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Sample records for methylerythritol 4-phosphate mep

  1. Development of inhibitors of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzymes as potential anti-infective agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masini, Tiziana; Hirsch, Anna K H

    2014-01-01

    Important pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agents of tuberculosis and malaria, respectively, and plants, utilize the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP, 5) pathway for the biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (1) and dimethylallyl

  2. Novel bioassay for the discovery of inhibitors of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP and terpenoid pathways leading to carotenoid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Corniani

    Full Text Available The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway leads to the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate in plastids. It is a major branch point providing precursors for the synthesis of carotenoids, tocopherols, plastoquinone and the phytyl chain of chlorophylls, as well as the hormones abscisic acid and gibberellins. Consequently, disruption of this pathway is harmful to plants. We developed an in vivo bioassay that can measure the carbon flow through the carotenoid pathway. Leaf cuttings are incubated in the presence of a phytoene desaturase inhibitor to induce phytoene accumulation. Any compound reducing the level of phytoene accumulation is likely to interfere with either one of the steps in the MEP pathway or the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate. This concept was tested with known inhibitors of steps of the MEP pathway. The specificity of this in vivo bioassay was also verified by testing representative herbicides known to target processes outside of the MEP and carotenoid pathways. This assay enables the rapid screen of new inhibitors of enzymes preceding the synthesis of phytoene, though there are some limitations related to the non-specific effect of some inhibitors on this assay.

  3. Arabidopsis chlorophyll biosynthesis: an essential balance between the methylerythritol phosphate and tetrapyrrole pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se; Schlicke, Hagen; Van Ree, Kalie; Karvonen, Kristine; Subramaniam, Anant; Richter, Andreas; Grimm, Bernhard; Braam, Janet

    2013-12-01

    Chlorophyll, essential for photosynthesis, is composed of a chlorin ring and a geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP)-derived isoprenoid, which are generated by the tetrapyrrole and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) biosynthesis pathways, respectively. Although a functional MEP pathway is essential for plant viability, the underlying basis of the requirement has been unclear. We hypothesized that MEP pathway inhibition is lethal because a reduction in GGPP availability results in a stoichiometric imbalance in tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll precursors, which can cause deadly photooxidative stress. Consistent with this hypothesis, lethality of MEP pathway inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana by fosmidomycin (FSM) is light dependent, and toxicity of MEP pathway inhibition is reduced by genetic and chemical impairment of the tetrapyrrole pathway. In addition, FSM treatment causes a transient accumulation of chlorophyllide and transcripts associated with singlet oxygen-induced stress. Furthermore, exogenous provision of the phytol molecule reduces FSM toxicity when the phytol can be modified for chlorophyll incorporation. These data provide an explanation for FSM toxicity and thereby provide enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of FSM resistance. This insight into MEP pathway inhibition consequences underlines the risk plants undertake to synthesize chlorophyll and suggests the existence of regulation, possibly involving chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling, that may monitor and maintain balance of chlorophyll precursor synthesis.

  4. Synergy between methylerythritol phosphate pathway and mevalonate pathway for isoprene production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Gao, Xiang; Jiang, Yu; Sun, Bingbing; Gao, Fang; Yang, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Isoprene, a key building block of synthetic rubber, is currently produced entirely from petrochemical sources. In this work, we engineered both the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and the mevalonate (MVA) pathway for isoprene production in E. coli. The synergy between the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway was demonstrated by the production experiment, in which overexpression of both pathways improved the isoprene yield about 20-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to overexpression of the MEP pathway or the MVA pathway alone. The (13)C metabolic flux analysis revealed that simultaneous utilization of the two pathways resulted in a 4.8-fold increase in the MEP pathway flux and a 1.5-fold increase in the MVA pathway flux. The synergy of the dual pathway was further verified by quantifying intracellular flux responses of the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway to fosmidomycin treatment and mevalonate supplementation. Our results strongly suggest that coupling of the complementary reducing equivalent demand and ATP requirement plays an important role in the synergy of the dual pathway. Fed-batch cultivation of the engineered strain overexpressing the dual pathway resulted in production of 24.0g/L isoprene with a yield of 0.267g/g of glucose. The synergy of the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway also successfully increased the lycopene productivity in E. coli, which demonstrates that it can be used to improve the production of a broad range of terpenoids in microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Liberia MEP WMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — L-MEP WMS provides USAID, Implementing Partners, and L-MEP Staff the ability to view M view sector specific trend or base information; and answer questions about...

  6. Setting MEPS for electronic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2014-01-01

    When analysing price, performance and efficiency data for 15 consumer electronic and information and communication technology products, we found that in general price did not relate to the efficiency of the product. Prices of electronic products with comparable performance decreased over time. For products where the data allowed fitting the relationship, we found an exponential decrease in price with an average time constant of −0.30 [1/year], meaning that every year the product became 26% cheaper on average. The results imply that the classical approach of setting minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) by means of life cycle cost calculations cannot be applied to electronic products. Therefore, an alternative approach based on the improvement of efficiency over time and the variation in efficiency of products on the market, is presented. The concept of a policy action window can provide guidance for the decision on whether setting MEPS for a certain product is appropriate. If the (formal) procedure for setting MEPS takes longer than the policy action window, this means that the efficiency improvement will also be achieved without setting MEPS. We found short, i.e. less than three years, policy action windows for graphic cards, network attached storage products, network switches and televisions. - Highlights: • For electronic consumer products price does not relate to efficiency. • Average price decrease of selected electronic products is 26 % per year. • We give an alternative approach to life cycle cost calculations for setting MEPS. • The policy action window indicates whether setting MEPS is appropriate

