induced mutants were studied with proves derived from exons 3 and 9 but no evidence of specific deletion of these two exons was found. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to phenotype hprt transcripts in 48 MMS, X-ray and spontaneous Chinese hamster mutants by amplifying the coding region of their cDNA. Among 22 MMS-induced mutants the message was present in 16 instances. An analysis of 20 X-ray-induced mutants showed the presence of hprt mRNA in 11 of them with five having low levels of transcription. Among six spontaneous mutants, four were negative for mRNA on standard Northern blots and in one the message was only detected after PCR amplification. Direct DNA sequencing of 10 mutants revealed the presence of base substitutions in five of them while a 7 bp deletion was found in another. No mutations were found in another four mutants, suggesting the presence of mutation outside the coding region. (author)

  3. Cells deficient in PARP-1 show an accelerated accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, but not AP sites, over the PARP-1-proficient cells exposed to MMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachkowski, Brian F. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tano, Keizo [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori (Japan); Afonin, Valeriy [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Elder, Rhoderick H. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Greater Manchester (United Kingdom); Takeda, Shunichi [Department of Radiation Genetics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Watanabe, Masami [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori (Japan); Swenberg, James A. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Nakamura, Jun, E-mail: ynakamur@email.unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells remains unclear partly due to lack of accurate quantitation of BER intermediates existing in cells. Since DT40 cells, chicken B lymphocytes, naturally lack PARP-2, DT40 cells allow for the investigation of the PARP-1 null phenotype without confounding by PARP-2. To test the hypothesis that PARP-1 is necessary for efficient BER during methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) exposure in vertebrate cells, intact DT40 cells and their isogenic PARP-1 null counterparts were challenged with different exposure scenarios for phenotypic characterization. With chronic exposure, PARP-1 null cells exhibited sensitivity to MMS but with an acute exposure did not accumulate base lesions or AP sites to a greater extent than wild-type cells. However, an increase in SSB content in PARP-1 null cell DNA, as indicated by glyoxal gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions, suggested the presence of BER intermediates. These data suggest that during exposure, PARP-1 impacts the stage of BER after excision of the deoxyribosephosphate moiety from the 5' end of DNA strand breaks by polymerase {beta}.

  4. Cells deficient in PARP-1 show an accelerated accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, but not AP sites, over the PARP-1-proficient cells exposed to MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachkowski, Brian F; Tano, Keizo; Afonin, Valeriy; Elder, Rhoderick H; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells remains unclear partly due to lack of accurate quantitation of BER intermediates existing in cells. Since DT40 cells, chicken B lymphocytes, naturally lack PARP-2, DT40 cells allow for the investigation of the PARP-1 null phenotype without confounding by PARP-2. To test the hypothesis that PARP-1 is necessary for efficient BER during methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) exposure in vertebrate cells, intact DT40 cells and their isogenic PARP-1 null counterparts were challenged with different exposure scenarios for phenotypic characterization. With chronic exposure, PARP-1 null cells exhibited sensitivity to MMS but with an acute exposure did not accumulate base lesions or AP sites to a greater extent than wild-type cells. However, an increase in SSB content in PARP-1 null cell DNA, as indicated by glyoxal gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions, suggested the presence of BER intermediates. These data suggest that during exposure, PARP-1 impacts the stage of BER after excision of the deoxyribosephosphate moiety from the 5' end of DNA strand breaks by polymerase beta.

  5. Commissioning MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Paul; Gramling, Cheryl; Stone, John; Smith, Patrick; Reiter, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses commissioning of NASAs Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission. The mission includes four identical spacecraft with a large, complex set of instrumentation. The planning for and execution of commissioning for this mission is described. The paper concludes by discussing lessons learned.

  6. Composite plasma polymerized sulfonated polystyrene membrane for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Khan, Aziz; Chutia, Joyanti, E-mail: jchutiaiasst@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) is used as the sulfonating agent. • The proton conductivity of the membrane is found to be 0.141 S cm{sup −1}. • Power density of fuel cell with styrene/MMS membrane is 0.5 W cm{sup −2}. • The membrane exhibits thermal stability up to 140 °C. - Abstract: This work presents the introduction of an organic compound methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for the first time in fabrication of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane (PEM) by plasma polymerization process. The membrane is fabricated by co-polymerizing styrene and MMS in capacitively coupled continuous RF plasma. The chemical composition of the plasma polymerized polymer membrane is investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which reveals the formation of composite structure of styrene and MMS. The surface morphology studied using AFM and SEM depicts the effect of higher partial pressure of MMS on surface topography of the membrane. The proton transport property of the membrane studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the achievement of maximum proton conductivity of 0.141 S cm{sup −1} which is comparable to Nafion 117 membrane. Fuel cell performance test of the synthesized membrane shows a maximum power density of 500 mW cm{sup −2} and current density of 0.62 A cm{sup −2} at 0.6 V.

  7. A/α-specific effect of the mms3 mutation on ultraviolet mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Prakash, L.; Prakash, S.

    1981-01-01

    A new gene involved in error-prone repair of ultraviolet (uv) damage has been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the mms3-1 mutation. Uv-induced reversion is reduced in diploids that are homozygous for mms3-1, only if they are also heterozygous (MATa/MATα) at the mating type locus. The mms3-1 mutation has no effect on uv-induced reversion either in haploids or MATa/MATα or MATα/MATα diploids. The mutation confers sensitivity to uv and methyl methane sulfonate in both haploids and diploids. Even though mutation induction by uv is restored to wild-type levels in MATa/MATa mms3-1/mms3-1 or MATα/MATα mms3-1/mms3-1 diploids, such strains still retain sensitivity to the lethal effects of uv. Survival after uv irradiation in mms3-1 rad double mutant combinations indicates that mms3-1 is epistatic to rad6-1 whereas non-epistatic interactions are observed with rad3 and rad52 mutants. When present in the homozygous state in MATa/MATα his1-1/his1-315 heteroallelic diploids, mms3-1 was found to lower uv-induced mitotic recombination

  8. Analytical methodology for sulfonated lignins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brudin, S.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need to characterize and classify lignins and sulfonated lignins. Lignins have so far received a good deal of attention, whereas this is not true for sulfonated lignins. There is a clear demand for a better understanding of sulfonated lignins on a chemical as well as physical

  9. CAMEX-3 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) dataset consists of atmospheric parameters measured by the MMS instruments aboard NASA DC-8 aircraft. The MMS...

  10. Lethal and mutagenic properties of MMS-generated DNA lesions in Escherichia coli cells deficient in BER and AlkB-directed DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Anna; Mielecki, Damian; Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Wrzesinski, Michal; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta

    2010-03-01

    Methylmethane sulphonate (MMS), an S(N)2-type alkylating agent, generates DNA methylated bases exhibiting cytotoxic and mutagenic properties. Such damaged bases can be removed by a system of base excision repair (BER) and by oxidative DNA demethylation catalysed by AlkB protein. Here, we have shown that the lack of the BER system and functional AlkB dioxygenase results in (i) increased sensitivity to MMS, (ii) elevated level of spontaneous and MMS-induced mutations (measured by argE3 --> Arg(+) reversion) and (iii) induction of the SOS response shown by visualization of filamentous growth of bacteria. In the xth nth nfo strain additionally mutated in alkB gene, all these effects were extreme and led to 'error catastrophe', resulting from the presence of unrepaired apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and 1-methyladenine (1meA)/3-methylcytosine (3meC) lesions caused by deficiency in, respectively, BER and AlkB dioxygenase. The decreased level of MMS-induced Arg(+) revertants in the strains deficient in polymerase V (PolV) (bearing the deletion of the umuDC operon), and the increased frequency of these revertants in bacteria overproducing PolV (harbouring the pRW134 plasmid) indicate the involvement of PolV in the error-prone repair of 1meA/3meC and AP sites. Comparison of the sensitivity to MMS and the induction of Arg(+) revertants in the double nfo alkB and xth alkB, and the quadruple xth nth nfo alkB mutants showed that the more AP sites there are in DNA, the stronger the effect of the lack of AlkB protein. Since the sum of MMS-induced Arg(+) revertants in xth, nfo and nth xth nfo and alkB mutants is smaller than the frequency of these revertants in the BER(-) alkB(-) strain, we consider two possibilities: (i) the presence of AP sites in DNA results in relaxation of its structure that facilitates methylation and (ii) additional AP sites are formed in the BER(-) alkB(-) mutants.

  11. Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing pyridine moiety for PEMFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hohyoun; Islam, Md Monirul; Lim, Youngdon; Hossain, Md Awlad; Cho, Younggil; Joo, Hyunho; Kim, Whangi; Jeon, Heung-Seok

    2014-10-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s with varied degree of sulfonation (DS) were prepared via post-sulfonation of synthesized pyridine based poly(ether sulfone) (PPES) using concentrated sulfuric acid as sulfonating agent. The DS was varied with different mole ratio of 4,4'-(2,2-diphenylethenylidene)diphenol, DHTPE in the polymer unit. PPES copolymers were synthesized by direct polycondensation of pyridine unit with bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-sulfone, 4, 4'-sulfonyldiphenol and DHTPE. The structure of the resulting PPES copolymer membranes with different sulfonated units were studied by 1H NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymer with water. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity were evaluated according to the increase of DS. The water uptake (WU) of the resulting membranes was in the range of 17-58%, compared to that of Nafion 211 28%. The membranes provided proton conductivities of 65-95 mS/cm in contrast to 103 mS/cm of Nafion 211.

  12. MMS 1001 inhibits melanin synthesis via ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-E; Song, Jiho; Kim, Su Yeon; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2013-03-01

    Melanin plays major a role in pigmentation of hair, eyes, and skin in mammals. In this study, the inhibitory effects of MMS 1001 on alpha-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis were investigated in B16F10 melanoma cells. MMS 1001 did not show cytotoxic effects up to 10 microM. Melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity were inhibited by MMS 1001 treatment in a dose-dependent manner. In Western blot analysis, MITF expression was decreased by MMS 1001. In addition, tyrosinase expressions were also reduced after MMS 1001 treatment. Further results showed that the phosphorylation of ERK was induced by MMS 1001. Moreover, a specific MEK inhibitor, PD98059, abrogated the inhibitory effects of MMS 1001 on melanin production and tyrosinase expression. These results indicate that the hypopigmentary effects of MMS 1001 resulted from the inhibition of MITF and tyrosinase expression via phosphorylation of ERK. Thus, MMS 1001 could be developed as a new effective skin-whitening agent.

  13. Preparation and characterization of proton exchange poly (ether sulfone)s membranes grafted propane sulfonic acid on pendant phenyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Youngdon; Seo, Dongwan; Hossain, Md. Awlad; Lee, Soonho; Lim, Jinseong; Jang, Hohyoun; Hong, Taehoon; Kim,; Kim, Whangi

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (PHP) was prepared by 1,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylbenzene, 4,4-hydroxyphenylsulfone, and 4,4-fluorophenylsulfone, followed bromination on phenyl groups to produce brominated PHP (Br-PHP). Grafted sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing hexaphenyl (GSPHP) were prepared from Br-PHP and 3-bromopropane sulfonic acid with potassium salt and copper powder. The salt form was converted to free acid using 1 M sulfuric acid solution. All these membranes were cast from dimethylacetamide (DMAc). The structural properties of the synthesized polymers were investigated by 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied with regard to ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, Fenton test, and proton conductivity. These grafted polymer membranes were compared with normal sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s and Nafion

  14. CAMEX-4 DC-8 METEOROLOGICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEM (MMS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) was collected by the MMS, which consists of three major systems: an air-motion sensing system to measure air...

  15. 30 CFR 285.201 - How will MMS issue leases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS issue leases? 285.201 Section 285... Energy Leases General Lease Information § 285.201 How will MMS issue leases? The MMS will issue leases on... noncompetitively, as provided under §§ 285.230 and 285.232. We will issue leases on forms approved by MMS and will...

  16. Commissioning MMS: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Paul; Gramling, Cheryl; Reiter, Jennifer; Smith, Patrick; Stone, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses commissioning of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission. The mission includes four identical spacecraft with a large, complex set of instrumentation. The planning for and execution of commissioning for this mission is described. The paper concludes by discussing lessons learned.

  17. Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    The MMS mission was launched on March 13, 2015 aboard an Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 40, Cape Canaveral, Florida Each of the four observatories were successfully released at five minute intervals spinning at 3 rpm approximately 1.5 hours after launch.

  18. Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) System Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Conrad; Maher, Francis Alfred; Henely, Sean Philip; Rand, David

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is an ambitious NASA space science mission in which 4 spacecraft are flown in tight formation about a highly elliptical orbit. Each spacecraft has multiple instruments that measure particle and field compositions in the Earths magnetosphere. By controlling the members relative motion, MMS can distinguish temporal and spatial fluctuations in a way that a single spacecraft cannot.To achieve this control, 2 sets of four maneuvers, distributed evenly across the spacecraft must be performed approximately every 14 days. Performing a single maneuver on an individual spacecraft is usually labor intensive and the complexity becomes clearly increases with four. As a result, the MMS flight dynamics team turned to the System Manager to put the routine or error-prone under machine control freeing the analysts for activities that require human judgment.The System Manager is an expert system that is capable of handling operations activities associated with performing MMS maneuvers. As an expert system, it can work off a known schedule, launching jobs based on a one-time occurrence or on a set reoccurring schedule. It is also able to detect situational changes and use event-driven programming to change schedules, adapt activities, or call for help.

  19. Sulfonated polyphenyl ether by electropolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Hongying; Vacandio, Florence; Di Vona, Maria Luisa; Knauth, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sulfonated polyphenyl ether was for the first time electropolymerized. ► This technique allows the economical preparation of ionomeric membranes for electrochemical energy technologies. ► The mechanism of electropolymerization was discussed in detail. - Abstract: Electropolymerization of sulfonated phenol was for the first time achieved and studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry on stainless steel substrates. The obtained sulfonated polyphenyl ether was characterized in terms of impedance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Dense films of micrometer thickness can be obtained; the proton conductivity is about 3 mS/cm at room temperature.

  20. Side-chain sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s for PEM applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Haack, J.; Butwilowski, W.; Quetschke, A.; Vogel, C. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s from bis-(4-fluoro phenyl)sulfone (DFDPhS), bis(4-trimethylsiloxy phenyl)sulfone (DHDPhS), and 2,5-diphenylhydroquinone trimethylsilylether (Bis-TMS-DPhHQ) were obtained by nucleophilic displacement polycondensation with high molecular weights (M{sub n} up to 70,000 g/mol; {eta}{sub inh} up to 0.93 dl/g) and narrow molecular weight distributions (2.1 - 2.9). All copolymers showed a single glass-transition temperature (T{sub g}) around 230 C. Upon sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid, the T{sub g}s (from samples in the protonated form) were shifted to higher temperatures (+ 35 {+-} 5 C). NMR spectra and the determined ion-exchange capacities (IEC; 1.46 - 2.05 mmol/g), which were close to the theoretical values, indicating that only the pendant phenyl rings of the 2,5- diphenylhydroquinone moieties in the polymer backbone were sulfonated. Membranes prepared from N-methyl- 2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solutions were transparent and soft. The water-uptake at room temperature increased from 30% to 80% with increasing IEC. Samples from random copolymers with an IEC {>=} 1.8 mmol/g were soluble in water at 90 C. While the proton conductivity of the low IEC samples (random copolymer) (1.46 mmol/g) was lower than that of Nafion {sup registered}, the conductivities of the high IEC samples were superior to Nafion {sup registered}. In general membranes from blockcopolymers showed lower water-uptake, higher dimensional stability and higher proton conductivities as compared to samples from random copolymers with similar monomer composition and ion-exchange capacities. (orig.)

  1. 30 CFR 253.40 - What OSFR evidence must I submit to MMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What OSFR evidence must I submit to MMS? 253.40... § 253.40 What OSFR evidence must I submit to MMS? (a) You must submit to MMS: (1) A single demonstration... unaltered Form MMS-1016; (3) MMS forms that identify your COFs (Form MMS-1021, Form MMS-1022), and the...

  2. Cloning of the DNA Repair Gene, Uvsf, by Transformation of Aspergillus Nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    Oza, K.; Kafer, E.

    1990-01-01

    As a first step in the cloning of the DNA repair gene uvsF of Aspergillus nidulans, uvsF pyrG double mutant strains were transformed with a genomic library which carried the complementing Neurospora pyr-4 gene in the vector. Rare pyr(+) uvs(+) cotransformants were obtained on media lacking pyrimidines, overlayed with MMS (methyl-methane sulfonate) to which uvsF is hypersensitive. Among MMS-resistant transformants, Southerns revealed two types which showed single bands of different sizes when ...

  3. A durable alternative for proton-exchange membranes: sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Jinhuan [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Song, Min-Kyu; Liu, Meilin [Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Yi, Baolian; Zhang, Huamin [Lab of PEMFC Key Materials and Technologies, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Liaoning, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-03-18

    To develop a durable proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for fuel-cell applications, a series of sulfonated poly(benzoxazole thioether sulfone)s (SPTESBOs) are designed and synthesized, with anticipated good dimensional stability (via acid-base cross linking), improved oxidative stability against free radicals (via incorporation of thioether groups), and enhanced inherent stability (via elimination of unstable end groups) of the backbone. The structures and the degree of sulfonation of the copolymers are characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The electrochemical stabilities of the monomers are examined using cyclic voltammetry in a typical three-electrode cell configuration. The physicochemical properties of the membranes vital to fuel-cell performance are also carefully evaluated under conditions relevant to fuel-cell operation, including chemical and thermal stability, proton conductivity, solubility in different solvents, water uptake, and swelling ratio. The new membranes exhibit low dimensional change at 25 C to 90 C and excellent thermal stability up to 250 C. Upon elimination of unstable end groups, the co-polymers display enhanced chemical resistance and oxidative stability in Fenton's test. Further, the SPTESBO-HFB-60 (HFB-60=hexafluorobenzene, 60 mol% sulfone) membrane displays comparable fuel-cell performance to that of an NRE 212 membrane at 80 C under fully humidified condition, suggesting that the new membranes have the potential to be more durable but less expensive for fuel-cell applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s for fuel cell proton exchange membrane application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M.; Jang, H.H.; Lim, Y.D.; Seo, D.W.; Kim, W.G. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.H.; Hong, Y.T. [Energy Material Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.M. [Material Engineering and Science, Hongik Univ, Jochiwon-eup, Yeongi-gun, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (SPPA-PES) with various degrees of sulfonation (DS) were prepared by post-sulfonation of synthesized phenolphthalein anilide (PPA; N-phenyl-3,3'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-isobenzopyrolidone) poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (PPA-PES) by using concentrated sulfuric acid. PPA-PES copolymers were synthesized by direct polycondensation of PPA with bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-sulfone and 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol. The DS was varied with different mole ratios of PPA (24, 30, 40, 50 mol.%) in the polymer. The structure of the resulting SPPA-PES copolymers and the different contents of the sulfonated unit were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymer with water. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity of SPPA-PES were evaluated according to the increase of DS. The water uptake (WU) of the resulting SPPA-PES membranes was in the range of 20-72%, compared with 28% for Nafion 211 registered. The SPPA-PES membranes showed proton conductivities of 23-82 mS cm{sup -1}, compared with 194 mS cm{sup -1} for Nafion 211 registered, under 100% relative humidity (RH) at 80 C. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Preparation and characterization of sulfonated amine-poly(ether sulfone)s for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Wan; Lim, Young-Don; Lee, Soon-Ho; Jeong, Young-Gi; Kim, Whan-Gi [Department of Applied Chemistry/RIC-ReSEM, Konkuk University, Chungju-si, Chungbuk 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Tae-Whan [Department of Materials Sci and Engineering/RIC-ReSEM, Chungju National University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Sulfonated amine-poly(ether sulfone)s (S-APES)s were prepared by nitration, reduction and sulfonation of poly(ether sulfone) (ultrason {sup registered} -S6010). Poly(ether sulfone) was reacted with ammonium nitrate and trifluoroacetic anhydride to produce the nitrated poly(ether sulfone), and was followed by reduction using tin(II)chloride and sodium iodide as reducing agents to give the amino-poly(ether sulfone). The S-APES was obtained by reaction of 1,3-propanesultone and the amino-poly(ether sulfone) (NH{sub 2}-PES) with sodium methoxide. The different degrees of nitration and reduction of poly(ether sulfone) were successfully synthesized by an optimized process. The reduction of nitro group to amino was done quantitatively, and this controlled the contents of the sulfonic acid group. The films were converted from salt to acid forms with dilute hydrochloric acid. Different contents of sulfonated unit of the S-APES were studied by FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymers with water and methanol. The ion exchange capacity (IEC), a measure of proton conductivity, was evaluated. The S-APES membranes exhibit conductivities (25 C) from 1.05 x 10{sup -3} to 4.83 x 10{sup -3} S/cm, water swell from 30.25 to 66.50%, IEC from 0.38 to 0.82 meq/g, and methanol diffusion coefficients from 3.10 x 10{sup -7} to 4.82 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/S at 25 C. (author)

  6. Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Jimmy W [Knoxville, TN; Gido, Samuel P [Hadley, MA; Huang, Tianzi [Knoxville, TN; Hong, Kunlun [Knoxville, TN

    2009-11-17

    Copolymers of fluorinated polydienes and sulfonated polystyrene and their use in fuel cell membranes, batteries, breathable chemical-biological protective materials, and templates for sol-gel polymerization.

  7. Properties of polypyrrole doped with alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2001-01-01

    -standing 10 mu m thick film is prepared electrochemically at a constant current from an aqueous solution of pyrrole and sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate. The mechanical properties of the film (tensile strength and Young's modulus) and the reversible linear elongation between the oxidised and reduced states...... are measured. Alkylbenzene sulfonates with alkyl chain lengths between 1 and 22 carbon atoms are used as dopant anion. The films made with the different anions have highly different properties and are here compared to outline the influence of the size of the anion. A maximum in linear elongation is found for p......-(n-octyl)benzene sulfonate and in conductivity for p-(n-butyl)benzene sulfonate....

  8. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What relief will MMS grant? 203.53 Section 203.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE...-Life Leases § 203.53 What relief will MMS grant? (a) If we approve your application and you meet...

  9. MMS Observatory TV Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn; Brieda, Lubos; Errigo, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. In this paper, we report on the extensive thermal vacuum testing campaign. The testing was performed at the Naval Research Laboratory utilizing the "Big Blue" vacuum chamber. A total of ten thermal vacuum tests were performed, including two chamber certifications, three dry runs, and five tests of the individual MMS observatories. During the test, the observatories were enclosed in a thermal enclosure known as the "hamster cage". The enclosure allowed for a detailed thermal control of various observatory zone, but at the same time, imposed additional contamination and system performance requirements. The environment inside the enclosure and the vacuum chamber was actively monitored by several QCMs, RGA, and up to 18 ion gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, which was followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV campaign included slow pump downs with a partial represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with ion gauges. Selected data from these TV tests is presented along with lessons learned.

  10. Treating shale oil to obtain sulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, H

    1921-01-21

    The process shows as its principal characteristics: (1) treating the oil with chlorsulfonic acid at a temperature of about 100/sup 0/C; (2) the transformation of the sulfonic acid obtained into salts; (3) as new industrial products, the sulfonates obtained and their industrial application as disinfectants for hides and wood.

  11. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  12. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  13. Wave Telescope Technique for MMS Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Y.; Plaschke, F.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjojann, W.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Voros, Z.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Multipoint measurements are a powerful method in studying wavefields in space plasmas.The wave telescope technique is tested against magnetic field fluctuations in the terrestrial magnetosheath measured by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft on a spatial scale of about 20 km.The dispersion relation diagram and the wave vector distribution are determined for the first time in the ion-kinetic range. Moreover, the dispersion relation diagram is determined in a proxy plasma restframe by regarding the low-frequency dispersion relation as a Doppler relation and compensating for the apparent phase velocity. Fluctuations are highly compressible, and the wave vectors have an angle of about 60 from the mean magnetic field. We interpret that the measured fluctuations represent akinetic-drift mirror mode in the magnetosheath which is dispersive and in a turbulent state accompanied by a sideband formation.

  14. MMS two-phase nonequilibrium pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.J.; Sursock, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The pressurizer of a nuclear steam supply system establishes and maintains the nuclear plant primary loop pressure within the prescribed limit. It is a vertical cylindrical vessel which provides a water reserve and a steam surge chamber to accommodate coolant density changes during operation. To adjust the pressure to a desired value, electric heaters are provided in its lower section and the spray nozzles are provided in its upper section. Also, to protect against the buildup of the excess pressure, the pressurizer has two different types of relief valves, i.e., power operated relief valve and the safety relief valve. The pressurizer model implemented to the MMS is described in detail. In particular, the handling of the nonequilibrium condition, surgeline CCFL (Counter-current Flooding Limitation), and the level tracking model are described in detail. Next, the simulation of the Shippingport pressurizer load drop test is reported

  15. Diffusion Region's Structure at the Subsolar Magnetopause with MMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, G.; Retino, A.; Califano, F.; Alexandrova, A.; Catapano, F.; Fu, H.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Vaivads, A.; Ahmadi, N.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Breuillard, H.; Mirioni, L.; Ergun, R.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Nakamura, R.; Moore, T. E.; Fuselier, S. A.; Mauk, B.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection occurs in the magnetosphere in thin current sheets, where a change in the magneticfield topology leads to rapid conversion of magnetic energy into ion and electron energy. To allow for magneticfield reconfiguration, both ions and electrons have to become demagnetized in the ion and electron diffusionregions, respectively. MMS spacecraft observations at inter-spacecraft separation ˜ 10 km (correspondingto ˜ 5 d_e at the magnetopause) allow, for the first time, to make multi-point studies of the structure of theelectron diffusion region (EDR). We present MMS observations on January,27th 2017 of one magnetopausecrossing close to the subsolar point showing several signatures consistent with an EDR encounter nearbya magnetic field minimum. The proximity to the reconnection site is further substantiated by the FirstOrder Taylor Expansion (FOTE) method applied to the magnetic field data. Observations suggest that allspacecraft passed through the EDR. Despite of the small inter-spacecraft separation (7 km), the observationsshow important differences among spacecraft. We focus on the comparison between MMS3 and MMS4 sincethey show the most striking differences. MMS3 measures a stronger parallel electron heating and highercurrent densities than MMS4. Both satellites observe crescent-shaped electron distribution functions on themagnetospheric side but MMS4 observes them over a longer time interval. These observations suggest thatMMS3 is passing closer to the reconnection site than MMS4. The differences between the observations by thetwo spacecraft indicate that the EDR is rather structured over scales of a few electron inertial lengths. Wealso evaluate the Generalized Ohm's law and find that the electric field is mainly balanced by the divergenceof the electron pressure tensor while the electron inertia term is negligible.

  16. 30 CFR 285.102 - What are MMS's responsibilities under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are MMS's responsibilities under this part... Provisions § 285.102 What are MMS's responsibilities under this part? (a) The MMS will ensure that any..., monitoring, and enforcement of activities authorized by a lease or grant under this part. (b) The MMS will...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1400 - How does MMS begin the civil penalty process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS begin the civil penalty process...) Civil Penalties § 250.1400 How does MMS begin the civil penalty process? This subpart explains MMS's... other minerals operations in the OCS has a violation. Whenever MMS determines, on the basis of available...

  18. 25 CFR 212.6 - Authority and responsibility of the Minerals Management Service (MMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Service (MMS). 212.6 Section 212.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND... the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The functions of the MMS for reporting, accounting, and... satisfactorily addressing the functions governed by MMS regulations, the Secretary may approve alternate...

  19. 25 CFR 211.6 - Authority and responsibility of the Minerals Management Service (MMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Service (MMS). 211.6 Section 211.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND... the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The functions of the MMS for reporting, accounting, and... satisfactorily addressing the functions governed by MMS regulations, the Secretary may approve alternate...

  20. 25 CFR 225.6 - Authority and responsibility of the Minerals Management Service (MMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Service (MMS). 225.6 Section 225.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND... responsibility of the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The functions of the MMS for reporting, accounting, and... satisfactorily addressing the issues or functions governed by the MMS regulations relating to valuation of...

  1. 30 CFR 253.50 - How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR... can MMS refuse or invalidate my OSFR evidence? (a) If MMS determines that any OSFR evidence you submit... acceptable evidence without being subject to civil penalty under § 253.51. (b) MMS may immediately and...

  2. 30 CFR 250.133 - Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related... Inspection of Operations § 250.133 Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections? Upon request, MMS will reimburse you for food, quarters, and transportation that you provide for MMS representatives...

  3. 30 CFR 250.191 - How does MMS conduct incident investigations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS conduct incident investigations... Reporting Requirements § 250.191 How does MMS conduct incident investigations? Any investigation that MMS... meetings conducted by a chairperson appointed by MMS. The following requirements apply to any panel...

  4. 30 CFR 291.110 - Who may MMS require to produce information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may MMS require to produce information? 291... § 291.110 Who may MMS require to produce information? (a) MMS may require any lessee, operator of a lease or unit, shipper, grantee, or transporter to provide information that MMS believes is necessary to...

  5. 30 CFR 204.211 - When may MMS rescind relief for a property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS rescind relief for a property? 204... MMS rescind relief for a property? (a) MMS may retroactively rescind the relief for your property if MMS determines that your property was not eligible for the relief obtained under this subpart because...

  6. 30 CFR 227.108 - How will MMS notify a State of its decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS notify a State of its decision... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Delegation Process § 227.108 How will MMS notify a State of its decision? MMS will notify you in writing of its decision on your delegation proposal. If MMS...

  7. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels, coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT levels and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  8. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Igor; Lindh, Jonas; Hong, Jaan; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2018-03-07

    Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  9. Antimalarial effects of vinyl sulfone cysteine proteinase inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, P J; Olson, J E; Lee, G K; Palmer, J T; Klaus, J L; Rasnick, D

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the antimalarial effects of vinyl sulfone cysteine proteinase inhibitors. A number of vinyl sulfones strongly inhibited falcipain, a Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteinase that is a critical hemoglobinase. In studies of cultured parasites, nanomolar concentrations of three vinyl sulfones inhibited parasite hemoglobin degradation, metabolic activity, and development. The antimalarial effects correlated with the inhibition of falcipain. Our results suggest that vinyl sulfones or...

  10. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s: Towards applications as EUV photoresists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, Kirsten; Blakey, Idriss; Blinco, James; Gronheid, Roel; Jack, Kevin; Pollentier, Ivan; Leeson, Michael J.; Younkin, Todd R.; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    Poly(olefin sulfone)s, formed by the reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and an olefin, are known to be highly susceptible to degradation by radiation and thus have been identified as candidate materials for chain scission-based extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) resist materials. In order to investigate this further, the synthesis and characterisation of two poly(olefin sulfone)s namely poly(1-pentene sulfone) (PPS) and poly(2-methyl-1-pentene sulfone) (PMPS), was achieved and the two materials were evaluated for possible chain scission EUVL resist applications. It was found that both materials possess high sensitivities to EUV photons; however; the rates of outgassing were extremely high. The only observed degradation products were found to be SO 2 and the respective olefin suggesting that depolymerisation takes place under irradiation in a vacuum environment. In addition to depolymerisation, a concurrent conversion of SO 2 moieties to a sulfide phase was observed using XPS.

  11. 30 CFR 218.560 - How do I submit Form MMS-4444?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit Form MMS-4444? 218.560 Section... Correspondence § 218.560 How do I submit Form MMS-4444? A copy of Form MMS-4444 and instructions may be obtained from MMS. It will also be posted on the MMS Web site. Submit the completed, signed form to the address...

  12. ANO-2 turbine trip transient test analysis using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, P.K.; Divakaruni, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    The data from the turbine trip transient tests conducted at the Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 2 was used as one of the benchmark cases for validating the Modular Modeling System (MMS) Code, developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The data was used first to validate the modules in stand-alone simulation tests and then in a Nuclear Steam Supply system integral tests. This paper presents the results from the MMS simulation effort and compares the code generated results with the plant data as well as RETRAN results. In general, MMS simulation results compare very well with the plant data. The code calculations for the hot and cold leg temperatures, primary system pressure and the pressurizer level are very good compared to RETRAN; however, MMS results for steam generator level compare reasonably well only with RETRAN calculations

  13. CAPILLARY CONDENSATION IN MMS AND PORE STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION. (R825959)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenomena of capillary condensation and desorption in siliceous mesoporous molecular sieves (MMS) with cylindrical channels are studied by means of the non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results are compared with macroscopic thermodynamic approaches based on Kelv...

  14. Sulfonated 1,3-bis(4-pyridylpropane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ore Kuyinu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, 4-[3-(3-sulfonatopyridin-1-ium-4-ylpropyl]pyridin-1-ium-3-sulfonate, C13H14N2O6S2, the molecule is zwitterionic, with the sulfonic acid proton transfered to the basic pyridine N atom. Also, the structure adopts a butterfly-like conformation with the sulfonate groups on opposite sides of the `wings'. The dihedral angle between the two pyridinium rings is 83.56 (7°, and this results in the molecule having a chiral conformation and packing. There is strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the pyridinium H and sulfonate O atoms of adjoining molecules. In addition, there are weaker intermolecular C—H...O interactions.

  15. Direct catalytic olefination of alcohols with sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Leitus, Gregory; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2014-10-06

    The synthesis of terminal, as well as internal, olefins was achieved by the one-step olefination of alcohols with sulfones catalyzed by a ruthenium pincer complex. Furthermore, performing the reaction with dimethyl sulfone under mild hydrogen pressure provides a direct route for the replacement of alcohol hydroxy groups by methyl groups in one step. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Oil and Gas Producing Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1998)[platforms_MMS_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point data set for the location of over 4300 MMS administered platform structures used for oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico. Groups of platform...

  17. The Search-Coil Magnetometer for MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Leroy, P.; Roux, A.; Coillot, C.; Alison, D.; Bouabdellah, A.; Mirioni, L.; Meslier, L.; Galic, A.; Vassal, M. C.; Torbert, R. B.; Needell, J.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Ergun, R. E.; Westfall, J.; Summers, D.; Wallace, J.; Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Olsson, G.; Chutter, M.; Macri, J.; Myers, S.; Turco, S.; Nolin, J.; Bodet, D.; Rowe, K.; Tanguy, M.; de la Porte, B.

    2016-03-01

    The tri-axial search-coil magnetometer (SCM) belongs to the FIELDS instrumentation suite on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission (Torbert et al. in Space Sci. Rev. (2014), this issue). It provides the three magnetic components of the waves from 1 Hz to 6 kHz in particular in the key regions of the Earth's magnetosphere namely the subsolar region and the magnetotail. Magnetospheric plasmas being collisionless, such a measurement is crucial as the electromagnetic waves are thought to provide a way to ensure the conversion from magnetic to thermal and kinetic energies allowing local or global reconfigurations of the Earth's magnetic field. The analog waveforms provided by the SCM are digitized and processed inside the digital signal processor (DSP), within the Central Electronics Box (CEB), together with the electric field data provided by the spin-plane double probe (SDP) and the axial double probe (ADP). On-board calibration signal provided by DSP allows the verification of the SCM transfer function once per orbit. Magnetic waveforms and on-board spectra computed by DSP are available at different time resolution depending on the selected mode. The SCM design is described in details as well as the different steps of the ground and in-flight calibrations.

  18. Sulfonation of vulcanized ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso-Bujans, F.; Verdejo, R.; Lozano, A.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Lopez-Manchado, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, sulfonation of previously vulcanized ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) membranes was developed in a swelling solvent with acetyl sulfate. This procedure avoids the need to pre-dissolve the raw polymer. The reaction conditions were optimized in terms of solvent type, reaction time, acetyl sulfate concentration and film thickness to obtain the maximum degree of sulfonation of the polymer. The sulfonation procedure presented in this study yields a degree of sulfonation comparable to the chlorosulfonic acid procedure. Sulfonic acid groups were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and quantified by titrations. Proton conductivity and water uptake were measured by means of impedance spectroscopy and swelling measurements, respectively, and were correlated with the degree of sulfonation. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of sulfonated EPDM increased with the degree of sulfonation, while elongation at break remained constant. Thermal stability of the sulfonated EPDM was studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy

  19. Identification and analysis of Ku70 and Ku80 homologs in the koji molds Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Masuda, Tsutomu; Koyama, Yasuji

    2006-01-01

    Ku genes play a key role in the non-homologous end-joining pathway. We have identified Ku70 and Ku80 homologs in the koji molds Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus oryzae, and have constructed the disruption mutants of Ku70, Ku80, and Ku70-80 to characterize the phenotypic change in these mutants. Neither Ku70- nor Ku80-disrupted strains show hypersensitivity to the DNA damaging agents methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and phleomycin. Moreover, undesirable phenotypes, such as poor growth or repressed conidiospore formation, were not observed in the Ku-disrupted A. sojae and A. oryzae.

  20. Budding yeast mms4 is epistatic with rad52 and the function of Mms4 can be replaced by a bacterial Holliday junction resolvase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagiri, Nao; Seki, Masayuki; Onoda, Fumitoshi; Yoshimura, Akari; Watanabe, Sei; Enomoto, Takemi

    2003-03-01

    MMS4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was originally identified as the gene responsible for one of the collection of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants, mms4. Recently it was identified as a synthetic lethal gene with an SGS1 mutation. Epistatic analyses revealed that MMS4 is involved in a pathway leading to homologous recombination requiring Rad52 or in the recombination itself, in which SGS1 is also involved. MMS sensitivity of mms4 but not sgs1, was suppressed by introducing a bacterial Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase, RusA. The frequencies of spontaneously occurring unequal sister chromatid recombination (SCR) and loss of marker in the rDNA in haploid mms4 cells and interchromosomal recombination between heteroalleles in diploid mms4 cells were essentially the same as those of wild-type cells. Although UV- and MMS-induced interchromosomal recombination was defective in sgs1 diploid cells, hyper-induction of interchromosomal recombination was observed in diploid mms4 cells, indicating that the function of Mms4 is dispensable for this type of recombination.

  1. Characterization of an MMS sensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    We have characterized a methyl methanesulfonate sensitive mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to learn more about DNA repair and mutagenesis in this organism. The mutation, designated mms3-1, also confers sensitivity to ultraviolet light and to ethyl methanesulfonate in both haploids and homozygous diploids. Its effect on γ-ray sensitivity, however, is a function of the ploidy of the cell and its effect on induced mutation is a function of both the ploidy of the cell and the nature of the inducing agent. Our major findings are discussed. Our data indicate that: (1) Saccharomyces cerevisiae has an error prone pathway for the repair of uv damage controlled by the MMS3 gene product operating in and only in, and possibly induced by conditions present only in, a/α diploids; (2) in diploids, at least, there exists at least one step in the error prone repair of uv induced damage which is different from a step in the error prone repair of EMS induced damage; (3) a/α mms3-1/mms3-1 diploids may be defective in a step common to the repair of mutagenic lesions following uv irradiation and lethal lesions following γ irradiation; and (4) there are steps in the repair of MMS induced lethal damage that are different from steps in the repair of EMS induced lethal damage

  2. Status and further plans for the Halden project MMS activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oewre, Fridtjov

    2004-01-01

    The Halden Reactor Project is a joint undertaking of nuclear organizations in 19 countries sponsoring a jointly financed research programme under the auspices of the OECD NEA. The programme is renewed every third year. The three main research areas at the Halden Project are: Fuels-, Materials- and Man-Machine Systems (MMS) research. The MMS research addresses issues related to human-machine interaction in computerized control rooms as well as the development and test of new technology related to safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The MMS research at the Halden Project is closely tied with experimental work in two laboratories constituting what is now called the MTO-labs (MTO=Man-Technology-Organization). The new MTO-lab building was opened in the spring 2004. One of the laboratories is the nuclear simulator-based Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB). The other laboratory is called the Halden Virtual Reality Centre (HVRC). The paper first introduces the new MTO-lab and outlines Halden's capabilities of perform MMS research. Furthermore the paper discusses three selected topics addressed within the current Halden MMS programme focusing on our approach to obtain data for human reliability assessment, the work on design and evaluation of innovative human system interfaces and our work on integrated wearable computing technologies for field operators. A short overview of our plans for future research as part of the international Halden Reactor Project concludes the paper. (author)

  3. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...... increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  4. Increased spontaneous mitotic segregation in MMS-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, S.; Prakash, L.

    1977-01-01

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belonging to four different complementation groups, when homozygous, increase the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation to canavanine resistance from heterozygous sensitive (can/sup r//+) diploids by 13- to 170-fold. The mms8-1 mutant is MMS and x-ray sensitive and increases the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation 170-fold. The mms9-1 and mms13-1 mutants are sensitive to x rays and uv, respectively, in addition to MMS, and increase the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation by 13-fold and 85-fold, respectively. The mutant mms21-1 is sensitive to MMS, x rays and uv and increases the rate of spontaneous mitotic segregation 23-fold

  5. MMS Encounters with Reconnection Diffusion Regions in the Earth's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Farrugia, C. J.; Alm, L.; Dors, I.; Payne, D.; Rogers, A. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Phan, T.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Kletzing, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) fleet of four spacecraft traversed the Earth's magnetotail in May through August of 2017 with an apogee of 25 Re, and encountered diffusion regions characteristic of symmetric reconnection. This presentation will describe in-situ measurements of large electric fields, strong electron cross-tail and Hall currents, and electron velocity distributions (frequently crescent-shaped) that are commonly observed in these regions. Positive electromagnetic energy conversion is also typical. The characteristics of symmetric reconnection observations will be contrasted with those of asymmetric reconnection that MMS observed previously at the dayside magnetopause.

  6. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  7. 30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS... INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow? MMS will not approve your request for...

  8. 30 CFR 285.613 - How will MMS process my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS process my SAP? 285.613 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.613 How will MMS process my SAP? (a) The MMS will review your submitted SAP, and additional information provided pursuant to § 285.611, to determine if it...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1507 - How will MMS measure training results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... program, using one or more of the methods in this section. (a) Training system audit. MMS or its... how effective the training was. (c) Employee or contract personnel testing. MMS or its authorized... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS measure training results? 250.1507...

  10. 30 CFR 250.104 - How may I appeal a decision made under MMS regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How may I appeal a decision made under MMS... of Terms § 250.104 How may I appeal a decision made under MMS regulations? To appeal orders or decisions issued under MMS regulations in 30 CFR parts 250 to 282, follow the procedures in 30 CFR part 290. ...

  11. 30 CFR 250.136 - How will MMS determine if my operating performance is unacceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS determine if my operating... Disqualification § 250.136 How will MMS determine if my operating performance is unacceptable? In determining if your operating performance is unacceptable, MMS will consider, individually or collectively: (a...

  12. 30 CFR 206.108 - Does MMS protect information I provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does MMS protect information I provide? 206.108... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 206.108 Does MMS protect information I provide? Certain information you submit to MMS regarding valuation of oil, including transportation allowances, may be exempt...

  13. 30 CFR 203.5 - What is MMS's authority to collect information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is MMS's authority to collect information... REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES General Provisions § 203.5 What is MMS's authority....” (b) The MMS collects this information to make decisions on the economic viability of leases...

  14. 30 CFR 250.187 - What are MMS' incident reporting requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are MMS' incident reporting requirements... Reporting Requirements § 250.187 What are MMS' incident reporting requirements? (a) You must report all... other permit issued by MMS, and that are related to operations resulting from the exercise of your...

  15. 30 CFR 210.40 - Will MMS keep the information I provide confidential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS keep the information I provide... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS General Provisions § 210.40 Will MMS keep the information I provide confidential? The MMS will treat information obtained under this part as confidential to the...

  16. 30 CFR 206.62 - Does MMS protect information I provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does MMS protect information I provide? 206.62 Section 206.62 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 206.62 Does MMS protect information I provide? The MMS will keep...

  17. 30 CFR 285.210 - How does MMS initiate the competitive leasing process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS initiate the competitive leasing... OCS Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Process § 285.210 How does MMS initiate the competitive leasing process? The MMS may publish in the Federal Register a public notice of Request for Interest to...

  18. On the IFToMM Permanent Commission for History of MMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceccarelli, Marco; Koetsier, Teun

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we have outlined the historical development of the IFToMM Permanent Commission for History of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science) by also looking at the recently established field of History of MMS with technical perspectives. The activity of the PC for History of MMS has been

  19. 30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250....119 Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on and off-lease, for later commercial benefit. To receive MMS approval you must...

  20. 30 CFR 250.920 - What are the MMS requirements for assessment of fixed platforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the MMS requirements for assessment of... Structures Inspection, Maintenance, and Assessment of Platforms § 250.920 What are the MMS requirements for... in API RP 2A-WSD, Section 17.3. If MMS objects to the assessment category you used for your...

  1. 30 CFR 285.103 - When may MMS prescribe or approve departures from these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS prescribe or approve departures... CONTINENTAL SHELF General Provisions § 285.103 When may MMS prescribe or approve departures from these regulations? (a) The MMS may prescribe or approve departures from these regulations when departures are...

  2. 30 CFR 285.601 - When am I required to submit my plans to MMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When am I required to submit my plans to MMS... Information Requirements § 285.601 When am I required to submit my plans to MMS? Your plan submission...) You must provide sufficient data and information with your COP for MMS to complete the needed reviews...

  3. 30 CFR 250.135 - What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What will MMS do if my operating performance is....135 What will MMS do if my operating performance is unacceptable? If your operating performance is unacceptable, MMS may disapprove or revoke your designation as operator on a single facility or multiple...

  4. 30 CFR 254.7 - How do I submit my response plan to the MMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit my response plan to the MMS... do I submit my response plan to the MMS? You must submit the number of copies of your response plan that the appropriate MMS regional office requires. If you prefer to use improved information technology...

  5. 30 CFR 206.365 - Does MMS protect information I provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does MMS protect information I provide? 206.365... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 206.365 Does MMS protect information I provide? Certain information you submit to MMS regarding royalties or fees on geothermal resources or byproducts, including...

  6. 30 CFR 285.823 - Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related... Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Inspections and Assessments § 285.823 Will MMS reimburse me for my expenses related to inspections? Upon request, MMS will reimburse you for food, quarters, and...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1711 - When will MMS order me to permanently plug a well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will MMS order me to permanently plug a well? 250.1711 Section 250.1711 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Activities Permanently Plugging Wells § 250.1711 When will MMS order me to permanently plug a well? MMS will...

  8. 30 CFR 291.111 - How does MMS treat the confidential information I provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does MMS treat the confidential information... SHELF LANDS ACT § 291.111 How does MMS treat the confidential information I provide? (a) Any person who provides documents under this part in response to a request by MMS to inform a decision on whether open...

  9. 30 CFR 285.628 - How will MMS process my COP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS process my COP? 285.628 Section... Requirements Contents of the Construction and Operations Plan § 285.628 How will MMS process my COP? (a) The MMS will review your submitted COP, and the information provided pursuant to § 285.627, to determine...

  10. 30 CFR 285.510 - May MMS reduce or waive my lease or grant payments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May MMS reduce or waive my lease or grant... Financial Assurance Requirements Payments § 285.510 May MMS reduce or waive my lease or grant payments? (a) The MMS Director may reduce or waive the rent or operating fee or components of the operating fee...

  11. 30 CFR 285.436 - Can MMS require lease or grant contraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can MMS require lease or grant contraction? 285... Administration Lease Or Grant Contraction § 285.436 Can MMS require lease or grant contraction? At an interval no more frequent than every 5 years, the MMS may review your lease or grant area to determine whether the...

  12. 30 CFR 285.540 - How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to... Financial Assurance Requirements Revenue Sharing with States § 285.540 How will MMS equitably distribute revenues to States? (a) The MMS will distribute among the eligible coastal States 27 percent of the...

  13. 30 CFR 285.821 - Will MMS conduct scheduled and unscheduled inspections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS conduct scheduled and unscheduled..., COPs and GAPs Inspections and Assessments § 285.821 Will MMS conduct scheduled and unscheduled inspections? The MMS will conduct both scheduled and unscheduled inspections. ...

  14. 30 CFR 250.131 - Will MMS notify me before conducting an inspection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS notify me before conducting an inspection? 250.131 Section 250.131 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... § 250.131 Will MMS notify me before conducting an inspection? MMS conducts both scheduled and...

  15. 30 CFR 203.70 - What information must I provide after MMS approves relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must I provide after MMS... information must I provide after MMS approves relief? You must submit reports to us as indicated in the following table. Sections 203.81, 203.90, and 203.91 describe what these reports must include. The MMS...