  7. Enhanced performance of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway by manipulation of redox reactions relevant to IspC, IspG, and IspH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia; Yang, Liyang; Wang, Chonglong; Choi, Eui-Sung; Kim, Seon-Won

    2017-04-20

    The 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is a carbon-efficient route for synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), the building blocks of isoprenoids. However, practical application of a native or recombinant MEP pathway for the mass production of isoprenoids in Escherichia coli has been unsatisfactory. In this study, the entire recombinant MEP pathway was established with plasmids and used for the production of an isoprenoid, protoilludene. E. coli harboring the recombinant MEP pathway plasmid (ME) and a protoilludene synthesis pathway plasmid (AO) produced 10.4mg/L of protoilludene after 48h of culture. To determine the rate-limiting gene on plasmid ME, each constituent gene of the MEP pathway was additionally overexpressed on the plasmid AO. The additional overexpression of IPP isomerase (IDI) enhanced protoilludene production to 67.4mg/L. Overexpression of the Fpr and FldA protein complex, which could mediate electron transfer from NADPH to Fe-S cluster proteins such as IspG and IspH of the MEP pathway, increased protoilludene production to 318.8mg/L. Given that it is required for IspC as well as IspG/H, the MEP pathway has high demand for NADPH. To increase the supply of NADPH, a NADH kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (tPos5p) that converts NADH to NADPH was introduced along with the deletion of a promiscuous NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase (YjgB) that consumes NADPH. This resulted in a protoilludene production of 512.7mg/L. The results indicate that IDI, Fpr-FldA redox proteins, and NADPH regenerators are key engineering points for boosting the metabolic flux toward a recombinant MEP pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. CRRES microelectronics test package (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, E.G.; Ray, K.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Microelectronics Test Package (MEP) flown on board the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) contained over 60 device types and approximately 400 total devices which were tested for both single event upset (SEU) and total dose (parametric degradation and annealing). A description of the experiment, the method of testing devices, and the structure of data acquisition are presented. Sample flight data are shown. These included SEUs from a GaAs 1 K RAM during the March 1991 solar flare, and a comparison between passive shielding and a specially designed spot shielding package

  9. Cloning and Expression Analysis of MEP Pathway Enzyme-encoding Genes in Osmanthus fragrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of many crucial secondary metabolites, such as carotenoids, monoterpenes, plastoquinone, and tocopherols. In this study, we isolated and identified 10 MEP pathway genes in the important aromatic plant sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans. Multiple sequence alignments revealed that 10 MEP pathway genes shared high identities with other reported proteins. The genes showed distinctive expression profiles in various tissues, or at different flower stages and diel time points. The qRT-PCR results demonstrated that these genes were highly expressed in inflorescences, which suggested a tissue-specific transcript pattern. Our results also showed that OfDXS1, OfDXS2, and OfHDR1 had a clear diurnal oscillation pattern. The isolation and expression analysis provides a strong foundation for further research on the MEP pathway involved in gene function and molecular evolution, and improves our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying this pathway in plants.

  10. UARS PEM Level 2 MEPS V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Medium-Energy Particle Spectrometer (MEPS) daily product contains the electron and proton high-resolution spectral...

  11. SDE Plus, SDE and MEP. Annual review 2012; SDE+, SDE en MEP. Jaarbericht 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    This annual report describes the applications for SDE subsidy (renewable energy support scheme) in the period 2008-2012, the new SDE Plus which starts in 2013, and the MEP transition scheme (MEP stands for 'Environmental quality of electricity production', predecessor of SDE for the period 2003-2006) and applications from the MEP scheme [Dutch] Het jaarbericht 2012 voor de SDE+, SDE en MEP presenteert de resultaten van de regeling Stimulering Duurzame Energieproductie (SDE+ vanaf 2013 en SDE, 2008-2012) en de voorganger van de SDE, de subsidieregeling Milieukwaliteit van de Elektriciteitsproductie.

  12. The plastidial 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway provides the isoprenyl moiety for protein geranylgeranylation in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Esther; Hemmerlin, Andréa; Hartmann, Michael; Heintz, Dimitri; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée; Mutterer, Jérôme; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Boronat, Albert; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rohmer, Michel; Crowell, Dring N; Bach, Thomas J

    2009-01-01

    Protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation are important posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells. We visualized in transformed Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells the geranylgeranylation and plasma membrane localization of GFP-BD-CVIL, which consists of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the C-terminal polybasic domain (BD) and CVIL isoprenylation motif from the Oryza sativa calmodulin, CaM61. Treatment with fosmidomycin (Fos) or oxoclomazone (OC), inhibitors of the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, caused mislocalization of the protein to the nucleus, whereas treatment with mevinolin, an inhibitor of the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, did not. The nuclear localization of GFP-BD-CVIL in the presence of MEP pathway inhibitors was completely reversed by all-trans-geranylgeraniol (GGol). Furthermore, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose (DX) reversed the effects of OC, but not Fos, consistent with the hypothesis that OC blocks 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthesis, whereas Fos inhibits its conversion to 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate. By contrast, GGol and DX did not rescue the nuclear mislocalization of GFP-BD-CVIL in the presence of a protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 inhibitor. Thus, the MEP pathway has an essential role in geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) biosynthesis and protein geranylgeranylation in BY-2 cells. GFP-BD-CVIL is a versatile tool for identifying pharmaceuticals and herbicides that interfere either with GGPP biosynthesis or with protein geranylgeranylation.