  16. 30 CFR 227.802 - How will MMS terminate a State's delegation agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS terminate a State's delegation... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.802 How will MMS terminate a State's delegation agreement? This section explains the procedures MMS will use to terminate all or a...

  17. 30 CFR 285.202 - What types of leases will MMS issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of leases will MMS issue? 285.202 Section 285.202 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Renewable Energy Leases General Lease Information § 285.202 What types of leases will MMS issue? The MMS may...

  18. 30 CFR 218.580 - When do I submit Form MMS-4444?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When do I submit Form MMS-4444? 218.580 Section 218.580 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE... Correspondence § 218.580 When do I submit Form MMS-4444? Initially, you must submit MMS Form-4444 by November 29...

  19. 30 CFR 285.222 - What does MMS do with my bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does MMS do with my bid? 285.222 Section... Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285.222 What does MMS do with my bid? (a) If sealed... any proposal submitted will be made by a panel composed of members selected by MMS. The details of the...

  20. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) depletion in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an industrial chemical that is used as a surfactant in several manufactured consumer products but is also a breakdown product from other chemical surfactants. As a result of its extensive use, PFOS is ubiquitous in the environment and is often detected in biosoli...

  1. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyether sulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Olcomendy, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyether sulfone was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Animal response times were relatively short at pyrolysis temperatures of 600 to 800 C, with death occurring within 6 min. The principal toxicant appeared to be a compound other than carbon monoxide.

  2. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature. Prepared for submission to Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) journal, Green Chemistry as a communication.

  3. Carbon dioxide sensing with sulfonated polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, D.C.T.; Ramaneti, R.; Baggerman, J.; Bent, van der J.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Tong, H.D.; Rijn, van C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of polyaniline and especially sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) is explored for sensing carbon dioxide (CO2) at room temperature. Frequency-dependent AC measurements were carried out to detect changes in impedance of the polymer, drop casted on interdigitated electrodes, when exposed to CO2 gas.

  4. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and DigitalFluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, LosAngeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since thesuccessful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the groundcalibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluatetwelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers usingalgorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF,UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tonesand harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA.IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolutegains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS andgive examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  5. Characterization of MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLange, A.M.; Mishra, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Several MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora crassa were compared with the wild-type strain for their relative sensitivities to UV, X-ray, and histidine. They were also compared for the frequency of spontaneous mutation at the loci which confer resistance to p-fluorophenylalanine. The mutants were also examined for possible defects in meiotic behavior in homozygous crosses and for any change in the inducible DNA salvage pathways. On the basis of these characterizations, the present MMS-sensitive mutants of Neurospora can be placed into three groups. On the basis of data presented, the MMS sensitivity of the first group mutants cannot be ascertained to arise from a defect in the DNA repair pathways; instead, it may stem from altered cell permeability or other pleotropic effects of the mus mutations. However, it can be suggested that the second and third group of mus mutants may indeed result from a defect in the DNA repair pathways controlled by the mus genes; this conclusion is based on their cross-sensitivity to a number of DNA-damaging agents such as MMS, UV and/or X-rays, high frequencies of spontaneous mutation and defects in meiotic behavior.

  6. A Dicey Strategy To Get Your M&Ms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Steven; Jones, Graham; Langrall, Cynthia; Thornton, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes and analyzes a learning episode in which two children in year 4 interact with each other and their teacher while playing a probability game involving chocolate M&Ms. Children developed key ideas in probability from a game that was designed to produce cognitive conflict. (ASK)

  7. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.

    2015-12-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and Digital Fluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since the successful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the ground calibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluate twelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers using algorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF, UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tones and harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA. IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolute gains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS and give examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  8. SMS/MMS-based Enhancements to the Community Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 août 2008 ... This project will explore the potential of short message service (SMS) and multimedia messaging service (MMS) to meet the information needs and enhance the services provided by health centres at the village, unit and regional level. Specifically, researchers will endeavor to find out whether SMS ...

  9. Differential response of biochemical parameters to EMS and MMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1964) and biochemical estimations from the liver was done by the method of Sinha (1972) for catalase, Van der Vies (1954) for glycogen and Uchiyama and Mihara (1978) for MDA. Results: The study has revealed that EMS and MMS induced a dose dependent increase in chromosomal aberrations of chromatid type in the ...

  10. Differential response of biochemical parameters to EMS and MMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B.B.D. Khalandar

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... Results: The study has revealed that EMS and MMS induced a dose dependent increase in ... in various in vivo test systems like Yeast [6], Plant [7,8],. Drosophila [9] ..... mutants reveals genes required for S phase progression in the ... clastogenicity of ultraviolet light, methyl methanesulfonate,. 310.

  11. Cytogenetic adaptive response induced by EMS or MMS in bone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B.B. Dada Khalandar

    2016-01-14

    Jan 14, 2016 ... aberrations in both diabetic and non diabetic mice, but it is to be underlined that MMS is a ... nous agents and each cell receives about thousands of DNA ...... response to ionizing radiation induced by low doses of X rays to.

  12. MMS: An electronic message management system for emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.B.; Garde, H.; Andersen, V.

    1998-01-01

    among messages can be viewed in a graphic tree-like display. By employing the extensive filtration facilities offered by the MMS. users are able to monitor the current status of messages. And, in general, filtration provides users with means of surveying a possibly large number of responses to messages...... contingency plan and procedures to be applied during predefined stages of an emergency....

  13. Sulindac Sulfide, but Not Sulindac Sulfone, Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Williams

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulindac sulfide, a metabolite of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID sulindac sulfoxide, is effective at reducing tumor burden in both familial adenomatous polyposis patients and in animals with colorectal cancer. Another sulindac sulfoxide metabolite, sulindac sulfone, has been reported to have antitumor properties without inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity. Here we report the effect of sulindac sulfone treatment on the growth of colorectal carcinoma cells. We observed that sulindac sulfide or sulfone treatment of HCA-7 cells led to inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited HCA-7 and HCT-116 cell growth in vitro. Sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of either HCA-7 or HCT-116 xenografts, whereas the sulfide derivative inhibited HCA-7 growth in vivo. Both sulindac sulfide and sulfone inhibited colon carcinoma cell growth and prostaglandin production in vitro, but sulindac sulfone had no effect on the growth of colon cancer cell xenografts in nude mice.

  14. Isolation and characterization of MMS-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, L.; Prakash, S.

    1977-01-01

    We have isolated mutants sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Alleles of rad1, rad4, rad6, rad52, rad55 and rad57 were found among these mms mutants. Twenty-nine of the mms mutants which complement the existing radiation-sensitive (rad and rev) mutants belong to 22 new complementation groups. Mutants from five complementation groups are sensitive only to MMS. Mutants of 11 complementation groups are sensitive to uv or x rays in addition to MMS, mutants of six complementation groups are sensitive to all three agents. The cross-sensitivities of these mms mutants to uv and x rays are discussed in terms of their possible involvement in DNA repair. Sporulation is reduced or absent in homozygous diploids of mms mutants from nine complementation groups

  15. 75 FR 10301 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0006, Leasing of Sulphur or Oil and Gas in the Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service [Docket No. MMS-2009-OMM-0013] MMS... Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment Request AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS), Interior... copy of your comments to MMS by any of the means below. Electronically: Go to http://www.regulations...

  16. Synthesis and properties of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers for vanadium redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong [The Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with electron-withdrawing sulfone groups in each repeat unit were synthesized via step polymerization followed by post-sulfonation using chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonation degree can be readily controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of the repeat unit of polymers to chlorosulfonic acid. The synthesized polymers are soluble in common aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide, and can be cast into transparent membranes from their solutions. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, sulfonation degree, mechanical property, oxidative property, thermal property and proton conductivity were investigated in detail using different methodologies. As an objective to apply these polymers as separators for vanadium redox flow battery, the VO{sup 2+} permeability and cell performance for the single cell were examined and assessed. (author)

  17. Synthesis and properties of novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) ionomers for vanadium redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongyang [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Shuanjin, E-mail: wangshj@mail.sysu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xiao Min [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Meng Yuezhong, E-mail: mengyzh@mail.sysu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronic and Functional Composite Materials, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with electron-withdrawing sulfone groups in each repeat unit were synthesized via step polymerization followed by post-sulfonation using chlorosulfonic acid. The sulfonation degree can be readily controlled by adjusting the feed ratio of the repeat unit of polymers to chlorosulfonic acid. The synthesized polymers are soluble in common aprotic solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N'-dimethylacetamide and dimethylformamide, and can be cast into transparent membranes from their solutions. The ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling ratio, sulfonation degree, mechanical property, oxidative property, thermal property and proton conductivity were investigated in detail using different methodologies. As an objective to apply these polymers as separators for vanadium redox flow battery, the VO{sup 2+} permeability and cell performance for the single cell were examined and assessed.

  18. Synthesis and properties of sulfonated poly(phenylene sulfone)s without ether linkage by Diels–Alder reaction for PEMFC application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Youngdon; Lee, Hyunchul; Lee, Soonho; Jang, Hohyoun; Hossain, Md. Awlad; Cho, Younggil; Kim, Taeho; Hong, Youngtaik; Kim, Whangi

    2014-01-01

    A new sulfonated poly(phenylene sulfone) polymer (SPPS) was synthesized by Diels-Alder polymerization from 1,4-bis(2,4,5-triphenylcyclopentadienone)benzene (BTPCPB) and 4,4′-diethynylphenylsulfone, and followed by sulfonation reaction with chlorosulfuric acid. A series of sulfonated poly(phenylene sulfone)s (SPPS) with different degrees of sulfonation was prepared in a controllable manner with chlorosulfuric acid. These polymers showed good solubility in aprotic polar solvents, dimethyl acetamide (DMAC) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Three different polymer membranes were studied by 1 H NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity of SPPS were evaluated according to the degrees of sulfonation. The water uptake (WU) of the synthesized SPPS membranes ranged from 38%∼75%, compared with 32% for Nafion 211 ® at 80 °C. The SPPS membranes exhibited proton conductivities (at 80 °C under 90% RH) of 110.2 mS/cm compared with 102.7 mS/cm for Nafion 211 ® . Power density was performed by single cell and showed similar to Nafion value

  19. Kalman Filter for Mass Property and Thrust Identification (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four identically instrumented, spin-stabilized observatories, elliptically orbiting the Earth in a tetrahedron formation. For the operational success of the mission, on-board systems must be able to deliver high-precision orbital adjustment maneuvers. On MMS, this is accomplished using feedback from on-board star sensors in tandem with accelerometers whose measurements are dynamically corrected for errors associated with a spinning platform. In order to determine the required corrections to the measured acceleration, precise estimates of attitude, rate, and mass-properties is necessary. To this end, both an on-board and ground-based Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) were formulated and implemented in order to estimate the dynamic and quasi-static properties of the spacecraft.

  20. Boiling water reactor modeling capabilities of MMS-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.S.; Abdollahian, D.A.; Elias, E.; Shak, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    During the development period for the Modular Modeling System (MMS) library modules, the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) has been the last major component to be addressed. The BWRX module includes models of the reactor core, reactor vessel, and recirculation loop. A pre-release version was made available for utility use in September 1983. Since that time a number of changes have been incorporated in BWRX to (1) improve running time for most transient events of interest, (2) extend its capability to include certain events of interest in reactor safety analysis, and (3) incorporate a variety of improvements to the module interfaces and user input formats. The purposes of this study were to briefly review the module structure and physical models, to point the differences between the MMS-02 BWRX module and the BWRX version previously available in the TESTREV1 library, to provide guidelines for choosing among the various user options, and to present some representative results

  1. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mms1 channels repair of perturbed replication into Rhp51 independent homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejrup-Hansen, Rasmus; Mizuno, Ken'Ichi; Miyabe, Izumi

    2011-01-01

    -like protein, Rtt101/Cul8, a potential paralog of Cullin 4. We performed epistasis analysis between ¿mms1 and mutants of pathways with known functions in genome integrity, and measured the recruitment of homologous recombination proteins to blocked replication forks and recombination frequencies. We show that......-specific replication fork barrier and that, in a ¿mms1 strain, Rad22(Rad52) and RPA recruitment to blocked forks are reduced, whereas Rhp51 recruitment is unaffected. In addition, Mms1 appears to specifically promote chromosomal rearrangements in a recombination assay. These observations suggest that Mms1 acts...... is particularly important when a single strand break is converted into a double strand break during replication. Genetic data connect Mms1 to a Mus81 and Rad22(Rad52) dependent, but Rhp51 independent, branch of homologous recombination. This is supported by results demonstrating that Mms1 is recruited to a site...

  2. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mediates cellular responses to DNA damage and aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitanovic, Ana; Woelfl, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Response to DNA damage, lack of nutrients and other stress conditions is an essential property of living systems. The coordinate response includes DNA damage repair, activation of alternate biochemical pathways, adjustment of cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression as well as drastic measures like cellular suicide which prevents proliferation of severely damaged cells. Investigating the transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to low doses of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) we observed induction of genes involved in glucose metabolism. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the key enzyme in gluconeogenesis fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) was clearly up-regulated by MMS in glucose-rich medium. Interestingly, deletion of FBP1 led to reduced sensitivity to MMS, but not to other DNA-damaging agents, such as 4-NQO or phleomycin. Reintroduction of FBP1 in the knockout restored the wild-type phenotype while overexpression increased MMS sensitivity of wild-type, shortened life span and increased induction of RNR2 after treatment with MMS. Deletion of FBP1 reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to MMS treatment and in untreated aged cells, and increased the amount of cells able to propagate and to form colonies, but had no influence on the genotoxic effect of MMS. Our results indicate that FBP1 influences the connection between DNA damage, aging and oxidative stress through either direct signalling or an intricate adaptation in energy metabolism

  3. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase mediates cellular responses to DNA damage and aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanovic, Ana [Institut fuer Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Woelfl, Stefan [Institut fuer Pharmazie und Molekulare Biotechnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: wolfl@uni-hd.de

    2006-02-22

    Response to DNA damage, lack of nutrients and other stress conditions is an essential property of living systems. The coordinate response includes DNA damage repair, activation of alternate biochemical pathways, adjustment of cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression as well as drastic measures like cellular suicide which prevents proliferation of severely damaged cells. Investigating the transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to low doses of the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) we observed induction of genes involved in glucose metabolism. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the key enzyme in gluconeogenesis fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) was clearly up-regulated by MMS in glucose-rich medium. Interestingly, deletion of FBP1 led to reduced sensitivity to MMS, but not to other DNA-damaging agents, such as 4-NQO or phleomycin. Reintroduction of FBP1 in the knockout restored the wild-type phenotype while overexpression increased MMS sensitivity of wild-type, shortened life span and increased induction of RNR2 after treatment with MMS. Deletion of FBP1 reduced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to MMS treatment and in untreated aged cells, and increased the amount of cells able to propagate and to form colonies, but had no influence on the genotoxic effect of MMS. Our results indicate that FBP1 influences the connection between DNA damage, aging and oxidative stress through either direct signalling or an intricate adaptation in energy metabolism.0.

  4. 30 CFR 285.706 - How do I nominate a CVA for MMS approval?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I nominate a CVA for MMS approval? 285..., Fabrication, and Installation Certified Verification Agent § 285.706 How do I nominate a CVA for MMS approval... (§ 285.610(a)(9)) or GAP (§ 285.645(c)(5)), you must nominate a CVA for MMS approval. You must specify...

  5. 30 CFR 285.224 - What happens if MMS accepts my bid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if MMS accepts my bid? 285.224... Renewable Energy Leases Competitive Lease Award Process § 285.224 What happens if MMS accepts my bid? If we... withdraw an OCS area in which we have held a lease sale before you and MMS execute the lease in that area...

  6. Thermal and Dielectric Behavior Studies of Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfones with Sulfonated and Phosphonated Pendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimoga D. Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the aspects of the synthesizing valeric acid based poly(ether sulfones with active carboxylic acid pendants (VALPSU from solution polymerization technique via nucleophilic displacement polycondensation reaction among 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (DCDPS and 4,4′-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl valeric acid (BHPA. The conditions necessary to synthesize and purify the polymer were investigated in some detail. The synthesized poly(ether sulfones comprise sulfone and ether linkages in addition to reactive carboxylic acid functionality; these active carboxylic acid functional groups were exploited to hold the phenyl sulphonic acid and phenyl phosphonic acid pendants. The phenyl sulphonic acid pendants in VALPSU were easily constructed by altering active carboxylic acid moieties by sulfanilic acid using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC mediated mild synthetic route, whereas the latter one was built in two steps. Initially, polyphosphoric acid condensation with VALPSU by 4-bromoaniline and next straightforward palladium catalyzed synthetic route, in both of which acidic pendants are clenched by polymer backbone via amide linkage. Without impairing the primary polymeric backbone modified polymers were prepared by varying the stoichiometric ratios of respective combinations. All the polymers were physicochemically characterized and pressed into tablets; electrical contacts were established to study the dielectric properties. Finally, the influence of the acidic pendants on the dielectric properties was examined.

  7. MMS sensitivity of all amino acid-requiring mutants in aspergillus and its suppression by mutations in a single gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käfer, E

    1987-04-01

    All available amino acid-requiring mutants of Aspergillus nidulans were found to be hypersensitive to MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) to various degrees. On MMS media, secondary mutations could be selected which suppress this MMS sensitivity but do not affect the requirement. Many such mutations were analyzed and found to be alleles of one gene, smsA (= suppressor of MMS sensitivity), which mapped distal on the right arm of chromosome V. This gene is more likely to be involved in general regulation of amino acid biosynthesis than MMS uptake, since a variety of pathway interactions were clearly modified by smsA suppressors in the absence of MMS.

  8. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Attitude Ground System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Joseph E.; Superfin, Emil; Raymond, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the attitude ground system (AGS) design to be used for support of the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission. The AGS exists as one component of the mission operations control center. It has responsibility for validating the onboard attitude and accelerometer bias estimates, calibrating the attitude sensors and the spacecraft inertia tensor, and generating a definitive attitude history for use by the science teams. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland is responsible for developing the MMS spacecraft, for the overall management of the MMS mission, and for mission operations. MMS is scheduled for launch in 2014 for a planned two-year mission. The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft flying in a tetrahedral formation in an eccentric Earth orbit. The relatively tight formation, ranging from 10 to 400 km, will provide coordinated observations giving insight into small-scale magnetic field reconnection processes. By varying the size of the tetrahedron and the orbital semi-major axis and eccentricity, and making use of the changing solar phase, this geometry allows for the study of both bow shock and magnetotail plasma physics, including acceleration, reconnection, and turbulence. The mission divides into two phases for science; these phases will have orbit dimensions of l.2xl2 Earth radii in the first phase and l.2x25 Earth radii in the second in order to study the dayside magnetopause and the nightside magnetotail, respectively. The orbital periods are roughly one day and three days for the two mission phases. Each of the four MMS spacecraft will be spin stabilized at 3 revolutions per minute (rpm), with the spin axis oriented near the ecliptic north pole but tipped approximately 2.5 deg towards the Sun line. The main body of each spacecraft will be an eight-sided platform with diameter of 3.4 m and height of 1.2 m. Several booms are attached to this central core: two axial booms of 14.9 m length, two radial

  9. Polyether sulfone membrane modeling and construction for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyether sulfone membrane modeling and construction for the removal of nitrate from water using ion interference sulfate and iron nano-particle. ... The aim of this study was constructed the polyether sulfone membrane and modelling it, and for checking impact pressure, the amount of iron nanoparticles and sulfate iron ...

  10. Sulfonated carbon black-based composite membranes for fuel cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composite membranes were then prepared using S–C as fillers and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) as polymer matrix with three different sulfonation degrees (DS = 60, 70 and 82%). Structure and properties of the composite membranes were characterized by FTIR, TGA, scanning electron microscopy, proton ...

  11. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. 177.2210... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2210 Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. Ethylene polymer, chlorosulfonated as identified in this section may be safely used as an article or...

  12. 21 CFR 173.395 - Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.395 Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid. Trifluoromethane sulfonic acid... acid) may safely be used in the production of cocoa butter substitute from palm oil (1-palmitoyl-2...

  13. Aryl sulfonate based anticancer alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Hamdullah Khadim; Arshad, Tanzila; Kanwal, Ghazala

    2018-05-01

    This research work revolves around synthesis of antineoplastic alkylating sulfonate esters with dual alkylating sites for crosslinking of the DNA strands. These molecules were evaluated as potential antineoplastic cross linking alkylating agents by reaction with the nucleoside of Guanine DNA nucleobase at both ends of the synthesized molecule. Synthesis of the alkylating molecules and the crosslinking with the guanosine nucleoside was monitored by MALDITOF mass spectroscopy. The synthesized molecule's crosslinking or adduct forming rate with the nucleoside was compared with that of 1,4 butane disulfonate (busulfan), in form of time taken for the appearance of [M+H] + . It was found that aryl sulfonate leaving group was causing higher rate of nucleophilic attack by the Lewis basic site of the nucleobase. Furthermore, the rate was also found to be a function of electron withdrawing or donating nature of the substituent on the aryl ring. Compound with strong electron withdrawing substituent on the para position of the ring reacted fastest. Hence, new alkylating agents were synthesized with optimized or desired reactivity.

  14. Undoped poly (phenyl sulfone) for radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Nobuhiro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2015-01-01

    Undoped aromatic ring polymers are potential scintillation materials. Here, we characterise poly (phenyl sulfone) (PPSU) for radiation detection. The amber-coloured transparent resin emits bluish-white fluorescence with 390-nm maximum. It has an excitation maximum of 340 nm, and has a density of 1.29 g/cm 3 . The effective refractive index based on its emission spectrum is 1.75. The light yield is almost equal to that of poly (ethylene terephthalate), which is a transparent resin. These results demonstrate that PPSU can be used as a component substrate in polymer blends for altering optical characteristics. - Highlights: • Poly (phenyl sulfone) (PPSU) has suitable characteristics as a scintillation material. • PPSU is an amber-coloured transparent resin that emits bluish white fluorescence with 390-nm maximum. • The 1.75 effective refractive index over the emission spectrum is relatively high. • The light yield is 0.95 times that of poly (ethylene terephthalate), which is a transparent resin. • PPSU can potentially alter optical characteristics in polymer blends

  15. In-Flight Calibration of the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present an overview of the approach to in-flight calibration, which is a coordinated effort between the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF) and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). We present details of the calibration effort at GSFC. During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen for the period of any given week to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  16. Bisphenol A sulfonation is impaired in metabolic and liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, Emine B.; Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Slitt, Angela L.; King, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical and suspected endocrine disruptor to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. The liver metabolizes and facilitates BPA excretion through glucuronidation and sulfonation. The sulfotransferase enzymes contributing to BPA sulfonation (detected in human and rodents) is poorly understood. Objectives: To determine the impact of metabolic and liver disease on BPA sulfonation in human and mouse livers. Methods: The capacity for BPA sulfonation was determined in human liver samples that were categorized into different stages of metabolic and liver disease (including obesity, diabetes, steatosis, and cirrhosis) and in livers from ob/ob mice. Results: In human liver tissues, BPA sulfonation was substantially lower in livers from subjects with steatosis (23%), diabetes cirrhosis (16%), and cirrhosis (18%), relative to healthy individuals with non-fatty livers (100%). In livers of obese mice (ob/ob), BPA sulfonation was lower (23%) than in livers from lean wild-type controls (100%). In addition to BPA sulfonation activity, Sult1a1 protein expression decreased by 97% in obese mouse livers. Conclusion: Taken together these findings establish a profoundly reduced capacity of BPA elimination via sulfonation in obese or diabetic individuals and in those with fatty or cirrhotic livers versus individuals with healthy livers. - Highlights: • Present study demonstrates that hepatic SULT 1A1/1A3 are primarily sulfonate BPA in mouse and human. • Hepatic BPA sulfonation is profoundly reduced steatosis, diabetes and cirrhosis. • With BPA-S detectable in urine under low or common exposures, these findings are novel and important.

  17. Bisphenol A sulfonation is impaired in metabolic and liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, Emine B.; Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Slitt, Angela L., E-mail: angela_slitt@uri.edu; King, Roberta, E-mail: rking@uri.edu

    2016-02-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical and suspected endocrine disruptor to which humans are ubiquitously exposed. The liver metabolizes and facilitates BPA excretion through glucuronidation and sulfonation. The sulfotransferase enzymes contributing to BPA sulfonation (detected in human and rodents) is poorly understood. Objectives: To determine the impact of metabolic and liver disease on BPA sulfonation in human and mouse livers. Methods: The capacity for BPA sulfonation was determined in human liver samples that were categorized into different stages of metabolic and liver disease (including obesity, diabetes, steatosis, and cirrhosis) and in livers from ob/ob mice. Results: In human liver tissues, BPA sulfonation was substantially lower in livers from subjects with steatosis (23%), diabetes cirrhosis (16%), and cirrhosis (18%), relative to healthy individuals with non-fatty livers (100%). In livers of obese mice (ob/ob), BPA sulfonation was lower (23%) than in livers from lean wild-type controls (100%). In addition to BPA sulfonation activity, Sult1a1 protein expression decreased by 97% in obese mouse livers. Conclusion: Taken together these findings establish a profoundly reduced capacity of BPA elimination via sulfonation in obese or diabetic individuals and in those with fatty or cirrhotic livers versus individuals with healthy livers. - Highlights: • Present study demonstrates that hepatic SULT 1A1/1A3 are primarily sulfonate BPA in mouse and human. • Hepatic BPA sulfonation is profoundly reduced steatosis, diabetes and cirrhosis. • With BPA-S detectable in urine under low or common exposures, these findings are novel and important.

  18. SUMO E3 ligase Mms21 prevents spontaneous DNA damage induced genome rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mms21, a subunit of the Smc5/6 complex, possesses an E3 ligase activity for the Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO. Here we show that the mms21-CH mutation, which inactivates Mms21 ligase activity, causes increased accumulation of gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs selected in the dGCR assay. These dGCRs are formed by non-allelic homologous recombination between divergent DNA sequences mediated by Rad52-, Rrm3- and Pol32-dependent break-induced replication. Combining mms21-CH with sgs1Δ caused a synergistic increase in GCRs rates, indicating the distinct roles of Mms21 and Sgs1 in suppressing GCRs. The mms21-CH mutation also caused increased rates of accumulating uGCRs mediated by breakpoints in unique sequences as revealed by whole genome sequencing. Consistent with the accumulation of endogenous DNA lesions, mms21-CH mutants accumulate increased levels of spontaneous Rad52 and Ddc2 foci and had a hyper-activated DNA damage checkpoint. Together, these findings support that Mms21 prevents the accumulation of spontaneous DNA lesions that cause diverse GCRs.

  19. 30 CFR 280.27 - When may MMS cancel my permit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS cancel my permit? 280.27 Section... Part Interrupted Activities § 280.27 When may MMS cancel my permit? The RD may cancel a permit at any time. (a) If we cancel your permit, the RD will advise you by certified or registered mail 30 days...

  20. 30 CFR 285.534 - When may MMS cancel my bond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS cancel my bond? 285.534 Section 285.534 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE... Assurance Requirements Changes in Financial Assurance § 285.534 When may MMS cancel my bond? When your lease...

  1. 30 CFR 227.102 - What royalty management functions will MMS not delegate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payments shown on royalty reports or other documents, such as bills, to reconcile payor accounts. MMS also... actions other than issuing demands, subpoenas and orders to perform restructured accounting. MMS or the appropriate Federal agency will issue notices of non-compliance and civil penalties, collect debts, write off...

  2. 30 CFR 227.800 - How will MMS monitor a State's performance of delegated functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... visits and Office of the Inspector General, General Accounting Office, and MMS audits of your performance... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS monitor a State's performance of... THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.800 How will...

  3. 30 CFR 227.101 - What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State? 227.101 Section 227.101 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 227.101 What royalty management functions may MMS delegate to a State? (a) If there are oil and gas...

  4. 30 CFR 280.31 - Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.31 Whom will MMS notify about environmental issues? (a... submission for approval. (b) In cases where an environmental assessment is to be prepared, the Director will...

  5. 30 CFR 280.29 - Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my activity? 280.29 Section 280.29 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Obligations Under This Part Environmental Issues § 280.29 Will MMS monitor the environmental effects of my...

  6. 30 CFR 280.73 - Will MMS share data and information with coastal States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS share data and information with coastal States? 280.73 Section 280.73 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Data Requirements Protections § 280.73 Will MMS share data and information with coastal States? (a) We...

  7. 30 CFR 260.3 - What is MMS's authority to collect information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is MMS's authority to collect information? 260.3 Section 260.3 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS LEASING General Provisions § 260.3 What is MMS's authority to...

  8. 30 CFR 250.231 - After receiving the EP, what will MMS do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After receiving the EP, what will MMS do? 250.231 Section 250.231 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Decision Process for the Ep § 250.231 After receiving the EP, what will MMS do? (a) Determine whether...

  9. 30 CFR 260.110 - What bidding systems may MMS use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What bidding systems may MMS use? 260.110 Section 260.110 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER... MMS use? We will apply a single bidding system selected from those listed in this section to each...

  10. 30 CFR 250.266 - After receiving the DPP or DOCD, what will MMS do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After receiving the DPP or DOCD, what will MMS do? 250.266 Section 250.266 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Decision Process for the Dpp Or Docd § 250.266 After receiving the DPP or DOCD, what will MMS do? (a...

  11. 30 CFR 241.76 - Can MMS reduce my penalty once it is assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can MMS reduce my penalty once it is assessed? 241.76 Section 241.76 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 241.76 Can MMS reduce my penalty once it is assessed? Under 30 U.S.C. 1719(g), the Director or...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1406 - When will MMS notify me and provide penalty information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will MMS notify me and provide penalty information? 250.1406 Section 250.1406 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... (OCS) Civil Penalties § 250.1406 When will MMS notify me and provide penalty information? If the...

  13. 30 CFR 291.1 - What is MMS's authority to collect information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is MMS's authority to collect information? 291.1 Section 291.1 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPEALS... § 291.1 What is MMS's authority to collect information? (a) The Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

  14. 30 CFR 203.82 - What is MMS's authority to collect this information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is MMS's authority to collect this information? 203.82 Section 203.82 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Reports § 203.82 What is MMS's authority to collect this information? The Office of Management and Budget...

  15. 30 CFR 260.111 - What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? 260.111 Section 260.111 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... What conditions apply to the bidding systems that MMS uses? (a) For each of the bidding systems in...

  16. 30 CFR 250.123 - Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? 250.123 Section 250.123 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... § 250.123 Will MMS allow gas storage on unleased lands? You may not store gas on unleased lands unless...

  17. 30 CFR 203.66 - What happens if MMS does not act in the time allowed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relief for Pre-Act Deep Water Leases and for Development and Expansion Projects § 203.66 What happens if MMS does not act in the time allowed? If we do not act within the timeframes established under § 203... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if MMS does not act in the time...

  18. MMS Observations of Vorticity Near Sites of Magnetic Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, W. R.; Giles, B. L.; Avanov, L. A.; Boardsen, S. A.; Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Mackler, D. A.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.; Schiff, C.; Shuster, J. R.; Viñas, A. F.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    With highly capable plasma instruments on four spacecraft flown in tetrahedral formation, it is possible for MMS investigators to approximate spatial derivatives of the plasma parameters observed. Here, we examine vorticity of the electron and ion components of the plasma computed from the curl of velocity as measured by the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI). Vorticity of magnetospheric plasma has not previously been studied on scales of tens-of-km to less than 10 km, which are the typical inter-spacecraft separations for MMS. Nor has it been explored on time scales of 30 ms for electrons and 150 ms for ions, which are the burst data rates for the FPI spectrometers. Review of observations from the magnetopause and magnetotail phases of the mission finds increases in vorticity associated with near encounters with the electron diffusion region, with nearby regions of measurable current, and with elevated electron and ion temperatures. These are suggestive of a possible role for turbulence in magnetic reconnection. In this presentation we provide an assessment of the quality of these measurements and discuss their potential significance.

  19. Mms Sensitivity of All Amino Acid-Requiring Mutants in Aspergillus and Its Suppression by Mutations in a Single Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Käfer, Etta

    1987-01-01

    All available amino acid-requiring mutants of Aspergillus nidulans were found to be hypersensitive to MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) to various degrees. On MMS media, secondary mutations could be selected which suppress this MMS sensitivity but do not affect the requirement. Many such mutations were analyzed and found to be alleles of one gene, smsA (= suppressor of MMS sensitivity), which mapped distal on the right arm of chromosome V. This gene is more likely to be involved in general regula...

  20. Preparation of new proton exchange membranes using sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) modified by octylamine (SPESOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabrouk, W.; Ogier, L.; Matoussi, F.; Sollogoub, C.; Vidal, S.; Dachraoui, M.; Fauvarque, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New, simple and cheap way to synthesize a membrane. → The membranes combine good proton conductivities with good mechanical properties. → The membrane performances in a fuel cell are similar to the Nafion 117. - Abstract: Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) has received considerable attention in membrane preparation for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). But such membranes are brittle and difficult to handle in operation. We investigated new membranes using SPES grafted with various degrees of octylamine. Five new materials made from sulfonated polyethersulfone sulfonamide (SPESOS) were synthetized with different grades of grafting. They were made from SPES, with initially an ionic exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.4 meq g -1 (1.3 H + per monomer unit). Pristine SPES with that IEC is water swelling and becomes soluble at 80 deg. C, its proton conductivity is in the range of 0.1 S cm -1 at room temperature in aqueous H 2 SO 4 1 M, similar to that of Nafion. After grafting with various amounts of octylamine, the material is water insoluble; membranes are less brittle and show sufficient ionic conductivity. Proton transport numbers were measured close to 1.

  1. Mms1 binds to G-rich regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and influences replication and genome stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzek, Katharina; Schwindt, Eike; Capra, John A.; Paeschke, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of replication is essential to preserve genome integrity. Mms1 is part of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that is linked to replication fork progression. By identifying Mms1 binding sites genome-wide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we connected Mms1 function to genome integrity and

  2. 30 CFR 285.615 - What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MMS under my approved SAP? 285.615 Section 285.615 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.615 What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP? (a) You must notify MMS in writing within...

  3. 30 CFR 210.157 - What reports must I submit to suspend an MMS order under appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accepts the following surety types: Form MMS-4435, Administrative Appeal Bond; Form MMS-4436, Letter of... order under appeal? 210.157 Section 210.157 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., and Geothermal Resources § 210.157 What reports must I submit to suspend an MMS order under appeal? (a...

  4. 30 CFR 204.206 - What will MMS do when it receives my request for other relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What will MMS do when it receives my request... THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.206 What will MMS do when it receives my request for other relief? When MMS receives your...

  5. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  6. Sulfonation of PEEK-WC polymer via chloro-sulfonic acid for potential PEM fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iulianelli, A.; Clarizia, G.; Gugliuzza, A.; Ebrasu, D.; Basile, A. [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Bevilacqua, A. [Research Centre Italsistemi S.r.l., Via Avogadro, 88900 Crotone (KR) (Italy); Trotta, F. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Torino, C.So M. D' Azeglio 48, 10125 Torino (TO) (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    The preparation and characterization of thin dense sulfonated poly-ether-ether-ketone with cardo group (PEEK-WC) membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications are described. The sulfonation of PEEK-WC polymer was realized via chloro-sulfonic acid and different kinds of membrane samples were prepared with a sulfonation degree ranging from 67 to 99%. The degree of sulfonation, homogeneity and thickness significantly affect both the membrane transport properties and the electrochemical performances. The dense character of the membranes was confirmed by SEM analysis. Proton conductivity measurements were carried out in a temperature range from 30 to 80 C and at 100% of relative humidity, reaching 5.40 x 10{sup -3} S/cm{sup -1} as best value at 80 C and with a sulfonation degree (DS) of 99%. At the same conditions, a water uptake of 17% was achieved. DSC and TGA characterizations were used in order to determine the thermal stability of the membranes, confirming a T{sub g} ranging between 206 and 216 C depending on the DS, whereas FT-IR yielded indication about intermolecular interactions and water uptake at various sulfonation degrees. (author)

  7. Propagation/depropagation equilibrium and structural factors in the radiation degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowmer, T.N.; O'Donnell, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The principal volatile products observed after γ irradiation of nine different poly(olefin sulfone)s in the solid state were the two comonomers, i.e., the respective olefin and sulfur dioxide. An exponential increase in yield, G (volatile products), with increasing irradiation temperature, T/sub irr/, was observed for each copolymer through the ceiling temperature, T/sub c/, for the corresponding propagation/depropagation equilibrium. Thus the G value increased by ca. 3 orders of magnitude from T/sub irr/ = 0.7 T/sub c/ to T/sub irr/ = 1.3 T/sub c/ for all of the poly(olefin sulfone)s. Depropagation sensitivity was considered to be best measured by G(SO 2 ) since radiation induced, cationic homopolymerization of the product olefin occurred to a variable extent. Five of the poly(olefin sulfone)s had similar rates of depropagation at their respective T/sub c's/ but the polysulfones of 1-hexene, cyclohexene and 2-butene showed anomalously high depropagation rates. This may be related to greater steric hinderance to segmental chain mobility in the polysulfones of the 1,2 disubstituted olefins. Poly(1-hexene sulfone) appears to be anomalous, as in other respects

  8. Fully Aromatic Block Copolymers for Fuel Cell Membranes with Densely Sulfonated Nanophase Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takamuku, Shogo; Jannasch, Patrick; Lund, Peter Brilner

    Two multiblock copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s with similar block lengths and ion exchange capacities (IECs) were prepared by a coupling reaction between a non-sulfonated precursor block and a highly sulfonated precursor block containing either fully disulfonated diarylsulfone or fully...... tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments. The latter two precursor blocks were sulfonated via lithiation-sulfination reactions whereby the sulfonic acid groups were exclu- sively placed in ortho positions to the many sulfone bridges, giving these locks IECs of 4.1 and 4.6 meqg1, respectively. Copolymer...

  9. Electron Jet Detected by MMS at Dipolarization Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. M.; Fu, H. S.; Vaivads, A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Gershman, D. J.; Hwang, K.-J.; Chen, Z. Z.; Cao, D.; Xu, Y.; Yang, J.; Peng, F. Z.; Huang, S. Y.; Burch, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Ergun, R. E.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Le Contel, O.

    2018-01-01

    Using MMS high-resolution measurements, we present the first observation of fast electron jet (Ve 2,000 km/s) at a dipolarization front (DF) in the magnetotail plasma sheet. This jet, with scale comparable to the DF thickness ( 0.9 di), is primarily in the tangential plane to the DF current sheet and mainly undergoes the E × B drift motion; it contributes significantly to the current system at the DF, including a localized ring-current that can modify the DF topology. Associated with this fast jet, we observed a persistent normal electric field, strong lower hybrid drift waves, and strong energy conversion at the DF. Such strong energy conversion is primarily attributed to the electron-jet-driven current (E ṡ je ≈ 2 E ṡ ji), rather than the ion current suggested in previous studies.

  10. Ion Demagnetization in the Magnetopause Current Layer Observed by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Chen, Li-Jen; Hesse, Michael; Gershman, Daniel J.; Dorelli, John; Giles, Barbara; Torbert, Roy B.; Pollock, Craig J.; Lavraud, Benoit; Strangeway, Robert; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report ion velocity distribution functions (VDfs) observed by Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) and present evidence for demagnetized ion Speiser motion during magnetopause reconnection. The demagnetization is observed in the vicinity of the X llne, as well as near the current sheet midlplane about tens of ion skin depths (d(sub 1)) away from the X line. Close to the X line before the outflow is built up, the VDFs are elongated, and the elongated part of VDFs rotates from the out-of-plane current direction toward the outflow directions downstream from the X line. Farther downstream, demagnetized ions exhibit a characteristic half-ring structure in the VDFs, as a result of the mixture of ions that have experienced different amounts of cyclotron turning around the magnetic field normal to the current sheet. Signatures of acceleration by electric fields are more pronounced in the VDFs near the X line than downstream.

  11. An investigation of proton conductivity of binary matrices sulfonated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to their potential applications in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) ... is highly sulfonated and has high water uptake property.11,12 The proton conductivity ... SPSU membranes have lower gas permeability and liquid. (water and ...

  12. Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    A membrane manufacture method based on non-volatile solvents and a high performance polymer, poly (ether imide sulfone) (EXTEM™), is proposed, as greener alternative to currently industrial process. We dissolved EXTEM™ in pure ionic liquids: 1-ethyl

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2007-08-10

    Aug 10, 2007 ... Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (ether ... Currently perfluori- ... with phosphoric acid solution according to the method described earlier.11,12 ... where A is the membrane area available for diffusion; CA is.

  14. Oil recovery with vinyl sulfonic acid-acrylamide copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-12-18

    An aqueous polymer flood containing sulfomethylated alkali metal vinyl sulfonate-acrylamide copolymers was proposed for use in secondary or tertiary enhanced oil recovery. The sulfonate groups on the copolymers sustain the viscosity of the flood in the presence of brine and lime. Injection of the copolymer solution into a waterflooded Berea core, produced 30.5 percent of the residual oil. It is preferred that the copolymers are partially hydrolyzed.

  15. On the Importance of Purification of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Akhil K.; Roy, Sandip; Juvekar, Vinay A.

    2012-01-01

    Ion exchange is commonly employed for purification of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS), a molecule widely used as a model polyelectrolyte. However, the present work demonstrates that the ion exchange process itself may introduce some extraneous species into NaPSS samples by two possible mechanisms: (i) chemical transformation of polystyrene sulfonic acid (HPSS), a relatively unstable intermediate formed during ion exchange and (ii) release of small amount of “condensed” acid from cationic...

  16. Modular Modeling System (MMS) code: a versatile power plant analysis package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Wong, F.K.L.

    1987-01-01

    The basic version of the Modular Modeling System (MMS-01), a power plant systems analysis computer code jointly developed by the Nuclear Power and the Coal Combustion Systems Divisions of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has been released to the utility power industry in April 1983 at a code release workshop held in Charlotte, North Carolina. Since then, additional modules have been developed to analyze the Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) and the Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) when the safety systems are activated. Also, a selected number of modules in the MMS-01 library have been modified to allow the code users more flexibility in constructing plant specific systems for analysis. These new PWR and BWR modules constitute the new MMS library, and it includes the modifications to the MMS-01 library. A year and half long extensive code qualification program of this new version of the MMS code at EPRI and the contractor sites, back by further code testing in an user group environment is culminating in the MMS-02 code release announcement seminar. At this seminar, the results of user group efforts and the code qualification program will be presented in a series of technical sessions. A total of forty-nine papers will be presented to describe the new code features and the code qualification efforts. For the sake of completion, an overview of the code is presented to include the history of the code development, description of the MMS code and its structure, utility engineers involvement in MMS-01 and MMS-02 validations, the enhancements made in the last 18 months to the code, and finally the perspective on the code future in the fossil and nuclear industry

  17. The survival and repair of DNA single-strand breaks in gamma-irradiated Escherichia coli adapted to methyl methane sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestyanikov, V.D.; Savel'eva, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The survival and repair of single-strand breaks of DNA in gamma-irradiated E.coli adapted to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) (20 mkg/ml during 3 hours) have been investigated. It is shown that the survival of adapted bacteria of radioresistant strains B/r, H/r30, AB1157 and W3110 pol + increases with DMF (dose modification factor) ranging within 1.4-1.8 and in radiosensitive strains B s-1 , AB1157 recA13 and AB1157 lexA3 with DMF ranging within 1.3-1.4, and does not change in strains with mutation in poLA gene P3478 poLA1 and 016 res-3. The increase in radioresistance during the adaptation to MMS correlates with the acceleration of repair of gamma-ray-induced single-strand breaks in the radioresistant strains B/r and W3110 pol + and with the appearance of the ability to repair some part of DNA single-strand breaks in the mutant B s-1

  18. Sensitivity of Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission Navigation Accuracy to Major Error Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Long, Anne; Car[emter. Russell

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four satellites flying in formation in highly elliptical orbits about the Earth, with a primary objective of studying magnetic reconnection. The baseline navigation concept is independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements referenced to an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) with accelerometer measurements included during maneuvers. MMS state estimation is performed onboard each spacecraft using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS), which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the sensitivity of MMS navigation performance to two major error sources: USO clock errors and thrust acceleration knowledge errors.

  19. Sensitivity of Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission Naviation Accuracy to Major Error Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Long, Anne; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four satellites flying in formation in highly elliptical orbits about the Earth, with a primary objective of studying magnetic reconnection. The baseline navigation concept is independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements referenced to an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) with accelerometer measurements included during maneuvers. MMS state estimation is performed onboard each spacecraft using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS), which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the sensitivity of MMS navigation performance to two major error sources: USO clock errors and thrust acceleration knowledge errors.

  20. Multiblock copolymers with highly sulfonated blocks containing di- and tetrasulfonated arylene sulfone segments for proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamuku, Shogo; Jannasch, Patric [Polymer and Materials Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Lund University (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    Multiblock copoly(arylene ether sulfone)s with different block lengths and ionic contents are tailored for durable and proton-conducting electrolyte membranes. Two series of fully aromatic copolymers are prepared by coupling reactions between non-sulfonated hydrophobic precursor blocks and highly sulfonated hydrophilic precursor blocks containing either fully disulfonated diarylsulfone or fully tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments. The sulfonic acid groups are exclusively introduced in ortho positions to the sulfone bridges to impede desulfonation reactions and give the blocks ion exchange capacities (IECs) of 4.1 and 4.6 meq. g{sup -1}, respectively. Solvent cast block copolymer membranes show well-connected hydrophilic nanophase domains for proton transport and high decomposition temperatures above 310 C under air. Despite higher IEC values, membranes containing tetrasulfonated tetraaryldisulfone segments display a markedly lower water uptake than the corresponding ones with disulfonated diarylsulfone segments when immersed in water at 100 C, presumably because of the much higher chain stiffness and glass transition temperature of the former segments. The former membranes have proton conductivities in level of a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (NRE212) under fully humidified conditions. A membrane with an IEC of 1.83 meq. g{sup -1} reaches above 6 mS cm{sup -1} under 30% relative humidity at 80 C, to be compared with 10 mS cm{sup -1} for NRE212 under the same conditions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Controlled sulfonation of poly(ether sulfone using phthalic anhydride as catalyst and its membrane performance for fuel cell application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikh Jiyaur Rahaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells are one of the most emerging alternative energy technologies under development. A novel proton exchange membrane sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES was developed by homogeneous method using phthalic anhydride as catalyst and chlorosulfonic acid as sulfonating agent to control the sulfonation reaction. The method of sulfonation was optimized by varying the reaction time and concentration of the catalyst. The structure of the SPES was studied by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The extent of sulfonation was determined by ion exchange capacity studies. The thermal and mechanical stabilities were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA respectively. DMA results show that the storage modulus increased with increase in degree of sulfonation (DS and water uptake of SPES increased with DS. The proton conductivity of SPES (34% DS measured by impedance spectroscopy was found to be 0.03S/cm at 80%RH and 100°C. Also, current-voltage polarization characteristics of SPES membranes offer a favourable alternative PEM due to the thermal stability and cost effective than perfluorinated ionomers.