  13. The Plastidial 2-C-Methyl-d-Erythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway Provides the Isoprenyl Moiety for Protein Geranylgeranylation in Tobacco BY-2 Cells[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Esther; Hemmerlin, Andréa; Hartmann, Michael; Heintz, Dimitri; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée; Mutterer, Jérôme; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Boronat, Albert; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rohmer, Michel; Crowell, Dring N.; Bach, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation are important posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells. We visualized in transformed Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells the geranylgeranylation and plasma membrane localization of GFP-BD-CVIL, which consists of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the C-terminal polybasic domain (BD) and CVIL isoprenylation motif from the Oryza sativa calmodulin, CaM61. Treatment with fosmidomycin (Fos) or oxoclomazone (OC), inhibitors of the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, caused mislocalization of the protein to the nucleus, whereas treatment with mevinolin, an inhibitor of the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, did not. The nuclear localization of GFP-BD-CVIL in the presence of MEP pathway inhibitors was completely reversed by all-trans-geranylgeraniol (GGol). Furthermore, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose (DX) reversed the effects of OC, but not Fos, consistent with the hypothesis that OC blocks 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthesis, whereas Fos inhibits its conversion to 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate. By contrast, GGol and DX did not rescue the nuclear mislocalization of GFP-BD-CVIL in the presence of a protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 inhibitor. Thus, the MEP pathway has an essential role in geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) biosynthesis and protein geranylgeranylation in BY-2 cells. GFP-BD-CVIL is a versatile tool for identifying pharmaceuticals and herbicides that interfere either with GGPP biosynthesis or with protein geranylgeranylation. PMID:19136647

  14. Imaging phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate dynamics in living plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, J.E.M.; Thole, J.M.; Goedhart, J.; Nielsen, E.; Munnik, T.; Gadella, T.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositides represent a minor group of phospholipids, accounting for less than 1% of the total. Despite their low abundance, these molecules have been implicated in various signalling and membrane trafficking events. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) is the most abundant

  15. Crosstalk between MAV and MEP pathways in vitro grape plants exposed to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, M.; Bottini, R.; Piccoli, P.; Pontin, M.

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of terpenoids from IPP (isopentenyl diphosphate) proceeds in plants throughout two pathways, the MVA (mevalonic acid) in cytosol and the MEP (2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate) in plastids. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation induced the synthesis of terpenes in in vitro grape plants according to the fluence rate. Low intensity UV-B promoted the MVA pathway while high intensity UV-B stimulated the MEP pathway. Mevastatin is known to inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase blocking terpene synthesis in cytosol. In vitro plants growing 45 days under 16 h-photoperiod (100 μmol m - 2 s - 1) were fed at the apex with mevastatin and then exposed to an UV-B dose administrated at two intensities: low UV-B (8.25 μW cm - 2,16 h) or high UV-B (33 μW cm - 2,4 h). Methanol: chloroform extracts were analyzed by GC-EIMS and compared with controls without mevastatin. Levels of γ-Sitosterol and Stigmasterol were significantly increased under low intensity UV-B in the controls. The plants treated with the inhibitor showed a significant decrease of both sterols and a decrease in the plastidial terpenes but sterols were higher under UV-B. These results suggest an IPP crosstalk between the MAV and MEP pathways under restrictive conditions. (authors)

  16. Development of an image-based screening system for inhibitors of the plastidial MEP pathway and of protein geranylgeranylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Michael; Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Hemmerlin, Andrea; Rohmer, Michel; Bach, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding study we have recently established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, which involves expressing a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the prenylable, carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL). By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was there demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway with oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of protein geranylgeranyl transferase type 1 (PGGT-1), shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway with mevinolin did not affect this localization. Furthermore, in this initial study complementation assays with pathway-specific intermediates confirmed that the precursors for the cytosolic isoprenylation of this fusion protein are predominantly provided by the MEP pathway. In order to optimize this visualization system from a more qualitative assay to a statistically trustable medium or a high-throughput screening system, we established now new conditions that permit culture and analysis in 96-well microtiter plates, followed by fluorescence microscopy. For further refinement, the existing GFP-BD-CVIL cell line was transformed with an estradiol-inducible vector driving the expression of a RFP protein, C-terminally fused to a nuclear localization signal (NLS-RFP). We are thus able to quantify the total number of viable cells versus the number of inhibited cells after various treatments. This approach also includes a semi-automatic counting system, based on the freely available image processing software. As a result, the time of image analysis as well as the risk of user-generated bias is reduced to a minimum. Moreover, there is no cross-induction of gene expression by dexamethasone and estradiol, which is an

  17. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL). By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1), shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL. PMID:24555083

  18. A MEPS is a MEPS is a MEPS. Comparing Ecodesign and Top Runner schemes for setting product efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siderius, P.J.S. [NL Agency, Croeselaan 15, P.O. Box 8242, 3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Nakagami, H. [Jyukankyo Research Institute, 3-29, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo, 102-0094 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Both Top Runner in Japan and Ecodesign in the European Union are schemes to set requirements on the energy efficiency (minimum efficiency performance standards, MEPS) of a variety of products. This article provides an overview of the main characteristics and results of both schemes and gives recommendations for improving them. Both schemes contribute significantly to the energy efficiency targets set by the European Commission and the Japanese government. Although it is difficult to compare the absolute levels of the requirements, comparison of the relative improvements and of the savings on household electricity consumption (11 % in Japan, 16 % in the EU) suggest they are in the same range. Furthermore, the time needed to set or review requirements is in both schemes considerable (between 5 and 6 years on average) and the manageability increasingly will become a challenge. The appeal of the Top Runner approach is that the most efficient product (Top Runner) sets the standard for all products at the next target year. Although the Ecodesign scheme includes the elements for a Top Runner approach, it could exploit this principle more explicitly. On the other hand, the Top Runner scheme could benefit by using a real minimum efficiency performance standard instead of a fleet average. This would make the monitoring and enforcement more simple and transparent, and would open the scheme for products where the market situation is less clear.

  19. Biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol emitted from needles of Pinus ponderosa via the non-mevalonate DOXP/MEP pathway of isoprenoid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, J; Lichtenthaler, H K

    2001-06-01

    The volatile hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is emitted from the needles of several pine species from the Western United States and contributes to ozone formation in the atmosphere. It is synthesised enzymatically from dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). We show here that needles of Pinus ponderosa Laws. incorporated [1-2H1]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose (d-DOX) into the emitted MBO, but not D,L-[2-13C]mevalonic acid lactone. Furthermore, MBO emission was inhibited by fosmidomycin, a specific inhibitor of the second enzyme of the mevalonate-independent pathway of isopentenyl diphosphate and DMAPP formation, i.e. the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathway. We thus prove that MBO emitted from needles of P. ponderosa is primarily formed via the DOXP/MEP pathway.

  20. The role of experience curves for setting MEPS for appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) are an important policy instrument to raise the efficiency of products. In most schemes the concept of life cycle costs (LCC) is used to guide setting the MEPS levels. Although a large body of literature shows that product cost is decreasing with increasing cumulative production, the experience curve, this is currently not used for setting MEPS. This article shows how to integrate the concept of the experience curve into LCC calculations for setting MEPS in the European Union and applies this to household laundry driers, refrigerator-freezers and televisions. The results indicate that for driers and refrigerator-freezers at least twice the energy savings compared to the current approach can be achieved. These products also show that energy label classes can successfully be used for setting MEPS. For televisions an experience curve is provided, showing a learning rate of 29%. However, television prices do not show a relation with energy efficiency but are to a large extent determined by the time the product is placed on the market. This suggests to policy makers that for televisions and other products with a short (re)design and market cycle timing is more important than the MEPS levels itself. - Highlights: • We integrate experience curves into life cycle cost calculations for MEPS. • For driers and refrigerators this results in at least twice the energy savings. • For flat panel televisions an experience curve is provided

  1. Recommendation on the Dutch MEP subsidy 2006 for cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, R.

    2005-11-01

    The results of an analysis of the impact of the Dutch subsidy scheme 'MEP' (environmental quality of electric power generation) on the cost-effectiveness of CHP (combined heat and power production) plants. The MEP scheme provides a reward for the CO2 reduction by CHP plants and offers therefore an incentive for energy efficient operation. In 2006 the MEP subsidy is available for CHP plants that started their operation after 1 January 1997. The subsidy will be differentiated based on CHP type and power capacity. Main outcome of the report is a subsidy advise, which complies with the European Community Guidelines on Aid for Environmental Protection. Based on the subsidy advise a budget for the CHP MEP scheme has been estimated [nl

  2. Members of the European Parliament (MEP) Heart Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofield, Andros

    2013-06-01

    The MEP Heart Group is a discussion forum aimed at promoting measures to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in the European Union and raise cardiovascular disease as a priority on the EU political agenda.

  3. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/yx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hartmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  4. Advice on MEP tariff for cogeneration in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Donkelaar, M.; Harmsen, R.; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2004-05-01

    The title analysis is part of the monitoring of combined heat and power generation (CHP) in the Netherlands, and concerns the impact of the new Dutch subsidy scheme MEP (environmental quality of power generation) on the cost-effectiveness of CHP investments based on a number of CHP reference cases. The MEP scheme provides a reward for the additional kWhs of electricity produced by CHP units compared to separate production of heat and power. This means that the MEP rewards the 'CO2 free kWhs' produced by CHP units, providing an incentive for the most efficient CHP units. In the first chapter a description of the calculation of 'CO2 free kWhs' is given followed by the physical developments of CHP in the Netherlands. The third and final chapter calculates the impact of the MEP regulation on the cost effectiveness of CHP and compares it with the European Community Guidelines on Aid for Environmental Protection. The results of the calculations show that the Dutch MEP scheme complies with the European guidelines for all CHP reference cases [nl