  2. Open manufacturing system using MMS service and object oriented manufacturing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hoon; Song, Jun Yeob; Kim, Sun Ho

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing equipment should be integrated to construct CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) environment, but several economical and technological difficulties may be arisen in case heterogeneous systems are integrated into each other. MMS (Manufacturing Message Specification) can be effective in such a case, but the problem is that MMS-related products are comparatively expensive and the existing manufacturing equipment mostly do not support MMS. This study was focused on developing a gateway suitable to a non-MMS-compatible CNC machine-tool, and on implementing OSI (Open System Interconnection) upper layer on TCP/IP. The development system was applied to a cell controller by means of heterogeneous equipment under CIM environment, and to evaluate interoperability and portability

  3. Modelling and simulating the transitory regimes in NPP using the MMS package programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisecaru, I.; Dupleac, Daniel; Constantinescu, Adrian Cornel

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a brief presentation of the preoccupation of modelling and simulating group at the Nuclear Power Plant Department of the Faculty of Power Plant Engineering in 'Politehnica' University of Bucharest in using the Modular Modeling System, MMS, package programs for the simulation of NPP transitory regimes. Nuclear power plants are large, non-linear systems with numerous interactions between its components. In the analysis of such complex systems, dynamic simulation is recognized as a powerful method of keeping track of the myriad of interactions. The MMS is a simulation tool that has built in models for plant components using a modular approach to dynamic simulation. The MMS software modules were developed to correspond to plant components that are familiar to power plant engineers. The interface specifications of the modules were defined so that the modules can be interconnected analogously to components in the actual plant. For some components, several modules of differing complexity are available. These alternative modules allow the user to choose the module appropriate to his application, i.e. a detailed model or a more economical model with less detail. The modular nature of the MMS allows the user to tailor the goal of his simulation to the complexity of the application and allows the user to develop independent subsystems that can be integrated into a larger simulation. The MMS module library contains modules for components for fossil and nuclear power plants. Each module is a mathematical model of a type of plant component formulated from first principles. The MMS uses a simulation language that provides features to simplify the development of simulations. Features important to the development of the MMS are the macro capability, automatic sorting of modeling equations, and integration algorithms. The macro capability is used to express the modeling equations for an MMS module. Since modules may be used more than once in the same simulation

  4. Co-ordinated functions of Mms proteins define the surface structure of cubo-octahedral magnetite crystals in magnetotactic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Atsushi; Yamagishi, Ayana; Fukuyo, Ayumi; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize magnetosomes comprised of membrane-enveloped single crystalline magnetite (Fe3 O4 ). The size and morphology of the nano-sized magnetite crystals (Mms (Mms5, Mms6, Mms7, and Mms13), was previously isolated from the surface of cubo-octahedral magnetite crystals in Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1. Analysis of an mms6 gene deletion mutant suggested that the Mms6 protein plays a major role in the regulation of magnetite crystal size and morphology. In this study, we constructed various mms gene deletion mutants and characterized the magnetite crystals formed by the mutant strains. Comparative analysis showed that all mms genes were involved in the promotion of crystal growth in different manners. The phenotypic characterization of magnetites also suggested that these proteins are involved in controlling the geometries of the crystal surface structures. Thus, the co-ordinated functions of Mms proteins regulate the morphology of the cubo-octahedral magnetite crystals in magnetotactic bacteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  6. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Vasconcelos, Eliton; de Lima, Vanderlei Aparecido; Goto, Leandro Seiji; Cruz-Hernández, Isara Lourdes; Hokka, Carlos Osamu

    2013-12-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064). The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  7. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cristiane R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units. The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The glass transition temperature of sulfonated polystyrene increases in relation to pure polystyrene and DCp was evaluated in order to confirm the strong interactions among the ~SO3H groups.

  8. Role of post-sulfonation of poly(ether ether sulfone) in proton conductivity and chemical stability of its proton exchange membranes for fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unveren, Elif Erdal; Erdogan, Tuba; Inan, Tulay Y. [Chemistry Institute, TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, 41470, Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Celebi, Serdar S. [Professor Emeritus, Chemical Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, 06800, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Commercially available poly(ether ether sulfone), PEES, was directly sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid at low temperatures by minimizing degradation during sulfonation. The sulfonation reaction was performed in the temperature range of 5-25 C. Sulfonated polymers were characterized by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and ion exchange capacity (IEC) measurements. Degradation during sulfonation was investigated by measuring intrinsic viscosity, glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition temperature of sulfonated polymers. Sulfonated PEES, SPEES, membranes were prepared by solvent casting method and characterized in terms of IEC, proton conductivity and water uptake. The effect of sulfonation conditions on chemical stability of membranes was also investigated via Fenton test. Optimum sulfonation condition was determined to be 10 C with conc. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} based on the characteristics of sulfonated polymers and also the chemical stability of their membranes. SPEES membranes exhibited proton conductivity up to 185.8 mS cm{sup -1} which is higher than that of Nafion 117 (133.3 mS cm{sup -1}) measured at 80 C and relative humidity 100%. (author)

  9. Synthesis and Properties of Poly(ether sulfone)s with Clustered Sulfonic Groups for PEMFC Applications under Various Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Wei; Chen, Jyh-Chien; Wu, Jin-An; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2017-03-22

    Novel sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) copolymers (S4PH-x-PSs) based on a new aromatic diol containing four phenyl substituents at the 2, 2', 6, and 6' positions of 4,4'-diphenyl ether were synthesized. Sulfonation was found to occur exclusively on the 4 position of phenyl substituents by NMR spectroscopy. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values can be controlled by adjusting the mole percent (x in S4PH-x-PS) of the new diol. The fully hydrated sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) copolymers had good proton conductivity in the range 0.004-0.110 S/cm at room temperature. The surface morphology of S4PH-x-PSs and Nafion 212 was investigated by atomic force microscopy (tapping-mode) and related to the percolation limit and proton conductivity. Single H 2 /O 2 fuel cell based on S4PH-40-PS loaded with 0.25 mg/cm 2 catalyst (Pt/C) exhibited a peak power density of 462.6 mW/cm 2 , which was close to that of Nafion 212 (533.5 mW/cm 2 ) at 80 °C with 80% RH. Furthermore, fuel cell performance of S4PH-35-PS with various relative humidity was investigated. It was confirmed from polarization curves that the fuel cell performance of S4PH-35-PS was not as high as that of Nafion 212 under fully hydrated state due to higher interfacial resistance between S4PH-35-PS and electrodes. While under low relative humidity (53% RH) at 80 °C, fuel cells based on S4PH-35-PS showed higher peak power density (234.9 mW/cm 2 ) than that (214.0 mW/cm 2 ) of Nafion 212.

  10. The MMS Science Data Center: Operations, Capabilities, and Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K. W.; Pankratz, C. K.; Giles, B. L.; Kokkonen, K.; Putnam, B.; Schafer, C.; Baker, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) constellation of satellites completed their six month commissioning period in August, 2015 and began science operations. Science operations for the Solving Magnetospheric Acceleration, Reconnection, and Turbulence (SMART) instrument package occur at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Science Data Center (SDC) at LASP is responsible for the data production, management, distribution, and archiving of the data received. The mission will collect several gigabytes per day of particles and field data. Management of these data requires effective selection, transmission, analysis, and storage of data in the ground segment of the mission, including efficient distribution paths to enable the science community to answer the key questions regarding magnetic reconnection. Due to the constraints on download volume, this includes the Scientist-in-the-Loop program that identifies high-value science data needed to answer the outstanding questions of magnetic reconnection. Of particular interest to the community is the tools and associated website we have developed to provide convenient access to the data, first by the mission science team and, beginning March 1, 2016, by the entire community. This presentation will demonstrate the data and tools available to the community via the SDC and discuss the technologies we chose and lessons learned.

  11. MMS Observation of Magnetic Reconnection in the Turbulent Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Z.; Yordanova, E.; Varsani, A.; Genestreti, K. J.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Li, W.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.; Plaschke, F.; Magnes, W.; Baumjohann, W.; Fischer, D.; Vaivads, A.; Eriksson, E.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Marklund, G.; Ergun, R. E.; Leitner, M.; Leubner, M. P.; Strangeway, R. J.; Le Contel, O.; Pollock, C.; Giles, B. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Avanov, L. A.; Dorelli, J. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Paterson, W. R.; Lavraud, B.; Saito, Y.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we use the full armament of the MMS (Magnetospheric Multiscale) spacecraft to study magnetic reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath downstream of a quasi-parallel bow shock. Contrarily to the magnetopause and magnetotail cases, only a few observations of reconnection in the magnetosheath have been reported. The case study in this paper presents, for the first time, both fluid-scale and kinetic-scale signatures of an ongoing reconnection in the turbulent magnetosheath. The spacecraft are crossing the reconnection inflow and outflow regions and the ion diffusion region (IDR). Inside the reconnection outflows D shape ion distributions are observed. Inside the IDR mixing of ion populations, crescent-like velocity distributions and ion accelerations are observed. One of the spacecraft skims the outer region of the electron diffusion region, where parallel electric fields, energy dissipation/conversion, electron pressure tensor agyrotropy, electron temperature anisotropy, and electron accelerations are observed. Some of the difficulties of the observations of magnetic reconnection in turbulent plasma are also outlined.

  12. Assessing operability of a novel polisher arrangement using MMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, S.W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A condensate polisher is intended to remove both particulate matter and ionic material from the condensate. Condensate polishers have normally been placed directly in the condensate system downstream of the condensate pumps. This inline location has certain disadvantages. These disadvantages are discussed. Placing the polisher in a sidestream location, where water is removed from the condensate system, pumped through the polisher, and then returned to the condensate system provides a solution to these disadvantages. Several possible types of sidestream installations is described. This has a polisher taking unpolished condensate from one compartment from one compartment of a divided hotwell in a specially modified condenser and returning polished condensate to the other compartment. The polisher is supplied by its own dedicated pumps, which have a head requirement sufficient only to overcome the pressure drop through the polisher circuit at a flow rate of 110% of maximum condensate flow. This concept is very attractive but has not yet been tested even though it is being installed in several new units. A simulation was, therefore, performed using MMS to provide confidence that this particular sidestream polisher arrangement was operationally viable

  13. Small-Scale Dayside Magnetic Reconnection Analysis via MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, K. R.; Burch, J. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Webster, J.; Genestreti, K.; Torbert, R. B.; Rager, A. C.; Phan, T.; Argall, M. R.; Le Contel, O.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Giles, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has the primary objective of understanding the physics of the reconnection electron diffusion region (EDR), where magnetic energy is transformed into particle energy. In this poster, we present data from an EDR encounter that occurred in late December 2016 at approximately 11:00 MLT with a moderate guide field. The spacecraft were in a tetrahedral formation with an average inter-spacecraft distance of approximately 7 kilometers. During this event electron crescent-shaped distributions were observed in the electron stagnation region as is typical for asymmetric reconnection. Based on the observed ion velocity jets, the spacecraft traveled just south of the EDR. Because of the close spacecraft separation, fairly accurate computation of the Hall, electron pressure divergence, and electron inertia components of the reconnection electric field could be made. In the region of the crescent distributions good agreement was observed, with the strongest component being the normal electric field and the most significant sources being electron pressure divergence and the Hall electric field. While the strongest currents were in the out-of-plane direction, the dissipation was strongest in the normal direction because of the larger magnitude of the normal electric field component. These results are discussed in light of recent 3D PIC simulations performed by other groups.

  14. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates cause alkyl chain length-dependent hepatic steatosis and hypolipidemia mainly by impairing lipoprotein production in APOE*3-leiden CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijland, S.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Pieterman, E.J.; Maas, A.C.E.; Hoorn, J.W. van der; Erk, M.J. van; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Chang, S.C.; Ehresman, D.J.; Butenhoff, J.L.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are stable perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) surfactants, and PFHxS and PFOS are frequently detected in human biomonitoring studies. Some epidemiological studies have shown modest positive

  15. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore it is impor......Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...... it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...

  16. Thermochemical stability of Soviet macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukhlyada, N.N.; Plotnikova, V.P.; Roginskaya, B.S.; Znamenskii, Yu.P.; Zavodovskaya, A.S.; Dobrova, E.I.

    1988-10-20

    The purpose of this work was to study the influence of macroporosity on the thermochemical stability of sulfonated cation-exchangers. The investigations were carried out on commercial macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers based on styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers. Study of the thermochemical stability of macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers in dilute hydrogen peroxide solutions showed that the type of macroporosity has virtually no influence on their stability. The determining factor in thermal stability of macroporous cation-exchangers, as of the gel type, is the degree of cross-linking of the polymer matrix. The capacity loss of macroporous cation-exchangers during oxidative thermolysis is caused by destruction of the macromolecular skeleton and elution of fragments of polar chains containing sulfo groups into the solution.

  17. Electrochemical detection of dopamine using water-soluble sulfonated graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Su-Juan; He, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Rong-Xia; Lv, Xia-Lei; Li, Shao-Hua; Pang, Huan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: DPV responses of dopamine (DA) at sulfonated graphene based glassy carbon electrode in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA-DA, DA-UA and UA-AA was about 227 mV, 125 mV and 352 mV, which allowed selectively determining DA. -- Abstract: In the present study, a biosensor was prepared using the water-soluble sulfonated graphene with the aim of achieving the selective and sensitive determination of dopamine (DA) in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The aromatic π–π stacking and electrostatic attraction between positively charged DA and negatively charged sulfonated graphene can accelerate the electron transfer whereas weakening AA and UA oxidation on the sulfonated graphene-modified electrode. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the successful synthesis of sulfonated graphene sheets. Differential pulse voltammetry was used for electrochemical detection, the separation of the oxidation peak potentials for AA-DA, DA-UA and UA-AA was about 227 mV, 125 mV and 352 mV, which allowed selectively determining DA. A broad linear range, low detection limit, along with good ability to suppress the background current from large excess ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) were obtained. The as-prepared sulfonated graphene sheets exhibited superior performance over conventional negatively charged Nafion films, such as flexible film thickness, unique nanostructure, excellent anti-interference ability, high sensitivity and selectivity. The proposed method was used to detect DA in real hydrochloride injection sample, human urine and serum samples with satisfactory recovery results

  18. Hexaaquamagnesium(II bis(d-camphor-10-sulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jeremić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title complex, [Mg(H2O6](C10H15O4S2, consists of regular octahedral [Mg(H2O6]2+ cations and d-camphor-10-sulfonate anions. A three-dimensional supramolecular architecture is formed via hydrogen-bond interactions [O—H...O = 2.723 (2–2.833 (2 Å] to give alternating layers of [Mg(H2O6]2+ cations and d-camphor-10-sulfonate anions. The title compound is isomorphous with the zinc, copper, cadmium and nickel analogues.

  19. Evaluation of sulfonated carbon as catalyst in reactive distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orjuela, Alvaro; Civetta, Nicolas; Rivera, Jairo; Boyaca, Alejandro; Diaz, Jesus

    2004-01-01

    A packed bed using sulfonated coal catalytic pellets was prepared using a Colombian anthracitic coal. Such pellets were introduced in a semi batch distillation column to which acetic acid and ethanol were fed in order to determine experimentally the feasibility of obtaining ethyl acetate by reactive distillation operation. The carbonaceous catalytic packing was characterized by total exchange capacity, potentiometric titration and BET area. Experimental tests were carried out using three acid/alcohol ratios. Results of such process are shown by reaction conversion and concentration in distillate and bottom products. The sulfonated coal showed catalytic activity in this esterification reaction, with conversions between 29-45%

  20. Sulfur and Hydrogen Isotope Anomalies in Meteorite Sulfonic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Thiemens, Mark H.; Jackson, Teresa L.; Chang, Sherwood

    1997-01-01

    Intramolecular carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope ratios were measured on a homologous series of organic sulfonic acids discovered in the Murchison meteorite. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionations were observed along with high deuterium/hydrogen ratios. The deuterium enrichments indicate formation of the hydrocarbon portion of these compounds in a low-temperature environment that is consistent with that of interstellar clouds. Sulfur-33 enrichments observed in methanesulfonic acid could have resulted from gas-phase ultraviolet irradiation of a precursor, carbon disulfide. The source of the sulfonic acid precursors may have been the reactive interstellar molecule carbon monosulfide.

  1. The Modular Modeling System (MMS): A toolbox for water- and environmental-resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Viger, R.J.; Hay, L.E.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The increasing complexity of water- and environmental-resource problems require modeling approaches that incorporate knowledge from a broad range of scientific and software disciplines. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed the Modular Modeling System (MMS). MMS is an integrated system of computer software for model development, integration, and application. Its modular design allows a high level of flexibility and adaptability to enable modelers to incorporate their own software into a rich array of built-in models and modeling tools. These include individual process models, tightly coupled models, loosely coupled models, and fully- integrated decision support systems. A geographic information system (GIS) interface, the USGS GIS Weasel, has been integrated with MMS to enable spatial delineation and characterization of basin and ecosystem features, and to provide objective parameter-estimation methods for models using available digital data. MMS provides optimization and sensitivity-analysis tools to analyze model parameters and evaluate the extent to which uncertainty in model parameters affects uncertainty in simulation results. MMS has been coupled with the Bureau of Reclamation object-oriented reservoir and river-system modeling framework, RiverWare, to develop models to evaluate and apply optimal resource-allocation and management strategies to complex, operational decisions on multipurpose reservoir systems and watersheds. This decision support system approach has been developed, tested, and implemented in the Gunnison, Yakima, San Joaquin, Rio Grande, and Truckee River basins of the western United States. MMS is currently being coupled with the U.S. Forest Service model SIMulating Patterns and Processes at Landscape Scales (SIMPPLLE) to assess the effects of alternative vegetation-management strategies on a variety of hydrological and ecological responses. Initial development and testing of the MMS-SIMPPLLE integration is

  2. Enchansing the Ionic Purity of Hydrophilic Channels by Blending Fully Sulfonated Graft Copolymers with PVDF Homopolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Ching-Ching Yang, Ami; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2013-01-01

    The influence of tuning the ionic content of membranes by blending, as opposed to varying the degree of sulfonation, is evaluated. Membranes of fully sulfonated poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene)-g-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) blended with PVDF were prepared and investigated...

  3. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing

  4. 40 CFR 417.110 - Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. 417.110 Section 417.110 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY SO3 Solvent and Vacuum Sulfonation Subcategory § 417.110 Applicability; description of the SO3 solvent and vacuum sulfonation subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  5. GPS Navigation Above 76,000 km for the MMS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winternitz, Luke; Bamford, Bill; Price, Samuel; Long, Anne; Farahmand, Mitra; Carpenter, Russell

    2016-01-01

    NASA's MMS mission, launched in March of 2015,consists of a controlled formation of four spin-stabilized spacecraft in similar highly elliptic orbits reaching apogee at radial distances of 12and 25 Earth radii in the first and second phases of the mission. Navigation for MMS is achieved independently onboard each spacecraft by processing GPS observables using NASA GSFC's Navigator GPS receiver and the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS) extended Kalman filter software. To our knowledge, MMS constitutes, by far, the highest-altitude operational use of GPS to date and represents the culmination of over a decade of high-altitude GPS navigation research and development at NASA GSFC. In this paper we will briefly describe past and ongoing high-altitude GPS research efforts at NASA GSFC and elsewhere, provide details on the design of the MMS GPS navigation system, and present on-orbit performance data. We extrapolate these results to predict performance in the Phase 2b mission orbit, and conclude with a discussion of the implications of the MMS results for future high-altitude GPS navigation, which we believe to be broad and far-reaching.

  6. Enhanced antifouling and antibacterial properties of poly (ether sulfone) membrane modified through blending with sulfonated poly (aryl ether sulfone) and copper nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xu, Ya'nan; Chen, Shouwen; Li, Jiansheng; Han, Weiqing; Sun, Xiuyun; Wu, Dihua; Hu, Zhaoxia; Wang, Lianjun

    2018-03-01

    A series of novel blend ultrafiltration (UF) membranes have been successfully prepared from commercial poly (ether sulfone), lab-synthesized sulfonated poly (aryl ether sulfone) (SPAES, 1 wt%) and copper nanoparticles (0 ∼ 0.4 wt%) via immersion precipitation phase conversion. The micro-structure and separation performance of the membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cross-flow filtration experiments, respectively. Sodium alginate, bovine serum albumin and humic acid were chosen as model organic foulants to investigate the antifouling properties, while E. coil was used to evaluate the antibacterial property of the fabricated membranes. By the incorporation with SPAES and copper nanoparticles, the hydrophilicity, antifouling and antibacterial properties of the modified UF membranes have been profoundly improved. At a copper nanoparticles content of 0.4 wt%, the PES/SPAES/nCu(0.4) membrane exhibited a high pure water flux of 193.0 kg/m2 h, reaching the smallest contact angle of 52°, highest flux recovery ratio of 79% and largest antibacterial rate of 78.9%. Furthermore, the stability of copper nanoparticles inside the membrane matrix was also considerably enhanced, the copper nanoparticles were less than 0.08 mg/L in the effluent during the whole operation.

  7. Electronic Conductivity of Polypyrrole−Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Bay, Lasse; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2004-01-01

    The electronic conductivity of the electroactive polymer polypyrrole-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (PPy-DBS) has been characterized as function of the redox level. The polymer was synthesized with different isomers of the dopant anions: the common mixed DBS tenside and three well-defined synthetic...

  8. Sulfonated polyimides containing triphenylphosphine oxide for proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Arun Kumar; Bera, Debaditya; Banerjee, Susanta, E-mail: susanta@matsc.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2016-09-15

    A series of sulfonated co-polyimides (co-SPI) were prepared by one pot polycondensation reaction of a combination of diamines namely; 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSDSA) and prepared non-sulfonated diamine (DATPPO) containing triphenylphosphine oxide with 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA). All these soluble co-SPI gave flexible membranes with high thermal stability and showed good mechanical property. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed the microphase separated morphology with well-dispersed hydrophilic (cluster size in the range of 5–55 nm) domains. The co-SPI membranes showed high oxidative and hydrolytic stability with higher proton conductivity. All these co-SPI membranes exhibited low water uptake and swelling ratio. The co-SPI membrane TPPO-60 (60% degree of sulfonation) with IEC{sub W} = 1.84 mequiv g{sup −1} showed high proton conductivity (99 mS cm{sup −1} at 80 °C and 107 mS cm{sup −1} at 90 °C) in water with high oxidative (20 h) and hydrolytic stability (only 5% degradation in 24 h). - Highlights: • Triphenylphosphine oxide containing sulfonated polyimides (SPIs) was synthesized. • The SPIs showed good oxidative and hydrolytic stability and high proton conductivity. • TEM analysis revealed well separated morphology of the SPIs.

  9. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  10. Amperometric urea biosensors based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gautam Das, Hyon Hee Yoon Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor based on sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite was developed for urea analysis. Oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of sulfonated graphene oxide was carried out by electrochemical methods in an aqueous environment. The structural properties of the nanocomposite were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The urease enzyme-immobilized sulfonated graphene/polyaniline nanocomposite film showed impressive performance in the electroanalytical detection of urea with a detection limit of 0.050 mM and a sensitivity of 0.85 µA·cm-2·mM-1. The biosensor achieved a broad linear range of detection (0.12–12.3 mM with a notable response time of approximately 5 seconds. Moreover, the fabricated biosensor retained 81% of its initial activity (based on sensitivity after 15 days of storage at 4°C. The ease of fabrication coupled with the low cost and good electrochemical performance of this system holds potential for the development of solid-state biosensors for urea detection. Keywords: electrochemical deposition, sulfonated graphene oxide, urease

  11. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry of condensed tannin sulfonate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. Karchesy; L.Y. Foo; Richard W. Hemingway; E. Barofsky; D.F. Barofsky

    1989-01-01

    Condensed tannin sulfonate derivatives were studied by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) to assess the feasibility of using this technique for determining molecular weight and structural information about these compounds. Both positive- and negative-ion spectra provided useful data with regard to molecular weight, cation species present, and presence of...

  12. Structure and properties of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutorskii, I.A.; Sultanova, A.S.; Belkina, E.V.; Fomin, A.G. [Lomonosov Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    Colloidal characteristics of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids were studied. Neutralized heavy oil residue exhibits surface-active properties and contains an ultradisperse filler. Analysis of the compositions by size-exclusion-chromatography shows deep structural changes in the heavy acid residue upon neutralization with calcium carbonate.

  13. Fate of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in activated sludge plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmink, B.G.; Klapwijk, A.

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring data were collected in a pilot-scale municipal activated sludge plant to assess the fate of the C12-homologue of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS-C12). The pilot-plant was operated at influent LAS-C12 concentrations between 2 and 12 mg/l and at sludge retention times of 10 and 27

  14. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, and either urine or expired water. The data were then an...

  15. The influence of solvent stress on MMS-induced genetic change in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F K; Rohlfs, A

    1991-01-01

    MMS induced mitotic recombination but not mitotic chromosome loss when tested in pure form in strain D61.M of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, confirming previous results of Albertini (1991), whereas in Aspergillus nidulans it also induced chromosomal malsegregation in addition to mitotic recombination (Käfer, 1988). However, induction of mitotic chromosome loss was observed in combination with strong inducers of chromosome loss such as the aprotic polar solvents ethyl acetate and to a lesser extent methyl ethyl ketone but not with gamma-valerolactone and propionitrile. In addition to this, 4 solvents, dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dioxane and pyridine, enhanced the MMS-induced mitotic recombination in strain D61.M. An enhancement of MMS-induced mitotic recombination and reverse mutation could be demonstrated for ethyl acetate and gamma-valerolactone in yeast strain D7.

  16. Experience gained in running the EPRI MMS code with an in-house simulation language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The EPRI Modular Modeling System (MMS) code represents a collection of component models and a steam/water properties package. This code has undergone extensive verification and validation testing. Currently, the code requires a commercially available simulation language to run. The Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) has been modeling power plant systems for over the past sixteen years. As a result, an extensive number of models have been developed. In addition, an extensive amount of experience has been developed and gained using an in-house simulation language. The objective of this study was to explore the possibility of developing an MMS pre-processor which would allow the use of the MMS package with other simulation languages such as the PECO in-house simulation language

  17. Proton exchange membranes from sulfonated polyetheretherketone and sulfonated polyethersulfone-cardo blends: Conductivity, water sorption and permeation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yongli; Nguyen, Quang Trong; Schaetzel, Pierre; Lixon-Buquet, Camille; Colasse, Laurent; Ratieuville, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Five blend membranes were prepared by solvent evaporation from solutions of the synthesized sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) and sulfonated polyethersulfone-cardo (SPESc). Their ion exchange capacity and degree of sulfonation determined by acid–base titration and by thermogravimetric analysis were consistent. The blends glass transition behavior obtained by differential scanning calorimetry suggests that the two sulfonated polymers are compatible in the whole composition range. The values of the activation energy for proton transport determined by conductivity measurements on the SPEEK-based blend membranes were in the range of 13–34 kJ mol −1 , which suggest a mixed transport mechanism that involves both proton jumps on ionic sites and water of hydration and diffusion of proton–water complex in hydrophilic domains. The water vapor sorption in the membranes exhibits sigmoid-shape isotherms which were well fitted by the “new dual mode sorption” model, and the fitted parameters values were successfully used to model the change in the water permeation flux with the upstream water activity using the first Fick's diffusion equation. The fast increase in the permeation flux beyond a critical value of activity (0.5) was owing to the exponential concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient. These modelings allowed us to show a strong increase in the limit diffusion coefficient of water and a decrease in the water-diffusion plasticization coefficient with the SPEEK content in the polymer blends

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone (SPEEK was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  19. Investigating the anatomy of magnetosheath jets - MMS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Tomas; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Hietala, Heli; Archer, Martin; Blanco-Cano, Xóchitl; Kajdič, Primož; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Marklund, Göran; Gershman, Daniel J.

    2018-04-01

    We use Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) mission data to investigate a small number of magnetosheath jets, which are localized and transient increases in dynamic pressure, typically due to a combined increase in plasma velocity and density. For two approximately hour-long intervals in November, 2015 we found six jets, which are of two distinct types. (a) Two of the jets are associated with the magnetic field discontinuities at the boundary between the quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. Straddling the boundary, the leading part of these jets contains an ion population similar to the quasi-parallel magnetosheath, while the trailing part contains ion populations similar to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. Both populations are, however, cooler than the surrounding ion populations. These two jets also have clear increases in plasma density and magnetic field strength, correlated with a velocity increase. (b) Three of the jets are found embedded within the quasi-parallel magnetosheath. They contain ion populations similar to the surrounding quasi-parallel magnetosheath, but with a lower temperature. Out of these three jets, two have a simple structure. For these two jets, the increases in density and magnetic field strength are correlated with the dynamic pressure increases. The other jet has a more complicated structure, and no clear correlations between density, magnetic field strength and dynamic pressure. This jet has likely interacted with the magnetosphere, and contains ions similar to the jets inside the quasi-parallel magnetosheath, but shows signs of adiabatic heating. All jets are associated with emissions of whistler, lower hybrid, and broadband electrostatic waves, as well as approximately 10 s period electromagnetic waves with a compressional component. The latter have a Poynting flux of up to 40 µW m-2 and may be energetically important for the evolution of the jets, depending on the wave excitation mechanism. Only one of the jets is

  20. Investigating the anatomy of magnetosheath jets – MMS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karlsson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We use Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS mission data to investigate a small number of magnetosheath jets, which are localized and transient increases in dynamic pressure, typically due to a combined increase in plasma velocity and density. For two approximately hour-long intervals in November, 2015 we found six jets, which are of two distinct types. (a Two of the jets are associated with the magnetic field discontinuities at the boundary between the quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. Straddling the boundary, the leading part of these jets contains an ion population similar to the quasi-parallel magnetosheath, while the trailing part contains ion populations similar to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. Both populations are, however, cooler than the surrounding ion populations. These two jets also have clear increases in plasma density and magnetic field strength, correlated with a velocity increase. (b Three of the jets are found embedded within the quasi-parallel magnetosheath. They contain ion populations similar to the surrounding quasi-parallel magnetosheath, but with a lower temperature. Out of these three jets, two have a simple structure. For these two jets, the increases in density and magnetic field strength are correlated with the dynamic pressure increases. The other jet has a more complicated structure, and no clear correlations between density, magnetic field strength and dynamic pressure. This jet has likely interacted with the magnetosphere, and contains ions similar to the jets inside the quasi-parallel magnetosheath, but shows signs of adiabatic heating. All jets are associated with emissions of whistler, lower hybrid, and broadband electrostatic waves, as well as approximately 10 s period electromagnetic waves with a compressional component. The latter have a Poynting flux of up to 40 µW m−2 and may be energetically important for the evolution of the jets, depending on the wave excitation

  1. Use of multimedia messaging system (MMS) by junior doctors for scan image transmission in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Ji Min; Lim, Kim Zhuan; Ng, Wai Hoe

    2012-02-01

    Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is used by neurosurgical residents to transmit scan images to the attending neurosurgeon in conjunction with telephone consultation. This service has been well received by the attending neurosurgeons, who felt that after viewing scan images on their phones, they felt increased confidence in clinical decision making and that it reduced the need for recall to the hospital. The use of MMS can be extended to junior doctors making referrals from regional hospitals with no neurosurgical cover. This study aims to validate the competency of non-neurosurgically trained junior doctors in selecting optimal images to transmit via MMS to the attending neurosurgeon on call. Ten junior doctors with no formal neurosurgical training and five neurosurgical residents were interviewed. They were shown the full complement of images together with relevant clinical history and assessment. They were then asked to make the radiological diagnosis and then select two images for MMS transmission to the attending neurosurgeon that they thought would best aid the neurosurgeon in clinical decision making. The attending neurosurgeon was asked to comment, on each image, whether his management plan would differ if he was shown the entire series of the images. All the images chosen are deemed appropriate, and the decision made based on the MMS images would be similar if the entire series of images were available to the neurosurgeon. However, 7 of 10 junior doctors were unable to read magnetic resonance images of lumbar spine. There was no significant difference in the images chosen by the neurosurgical residents and the junior doctors. It is feasible and safe for junior doctors to utilize MMS to transmit computed tomographic images to a neurosurgeon while making an urgent referral. The images selected are representative of the disease pathology and facilitate clinical decision making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 30 CFR 206.361 - How will MMS determine whether my royalty or direct use fee payments are correct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electricity or the sale of a geothermal resource, in conducting reviews and audits MMS will examine whether... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources... royalties or direct use fees that you report are subject to monitoring, review, and audit. The MMS may...

  3. 30 CFR 285.109 - When must I notify MMS of mergers, name changes, or changes of business form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... business form? You must notify MMS in writing of any merger, name change, or change of business form. You must notify MMS as soon as practicable following the merger, name change, or change in business form..., or changes of business form? 285.109 Section 285.109 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE...

  4. An Innovative Aperture Cover Mechanism Used on SDO/EVE and MMS/SDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steg, Stephen; Vermeer, William; Tucker, Scott; Passe, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aperture cover mechanism that was successfully flown in four locations on SDO/EVE, and is awaiting launch in sixteen locations on MMS. This design uses a paraffin actuator and a latch that secures the cover closed and removes the actuator from the load path. This latch allows the assembly to operate both as a light weight contamination cover (SDO/EVE), and also as a high-strength sensor restraint mechanism (MMS/SDP). The paper provides design/analysis/test information about the mechanism.

  5. The PROMETHEE multiple criteria decision making analysis for selecting the best membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ketone)s and poly(ether sulfone)s for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikouei, Mohammad Ali; Oroujzadeh, Maryam; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane as the heart of fuel cell has been the topic of many research activities in recent years. Finding a suitable alternative for Nafion membranes is one of the most important issues of interest. This study is dedicated to sulfonated poly(ether ketone) and poly(ether sulfone) membranes. For synthesis of these two groups of polymers, two different isomeric biphenols (meta- and para-) were used and each group of membranes with three different degree of sulfonation (25, 35, and 45%) was synthesized. In this way, twelve different membrane samples were obtained and their properties were evaluated. Since each membrane had some strong and some weak points of properties in comparison to the other ones, using a rational analysis for choosing the best membrane between prepared samples was inevitable. For this purpose a PROMETHEE based multiple criteria decision making approach was applied and for evaluation of the weight of each criterion, Shannon entropy method was used. Final results showed that poly(ether ketone) membranes in selected criteria were better than poly(ether sulfone) membranes and as expected, membranes with the highest degree of sulfonation (45%) were placed at the top ranking levels. - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly(ether ketone)s and Poly(ether sulfone)s were synthesized. • Related membranes for PEMFC were prepared. • The properties of membranes were measured. • Multiple criteria decision making approach was used to ranking the membranes. • PROMETHEE based approach selected poly(ether ketone)s as better choices.

  6. 30 CFR 250.183 - When may MMS or the Secretary extend or cancel a lease at the development and production stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS or the Secretary extend or cancel... When may MMS or the Secretary extend or cancel a lease at the development and production stage? (a) MMS..., the Secretary will cancel the lease: (1) When the 5-year period in paragraph (a)(1) of this section...

  7. Quantitative proteome-level analysis of paulownia witches’ broom disease with methyl methane sulfonate assistance reveals diverse metabolic changes during the infection and recovery processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Paulownia witches’ broom (PaWB disease caused by phytoplasma is a fatal disease that leads to considerable economic losses. Although there are a few reports describing studies of PaWB pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying phytoplasma pathogenicity in Paulownia trees remain uncharacterized. In this study, after building a transcriptome database containing 67,177 sequences, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ to quantify and analyze the proteome-level changes among healthy P. fortunei (PF, PaWB-infected P. fortunei (PFI, and PaWB-infected P. fortunei treated with 20 mg L−1 or 60 mg L−1 methyl methane sulfonate (MMS (PFI-20 and PFI-60, respectively. A total of 2,358 proteins were identified. We investigated the proteins profiles in PF vs. PFI (infected process and PFI-20 vs. PFI-60 (recovered process, and further found that many of the MMS-response proteins mapped to “photosynthesis” and “ribosome” pathways. Based on our comparison scheme, 36 PaWB-related proteins were revealed. Among them, 32 proteins were classified into three functional groups: (1 carbohydrate and energy metabolism, (2 protein synthesis and degradation, and (3 stress resistance. We then investigated the PaWB-related proteins involved in the infected and recovered processes, and discovered that carbohydrate and energy metabolism was inhibited, and protein synthesis and degradation decreased, as the plant responded to PaWB. Our observations may be useful for characterizing the proteome-level changes that occur at different stages of PaWB disease. The data generated in this study may serve as a valuable resource for elucidating the pathogenesis of PaWB disease during phytoplasma infection and recovery stages.

  8. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. C. MOTTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase in the sulfonated polystyrene content decreased the elasticity modulus of the mortar and, despite higher porosity, there was a reduction of water absorption by capillarity. In relation to mortar without admixture, the modified mortar showed an increase in water retention and consistency index, and a large increase in flexural strength and bond tensile strength. The significant increase of bond tensile strength (214% with admixture 1% highlights the potential of the produced material as an adhesive mortar.

  9. Alkyl Substitution Effect on Oxidation Stability of Sulfone-Based Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chi-Cheung [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave. Argonne IL 60439 USA; He, Meinan [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave. Argonne IL 60439 USA; Redfern, Paul [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave. Argonne IL 60439 USA; Curtiss, Larry A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave. Argonne IL 60439 USA; Liao, Chen [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave. Argonne IL 60439 USA; Zhang, Lu [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave. Argonne IL 60439 USA; Burrell, Anthony K. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave. Argonne IL 60439 USA; Zhang, Zhengcheng [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave. Argonne IL 60439 USA

    2016-02-16

    Organic sulfone compounds have been widely used as high-voltage electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries for decades. However, owing to the complexity of the synthesis of new sulfones, only a few commercially available sulfones have been studied. In this paper, we report the synthesis of new sulfone compounds with various substituent groups and the impact of the substituent group on the oxidation stability of sulfones. Electrochemical floating tests using a 5 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel cathode and density functional theory calculations showed that the cyclopentyl-substituted sulfone McPS suffered from oxidation instability, starting from 4.9 V versus Li+/Li, as observed by the large leakage currents. On the other hand, the isopropyl-substituted sulfone MiPS and tetramethylene substituted sulfone TMS showed much improved oxidation stability under identical testing conditions. The substitution structure of the sulfone plays a significant role in the determination of its oxidative stability and should first be considered for the development of new sulfone-based electrolytes for high-voltage, high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Poly(oxyethylene) electrolytes based on lithium pentafluorobenzene sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, E.; Iojoiu, C.; Alloin, F.; Guindet, J.; Sanchez, J.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium pentafluorobenzene sulfonate was synthesized by a protocol whereby pollution by aromatic nucleophilic substitutions on the perfluorinated ring was avoided. Its poly(oxyethylene) complexes, although less conductive than lithium imide complexes, provided cationic transference numbers higher than 0.5. Surprisingly, even at fairly low concentrations, this salt markedly increased the mechanical properties of the polymer electrolyte. This effect was attributed to telechelic interactions of the ion pairs with distinct polyether chains and is in agreement with the high cationic transference numbers

  11. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate...... to various degrees. Series of grafting densities and graft lengths are prepared, and membranes are solvent cast from DMSO. The membrane properties in aqueous environments are evaluated from their water swelling behavior, and their thermal properties and stability are investigated by thermogravimetric...

  12. Lauryl alkylbenzene sulfonates in the urban water cycle (Toulouse, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, Audrey; Vignoles, Christian; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille

    2010-01-01

    Application of the European Water Framework Directive requires Member States to have better understanding of the quality of surface waters in order to improve knowledge of priority pollutants. Xenobiotics in urban receiving waters are an emerging concern. This study proposes a screening campaign of laurylalkylbenzene sulfonates in a separated sewer system. An analytical method by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection was developed providing ...

  13. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    OpenAIRE

    MOTTA,L. A. C.; VIEIRA,J. G.; OMENA,T. H.; FARIA,F. A. C.; RODRIGUES FILHO,G.; ASSUNÇÃO,R. M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase...

  14. Nucleophilic tetrafluoroethylation of carbonyl compounds with fluorinated sulfones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jiří; Chernykh, Yana; Jurásek, Bronislav; Beier, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 169, Jan (2015), s. 24-31 ISSN 0022-1139 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0421 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED3.2.00/08.0144; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fluorine * tetrafluoroethylation * sulfones * nucleophilic addition * carbonyl compounds Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.213, year: 2015

  15. Different action of MMS and EMS in UV-sensitive strains of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babudri, N; Politi, M G

    1989-05-01

    The repair of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) damages has been investigated in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. 4 UV-sensitive mutants, namely uvsB, uvsD, uvsF and uvsH have been tested for their sensitivity and mutability to the above-mentioned agents. The results obtained show that: (1) uvsB and uvsD mutants are no more sensitive than the wild-type strain to the lethal action of EMS. In contrast, they are more sensitive to MMS; (2) uvsF and uvsH mutants are more sensitive than the wild type to EMS at 37 degrees C but not at 20 degrees C. However, they are more sensitive than the wild type to MMS at 37 degrees C as well as at 20 degrees C; (3) the mutation frequencies after treatment with either MMS or EMS plotted against survival are not altered in the UV-sensitive strains compared to the wild-type strain. From these data it may be concluded that the repair of lethal lesions induced by ethylating and methylating agents is under the control of different pathways. Furthermore the mutants tested are not involved in the mutagenic process.

  16. MMS induction of different types of genetic damage in Aspergillus nidulans: a comparative analysis in mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, G; Bellincampi, D; Puppo, S

    1979-09-01

    Methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) was used to test the induction of gene mutation, somatic crossing-over and mitotic non-disjunction in A. nidulans. Gene mutation was tested by inducing mutants resistant to 8-azaguanine and revertants of methG1 in a haploid strain. Somatic crossing-over was tested in heterozygous diploids, both with a selective method, i.e. inducing homozygosis to FPA resistance in a heterozygous fpa A1/+ strain, and with a non-selective method, i.e. identifying the frequencies of colour sectors. This latter method was also used to estimate the induction of non-disjunction because additional markers were present which permitted us to distinguish the two types of colour segregant. Generally, 3 different experimental procedures were used, namely the "plate test", i.e. plating of conidia in agar media containing MMS, and two types of "liquid test", i.e. brief treatment of quiescent or pre-germinated conidia in MMS solution before they were plated on agar media. Point mutations were induced with about equal efficiency with each method, whereas crossing-over was induced preferentially when germinating conidia were exposed to MMS. On the other hand, non-disjunction was induced in germinating and quiescent spores with equal efficiency, but such segregants were not recovered with the selective (fpa) method. The results are discussed for both their practical use in the mutagenic testing procedure and their theoretical implication.

  17. 30 CFR 285.907 - How will MMS process my decommissioning application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application? 285.907 Section 285.907 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Applications § 285.907 How will MMS process my decommissioning application? (a...

  18. 30 CFR 250.195 - What notification does MMS require on the production status of wells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the well in a production status. You must confirm oral notification by telefax or e-mail within those... production status of wells? 250.195 Section 250.195 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Information and Reporting Requirements § 250.195 What notification does MMS require on the production status...

  19. 30 CFR 285.231 - How will MMS process my unsolicited request for a noncompetitive lease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a noncompetitive lease? 285.231 Section 285.231 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... described in §§ 285.640 through 285.648. (e) The MMS will coordinate and consult with affected Federal.... (1) Within 10 business days after you receive the lease copies you must: (i) Execute the lease; (ii...

  20. 30 CFR 203.74 - When will MMS reconsider its determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Pre-Act Deep Water Leases and for Development and Expansion Projects § 203.74 When will MMS... information (but not reinterpreting old data); (2) Did not exist at the time of the earlier application; and... equivalent market conditions, of the field or lease relative to the development system proposed in the prior...

  1. Attitude Ground System (AGS) for the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Juan C.; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Vint, Babak

    2015-01-01

    MMS Overview Recall from Conrads presentation earlier today MMS launch: March 13, 2015 on an Atlas V from Space Launch Complex 40, Cape Canaveral, Florida MMS Observatory Separation: five minute intervals spinning at 3 rpm approximately 1.5 hours after launch MMS Science Goals: study magnetospheric plasma physics and understand the processes that cause power grids, communication disruptions and Aurora formation Mission: 4 identical spacecraft in tetrahedral formation with variable size1.2 x 12 RE in Phase 1, with apogee on dayside to observe bow shock1.2 x 25 RE in Phase 2, with apogee on night side to observe magneto tail Challenges Tight attitude control box, orbit and formation maintenance requirements Maneuvers on thrusters every two weeks Delta-H Spin axis direction and spin rate maintenance Delta-V Orbit and Formation maintenance Mission phase transitions AGS support Smart targeting prediction of Spin-Axis attitude in the presence of environmental torques to stay within the science attitude Determination of the spacecraft attitude and spin rate (sensitive to knowledge of inertia tensor)Calibrations to improve attitude determination results and improve orbit maneuvers Mass properties (Center of Mass, and inertia tensor for nutation and coning) Accelerometer bias (sensitive to the accuracy of the rate estimates) Sensor alignments.

  2. No-observed effect levels are associated with up-regulation of MGMT following MMS exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Shareen H; Brüsehafer, Katja; Dudley, Ed; Quick, Emma; Johnson, George; Newton, Russell P; Jenkins, Gareth J S

    2008-12-15

    The alkylating agents methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) have non-linear dose-response curves, with a no-observed effect level (NOEL) and a lowest observed effect level (LOEL) for both gross chromosomal damage and mutagenicity. However, the biological mechanism responsible for the NOEL has yet to be identified. A strong candidate is DNA repair as it may be able to efficiently remove alkyl adducts at low doses resulting in a NOEL, but at higher doses fails to fully remove all lesions due to saturation of enzymatic activity resulting in a LOEL and subsequent linear increases in mutagenicity. We therefore assessed the transcriptional status of N-methylpurine-DNA glycoslase (MPG) and O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), which represent the first line of defence following exposure to alkylating agents through the respective enzymatic removal of N7-alkylG and O(6)-alkylG. The relative MPG and MGMT gene expression profiles were assessed by real-time RT-PCR following exposure to 0-2 microg/ml MMS for 1-24h. MPG expression remained fairly steady, but in contrast significant up-regulation of MGMT was observed when cells were treated with 0.5 and 1.0 microg/ml MMS for 4h (2.5- and 6.5-fold increases respectively). These doses lie within the NOEL for MMS mutagenicity (LOEL is 1.25 microg/ml), thus this boost in MGMT expression at low doses may be responsible for efficiently repairing O(6)methylG lesions and creating the non-linear response for mutations. However, as the LOEL for MMS clastogenicity is 0.85 microg/ml, O(6)-alkylG is unlikely to be responsible for the clastogenicity observed at these concentrations. Consequently, at low doses N7-methylG is possibly the predominant cause of MMS clastogenicity, while O(6)-methylG is more likely to be responsible for MMS mutagenicity, with MGMT up-regulation playing a key role in removal of O(6)-alkylG lesions before they are fixed as permanent point mutations, resulting in non-linear dose

  3. MMS-induced primary aneuploidy and other genotoxic effects in mitotic cells of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käfer, E

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of more than 1 target for genotoxic effects of methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) was investigated, using mitotic test systems of the fungus Aspergillus. Haploid and diploid strains were exposed, either as dormant conidia or during mitosis, and analysed for induced aneuploidy and effects on genetic segregation. MMS treatment of haploid strains resulted in dose-dependent increases of stable mutants with altered phenotypes and semi-stable unbalanced aberrations (presumably duplications). In addition, but only in dividing cells, MMS induced unstable aneuploids. These mostly were hyperhaploid with few extra chromosomes and could be identified by comparison with standard disomic phenotypes. When well-marked diploids were treated 3 types of effect could be distinguished, using genetic and phenotypic criteria: (1) Clastogenic and mutagenic effects which caused dose-dependent increases of partial aneuploids with various abnormal phenotypes. These showed secondary genetic segregation of all types and produced euploid normal sectors by eliminating damaged chromosome segments. In addition, but only in dividing nuclei, MMS induced 2 types of segregation: (2) Reciprocal crossing-over at high frequency, recognisable as half or quarter colonies of mutant colour and in some cases as 'twin spots' (i.e., complementary pairs); (3) Trisomics and other aneuploids which showed characteristic phenotypes and expected segregation of markers: the types recovered indicate random malsegregation of chromosomes (occasional deviations resulted from coincidence with induced crossing-over). These results suggest that MMS may have 2 (or more) targets for genotoxic effects: DNA, as evident from induced mutations and aberrations, and from induced recombination in dividing cells; some non-DNA target (nucleotide or protein) essential for nuclear division and susceptible to alkylation, resulting in malsegregation and primary aneuploidy.

  4. Investigation of tenuous plasma environment using Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) on Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Jeszenszky, Harald; Torkar, Klaus; Andriopoulou, Maria; Fremuth, Gerhard; Taijmar, Martin; Scharlemann, Carsten; Svenes, Knut; Escoubet, Philippe; Prattes, Gustav; Laky, Gunter; Giner, Franz; Hoelzl, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    The NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission is planned to be launched on March 12, 2015. The scientific objectives of the MMS mission are to explore and understand the fundamental plasma physics processes of magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration and turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere. The region of scientific interest of MMS is in a tenuous plasma environment where the positive spacecraft potential reaches an equilibrium at several tens of Volts. An Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) instrument neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. ASPOC thereby reduces the potential in order to improve the electric field and low-energy particle measurement. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each of the MMS spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for MMS includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics enabling lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. A perfectly stable spacecraft potential precludes the utilization of the spacecraft as a plasma probe, which is a conventional technique used to estimate ambient plasma density from the spacecraft potential. The small residual variations of the potential controlled by ASPOC, however, still allow to determine ambient plasma density by comparing two closely separated spacecraft and thereby reconstructing the uncontrolled potential variation from the controlled potential. Regular intercalibration of controlled and uncontrolled potentials is expected to increase the reliability of this new method.

  5. The University Münster Model Surgery System for Orthognathic Surgery. Part II -- KD-MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmer, Ulrike; Joos, Ulrich; Ziebura, Thomas; Flieger, Stefanie; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2013-01-04

    Model surgery is an integral part of the planning procedure in orthognathic surgery. Most concepts comprise cutting the dental cast off its socket. The standardized spacer plates of the KD-MMS provide for a non-destructive, reversible and reproducible means of maxillary and/or mandibular plaster cast separation. In the course of development of the system various articulator types were evaluated with regard to their capability to provide a means of realizing the concepts comprised of the KD-MMS. Special attention was dedicated to the ability to perform three-dimensional displacements without cutting of plaster casts. Various utilities were developed to facilitate maxillary displacement in accordance to the planning. Objectives of this development comprised the ability to implement the values established in the course of two-dimensional ceph planning. The system - KD-MMS comprises a set of hardware components as well as a defined procedure. Essential hardware components are red spacer and blue mounting plates. The blue mounting plates replace the standard yellow SAM mounting elements. The red spacers provide for a defined leeway of 8 mm for three-dimensional movements. The non-destructive approach of the KD-MMS makes it possible to conduct different model surgeries with the same plaster casts as well as to restore the initial, pre-surgical situation at any time. Thereby, surgical protocol generation and gnathologic splint construction are facilitated. The KD-MMS hardware components in conjunction with the defined procedures are capable of increasing efficiency and accuracy of model surgery and splint construction. In cases where different surgical approaches need to be evaluated in the course of model surgery, a significant reduction of chair time may be achieved.

  6. The Replisome-Coupled E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Rtt101Mms22 Counteracts Mrc1 Function to Tolerate Genotoxic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Faithful DNA replication and repair requires the activity of cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL4, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The budding yeast Cul4 homologue, Rtt101, in complex with the linker Mms1 and the putative substrate adaptor Mms22 promotes progression of replication forks through damaged DNA. Here we characterized the interactome of Mms22 and found that the Rtt101(Mms22 ligase associates with the replisome progression complex during S-phase via the amino-terminal WD40 domain of Ctf4. Moreover, genetic screening for suppressors of the genotoxic sensitivity of rtt101Δ cells identified a cluster of replication proteins, among them a component of the fork protection complex, Mrc1. In contrast to rtt101Δ and mms22Δ cells, mrc1Δ rtt101Δ and mrc1Δ mms22Δ double mutants complete DNA replication upon replication stress by facilitating the repair/restart of stalled replication forks using a Rad52-dependent mechanism. Our results suggest that the Rtt101(Mms22 E3 ligase does not induce Mrc1 degradation, but specifically counteracts Mrc1's replicative function, possibly by modulating its interaction with the CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS complex at stalled forks.

  7. IR Laser Ablative Degradation of Poly(phenylene ether sulfone): Deposition of Films Containing Sulfone, Sulfoxide and Sulfide Groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blazevska-Gilev, J.; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Stopka, Pavel; Pola, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 2 (2009), s. 196-200 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : laser ablation * laser-induced degradation * poly(1,4-phenylene ether-sulfone) Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2009

  8. Sulfonation and characterization of styrene-indene copolymers for the development of proton conducting polymer membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the content of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride. The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.

  9. Uptake and utilization of sulfonic acids in the cyanobacterial strains Anabaena variabilis and Plectonema 73110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedlingmaier, S.; Schmidt, A.

    1987-01-01

    Growth of several cyanobacteria was examined on ethane sulfonate and taurine as only sulfur source. Comparing two strains with differential utilization of sulfonic acids (Anabaena variabilis and Synechococcus 6301) demonstrated that actual growth was coupled to the presence of an active sulfonate transport system due to species specific properties and nutritional conditions. Sulfonate uptake in Anabaena variabilis was characterized by a pH optimum of 6.5, a structural specificity for sulfonates, missing Na + dependence, and phosphate stimulation. Radiolabeled ethane sulfonate and taurine was metabolized to products of normal sulfur metabolism. Also considerable amounts of 35 S-labeled volatiles (mercaptanes and sulfide) could be detected, suggesting a degradation mechanism via reduction to mercaptanes and cleavage of the C-S bond. (orig.)

  10. Poly (ether ether ketone) derivatives: Synthetic route and characterization of nitrated and sulfonated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, T.F.; Bertolino, J.R.; Barra, G.M.O.; Pires, A.T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrated and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) [SNPEEK] samples were prepared through sulfonation of nitrated PEEK (NPEEK) at different temperatures resulting in polymers with distinct sulfonation degrees (SD). The sulfonation occurred preferentially in the hydroquinone segment even after 81% of this moiety had been nitrated. Sulfonation in the benzophenone moiety was achieved only in 16% of this segment at the reaction temperature of 80 deg. C. The substitution degree was obtained through the TG curves, and values were in agreement with 1 H NMR data when SD is much higher as ND (nitration degree). The highest SD obtained was 72%. Membranes of the sulfonated and nitrated PEEK (SNPEEK) were prepared by casting and showed good ductility depending on the substitution degree, with proton conductivity in the order of 10 -2 S cm -1 , an important characteristic in some applications, such as in fuel cells

  11. Polymer sulfonation- a versatile route to prepare proton-conducting membrane material for advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, S.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfonation of polymers is a viable method for making proton exchange membranes used in electrochemical devices. Polyether-ether ketone was modified by using concentrated sulfuric acid (97.4%) to produce ion-containing polymers bearing HSO3 groups. The sulfonated polymer was characterized for IEC, HNMR, DSC and water uptake etc. The degree of sulfonation of sulfonated PEEK was found to vary from 40 to 80 mol%. The PEEK became amorphous after sufonation (as evidenced from DSC and WXRD), which enhanced its solubility in organic solvents such as DMF. The glass transition temperature, Tg increased from 151C for pure PEEK to 217C upon sulfonation. The water uptake was also increased with sulfonation level, which provides formation of water-mediated pathways for protons involving SO3H groups. The membranes from these polymers have a high potential for use in electrochemical devices such as polymer fuel cell and electrodialysis. (author)

  12. Poly (ether ether ketone) derivatives: Synthetic route and characterization of nitrated and sulfonated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceicao, T.F.; Bertolino, J.R. [Grupo de Estudo em Materiais Polimericos-Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Barra, G.M.O. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Pires, A.T.N. [Grupo de Estudo em Materiais Polimericos-Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: alfredotiburcio@pq.cnpq.br

    2009-03-01

    Nitrated and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) [SNPEEK] samples were prepared through sulfonation of nitrated PEEK (NPEEK) at different temperatures resulting in polymers with distinct sulfonation degrees (SD). The sulfonation occurred preferentially in the hydroquinone segment even after 81% of this moiety had been nitrated. Sulfonation in the benzophenone moiety was achieved only in 16% of this segment at the reaction temperature of 80 deg. C. The substitution degree was obtained through the TG curves, and values were in agreement with {sup 1}H NMR data when SD is much higher as ND (nitration degree). The highest SD obtained was 72%. Membranes of the sulfonated and nitrated PEEK (SNPEEK) were prepared by casting and showed good ductility depending on the substitution degree, with proton conductivity in the order of 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1}, an important characteristic in some applications, such as in fuel cells.

  13. Two-step sulfonation process for the conversion of polymer fibers to carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bryan E.; Patton, Jasson T.; Hukkanen, Eric J.; Bernius, Mark T.

    2017-11-14

    Disclosed herein are processes for preparing carbon fibers, comprising: sulfonating a polymer fiber with a sulfonating agent that is fuming sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, or a combination thereof; treating the sulfonated polymer with a heated solvent, wherein the temperature of the heated solvent is at least 95.degree. C.; and carbonizing the resulting product by heating it to a temperature of 501-3000.degree. C. Carbon fibers prepared according to these methods are also disclosed herein.

  14. Sulfonated phenolic material and its use in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardue, J. E.; Stapp, P. R.

    1984-09-04

    Sulfonated phenolic compounds as well as sulfomethylated phenolic compounds, surfactant systems containing such compound and the use of such surfactant systems in post primary oil recovery are disclosed.

  15. Preparation and study of novel poly(sulfone-ester-amide)s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruma, M. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Isai (Romania)], Mercer, F. [Raychem Corporation, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gronewald, S. [Southwest Texas State Univ., San Marcos, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A series of novel poly(ester-amide)s containing sulfone groups in the main chain have been prepared and compared with related polymers which do not have sulfone bridges. Incorporation of sulfone moieties into the polymer backbone improved the solubility of these polymers without significant loss of their high thermal stability, and provided a large {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} between T{sub g} and decomposition temperature. Solutions of poly(sulfone-ester-amide)s in NMP have been cast into flexible films, having low dielectric constant. The synthesis and characterization of these new polymers will be presented.

  16. A study of the effect of polystyrene sulfonation on the performance of terephthaloyl chloride-dihydroxydiphenyl sulfone copolymer/polystyrene system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, R.; Kahn, K. A.; Ali, S. A.; Hamid, S. H.; Sahin, A. Z.

    1998-12-01

    Thermal, morphological, and mechanical properties of composites of a liquid crystalline copolymer (LCP) poly(terephthaloyl chloride)-co-(p,p’-dihydroxydiphenyl sulfone) with polystyrene (PS) and sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) are presented and discussed. Sulfonation of polystyrene was expected to improve the interfacial adhesion by introducing hydrogen bonding in the LCP/PS system. The degree of sulfonation was 11 %. The incompatibility (lack of proper interfacial adhesion) of the LCP/PS system resulted in sharp decrease in the composite tensile strength with LCP addition. The performance of the system did not change when processed at a higher temperature (270 °C instead of 225 °C). While a composite plate of 25% LCP/PS could not be fabricated, it was possible for LCP/SPS (processed at 215 °C), indicating some improvement in interfacial bonding by sulfonation. Sulfonation of PS resulted in fracture with some degree of plastic deformation for pure SPS matrix and also the LCP/SPS system with the lowest LCP content (1 wt%), whereas plastic deformation was not observed for PS used as received. The strength of the LCP/SPS system also decreased with increase in LCP content, indicating that 11% sulfonation is not sufficient to introduce significant compatibility, but it was not as dramatic as that for LCP/PS. The performance of the LCP/SPS system was not affected significantly by heat treatment at the process temperature.

  17. Alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a wave of global protein hyperacetylation: Implications in cancer cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Myoung-Ae; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Park, Joo-In; Kwak, Jong-Young; Chung, Jay H.; Yun, Jeanho

    2007-01-01

    Protein acetylation modification has been implicated in many cellular processes but the direct evidence for the involvement of protein acetylation in signal transduction is very limited. In the present study, we found that an alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) induces a robust and reversible hyperacetylation of both cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins during the early phase of the cellular response to MMS. Notably, the acetylation level upon MMS treatment was strongly correlated with the susceptibility of cancer cells, and the enhancement of MMS-induced acetylation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors was shown to increase the cellular susceptibility. These results suggest protein acetylation is important for the cell death signal transduction pathway and indicate that the use of HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of cancer is relevant

  18. Motion of the MMS Spacecraft Relative to the Magnetic Reconnection Structure Observed on 16 October 2015 at 1307 UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, R. E.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Hasegawa, H.; Phan, T. D.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R.; Giles, B. L.; Gershman, D.; Torbert, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze a magnetopause crossing by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft at 1307 UT on 16 October 2016 that showed features of electron-scale reconnection. For this event, we find orthonormal LMN coordinates from the magnetic field, with N and L varying respectively along the maximum gradient and maximum variance directions. We find the motion along N from the Spatio-Temporal Difference analysis and motion along L from measured particle velocities. We locate the position of the magnetic X point, finding that MMS-4 passed within about 1A km from the X point and that MMS-3 and MMS-2 passed within about 1.7 km and 2.4 km, respectively, from the position of maximum out of plane current.

  19. Polyether sulfone/hydroxyapatite mixed matrix membranes for protein purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junfen, E-mail: junfensun@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Material Science and Engineering, Donghua University, North People Road 2999, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wu, Lishun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Heze University, Daxue Road 2269, Heze, Shandong Province 274015 (China)

    2014-07-01

    This work proposes a novel approach for protein purification from solution using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprising of hydroxyapatite (HAP) inside polyether sulfone (PES) matrix. The influence of HAP particle loading on membrane morphology is studied. The MMMs are further characterized concerning permeability and adsorption capacity. The MMMs show purification of protein via both diffusion as well as adsorption, and show the potential of using MMMs for improvements in protein purification techniques. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein. The properties and structures of MMMs prepared by immersion phase separation process were characterized by pure water flux, BSA adsorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  20. Properties of sulfonated cation-exchangers made from petroleum asphaltites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokonova, Yu.V.; Pol'kin, G.B.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The use of ion-exchangers in radiochemical technology is accompanied by changes of their properties under the influence of ionizing radiation. The rate of development of these processes depends on the nature and structure of the matrix and on the nature and amount of ionic groups. We have proposed a method of synthesis of ion-exchangers resistant to γ radiation from petroleum asphaltites. Continuing these investigations, we prepared cation-exchangers by sulfonation of a mixture of petroleum asphaltites and acid asphalt. An investigation of their radiation resistance is described in this paper

  1. HYDRATION AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF BLENDED CEMENT WITH SODIUM POLYSTYRENE SULFONATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifeng Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene foamed plastic wastes are a kind of environmental pollutant. It could be recycled in cement industry as a chemical agent. In this paper, the effects of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS on the hydration and microstructure of blended cement were investigated by calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP. SPS slightly delayed the hydration of alite and decreased its hydration degree. SPS did not change the phase compositions during hydration. SPS changed the morphology of ettringite (AFt and decreased the pore volumes and the sizes of pores.

  2. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt: synthesis, analytical detection, and pharmacokinetics in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirikolu, L; Karpiesiuk, W; Lehner, A F; Tobin, T

    2012-06-01

    Toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) is a triazine-based antiprotozoal agent with clinical application in the treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalomyelitis (EPM). In this study, we synthesized and determined the bioavailability of a sodium salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone that can be used for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM in horses. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was rapidly absorbed, with a mean peak plasma concentration of 2400 ± 169 (SEM) ng/mL occurring at 8 h after oral-mucosal dosing and was about 56% bioavailable compared with the i.v. administration of toltrazuril sulfone in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The relative bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone suspended in water compared with toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was 46%, indicating approximately 54% less oral bioavailability of this compound suspended in water. In this study, we also investigated whether this salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone can be used as a feed additive formulation without significant reduction in oral bioavailability. Our results indicated that toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt is relatively well absorbed when administered with feed with a mean oral bioavailability of 52%. Based on these data, repeated oral administration of toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt with or without feed will yield effective plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of toltrazuril sulfone for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and other protozoal diseases of horses and other species. As such, toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt has the potential to be used as feed additive formulations for both the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and various other apicomplexan diseases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Force Balance at the Magnetopause Determined with MMS: Application to Flux Transfer Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Petrinec, S. M.; Paterson, W. R.; Zhou, M.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Chutter, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) consists of four identical spacecraft forming a closely separated (less than or equal to 10 km) and nearly regular tetrahedron. This configuration enables the decoupling of spatial and temporal variations and allows the calculation of the spatial gradients of plasma and electromagnetic field quantities. We make full use of the well cross-calibrated MMS magnetometers and fast plasma instruments measurements to calculate both the magnetic and plasma forces in flux transfer events (FTEs) and evaluate the relative contributions of different forces to the magnetopause momentum variation. This analysis demonstrates that some but not all FTEs, consistent with previous studies, are indeed force-free structures in which the magnetic pressure force balances the magnetic curvature force. Furthermore, we contrast these events with FTE events that have non-force-free signatures.

  4. MMS Observations of the Evolution of Ion-Scale Flux Transfer Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Paterson, W.; Petrinec, S.; Zhou, M.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Chutter, M.; Fischer, D.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Le, G.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Slavin, J. A.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Flux transfer events are key processes in the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Previously, the observed flux transfer events have had scale sizes of 10,000 km radius in the cross-section and connect about 2 MWb magnetic flux from solar wind to the terrestrial magnetosphere. Recently, from the high-temporal resolution MMS magnetic field data, many ion-scale FTEs have been found. These FTEs contains only about 2 kWb magnetic flux and are believed to be in an early stage of FTE evolution. With the help of the well-calibrated MMS data, we are also able to determine the velocity profile and forces within the FTE events. We find that some ion-scale FTEs are expanding as we expect, but there are also contracting FTEs. We examine the differences between the two classes of FTEs and their differences with the larger previously studied class of FTE.

  5. Characterization of a Novel MMS-Sensitive Allele of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mcm4+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranatunga, Nimna S.; Forsburg, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is the conserved helicase motor of the eukaryotic replication fork. Mutations in the Mcm4 subunit are associated with replication stress and double strand breaks in multiple systems. In this work, we characterize a new temperature-sensitive allele of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mcm4+. Uniquely among known mcm4 alleles, this mutation causes sensitivity to the alkylation damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Even in the absence of treatment or temperature shift, mcm4-c106 cells show increased repair foci of RPA and Rad52, and require the damage checkpoint for viability, indicating genome stress. The mcm4-c106 mutant is synthetically lethal with mutations disrupting fork protection complex (FPC) proteins Swi1 and Swi3. Surprisingly, we found that the deletion of rif1+ suppressed the MMS-sensitive phenotype without affecting temperature sensitivity. Together, these data suggest that mcm4-c106 destabilizes replisome structure. PMID:27473316

  6. Ion-Scale Secondary Flux Ropes Generated by Magnetopause Reconnection as Resolved by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Phan, T. D.; Cassak, P. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Haggerty, C.; Malakit, K.; Shay, M. A.; Mistry, R.; Oieroset, M.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    New Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of small-scale (approx. 7 ion inertial length radius) flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause are reported. The 1O km MMS tetrahedron size enables their structure and properties to be calculated using a variety of multispacecraft techniques, allowing them to be identified as flux ropes, whose flux content is small (approx. 22 kWb).The current density, calculated using plasma and magnetic field measurements independently, is found to be filamentary. lntercomparison of the plasma moments with electric and magnetic field measurements reveals structured non-frozen-in ion behavior. The data are further compared with a particle-in-cell simulation. It is concluded that these small-scale flux ropes, which are not seen to be growing, represent a distinct class of FTE which is generated on the magnetopause by secondary reconnection.

  7. Thin current sheets observation by MMS during a near-Earth's magnetotail reconnection event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R.; Varsani, A.; Nakamura, T.; Genestreti, K.; Plaschke, F.; Baumjohann, W.; Nagai, T.; Burch, J.; Cohen, I. J.; Ergun, R.; Fuselier, S. A.; Giles, B. L.; Le Contel, O.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Magnes, W.; Schwartz, S. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    During summer 2017, the four spacecraft of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission traversed the nightside magnetotail current sheet at an apogee of 25 RE. They detected a number of flow reversal events suggestive of the passage of the reconnection current sheet. Due to the mission's unprecedented high-time resolution and spatial separation well below the ion scales, structure of thin current sheets is well resolved both with plasma and field measurements. In this study we examine the detailed structure of thin current sheets during a flow reversal event from tailward flow to Earthward flow, when MMS crossed the center of the current sheet . We investigate the changes in the structure of the thin current sheet relative to the X-point based on multi-point analysis. We determine the motion and strength of the current sheet from curlometer calculations comparing these with currents obtained from the particle data. The observed structures of these current sheets are also compared with simulations.

  8. LANDSAT/MMS propulsion module design. Tas4.4: Concept design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, J. M.; Etheridge, F. G.; Indrikis, J.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluations are presented of alternative LANDSAT follow-on launch configurations to derive the propulsion requirements for the multimission modular spacecraft (MMS). Two basic types were analyzed including use of conventional launch vehicles and shuttle supported missions. It was concluded that two sizes of modular hydrazine propulsion modules would provide the most cost-effective combination for future missions of this spacecraft. Conceptual designs of the selected propulsion modules were performed to the depth permitting determination of mass properties and estimated costs.

  9. Introduction to the Halden project and a short overview of the MMS activities at the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owre, F.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses the Man Machine System (MMS) research within the Halden Reactor Project located in Norway. This project is an International collaboration and the mission of this project is to improve safety at operating nuclear plants. The research activities include human reliability, knowledge management, design and evaluation of human system interfaces and control rooms, virtual reality for design, planning and training, operation and maintenance in a competitive electricity market as well as digital system safety research

  10. Generalized Momentum Control of the Spin-Stabilized Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benegalrao, Suyog; Queen, Steven; Shah, Neerav; Blackman, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Angular momentum control maneuvers required to keep spin-axis in science box. Traditional approach uses de-coupled modes for pointing, spin, nutation Impractical for MMS Frequency and Number of maneuvers (Orbit Control, Pointing, Nutation, Spin, four observatories, every 2-4 weeks). Difficult to implement de-coupled open-loop control with flexible wire booms. Desire a unified angular momentum controller. Comprehensively control pointing, spin, and nutation.

  11. Ion Thermalization and Electron Heating across Quasi-Perpendicular Shocks Observed by the MMS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Wang, S.; Bessho, N.; Figueroa-Vinas, A.; Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Schwartz, S. J.; Hesse, M.; Moore, T. E.; Burch, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Dorelli, J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Paterson, W. R.; Lavraud, B.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.

    2017-12-01

    Collisionless shocks often involve intense plasma heating in space and astrophysical systems. Despite decades of research, a number of key questions concerning electron and ion heating across collisionless shocks remain unanswered. We `image' 20 supercritical quasi-perpendicular bow shocks encountered by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft with electron and ion distribution functions to address how ions are thermalized and how electrons are heated. The continuous burst measurements of 3D plasma distribution functions from MMS reveal that the primary thermalization phase of ions occurs concurrently with the main temperature increase of electrons as well as large-amplitude wave fluctuations. Approaching the shock from upstream, the ion temperature (Ti) increases due to the reflected ions joining the incoming solar wind population, as recognized by prior studies, and the increase of Ti precedes that of the electrons. Thermalization in the form of merging between the decelerated solar wind ions and the reflected component often results in a decrease in Ti. In most cases, the Ti decrease is followed by a gradual increase further downstream. Anisotropic, energy-dependent, and/or nongyrotropic electron energization are observed in association with large electric field fluctuations in the main electron temperature (Te) gradient, motivating a renewed scrutiny of the effects from the electrostatic cross-shock potential and wave fluctuations on electron heating. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out to assist interpretations of the MMS observations. We assess the roles of instabilities and the cross-shock potential in thermalizing ions and heating electrons based on the MMS measurements and PIC simulation results. Challenges will be posted for future computational studies and laboratory experiments on collisionless shocks.

  12. Assessing the Time Dependence of Reconnection With Poynting's Theorem: MMS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genestreti, K. J.; Cassak, P. A.; Varsani, A.; Burch, J. L.; Nakamura, R.; Wang, S.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the time dependence of electromagnetic-field-to-plasma energy conversion in the electron diffusion region of asymmetric magnetic reconnection. To do so, we consider the terms in Poynting's theorem. In a steady state there is a perfect balance between the divergence of the electromagnetic energy flux ∇·S→ and the conversion between electromagnetic field and particle energy J→·E→. This energy balance is demonstrated with a particle-in-cell simulation of reconnection. We also evaluate each of the terms in Poynting's theorem during an observation of a magnetopause reconnection region by Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS). We take the equivalence of both sides of Poynting's theorem as an indication that the errors associated with the approximation of each term with MMS data are small. We find that, for this event, balance between J→·E→=-∇·S→ is only achieved for a small fraction of the energy conversion region at/near the X-point. Magnetic energy was rapidly accumulating on either side of the current sheet at roughly 3 times the predicted energy conversion rate. Furthermore, we find that while J→·E→>0 and ∇·S→J→·E→. We note that due to the assumptions necessary to do this calculation, the accurate evaluation of ∇·S→ may not be possible for every MMS-observed reconnection event; but, if possible, this is a simple approach to determine if reconnection is or is not in a steady state.

  13. In-Flight Calibration Methods for Temperature-Dependent Offsets in the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen for the period of any given week to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  14. In-Flight Calibration Methods for Temperature-Dependendent Offsets in the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.

    2016-12-01

    During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen — for the period of any given week — to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  15. Android-Stego: A Novel Service Provider Imperceptible MMS Steganography Technique Robust to Message Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Srinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information hiding techniques, especially steganography, have been extensively researched for over two decades. Nonetheless, steganography on smartphones over cellular carrier networks is yet to be fully explored. Today, smartphones, which are at the epitome of ubiquitous and pervasive computing, make steganography an easily accessible covert communication channel. In this paper, we propose Android-Stego - a framework for steganography employing smart-phones. Android-Stego has been evaluated and confirmed to achieve covert communication over real world cellular service providers' communication networks such as Verizon and Sprint. A key contribution of our research presented in this paper is the benchmark results we have provided by analyzing real world cellular carriers network restrictions on MMS message size. We have also analyzed the actions the carriers take - such as compression and/or format conversion - on MMS messages that fall outside the established MMS communication norm, which varies for each service provider. Finally, We have used these benchmark results in implementing Android-Stego such that it is sensitive to carrier restrictions and robust to message loss.

  16. Generation of Electron Whistler Waves at the Mirror Mode Magnetic Holes: MMS Observations and PIC Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, N.; Wilder, F. D.; Usanova, M.; Ergun, R.; Argall, M. R.; Goodrich, K.; Eriksson, S.; Germaschewski, K.; Torbert, R. B.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Strangeway, R. J.; Schwartz, S. J.; Giles, B. L.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission observed electron whistler waves at the center and at the gradients of magnetic holes on the dayside magnetosheath. The magnetic holes are nonlinear mirror structures which are anti-correlated with particle density. We used expanding box Particle-in-cell simulations and produced the mirror instability magnetic holes. We show that the electron whistler waves can be generated at the gradients and the center of magnetic holes in our simulations which is in agreement with MMS observations. At the nonlinear regime of mirror instability, the proton and electron temperature anisotropy are anti-correlated with the magnetic hole. The plasma is unstable to electron whistler waves at the minimum of the magnetic field structures. In the saturation regime of mirror instability, when magnetic holes are dominant, electron temperature anisotropy develops at the edges of the magnetic holes and electrons become isotropic at the magnetic field minimum. We investigate the possible mechanism for enhancing the electron temperature anisotropy and analyze the electron pitch angle distributions and electron distribution functions in our simulations and compare it with MMS observations.

  17. Bow Shock Generator Current Systems: MMS Observations of Possible Current Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, M.; Gunell, H.; Lindkvist, J.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Ergun, R. E.; Giles, B. L.

    2018-01-01

    We use data from the first two dayside seasons of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to study current systems associated with quasi-perpendicular bow shocks of generator type. We have analyzed 154 MMS bow shock crossings near the equatorial plane. We compute the current density during the crossings and conclude that the component perpendicular to the shock normal (J⊥) is consistent with a pileup of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) inside the magnetosheath. For predominantly southward IMF, we observe a component Jn parallel (antiparallel) to the normal for GSM Y > 0 (MMS probing region. For IMF clock angles near 90∘, we find indications of the current system being tilted toward the north-south direction, obtaining a significant Jz component, and we suggest that the current closes off the equatorial plane at higher latitudes where the spacecraft are not probing. The observations are complicated for several reasons. For example, variations in the solar wind and the magnetospheric currents and loads affect the closure, and Jn is distributed over large regions, making it difficult to resolve inside the magnetosheath proper.

  18. MMS FEEPS Energetic Electron Microinjection Observations During 2015 Through October 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, J. F.; Turner, D. L.; Lemon, C.; Kavosi, S.; Spence, H. E.; Jaynes, A. N.; Blake, J. B.; Clemmons, J. H.; Baker, D. N.; Mauk, B.; Burch, J. L.; Cohen, I. J.

    2017-12-01

    During MMS traversals of the midnight to dusk local time regions energetic electron data showed many clusters of electron injections we call microinjections because of their short duration signatures. These microinjections of 50-400 keV electrons have energy dispersion signatures indicating that they gradient and curvature drifted from earlier local times. Multiple clusters of microinjection occurred during these traversals. We show detailed results from some microinjections taken with burst mode data. These high temporal resolution data showed that the electrons in the microinjections were trapped and had bidirectional field-aligned angular distributions. Drift calculations constrained by the observed electron dispersion times indicate the electrons had drifted from near the magnetopause hours earlier in local time. They were not observed in the midnight through pre-noon regions in 2015-2016. The 2015-2016 observations were limited to altitudes of 9 to 12 Re because the MMS apogee was 12 Re then. In March 2017, the MMS apogee was raised to 25 Re and we will show how these later microinjection observations compare to the earlier ones. These injection clusters are a new phenomenon in this region of the magnetosphere and with the higher orbit we will observe how close to the magnetopause they exist and possibly traverse the source regions. We will provide statistics on the occurrence of the injections and discuss possible sources and implications.

  19. A Globally Stable Lyapunov Pointing and Rate Controller for the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neerav

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission (MMS) is scheduled to launch in late 2014. Its primary goal is to discover the fundamental plasma physics processes of reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. Each of the four MMS spacecraft is spin-stabilized at a nominal rate of 3 RPM. Traditional spin-stabilized spacecraft have used a number of separate modes to control nutation, spin rate, and precession. To reduce the number of modes and simplify operations, the Delta-H control mode is designed to accomplish nutation control, spin rate control, and precession control simultaneously. A nonlinear design technique, Lyapunov's method, is used to design the Delta-H control mode. A global spin rate controller selected as the baseline controller for MMS, proved to be insufficient due to an ambiguity in the attitude. Lyapunov's design method was used to solve this ambiguity, resulting in a controller that meets the design goals. Simulation results show the advantage of the pointing and rate controller for maneuvers larger than 90 deg and provide insight into the performance of this controller.

  20. Ionomeric membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(styrene) : synthesis, proton conduction and methanol permeation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchioni, F.; Tricoli, V.; Carretta, N.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneuosly sulfonated poly(styrene) (SPS) was prepared with various concentration of sulfonic acid groups in the base polymer. Membranes cast from these materials were investigated in relation to proton conductivity and methanol permeability in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C. It was

  1. Colonic necrosis due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Castillo-Cejas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cation-exchange resins are used in the management of hyperkalemia, particularly in patients with end-stage renal disease. These resins were associated with gastrointestinal tract lesions, especially sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate mixed with sorbitol. We present a case of colonic necrosis after the administration of calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kalimate not suspended in sorbitol.

  2. Bis-sulfonic Acid Ionic Liquids for the Conversion of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangho Koo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Homogenous bis-sulfonic acid ionic liquids (1 mol equiv. in DMSO (10 mol equiv. at 100 °C efficiently mediated the conversion of D-fructose into 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in 75% isolated yield, which was roughly a 10% increment compared to the case of the mono-sulfonic acid ionic liquids.

  3. Ionomeric membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(styrene): synthesis, proton conduction and methanol permeation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carretta, N.; Tricoli, V.; Picchioni, F.

    2000-01-01

    Homogeneuosly sulfonated poly(styrene) (SPS) was prepared with various concentration of sulfonic acid groups in the base polymer. Membranes cast from these materials were investigated in relation to proton conductivity and methanol permeability in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C. It was

  4. Sulfonated copolyimide membranes derived from a novel diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxia; Aili, David

    2015-01-01

    . A series of sulfonated copolyimides (SPI) are prepared via random copolymerizatio of 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA) with a new diamine monomer with pendant benzimidazole groups, 2,2'-bis(4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)benzidine (BIPOB), and a sulfonated diamine monomer 4,4'-bis...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2565 - Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and amine salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali and amine salts. 721.2565 Section 721.2565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2565 Alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali and... substances identified as alkylated sulfonated diphenyl oxide, alkali salt (PMN P-93-352) and alkylated...

  6. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Tripathi, Bijay Prakash; Schieda, Mauricio; Shahi, Vinod Kumar; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm-1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Nanostructured membranes and electrodes with sulfonic acid functionalized carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Tripathi, Bijay Prakash

    2011-02-01

    Herein we report the covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes by grafting sulfanilic acid and their dispersion into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The nanocomposites were explored as an option for tuning the proton and electron conductivity, swelling, water and alcohol permeability aiming at nanostructured membranes and electrodes for application in alcohol or hydrogen fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. The nanocomposites were extensively characterized, by studying their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. They were processed as self-supporting films with high mechanical stability, proton conductivity of 4.47 × 10 -2 S cm-1 at 30 °C and 16.8 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 80 °C and 100% humidity level, electron conductivity much higher than for the plain polymer. The methanol permeability could be reduced to 1/20, keeping water permeability at reasonable values. The ratio of bound water also increases with increasing content of sulfonated filler, helping in keeping water in the polymer in conditions of low external humidity level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Physical ageing and molecular mobilities of sulfonated polysulfone for proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lixon Buquet, C. [LECAP EA 4528, Institute for Materials Research FED 4114, Universite de Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); PBS Department, UMR 6270 CNRS, MPBM, FR 3038, Universite de Rouen, Boulevard Maurice de Broglie, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Hamonic, F.; Saiter, A. [LECAP EA 4528, Institute for Materials Research FED 4114, Universite de Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Dargent, E., E-mail: eric.dargent@univ-rouen.fr [LECAP EA 4528, Institute for Materials Research FED 4114, Universite de Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Langevin, D.; Nguyen, Q.T. [PBS Department, UMR 6270 CNRS, MPBM, FR 3038, Universite de Rouen, Boulevard Maurice de Broglie, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France)

    2010-09-20

    The thermal behaviour, the physical ageing and the amorphous phase dynamics of polysulfone (PSU) and sulfonated polysulfone (SPSU) are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry. The sulfonic group introduction (the sulfonation degree is 70%) in the polymer implies a drastic decrease of the thermal decomposition temperature (220 and 517 {sup o}C for SPSU and PSU respectively) and a modification of calorimetric parameters (for SPSU, the heat capacity in the glassy state is lower and the glass transition temperature T{sub g} is higher than for PSU). In terms of molecular dynamics, the amorphous phase heterogeneities are greater and the cooperative rearranging region size at the glass transition temperature is smaller for SPSU than for PSU. Moreover, after a physical ageing process, the enthalpy recovery kinetic has slowed down by sulfonation. These results can be explained from the existence of sulfonic domains confining the amorphous phase domains.

  9. Radiation-chemical synthesis of polypropylene fabrics with sulfonic acid functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Kug; Park, Jung Soo; Han, Do Hung, E-mail: dhhan@yumail.ac.kr; Bondar, Iuliia, E-mail: juliavad@yahoo.co

    2011-04-01

    A sorption-active material carrying sulfonic acid groups was synthesized by the radiation-induced graft polymerization of styrene monomer onto the surface of non-woven polypropylene fabric, followed by sulfonation of the grafted polystyrene chains. The effect of the main experimental parameters (absorbed dose, monomer concentration, reaction time) on the styrene degree of grafting was investigated. The sulfonation process with 5% chlorosulfonic acid at room temperature was investigated in detail and the optimal sulfonation conditions for the samples with a medium degree of grafting (70-140%) were determined. Densities of 3.5-5 meq/g were obtained by applying those sorption-active PP fabrics with a sulfonic acid group.

  10. Biofilm behavior on sulfonated poly(ether-ether-ketone) (sPEEK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Juan F.D.; Tajiri, Henrique A.; Barra, Guilherme M.O.; Fredel, Márcio C.; Benfatti, Cesar A.M.; Magini, Ricardo S.; Pimenta, Andréa L.; Souza, Júlio C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) has also shown to be very attractive for incorporating therapeutic compounds thanks to a sulfonation process which modifies the material structure resulting in a sulfonated-PEEK (sPEEK). Concerning biomedical applications, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different sulfonation degree of sPEEK on the biofilm growth. PEEK samples were functionalized by using sulphuric acid (98%) and then dissolved into dimethyl-sulfoxide. A dip coating technique was used to synthesize sPEEK thin films. The sulfonation degree of the materials was analyzed by FT-IR, H NMR, TG and IEC. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and contact angle analyses. Subsequently, the biofilm formation on sulfonated-PEEK based on Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis was measured by spectrophotometry, colony forming units (CFU mL −1 ) and SEM. Results obtained from thermal and chemical analyses showed an intensification in sulfonation degree for sPEEK at 2 and 2.5 h. The E. faecalis or S. mutans biofilm growth revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between 2 and 3 h sulfonation groups. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in CFU mL −1 was recorded for S. mutans or E. faecalis biofilm grown on 2.5 or 3 h sPEEK. Regarding the thermal-chemical and microbiologic analyses, the sulfonation degree of sPEEK ranging from 2 up to 3 h was successful capable to decrease the biofilm growth. That revealed an alternative strategy to embed anti-biofilm and therapeutic compounds into PEEK avoiding infections in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • PEEK can be dissolved to incorporate therapeutic compounds. • High sulfonation degree on sPEEK affected the biofilm growth. • The sulfonation degree must be controlled to maintain the properties of sPEEK.

  11. Biofilm behavior on sulfonated poly(ether-ether-ketone) (sPEEK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, Juan F.D. [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Tajiri, Henrique A.; Barra, Guilherme M.O.; Fredel, Márcio C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering (EMC), Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Benfatti, Cesar A.M.; Magini, Ricardo S. [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Pimenta, Andréa L. [Integrated Laboratories Technologies (InteLAB), Dept. Chemical Engineering (EQA), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis, SC 88040-970 (Brazil); Department of Biologie, Université de Cergy Pontoise, 2, Av. Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy Pontoise (France); Souza, Júlio C.M., E-mail: julio.c.m.souza@ufsc.br [Center for Research on Dental Implants (CEPID), School of Dentistry (ODT), Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC, Florianópolis, SC 88040-900 (Brazil); Center for Microelectromechanical Systems (CMEMS), Dept. Mechanical Engineering (DEM), Campus Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal)

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) has also shown to be very attractive for incorporating therapeutic compounds thanks to a sulfonation process which modifies the material structure resulting in a sulfonated-PEEK (sPEEK). Concerning biomedical applications, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different sulfonation degree of sPEEK on the biofilm growth. PEEK samples were functionalized by using sulphuric acid (98%) and then dissolved into dimethyl-sulfoxide. A dip coating technique was used to synthesize sPEEK thin films. The sulfonation degree of the materials was analyzed by FT-IR, H NMR, TG and IEC. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and contact angle analyses. Subsequently, the biofilm formation on sulfonated-PEEK based on Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis was measured by spectrophotometry, colony forming units (CFU mL{sup −1}) and SEM. Results obtained from thermal and chemical analyses showed an intensification in sulfonation degree for sPEEK at 2 and 2.5 h. The E. faecalis or S. mutans biofilm growth revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between 2 and 3 h sulfonation groups. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in CFU mL{sup −1} was recorded for S. mutans or E. faecalis biofilm grown on 2.5 or 3 h sPEEK. Regarding the thermal-chemical and microbiologic analyses, the sulfonation degree of sPEEK ranging from 2 up to 3 h was successful capable to decrease the biofilm growth. That revealed an alternative strategy to embed anti-biofilm and therapeutic compounds into PEEK avoiding infections in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • PEEK can be dissolved to incorporate therapeutic compounds. • High sulfonation degree on sPEEK affected the biofilm growth. • The sulfonation degree must be controlled to maintain the properties of sPEEK.

  12. Optimised mounting conditions for poly (ether sulfone) in radiation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Nobuhiro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2014-09-01

    Poly (ether sulfone) (PES) is a candidate for use as a scintillation material in radiation detection. Its characteristics, such as its emission spectrum and its effective refractive index (based on the emission spectrum), directly affect the propagation of light generated to external photodetectors. It is also important to examine the presence of background radiation sources in manufactured PES. Here, we optimise the optical coupling and surface treatment of the PES, and characterise its background. Optical grease was used to enhance the optical coupling between the PES and the photodetector; absorption by the grease of short-wavelength light emitted from PES was negligible. Diffuse reflection induced by surface roughening increased the light yield for PES, despite the high effective refractive index. Background radiation derived from the PES sample and its impurities was negligible above the ambient, natural level. Overall, these results serve to optimise the mounting conditions for PES in radiation detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-11-20

    A membrane manufacture method based on non-volatile solvents and a high performance polymer, poly (ether imide sulfone) (EXTEM™), is proposed, as greener alternative to currently industrial process. We dissolved EXTEM™ in pure ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([EMIM]SCN), 1-butyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([BMIM]SCN), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc). The following polymer solution parameters were evaluated to optimize the manufacture: Gibbs free energy of mixing (G), intrinsic viscosity ([]) and hydrodynamic diameter. Membranes with sponge-like structure and narrow pore size distribution were obtained from solutions in [EMIM]SCN. They were tested for separation of proteins and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). Due to the polymer stability, we foresee that applications in more demanding chemical separations would be possible. [EMIM]SCN was 96 % purified and recovered after the membrane fabrication, contributing to the sustainability of the whole manufacturing process.

  14. Sulfonated chitosan and dopamine based coatings for metallic implants in contact with blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campelo, Clayton S; Chevallier, Pascale; Vaz, Juliana M; Vieira, Rodrigo S; Mantovani, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Thrombosis and calcification constitute the main clinical problems when blood-interacting devices are implanted in the body. Coatings with thin polymer layers represent an acknowledged strategy to modulate interactions between the material surface and the blood environment. To ensure the implant success, at short-term the coating should limit platelets adhesion and delay the clot formation, and at long-term it should delay the calcification process. Sulfonated chitosan, if compared to native chitosan, shows the unique ability to reduce proteins adsorption, decrease thrombogenic properties and limit calcification. In this work, stainless steel surfaces, commonly used for cardiovascular applications, were coated with sulfonated chitosan, by using dopamine and PEG as anchors, and the effect of these grafted surfaces on platelet adhesion, clot formation as well as on calcification were investigated. Surface characterization techniques evidenced that the coating formation was successful, and the sulfonated chitosan grafted sample exhibited a higher roughness and hydrophilicity, if compared to native chitosan one. Moreover, sulfonated surface limited platelet activation and the process of clot formation, thus confirming its high biological performances in blood. Calcium deposits were also lower on the sulfonated chitosan sample compared to the chitosan one, thus showing that calcification was minimal in presence of sulfonate groups. In conclusion, this sulfonated-modified surface has potential to be as blood-interacting material. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting Th1/Th17 response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Guo, Lele; Gu, Yanhong; Cai, Peifen; Xie, Ning; Yang, Xiaoling; Shu, Yongqian; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, relapsing and remitting condition of inflammation involves overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and excessive functions of inflammatory cells. However, current treatments for IBD may have potential adverse effects including steroid dependence, infections and lymphoma. Therefore new therapies for the treatment of IBD are desperately needed. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), on murine experimental colitis induced by 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Andrographolide sulfonate was administrated through intraperitoneal injection to mice with TNBS-induced colitis. TNBS-induced body weight loss, myeloperoxidase activity, shortening of the colon and colonic inflammation were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Both the mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Furthermore, CD4(+) T cell infiltration as well as the differentiation of Th1 (CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)) and Th17 (CD4(+)IL17A(+)) subset were inhibited by andrographolide sulfonate. In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis in mice through inhibiting Th1/Th17 response. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) block copolymers and their sulfonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun-Young [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ju-Myung; Sohn, Joon-Yong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Shul, Yong-Gun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: shinj@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Highlights: • The c-SBS films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam. • The crosslinking degree of the c-SBS films were increased with the irradiation dose. • The prepared c-SBS films were sulfonated with various concentration of CSA. • The sulfonation of the c-SBS film is largely dependent on the concentration of CSA. • The sulfonation process is progressed from the surface to the inner part of c-SBS film. -- Abstract: Several crosslinked poly(styrene–butadiene–styrene) (c-SBS) block copolymer films were prepared using a gamma ray or electron beam with various irradiation doses and the prepared c-SBS film was then subjected to sulfonation using a chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) solution to introduce a sulfonic acid group. To estimate the degree of crosslinking, the gel fractions and FT-IR spectra of the c-SBS films were used and the results indicate that the degree of crosslinking is increased with an increase in the radiation dose. The surface morphology and mechanical property of the c-SBS films were observed using SEM and UTM instruments, respectively. The sulfonated c-SBS films were investigated by measuring the ion exchange capacity (IEC) and by observing the cross-sectional distribution patterns of sulfonic acid group using an SEM-EDX instrument. The IEC and SEM-EDX studies indicate that the sulfonated c-SBS membranes can be successfully prepared through the radiation crosslinking of the SBS film and the subsequent sulfonation with a diluted CSA solution.

  17. Dbf4-dependent kinase and the Rtt107 scaffold promote Mus81-Mms4 resolvase activation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princz, Lissa N; Wild, Philipp; Bittmann, Julia; Aguado, F Javier; Blanco, Miguel G; Matos, Joao; Pfander, Boris

    2017-03-01

    DNA repair by homologous recombination is under stringent cell cycle control. This includes the last step of the reaction, disentanglement of DNA joint molecules (JMs). Previous work has established that JM resolving nucleases are activated specifically at the onset of mitosis. In case of budding yeast Mus81-Mms4, this cell cycle stage-specific activation is known to depend on phosphorylation by CDK and Cdc5 kinases. Here, we show that a third cell cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK), targets Mus81-Mms4 in conjunction with Cdc5-both kinases bind to as well as phosphorylate Mus81-Mms4 in an interdependent manner. Moreover, DDK-mediated phosphorylation of Mms4 is strictly required for Mus81 activation in mitosis, establishing DDK as a novel regulator of homologous recombination. The scaffold protein Rtt107, which binds the Mus81-Mms4 complex, interacts with Cdc7 and thereby targets DDK and Cdc5 to the complex enabling full Mus81 activation. Therefore, Mus81 activation in mitosis involves at least three cell cycle kinases, CDK, Cdc5 and DDK Furthermore, tethering of the kinases in a stable complex with Mus81 is critical for efficient JM resolution. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  18. A Computer Clone of Human Expert for Mobility Management Scheme (E-MMS): Step toward Green Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resdiansyah; O. K Rahmat, R. A.; Ismail, A.

    2018-03-01

    Green transportation refers to a sustainable transport that gives the least impact in terms of social and environmental but at the same time is able to supply energy sources globally that includes non-motorized transport strategies deployment to promote healthy lifestyles, also known as Mobility Management Scheme (MMS). As construction of road infrastructure cannot help solve the problem of congestion, past research has shown that MMS is an effective measure to mitigate congestion and to achieve green transportation. MMS consists of different strategies and policies that subdivided into categories according to how they are able to influence travel behaviour. Appropriate selection of mobility strategies will ensure its effectiveness in mitigating congestion problems. Nevertheless, determining appropriate strategies requires human expert and depends on a number of success factors. This research has successfully developed a computer clone system based on human expert, called E-MMS. The process of knowledge acquisition for MMS strategies and the next following process to selection of strategy has been encode in a knowledge-based system using a shell expert system. The newly developed computer cloning system was successfully verified, validated and evaluated (VV&E) by comparing the result output with the real transportation expert recommendation in which the findings suggested Introduction

  19. Examining Coherency Scales, Substructure, and Propagation of Whistler Mode Chorus Elements With Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Lee, J. H.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Jaynes, A. N.; Leonard, T.; Wilder, F. D.; Ergun, R. E.; Baker, D. N.; Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Strangeway, R. J.; Hartley, D. P.; Kletzing, C. A.; Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Torbert, R. B.; Allen, R. C.; Burch, J. L.; Santolik, O.

    2017-11-01

    Whistler mode chorus waves are a naturally occurring electromagnetic emission observed in Earth's magnetosphere. Here, for the first time, data from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission were used to analyze chorus waves in detail, including the calculation of chorus wave normal vectors, fi>k. A case study was examined from a period of substorm activity around the time of a conjunction between the MMS constellation and NASA's Van Allen Probes mission on 07 April 2016. Chorus wave activity was simultaneously observed by all six spacecraft over a broad range of L shells (5.5 flat or falling frequency following the peak, and all the elements exhibited complex and well-organized substructure observed consistently at all four MMS spacecraft at separations up to 70 km (60 km perpendicular and 38 km parallel to the background magnetic field). The waveforms in field-aligned coordinates also demonstrated that these waves were all phase coherent, allowing for the direct calculation of fi>k. Error estimates on calculated fi>k revealed that the plane wave approximation was valid for six of the eight elements and most of the subelements. The wave normal vectors were within 20-30° from the direction antiparallel to the background field for all elements and changed from subelement to subelement through at least two of the eight elements. The azimuthal angle of fi>k in the perpendicular plane was oriented earthward and was oblique to that of the Poynting vector, which has implications for the validity of cold plasma theory.