  5. Financial incentive for the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    With the MEP subsidy regulation 'Environmental quality of electricity production' The Dutch minister of Economic Affairs focussed mainly on reaching the policy objective of the EU according to which 9% of all electricity used in the Netherlands should be generated with sustainable sources. According to the opinion of the Dutch Court of Audits not enough attention has been paid to the coherence of the MEP regulation with other policy objectives in the area of sustainability, such as air quality and CO2 reduction. The same goes for the effectiveness and the financial management of the MEP regulation. Moreover, the study, which was carried out by request of the Dutch Lower House, demonstrates that it is still uncertain if the policy objective for 2010 will be reached. The report consists of two parts: part 1: Conclusions, recommendations and administrative reactions, and Part 2: Answering Lower House questions.(mk) [nl

  6. Reconciling medical expenditure estimates from the MEPS and NHEA, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Didem; Cowan, Cathy; Selden, Thomas; Cai, Liming; Catlin, Aaron; Heffler, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Provide a comparison of health care expenditure estimates for 2007 from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) and the National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA). Reconciling these estimates serves two important purposes. First, it is an important quality assurance exercise for improving and ensuring the integrity of each source's estimates. Second, the reconciliation provides a consistent baseline of health expenditure data for policy simulations. Our results assist researchers to adjust MEPS to be consistent with the NHEA so that the projected costs as well as budgetary and tax implications of any policy change are consistent with national health spending estimates. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey produced by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the National Health Center for Health Statistics and the National Health Expenditures produced by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service's Office of the Actuary. In this study, we focus on the personal health care (PHC) sector, which includes the goods and services rendered to treat or prevent a specific disease or condition in an individual. The official 2007 NHEA estimate for PHC spending is $1,915 billion and the MEPS estimate is $1,126 billion. Adjusting the NHEA estimates for differences in underlying populations, covered services, and other measurement concepts reduces the NHEA estimate for 2007 to $1,366 billion. As a result, MEPS is $240 billion, or 17.6 percent, less than the adjusted NHEA total.

  7. Osh4p exchanges sterols for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate between lipid bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    de Saint-Jean, Maud; Delfosse, Vanessa; Douguet, Dominique; Chicanne, Gaetan; Payrastre, Bernard; Bourguet, William; Antonny, Bruno; Drin, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Osh/Orp proteins transport sterols between organelles and are involved in phosphoinositide metabolism. The link between these two aspects remains elusive. Using novel assays, we address the influence of membrane composition on the ability of Osh4p/Kes1p to extract, deliver, or transport dehydroergosterol (DHE). Surprisingly, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P) specifically inhibited DHE extraction because PI(4)P was itself efficiently extracted by Osh4p. We solve the structure of the Os...

  8. Cost effectiveness of the Dutch incentive for the environmental quality of power generation (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melgerd, R.

    2005-01-01

    This article relates to research on the cost effectiveness of the MEP scheme ('Milieukwaliteit Elektriciteitsproductie' or Environmental Quality of Electricity Generation), carried out as a graduation project at the Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands. MEP subsidies are intended to promote investment in sustainable energy sources in the Netherlands by offering investors more certainty and a simpler structure than previous energy subsidies. The MEP also helps prevent Dutch taxpayers' money 'leaking' abroad to purchase sustainable electricity produced cheaper elsewhere. This makes the MEP measurably more effective than its predecessors. The scheme is moreover a step towards the effective deployment of state funds for the reduction of CO2 emission [nl

  9. 75 FR 6355 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Availability of Funds for Three Regions Including the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... working with manufacturers. The proposal should include plans for integration into the MEP national system... Center? i. Organizational Structure. Completeness and appropriateness of the organizational structure...

  10. Glioma surgery using intraoperative tractography and MEP monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maesawa, Satoshi; Nakahara, Norimoto; Watanabe, Tadashi; Fujii, Masazumi; Yoshida, Jun

    2009-01-01

    In surgery of gliomas in motor-eloquent locations, it is essential to maximize resection while minimizing motor deficits. We attempted to identify the cortico-spinal tract (CST) by intraoperative-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, combined with electrophysiological mapping using direct subcortical stimulation during tumor resection. Our techniques and preliminary results are reported. Tumors were removed from twelve patients with gliomas in and around the CST using high-field intraoperative MRI and neuronavigation system (BrainSUITE). DTI-based tractography was implemented for navigation of CST pre-and intraoperatively. When the CST was close to the manipulating area, direct subcortical stimulation was performed, and motor evoked potential (MEP)-responses were examined. Locations of CST indicated by pre- and intraoperative tractography (pre- or intra-CST-tractography), and locations identified by subcortical stimulation were recorded, and those correlations were examined. Imaging and functional outcomes were reviewed. Total resections were achieved in 10 patients (83.4%). Two patients developed transient deterioration of motor function (16.6%), and permanent paresis was seen in one (8.3%). The distance from intra-CST-tractography to corresponding sites by subcortical stimulation was 4.5 mm in average (standard deviation (SD)=4.2), and significantly shorter than from pre-CST-tractography. That distance correlated significantly with the intensity of subcortical stimulation. We observed that intraoperative DTI-tractography demonstrated the location of the pyramidal tract more accurately than preoperative one. The combination of intraoperative tractgraphy and MEP monitoring enhanced the quality of surgery for gliomas in motor-eloquent area. (author)

  11. Crystal structure of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase of riboflavin biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, D.-I.; Calabrese, J.C.; Wawrzak, Z.; Viitanen, P.V.; Jordan, D.B. (DuPont); (NWU)

    2010-03-05

    3,4-Dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase catalyzes a commitment step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. On the enzyme, ribulose 5-phosphate is converted to 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate and formate in steps involving enolization, ketonization, dehydration, skeleton rearrangement, and formate elimination. The enzyme is absent in humans and an attractive target for the discovery of antimicrobials for pathogens incapable of acquiring sufficient riboflavin from their hosts. The homodimer of 23 kDa subunits requires Mg{sup 2+} for activity. The first three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined at 1.4 {angstrom} resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method on Escherichia coli protein crystals containing gold. The protein consists of an {alpha} + {beta} fold having a complex linkage of {beta} strands. Intersubunit contacts are mediated by numerous hydrophobic interactions and three hydrogen bond networks. A proposed active site was identified on the basis of amino acid residues that are conserved among the enzyme from 19 species. There are two well-separated active sites per dimer, each of which comprise residues from both subunits. In addition to three arginines and two threonines, which may be used for recognizing the phosphate group of the substrate, the active site consists of three glutamates, two aspartates, two histidines, and a cysteine which may provide the means for general acid and base catalysis and for coordinating the Mg{sup 2+} cofactor within the active site.

  12. 34 CFR 200.86 - Use of MEP funds in schoolwide projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of MEP funds in schoolwide projects. 200.86 Section... SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Migrant Education Program § 200.86 Use of MEP funds in schoolwide projects. Funds available under part C...

  13. The Impact of Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) Regulation on Electricity Saving in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatihah Salleh, Siti; Eqwan Roslan, Mohd; Isa, Aishah Mohd; Faizal Basri Nair, Mohd; Syafiqah Salleh, Siti

    2018-03-01

    One of Malaysia’s key strategies to promote efficient energy use in the country is to implement the minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) through the Electricity Regulations (Amendment) 2013. Five selected electrical appliances (refrigerator, air conditioner, television, domestic fans and lamp fittings) must comply with MEPS requirement in order to be sold in Malaysian market. Manufacturers, importers or distributors are issued Certificate of Approval (COA) if products are MEPS-compliant. In 2015, 1,215 COAs were issued but the number of MEPS products in the market is unknown. This work collects sales data from major manufacturers to estimate the annual sales of MEPS appliances and the cumulative electricity consumption and electricity saving. It was found that most products sold have 3-star rating and above. By year 2015, total cumulative electricity savings gained from MEPS implementation is 3,645 GWh, with air conditioner being the highest contributor (30%). In the future, it is recommended that more MEPS products and related incentives be introduced to further improve efficiency of energy use in Malaysia.

  14. A new 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase gene encoding the committed-step enzyme in the MEP pathway from Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Rong; Chen, Min; Yang, Chunxian; Wang, Qiang; Gong, Yifu

    2007-01-01

    1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) reductoisomerase (DXR; EC 1.1.1.267) catalyzes a committed step of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway for the biosynthesis of pharmaceutical terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) precursors. The full-length cDNA sequence was cloned and characterized from a TIA-producing species, Rauvolfia verticillata, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The new cDNA was named as RvDXR and submitted to GenBank to be assigned with an accession number (DQ779286). The full-length cDNA of RvDXR was 1804 bp containing a 1425 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 474 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 51.3 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.88. Comparative and bioinformatic analyses revealed that RvDXR showed extensive homology with DXRs from other plant species and contained a conserved transit peptide for plastids, an extended Pro-rich region and a highly conserved NADPH-binding motif in its N-terminal region owned by all plant DXRs. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that DXRs had two groups including a plant and bacterial group; RvDXR belonged to angiosperm DXRs that were obtained from Synechocystis through gene transfer according to the phylogenetic analysis. The structural modeling of RvDXR showed that RvDXR had the typical V-shaped structure of DXR proteins. The tissue expression pattern analysis indicated that RvDXR expressed in all tissues including roots, stems, leaves, fruits and followers but at different levels. The lowest transcription level was observed in followers and the highest transcription was found in fruits of R. verticillata; the transcription level of RvDXR was a little higher in roots and stems than in leaves. The cloning and characterization of RvDXR will be helpful to understand more about the role of DXR involved in R. verticillata TIA biosynthesis at the molecular level and provides a candidate gene for metabolic engineering of the TIAs pathway in R. verticillata.

  15. 77 FR 12041 - Applications for New Awards; Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... involvement of migratory parents in the education of migratory students whose education is interrupted... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grants Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education...

  16. 76 FR 43264 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST MEP Client Impact Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST MEP Client Impact Survey AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its continuing...

  17. 75 FR 33769 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Availability of Funds for Projects To Develop and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... to the long-term economic stability of the region. Please see the NIST MEP Web site, http://www.nist... region, and contribute to the long-term economic stability of the region. Competitive projects will use...