  20. Degradation and contamination of perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane due to swelling-dehydration cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Morgen, Per; Skou, Eivind Morten

    Formation of sulfonic anhydride S-O-S (from the condensation of sulfonic acids) was known one of the important degradation mechanisms [i] for Nafion membrane under hydrothermal aging condition, which is especially critical for hydrogen fuel cells. Similar mechanism would also have be desirable...... to the membrane degradation in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), where liquid water has direct contact with the electrolyte. An ex-situ experiment was established with swelling-dehydration cycles on the membrane. However, formation of sulfonic anhydride was not detected during the entire treatment; instead...

  1. Derivatives of phenyl tribromomethyl sulfone as novel compounds with potential pesticidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof M. Borys

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A halogenmethylsulfonyl moiety is incorporated in numerous active herbicides and fungicides. The synthesis of tribromomethyl phenyl sulfone derivatives as novel potential pesticides is reported. The title sulfone was obtained by following three different synthetic routes, starting from 4-chlorothiophenol or 4-halogenphenyl methyl sulfone. Products of its subsequent nitration were subjected to the SNAr reactions with ammonia, amines, hydrazines and phenolates to give 2-nitroaniline, 2-nitrophenylhydrazine and diphenyl ether derivatives. Reduction of the nitro group of 4-tribromomethylsulfonyl-2-nitroaniline yielded the corresponding o-phenylenediamine substrate for preparation of structurally varied benzimidazoles.

  2. The Modular Modeling System (MMS): A modeling framework for water- and environmental-resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, G.H.; Markstrom, S.L.; Viger, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The interdisciplinary nature and increasing complexity of water- and environmental-resource problems require the use of modeling approaches that can incorporate knowledge from a broad range of scientific disciplines. The large number of distributed hydrological and ecosystem models currently available are composed of a variety of different conceptualizations of the associated processes they simulate. Assessment of the capabilities of these distributed models requires evaluation of the conceptualizations of the individual processes, and the identification of which conceptualizations are most appropriate for various combinations of criteria, such as problem objectives, data constraints, and spatial and temporal scales of application. With this knowledge, "optimal" models for specific sets of criteria can be created and applied. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Modular Modeling System (MMS) is an integrated system of computer software that has been developed to provide these model development and application capabilities. MMS supports the integration of models and tools at a variety of levels of modular design. These include individual process models, tightly coupled models, loosely coupled models, and fully-integrated decision support systems. A variety of visualization and statistical tools are also provided. MMS has been coupled with the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) object-oriented reservoir and river-system modeling framework, RiverWare, under a joint USGS-BOR program called the Watershed and River System Management Program. MMS and RiverWare are linked using a shared relational database. The resulting database-centered decision support system provides tools for evaluating and applying optimal resource-allocation and management strategies to complex, operational decisions on multipurpose reservoir systems and watersheds. Management issues being addressed include efficiency of water-resources management, environmental concerns such as meeting flow needs for

  3. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Observation of Plasma Velocity-Space Cascade Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, T. N.; Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chasapis, A.; Perrone, D.; Valentini, F.; Veltri, P.; Gershman, D. J.; Schwartz, S. J.; Giles, B. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Phan, T.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma turbulence is investigated using high-resolution ion velocity distributions, measured by theMagnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) in the Earth's magnetosheath. The particle distributionmanifests large fluctuations, suggesting a cascade-like process in velocity space, invoked by theoristsfor many years. This complex velocity space structure is investigated using a three-dimensional Hermitetransform that reveals a power law distribution of moments. A Kolmogorov approach leads directlyto a range of predictions for this phase-space cascade. The scaling theory is in agreement withobservations, suggesting a new path for the study of plasma turbulence in weakly collisional spaceand astrophysical plasmas.

  4. Study of sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups as ion conductive binder in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zengbin; Xue, Lixin; Nie, Feng; Sheng, Jianfang; Shi, Qianru; Zhao, Xiulan

    2014-06-01

    In an attempt to reduce the Li+ concentration polarization and electrolyte depletion from the electrode porous space, sulfonated polyether ether ketone with pendant lithiated fluorinated sulfonic groups (SPEEK-FSA-Li) is prepared and attempted as ionic conductivity binder. Sulfonated aromatic poly(ether ether ketone) exhibits strong adhesion and chemical stability, and lithiated fluorinated sulfonic side chains help to enhance the ionic conductivity and Li+ ion diffusion due to the charge delocalization over the sulfonic chain. The performances are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, charge-discharge cycle testing, 180° peel testing, and compared with the cathode prepared with polyvinylidene fluoride binder. The electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li binder forms the relatively smaller resistances of both the SEI and the charge transfer of lithium ion transport. This is beneficial to lithium ion intercalation and de-intercalation of the cathode during discharging-charging, therefore the cell prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li shows lower charge plateau potential and higher discharge plateau potential. Compared with PVDF, the electrode with ionic binder shows smaller decrease in capacity with the increasing of cycle rate. Meanwhile, adhesion strength of electrode prepared with SPEEK-FSA-Li is more than five times greater than that with PVDF.

  5. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Haojie; Zhang, Shouchun; Lu, Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A polyether sulfone emulsion (PES) sizing was prepared for the first time. • The sizing enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • Compared to the original sizing, the PES emulsion sizing resulted in an 18.4% increase in the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/PES composites. • Important influences of emulsifier on the fiber surface and composite interface were demonstrated. • The reinforcing mechanisms are the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility in composites. - Abstract: Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of −52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES

  6. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Haojie [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Shouchun, E-mail: zschun@sxicc.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Lu, Chunxiang [National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • A polyether sulfone emulsion (PES) sizing was prepared for the first time. • The sizing enhanced the surface activity and wettability of carbon fibers. • Compared to the original sizing, the PES emulsion sizing resulted in an 18.4% increase in the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber/PES composites. • Important influences of emulsifier on the fiber surface and composite interface were demonstrated. • The reinforcing mechanisms are the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility in composites. - Abstract: Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of −52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES.

  7. Design, synthesis, and characterization of lightly sulfonated multigraft acrylate-based copolymer superelastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misichronis, Konstantinos [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Wang, Weiyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Cheng, Shiwang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Wang, Yangyang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Shrestha, Umesh [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Dadmun, Mark D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Mays, Jimmy W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Saito, Tomonori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division

    2018-01-29

    Multigraft copolymer superelastomers consisting of a poly(n-butyl acrylate) backbone and polystyrene side chains were synthesized and the viscoelastic properties of the non-sulfonated and sulfonated final materials were investigated using extensional rheology (SER3). The non-linear viscoelastic experiments revealed significantly increased true stresses (up to 10 times higher) after sulfonating only 2–3% of the copolymer while the materials maintained high elongation (<700%). The linear viscoelastic experiments showed that the storage and loss modulus are increased by sulfonation and that the copolymers can be readily tuned and further improved by increasing the number of branching points and the molecular weight of the backbone. Here, in this way, we show that by tuning not only the molecular characteristics of the multigraft copolymers but also their architecture and chemical interaction, we can acquire thermoplastic superelastomer materials with desired viscoelastic properties.

  8. Preparation of a Sulfonated Carbonaceous Material from Lignosulfonate and Its Usefulness as an Esterification Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duckhee Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated carbonaceous material useful as a solid acid catalyst was prepared from lignosulfonate, a waste of the paper-making industry sulfite pulping process, and characterized by 13C-NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and elemental analysis, etc. The sulfonic acid group density and total density of all acid groups in the sulfonated carbonaceous material was determined by titration to be 1.24 mmol/g and 5.90 mmol/g, respectively. Its catalytic activity in the esterification of cyclohexanecarboxylic acid with anhydrous ethanol was shown to be comparable to that of the ionic exchange resin Amberlyst-15, when they were used in the same amount. In the meantime, the sulfonic acid group was found to be leached out by 26%–29% after it was exposed to hot water (95 °C for 5 h. The catalytic usefulness of the prepared carbonaceous material was investigated by performing esterifications.

  9. Derivatization of enolic OH of piroxicam: a comparative study on esters and sulfonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaselli, J.; Cheemala, J. Manila Sagar; Geetha Rani, D.P.; Pal, Sarbani [MNR Post Graduate College, Kukatpally, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: sarbani277@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    A number of ester and sulfonate derivatives of piroxicam were prepared via acylation/sulfonation of the enolic OH of piroxicam. All the compounds were evaluated for their chemical stability and cyclooxygenase inhibiting properties. Data suggested that esters could be useful for the development of potential prodrugs. The sulfonate derivatives prepared for the first time were found to be stable. One of them showed a moderately selective COX-2 inhibition over COX-1 and would have lower gastrointestinal side effects than piroxicam due to the masked enolic OH group. A plausible mechanism for the acylation/sulfonation process has been proposed that involves participation of the pyridine moiety of piroxicam. Molecular structure of one of the ester was established for the first time by the crystal structure analysis from X-ray powder data. (author)

  10. Derivatization of enolic OH of piroxicam: a comparative study on esters and sulfonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaselli, J.; Cheemala, J. Manila Sagar; Geetha Rani, D.P.; Pal, Sarbani

    2008-01-01

    A number of ester and sulfonate derivatives of piroxicam were prepared via acylation/sulfonation of the enolic OH of piroxicam. All the compounds were evaluated for their chemical stability and cyclooxygenase inhibiting properties. Data suggested that esters could be useful for the development of potential prodrugs. The sulfonate derivatives prepared for the first time were found to be stable. One of them showed a moderately selective COX-2 inhibition over COX-1 and would have lower gastrointestinal side effects than piroxicam due to the masked enolic OH group. A plausible mechanism for the acylation/sulfonation process has been proposed that involves participation of the pyridine moiety of piroxicam. Molecular structure of one of the ester was established for the first time by the crystal structure analysis from X-ray powder data. (author)

  11. 30 CFR 285.611 - What information must I submit with my SAP to assist MMS in complying with NEPA and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must I submit with my SAP to... Assessment Plan § 285.611 What information must I submit with my SAP to assist MMS in complying with NEPA and other relevant laws? (a) You must submit with your SAP detailed information to assist MMS in complying...

  12. AtMMS21, an SMC5/6 complex subunit, is involved in stem cell niche maintenance and DNA damage responses in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Panglian; Yuan, Dongke; Liu, Ming; Li, Chunxin; Liu, Yiyang; Zhang, Shengchun; Yao, Nan; Yang, Chengwei

    2013-04-01

    Plants maintain stem cells in meristems to sustain lifelong growth; these stem cells must have effective DNA damage responses to prevent mutations that can propagate to large parts of the plant. However, the molecular links between stem cell functions and DNA damage responses remain largely unexplored. Here, we report that the small ubiquitin-related modifier E3 ligase AtMMS21 (for methyl methanesulfonate sensitivity gene21) acts to maintain the root stem cell niche by mediating DNA damage responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Mutation of AtMMS21 causes defects in the root stem cell niche during embryogenesis and postembryonic stages. AtMMS21 is essential for the proper expression of stem cell niche-defining transcription factors. Moreover, mms21-1 mutants are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents, have a constitutively increased DNA damage response, and have more DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the roots. Also, mms21-1 mutants exhibit spontaneous cell death within the root stem cell niche, and treatment with DSB-inducing agents increases this cell death, suggesting that AtMMS21 is required to prevent DSB-induced stem cell death. We further show that AtMMS21 functions as a subunit of the STRUCTURAL MAINTENANCE OF CHROMOSOMES5/6 complex, an evolutionarily conserved chromosomal ATPase required for DNA repair. These data reveal that AtMMS21 acts in DSB amelioration and stem cell niche maintenance during Arabidopsis root development.

  13. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    As the world sets its sight into the future, energy remains a great challenge. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is part of the solution to the energy challenge because of its high efficiency and diverse application. The purpose of the PEM is to provide a path for proton transport and to prevent direct mixing of hydrogen and oxygen at the anode and the cathode, respectively. Hence, PEMs must have good proton conductivity, excellent chemical stability, and mechanical durability. The current state-of-the-art PEM is a perfluorosulfonate ionomer, Nafion®. Although Nafion® has many desirable properties, it has high methanol crossover and it is expensive. The objective of this research was to develop a cost effective two-phase, composite PEM wherein a dispersed conductive organic phase preferentially aligned in the transport direction controls proton transport, and a continuous hydrophobic phase provides mechanical durability to the PEM. The hypothesis that was driving this research was that one might expect better dispersion, higher surface to volume ratio and improved proton conductivity of a composite membrane if the dispersed particles were nanometer in size and had high ion exchange capacity (IEC, = [mmol sulfonic acid]/gram of polymer). In view of this, considerable efforts were employed in the synthesis of high IEC organic nanoparticles and fabrication of a composite membrane with controlled microstructure. High IEC, ~ 4.5 meq/g (in acid form, theoretical limit is 5.4 meq/g) nanoparticles were achieved by emulsion copolymerization of a quaternary alkyl ammonium (QAA) neutralized-sulfonated styrene (QAA-SS), styrene, and divinylbenzene (DVB). The effects of varying the counterion of the sulfonated styrene (SS) monomer (alkali metal and QAA cations), SS concentration, and the addition of a crosslinking agent (DVB) on the ability to stabilize the nanoparticles to higher IECs were assessed. The nanoparticles were ion exchanged to acid form. The extent of ion

  14. Two Dual Ion Spectrometer Flight Units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi

    2014-01-01

    Two Dual Ion Spectrometer flight units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have returned to MSFC for flight testing. Anticipated to begin on June 30, tests will ensue in the Low Energy Electron and Ion Facility of the Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office (ZP13), managed by Dr. Victoria Coffey of the Natural Environments Branch of the Engineering Directorate (EV44). The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft, whose purpose is to study magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere.

  15. Studies of the structure and function of Mms6, a bacterial protein that promotes the formation of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijun [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Here we report structural and functional studies of Mms6, a biomineralization protein that can promote the formation in vitro of magnetic nanoparticles with sizes and morphologies similar to the magnetites synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria. We found the binding pattern of Mms6 to ferric ion to be two-phase and multivalent. We quantatively determined that Mms6 binds one Fe3+ with a very high affinity (Kd = 1016 M). The second phase of iron binding is multivalent and cooperative with respect to iron with a Kd in the μM range and a stoichiometry of about 20 ferric ion per protein molecule. We found that Mms6 exists in large particles of two sizes, one consisting of 20-40 monomeric units and the other of 200 units. From proteolytic digestion, ultracentrifugation and liposome fusion studies, we found that Mms6 forms a large micellar quaternary structure with the N-terminal domain self-assembling into a uniformly sized micelle and the C-terminal domain on the surface. The two-phase iron-binding pattern may be relevant to iron crystal formation. We propose that the first high affinity phase may stabilize a new conformation of the C-terminal domain that allows interaction with other C-terminal domains leading to a structural change in the multimeric protein complex that enables the second low affinity iron binding phase to organize iron and initiate crystal formation. We also observed a dimeric apparent molecular mass of the Mms6 C-terminal peptide (C21Mms6). We speculate that the C-terminal domain may form higher order quaternary arrangements on the surface of the micelle or when anchored to a membrane by the N-terminal domain. The change in fluorescence quenching in the N-terminal domain with iron binding suggests a structural integrity between the C- and N-terminal domains. The slow change in trp fluorescence as a function of time after adding iron suggests a very slow conformational change in the protein that involves

  16. Application of EASY5 and MMS modules to BWR controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, L.A.; Rayes, L.; Yasutake, T.

    1987-01-01

    The application of EPRI's MMS Library and BCS' EASY5 simulation language to the design of a digital feedwater control system for the Monticello Boiling Water Nuclear Power Plant is discussed. In order to first design and then verify the digital feedwater controller algorithms, a digital simulation model of the Monticello plant was constructed using a combination of custom designed modules, existing MMS two-phase library modules, and standard modules available in the EASY5 library. Details of the process models, namely the BWR nuclear steam supply system, the steamline piping, and the feedwater piping are described in a companion paper. Details of the models for the existing BWR turbine pressure inlet pressure control and recirculation flow control system are described. These models are required to be operational during the transient analysis portion of the feedwater controller design verification, since they interact strongly with the reactor steam flow and water level. The design of the digital feedwater flow control loop is described. Its design is of particular interest because it requires consideration of control loop interaction and is, therefore, a simple example of multivariable non-interacting control design

  17. Multi-Spacecraft Study of Kinetic scale Turbulence Using MMS Observations in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasapis, A.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Parashar, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; Maruca, B.; Burch, J.; Moore, T. E.; Phan, T.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a study investigating kinetic scale turbulence in the solar wind. Most previous studies relied on single spacecraft measurements, employing the Taylor hypothesis in order to probe different scales. The small separation of MMS spacecraft, well below the ion inertial scale, allow us for the first time to directly probe turbulent fluctuations at the kinetic range. Using multi-spacecraft measurements, we are able to measure the spatial characteristics of turbulent fluctuations and compare with the traditional Taylor-based single spacecraft approach. Meanwhile, combining observations from Cluster and MMS data we were able to cover a wide range of scales from the inertial range where the turbulent cascade takes place, down to the kinetic range where the energy is eventually dissipated. These observations present an important step in understanding the nature of solar wind turbulence and the processes through which turbulent energy is dissipated into particle heating and acceleration. We compute statistical quantities such as the second order structure function and the scale-dependent kurtosis, along with their dependence on the parameters such as the mean magnetic field direction. Overall, we observe an overall agreement between the single spacecraft and the multi-spacecraft approach. However, a small but significant deviation is observed at the smaller scales near the electron inertial scale. The high values of the scale dependent kurtosis at very small scales, observed via two-point measurements, open up a compelling avenue of investigation for theory and numerical modelling.

  18. Determining the Thickness and the Sub-Structure Details of the Magnetopause from MMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuzzo, R.; Belmont, G.; Rezeau, L.

    2017-12-01

    The magnetopause thickness, like its mean location, is a notion that can have different meanings depending which parameters are considered (magnetic field or plasma properties). In any case, all the determinations have been done, up to now, considering the magnetopause boundary as a structure strictly stationary and 1D (or with a simple curvature). These determinations have shown to be very sensitive to the accuracy of the normal direction, because it affects the projection of the quantities of interest in studying geometrical sensitive phenomena such as the magnetic reconnection. Furthermore, the 1D stationary assumptions are likely to be rarely verified at the real magnetopause. The high quality measurements of MMS and their high time resolution now allow investigating the magnetopause structure in its more delicate features and with an unequal spatio-temporal accuracy. We make use here of the MDD tool developed by [Shi et al., 2005], which gives the dimensionality of the gradients from the four-point measurements of MMS and allows estimating the direction of the local normal when defined. Extending this method to various quantities, we can draw their profiles as functions of a physical abscissa (length instead of time) along a sensible normal. This procedure allows answering quantitatively the questions concerning the locations and the thicknesses of the different sub-structures encountered inside the "global magnetopause" [Rezeau, 2017, paper submitted to JGR-Space Physics].

  19. The kinetic structure of the electron diffusionregion observed by MMS during asymmetricreconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egedal, J.; Le, A.; Daughton, W. S.

    2017-12-01

    During asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the dayside magnetopause insitu spacecraft measurements by NASA's MMS mission provide new detailedinformation on the electron dynamics within the electron diffusion region. Inparticular, we here report on observations by MMS4 which traveled the closeston the topological X-line [1] in the event on October 16, 2015, first reportedby Burch et al., [2]. In addition to the crescent shaped electron distributions[2,3], the measurements include electron beams, flowing in toward the diffusionregion. These beams of incoming electrons are formed by E∥ acceleration alongthe high-density side separators. They penetrate across the electron diffusionregion, where their directions nearly unaffected by the rapid changes in themagnetic field geometry. Matching electron beam features are observed in 2.5Dkinetic simulations, revealing their role in breaking the electron frozen-in-lawthrough their contributions to the off-diagonal stress in the electron pressuretensor. [1] Denton et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 55895596, (2016).[2] Burch et al., Science 352, 2939, (2016).[3] Egedal et al., PRL 117, 185101 (2016).

  20. MMS2, Encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-like protein, is a member of the yeast error-free postreplication repair pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, S.; Chow, B.L.; Xiao, W.

    1998-01-01

    Among the three Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair epistasis groups, the RAD6 group is the most complicated and least characterized, primarily because it consists of two separate repair pathways: an error-free postreplication repair pathway, and a mutagenesis pathway. The rad6 and rad18 mutants are defective in both pathways, and the rev3 mutant affects only the mutagenesis pathway, but a yeast gene that is involved only in error-free postreplication repair has not been reported. We cloned the MMS2 gene from a yeast genomic library by functional complementation of the mms2-1 mutant [Prakash, L. and Prakash, S. (1977) Genetics 86, 33-55]. MMS2 encodes a 137-amino acid, 15.2-kDa protein with significant sequence homology to a conserved family of ubiquitin-conjugating (Ubc) proteins. However, Mms2 does not appear to possess Ubc activity. Genetic analyses indicate that the mms2 mutation is hypostatic to rad6 and rad18 but is synergistic with the rev3 mutation, and the mms2 mutant is proficient in UV-induced mutagenesis. These phenotypes are reminiscent of a pol30-46 mutant known to be impaired in postreplication repair. The mms2 mutant also displayed a REV3-dependent mutator phenotype, strongly suggesting that the MMS2 gene functions in the error-free postreplication repair pathway, parallel to the REV3 mutagenesis pathway. Furthermore, with respect to UV sensitivity, mms2 was found to be hypostatic to the rad6 delta 1-9 mutation, which results in the absence of the first nine amino acids of Rad6. On the basis of these collective results, we propose that the mms2 null mutation and two other allele-specific mutations, rad6 delta 1-9 and pol30-46, define the error-free mode of DNA postreplication repair, and that these mutations may enhance both spontaneous and DNA damage-induced mutagenesis

  1. Chronic perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jiangfei; Lv, Suping; Nie, Shangfei; Liu, Jing; Tong, Shoufang; Kang, Ning; Xiao, Yanyan; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Yang, Dongren

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PFOS chronic exposure induces sex-dependent hepatic steotosis in zebrafish. • PFOS interferes with β-oxidation, lipid synthesis, and lipid hepatic export process. • Zebrafish could be used as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening. - Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), one persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and human. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity induced by chronic PFOS exposure are still largely unknown. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism using zebrafish as a model system. Our findings revealed a severe hepatic steatosis in the liver of males treated with 0.5 μM PFOS as evidenced by hepatosomatic index, histological assessment and liver lipid profiles. Quantitative PCR assay further indicated that PFOS significantly increase the transcriptional expression of nuclear receptors (nr1h3, rara, rxrgb, nr1l2) and the genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (acox1, acadm, cpt1a). In addition, chronic PFOS exposure significantly decreased liver ATP content and serum level of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein in males. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic PFOS exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish via disturbing lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation and excretion of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein, and also demonstrate the validity of using zebrafish as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening.

  2. Determination of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic, sulfonic, and phosphonic acids in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Shahid; Alsberg, Tomas; Vestergren, Robin; Berger, Urs

    2012-11-01

    A sensitive and accurate method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, sulfonic acids, and phosphonic acids (PFPAs) at low picograms per gram concentrations in a variety of food matrices. The method employed extraction with acetonitrile/water and cleanup on a mixed-mode co-polymeric sorbent (C8 + quaternary amine) using solid-phase extraction. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using a mobile phase gradient containing 5 mM 1-methyl piperidine for optimal chromatographic resolution of PFPAs. A quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometer operating in negative ion mode was used as detector. Method detection limits were in the range of 0.002 to 0.02 ng g(-1) for all analytes. Sample preparation (extraction and cleanup) recoveries at a spiking level of 0.1 ng g(-1) to a baby food composite were in the range of 59 to 98 %. A strong matrix effect was observed in the analysis of PFPAs in food extracts, which was tentatively assigned to sorption of PFPAs to the injection vial in the solvent-based calibration standard. The method was successfully applied to a range of different food matrices including duplicate diet samples, vegetables, meat, and fish samples.

  3. Chronic perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jiangfei; Lv, Suping; Nie, Shangfei; Liu, Jing; Tong, Shoufang; Kang, Ning; Xiao, Yanyan; Dong, Qiaoxiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Huang, Changjiang, E-mail: cjhuang5711@163.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China); Yang, Dongren, E-mail: yangdongren@yahoo.com [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Technology and Application of Model Organisms (China); Institute of Environmental Safety and Human Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • PFOS chronic exposure induces sex-dependent hepatic steotosis in zebrafish. • PFOS interferes with β-oxidation, lipid synthesis, and lipid hepatic export process. • Zebrafish could be used as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening. - Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), one persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in the environment, wildlife and human. Currently few studies have documented the effects of chronic PFOS exposure on lipid metabolism, especially in aquatic organisms. The underlying mechanisms of hepatotoxicity induced by chronic PFOS exposure are still largely unknown. The present study defined the effects of chronic exposure to low level of PFOS on lipid metabolism using zebrafish as a model system. Our findings revealed a severe hepatic steatosis in the liver of males treated with 0.5 μM PFOS as evidenced by hepatosomatic index, histological assessment and liver lipid profiles. Quantitative PCR assay further indicated that PFOS significantly increase the transcriptional expression of nuclear receptors (nr1h3, rara, rxrgb, nr1l2) and the genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (acox1, acadm, cpt1a). In addition, chronic PFOS exposure significantly decreased liver ATP content and serum level of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein in males. Taken together, these findings suggest that chronic PFOS exposure induces hepatic steatosis in zebrafish via disturbing lipid biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation and excretion of VLDL/LDL lipoprotein, and also demonstrate the validity of using zebrafish as an alternative model for PFOS chronic toxicity screening.

  4. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Some Sulfone-Containing Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla N. Salama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of some sulfone-containing drugs, namely, dapsone (DDS, dimethylsulfone (MSM, and topiramate (TOP in drug substances, and products were investigated using different thermal techniques. These include thermogravimetry (TGA, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The thermogravimetric data allowed the determination of the kinetic parameters: activation energy (Ea, frequency factor (A, and reaction order (n. The thermal degradation of dapsone and topiramate was followed a first-order kinetic behavior. The calculated data evidenced a zero-order kinetic for dimethylsulfone. The relative thermal stabilities of the studied drugs have been evaluated and follow the order DDS > TOP > MSM. The purity was determined using DSC for the studied compounds, in drug substances and products. The results were in agreement with the recommended pharmacopoeia and manufacturer methods. DSC curves obtained from the tablets suggest compatibility between the drugs, excipients and/or coformulated drugs. The fragmentation pathway of dapsone with mass spectrometry was taken as example, to correlate the thermal decomposition with the resulted MS-EI. The decomposition modes were investigated, and the possible fragmentation pathways were suggested by mass spectrometry.

  5. Tissue Distribution Of Chloroaluminium Sulfonated Phthalocyanine In Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M.; H. C.; Newman

    1989-06-01

    Chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (A1PCS) was administered intravenously to clinically normal dogs, and A1PCS levels were determined in tissues using a sensitive assay. A1PCS accumulated to high levels in liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and lung. These tissue levels confirm previous determinations in mice and rats. Only a small amount of dye was retained in skin and very small amounts in muscle and brain. A1PCS was cleared from the blood within 24 h, and excreted primarily by urine. Serum clearance was faster in males than in females. There were also significant tissue distribution differences between the genders, particularly during the first 12 h. The low levels of A1PCS in skin suggest that cutaneous photosensitivity and toxic skin reactions using this photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy of cancer may be eliminated. The difference in tissue distribution between genders is not only intriguing, but indicates that the optimal time window for treatment of various tissue sites may vary by gender.

  6. Properties, propagation, and excitation of EMIC waves observed by MMS: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Boardsen, S. A.; Coffey, V. N.; Chandler, M. O.; Saikin, A.; Mello, E. M.; Russell, C. T.; Torbert, R. B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Giles, B. L.; Gershman, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves (0.1-5 Hz) play an important role in particle dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. EMIC waves are preferentially excited in regions where hot anisotropic ions and cold dense plasma populations spatially overlap. While the generation region of EMIC waves is usually on or near the magnetic equatorial plane in the inner magnetosphere, EMIC waves have both equatorial and off-equator source regions on the dayside in the compressed outer magnetosphere. Using field and plasma measurements from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, we perform a case study of EMIC waves and associated local plasma conditions observed on 19 October 2015. From 0315 to 0810 UT, before crossing the magnetopause into the magnetosheath, all four MMS spacecraft detected long-lasting He+-band EMIC wave emissions around local noon (MLT = 12.7 - 14.0) at high L-shells (L = 8.8 - 15.2) and low magnetic latitudes (MLAT = -21.8º - -30.3º). Energetic (> 1 keV) and anisotropic ions were present throughout this event that was in the recovery phase of a weak geomagnetic storm (min. Dst = -48 nT at 1000 UT on 18 October 2015). The testing of linear theory suggests that the EMIC waves were excited locally. Although the wave event is dominated by small normal angles, its polarization is mixed with right- and left-handedness and its propagation is bi-directional with regard to the background magnetic field. The short inter-spacecraft distances (as low as 15 km) of the MMS mission make it possible to accurately determine the k vector of the waves using the phase difference technique. Preliminary analysis finds that the k vector magnitude, phase speed, and wavelength of the 0.3-Hz wave packet at 0453:55 UT are 0.005 km-1, 372.9 km/s, and 1242.9 km, respectively. We will discuss the characteristics of the wave and particle measurements and their significance in this locale.

  7. 30 CFR 285.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision? 285.617 Section 285.617 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT...: (1) Designed not to cause undue harm or damage to natural resources; life (including human and...

  8. 75 FR 1634 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0176, Renewable Energy and Alternate Uses of Existing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... on the OCS, and balance the protection and development of OCS resources. To do this, MMS needs... purpose specified in the grant. Review and approve SAPs, COPs, and GAPs prior to allowing activities to commence on a lease to ensure that the activities will protect human, marine, and coastal environments of...

  9. 75 FR 13563 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-0114, Subpart A-General, Revision of a Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... production status (usually oral). Follow-up with either fax/email within same 5 day period (burden includes... operation and production, MMS uses the information to verify the claim and to release the lessee from lease... warrant continued operation and production. Ensure that injection of gas promotes conservation of natural...

  10. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) policies, practices, and procedures for the Minerals Management Service (MMS... applies NEPA in its management of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas exploration and development and make recommendations for revisions. The scope of the review is intended to be holistic, i.e. from leasing decisions to...

  11. Simultaneous Remote Observations of Intense Reconnection Effects by DMSP and MMS Spacecraft During a Storm Time Substorm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsani, A; Nakamura, R; Sergeev, V A; Baumjohann, W; Owen, C J; Petrukovich, A A; Yao, Z; Nakamura, T K M; Kubyshkina, M V; Sotirelis, T; Burch, J L; Genestreti, K J; Vörös, Z; Andriopoulou, M; Gershman, D J; Avanov, L A; Magnes, W; Russell, C T; Plaschke, F; Khotyaintsev, Y V; Giles, B L; Coffey, V N; Dorelli, J C; Strangeway, R J; Torbert, R B; Lindqvist, P-A; Ergun, R

    2017-11-01

    During a magnetic storm on 23 June 2015, several very intense substorms took place, with signatures observed by multiple spacecraft including DMSP and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS). At the time of interest, DMSP F18 crossed inbound through a poleward expanding auroral bulge boundary at 23.5 h magnetic local time (MLT), while MMS was located duskward of 22 h MLT during an inward crossing of the expanding plasma sheet boundary. The two spacecraft observed a consistent set of signatures as they simultaneously crossed the reconnection separatrix layer during this very intense reconnection event. These include (1) energy dispersion of the energetic ions and electrons traveling earthward, accompanied with high electron energies in the vicinity of the separatrix; (2) energy dispersion of polar rain electrons, with a high-energy cutoff; and (3) intense inward convection of the magnetic field lines at the MMS location. The high temporal resolution measurements by MMS provide unprecedented observations of the outermost electron boundary layer. We discuss the relevance of the energy dispersion of the electrons, and their pitch angle distribution, to the spatial and temporal evolution of the boundary layer. The results indicate that the underlying magnetotail magnetic reconnection process was an intrinsically impulsive and the active X-line was located relatively close to the Earth, approximately at 16-18 R E .

  12. 30 CFR 210.201 - How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado 80217-5810; or (ii) For courier service or overnight mail (excluding Express Mail): Minerals... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report? 210.201 Section 210.201 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE...

  13. Toward High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Upcycling of LDPE Plastic into Sulfonated Carbon Scaffold via Microwave-Promoted Sulfonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Patrick J; Fontecha, Harif D; Kim, Kyungho; Pol, Vilas G

    2018-05-02

    Lithium-sulfur batteries were intensively explored during the last few decades as next-generation batteries owing to their high energy density (2600 Wh kg -1 ) and effective cost benefit. However, systemic challenges, mainly associated with polysulfide shuttling effect and low Coulombic efficiency, plague the practical utilization of sulfur cathode electrodes in the battery market. To address the aforementioned issues, many approaches have been investigated by tailoring the surface characteristics and porosities of carbon scaffold. In this study, we first present an effective strategy of preparing porous sulfonated carbon (PSC) from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic via microwave-promoted sulfonation. Microwave process not only boosts the sulfonation reaction of LDPE but also induces huge amounts of pores within the sulfonated LDPE plastic. When a PSC layer was utilized as an interlayer in lithium-sulfur batteries, the sulfur cathode delivered an improved capacity of 776 mAh g -1 at 0.5C and an excellent cycle retention of 79% over 200 cycles. These are mainly attributed to two materialistic benefits of PSC: (a) porous structure with high surface area and (b) negatively charged conductive scaffold. These two characteristics not only facilitate the improved electrochemical kinetics but also effectively block the diffusion of polysulfides via Coulomb interaction.

  14. Anion exchange membranes based on terminally crosslinked methyl morpholinium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sohyun; Rao, Anil H. N.; Kim, Tae-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Azide-assisted terminal crosslinking of methyl morpholinium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone) block copolymers yields products (xMM-PESs) suitable for use as anion exchange membranes. By combining the advantages of bulky morpholinium conductors and our unique polymer network crosslinked only at the termini of the polymer chains, we can produce AEMs that after the crosslinking show minimal loss in conductivity, yet with dramatically reduced water uptake. Terminal crosslinking also significantly increases the thermal, mechanical and chemical stability levels of the membranes. A high ion conductivity of 73.4 mS cm-1 and low water uptake of 26.1% at 80 °C are obtained for the crosslinked membrane with higher amount of hydrophilic composition, denoted as xMM-PES-1.5-1. In addition, the conductivity of the crosslinked xMM-PES-1.5-1 membrane exceeds that of its non-crosslinked counterpart (denoted as MM-PES-1.5-1) above 60 °C at 95% relative humidity because of its enhanced water retention capacity caused by the terminally-crosslinked structure.

  15. Surface modification of carbon fibers by a polyether sulfone emulsion sizing for increased interfacial adhesion with polyether sulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haojie; Zhang, Shouchun; Lu, Chunxiang

    2014-10-01

    Interests on carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites are growing rapidly, but the challenges with poor interfacial adhesion have slowed their adoption. In this work, a polyether sulfone (PES) emulsion sizing was prepared successfully for increased interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. To obtain a high-quality PES emulsion sizing, the key factor, emulsifier concentration, was studied by dynamic light scattering technique. The results demonstrated that the suitable weight ratio of PES to emulsifier was 8:3, and the resulting PES emulsion sizing had an average particle diameter of 117 nm and Zeta potential of -52.6 mV. After sizing, the surface oxygen-containing functional groups, free energy and wettability of carbon fibers increased significantly, which were advantageous to promote molecular-level contact between carbon fiber and PES. Finally, short beam shear tests were performed to evaluate the interfacial adhesion of carbon fiber/PES composites. The results indicated that PES emulsion sizing played a critical role for the enhanced interfacial adhesion in carbon fiber/PES composites, and a 26% increase of interlaminar shear strength was achieved, because of the improved fiber surface wettability and interfacial compatibility between carbon fiber and PES.

  16. Nitric Acid Dehydration Using Perfluoro Carboxylate and Mixed Sulfonate/Carboxylate Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Richard L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Perfluoro ionomer membranes are tetrafluoro ethylene-based materials with microheterogeneous structures consisting of a hydrophobic polymer backbone and a hydrophilic side-chain cluster region. Due to the ionomer cluster morphology, these films exhibit unique transport properties. Recent investigations with perfluoro sulfonate and perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate composite polymers have demonstrated their value in the dehydration of nitric acid and they show potential as an alternative to conventional, energy intensive unit operations in the concentration of acid feeds. As a result, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of using pure perfluoro carboxylate and mixed perfluoro sulfonate/carboxylate films for the dehydration of nitric acid because of the speculation of improved water selectivity of the carboxylate pendant chain. During the first phase of these investigations the effort was focused on generating a thin, solution cast perfluoro carboxylate ionomer film, to evaluate the general, chemical and physical characteristics of the polymer, and to assess the material's aqueous transport performance (flux and nitrate separation efficiencies) in pervaporation and high-pressure environments. Results demonstrated that generating robust solution-cast films was difficult yet a number of membranes survived high trans-membrane pressures up to 700 psig. General characterization of the solution cast product showed reduced ion exchange capacities when compared with thicker, ''as received'' perfluoro carboxylate and similar sulfonate films. Small angle x-ray scattering analysis results suggested that the solution cast carboxylate films contained a small fraction of sulfonate terminated side-chains. Aqueous transport experimentation showed that permeate fluxes for both pure water and nitric acid were approximately two orders of magnitude smaller for the carboxylate solution cast membranes when compared to their sulfonate

  17. Synthesis and properties of a novel sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone sulfone) membrane with a high β-value for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jingmei; Ma, Li; Han, Hailan; Ni, Hongzhe; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Huixuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduction of carboxyl groups into copolymers resulted in extensive hydrogen bond. • The C-SPAEKS membranes had obviously hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase separation. • The membranes showed low methanol permeability and high β values. • The membranes exhibited good thermal property and desirable mechanical performance. - Abstract: Sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone sulfone) membranes containing carboxylic acid groups (C-SPAEKS) with different degrees of sulfonation were synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions of 4-carboxylphenyl hydroquinone (4C-PH), bisphenol A, 3,3′-disulfonated 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone, and 4,4′-difluorobenzophenone. The Fourier transform infrared and 1 H NMR analyses of C-SPAEKS revealed the presence of carboxylic acid groups in the C-SPAEKS membranes. The membranes exhibited a low swelling degree and methanol crossover level. The effects of different degrees of sulfonation on the water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability coefficient of the membranes were studied. The maximum proton conductivity of C-SPAEKS-80 membrane at room temperature was 0.069 S cm −1 , which was higher than that of Nafion ® 117 membrane. The methanol permeability coefficient of C-SPAEKS-80 membrane was 9.15 × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 at 20 °C, much lower than that of Nafion 117 membrane (22.9 × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 ). Furthermore, the carboxyl group-containing membranes exhibited a high β-value, further confirming that this series of membranes possess excellent comprehensive performance and can be applied in direct methanol fuel cells

  18. The university münster model surgery system for orthognathic surgery. Part II – KD-MMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehmer Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Model surgery is an integral part of the planning procedure in orthognathic surgery. Most concepts comprise cutting the dental cast off its socket. The standardized spacer plates of the KD-MMS provide for a non-destructive, reversible and reproducible means of maxillary and/or mandibular plaster cast separation. Methods In the course of development of the system various articulator types were evaluated with regard to their capability to provide a means of realizing the concepts comprised of the KD-MMS. Special attention was dedicated to the ability to perform three-dimensional displacements without cutting of plaster casts. Various utilities were developed to facilitate maxillary displacement in accordance to the planning. Objectives of this development comprised the ability to implement the values established in the course of two-dimensional ceph planning. Results The system - KD-MMS comprises a set of hardware components as well as a defined procedure. Essential hardware components are red spacer and blue mounting plates. The blue mounting plates replace the standard yellow SAM mounting elements. The red spacers provide for a defined leeway of 8 mm for three-dimensional movements. The non-destructive approach of the KD-MMS makes it possible to conduct different model surgeries with the same plaster casts as well as to restore the initial, pre-surgical situation at any time. Thereby, surgical protocol generation and gnathologic splint construction are facilitated. Conclusions The KD-MMS hardware components in conjunction with the defined procedures are capable of increasing efficiency and accuracy of model surgery and splint construction. In cases where different surgical approaches need to be evaluated in the course of model surgery, a significant reduction of chair time may be achieved.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated polyesters derived from glycerol; Sintese e caracterizacao de poliesteres sulfonados obtidos a partir do glicerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Fiuza, R.P. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Curso de Mestrado em Engenharia Quimica

    2010-07-01

    In this work were synthesized polyesters from glycerol and acid sulfonated phthalic previously. The materials were characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD and XRF. The results showed effective sulfonation of phthalic acid. The presence of sulfonic groups promoted strong changes in the crystallinity of the new material makes the lens. The polyesters made from phthalic acid sulfonated combine characteristics such as heat resistance and groups that drivers potentiate the electrolyte for application in fuel cells proton exchange membrane and also for gas separation. (author)

  20. MMS control system analysis using automated root-locus plot generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefler, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of the Modular Modeling System (MMS) for control systems improvement has been impeded by the need to plot eigenvalues manually. This problem has been solved by an automatic eigenvalue plotting routine. A practical procedure for control systems analysis based upon automatically generated root-locus plots has been developed using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL)-based version of the Modular Modeling System. Examples are given of typical ACSL run-time statements. Actual root-locus and time history plots are shown for simple models (4 state variables). More complex models are discussed. The plots show the control systems response before and after the determination of tuning parameters using the methods described

  1. New insights into sub-ion scale turbulence in Earth's magnetosheath using MMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuillard, Hugo; Andriopoulou, Maria; Graham, Daniel; Le Contel, Olivier; Huang, Shiyong; Hadid, Lina; Sahraoui, Fouad; Alexandrova, Olga; Berthomier, Matthieu; Retino, Alessandro; Nakamura, Rumi; Baumjohann, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    On January 22nd 2016, MMS was located in Earth's magnetosheath and detected intense lion roars showing a secondary bandwidth. Detailed polarization analysis, using burst data from SCM and EDP instruments, and numerical simulation, using WHAMP, are performed in this study. They show that these mainly perpendicular fluctuations are highly nonlinear whistler wave packets, and that a high sampling rate is needed to pick up the peaks of the signal. As a result, their amplitude might have been underestimated in previous missions such as Cluster, which can have a significant impact on electron dynamics. Using FPI burst data, we show that electron velocity distribution functions exhibit a gyrophase-bunched signature in the presence of these lion roars. The analysis of magnetic and density fluctuations, inferred from spacecraft potential, also show the highly-compressible nature of turbulence up to electron scales.

  2. Statistical Study of the Properties of Magnetosheath Lion Roars using MMS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagkiozis, S.; Wilson, L. B., III

    2017-12-01

    Intense whistler-mode waves of very short duration are frequently encountered in the magnetosheath. These emissions have been linked to mirror mode waves and the Earth's bow shock. They can efficiently transfer energy between different plasma populations. These electromagnetic waves are commonly referred to as Lion roars (LR), due to the sound generated when the signals are sonified. They are generally observed during dips of the magnetic field that are anti-correlated with increases of density. Using MMS data, we have identified more than 1750 individual LR burst intervals. Each emission was band-pass filtered and further split into >35,000 subintervals, for which the direction of propagation and the polarization were calculated. The analysis of subinterval properties provides a more accurate representation of their true nature than the more commonly used time- and frequency-averaged dynamic spectra analysis. The results of the statistical analysis of the wave properties will be presented.

  3. MMS Observation of Shock-Reflected He++ at Earth's Quasi-Perpendicular Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Jeffrey Michael; Fuselier, S. A.; Trattner, K. J.; Schwartz, S. J.; Burch, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Anderson, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    Specular reflection of protons at Earth's supercritical quasi-perpendicular bow shock has long been known to lead to the thermalization of solar wind particles by velocity-space dispersion. The same process has been proposed for He++ but could not be confirmed previously due to insufficient time resolution for velocity distribution measurements. We present observations and simulations of a bow shock crossing by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission on 20 November 2015 indicating that a very similar reflection process for He++ is possible, and further that the part of the incoming distribution with the highest probability of reflecting is the same for H+ and He++. However, the reflection process for He++ is accomplished by deeper penetration into the downstream magnetic fields.

  4. The Substructure of a Flux Transfer Event Observed by the MMS Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K.-J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Paterson, W. R.; Dorelli, J. C.; Ergun, R. E.; Russel, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    On 15 August 2015, MMS (Magnetospheric Multiscale mission), skimming the dusk magnetopause, detected an isolated region of an increased magnetic strength and bipolar Bn, indicating a flux transfer event (FTE). The four spacecraft in a tetrahedron allowed for investigations of the shape and motion of the FTE. In particular, high-resolution particle data facilitated our exploration of FTE substructures and their magnetic connectivity inside and surrounding the FTE. Combined field and plasma observations suggest that the core fields are open, magnetically connected to the northern magnetosphere from which high-energy particles leak; ion "D" distributions characterize the axis of flux ropes that carry old-opened field lines; counter streaming electrons superposed by parallel-heated components populate the periphery surrounding the FTE; and the interface between the core and draped regions contains a separatrix of newlyopened magnetic field lines that emanate from the X line above the FTE.

  5. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Observations of Energetic Ion Response to Magnetotail Dipolarization Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B.; Anderson, B. J.; Sitnov, M. I.; Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Giles, B. L.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) instruments aboard MMS have shown angular (pitch, elevation, azimuthal) asymmetries of energetic (>10s of keV) ions corresponding to dipolarization events in the near-Earth and distant magnetotail. In particular, EIS distinguishes the species composition of these ions (protons, helium, oxygen) and reveals apparent species-based differences in their response. This study presents analysis of the dynamic injection and mass-dependent response of energetic ions that likely result from the kinetic response of the ions to the time-varying electric and magnetic fields associated with injection process. Analysis is focused on discriminating between truly kinetic responses to the dynamics and the features that arise from large gyro-radii particles in the vicinity of strong spatial gradients. The study will focus on EIS measurements and include supplementary data from the FIELDS, FPI, and HPCA instruments.

  6. Where should MMS look for the electron and ion diffusion regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, G.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Olshevsky, V.

    2015-12-01

    Our message is that if we think of reconnection with the usual cartoon, the MMS mission should follow the advice of Indiana Jones: X never marks the spot. Based on 3D fully kinetic simulations started with a well defined x-line, we observe that reconnection transitions towards a more chaotic regime. Two fronts develop downstream of the x-line where the outflow meets the pre-existing plasma. In the fronts an instability develops caused by the local gradients of the density. The consequence is the break up of the fronts in a fashion similar to the classical fluid Rayleigh-Taylor instability with the formation of "fingers" of plasma and embedded magnetic fields. These fingers interact and produce secondary reconnection sites. We present several different diagnostics that prove the existence of these secondary reconnection sites. Each site is surrounded by its own electron diffusion region.At the fronts the ions are generally not magnetized and considerable ion slippage is present. The discovery we present is that electrons are also slipping, forming localized diffusion regions near secondary reconnection sites [1].The consequence of this discovery is twofold. First, the instability in the fronts has strong energetic implications. We observe that the energy transfer locally is very strong, an order of magnitude stronger than in the "X" line. However, this energy transfer is of both signs as it is natural for a wavy rippling with regions of magnetic to kinetic and regions of kinetic to magnetic energy conversion.Second, and most important for this session, is that MMS should not limit the search for electron diffusion regions to the location marked with X in all reconnection cartoons. Our simulations predict more numerous and perhaps more easily measurable electron diffusion regions in the fronts. [1] Lapenta, G et al., Nature Physics 11, 690-695 (2015)

  7. Statistical analysis of MMS observations of energetic electron escape observed at/beyond the dayside magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ian J.; Mauk, Barry H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Westlake, Joseph H.; Sibeck, David G.; Turner, Drew L.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Blake, J. Bern; Jaynes, Allison N.; Leonard, Trevor W.; Baker, Daniel N.; Spence, Harlan E.; Reeves, Geoff D.; Giles, Barbara J.; Strangeway, Robert J.; Torbert, Roy B.; Burch, James L.

    2017-09-01

    Observations from the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) instrument suite aboard the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft show that energetic (greater than tens of keV) magnetospheric particle escape into the magnetosheath occurs commonly across the dayside. This includes the surprisingly frequent observation of magnetospheric electrons in the duskside magnetosheath, an unexpected result given assumptions regarding magnetic drift shadowing. The 238 events identified in the 40 keV electron energy channel during the first MMS dayside season that exhibit strongly anisotropic pitch angle distributions indicating monohemispheric field-aligned streaming away from the magnetopause. A review of the extremely rich literature of energetic electron observations beyond the magnetopause is provided to place these new observations into historical context. Despite the extensive history of such research, these new observations provide a more comprehensive data set that includes unprecedented magnetic local time (MLT) coverage of the dayside equatorial magnetopause/magnetosheath. These data clearly highlight the common escape of energetic electrons along magnetic field lines concluded to have been reconnected across the magnetopause. While these streaming escape events agree with prior studies which show strong correlation with geomagnetic activity (suggesting a magnetotail source) and occur most frequently during periods of southward IMF, the high number of duskside events is unexpected and previously unobserved. Although the lowest electron energy channel was the focus of this study, the events reported here exhibit pitch angle anisotropies indicative of streaming up to 200 keV, which could represent the magnetopause loss of >1 MeV electrons from the outer radiation belt.

  8. Statistical analysis of MMS observations of energetic electron escape observed at/beyond the dayside magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Ian J.; Mauk, Barry H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Westlake, Joseph H.; Sibeck, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Here, observations from the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) instrument suite aboard the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft show that energetic (greater than tens of keV) magnetospheric particle escape into the magnetosheath occurs commonly across the dayside. This includes the surprisingly frequent observation of magnetospheric electrons in the duskside magnetosheath, an unexpected result given assumptions regarding magnetic drift shadowing. The 238 events identified in the 40 keV electron energy channel during the first MMS dayside season that exhibit strongly anisotropic pitch angle distributions indicating monohemispheric field-aligned streaming away from the magnetopause. A review of the extremely rich literature of energetic electron observations beyond the magnetopause is provided to place these new observations into historical context. Despite the extensive history of such research, these new observations provide a more comprehensive data set that includes unprecedented magnetic local time (MLT) coverage of the dayside equatorial magnetopause/magnetosheath. These data clearly highlight the common escape of energetic electrons along magnetic field lines concluded to have been reconnected across the magnetopause. While these streaming escape events agree with prior studies which show strong correlation with geomagnetic activity (suggesting a magnetotail source) and occur most frequently during periods of southward IMF, the high number of duskside events is unexpected and previously unobserved. Although the lowest electron energy channel was the focus of this study, the events reported here exhibit pitch angle anisotropies indicative of streaming up to 200 keV, which could represent the magnetopause loss of >1 MeV electrons from the outer radiation belt.

  9. Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 Prevent Accumulation of Toxic Inter-Homolog Recombination Intermediates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Keyamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is an evolutionally conserved mechanism that promotes genome stability through the faithful repair of double-strand breaks and single-strand gaps in DNA, and the recovery of stalled or collapsed replication forks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-dependent DNA helicase Srs2 (a member of the highly conserved UvrD family of helicases has multiple roles in regulating homologous recombination. A mutation (srs2K41A resulting in a helicase-dead mutant of Srs2 was found to be lethal in diploid, but not in haploid, cells. In diploid cells, Srs2K41A caused the accumulation of inter-homolog joint molecule intermediates, increased the levels of spontaneous Rad52 foci, and induced gross chromosomal rearrangements. Srs2K41A lethality and accumulation of joint molecules were suppressed by inactivating Rad51 or deleting the Rad51-interaction domain of Srs2, whereas phosphorylation and sumoylation of Srs2 and its interaction with sumoylated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were not required for lethality. The structure-specific complex of crossover junction endonucleases Mus81 and Mms4 was also required for viability of diploid, but not haploid, SRS2 deletion mutants (srs2Δ, and diploid srs2Δ mus81Δ mutants accumulated joint molecule intermediates. Our data suggest that Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 have critical roles in preventing the formation of (or in resolving toxic inter-homolog joint molecules, which could otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation and lead to genetic instability.

  10. Magnetosheath jets: MMS observations of internal structures and jet interactions with ambient plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, F.; Karlsson, T.; Hietala, H.; Archer, M. O.; Voros, Z.; Nakamura, R.; Magnes, W.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    The dayside magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock is commonly permeated by high-speed jets. Under low IMF cone angle conditions, large scale jets alone (with cross-sectional diameters of over 2 Earth radii) have been found to impact the subsolar magnetopause once every 6 minutes - smaller scale jets occurring much more frequently. The consequences of jet impacts on the magnetopause can be significant: they may trigger local reconnection and waves, alter radiation belt electron drift paths, disturb the geomagnetic field, and potentially generate diffuse throat aurora at the dayside ionosphere. Although some basic statistical properties of jets are well-established, their internal structure and interactions with the surrounding magnetosheath plasma are rather unknown. We present Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations which reveal a rich jet-internal structure of high-amplitude plasma moment and magnetic field variations and associated currents. These variations/structures are generally found to be in thermal and magnetic pressure balance; they mostly (but not always) convect with the plasma flow. Small velocity differences between plasma and structures are revealed via four-spacecraft timing analysis. Inside a jet core region, where the plasma velocity maximizes, structures are found to propagate forward (i.e., with the jet), whereas backward propagation is found outside that core region. Although super-magnetosonic flows are detected by MMS in the spacecraft frame of reference, no fast shock is seen as the jet plasma is sub-magnetosonic with respect to the ambient magnetosheath plasma. Instead, the fast jet plasma pushes ambient magnetosheath plasma ahead of the jet out of the way, possibly generating anomalous sunward flows in the vicinity, and modifies the magnetic field aligning it with the direction of jet propagation.

  11. The host cell sulfonation pathway contributes to retroviral infection at a step coincident with provirus establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Bruce

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The early steps of retrovirus replication leading up to provirus establishment are highly dependent on cellular processes and represent a time when the virus is particularly vulnerable to antivirals and host defense mechanisms. However, the roles played by cellular factors are only partially understood. To identify cellular processes that participate in these critical steps, we employed a high volume screening of insertionally mutagenized somatic cells using a murine leukemia virus (MLV vector. This approach identified a role for 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1 (PAPSS1, one of two enzymes that synthesize PAPS, the high energy sulfate donor used in all sulfonation reactions catalyzed by cellular sulfotransferases. The role of the cellular sulfonation pathway was confirmed using chemical inhibitors of PAPS synthases and cellular sulfotransferases. The requirement for sulfonation was mapped to a stage during or shortly after MLV provirus establishment and influenced subsequent gene expression from the viral long terminal repeat (LTR promoter. Infection of cells by an HIV vector was also shown to be highly dependent on the cellular sulfonation pathway. These studies have uncovered a heretofore unknown regulatory step of retroviral replication, have defined a new biological function for sulfonation in nuclear gene expression, and provide a potentially valuable new target for HIV/AIDS therapy.

  12. Ionomers based on multisulfonated perylene dianhydride: Synthesis and properties of water resistant sulfonated polyimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Nanwen [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Suobo; Li, Shenghai [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel locally and densely sulfonated dianhydride with four sulfonic acid groups, 1,6,7,12-tetra[4-(sulfonic acid)phenoxy]perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (SPTDA), was successfully synthesized by direct sulfonation of the parent dianhydride, 1,6,7,12-tetraphenoxyperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTDA). Sulfonated copolyimides were prepared from SPTDA, nonsulfonated dianhydride 4,4'-binaphthyl-1,1',8,8'-tetracarboxylic dianydride, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (a) or dodecane-1,12-diamine (b). The synthesized copolymers, with the -SO{sub 3}H group on the polymer side chain, possess high molecular weights and high viscosities, and they form tough, flexible membranes. The copolymer membrane with an ion exchange capacity of 2.69 mequiv. g{sup -1} had a proton conductivity of 0.126 S cm{sup -1} at 20 C and 0.292 S cm{sup -1} at 100 C; the latter is much higher than that of Nafion {sup registered} 117 under the same conditions. The mechanical properties of the copolymer membranes were almost unchanged after accelerated water stability testing at 140 C for 100 h; this indicates excellent hydrolytic stability of the synthesized copolyimides. (author)

  13. Potential contact and intraocular lenses based on hydrophilic/hydrophobic sulfonated syndiotactic polystyrene membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Zuppolini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline films of syndiotactic polystyrene (s-PS, a commercially available thermoplastic polymer, having a highly hydrophilic amorphous phase, were achieved by using a mild solid-state sulfonation procedure. Despite the used mild process conditions, an easy and uniform sulfonation of the phenyl rings of the amorphous phase is obtained. The crystallinity of the polymer was not affect by the sulfonation degree (S, at least at S less than 20%, and the obtained polymer films show the nanoporous crystalline form of s-PS. As widely reported in literature, the nanoporous nature of the polymer crystalline phase gives to these materials the ability to absorb and release organic molecules of appropriate size and polarity. This property, coupled to transparency, makes these materials potentially useful intraocular lens (IOLs and contact lens applications. Sulfonation procedure and sulfonated film samples characterization by using wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopy techniques and water sorption tests were reported. Furthermore, the biocompatibility study demonstrated no cytotoxicity and appropriate cell interaction properties for the specific applications.

  14. Direct Olefination of Alcohols with Sulfones by Using Heterogeneous Platinum Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Touchy, Abeda Sultana; Kon, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi

    2016-04-18

    Carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C) were found to be effective heterogeneous catalysts for the direct Julia olefination of alcohols in the presence of sulfones and KOtBu under oxidant-free conditions. Primary alcohols, including aryl, aliphatic, allyl, and heterocyclic alcohols, underwent olefination with dimethyl sulfone and aryl alkyl sulfones to give terminal and internal olefins, respectively. Secondary alcohols underwent methylenation with dimethyl sulfone. Under 2.5 bar H2, the same reaction system was effective for the transformation of alcohol OH groups to alkyl groups. Structural and mechanistic studies of the terminal olefination system suggested that Pt(0) sites on the Pt metal particles are responsible for the rate-limiting dehydrogenation of alcohols and that KOtBu may deprotonate the sulfone reagent. The Pt/C catalyst was reusable after the olefination, and this method showed a higher turnover number (TON) and a wider substrate scope than previously reported methods, which demonstrates the high catalytic efficiency of the present method. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Hydroxyurea treatment inhibits proliferation of Cryptococcus neoformans in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushlendra eTripathi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn is a serious threat to immunocompromised individuals, especially for HIV patients who develop meningoencephalitis. For effective cryptococcal treatment, novel antifungal drugs or innovative combination therapies are needed. Recently, sphingolipids have emerged as important bioactive molecules in the regulation of microbial pathogenesis. Previously we reported that the sphingolipid pathway gene, ISC1, which is responsible for ceramide production, is a major virulence factor in Cn infection. Here we report our studies of the role of ISC1 during genotoxic stress induced by the antineoplastic hydroxyurea (HU and methylmethane sulfonate (MMS, which affect DNA replication and genome integrity. We observed that Cn cells lacking ISC1 are highly sensitive to HU and MMS in a rich culture medium. HU affected cell division of Cn cells lacking the ISC1 gene, resulting in cell clusters. Cn ISC1, when expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc strain lacking its own ISC1 gene, restored HU resistance. In macrophage-like cells, although HU affected the proliferation of WT Cn cells by 50% at the concentration tested, HU completely inhibited Cn isc1-delta cell proliferation. Interestingly, our preliminary data show that mice infected with WT or Cn isc1-delta cells and subsequently treated with HU had longer lifespans than untreated, infected control mice. Our work suggests that the sphingolipid pathway gene, ISC1, is a likely target for combination therapy with traditional drugs such as HU.

  16. Major sulfonate transporter Soa1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and considerable substrate diversity in its fungal family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Sylvester; Kankipati, Harish; De Graeve, Stijn

    2017-01-01

    Sulfate is a well-established sulfur source for fungi; however, in soils sulfonates and sulfate esters, especially choline sulfate, are often much more prominent. Here we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae YIL166C(SOA1) encodes an inorganic sulfur (sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate) transporter...... that also catalyses sulfonate and choline sulfate uptake. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal SOA1 orthologues and expression of 20 members in the sul1 Delta sul2 Delta soa1 Delta strain, which is deficient in inorganic and organic sulfur compound uptake, reveals that these transporters have diverse substrate...... preferences for sulfur compounds. We further show that SOA2, a S. cerevisiae SOA1 paralogue found in S. uvarum, S. eubayanus and S. arboricola is likely to be an evolutionary remnant of the uncharacterized open reading frames YOL163W and YOL162W. Our work highlights the importance of sulfonates and choline...

  17. Synthesis and Process Optimization of Electrospun PEEK-Sulfonated Nanofibers by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Boaretti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study electrospun nanofibers of partially sulfonated polyether ether ketone have been produced as a preliminary step for a possible development of composite proton exchange membranes for fuel cells. Response surface methodology has been employed for the modelling and optimization of the electrospinning process, using a Box-Behnken design. The investigation, based on a second order polynomial model, has been focused on the analysis of the effect of both process (voltage, tip-to-collector distance, flow rate and material (sulfonation degree variables on the mean fiber diameter. The final model has been verified by a series of statistical tests on the residuals and validated by a comparison procedure of samples at different sulfonation degrees, realized according to optimized conditions, for the production of homogeneous thin nanofibers.

  18. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes for electric double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wan Ju; Kim, Dong-Won

    2008-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (S-PEEK) with different degree of sulfonation (DS) has been prepared and evaluated as a proton conducting membrane for electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The polymer electrolytes prepared with S-PEEK membrane exhibited ionic conductivities about 1.2 x 10 -3 -4.5 x 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature, which depended on both soaking solvent and degree of sulfonation. The quasi-solid-state EDLCs consisted of activated carbon electrodes and S-PEEK membrane were assembled, and their electrochemical characteristics were studied by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycle tests. The effect of DS on the electrochemical performances of EDLCs has been investigated

  19. Sulfonation degree effect on ion-conducting SPEEK-titanium oxide membranes properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Jacqueline Costa; Gomes, Ailton de Souza; Dutra Filho, José Carlos, E-mail: jacquecosta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoléculas Professora Eloisa Mano; Hui, Wang Shu [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais; Oliveira, Vivianna Silva de [Escola Técnica Rezende Rammel (ETRR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK (sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)) polymer matrix, containing titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) (incorporated by sol-gel method). SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees (SD): 63% and 50% were used. The influence of sulfonation degree on membrane properties was investigated. The thermal analysis (TGA and DTGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluate the proton conductivity of the membranes. The proton conductivities in water were of 3.25 to 37.08 mS.cm{sup -1}. Experimental data of impedance spectroscopy were analyzed with equivalent circuits using the Zview software, and the results showed that, the best fitted was at 80 °C. (author)

  20. Synthesis of fully and partially sulfonated polyanilines derived from ortanilic acid: An electrochemical and electromicrogravimetric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano Marquez, Abraham Guadalupe; Torres Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Montes Rojas, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical polymerization of 2-aminobenzene sulfonic acid, also called ortanilic acid (o-ASA), on a gold electrode precoated with polyaniline (PANI), has been carried out. We proved that the electropolymerization of o-ASA is enhanced on PANI electrodes, resulting in thicker films obtained in aqueous media at room temperature. The electrosynthesized film (P(o-ASA)) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, FTIR and nuclear magnetic resonance. The compensation of P(o-ASA) charge was evaluated using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance combined with cyclic voltammetry, which showed that the electroneutralization process mainly involves cations. Additionally, copolymers of aniline and o-ASA were electrosynthesized, using a metallic electrode modified with PANI also as a working electrode. The degree of sulfanation of copolymers has been modulated with the proportions of monomers in the electrosynthesis solution. The studies reveal a more important participation of cations in fully sulfonated polyaniline than in partially sulfonated polyaniline

  1. An electrochemical study in aqueous solutions on the binding of dopamine to a sulfonated cyclodextrin host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendy, Gillian M.; Breslin, Carmel B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DA and Sβ-CD form an Inclusion complex. ► Electrochemical techniques demonstrated this inclusion complex. ► The association constant, K, was computed as 331.3. ► 1:1 stoichiometry for the inclusion complex was deduced from a Job's plot analysis. ► NMR studies confirmed the structural information on the inclusion complex. - Abstract: Clear evidence for the formation of a weak inclusion complex between dopamine (DA) and a sulfonated β-CD host in aqueous solution was obtained using a combination of electrochemical approaches. Using cyclic voltammetry, a distinct increase in the oxidation potential of DA and a reduction in the peak oxidation current were observed on adding an excess concentration of the sulfonated β-CD to the electrolyte solution. Equally, a clear increase in the half-wave oxidation potential of DA was observed in the presence of the sulfonated β-CD using rotating disc voltammetry. The association constant, K, was computed as 331.3 ± 5.8, indicating the formation of a weak inclusion complex, while a 1:1 stoichiometry for the inclusion complex was deduced from a Job's plot analysis. The rate constant for the oxidation of DA was found to decrease on formation of the inclusion complex. This was attributed to higher reorganization energy for the oxidation of the included DA. These changes in the electrochemistry of DA were not observed when an excess of the smaller sulfonated α-CD was added to the electrolyte, indicating that these variations are not connected with simple electrostatic interactions between the protonated DA and the anionic sulfonated groups. It is proposed that the aromatic ring of the DA molecule includes within the cyclodextrin cavity, while the protonated amine group remains outside the cavity, bound electrostatically with the anionic sulfonated groups.

  2. Novel high-performance nanocomposite proton exchange membranes based on poly (ether sulfone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Ghaffarian, Seyed Reza [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Hasani Sadrabadi, Mohammad Hossein [Faculty of Social and Economics Science, Alzahra University, Tehran (Iran); Heidari, Mahdi [Graduate School of Management and Economics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Moaddel, Homayoun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    In the present research, proton exchange membranes based on partially sulfonated poly (ether sulfone) (S-PES) with various degrees of sulfonation were synthesized. It was found that the increasing of sulfonation degree up to 40% results in the enhancement of water uptake, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity properties of the prepared membranes to 28.1%, 1.59 meq g{sup -1}, and 0.145 S cm{sup -1}, respectively. Afterwards, nanocomposite membranes based on S-PES (at the predetermined optimum sulfonation degree) containing various loading weights of organically treated montmorillonite (OMMT) were prepared via the solution intercalation technique. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the exfoliated structure of OMMT in the macromolecular matrices. The S-PES nanocomposite membrane with 3.0 wt% of OMMT content showed the maximum selectivity parameter of about 520,000 S s cm{sup -3} which is related to the high conductivity of 0.051 S cm{sup -1} and low methanol permeability of 9.8 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. Furthermore, single cell DMFC fuel cell performance test with 4 molar methanol concentration showed a high power density (131 mW cm{sup -2}) of the nanocomposite membrane at the optimum composition (40% of sulfonation and 3.0 wt% of OMMT loading) compared to the Nafion {sup registered} 117 membrane (114 mW cm{sup -2}). Manufactured nanocomposite membranes thanks to their high selectivity, ease of preparation and low cost could be suggested as the ideal candidate for the direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  3. Formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles using sulfonated polystyrene as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Mousumi; Arunbabu, Dhamodaran; Jana, Tushar

    2010-11-15

    We report formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles from a new blend system consisting of an amorphous polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) and an ionomer sodium salt of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS-Na). The ionomer used for the blending is spherical in shape with sulfonate groups on the surface of the particles. An in depth investigation of the blends at various sulfonation degrees and compositions using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy provides direct evidence of specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the N-H groups of PBI and the sulfonate groups of SPS-Na. The disruption of PBI chains self association owing to the interaction between the functional groups of these polymer pairs is the driving force for the blending. Thermodynamical studies carried out by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) establish partially miscible phase separated blending of these polymers in a wider composition range. The two distinguishable glass transition temperatures (T(g)) which are different from the neat components and unaltered with the blends composition attribute that the domain size of heterogeneity (d(d)) of the blends is >20 nm since one of the blend component (SPS-Na particle) diameter is ∼70 nm. The diminish of PBI chains self association upon blending with SPS-Na particles and the presence of invariant T(g)'s of the blends suggest the wrapping of PBI chains over the SPS-Na spherical particle surface and hence resulting a core-shell morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study provides direct evidence of core-shell nanoparticle formation; where core is the polystyrene and shell is the PBI. The sulfonation degree affects the blends phase separations. The higher degree of sulfonation favors the disruption of PBI self association and thus forms partially miscible two phases blends with core-shell morphology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Particle size effects of sulfonated graphene supported Pt nanoparticles on ethanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chia-Liang; Tang, Jui-Shiang; Brazeau, Nicolas; Wu, Jhing-Jhou; Ntais, Spyridon; Yin, Chung-Wei; Chou, Hung-Lung; Baranova, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pt colloidal nanoparticles with five mean diameters are synthesized. • Size-selected Pt nanoparticles are loaded on sulfonated graphene (sG). • Sulfonic acid functional groups atop graphene donate charge to Pt. • Pt-sG catalysts are used for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). • Pt-sG(2.5 nm) has the highest peak current density in EOR. - Abstract: Fuel cells are promising alternative in automobile and stationary power generation. Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) offer significant advantages due to the non-toxicity and renewability of ethanol as well as its high power density. Development of the efficient catalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) has attracted great attention and represents one of the major challenges in electrocatalysis. Graphene, one-atom thick nanocarbon materials, has attracted much attention recently in a variety of applications. The sulfonation of graphene is able to make it hydrophilic, which enhances its dispersibility in aqueous solvents. Furthermore, sulfonation increases the adsorption and uniform distribution of the Pt nanoparticles, which increases both the electrocatalytic activity and the durability. In this study, theoretical calculations demonstrated that the sulfonate functional group can donate charge to Pt, enhanced the adsorption energy of Pt, and then reduce the adsorption energy of CO on Pt. Then experimentally five kinds of Pt/sulfonated-graphene (Pt/sG) catalysts were synthesized via the control of pH values during the preparation of five-selected colloidal nanoparticles. Among all catalysts, Pt-sG(2.5 nm) has the highest peak current density in EOR

  5. The Aspergillus uvsH gene encodes a product homologous to yeast RAD18 and Neurospora UVS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, J H; Lee, B J; Kang, H S

    1995-07-28

    The uvsH DNA repair gene of Aspergillus nidulans has been cloned by complementation of the uvsH77 mutation with a cosmid library containing genomic DNA inserts from a wild-type strain. Methylmethane sulfonate (MMS)-resistant transformants were obtained on medium containing 0.01% MMS, to which uvsH mutants exhibit high sensitivity. Retransformation of uvsH77 mutants with the rescued cosmids from the MMS-resistant transformants resulted in restoration of both UV and MMS resistance to wild-type levels. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the genomic DNA and cDNA of the uvsH gene shows that it has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1329 bp, interrupted by two introns of 51 and 61 bp. A 2.4 kb transcript of the uvsH gene was detected by Northern blot analysis. Primer extension analysis revealed that transcription starts at 31 bp upstream from the translation initiation codon. This gene encodes a predicted polypeptide of 443 amino acids, which has two unique zinc finger motifs. The proposed polypeptide displays 39% identity to the Neurospora crassa UVS-2 protein and 24% identity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 protein. The sequence similarity is particularly high in three domains. One zinc finger (RING finger) motif is located in the first domain close to the N-terminus. The other zinc finger motif is in the second domain. In the third domain, the mutation sites in both the uvsH77 and uvsH304 alleles were identified.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Partial sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP: A preliminary study and characterization for application in direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Suparna; Kumar, Piyush; Dutta, Kingshuk; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of sulfonated PVdF-co-HFP by reacting with chlorosulfonic acid. • Maximum degree of sulfonation and best properties were obtained for 7 h reaction. • A maximum water uptake value of 20% was obtained. • A maximum IEC value of 0.42 meq g −1 was obtained. • A methanol permeability of 2.44 × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 was obtained. - Abstract: Sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP was conducted by treating the copolymer with chlorosulfonic acid. The efficiency of this sulfonated copolymer towards application as a polymer electrolyte membrane in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) was evaluated. For this purpose, we determined the thermal stability, water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC), methanol crossover, and proton conductivity of the prepared membranes as functions of duration and degree of sulfonation. The characteristic aromatic peaks obtained in the FT-IR spectra confirmed the successful sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP. The effect of sulfonation on the semi-crystalline nature of pure PVdF-co-HFP was determined from XRD analysis. Water uptake results indicated that a sulfonation time of 7 h produced maximum water uptake value of about 20%, with a corresponding IEC and proton conductivity values of about 0.42 meq g −1 and 0.00375 S cm −1 respectively. The maximum current density was recorded to be 30 mA cm −2 at 0.2 V potential

  7. The role of lignin sulfonate in flotation of bastnasite from barite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdel, M.A.; Smith, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    In carboxylate collector flotation of bastnasite from other semisoluble salt type minerals such as barite various modifiers must be added in order to achieve selective flotation. One such modifier is a lignin sulfonate. It may function in part by acting as a sequestrant for metal ions present, preventing autoactivation in the system by metal ions derived from the minerals themselves. It also functions as a depressant for barite than for bastnasite. The authors suggest that the strong depressing action on barite is related to a good fit of the sulfonate into the barite structure

  8. Sulfonic-based precursors (SAPs for silica mesostructures: Advances in synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Rostamnia*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-based precursors (SAP play an important role in tailoring mesoporous silica’s and convert them to a solid acid catalyst with a Bronsted-type nature. These kinds of solid acids contribute to sustainable and green chemistry by their heterogeneous, recyclable, and high efficiency features. Therefore, knowing the properties and reactivity of SAPs can guide us to manufacture a sulfonated mesostructures compatible with reaction type and conditions. In the present review, some of the important SAPs, their reactivity and mechanism of functionalization are discussed.

  9. Synthesis and ATRP of novel fluorinated aromatic monomer with pendant sulfonate group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Novel, fluorinated monomer with pendant sulfonate group was synthesized utilizing a two-step derivatization of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene (FS). The first step was a nucleophilic substitution of the fluorine atom in para position by hydroxyl group followed by sulfopropylation. The monomer...... was polymerized under aqueous ATRP conditions to yield phenyl-fluorinated aromatic homopolymer bearing pendant sulfonates on each repeating unit. Furthermore, this polymer was used as macroinitiator for the ATRP of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate. The polymers were characterized by 1H NMR, SEC and FTIR...

  10. Adsorption behavior of perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer on highly graphitized carbon nanofibers and their thermal stabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Borghei, Maryam; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    A systematic adsorption study of perfluorinated sulfonic acid Nafion® ionomer on ribbon type highly graphitized carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was carried out using 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Based on the values obtained for the equilibrium constant (Keq., derived from Langmuir....... The ionomer is probably adsorbed via the polar sulfonic group on hydrophilic Vulcan, whereas, it is adsorbed primarily via hydrophobic -CF2- backbone on the highly hydrophobic pristine CNFs. Ionomer adsorption behavior is gradually altered from apolar to polar group adsorption for the acid modified CNFs...

  11. Study of radiation grafted and sulfonated poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene), FEP, membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef; Hamdani Saidi; Hussin Mohd Nor

    1999-01-01

    Radiation grafted and sulfonated FEP membranes were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene) films at room temperature and subsequently sulfonated. The membrane composition was controlled via variation of the grafting conditions such as type of diluent, irradiation dose, dose rate and monomer concentration. The membrane properties such as water uptake, ion exchange capacity and ionic conductivity were found to be strongly dependent upon the degree of grafting. The membranes were shown to have a good combination of physico-chemical properties, which made them promising for development of low cost proton exchange membranes

  12. Spectroscopic investigation of sulfonate phthalocyanine to probe enzyme reactions for heavy metals detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaure, Shweta; Paul, Deepen; Vadagma, Pankaj; Ray, Asim K.

    2010-01-01

    Optical absorption and Raman spectra of the sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuTsPc) layer were exploited for detection of cadmium (Cd) contaminants in water. Acetylcholine esterase was immobilized by freely suspending them in calcium alginate microbeads and this gel was then spincoated on the drop cast sulfonated copper phthalocyanine film on a glass substrate to form a bilayer. The inhibition of catalytic reaction between acetylcholine chloride and enzyme due to Cd contaminants was monitored by recording changes in spectra of drop cast CuTsPc as an indicator. The detection limit of cadmium content in water was found to be 1 ppm.

  13. Thermal Stability of Sulfonated Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) Films: on the Role of Protodesulfonation

    OpenAIRE

    Koziara, Beata; Kappert, Emiel; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Thin film and bulk, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) have been subjected to a thermal treatment at 160–250 °C for up to 15 h. Exposing the films to 160 °C already causes partial desulfonation, and heating to temperatures exceeding 200 °C results in increased conjugation in the material, most likely via a slight cross-linking by H-substitution. It is well-known that the sulfonate proton plays a major role in the desulfonation reactions, and exchanging the protons with other cations ...

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of sulfonate phthalocyanine to probe enzyme reactions for heavy metals detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaure, Shweta; Paul, Deepen; Vadagma, Pankaj [School of Engineering and Material Science, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Ray, Asim K., E-mail: a.k.ray@qmul.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Material Science, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Optical absorption and Raman spectra of the sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuTsPc) layer were exploited for detection of cadmium (Cd) contaminants in water. Acetylcholine esterase was immobilized by freely suspending them in calcium alginate microbeads and this gel was then spincoated on the drop cast sulfonated copper phthalocyanine film on a glass substrate to form a bilayer. The inhibition of catalytic reaction between acetylcholine chloride and enzyme due to Cd contaminants was monitored by recording changes in spectra of drop cast CuTsPc as an indicator. The detection limit of cadmium content in water was found to be 1 ppm.

  15. The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of sodium 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchill, C.E.; Smith, D.M.; Charlton, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The 60 Co γ-radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate has been studied in acidic, unbuffered, and alkaline conditions and with addition of N 2 O and 2-propanol. Mechanisms are proposed to account for the yields of H 2 O 2 and hydroxylated anthraquinone sulfonates. In neutral solution, in the absence of O 2 , the OH and e - adducts undergo preferential cross termination. Reduction of the OH adduct leads to dehydration and regeneration of the quinone. (author)

  16. A Facile and Mild Synthesis of Trisubstituted Allylic Sulfones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and catalyst-free synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones through an allylic sulfonylation reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH carbonates with sodium sulfinates has been developed. Under the optimized reaction conditions, a series of trisubstituted allylic sulfones were rapidly prepared in good to excellent yields (71%–99% with good to high selectivity (Z/E from 79:21 to >99:1. Compared with known synthetic methods, the current protocol features mild reaction temperature, high efficiency and easily available reagents.

  17. A facile and mild synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Li, Yong-Gen; Zhou, Jiang-Feng; Chuan, Yong-Ming; Li, Hong-Li; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2015-05-07

    An efficient and catalyst-free synthesis of trisubstituted allylic sulfones through an allylic sulfonylation reaction of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with sodium sulfinates has been developed. Under the optimized reaction conditions, a series of trisubstituted allylic sulfones were rapidly prepared in good to excellent yields (71%-99%) with good to high selectivity (Z/E from 79:21 to >99:1). Compared with known synthetic methods, the current protocol features mild reaction temperature, high efficiency and easily available reagents.

  18. Andrographolide sulfonate improves Alzheimer-associated phenotypes and mitochondrial dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ji; Liu, Wen; Xiong, Yuyun; Ding, Hongqun; Jiang, Chunhong; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Xiang; Elgehama, Ahmed; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wenjie; Gao, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with Amyloid-β plaques onset, synaptic damage, and cognitive decline. Aβ deposits cause pathological events including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuron death. In this study, APPswe/PSENΔ9 double transgenic mice model was used to imitate Alzheimer's disease and the effect and possible mechanism of Andrographolide sulfonate were examined. Andrographolide sulfonate was given to the mice for 7 months before the onset of Aβ plaque. Spatial memory test showed that Andrographolide sulfonate treatment prevented cognitive decline. Aβ deposits were not affected while hippocampus and synapse damage was significantly alleviated. Mechanism studies showed that oxidative stress and mitochondrial swelling was reduced after Andrographolide sulfonate administration. These findings suggest that Andrographolide sulfonate, which has been applied in clinical medicine, might be a promising therapeutic agent for AD therapy via mitochondria protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) associated with placental alterations in pregnant rats treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) at the peri-implantation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Ryohei; Hayashi, Morimichi; Tamura, Toru; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi; Kagami, Hiroshi; Ono, Tamao

    2008-12-01

    Embryonic mortality and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are induced by exposure of rodents to xenobiotic agents during the pregastrulation period of development. We examined the time course of the effects of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), an alkylating agent, on conceptus development in order to clarify the relative roles of the embryo and the placenta in their induction. Pregnant rats were treated orally with a single dose of MMS (200 mg/kg) in the morning of gestation day (GD) 6 (peri-implantation stage). Embryonic mortality was increased on GD12 and thereafter by MMS treatment, with newly dead embryos showing placental hypoplasia at GD12. Embryo or fetal weight was also smaller for MMS-treated dams than for control dams from GD14 to GD20. The labyrinth zone and junctional zone (JZ) of the placenta were thinner in MMS-treated rats from GD12 to GD17 and from GD12 to GD20 (except for GD17), respectively. Furthermore, MMS-treated dams showed a smaller number of glycogen cells in the JZ on GD14. In contrast, the placental glycogen concentration was higher and the expression of glucose transporter 1 in the JZ remained at GD20. These results indicate that exposure of pregnant rats to MMS at the peri-implantation stage of embryogenesis affects placental development and growth. The placental impairment induced by MMS was likely responsible for the embryonic death observed 6 days after exposure of dams to this agent as well as for the IUGR of surviving embryos or fetuses throughout the gestation period.

  20. Three additional genes involved in pyrimidine dimer removal in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: RAD7, RAD14, and MMS19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, L; Prakash, S

    1979-01-01

    The ability to remove ultraviolet (uv)-induced pyrimidine dimers from the nuclear DNA of yeast was examined in two radiation-sensitive (rad) mutants and one methyl methanesulfonate-sensitive (mms) mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The susceptibility of DNA from irradiated cells to nicking by an endonuclease activity prepared from crude extracts of Micrococcus luteus was used to measure the presence of dimers in DNA. The rad7, rad14, and mms19 mutants were found to be defective in their ability to remove uv-induced dimers from nuclear DNA. All three mutants belong to the same episatic group as the other mutants involved in excision-repair. All three mutants show enhanced uv-induced mutations. The rad 14 mutant also shows epistatic interactions with genes in the other two uv repair pathways.

  1. The Response Time of the Magnetopause Reconnection Location to Changes in the Solar Wind: MMS Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, K. J.; Burch, J. L.; Ergun, R.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gomez, R. G.; Grimes, E. W.; Lewis, W. S.; Mauk, B.; Petrinec, S. M.; Pollock, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Reconnection at the Earth's magnetopause is the mechanism by which magnetic fields in different regions change topology to create open magnetic field lines that allow energy, mass, and momentum to flow into the magnetosphere. It is the primary science goal of the recently launched MMS mission to unlock the mechanism of magnetic reconnection with a novel suite of plasma and field instruments. This study investigates several magnetopause crossings in the vicinity of the X-line on 19 September 2015 and compares the observed X-line location with predictions from the Maximum Magnetic Shear model. Rotations of the interplanetary magnetic field OMF) during the magnetopause crossings together with the close proximity of the four MMS satellites are used to determine the response time of the reconnection X-line location to changes in the IMF. The reconnection location exhibits a continuous motion during slow changes in the IMF but a delayed response to sudden changes in the IMF.

  2. Graft-crosslinked copolymers based on poly(arylene ether ketone)-gc-sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) for PEMFC applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Zhaoxia; Luo, Linqiang; Chen, Shanshan; Liu, Jianmei; Chen, Shouwen; Wang, Lianjun

    2011-07-15

    Novel poly(arylene ether ketone) polymers with fluorophenyl pendants and phenoxide-terminated wholly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) oligomers are prepared via Ni(0)-catalyzed and nucleophilic polymerization, respectively, and subsequently used as starting materials to obtain graft-crosslinked membranes as polymer electrolyte membranes. The phenoxide-terminated sulfonated moieties are introduced as hydrophilic parts as well as crosslinking units. The chemical structure and morphology of the obtained membranes are confirmed by (1) H NMR and tapping-mode AFM. The properties required for fuel cell applications, including water uptake and dimensional change, as well as proton conductivity, are investigated. AFM results show a clear nanoscale phase-separation microstructure of the obtained membranes. The membranes show good dimensional stability and reasonably high proton conductivities under 30-90% relative humidity. The anisotropic proton conductivity ratios (σ(formula see text) ) of the membranes in water are in the range 0.65-0.92, and increase with an increase in hydrophilic block length. The results indicate that the graft-crosslinked membranes are promising candidates for applications as polymer electrolyte membranes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Genetic analysis of DNA repair in Aspergillus: evidence for different types of MMS-sensitive hyperrec mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaefer, E.; Mayor, O.

    1986-01-01

    To identify genes which affect DNA repair and possibly recombination in Aspergillus nidulans, mutants hypersensitive to methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) were induced with ultraviolet light (UV) or γ-rays. To identify functional and epistatic groups, mutants from each uvs gene were tested for effects on recombination and mutation, and double mutant uvs strains were compared for UV survival to their component single mutant strains. (Auth.)

  4. MMS Observations of Reconnection at Dayside Magnetopause Crossings During Transitions of the Solar Wind to Sub-Alfvenic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Lugaz, N.; Alm, L.; Vasquez, B. J.; Argall, M. R.; Kucharek, H.; Matsui, H.; Torbert, R. B.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Shuster, J. R.; Burch, J. L.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Giles, B. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Ergun, R.; Eastwood, J. P.; Cohen, I. J.; Dorelli, J.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Marklund, G. T.; Paulson, K.; Petrinec, S.; Phan, T.; Pollock, C.

    2017-12-01

    We present MMS) observations during two dayside magnetopause crossingsunder hitherto unexamined conditions: (i) when the bow shock is weakening and the solar wind transitioning to sub-Alfvenic flow, and (ii) when it is reforming. Interplanetary conditions consist of a magnetic cloud with (i) a strong B ( 20 nT) pointing south, and (ii) a density profile with episodic decreases to values of 0.3 /cc followed by moderate recovery. During the crossings he magnetosheath magnetic field is stronger than the magnetosphere field by a factor of 2.2. As a result, during the outbound crossing through the ion diffusion region, MMS observed an inversion of relative positions of the X and stagnation (S) lines from that typically the case: the S line was closer to the magnetosheath side. The S-line appears in the form of a slow expansion fan near which most of the energy dissipation is taking place. While in the magnetosphere between the crossings, MMS observed strong field and flow perturbations, which we argue to be due kinetic Alfvén waves.During the reconnection interval, whistler mode waves generated by an electron temperature anisotropy (Tperp>Tpar) were observed. Another aim of the paper isto distinguish bow shock-induced field and flow perturbations from reconnection-related signatures.The high resolution MMS data together with 2D hybrid simulations of bow shock dynamics helped us to distinguish between the two sources. We show examples of bow shock-related effects (such as heating) and reconnection effects such as accelerated flows satisfying the Walen relation.

  5. Controlling meiotic recombinational repair - specifying the roles of ZMMs, Sgs1 and Mus81/Mms4 in crossover formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Oke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crossovers (COs play a critical role in ensuring proper alignment and segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. How the cell balances recombination between CO vs. noncrossover (NCO outcomes is not completely understood. Further lacking is what constrains the extent of DNA repair such that multiple events do not arise from a single double-strand break (DSB. Here, by interpreting signatures that result from recombination genome-wide, we find that synaptonemal complex proteins promote crossing over in distinct ways. Our results suggest that Zip3 (RNF212 promotes biased cutting of the double Holliday-junction (dHJ intermediate whereas surprisingly Msh4 does not. Moreover, detailed examination of conversion tracts in sgs1 and mms4-md mutants reveal distinct aberrant recombination events involving multiple chromatid invasions. In sgs1 mutants, these multiple invasions are generally multichromatid involving 3-4 chromatids; in mms4-md mutants the multiple invasions preferentially resolve into one or two chromatids. Our analysis suggests that Mus81/Mms4 (Eme1, rather than just being a minor resolvase for COs is crucial for both COs and NCOs in preventing chromosome entanglements by removing 3'- flaps to promote second-end capture. Together our results force a reevaluation of how key recombination enzymes collaborate to specify the outcome of meiotic DNA repair.

  6. CTT1 overexpression increases the replicative lifespan of MMS-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in KSP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Hua-Zhen; Zhou, Tao; Hong, Xiao-Shan; Cui, Hong-Jing; Jiang, Zhi-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ji; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Liu, Xin-Guang

    2017-06-01

    Ksplp is a nuclear-localized Ser/Thr kinase that is not essential for the vegetative growth of yeast. A global gene function analysis in yeast suggested that Ksplp was involved in the oxidative stress response; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we showed that KSP1-deficient yeast cells exhibit hypersensitivity to the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), and treatment of the KSP1-deficient strain with MMS could trigger abnormal mitochondrial membrane potential and up-regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In addition, the mRNA expression level of the catalase gene CTT1 (which encodes cytosolic catalase) and total catalase activity were strongly down-regulated in the KSP1-deleted strain compared with those in wild-type cells. Moreover, the KSP1 deficiency also leads to a shortened replicative lifespan, which could be restored by the increased expression of CTT1. On the other hand, KSP1-overexpressed (KSP1OX) yeast cells exhibited increased resistance towards MMS, an effect that was, at least in part, CTT1 independent. Collectively, these findings highlight the involvement of Ksplp in the DNA damage response and implicate Ksplp as a modulator of the replicative lifespan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Shift of the Magnetopause Reconnection Line to the Winter Hemisphere Under Southward IMF Conditions: Geotail and MMS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, N.; Hasegawa, H.; Saito, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Yokota, S.; Nagai, T.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Dorelli, J. C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    At 02:13 UT on 18 November 2015 when the geomagnetic dipole was tilted by -27deg, the MMS spacecraft observed southward reconnection jets near the subsolar magnetopause under southward and dawnward interplanetary magnetic field conditions. Based on four-spacecraft estimations of the magnetic field direction near the separatrix and the motion and direction of the current sheet, the location of the reconnection line was estimated to be approx.1.8 R(sub E) or further northward of MMS. The Geotail spacecraft at GSM Z approx. 1.4 R(sub E) also observed southward reconnection jets at the dawnside magnetopause 30-40 min later. The estimated reconnection line location was northward of GSM Z approx.2 R(sub E). This crossing occurred when MMS observed purely southward magnetic fields in the magnetosheath. The simultaneous observations are thus consistent with the hypothesis that the dayside magnetopause reconnection line shifts from the subsolar point toward the northem (winter) hemisphere due to the effect of geomagnetic dipole tilt.

  8. Metabolic response to MMS-mediated DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is dependent on the glucose concentration in the medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanovic, Ana; Walther, Thomas; Loret, Marie Odile; Holzwarth, Jinda; Kitanovic, Igor; Bonowski, Felix; Van Bui, Ngoc; Francois, Jean Marie; Wölfl, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Maintenance and adaptation of energy metabolism could play an important role in the cellular ability to respond to DNA damage. A large number of studies suggest that the sensitivity of cells to oxidants and oxidative stress depends on the activity of cellular metabolism and is dependent on the glucose concentration. In fact, yeast cells that utilize fermentative carbon sources and hence rely mainly on glycolysis for energy appear to be more sensitive to oxidative stress. Here we show that treatment of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on a glucose-rich medium with the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) triggers a rapid inhibition of respiration and enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which is accompanied by a strong suppression of glycolysis. Further, diminished activity of pyruvate kinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase upon MMS treatment leads to a diversion of glucose carbon to glycerol, trehalose and glycogen accumulation and an increased flux through the pentose-phosphate pathway. Such conditions finally result in a significant decline in the ATP level and energy charge. These effects are dependent on the glucose concentration in the medium. Our results clearly demonstrate that calorie restriction reduces MMS toxicity through increased respiration and reduced ROS accumulation, enhancing the survival and recovery of cells.

  9. Mms1 is an assistant for regulating G-quadruplex DNA structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Eike; Paeschke, Katrin

    2017-11-02

    The preservation of genome stability is fundamental for every cell. Genomic integrity is constantly challenged. Among those challenges are also non-canonical nucleic acid structures. In recent years, scientists became aware of the impact of G-quadruplex (G4) structures on genome stability. It has been shown that folded G4-DNA structures cause changes in the cell, such as transcriptional up/down-regulation, replication stalling, or enhanced genome instability. Multiple helicases have been identified to regulate G4 structures and by this preserve genome stability. Interestingly, although these helicases are mostly ubiquitous expressed, they show specificity for G4 regulation in certain cellular processes (e.g., DNA replication). To this date, it is not clear how this process and target specificity of helicases are achieved. Recently, Mms1, an ubiquitin ligase complex protein, was identified as a novel G4-DNA-binding protein that supports genome stability by aiding Pif1 helicase binding to these regions. In this perspective review, we discuss the question if G4-DNA interacting proteins are fundamental for helicase function and specificity at G4-DNA structures.

  10. Analyzing the Magnetopause Internal Structure: New Possibilities Offered by MMS Tested in a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeau, L.; Belmont, G.; Manuzzo, R.; Aunai, N.; Dargent, J.

    2018-01-01

    We explore the structure of the magnetopause using a crossing observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft on 16 October 2015. Several methods (minimum variance analysis, BV method, and constant velocity analysis) are first applied to compute the normal to the magnetopause considered as a whole. The different results obtained are not identical, and we show that the whole boundary is not stationary and not planar, so that basic assumptions of these methods are not well satisfied. We then analyze more finely the internal structure for investigating the departures from planarity. Using the basic mathematical definition of what is a one-dimensional physical problem, we introduce a new single spacecraft method, called LNA (local normal analysis) for determining the varying normal, and we compare the results so obtained with those coming from the multispacecraft minimum directional derivative (MDD) tool developed by Shi et al. (2005). This last method gives the dimensionality of the magnetic variations from multipoint measurements and also allows estimating the direction of the local normal when the variations are locally 1-D. This study shows that the magnetopause does include approximate one-dimensional substructures but also two- and three-dimensional structures. It also shows that the dimensionality of the magnetic variations can differ from the variations of other fields so that, at some places, the magnetic field can have a 1-D structure although all the plasma variations do not verify the properties of a global one-dimensional problem. A generalization of the MDD tool is proposed.

  11. Energy conversion and dissipation at dipolarization fronts: Theory, modeling and MMS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnov, M. I.; Motoba, T.; Merkin, V. G.; Ohtani, S.; Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B.; Vines, S. K.; Anderson, B. J.; Moore, T. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is one of the most important energy conversion mechanisms in space plasmas. In the classical picture it converts the energy of antiparallel magnetic fields into the kinetic and thermal energy of accelerated plasma particles in reconnection exhausts. It also involves energy dissipation near the X-line. This classical picture may be substantially modified in real space plasma configurations, such as the dayside magnetopause and the magnetotail. In particular, in the magnetotail the flows of accelerated particles may be strongly asymmetric along the tail with the domination of earthward flows. At the same time, strong energy conversion and even dissipation may occur away from the X-line, in particular, at dipolarization fronts. Here we present a theoretical picture of spontaneous magnetotail reconnection based on 3-D PIC simulations with the focus on plasma bulk flows, energy conversion and dissipation. This picture is compared with some observations from the MMS tail season. An important finding from these observations is that dipolarizations fronts may not only be regions of the total energy conversion with jE>0, but they may also be the sites of energy dissipation, both positive (jE'>0, E' is the electric field E in the system moving with one of the plasma species) and negative (jE'braking).