  18. A dose-escalation study of combretastatin A4-phosphate in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, E; Smets, P; Daminet, S; Cornelis, I; De Clercq, K; Ni, Y; Vlerick, L; de Rooster, H

    2018-03-01

    Combretastatin A4-Phosphate (CA4P) is a vascular disrupting agent revealing promising results in cancer treatments for humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and adverse events of CA4P in healthy dogs as a prerequisite to application of CA4P in dogs with cancer. Ten healthy dogs were included. The effects of escalating doses of CA4P on physical, haematological and biochemical parameters, systolic arterial blood pressure, electrocardiogram, echocardiographic variables and general wellbeing were characterised. Three different doses were tested: 50, 75 and 100 mg m -2 . At all 3 CA4P doses, nausea, abdominal discomfort as well as diarrhoea were observed for several hours following administration. Likewise, a low-grade neutropenia was observed in all dogs. Doses of 75 and 100 mg m -2 additionally induced vomiting and elevation of serum cardiac troponine I levels. At 100 mg m -2 , low-grade hypertension and high-grade neurotoxicity were also observed. In healthy dogs, doses up to 75 mg m -2 seem to be well tolerated. The severity of the neurotoxicity observed at 100 mg m -2 , although transient, does not invite to use this dose in canine oncology patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Expression of yeast lipid phosphatase Sac1p is regulated by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayinger Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphoinositides play a central role in regulating processes at intracellular membranes. In yeast, a large number of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes use a common mechanism for transcriptional regulation. Yet, how the expression of genes encoding lipid kinases and phosphatases is regulated remains unknown. Results Here we show that the expression of lipid phosphatase Sac1p in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated in response to changes in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI(4P concentrations. Unlike genes encoding enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis, expression of the SAC1 gene is independent of inositol levels. We identified a novel 9-bp motif within the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR of SAC1 that is responsible for PI(4P-mediated regulation. Upregulation of SAC1 promoter activity correlates with elevated levels of Sac1 protein levels. Conclusion Regulation of Sac1p expression via the concentration of its major substrate PI(4P ensures proper maintenance of compartment-specific pools of PI(4P.

  20. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jun Yong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won, E-mail: sewonsuh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-01

    Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from P. aeruginosa was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å resolution. The enzyme erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of erythronate-4-phosphate to 3-hydroxy-4-phospho-hydroxy-α-ketobutyrate. It belongs to the d-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. It is essential for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B{sub 6} (pyridoxine). Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homodimeric enzyme consisting of two identical 380-residue subunits, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using 0.7 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 M ammonium tartrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 10 mM cupric chloride. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å from a crystal grown in the presence of NADH. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 101.28, c = 142.58 Å. A dimeric molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 3.64 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 66%.

  1. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Yong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2006-01-01

    Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from P. aeruginosa was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å resolution. The enzyme erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of erythronate-4-phosphate to 3-hydroxy-4-phospho-hydroxy-α-ketobutyrate. It belongs to the d-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. It is essential for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine). Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homodimeric enzyme consisting of two identical 380-residue subunits, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using 0.7 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 M ammonium tartrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 10 mM cupric chloride. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å from a crystal grown in the presence of NADH. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 101.28, c = 142.58 Å. A dimeric molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (V M ) of 3.64 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 66%

  2. West Nile virus replication requires fatty acid synthesis but is independent on phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Martín-Acebes

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus, which main natural hosts are birds but it also infects equines and humans, among other mammals. As in the case of other plus-stranded RNA viruses, WNV replication is associated to intracellular membrane rearrangements. Based on results obtained with a variety of viruses, different cellular processes have been shown to play important roles on these membrane rearrangements for efficient viral replication. As these processes are related to lipid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, as well as generation of a specific lipid microenvironment enriched in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P, has been associated to it in other viral models. In this study, intracellular membrane rearrangements following infection with a highly neurovirulent strain of WNV were addressed by means of electron and confocal microscopy. Infection of WNV, and specifically viral RNA replication, were dependent on fatty acid synthesis, as revealed by the inhibitory effect of cerulenin and C75, two pharmacological inhibitors of fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme of this process. However, WNV infection did not induce redistribution of PI4P lipids, and PI4P did not localize at viral replication complex. Even more, WNV multiplication was not inhibited by the use of the phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase inhibitor PIK93, while infection by the enterovirus Coxsackievirus B5 was reduced. Similar features were found when infection by other flavivirus, the Usutu virus (USUV, was analyzed. These features of WNV replication could help to design specific antiviral approaches against WNV and other related flaviviruses.

  3. Stimulation of Eryptosis by Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Disodium (CA4P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Signoretto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Combretastatin A4 phosphate disodium (CA4P is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance has previously been shown to trigger suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, ceramide, oxidative stress and ATP depletion. The present study explored, whether CA4P induces eryptosis and, if so, to gain insight into mechanisms involved. Methods: Flow cytometry has been employed to estimate phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, reactive oxygen species (ROS abundance from DCF fluorescence, glutathione (GSH abundance from CMF fluorescence and ceramide abundance from fluorescent antibodies. In addition cytosolic ATP levels were quantified utilizing a luciferin-luciferase-based assay and hemolysis was estimated from hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to CA4P (≥ 50 µM significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells and significantly decreased forward scatter. CA4P did not appreciably increase hemolysis. Hundred µM CA4P significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence. The effect of CA4P (100 µM on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished, by removal of extracellular Ca2+. CA4P (≥ 50 µM significantly decreased GSH abundance and ATP levels but did not significantly increase ROS or ceramide. Conclusions: CA4P triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and energy depletion.