  12. Modelling of preheated regenerative chain in Cernavoda NPP using MMS calculation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, M.; Nita, I.; Prisecaru, I.; Dupleac, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this work it was studied operation of preheated regenerative chain from NPP Cernavoda. To obtain this analysis coupled analyses of condensate system, water supply system, and drain cooler system were effected. The analysis boundaries are: Upstream: - Steam condensers - Turbine Bleed Steam Downstream: - Steam Generators. The analysis was made in two steps: 1) Getting of hydraulic characteristic of pipe network from steam condensers to steam generators at nominal regime; this step was obtained with hydraulic package called PIPENET. 2) Real thermal hydraulic analyses were done based on hydraulic characteristic of pipe network and supplementary data required for heat transfer calculation in equipment of preheated regenerative chain. Thermal analyses were done using MMS package and refered to normal operating regimes, namely, nominal operating regime required for calibration of calculating model, shutdown regime, start-up regime from zero power hot to nominal power and to abnormal operating regimes, namely, turbine trip, reactor trip and loss of two condensate pumps. The results were compared with already existing analysis and showed the largest differences at interface areas (i.e. 5%). This led us to idea of extending analysis to all secondary circuits in order to reduce the number of boundary conditions which can generate uncertainty in analysis. In this analysis we obtained an advanced model of preheated regenerative chain of secondary circuit in Cernavoda NPP which could be extended up to cover the whole secondary circuit by including the analysis of steam generators, turbine, and steam condenser. (authors)

  13. MMS Multipoint Electric Field Observations of Small-Scale Magnetic Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katherine A.; Ergun, Robert E.; Wilder, Frederick; Burch, James; Torbert, Roy; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lindqvist, Per-Arne; Russell, Christopher; Strangeway, Robert; Magnus, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale magnetic holes (MHs), local depletions in magnetic field strength, have been observed multiple times in the Earths magnetosphere in the bursty bulk flow (BBF) braking region. This particular subset of MHs has observed scale sizes perpendicular to the background magnetic field (B) less than the ambient ion Larmor radius (p(sib i)). Previous observations by Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) indicate that this subset of MHs can be supported by a current driven by the E x B drift of electrons. Ions do not participate in the E x B drift due to the small-scale size of the electric field. While in the BBF braking region, during its commissioning phase, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft observed a small-scale MH. The electric field observations taken during this event suggest the presence of electron currents perpendicular to the magnetic field. These observations also suggest that these currents can evolve to smaller spatial scales.

  14. Modelling of preheated regenerative chain in Cernavoda NPP using MMS calculation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, M.; Nita, I.; Prisecaru, I.; Dupleac, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this work it was studied operation of preheated regenerative chain from NPP Cernavoda. To obtain this analysis coupled analyses of condensate system, water supply system, and drain cooler system were effected. The analysis boundaries are: Upstream: - Steam condensers - Turbine Bleed Steam Downstream: - Steam Generators. The analysis was made in two steps: 1) Getting of hydraulic characteristic of pipe network from steam condensers to steam generators at nominal regime; this step was obtained with hydraulic package called PIPENET. 2) Real thermal hydraulic analyses were done based on hydraulic characteristic of pipe network and supplementary data required for heat transfer calculation in equipment of preheated regenerative chain. Thermal analyses were done using MMS package and referred to normal operating regimes, namely, nominal operating regime required for calibration of calculating model, shutdown regime, start-up regime from zero power hot to nominal power and to abnormal operating regimes, namely, turbine trip, reactor trip and loss of two condensate pumps. The results were compared with already existing analysis and showed the largest differences at interface areas (i.e. 5%). This led US to idea of extending analysis to all secondary circuits in order to reduce the number of boundary conditions which can generate uncertainty in analysis. In this analysis we obtained an advanced model of preheated regenerative chain of secondary circuit in Cernavoda NPP which could be extended up to cover the whole secondary circuit by including the analysis of steam generators, turbine, and steam condenser. (authors)

  15. MMS observation of energy conversion and collisionless plasma dissipation channels in the turbulent magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, T.; Yang, Y.; Chasapis, A.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    High resolution Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) plasma and magnetic field data obtained in the inhomogeneous turbulent magnetosheath directly reveals the exchanges of energy between electromagnetic, flow and random kinetic energy. The parameters that quantify these exchanges are based on standard manipulations of the collisionless Vlasov model of plasma dynamics [1], without appeal to viscous or other closures. No analysis of heat transport or heat conduction is carried out. Several intervals of burst mode data in the magnetosheath are considered. Time series of the work done by the electromagnetic field, and the pressure-stress interaction enable description of the pathways to dissipation in this low collisionality plasma. Using these examples we demonstrate that the pressure-stress interaction provides important information not readily revealed in other diagnostics concerning the physical processes that are observed. This method does not require any specific mechanism for its application such as reconnection or a selected mode, although with increased experience it will be useful in distinguishing among proposed possibilities. [1] Y. Yang et al, Phys. Plasmas 24, 072306 (2017); doi: 10.1063/1.4990421.

  16. Expression of death receptor 4 induces caspase-independent cell death in MMS-treated yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Sun; Lee, Sung-Keun; Park, Chang-Shin; Kang, Ju-Hee; Bae, Sung-Ho; Yu, Sung-Lim

    2008-11-14

    DR4, a tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor, is a key element in the extrinsic pathway of TRAIL/TRAIL receptor-related apoptosis that exerts a preferential toxic effect against tumor cells. However, TRAIL and DR4 are expressed in various normal cells, and recent studies indicate that DR4 has a number of non-apoptotic functions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of human DR4 expression in yeast to determine the function of DR4 in normal cells. The expression of DR4 in yeast caused G1 arrest, which resulted in transient growth inhibition. Moreover, treatment of DR4-expressing yeast with a DNA damaging agent, MMS, elicited drastic, and sustained cell growth inhibition accompanied with massive apoptotic cell death. Further analysis revealed that cell death in the presence of DNA damage and DR4 expression was not dependent on the yeast caspase, YCA1. Taken together, these results indicate that DR4 triggers caspase-independent programmed cell death during the response of normal cells to DNA damage.

  17. Water contentwater of determination of cationic polystyrene sulfonate resins by infrared spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noki, V.

    1987-01-01

    A method of the determination of water content in polystyrene sulfonate ion-exchange resins in the presence of alkaline earth counter-ions by I.R. spectrophotometry is proposed. This method does not hold in the case of transition metal due to the formation of coordinated complexes with water molecules.

  18. An Extraordinary Sulfonated-Graphenal-Polymer-Based Electrolyte Separator for All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xubo; Men, Chuanling; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Qingwen

    2016-09-01

    Sulfonated graphenal polymers can be assembled up by poly(vinyl alcohol) adhesion. The porous assembly structure results in a remarkably improved ionic conductivity and thus enhances electrochemical performances such as specific capacitance, capacitance retention, and cycling stability. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomers and surface treatment studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Dhiman, Rajnish; Borghei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between high surface area nano-carbon catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and perfluorinated sulfonic acid (Nafion®) ionomer was studied 19 fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (19F-NMR). The method was developed and improved for more...

  20. Polybenzimidazole and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane composite membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Allward, Todd; Alfaro, Silvia Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Composite membranes based on poly(2,2′(m-phenylene)-5,5́bibenzimidazole) (PBI) and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (S-POSS) with S-POSS contents of 5 and 10wt.% were prepared by solution casting as base materials for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. With membranes...

  1. Synthesis and properties of sulfonated copoly(phthalazinone ether imides) as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Haiyan [Department of Polymer Science and Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Institute of Functional Polymers, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhu Xiuling, E-mail: zhuxl@dlut.edu.c [Department of Polymer Science and Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Jian Xigao [Department of Polymer Science and Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-01-01

    A new series of six-member sulfonated copolyimides (SPIs) were prepared by one-step solution copolycondensation from 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTDA), 1,2-dihydro-2-(4-amino-2-sulfophenyl)-4- [4-(4-amino-2-sulfonphenoxy)-phenyl] (2H)phthalazin-1-one (S-DHPZDA), 4,4'-bis(4-aminophenoxy) biphenyl (BAPB) and 1,2-dihydro-2-(4-aminophenyl)-4-[4-(4-(aminophenoxyl)phenyl)] (2H)phthalazin-1-one (DHPZDA). The sulfonation degree (DS) of the SPIs was controlled by the mol ratio of the sulfonated diamine and non-sulfonated diamine. The obtained SPI membranes had excellent thermal stability, high mechanical property and proton conductivity as well as low methanol permeability. The tensile strength of the SPI membranes was ranging from 54.7 to 98.1 MPa, which was much higher than that of Nafion. The SPI membranes exhibited high proton conductivity (sigma) and low methanol permeability ranged from 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -2} S/cm and 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s depending on the DS of the polymers, respectively.

  2. Sulfonation of cPTFE Film grafted Styrene for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Yohan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonation of γ-ray iradiated and styrene-grafted crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene film (cPTFE-g-S film have been done. The aim of the research is to make hydropyl membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonation was prepared with chlorosulfonic acid in chloroethane under various conditions. The impact of the percent of grafting, the concentration of chlorosulfonic acid, the reaction time,and the reaction temperature on the properties of sulfonated film is examinated. The results show that sulfonation of surface-grafted films is incomplete at room  temperature. The increasing of concentration of chlorosulfonic acid and reaction temperature accelerates the reaction but they also add favor side reactions. These will lead to decreasing of the ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, and proton conductivity but increasing the resistance to oxidation in a perhidrol solution. The cPTFE-g-SS membrane which is resulted has stability in a H2O2 30% solution for 20 hours.

  3. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...

  4. Sulfonate-grafted porous polymer networks for preferential CO(2) adsorption at low pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, W.; Yuan, D.; Sculley, J.; Zhao, D.; Krishna, R.; Zhou, H.-C.

    2011-01-01

    A porous polymer network (PPN) grafted with sulfonic acid (PPN-6-SO3H) and its lithium salt (PPN-6-SO3Li) exhibit significant increases in isosteric heats of CO2 adsorption and CO2-uptake capacities. IAST calculations using single-component-isotherm data and a 15/85 CO2/N2 ratio at 295 K and 1 bar

  5. Characterisation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in a terrestrial ecosystem near a fluorochemical plant in Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hollander, W.; De Bruyn, L.; Hagenaars, A; de Voogt, P.; Bervoets, L.

    2014-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in a restricted terrestrial food chain was investigated with the omnivorous wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) on top of the studied food chain. The levels detected are very high compared with literature as a result of the presence of fluorochemical

  6. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. I: maternal and prenatal evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The maternal and developmental toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) were evaluated in the rat and mouse. PFOS is an environmentally persistent compound used as a surfactant and occurs as a degradation product of both perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluorid...

  7. DETERMINATION OF ALKYLATED & SULFONATED DIPHENYL OXIDE SULFACTANT BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for the determination of the anionic surfactant Dowfax 8390 are described. Dowfax is a complex mixture of various alkylated and sulfonated diphenyl oxides. The primary component of Dowfax is monoalkylated disulfonated diphenyl oxide (MADS). This work uses ion pairing chro...

  8. Gene expression profiling identifies mechanisms of protection to recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis mediated by probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariman, R.; Kremer, S.H.A.; Erk, M. van; Lagerweij, T.; Koning, F.; Nagelkerken, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Host-microbiota interactions in the intestinal mucosa play a major role in intestinal immune homeostasis and control the threshold of local inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in the recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis

  9. Heterogeneous ion-exchange membranes based on sulfonated poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Kůdela, Vlastimil; Richau, K.; Mohr, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 198, 1-3 (2006), s. 256-264 ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) sulfonated * ion-exchange membrane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2006

  10. Novel crosslinked membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanqin; Zieren, Shelley; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-07-14

    Novel covalently crosslinked membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and carboxylated polysulfone exhibit much lower methanol crossover and better performance in direct methanol fuel cells at 65 °C in 1 and 2 M methanol solutions compared to Nafion 115 membranes.

  11. Optical anisotropy, molecular orientations, and internal stresses in thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koziara, B.T.; Nijmeijer, K.; Benes, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    The thickness, the refractive index, and the optical anisotropy of thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films, prepared by spin-coating or solvent deposition, have been investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. For not too high polymer concentrations (≤5 wt%) and not too low spin speeds

  12. Optical anisotropy, molecular orientations, and internal stresses in thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koziara, Beata; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The thickness, the refractive index, and the optical anisotropy of thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films, prepared by spin-coating or solvent deposition, have been investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. For not too high polymer concentrations (B5 wt%) and not too low spin speeds

  13. Effect of mixed-sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine on human skin fibroblasts for photodynamic therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhundhuma, IM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available of the study was to evaluate the effect of mixed-sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPcSmix) used as photosensitizers for PDT, determined by changes in cell morphology and cell viability of human skin fibroblasts (WS1). Methods. Cells incubated with 5, 10...

  14. 78 FR 62443 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...) for perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) chemical substances to add PFAS chemical substances that have... designating (for all listed PFAS chemical substances) processing as a significant new use. EPA is also... 40 CFR 721.9582 for PFAS chemical substances to add PFAS chemical substances that have completed the...

  15. 77 FR 48924 - Perfluoroalkyl Sulfonates and Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Carboxylate Chemical Substances; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... perfluoroalkyl sulfonate (PFAS) chemical substances to add PFAS chemical substances that have completed the TSCA... listed PFAS chemical substances) processing as a significant new use. EPA is also proposing a SNUR for... is proposing to amend a SNUR at Sec. 721.9582 for PFAS chemical substances to add PFAS chemical...

  16. Pharmacokinetic profiles of perfluorobutane sulfonate and activation of hepatic genes in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are organic chemicals with wide industrial and consumer uses. They are found ubiquitously at low levels in the environment and detectable in humans and wildlife. Perfluorobutane Sulfonate (PFBS) is a short-chained PFAS used to replace perfluorooc...

  17. Foam supported sulfonated polystyrene as a new acidic material for catalytic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordomskiy, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    Polystyrene was grafted on carbon foam with a melted polypropylene film predeposited on the surface. Polystyrene was subsequently sulfonated by chlorosulfonic acid. The effect of the temperature, time of grafting and concentration of radical initiator was studied. The materials were characterized by

  18. Thermal stability of sulfonated Poly(Ether Ether Ketone) films : on the role of Protodesulfonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koziara, B.T.; Kappert, E.J.; Ogieglo, W.; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Hempenius, M.A.; Benes, N.E.

    Thin film and bulk, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) have been subjected to a thermal treatment at 160–250 °C for up to 15 h. Exposing the films to 160 °C already causes partial desulfonation, and heating to temperatures exceeding 200 °C results in increased conjugation in the material,

  19. Copper(I)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonylhydrazones with sulfones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Gao, Yunpeng; Chen, Ri; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2016-03-25

    The Cu(I)-catalyzed olefination of N-sulfonylhydrazones with sulfones via metal carbene intermediates is reported. This reaction uses readily available starting materials and is operationally simple, thus representing a practical method for the construction of carbon-carbon double bonds. Mechanistically, Cu(I) carbene formation and subsequent carbene migratory insertion are proposed as the key steps.

  20. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Cy H [Albuquerque, NM; Hibbs, Michael [Albuquerque, NM; Ambrosini, Andrea [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  1. Covalently Cross-Linked Sulfone Polybenzimidazole Membranes with Poly(Vinylbenzyl Chloride) for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Aili, David; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked polymer membranes were fabricated from poly(aryl sulfone benzimidazole) (SO(2) PBI) and poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) (PVBCl) as electrolytes for high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. The cross-linking imparted organo insolubility and chemical stability against...

  2. Using a biomimetic membrane surface experiment to investigate the activity of the magnetite biomineralisation protein Mms6† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Including Mms6 protein and peptide sequences, additional QCM-D and SEM data and protein modelling. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra16469a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Scott M.; Rawlings, Andrea E.; Galloway, Johanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are able to synthesise precise nanoparticles of the iron oxide magnetite within their cells. These particles are formed in dedicated organelles termed magnetosomes. These lipid membrane compartments use a range of biomineralisation proteins to nucleate and regulate the magnetite crystallisation process. A key component is the membrane protein Mms6, which binds to iron ions and helps to control the formation of the inorganic core. We have previously used Mms6 on gold surfaces patterned with a self-assembled monolayer to successfully produce arrays of magnetic nanoparticles. Here we use this surface system as a mimic of the interior face of the magnetosome membrane to study differences between intact Mms6 and the acid-rich C-terminal peptide subregion of the Mms6 protein. When immobilised on surfaces, the peptide is unable to reproduce the particle size or homogeneity control exhibited by the full Mms6 protein in our experimental setup. Moreover, the peptide is unable to support anchoring of a dense array of nanoparticles to the surface. This system also allows us to deconvolute particle binding from particle nucleation, and shows that Mms6 particle binding is less efficient when supplied with preformed magnetite nanoparticles when compared to particles precipitated from solution in the presence of the surface immobilised Mms6. This suggests that Mms6 binds to iron ions rather than to magnetite surfaces in our system, and is perhaps a nucleating agent rather than a controller of magnetite crystal growth. The comparison between the peptide and the protein under identical experimental conditions indicates that the full length sequence is required to support the full function of Mms6 on surfaces. PMID:27019707

  3. Mutagenic potency of MMS-induced 1meA/3meC lesions in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminuszczy, Jadwiga; Mielecki, Damian; Sikora, Anna; Wrzesiński, Michał; Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Krwawicz, Joanna; Janion, Celina; Grzesiuk, Elzbieta

    2009-12-01

    The mutagenic activity of MMS in E. coli depends on the susceptibility of DNA bases to methylation and their repair by cellular defense systems. Among the lesions in methylated DNA is 1meA/3meC, which is recently recognized as being mutagenic. In this report, special attention is focused on the mutagenic properties of 1meA/3meC which, by the activity of AlkB-dioxygenase, are quickly and efficiently converted to natural A/C bases in the DNA of E. coli alkB(+) strains, preventing 1meA/3meC-induced mutations. We have found that in the absence of AlkB-mediated repair, MMS treatment results in an increased frequency of four types of base substitutions: GC-->CG, GC-->TA, AT-->CG, and AT-->TA, whereas overproduction of PolV in CC101-106 alkB(-)/pRW134 strains leads to a markedly elevated level of GC-->TA, GC-->CG, and AT-->TA transversions. It has been observed that in the case of AB1157 alkB(-) strains, the MMS-induced and 1meA/3meC-dependent argE3-->Arg(+) reversion occurs efficiently, whereas lacZ(-)--> Lac(+) reversion in a set of CC101-106 alkB(-) strains occurs with much lower frequency. We considered several reasons for this discrepancy, namely, the possible variance in the level of the PolV activity, the effect of the PolIV contents that is higher in CC101-106 than in AB1157 strains and the different genetic cell backgrounds in CC101-106 alkB(-) and AB1157 alkB(-) strains, respectively. We postulate that the difference in the number of targets undergoing mutation and different reactivity of MMS with ssDNA and dsDNA are responsible for the high (argE3-->Arg(+)) and low (lacZ(-) --> Lac(+)) frequency of MMS-induced mutations.

  4. Physico-chemistry characterization of sulfonated polyacrylamide polymers for use in polymer flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, Masoud

    2010-07-01

    Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer (HPAM) as a feasible and effective viscosifier has been fully studied and used for polymer flooding processes in several oil field, e.g. Daqing oil field. It has been shown that Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymers (HPAM) may be a good choice for high temperature condition with no oxygen and no divalent ions presence. At high temperature and high salinity conditions, polymer may precipitates and loss their viscosyfing properties. Also adsorption and retention of polymer in porous medium may change rheological properties of polymers. Thus, the viscosyfing property of polymers is influenced by several important parameters, e.g. salinity, hardness, temperature, adsorption, retention, polymer structure, and etc. By replacing some of carboxylate group of HPAM with another monomer, e.g. sodium salt of acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), effect of high salinity/hardness and temperature seems to be reduced specially for the samples with higher percentage of AMPS co-monomer. The ultimate aim of this work is to develop an understanding of the sulfonated polyacrylamide copolymers with a range of different sulfonation and molecular weight at high salinity and high temperature conditions. Most of the work in this thesis deals with viscosity and adsorption/retention measurements of the sulfonated copolymers and HPAM. The factors which may affect the viscosity of the polymers and have been identified in this work as most likely influencing also adsorption and retention of the polymers are shear rate, polymer concentration, sulfonation degree, molecular weight, NaCl concentration, divalent ion concentration, and temperature. (Author)

  5. Synthesis of sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres solid acid by a facile chemical activation route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Binbin, E-mail: changbinbin806@163.com; Guo, Yanzhen; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Shouren; Yang, Baocheng, E-mail: baochengyang@yahoo.com

    2015-01-15

    Generally, porous carbon nanospheres materials are usually prepared via a template method, which is a multi-steps and high-cost strategy. Here, we reported a porous carbon nanosphere solid acid with high surface area and superior porosity, as well as uniform nanospheical morphology, which prepared by a facile chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} using resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins spheres as precursor. The activation of RF resins spheres by ZnCl{sub 2} at 400 °C brought high surface area and large volume, and simultaneously retained numerous oxygen-containing and hydrogen-containing groups due to the relatively low processing temperature. The presence of these functional groups is favorable for the modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups by a followed sulfonation treating with sulphuric acid and organic sulfonic acid. The results of N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption and electron microscopy clearly showed the preservation of porous structure and nanospherical morphology. Infrared spectra certified the variation of surface functional groups after activation and the successful modification of –SO{sub 3}H groups after sulfonation. The acidities of catalysts were estimated by an indirect titration method and the modified amount of –SO{sub 3}H groups were examined by energy dispersive spectra. The results suggested sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres catalysts possessed high acidities and –SO{sub 3}H densities, which endowed their significantly catalytic activities for biodiesel production. Furthermore, their excellent stability and recycling property were also demonstrated by five consecutive cycles. - Graphical abstract: Sulfonated porous carbon nanospheres with high surface area and superior catalytic performance were prepared by a facile chemical activation route. - Highlights: • Porous carbon spheres solid acid prepared by a facile chemical activation. • It owns high surface area, superior porosity and uniform spherical morphology. • It possesses

  6. Mass transport of direct methanol fuel cell species in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, V.S.; Ruffmann, B.; Vetter, S.; Boaventura, M.; Mendes, A.M.; Madeira, L.M.; Nunes, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Homogeneous membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with different sulfonation degrees (SD) were prepared and characterized. In order to perform a critical analysis of the SD effect on the polymer barrier and mass transport properties towards direct methanol fuel cell species, proton conductivity, water/methanol pervaporation and nitrogen/oxygen/carbon dioxide pressure rise method experiments are proposed. This procedure allows the evaluation of the individual permeability coefficients in hydrated sPEEK membranes with different sulfonation degrees. Nafion[reg] 112 was used as reference material. DMFC tests were also performed at 50 deg. C. It was observed that the proton conductivity and the permeability towards water, methanol, oxygen and carbon dioxide increase with the sPEEK sulfonation degree. In contrast, the SD seems to not affect the nitrogen permeability coefficient. In terms of selectivity, it was observed that the carbon dioxide/oxygen selectivity increases with the sPEEK SD. In contrast, the nitrogen/oxygen selectivity decreases. In terms of barrier properties for preventing the DMFC reactants loss, the polymer electrolyte membrane based on the sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with SD lower or equal to 71%, although having slightly lower proton conductivity, presented much better characteristics for fuel cell applications compared with the well known Nafion[reg] 112. In terms of the DMFC tests of the studied membranes at low temperature, the sPEEK membrane with SD = 71% showed to have similar performance, or even better, as that of Nafion[reg] 112. However, the highest DMFC overall efficiency was achieved using sPEEK membrane with SD = 52%

  7. Fast Plasma Investigation for MMS: Simulation of the Burst Triggering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, A. C.; Dorelli, J. C.; Winkert, G. E.; Lobell, J. V.; Holland, M. P.; Adrian, M. L.; Pollock, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will study small-scale reconnection structures and their rapid motions from closely spaced platforms using instruments capable of high angular, energy, and time resolution measurements. To meet these requirements, the Fast Plasma Instrument (FPI) consists of eight (8) identical half top-hat electron sensors and eight (8) identical ion sensors and an Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). The sensors (electron or ion) are grouped into pairs whose 6 degree x 180 degree fields-of-view (FOV) are set 90 degrees apart. Each sensor is equipped with electrostatic aperture steering to allow the sensor to scan a 45 degree x 180 degree fan about the its nominal viewing (0 deflection) direction. Each pair of sensors, known as the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) and the Dual Ion Spectrometer (DIS), occupies a quadrant on the MMS spacecraft and the combination of the eight electron/ion sensors, employing aperture steering, image the full-sky every 30-ms (electrons) and 150-ms (ions), respectively. To probe the diffusion regions of reconnection, the highest temporal/spatial resolution mode of FPI results in the DES complement of a given spacecraft generating 6.5-Mb (raised dot) per second of electron data while the DIS generates 1.1-Mb (raised dot) per second of ion data yielding an FPI total data rate of 6.6-Mb (raised dot) per second. The FPI electron/ion data is collected by the IDPU then transmitted to the Central Data Instrument Processor (CIDP) on the spacecraft for science interest ranking. Only data sequences that contain the greatest amount of temporal/spatial structure will be intelligently down-linked by the spacecraft. This requires a data ranking process known as the burst trigger system. The burst trigger system uses pseudo physical quantities to approximate the local plasma environments. As each pseudo quantity will have a different value, a set of two scaling factors is employed for each pseudo term. These pseudo

  8. Large-Scale Survey of the Structure of the Dayside Magnetopause by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschmann, G.; Haaland, S. E.; Phan, T. D.; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C.; Saito, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the generation and initial utilization of a database containing 80 vector and scalar quantities, for a total of 8,670 magnetopause and magnetosheath current sheet crossings by MMS1, using plasma and magnetic field data from the Fast Plasma Investigation, Fluxgate Magnetometer, and Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer instruments, augmented by solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field data from CDAWeb. Based on a determination of the current sheet width, measured and calculated vector and scalar quantities are stored for the two sides of the current sheet and for selected times within the current sheet. The only manual operations were the classification of the current sheets according to the type of boundary, the character of the magnetic field transition, and the quality of the current sheet fit. To characterize the database, histograms of selected key quantities are presented. We then give the statistics for the duration, motion, and thicknesses of the magnetopause current sheet, using single-spacecraft techniques for the determination of the normal velocities, obtaining median results of 12.9 s, 38.5 km/s, and 705.4 km, respectively. When scaled to the ion inertial length, the median thickness became 12.6; there were no thicknesses less than one. Next, we apply the Walén relation to find crossings that are rotational discontinuities and thus may indicate ongoing magnetic reconnection. For crossings where the velocities in the outflow region exceed the velocity on the magnetosheath side by at least 250 km/s, 47% meet our rotational discontinuity criteria. If we require the outflow to exceed 250 km/s along the L direction, then the percentage rises to 68%.

  9. Drawing for Traffic Marking Using Bidirectional Gradient-Based Detection with MMS LIDAR Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, G.; Takeda, H.; Nakamura, K.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014). The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  10. Spatial Variations of Poloidal and Toroidal Mode Field Line Resonances Observed by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Kepko, L.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Field line resonances (FLRs) are magnetosphere's responses to solar wind forcing and internal instabilities generated by solar wind-magnetospheric interactions. They are standing waves along the Earth's magnetic field lines oscillating in either poloidal or toroidal modes. The two types of waves have their unique frequency characteristics. The eigenfrequency of FLRs is determined by the length of the field line and the plasma density, and thus gradually changes with L. For toroidal mode oscillations with magnetic field perturbations in the azimuthal direction, ideal MHD predicts that each field line oscillates independently with its own eigenfrequency. For poloidal mode waves with field lines oscillating radially, their frequency cannot change with L easily as L shells need to oscillate in sync to avoid efficient damping due to phase mixing. Observations, mainly during quiet times, indeed show that poloidal mode waves often exhibit nearly constant frequency across L shells. Our recent observations, on the other hand, reveal a clear L-dependent frequency trend for a long lasting storm-time poloidal wave event, indicating the wave can maintain its power with changing frequencies for an extended period [Le et al., 2017]. The spatial variation of the frequency shows discrete spatial structures. The frequency remains constant within each discrete structure that spans about 1 REalong L, and changes discretely. We present a follow-up study to investigate spatial variations of wave frequencies using the Wigner-Ville distribution. We examine both poloidal and toroidal waves under different geomagnetic conditions using multipoint observations from MMS, and compare their frequency and occurrence characteristics for insights into their generation mechanisms. Reference: Le, G., et al. (2017), Global observations of magnetospheric high-m poloidal waves during the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 3456-3464, doi:10.1002/2017GL073048.

  11. DRAWING FOR TRAFFIC MARKING USING BIDIRECTIONAL GRADIENT-BASED DETECTION WITH MMS LIDAR INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014. The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  12. Treatment of two different water resources in desalination and microbial fuel cell processes by poly sulfone/Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone hybrid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, Mostafa; Wan Daud, Wan Ramli; Alam, Javed; Ilbeygi, Hamid; Sedighi, Mehdi; Ismail, Ahmad Fauzi; Yazdi, Mohammad H.; Aljlil, Saad A.

    2016-01-01

    The PS (Polysulfone)/SPEEK (sulfonated poly ether ether ketone) hybrid membranes were fabricated and modified with low and high DS (degrees of sulfonation) for the desalination of brackish water and proton exchange membrane in microbial fuel cell. The results illustrated that SPEEK has changed the morphology of membranes and increase their hydrophilicity. PS/SPEEK with lower DS (29%) had the rejection percentage of 62% for NaCl and 68% for MgSO_4; while it was 67% and 81% for PS/SPEEK (76%) at 4 bars. Furthermore, the water flux for PS at 10 bar was 12.41 L m"−"2 h"−"1. It was four times higher for PS/SPEEK (29%) which means 49.5 L m"−"2 h"−"1 and 13 times higher for PS/SPEEK (76%) with means 157.76 L m"−"2 h"−"1. However, in MFC (microbial fuel cell), the highest power production was 97.47 mW/m"2 by PS/SPEEK (29%) followed by 41.42 mW/m"2 for PS/SPEEK (76%), and 9.4 mW/m"2 for PS. This revealed that the sulfonation of PEEK (poly ether ether ketone) made it a better additive for PS for desalination, because it created a membrane with higher hydrophilicity, better pore size and better for salt rejection. Although for the separator, the degree of sulfonation was limited; otherwise it made a membrane to transfer some of the unwanted ions. - Highlights: • Fabrication of a composite membrane for desalination and MFC. • PS/SPEEK (76%) had the lowest contact angle (48.8) and highest hydrophilicity than PS and PS/SPEEK (29%). • PS/SPEEK (29%) was the best separator for use in MFC. • PS/SPEEK (76%) had the highest flux (61.3 L m"−"2 h"−"1) for desalination.

  13. Dose-response and operational thresholds/NOAELs for in vitro mutagenic effects from DNA-reactive mutagens, MMS and MNU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottenger, Lynn H; Schisler, Melissa R; Zhang, Fagen; Bartels, Michael J; Fontaine, Donald D; McFadden, Lisa G; Bhaskar Gollapudi, B

    2009-08-01

    The dose-response relationships for in vitro mutagenicity induced by methylmethanesulfonate (MMS) or methylnitrosourea (MNU) in L5178Y mouse lymphoma (ML) cells were examined. DNA adducts (N7-methylguanine, N7MeG and O(6)-methylguanine, O(6)MeG) were quantified as biomarkers of exposure. Both endpoints were assessed using 5replicates/dose (4-h treatment) with MMS or MNU (0.0069-50muM), or vehicle (1% DMSO). Mutant frequency (MF) (thymidine kinase (TK) locus) was determined using the soft agar cloning methodology and a 2-day expression period; in addition, microwell and Sequester-Express-Select (SES) methods were used for MMS. Isolated DNA was acid-hydrolyzed, and adducts quantified by LC/ESI-MS/MS, using authentic and internal standards. MF dose-responses were analyzed using several statistical approaches, all of which confirmed that a threshold dose-response model provided the best fit. NOAELs for MF were 10muM MMS and 0.69muM MNU, based on ANOVA and Dunnett's test (p/=10muM MMS or 3.45muM MNU. O(6)MeG levels were only quantifiable at >/=10muM MNU; O(6)MeG was not quantifiable in control or MMS-treated cells at current detection limits. Thus, (1) cells treated with MMS did not demonstrate increases in TK(-) MF, but did demonstrate quantifiable levels of N7MeG adducts; and (2) the levels of N7MeG adducts did not correlate with induced MF, as MNU-treated cells had fewer N7MeG adducts but higher MF compared with MMS-treated cells, for quasi-equimolar doses. Taken together, these results demonstrate operational thresholds, defined as the highest dose for which the response is not significantly (statistically or biologically) distinguishable from the control/background values, for induction of mutations and N7MeG adducts in ML cells treated with MMS or MNU, and a lack of correlation between induced MF and levels of N7MeG adducts.

  14. A single-strand specific lesion drives MMS-induced hyper-mutability at a double-strand break in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Resnick, Michael A

    2010-08-05

    Localized hyper-mutability (LHM) can be important in evolution, immunity, and genetic diseases. We previously reported that single-strand DNA (ssDNA) can be an important source of damage-induced LHM in yeast. Here, we establish that the generation of LHM by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) during repair of a chromosomal double-strand break (DSB) can result in over 0.2 mutations/kb, which is approximately 20,000-fold higher than the MMS-induced mutation density without a DSB. The MMS-induced mutations associated with DSB repair were primarily due to substitutions via translesion DNA synthesis at damaged cytosines, even though there are nearly 10 times more MMS-induced lesions at other bases. Based on this mutation bias, the promutagenic lesion dominating LHM is likely 3-methylcytosine, which is single-strand specific. Thus, the dramatic increase in mutagenesis at a DSB is concluded to result primarily from the generation of non-repairable lesions in ssDNA associated with DSB repair along with efficient induction of highly mutagenic ssDNA-specific lesions. These findings with MMS-induced LHM have broad biological implications for unrepaired damage generated in ssDNA and possibly ssRNA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Production of ultra-low-sulfur gasoline: an equilibrium and kinetic analysis on adsorption of sulfur compounds over Ni/MMS sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Fazle; Liu, B S; Zhang, Q L; Wang, W S

    2012-11-15

    High performance nickel-based micro-mesoporous silica (Ni/MMS) sorbent was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with ultrasonic aid (IWI-u) for adsorptive desulfurization (ADS) of commercial gasoline and simulated fuels. The sorbents were characterized with BET, XRD, TPR, SEM, HRTEM and TG/DTG. These results show that 20 wt%Ni/MMS (IWI-u) can still retain the framework of MMS and nickel particles were homogeneously distributed in the MMS channels without any aggregation, which improved significantly the ADS performance of the sorbents. The studies on the ADS kinetics indicate that the adsorption behavior of thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) over 20 wt%Ni/MMS (IWI-u) can be described appropriately by pseudo second-order kinetic model. The intraparticle diffusion model verified that the steric hindrance and intraparticle diffusion were the rate controlling step of the adsorption process of DBT molecules. Langmuir model can be used to describe the adsorption isotherms for T, BT and DBT due to low coverage. The regeneration sorbent maintains the sulfur removal efficiency of 85.9% for 6 cycles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of perfluorinated phosponic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in water, sludge and sediment by LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esperza, X.; Moyano, E.; de Boer, J.; Galceran, M.T.; van Leeuwen, S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Residues of perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were investigated in various Dutch surface waters, sludge and sediments. For this purpose, a liquid chromatographic (LC) method was optimized by testing several columns with different mobile phases.

  17. Destruction of gel sulfonated cation-exchangers of the KU-2 type under the influence of hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roginskaya, B.S.; Zavadovskaya, A.S.; Znamenskii, Yu.P.; Paskhina, N.A.; Dobrova, E.I.

    1988-10-20

    The purpose of this work was to study the mechanism of interaction of Soviet sulfonated cation-exchangers of the KU-2 type with hydrogen peroxide. It is shown that under the influence of hydrogen peroxide sulfonated cation-exchangers begin, after a certain induction period, to lose capacity and to release destruction products into water; the length of the induction period increases with the degree of cross-linking. In a given time of contact between the resin and the solution the degree of destruction falls with increase of cross-linking. The principal product of destruction of sulfonated cation-exchangers is an aromatic sulfonic acid containing oxidized groups in the side chains.

  18. Demographic, reproductive, and dietary determinants of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in human colostrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusko, T.A.; Oktapodas, M.; Palkovičová Murinová, L.; Babjaková, J.; Verner, M.A.; DeWitt, J.C.; Babinská, K.; Thevenet-Morrison, K.; Čonka, K.; Drobná, B.; Thurston, S.W.; Lawrence, B.P.; Dozier, A.M.; Jarvinen-Seppo, K.M.; Patayová, H.; Trnovec, T.; Legler, J.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    To determine demographic, reproductive, and maternal dietary factors that predict perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) concentrations in breast milk, we measured perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, in 184

  19. Beta,beta-Disilylated Sulfones as Versatile Building Blocks in Organic Chemistry – A New Sulfonyl Carbanion Transmetalation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Puget, Bertrand; Jahn, Ullrich

    -, č. 17 (2010), s. 2579-2582 ISSN 0936-5214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : carbanions * transmetalation * silanes * sulfones * Julia olefination Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2010

  20. Polar extracts from (Tunisian Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubaker Jihed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and benzo[a]pyrene (B(aP were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(aP (7.5 μg/plate, 2-AA (5 μg/plate, MMS (1.3 mg/plate and NOPD (10 μg/plate. Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  1. Study of the Spacecraft Potential Under Active Control and Plasma Density Estimates During the MMS Commissioning Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriopoulou, M.; Nakamura, R.; Torkar, K.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Dorelli, John Charles; Burch, J. L.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Each spacecraft of the recently launched magnetospheric multiscale MMS mission is equipped with Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) Instruments, which control the spacecraft potential in order to reduce spacecraft charging effects. ASPOC typically reduces the spacecraft potential to a few volts. On several occasions during the commissioning phase of the mission, the ASPOC instruments were operating only on one spacecraft at a time. Taking advantage of such intervals, we derive photoelectron curves and also perform reconstructions of the uncontrolled spacecraft potential for the spacecraft with active control and estimate the electron plasma density during those periods. We also establish the criteria under which our methods can be applied.

  2. Organic Chemistry of Southern Sources: Microwave Spectroscopy of Cha-MMS1 and IRAS 15194-5115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin; Charnley, Steven

    2011-01-01

    We report new spectra of molecule-rich sources in the southern hemisphere obtained using the 22-meter Mopra telescope. Spectra and maps are presented of organic molecules detected between 30 and 50 GHz in the young Class 0 protostar Chamaeleon MMS-1. The large abundances of polyynes, cyanopolyynes and methanol may be indicative of a warm carbon chemistry in the dense gas surrounding this protostar. Spectra are also presented from a 78-96 GHz scan of the carbon-rich AGB star IRAS 15194-5115, including new detections of HC5N, CCS and C13CH.

  3. Design and synthesis of polycyclic sulfones via Diels-Alder reaction and ring-rearrangement metathesis as key steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Gunta, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Here, we describe a new and simple synthetic strategy to various polycyclic sulfones via Diels-Alder reaction and ring-rearrangement metathesis (RRM) as the key steps. This approach delivers tri- and tetracyclic sulfones with six (n = 1), seven (n = 2) or eight-membered (n = 3) fused-ring systems containing trans-ring junctions unlike the conventional all cis-ring junctions generally obtained during the RRM sequence. Interestingly the starting materials used are simple and commercially available.

  4. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure: Studies of zinc-neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.S.; Yarusso, D.J.; Pan, H.K.D.; Cooper, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements were performed on a series of zinc-neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers and the local structure around the zinc atom was determined. An interference effect in the EXAFS signal between sulfur and oxygen atoms was found to be significant in these materials. A model for the local structure in the zinc-neutralized sulfonated polystyrene ionomers is proposed which suggests a highly ordered tetrahedral coordination of oxygen around the zinc atoms at a distance of 1.97 +- 0.02 A. In addition there are four sulfur atoms and four oxygen atoms at a distance of 3.15 +- 0.05 A. No zinc-zinc coordination within 5 A was detected in this study

  5. Hierarchical composites of sulfonated graphene-supported vertically aligned polyaniline nanorods for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Zhou, Xiao; Bao, Hua; Li, Xingwei; Wang, Gengchao

    2012-10-01

    Hierarchical composites of sulfonated graphene-supported vertically aligned polyaniline nanorods (sGNS/PANI) are successfully synthesized via interfacial polymerization of aniline monomers in the presence of sulfonated graphene nanosheets (sGNS). The FE-SEM images indicate that the morphologies of sGNS/PANI composites can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of aniline monomers. FTIR and Raman spectra reveal that aligned PANI nanorod arrays for sGNS/PANI exhibit higher degree of conjugation compared with pristine PANI nanorods. The hierarchical composite based on the two-electrode cell possesses higher specific capacitance (497 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1), better rate capability and cycling stability (5.7% capacitance loss after 2000 cycles) than those of pristine PANI nanorods.

  6. Stabilized Sulfonated Aromatic Polymers by in situ Solvothermal Cross-Linking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Vona, Maria Luisa, E-mail: divona@uniroma2.it; Sgreccia, Emanuela [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Narducci, Riccardo; Pasquini, Luca [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); MAtériaux Divisés, Interfaces, Réactivité, ELectrochimie (MADIREL – UMR 7246), Aix Marseille Université, Marseille (France); Hou, Hongying [Faculty of Material and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Knauth, Philippe [MAtériaux Divisés, Interfaces, Réactivité, ELectrochimie (MADIREL – UMR 7246), Aix Marseille Université, Marseille (France)

    2014-10-10

    The cross-link reaction via sulfone bridges of sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) by thermal treatment at 180°C in presence of dimethylsulfoxide is discussed. The modifications of properties subsequent to the cross-linking are presented. The mechanical strength as well as the hydrolytic stability increased with the thermal treatment time, i.e., with the degree of cross-linking. The proton conductivity was determined as function of temperature, IEC, degree of cross-linking, and hydration number. The memory effect, which is the membrane ability to “remember” the water uptake reached at high temperature also at lower temperature, is exploited in order to achieve high values of conductivity. Membranes swelled at 110°C can reach a conductivity of 0.14 S/cm at 80°C with a hydration number (λ) of 73.

  7. Electrolytic membrane formation of fluoroalkyl polymer using a UV-radiation-based grafting technique and sulfonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shironita, Sayoko; Mizoguchi, Satoko; Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka 940-2188, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    A sulfonated fluoroalkyl graft polymer (FGP) membrane was prepared as a polymer electrolyte. First, the FGP membrane was grafted with styrene under UV irradiation. The grafted FGP was then sulfonated to functionalize it for proton conductivity. The grafting degree of the membrane increased with increasing grafting time during UV irradiation. The proton conductivity of the membrane increased with increasing grafting degree. The swelling ratio was independent of the grafting time, however, the water uptake increased with increasing grafting degree. Based on these results, it was found that the UV-initiated styrene grafting occurred along the membrane thickness direction. Moreover, the membrane was embedded within the glass fibers of the composite. This composite electrolytic membrane had 1.15 times the proton conductivity of a Nafion 117 membrane.

  8. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Zhensheng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test. (author)

  9. Controlled disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) multiblock copolymers for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Chen, Yu; Rowlett, Jarrett R; McGrath, James E; Mack, Nathan H; Kim, Yu Seung

    2014-04-23

    Structure-property-performance relationships of disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) multiblock copolymer membranes were investigated for their use in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. Multiple series of reactive polysulfone, polyketone, and polynitrile hydrophobic block segments having different block lengths and molecular composition were synthesized and reacted with a disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) hydrophilic block segment by a coupling reaction. Large-scale morphological order of the multiblock copolymers evolved with the increase of block size that gave notable influence on mechanical toughness, water uptake, and proton/methanol transport. Chemical structural changes of the hydrophobic blocks through polar group, fluorination, and bisphenol type allowed further control of the specific properties. DMFC performance was analyzed to elicit the impact of structural variations of the multiblock copolymers. Finally, DMFC performances of selected multiblock copolymers were compared against that of the industrial standard Nafion in the DMFC system.

  10. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoguo Tong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new sulfone compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moieties were synthesized. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic data (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and elemental analyses. Antifungal tests indicated that all the title compounds exhibited good antifungal activities against eight kinds of plant pathogenic fungi, and some showed superiority over the commercial fungicide hymexazol. Among them, compounds 5d, 5e, 5f, and 5i showed prominent activity against B. cinerea, with determined EC50 values of 5.21 μg/mL, 8.25 µg/mL, 8.03 µg/mL, and 21.00 µg/mL, respectively. The present work demonstrates that sulfone derivatives such as 5d containing a 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety can be used as possible lead compounds for the development of potential agrochemicals.

  11. Meaning of leprosy for people who have experienced treatment during the sulfonic and multidrug therapy periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen da Silva Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to analyze the meanings of leprosy for people treated during the sulfonic and multidrug therapy periods.Method: qualitative nature study based on the Vigotski's historical-cultural approach, which guided the production and analysis of data. It included eight respondents who have had leprosy and were submitted to sulfonic and multidrug therapy treatments. The participants are also members of the Movement for Reintegration of People Affected by Leprosy.Results: the meanings were organized into three meaning cores: spots on the body: something is out of order; leprosy or hanseniasis? and leprosy from the inclusion in the Movement for Reintegration of People Affected by Leprosy.Conclusion: the meanings of leprosy for people submitted to both regimens point to a complex construction thereof, indicating differences and similarities in both treatments. Health professionals may contribute to the change of the meanings, since these are socially constructed and the changes are continuous.

  12. Study on properties of cation-exchange membranes containing sulfonate groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Jianhua; Wu Minghong; Qiu Shilong; Yao Side; Ye Yin

    2004-01-01

    Strong acid cation-exchange membranes were obtained by irradiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) and sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) onto high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Thermal and chemical stability of the cation-exchange membranes was investigated. The effectiveness of sulfonate-containing films was conformed in inducing high resistance to oxidative degradation. Thermal stability of the grafted HDPE was weaker than HDPE as detected by TGA analyzing technique. Char residue by TGA of the grafted HDPE is greater than that of HDPE. It shows that the branch chains including -SO 3 Na and -COOH was grafted onto the backbone of HDPE, and thus give a catalytic impetus to the charing. Crystallinity of the grafted membranes decreased with increasing grafting yield of the membrane samples. It is supposed that the decreased crystallinity is due to collective effects of the inherent crystallinity dilution by the amorphous grafted chains and disruption of spherulitic crystallites of the HDPE component

  13. Moving beyond mass-based parameters for conductivity analysis of sulfonated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pivovar, Bryan [NREL

    2009-01-01

    Proton conductivity of polymer electrolytes is critical for fuel cells and has therefore been studied in significant detail. The conductivity of sulfonated polymers has been linked to material characteristics in order to elucidate trends. Mass based measurements based on water uptake and ion exchange capacity are two of the most common material characteristics used to make comparisons between polymer electrolytes, but have significant limitations when correlated to proton conductivity. These limitations arise in part because different polymers can have significantly different densities and conduction happens over length scales more appropriately represented by volume measurements rather than mass. Herein, we establish and review volume related parameters that can be used to compare proton conductivity of different polymer electrolytes. Morphological effects on proton conductivity are also considered. Finally, the impact of these phenomena on designing next generation sulfonated polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is discussed.

  14. Direct esterification of olive-pomace oil using mesoporous silica supported sulfonic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alrouh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 containing propyl sulfonic acid groups were synthesized according to the literature and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and the H+ exchange capacities of the sulfonic acid groups were titrated. The esterification reaction of glycerol with olive-pomace oil has been carried out by using prepared functionalized mesoporous silica (MCM-41 and SBA-15 as catalysts. It has been monitored by GC two fatty acids (palmitic and oleic acids as reactants in olive-pomace oil and their related monoacylglycerols (Glycerol monopalmitate GMP and monooleate GMO as reaction product. The catalytic activities of the functionalized mesoporous silica were compared with commercial catalysts, these included homogeneous catalysts (p-toluenesulfonic acid and heterogeneous catalysts (Amberlyst-15. The total yield of monoacylglycerols (GMO + GMP was nearly 40%. Remarkably, we found that MCM-41-SO3H was recycled at least 3 times without any loss of activity.

  15. Stabilized sulfonated aromatic polymers by in situ solvothermal cross-linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa eDi Vona

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cross-link reaction via sulfone bridges of sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK by thermal treatment at 180 °C in presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO is discussed. The modifications of properties subsequent to the cross-linking are presented. The mechanical strength as well as the hydrolytic stability increased with the thermal treatment time, i.e., with the degree of cross-linking. The proton conductivity was determined as function of temperature, IEC, degree of cross-linking and hydration number. The memory effect, which is the membrane ability to remember the water uptake reached at high temperature also at lower temperature, is exploited in order to achieve high values of conductivity. Membranes swelled at 110 °C can reach a conductivity of 0.14 S/cm at 80°C with a hydration number ( of 73.

  16. Cell Adhesion and Proliferation on Sulfonated and Non-Modified Chitosan Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Campos, Enrique; Civantos, Ana; Redondo, Juan Alfonso; Guzmán, Rodrigo; Pérez-Perrino, Mónica; Gallardo, Alberto; Ramos, Viviana; Aranaz, Inmaculada

    2017-05-01

    Three types of chitosan-based films have been prepared and evaluated: a non-modified chitosan film bearing cationizable aliphatic amines and two films made of N-sulfopropyl chitosan derivatives bearing both aliphatic amines and negative sulfonate groups at different ratios. Cell adhesion and proliferation on chitosan films of C2C12 pre-myoblastic cells and B16 cells as tumoral model have been tested. A differential cell behavior has been observed on chitosan films due to their different surface modification. B16 cells have shown lower vinculin expression when cultured on sulfonated chitosan films. This study shows how the interaction among cells and material surface can be modulated by physicochemical characteristics of the biomaterial surface, altering tumoral cell adhesion and proliferation processes.

  17. Radiation graft post-polymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate onto polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaeva, N.K.; Duflot, V.R.; Ilicheva, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Post-irradiation grafting of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) in the presence of acrylic acid (AA) has been investigated on polyethylene (PE) pre-exposed to gamma radiation at room temperature in the air. Special attention was paid to the effect of low molecular weight salt additives on the kinetics of graft copolymerization of SSS and AA. The presence of SSS links in the grafted PE copolymers was detected by the methods of UV and FTIR spectroscopy. Based on the FTIR spectroscopy and element analysis data, a mechanism was proposed for graft copolymerization of SSS and AA onto PE. The mechanical properties of the graft copolymers were studied. It was established that PE copolymers grafted with sulfonic acid and carboxyl groups have higher strength characteristics (16.3 MPa) compared to the samples containing only carboxyl groups (11 MPa). (author)

  18. Polyaniline nanotubes and their dendrites doped with different naphthalene sulfonic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiming; Wei Zhixiang; Zhang Lijuan; Wan Meixiang

    2005-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes (130-250 nm in average diameter) doped with α-naphthalene sulfonic acid (α-NSA), β-naphthalene sulfonic acid (β-NSA) and 1,5-naphthalene disulfonic acid were synthesized via a self-assembly process. It was found that the formation yield, morphology (hollow or solid), size, crystalline and electrical properties of the nanostructures are affected by the position and number of -SO 3 H groups attached to the naphthalene ring of NSA as well as the synthesis conditions. Moreover, these nanotubes aggregate to form a dendritic morphology when the polymerization is performed at a static state. The micelles composed of dopant or dopant/anilinium cations might act in a template-like fashion in forming self-assembled PANI nanotubes, which was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements, while the aggregated morphology of the nanotubes might result from polymer chain interactions including π-π interactions, hydrogen and ionic bonds

  19. Quinolinium 8-hy-droxy-7-iodo-quinoline-5-sulfonate 0.8-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham

    2012-12-01

    In the crystal structure of the title hydrated quinolinium salt of ferron (8-hy-droxy-7-iodo-quinoline-5-sulfonic acid), C9H7N(+)·C9H5INO4S(-)·0.8H2O, the quinolinium cation is fully disordered over two sites (occupancy factors fixed at 0.63 and 0.37) lying essentially within a common plane and with the ferron anions forming π-π-associated stacks down the b axis [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.462 (6) Å]. The cations and anions are linked into chains extending along c through hy-droxy O-H⋯O and quinolinium N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds to sulfonate O-atom acceptors which are also involved in water O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions along b, giving a two-dimensional network.

  20. Quinolinium 8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonate 0.8-hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title hydrated quinolinium salt of ferron (8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonic acid, C9H7N+·C9H5INO4S−·0.8H2O, the quinolinium cation is fully disordered over two sites (occupancy factors fixed at 0.63 and 0.37 lying essentially within a common plane and with the ferron anions forming π–π-associated stacks down the b axis [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.462 (6 Å]. The cations and anions are linked into chains extending along c through hydroxy O—H...O and quinolinium N—H...O hydrogen bonds to sulfonate O-atom acceptors which are also involved in water O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions along b, giving a two-dimensional network.

  1. Effect of degree of sulfonation and casting solvent on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membrane for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jingyu; Li, Zhaohua; Yu, Lihong; Yin, Bibo; Wang, Lei; Liu, Le; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2015-07-01

    The properties of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes with various degree of sulfonation (DS) and casting solvent are investigated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The optimum DS of SPEEK membrane is firstly confirmed by various characterizations such as physicochemical properties, ion selectivity, and VRFB single-cell performance. Subsequently the optimum casting solvent is selected for the optimum DS SPEEK membrane within N,N‧-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N‧-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The different performance of SPEEK membranes prepared with various casting solvents can be attributed to the different interaction between solvent and -SO3H group of SPEEK. In the VRFB single-cell test, the optimum SPEEK membrane with DS of 67% and casting solvent of DMF (S67-DMF membrane) exhibits higher VRFB efficiencies and better cycle-life performance at 80 mA cm-2. The investigation of various DS and casting solvent will be effective guidance on the selection and modification of SPEEK membrane towards VRFB application.

  2. In silico approach to investigating the adsorption mechanisms of short chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid on hydrated hematite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hongru; Lin, Yuan; Sun, Yuzhen; Cao, Huiming; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Ke; Zhang, Aiqian

    2017-05-01

    Short chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) that were introduced as alternatives for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) have been widely produced and used. However, few studies have investigated the environmental process of short chain PFSAs, and the related adsorption mechanisms still need to be uncovered. The water-oxide interface is one of the major environmental interfaces that plays an important role in affecting the adsorption behaviour and transport potential of the environmental pollutant. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemistry calculations to investigate the adsorption mechanisms of five PFSAs and their adsorption on hydrated hematite surface as well. Different to the vertical configuration reported for PFOS on titanium oxide, all PFSAs share the same adsorption configuration as the long carbon chains parallel to the surface. The formation of hydrogen bonds between F and inter-surface H helps to stabilize the unique configuration. As a result, the sorption capacity increases with increasing C-F chain length. Moreover, both calculated adsorption energy and partial density of states (PDOS) analysis demonstrate a PFSAs adsorption mechanism in between physical and chemical adsorption because the hydrogen bonds formed by the overlap of F (p) orbital and H (s) orbital are weak intermolecular interactions while the physical adsorption are mainly ascribed to the electrostatic interactions. This massive calculation provides a new insight into the pollutant adsorption behaviour, and in particular, may help to evaluate the environmental influence of pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Design and synthesis of aryl ether and sulfone hydroxamic acids as potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabba, Chittari; Gregg, Brian T; Kitchen, Douglas B; Chen, Zhen Jia; Judkins, Angela

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel hydroxamic acid based histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors with aryl ether and aryl sulfone residues at the terminus of a substituted, unsaturated 5-carbon spacer moiety have been synthesized for the first time and evaluated. Compounds with meta- and para-substitution on the aryl ring of ether hydroxamic acids 19c, 20c, 19e, 19f and 19g are potent HDAC inhibitors with activities at low nanomolar levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solvent and irradiation doses effects on the ion exchange capacity of sulfonated styrene grafted PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Polymers exhibiting ion exchange capacity are studied for many years due to their application in several fields, such as membranes for proton exchange fuel cells, filtration membranes, heavy ions recovery and artificial muscles and sensors. Radiation induced grafting followed by sulfonation is a well-known way to obtain ion exchange polymers. Fluorinated polymers are frequently used as polymeric matrix for grafting due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Radiation induced grafting of styrene into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) by simultaneous method in 1:1 styrene/toluene or styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide solutions was studied. Irradiations were performed under nitrogen atmosphere, room temperature and at doses of 5, 10 and 20 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy.h{sup -1} from a {sup 60}Co gamma source. After washing, grafted materials were sulfonated in 10% chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane solutions for 4 h at room temperature. Characterization shows that increasing irradiation dose corresponds to increases in the grafting yield (GY %) gravimetrically calculated and these different solvents shows different grafting behaviors. Toluene allows no more than 3 % of grafting while DMF allows up to 55 % of grafting in the same condition. Grafting in toluene solution occurs on the surface and in DMF solution it occurs in the bulk, as confirmed by SEM. Both irradiation doses and solvent used have direct effects in the ion exchange capacities (calculated after titrations). FT-IR spectra exhibit new peaks after grafting and after sulfonation, attributed to grafted monomer and sulfonic groups attached to the styrene. DSC shows differences in thermal behavior of the polymer before and after each step. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Sulfonate-Based Collectors with Different Hydrophobic Tails for Flotation of Fluorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renji Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to demonstrate the effects of hydrophobic tails on the affinity and relevant flotation response of sulfonate-based collectors for fluorite. For this purpose, a series of alkyl sulfonates with different hydrophobic tails, namely sodium decanesulfonate (C10, sodium dodecylsulfate (C12, sodium hexadecanesulfonate (C16, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12B were applied. The flotation tests showed that C12 and C12B had a better collecting performance than C10 and C16 at pH < 10, and the flotation recovery of fluorite was higher when adopting C12B as a collector compared with C12 with a strong base. The adsorption behaviors of collectors on the fluorite surface were studied through zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses. It was found that the affinity of alkyl sulfonates for fluorite was enhanced with the increase of the alkyl chain length from C10 to C16. The existence of phenyl in the hydrophobic tail of sulfonates could improve its activity for fluorite by reducing its surface tension. The abnormal phenomenon C16 with a high affinity for fluorite had a low collecting performance for fluorite mainly due to its overlong alkyl chain, resulting in low solubility in pulp, which restrained its interaction with fluorite. We concluded that C12B was the most applicable collector for fluorite among these reagents due to its high activity, high solubility, and low cost, which was further substantiated by calculating their molecular frontier orbital energy.

  6. Triclosan is a potent inhibitor of estradiol and estrone sulfonation in sheep placenta

    OpenAIRE

    James, Margaret O.; Li, Wenjun; Summerlot, David P.; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Wood, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The personal care product Triclosan, 5-chloro-2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol, is widely used in consumer products as an antibacterial agent and is increasingly found in the environment as a contaminant of sewage sludge and wastewater. This compound has been identified in plasma and urine of people in the United States, Sweden and Australia. Triclosan is known to inhibit sulfonation of phenolic xenobiotics and is structurally related to inhibitors of estrogen sulfotransferase, such as polychlor...

  7. Solvent and irradiation doses effects on the ion exchange capacity of sulfonated styrene grafted PVDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    Polymers exhibiting ion exchange capacity are studied for many years due to their application in several fields, such as membranes for proton exchange fuel cells, filtration membranes, heavy ions recovery and artificial muscles and sensors. Radiation induced grafting followed by sulfonation is a well-known way to obtain ion exchange polymers. Fluorinated polymers are frequently used as polymeric matrix for grafting due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Radiation induced grafting of styrene into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) by simultaneous method in 1:1 styrene/toluene or styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide solutions was studied. Irradiations were performed under nitrogen atmosphere, room temperature and at doses of 5, 10 and 20 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy.h -1 from a 60 Co gamma source. After washing, grafted materials were sulfonated in 10% chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane solutions for 4 h at room temperature. Characterization shows that increasing irradiation dose corresponds to increases in the grafting yield (GY %) gravimetrically calculated and these different solvents shows different grafting behaviors. Toluene allows no more than 3 % of grafting while DMF allows up to 55 % of grafting in the same condition. Grafting in toluene solution occurs on the surface and in DMF solution it occurs in the bulk, as confirmed by SEM. Both irradiation doses and solvent used have direct effects in the ion exchange capacities (calculated after titrations). FT-IR spectra exhibit new peaks after grafting and after sulfonation, attributed to grafted monomer and sulfonic groups attached to the styrene. DSC shows differences in thermal behavior of the polymer before and after each step. (author)

  8. Effects of water soaking and/or sodium polystyrene sulfonate addition on potassium content of foods

    OpenAIRE

    Picq, Christian; Asplanato, M.; Bernillon, N.; Fabre, C.; Roubeix, M.; Ricort, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we determined, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the potassium amount leached by soaking or boiling foods identified by children suffering from chronic renal failure as "pleasure food'' and that they cannot eat because of their low-potassium diet, and evaluated whether addition of sodium polystyrene sulfonate resin (i.e. Kayexalate (R)) during soaking or boiling modulated potassium loss. A significant amount of potassium content was removed by soaking (16% for chocolate a...

  9. Electrooxidative Tandem Cyclization of Activated Alkynes with Sulfinic Acids To Access Sulfonated Indenones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jiangwei [The; Center; Shi, Wenyan [The; Zhang, Fan [The; Liu, Dong [The; Tang, Shan [The; Wang, Huamin [The; Lin, Xiao-Min [Center; Lei, Aiwen [The

    2017-05-25

    An,electrooxidative direct arylsulfonlylation of yones sulfintc acids via a radical tandem cyclization strategy has been developed for the construction of sulfonated ilicIenones:under oxidant, free conditions. This method provides a simple and efficient approach to prepare various sulfonylindenones in good to,excellent:Tyidds,, demonstrating the tremendous prospect of utilizing electrocatalysis in oxidative coupling, Notably, this reaction could Be easily scaled up with good, efficiency.

  10. The design and synthesis of novel spirocyclic heterocyclic sulfone ROMK inhibitors as diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobanian, Harry R; Guo, Yan; Pio, Barbara; Tang, Haifeng; Teumelsan, Nardos; Clements, Matthew; Frie, Jessica; Ferguson, Ronald; Guo, Zach; Thomas-Fowlkes, Brande S; Felix, John P; Liu, Jessica; Kohler, Martin; Priest, Birgit; Hampton, Caryn; Pai, Lee-Yuh; Corona, Aaron; Metzger, Joseph; Tong, Vincent; Joshi, Elizabeth M; Xu, Ling; Owens, Karen; Maloney, Kevin; Sullivan, Kathleen; Pasternak, Alexander

    2017-02-15

    A spirocyclic class of ROMK inhibitors was developed containing a structurally diverse heterocyclic sulfone moiety and spirocyclic core starting from lead 1. These compounds not only displayed exquisite ROMK potency but significantly improved selectivity over hERG. The lead compounds were found to have favorable pharmacokinetic properties and displayed robust diuretic, natriuretic and blood pressure lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Syntheses, structures, thermal stabilities and luminescence of two new lead sulfonates with phosphonate, carboxylate and pyridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Ruibiao; Hu, Shengmin; Wu, Xintao

    2014-01-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of Pb 2+ ion with disodium 4,4'-bis(2-sulfonatostyryl)biphenyl (Na 2 L1), 4-pyridyl-CH 2 N(CH 2 COOH)(CH 2 PO 3 H 2 ) (H 3 L2) and 4,4'-bipyridine (4,4'-bipy) afforded two new lead sulfonates, namely, [Pb 4 (L1) 2 (HL2) 2 (H 2 O)

  12. Effect of sodium aromatic sulfonate group in anionic polymer dispersant on the viscosity of coal-water mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshio Kakui; Hidehiro Kamiya [Lion Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Chemicals Research Laboratories, Chemicals Division

    2004-06-01

    This paper focused on the effect of sodium aromatic sulfonate in anionic polymer dispersants on the viscosity of coal-water mixtures (CWMs) with a Tatung coal powder. To determine the optimum molecular structure of a polymer dispersant for the minimum viscosity of a CWM, various anionic co-polymers with different hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups or different molecular weights were prepared, using various types of monomers. Anionic co-polymers with sodium aromatic sulfonate, such as sodium styrene-sulfonate and sodium naphthalene-sulfonate, reduced the viscosity of dense CWMs. In particular, a co-polymer of sodium styrene-sulfonate and sodium acrylate with a molar ratio of 70:30 and a molecular weight of {approximately} 10 000 gave the minimum viscosity of a 70 wt % CWM. To obtain a low viscosity for a CWM, a large electrostatic repulsive force with an absolute value of the zeta potential of the coal particles of {gt} 70 mV and {gt} 6.5 mg/g of adsorbed polymer on the coal surface were needed. The mixture of sodium polystyrene-sulfonate and sodium polyacrylate with a weight ratio of 50:50 also gave a low viscosity of 70 wt % CWM. On the basis of the results, the adsorption behavior of polymer dispersants on the coal surface is examined by measuring the wettability of coal powder pellets. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Effects of gamma radiation from 60Co on dilute aqueous solutions of Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants and other organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    This study is the result of research findings and operational experiences gained by the author in over four years of work associated with the use of 60 Co for the treatment of waste-water. The effects of 60 Co are discussed with regard to radiochemical destruction of specific organic pollutant species. The study deals specifically with the effects of gamma radiation from a 30,000 Ci 60 Co source upon aqueous solutions of Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants. The new Linear Alkyl Sulfonate (LAS) Surfactants, the major surfactant produced in the United States of America since June 1965, was developed to replace the old Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (ABS) Surfactants. The reason for the removal of Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate Surfactants was their extreme environmental stability and the associated appearance of foam in waste-water treatment plants and receiving streams. Although the Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants are considered 'bio-degradable', the time required for 'bio-degradation' is impractical within the present environmental guidelines. This led to research into alternate techniques of treatment for the destruction of Linear Alkyl Sulfonate Surfactants. Consideration is also given to similar effects of gamma radiation upon pesticides and to the practical aspects of the use of gamma radiation for the treatment of waste-water. Included are discussions of the general experimental procedures used, the sources and their calibration, and sampling techniques to ensure the accuracy of the data. (author)

  14. The Influence of Operation Temperature of the Characteristic of Sulfonated Polyether-Ether Ketone Electrolyte Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Handayani; Eniya Listiani Dewi

    2008-01-01

    Recently, high temperature Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) has been receiving great attention, because provide faster reaction kinetic, the enhance electrode kinetics, reduced size and reduce Pt-based catalyst poisoning by CO. But at high temperature, it will decrease the membrane performance i.e. low proton conductivity affected by humidification and high methanol crossover as happening to Nafion-117 membrane (commercial membrane). To solve this problems, sulfonated polyether-ether ketone and composite (silica additive) as electrolyte membrane at high temperature DMFC was tried to use. In this research, sPEEK with sulfonation degree (SD) 47 % and 68 % and addition silica 3 wt % were used as electrolyte membranes. Proton conductivity and methanol permeability of these membranes were measured at various temperatures (25, 50, 90 and 140 C ). Proton conductivity of membranes were measured by standard bridge impedance spectroscopy (LCR-meter, HIOKI 3522-50) and it was found about 0.01-0.04 S/cm. Methanol permeability of membranes were investigated by diffusion cell and gave the result about 10 - 6 - 10 - 7cm 2 /s. The best sPEEK membrane was sPEEK membrane with SD 68 % and the addition of silica 3 wt%, signed by highest selectivity value (ratio proton conductivity to methanol permeability). Therefore, electrolyte membrane based sulfonated polyether-ether ketone (SD 68 %) with silica could be used at high temperature which give promising as solid electrolyte membrane in application high temperature DMFC. (author)

  15. Colitis induced by sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol: A report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sheba S K; Parameswaran, Ashok; Parameswaran, Sarojini Ashok; Dhus, Ubal

    2016-03-01

    Drug-related injury has been noted in virtually all organ systems, and recognition of the patterns of injury associated with medication enables modification of treatment and reduces the morbidity associated with the side effects of drugs. With the large number of new drugs being developed, documentation of the morphology of the changes seen as an adverse effect becomes important to characterize the pattern of injury. The pathologist is often the first to identify these abnormalities and correlate them with a particular drug. Kayexalate or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), a linear polymer derived from polystyrene containing sulfonic acid and sulfonate functional groups is used to treat hyperkalemia. It is usually administered with an osmotic laxative sorbitol orally or as retention enema. This combination has been implicated in causing damage to different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract especially the colon and causes an established pattern of injury, recognizable by the presence of characteristic crystals, is presented to create a greater awareness of the Kayexalate colitis. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of lower GI mucosal injury in a setting of uremia and hyperkalemia.

  16. Study of Synthesis Polyethylene glycol oleate Sulfonated as an Anionic Surfactant for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampora, Yulianti; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Haryono, Agus; Irawan, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) through chemical injection is using an anionic surfactant to improve the recovery of oil residues, particularly in a reservoir area that has certain characteristics. This case led the authors to conduct research on the synthesis of an anionic surfactant based on oleic acid and polyethylene glycol 400 that could be applied as a chemical injection. In this work, we investigate the sulfonation of Polyethylene glycol oleate (PDO) in a sulfuric acid agent. PDO in this experiment was derived from Indonesian palm oil. Variation of mole reactant and reaction time have been studied. The surfactant has been characterized by measuring the interfacial tension, acid value, ester value, saponification value, iodine value, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and particle size analyzer. There is a new peak at 1170-1178 cm-1 indicating that S=O bond has formed. PDO sulfonate exhibits good surface activity due to interfacial tension of 0,003 mN/m. Thus, polyethylene glycol oleate sulfonate was successfully synthesized and it could be useful as a novel an anionic surfactant.

  17. Colorful Polyelectrolytes: An Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Route to Fluorescent Polystyrene Sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Wayne; Tong, Xiaowei; Balamurugan, Sreelatha; Deville, Kyle; Russo, Paul S; Zhang, Donghui

    2016-03-01

    A labeled green fluorescent polystyrene sulfonate (LNaPSS) has been synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization of a styrene sulfonate monomer with a fluorescent co-monomer, fluorescein thiocyanate-vinyl aniline. As a result this 100 % sulfonated polymer contains no hydrophobic patches along the chain backbone besides the fluorescent marker itself. The concentration of the fluorescent monomer was kept low to maintain the characteristic properties of the anionic polyelectrolyte, LNaPSS. ATRP conditions facilitated the production of polymers spanning a range of molecular weights from 35,000 to 175,000 in gram-scale batches with polydispersity indices of 1.01-1.24. Molecular weight increased with the monomer to initiator ratio. Gel permeation chromatography results show a unimodal distribution, and the polymer structure was also confirmed by (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed covalent bonding of fluorescein isothiocyanate to the polymer, indicating that the polymer is suitable as a probe in fluorescence microscopy. To demonstrate this ability, the polymer was used to locate structural features in salt crystals formed during drying, as in the evaporation of sea mist. A second application to probe diffusion studies is also demonstrated.

  18. Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from starch-rich food waste catalyzed by sulfonated biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Leichang; Yu, Iris K M; Chen, Season S; Tsang, Daniel C W; Wang, Lei; Xiong, Xinni; Zhang, Shicheng; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E; Song, Hocheol; Poon, Chi Sun

    2018-03-01

    Sulfonated biochar derived from forestry wood waste was employed for the catalytic conversion of starch-rich food waste (e.g., bread) into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Chemical and physical properties of catalyst were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, and elemental analysis. The conversion of HMF was investigated via controlling the reaction parameters such as catalyst loading, temperature, and reaction time. Under the optimum reaction conditions the HMF yield of 30.4 Cmol% (i.e., 22 wt% of bread waste) was achieved in the mixture of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)/deionized-water (DIW) at 180 °C in 20 min. The effectiveness of sulfonated biochar catalyst was positively correlated to the density of strong/weak Brønsted acidity (SO 3 H, COOH, and OH groups) and inversely correlated to humins content on the surface. With regeneration process, sulfonated biochar catalyst displayed excellent recyclability for comparable HMF yield from bread waste over five cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthesis, structural, solubility and anticancer activity studies of salts using nucleobases and sulfonic acids coformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Singh, Udai P.; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Singh, Hariji

    2017-10-01

    The reactions of natural and unnatural nucleobases (cytosine (Cyt), adenine (Ade), 5-aminouracil (AU) and caffeine (Caff)) with sulfonic acids coformer (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, NDSA; 5-sulfosalicylic acid, SSA) resulted in the formation of salts viz. [NDSA.Cyt] (1), [NDSA.Ade] (2), [NDSA.AU] (3), [NDSA.Caff] (4), [SSA.Cyt] (5), [SSA.Ade] (6), [SSA.AU] (7), and [SSA.Caff] (8). The structural analysis revealed that salts 1, 4, 6 and 7 have intermolecular interactions between adjacent nucleobases which form two different homodimer shown in R22 (8) motif and assembled via complementary Nsbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯N interactions. However, in all other salts an intermediate supramolecular synthon pattern was observed between nucleobases and sulfonic acids. The lattice energy was also calculated by DFT to investigate whether salts were thermodynamically more stable than its coformer. The same was further confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric (DSC-TG) analysis. The anticancer activity study of individual nucleobases and their NDSA salts were also performed on human breast (MCF-7) and lung (A 549) cancer cell. The salts formation of nucleobases with sulfonic acids improved their solubility, thereby demonstrating up to 8-fold increase in solubility of nucleobases.

  20. A Cell-Based Screen Reveals that the Albendazole Metabolite, Albendazole Sulfone, Targets Wolbachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Walter M.; White, Pamela M.; Ruybal, Jordan; Lokey, R. Scott; Debec, Alain; Sullivan, William

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia endosymbionts carried by filarial nematodes give rise to the neglected diseases African river blindness and lymphatic filariasis afflicting millions worldwide. Here we identify new Wolbachia-disrupting compounds by conducting high-throughput cell-based chemical screens using a Wolbachia-infected, fluorescently labeled Drosophila cell line. This screen yielded several Wolbachia-disrupting compounds including three that resembled Albendazole, a widely used anthelmintic drug that targets nematode microtubules. Follow-up studies demonstrate that a common Albendazole metabolite, Albendazole sulfone, reduces intracellular Wolbachia titer both in Drosophila melanogaster and Brugia malayi, the nematode responsible for lymphatic filariasis. Significantly, Albendazole sulfone does not disrupt Drosophila microtubule organization, suggesting that this compound reduces titer through direct targeting of Wolbachia. Accordingly, both DNA staining and FtsZ immunofluorescence demonstrates that Albendazole sulfone treatment induces Wolbachia elongation, a phenotype indicative of binary fission defects. This suggests that the efficacy of Albendazole in treating filarial nematode-based diseases is attributable to dual targeting of nematode microtubules and their Wolbachia endosymbionts. PMID:23028321

  1. Dose-Response for Multiple Biomarkers of Exposure and Genotoxic Effect Following Repeated Treatment of Rats with the Alkylating Agents, MMS and MNU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiying; LeBaron, Matthew J; Schisler, Melissa R; Zhang, Fagen; Bartels, Michael J; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Pottenger, Lynn H

    2016-05-01

    The nature of the dose-response relationship for various in vivo endpoints of exposure and effect were investigated using the alkylating agents, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and methylnitrosourea (MNU). Six male F344 rats/group were dosed orally with 0, 0.5, 1, 5, 25 or 50mg/kg bw/day (mkd) of MMS, or 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 25 or 50 mkd of MNU, for 4 consecutive days and sacrificed 24h after the last dose. The dose-responses for multiple biomarkers of exposure and genotoxic effect were investigated. In MMS-treated rats, the hemoglobin adduct level, a systemic exposure biomarker, increased linearly with dose (r (2) = 0.9990, P agents. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Thermal Testing and Model Correlation of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong S.; Teti, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth's magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration, and turbulence. This paper presents the complete thermal balance (TB) test performed on the first of four observatories to go through thermal vacuum (TV) and the minibalance testing that was performed on the subsequent observatories to provide a comparison of all four. The TV and TB tests were conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in Washington, D.C. with the vacuum level higher than 1.3 x 10 (sup -4) pascals (10 (sup -6) torr) and the surrounding temperature achieving -180 degrees Centigrade. Three TB test cases were performed that included hot operational science, cold operational science and a cold survival case. In addition to the three balance cases a two hour eclipse and a four hour eclipse simulation was performed during the TV test to provide additional transient data points that represent the orbit in eclipse (or Earth's shadow) The goal was to perform testing such that the flight orbital environments could be simulated as closely as possible. A thermal model correlation between the thermal analysis and the test results was completed. Over 400 1-Wire temperature sensors, 200 thermocouples and 125 flight thermistor temperature sensors recorded data during TV and TB testing. These temperature versus time profiles and their agreements with the analytical results obtained using Thermal Desktop and SINDA/FLUINT are discussed. The model correlation for the thermal mathematical model (TMM) is conducted based on the numerical analysis results and the test data. The philosophy of model correlation was to correlate the model to within 3 degrees Centigrade of the test data using the standard deviation and mean deviation error

  3. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Science Data Center: Technologies, Methods, and Experiences in Making Available Large Volumes of In-Situ Particle and Field Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, Christopher; Kokkonen, Kim; Larsen, Kristopher; Panneton, Russell; Putnam, Brian; Schafer, Corey; Baker, Daniel; Burch, James

    2016-04-01

    On September 1, 2015 the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) constellation of four satellites completed their six-month commissioning period and began routine science data collection. Science operations for the mission is conducted at the Science Operations Center (SOC) at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado, USA. The MMS Science Data Center (SDC) is a component of the SOC responsible for the data production, management, dissemination, archiving, and visualization of the data from the extensive suite of 100 instruments onboard the four spacecraft. As of March 2016, MMS science data are openly available to the entire science community via the SDC. This includes hundreds of science parameters, and 50 gigabytes of data per day distributed across thousands of data files. Products are produced using integrated software systems developed and maintained by teams at other institutions using their own institutional software management procedures and made available via a centralized public web site and web services. To accomplish the data management, data processing, and system integration challenges present on this space mission, the MMS SDC incorporates a number of evolutionary techniques and technologies. This presentation will provide an informatics-oriented view of the MMS SDC, summarizing its technical aspects, novel technologies and data management practices that are employed, experiences with its design and development, and lessons learned. Also presented is the MMS "Scientist-in-the-Loop" (SITL) system, which is used to leverage human insight and expertise to optimize the data selected for transmission to the ground. This smoothly operating system entails the seamless interoperability of multiple mission facilities and data systems that ultimately translate scientist insight into uplink commands that triggers optimal data downlink to the ground.

  4. Amelioration of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by a water-soluble bifunctional sulfoxide radiation mitigator (MMS350).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalash, Ronny; Epperly, Michael W; Goff, Julie; Dixon, Tracy; Sprachman, Melissa M; Zhang, Xichen; Shields, Donna; Cao, Shaonan; Franicola, Darcy; Wipf, Peter; Berhane, Hebist; Wang, Hong; Au, Jeremiah; Greenberger, Joel S

    2013-11-01

    A water-soluble ionizing radiation mitigator would have considerable advantages for the management of acute and chronic effects of ionizing radiation. We report that a novel oxetanyl sulfoxide (MMS350) is effective both as a protector and a mitigator of clonal mouse bone marrow stromal cell lines in vitro, and is an effective in vivo mitigator when administered 24 h after 9.5 Gy (LD100/30) total-body irradiation of C57BL/6NHsd mice, significantly improving survival (P = 0.0097). Furthermore, MMS350 (400 μM) added weekly to drinking water after 20 Gy thoracic irradiation significantly decreased: expression of pulmonary inflammatory and profibrotic gene transcripts and proteins; migration into the lungs of bone marrow origin luciferase+/GFP+ (luc+/GFP+) fibroblast progenitors (in both luc+ marrow chimeric and luc+ stromal cell line injected mouse models) and decreased radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (P < 0.0001). This nontoxic and orally administered small molecule may be an effective therapeutic in clinical radiotherapy and as a counter measure against the acute and chronic effects of ionizing radiation.

  5. Multipoint Observations of Energetic Particle Injections and Substorm Activity During a Conjunction Between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Clemmons, J. H.; Jaynes, A. N.; Leonard, T.; Baker, D. N.; Cohen, I. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Mauk, B. H.; Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Strangeway, R. J.; Kletzing, C. A.; Le Contel, O.; Spence, H. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Reeves, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    This study examines multipoint observations during a conjunction between Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Van Allen Probes on 7 April 2016 in which a series of energetic particle injections occurred. With complementary data from Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms, Geotail, and Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit (16 spacecraft in total), we develop new insights on the nature of energetic particle injections associated with substorm activity. Despite this case involving only weak substorm activity (maximum AE energy wave activity is also established from Van Allen Probes and MMS. Drift mapping using a simplified magnetic field model provides estimates of the dispersionless injection boundary locations as a function of universal time, magnetic local time, and L shell. The analysis reveals that at least five electron injections, which were localized in magnetic local time, preceded a larger injection of both electrons and ions across nearly the entire nightside of the magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit. The larger ion and electron injection did not penetrate to L < 6.6, but several of the smaller electron injections penetrated to L < 6.6. Due to the discrepancy between the number, penetration depth, and complexity of electron versus ion injections, this event presents challenges to the current conceptual models of energetic particle injections.

  6. Precision Closed-Loop Orbital Maneuvering System Design and Performance for the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale Mission (MMS) Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Dean; Queen, Steve; Placanica, Sam

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission successfully launched on March 13, 2015 (UTC) consists of four identically instrumented spin-stabilized observatories that function as a constellation to study magnetic reconnection in space. The need to maintain sufficiently accurate spatial and temporal formation resolution of the observatories must be balanced against the logistical constraints of executing overly-frequent maneuvers on a small fleet of spacecraft. These two considerations make for an extremely challenging maneuver design problem. This paper focuses on the design elements of a 6-DOF spacecraft attitude control and maneuvering system capable of delivering the high-precision adjustments required by the constellation designers---specifically, the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the closed-loop formation-class maneuvers that include initialization, maintenance, and re-sizing. The maneuvering control system flown on MMS utilizes a micro-gravity resolution accelerometer sampled at a high rate in order to achieve closed-loop velocity tracking of an inertial target with arc-minute directional and millimeter-per-second magnitude accuracy. This paper summarizes the techniques used for correcting bias drift, sensor-head offsets, and centripetal aliasing in the acceleration measurements. It also discusses the on-board pre-maneuver calibration and compensation algorithms as well as the implementation of the post-maneuver attitude adjustments.

  7. Energization and Transport in 3D Kinetic Simulations of MMS Magnetopause Reconnection Site Encounters with Varying Guide Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, A.; Daughton, W. S.; Ohia, O.; Chen, L. J.; Liu, Y. H.

    2017-12-01

    We present 3D fully kinetic simulations of asymmetric reconnection with plasma parameters matching MMS magnetopause diffusion region crossings with varying guide fields of 0.1 [Burch et al., Science (2016)], 0.4 [Chen et al. JGR (2017)], and 1 [Burch and Phan, GRL (2016] of the reconnecting sheath field. Strong diamagnetic drifts across the magnetopause current sheet drive lower-hybrid drift instabilities (LHDI) over a range of wavelengths [Daughton, PoP (2003); Roytershteyn et al., PRL (2012)] that develop into a turbulent state. Magnetic field tracing diagnostics are employed to characterize the turbulent magnetic geometry and to evaluate the global reconnection rate. The contributions to Ohm's law are evaluated field line by field line, including time-averaged diagnostics that allow the quantification of anomalous resistivity and viscosity. We examine how fluctuating electric fields and chaotic magnetic field lines contribute to particle mixing across the separatrix, and we characterize the accelerated electron distributions that form under varying magnetic shear or guide field. The LHDI turbulence is found to strongly enhance transport and parallel electron heating in 3D compared to 2D, particularly along the magnetospheric separatrix [Le et al., GRL (2017)]. The PIC simulation results are compared to MMS observations.

  8. The Initial Comparison Study of Sodium Lignosulfonate, Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate, and Sodium p-Toluene Sulfonate Surfactant for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoirul Anas, Argo; Iman Prakoso, Nurcahyo; Sasvita, Dilla

    2018-04-01

    Surfactant (surface active agent) exhibit numerous interesting properties that enable their use as additional component in mobilising of residual oil from capillary pore after secondary recovery process using gas injection and water flooding. In this study, Sodium Lignosulfonate (SLS) surfactant was successfully synthesized by applying batch method using lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunches as precursor. Furthermore, its performance in reducing interfacial tension of crude oil and formation water colloidal system was compared with commercial available surfactant including Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS) and Sodium p-Toluene Sulfonate (SpTS). The synthesized SLS surfactant was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Meanwhile, its performance in reducing interfacial tension of crude oil and formation water colloidal system was analyzed by using compatibility test, phase behaviour analysis, and interfacial tension (IFT) measurement. The compatibility test shows that SLS, SDBS, and SpTS surfactants were compatible with formation water. In addition, the phase behaviour analysis shows that SLS surfactant was better than SpTS surfactant, while SDBS surfactant generates the highest performance proved by the best microemulsion formation resulted by SDBS. Furthermore, the optimum concentration of SLS, SDBS, and SpTS surfactants in reducing the interfacial tension of crude oil and formation water was 1.0%. The IFT measurement indicates that the performance of SLS with the value of 1.67 mN/m was also better than SpTS surfactant with the value of 3.59 mN/m. Meanwhile, SDBS surfactant shows the best performance with the IFT value of 0.47 mN/m.

  9. Inducible Protective Processes in Animal Systems XIII: Comparative Analysis of Induction of Adaptive Response by EMS and MMS in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Periyapatna Vishwaprakash Mahadimane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the presence of adaptive response in cancerous cells, two monofunctional alkylating agents, namely, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, were employed to treat Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC cells in vivo. Conditioning dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 50 mg/kg body weight of MMS and challenging dose of 240 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 150 mg/kg body weight of MMS were selected by pilot toxicity studies. Conditioned EAC cells when challenged after 8 h time lag resulted in significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations compared to challenging dose of respective agents. As has been proved in earlier studies with normal organisms, even in cancerous cells (EAC, there is presence of adaptive response to methylating and ethylating agents. Furthermore, it is also interesting to note in the present studies that the methylating agent, MMS, is a stronger inducer of the adaptive response than the ethylating agent, EMS.

  10. Differential response of biochemical parameters to EMS and MMS treatments and their dose effect relationship on chromosomes in induced diabetic mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.D. Khalandar

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: (1 Even though alkylating agents induce chromosomal aberrations in diabetic mice, MMS, a methylating agent is a more potent inducer of chromatid type of aberrations than EMS, an ethylating agent. (2 Diabetic mouse is more resistant than the non diabetic to alkylating agents and (3 the tested agents altered the analyzed biochemical parameters.

  11. Chromosomal analysis in mouse eggs fertilized in vitro with sperm exposed to ultraviolet light (UV) and methyl and ethyl methanesulfonate (MMS and EMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.

    1988-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations were analyzed at the first-cleavage metaphase of mouse eggs fertilized in vitro with sperm exposed to ultraviolet light (UV) as well as to methyl and ethyl methanesulfonate (MMS and EMS). The frequencies of chromosome aberrations markedly increased with dose of UV as well as with concentration of MMS and EMS. In the UV-irradiation group, the frequency of chromosome-type aberrations was much higher than that of chromatid-type aberrations. About 90% of chromosome aberrations observed in the eggs following MMS and EMS treatment to sperm were chromosome type in which the frequency of chromosome fragments was the highest. The effects of UV on the induction of chromosome aberrations were clearly potentiated by post-treatment incubation of fertilized eggs in the presence of Ara-C or caffeine, but the effects of MMS and EMS were not pronounced by post-treatment of Ara-C or caffeine. The results indicate a possibility that UV damage induced in mouse sperm DNA is reparable in the eggs during the period between the entry of sperm into the egg cytoplasm and the first-cleavage metaphase. 35 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs

  12. 30 CFR 285.700 - What reports must I submit to MMS before installing facilities described in my approved SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... installing facilities described in my approved SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.700 Section 285.700 Mineral Resources... § 285.700 What reports must I submit to MMS before installing facilities described in my approved SAP... in your approved COP (§ 285.632(a)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (§ 285.614(b)) or GAP...

  13. Inducible Protective Processes in Animal Systems XIII: Comparative Analysis of Induction of Adaptive Response by EMS and MMS in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadimane, Periyapatna Vishwaprakash; Vasudev, Venkateshaiah

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the presence of adaptive response in cancerous cells, two monofunctional alkylating agents, namely, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), were employed to treat Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in vivo. Conditioning dose of 80 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 50 mg/kg body weight of MMS and challenging dose of 240 mg/kg body weight of EMS or 150 mg/kg body weight of MMS were selected by pilot toxicity studies. Conditioned EAC cells when challenged after 8 h time lag resulted in significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations compared to challenging dose of respective agents. As has been proved in earlier studies with normal organisms, even in cancerous cells (EAC), there is presence of adaptive response to methylating and ethylating agents. Furthermore, it is also interesting to note in the present studies that the methylating agent, MMS, is a stronger inducer of the adaptive response than the ethylating agent, EMS.

  14. Bakens verzetten in het voortgezet onderwijs, 1863-1920 : Gymnasium, h.b.s. en m.m.s. in onderwijssysteem, leerplan en geschiedenisonderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsing, H.T.A.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the history of four different types of Dutch secondary school: the gymnasium (with classical languages), the HBS-5 (secondary modern school with a five-year course), the HBS-3 (secondary modern school with a three-year course) and the MMS (secondary school for girls). The main

  15. THE USE OF CHLOROSULFONIC ACID ON SULFONATION OF cPTFE FILM GRAFTED STYRENE FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Yohan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonation of g-ray iradiated and styrene-grafted crosslinked polytetrafluoro ethylene film (cPTFE-g-S film have been done. The aim of the research was to make hydrophyl membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonation was prepared by using chlorosulfonic acid in chloroethane under various conditions. The impact of the percentage of grafting, the concentration of chlorosulfonic acid, the reaction time,and the reaction temperature on the properties of sulfonated film were examined. The results show that sulfonation of surface-grafted films was incomplete at room temperature. Increasing concentration of chlorosulfonic acid and reaction temperature accelerate the reaction but they also favor side reactions. These lead to the decrease of the ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, and proton conductivity but the increase of the resistance to oxidation in a perhydrol solution. The resulted cPTFE-g-SS membraneis stabile in a H2O2 30% solution for 20 h.   Keywords: Chorosulfonic acid, sulfonation, PTFE film, proton excange membrane.

  16. Investigation of sulfonated polysulfone membranes as electrolyte in a passive-mode direct methanol fuel cell mini-stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lufrano, F.; Baglio, V.; Staiti, P.; Stassi, A.; Arico, A.S.; Antonucci, V. [CNR - ITAE, Istituto di Tecnologie Avanzate per l' Energia ' ' Nicola Giordano' ' , Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse n. 5 - 98126 S. Lucia - Messina (Italy)

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) based on sulfonated polysulfone for application in a DMFC mini-stack operating at room temperature in passive mode. The sulfonated polysulfone (SPSf) with two degrees of sulfonation (57 and 66%) was synthesized by a well-known sulfonation process. SPSf membranes with different thicknesses were prepared and investigated. These membranes were characterized in terms of methanol/water uptake, proton conductivity, and fuel cell performance in a DMFC single cell and mini-stack operating at room temperature. The study addressed (a) control of the synthesis of sulfonated polysulfone, (b) optimization of the assembling procedure, (c) a short lifetime investigation and (d) a comparison of DMFC performance in active-mode operation vs. passive-mode operation. The best passive DMFC performance was 220 mW (average cell power density of about 19 mW cm{sup -2}), obtained with a thin SPSf membrane (70 {mu}m) at room temperature, whereas the performance of the same membrane-based DMFC in active mode was 38 mW cm{sup -2}. The conductivity of this membrane, SPSf (IEC = 1.34 mequiv. g{sup -1}) was 2.8 x 10{sup -2} S cm{sup -1}. A preliminary short-term test (200 min) showed good stability during chrono-amperometry measurements. (author)

  17. Improving the Conductivity of Sulfonated Polyimides as Proton Exchange Membranes by Doping of a Protic Ionic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Kuan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membranes (PEMs are a key component of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Sulfonated polyimides (SPIs were doped by protic ionic liquid (PIL to prepare composite PEMs with substantially improved conductivity. SPIs were synthesized from diamine, 2,2-bis[4-(4-amino-phenoxyphenyl]propane (BAPP, sulfonated diamine, 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether-2,2'-disulfonic acid (ODADS and aromatic anhydride. BAPP improved the mechanical and thermal properties of SPIs, while ODADS enhanced conductivity. A PIL, 1-vinylimidazolium trifluoromethane-sulfonate ([VIm][OTf], was utilized. [VIm][OTf] offered better conductivity, which can be attributed to its vinyl chemical structure attached to an imidazolium ring that contributed to ionomer-PIL interactions. We prepared sulfonated polyimide/ionic liquid (SPI/IL composite PEMs using 50 wt% [VIm][OTf] with a conductivity of 7.17 mS/cm at 100 °C, and in an anhydrous condition, 3,3',4,4'-diphenyl sulfone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (DSDA was used in the synthesis of SPIs, leading to several hundred-times improvement in conductivity compared to pristine SPIs.

  18. Semi-fluorinated sulfonated polyimide membranes with enhanced proton selectivity and stability for vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinchao; Liu, Suqin; He, Zhen; Zhou, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    A series of semi-fluorinated sulfonated polyimides (6F-SPIs) are designed and synthesized via a one-step high-temperature polycondensation reaction. The sulfonation degrees of 6F-SPIs are controlled through changing the ratio of sulfonated diamine to non-sulfonated diamine in the casting solution. The physico-chemical properties and single cell performance of 6F-SPI membranes are thoroughly evaluated and compared to a non-fluorinated SPI membrane (6H-SPI-50) and a Nafion 115 membrane. The results show that the designed 6F-SPI membrane with a 50% sulfonation degree (6F-SPI-50) possesses the highest proton selectivity (1.613 × 10 5 S min cm −3 ) among all tested membranes. Besides, the 6F-SPI-50 membrane exhibits a promising performance for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), showing higher coulombic efficiencies (96.90–99.20%) and energy efficiencies (88.25–64.80%) than the Nafion 115 membrane (with coulombic efficiencies of 90.60–96.70% and energy efficiencies of 81.04–60.10%) at the current densities ranging from 20 to 100 mA cm −2 . Moreover, the 6F-SPI-50 membrane shows excellent chemical stability in the VRFB system. This work paves the way for the development of a new class of 6F-SPI membranes for the VRFB application.

  19. Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoguang; Hou Jun; Kerr, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by (1) sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li + salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li); (2) sulfonation of chloride end groups grafted on to prepolymers of polyacrylate ethers (PAE 8 -g-E n SO 3 Li, n = 2, 3). The highest conductivity at 25 deg. C of 2.0 x 10 -7 S cm -1 was obtained for the PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li with a salt concentration of EO/Li = 40. The conductivity of PAE 8 -g-E 3 SO 3 Li is lower than that of PAE 8 -co-E 3 SO 3 Li at similar salt concentrations, which is related to the incomplete sulfonation of the grafted polymer that leads to a lower concentration of Li + . The addition of 50 wt.% of plasticizer, PC/EMC (1/1, v/v), to PAE 8 -g-E 2 SO 3 Li increases the ambient conductivity by three orders of magnitude, which is due to the increased ion mobility in a micro-liquid environment and an increase concentration of free ions as a result of the higher dielectric constant of the solvent. A symmetrical Li/Li cell with an electrolyte membrane consisting of 75 wt.% PC/EMC (1/1, v/v) was cycled at a current density of 100 μA cm -2 at 85 deg. C. The cycling profile showed no concentration polarization after a break-in period during the first few cycles, which was apparently due to reaction of the solvent at the lithium metal surface that reacted with lithium metal to form a stable SEI layer

  20. Chondrogenesis on sulfonate-coated hydrogels is regulated by their mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that sulfur-containing acidic groups induce chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Recently, it is increasingly clear that mechanical properties of cell substrates largely influence cell differentiation. Thus, the present study investigated how mechanical properties of sulfonate-coated hydrogels influences chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Sulfonate-coated polyacrylamide gels (S-PAAm gels) which have the elastic modulus, E, of about 1, 15 and 150 kPa, were used in this study. MSCs cultured on the high stiffness S-PAAm gels (E=∼150 kPa) spread out with strong expression of stress fibers, while MSCs cultured on the low stiffness S-PAAm gels (E=∼1 kPa) had round shapes with less stress fibers but more cortical actins. Importantly, even in the absence of differentiation supplements, the lower stiffness S-PAAm gels led to the higher mRNA levels of chondrogenic markers such as Col2a1, Agc and Sox9 and the lower mRNA levels of an undifferentiation marker Sca1, indicating that the mechanical properties of S-PAAm gels strongly influence chondrogenesis. Blebbistatin which blocks myosin II-mediated mechanical sensing suppressed chondrogenesis induced by the low stiffness S-PAAm gels. The present study demonstrates that the soft S-PAAm gels effectively drive MSC chondrogenesis even in the absence of soluble differentiation factors and thus suggests that sulfonate-containing hydrogels with low stiffness could be a powerful tool for cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.