  4. Modulation of nucleotide sensitivity of ATP-sensitive potassium channels by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyng, S L; Barbieri, A; Gumusboga, A; Cukras, C; Pike, L; Davis, J N; Stahl, P D; Nichols, C G

    2000-01-18

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) regulate cell excitability in response to metabolic changes. K(ATP) channels are formed as a complex of a sulfonylurea receptor (SURx), a member of the ATP-binding cassette protein family, and an inward rectifier K(+) channel subunit (Kir6.x). Membrane phospholipids, in particular phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), activate K(ATP) channels and antagonize ATP inhibition of K(ATP) channels when applied to inside-out membrane patches. To examine the physiological relevance of this regulatory mechanism, we manipulated membrane PIP(2) levels by expressing either the wild-type or an inactive form of PI-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) in COSm6 cells and examined the ATP sensitivity of coexpressed K(ATP) channels. Channels from cells expressing the wild-type PIP5K have a 6-fold lower ATP sensitivity (K(1/2), the half maximal inhibitory concentration, approximately 60 microM) than the sensitivities from control cells (K(1/2) approximately 10 microM). An inactive form of the PIP5K had little effect on the K(1/2) of wild-type channels but increased the ATP-sensitivity of a mutant K(ATP) channel that has an intrinsically lower ATP sensitivity (from K(1/2) approximately 450 microM to K(1/2) approximately 100 microM), suggesting a decrease in membrane PIP(2) levels as a consequence of a dominant-negative effect of the inactive PIP5K. These results show that PIP5K activity, which regulates PIP(2) and PI-3,4,5-P(3) levels, is a significant determinant of the physiological nucleotide sensitivity of K(ATP) channels.

  5. Energy Efficiency: The Implementation of Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS Application on Home Appliances for Residential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman K.A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS has been widespread across the country especially developed country. However, most consumers do not even know about the MEPS. Without sufficient knowledge, much energy have been wasted before this. The aim of this study is to review the implementation of MEPS of Asia country and to compare electricity consumption of home appliances with star rating and without star rating. In order to fulfil the objectives of the study, the equipment must be chosen correctly and must be learned properly. The home appliances that will be used also need to be chosen so that the comparison between the appliances will be matched correctly. To understand the results, the analysis was done using graphs and table. The purpose of using graph and table is to understand the comparison between appliances more clearly. The results show that home appliances with MEPS is more efficient on energy saving rather than without MEPS. This is the evidence as a method to educate a consumer on energy saving.

  6. Oxysterol-binding Protein Activation at Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Contact Sites Reorganizes Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate Pools*

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Asako; Charman, Mark; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2015-01-01

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) exchanges cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P) at contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25OH) competitively inhibits this exchange reaction in vitro and causes the constitutive localization of OSBP at the ER/Golgi interface and PI-4P-dependent recruitment of ceramide transfer protein (CERT) for sphingomyelin synthesis. We used PI-4P probes and mass analysis to de...

  7. TIE2-expressing macrophages limit the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular disrupting agent, combretastatin A4 phosphate in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Welford, Abigail F.; Biziato, Daniela; Coffelt, Seth B.; Nucera, Silvia; Fisher, Matthew; Pucci, Ferdinando; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Tozer, Gillian M.; Lewis, Claire E.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) such as combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) selectively disrupt blood vessels in tumors and induce tumor necrosis. However, tumors rapidly repopulate after treatment with such compounds. Here, we show that CA4P-induced vessel narrowing, hypoxia, and hemorrhagic necrosis in murine mammary tumors were accompanied by elevated tumor levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and infiltration by proangiogenic TIE2-expressing macrophages (TEMs). Inhibiting TEM recruitment to CA...

  8. Use of mep HyperCel for polishing of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Karl B; Vucica, Yvonne; Wu, John; Bertolini, Joseph

    2014-10-15

    The manufacture of human serum albumin by chromatographic procedures involves gel filtration chromatography as a final polishing step. Despite this step being essential to remove high molecular weight impurity proteins and thus ensure a stable and safe final product, it is relatively inefficient. This paper explores the use of hydrophobic charge induction chromatographic media, MEP HyperCel as an alternative to Sephacryl S200HR gel filtration for the polishing of human serum albumin derived by ion exchange chromatographic purification of Cohn Supernatant I. The use of MEP HyperCel results in a product with a higher purity than achieved with gel filtration and in a less time consuming manner and with potential resource savings. MEP HyperCel appears to have great potential for incorporation into downstream processes in the plasma fractionation industry as an efficient means of achieving polishing of intermediates or capture of proteins of interest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jun Yong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2006-02-01

    The enzyme erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of erythronate-4-phosphate to 3-hydroxy-4-phospho-hydroxy-alpha-ketobutyrate. It belongs to the D-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. It is essential for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homodimeric enzyme consisting of two identical 380-residue subunits, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using 0.7 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 M ammonium tartrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 10 mM cupric chloride. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 A from a crystal grown in the presence of NADH. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 101.28, c = 142.58 A. A dimeric molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (VM) of 3.64 A3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 66%.

  10. 34 CFR 200.89 - MEP allocations; Re-interviewing; Eligibility documentation; and Quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of recruiters, size or growth in local migratory child population, effectiveness of local quality... documentation; and Quality control. 200.89 Section 200.89 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...-interviewing; Eligibility documentation; and Quality control. (a) Allocation of funds under the MEP for fiscal...

  11. 75 FR 33766 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Availability of Funds for Projects To Develop Client...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Strategic Growth Areas are: supply chain, sustainability, technology acceleration, workforce and continuous... strengthen the global competitiveness of small- and medium-sized U.S. based manufacturing firms. NIST MEP... Agreements Management Division; National Institute of Standards and Technology; 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 1650...

  12. Osh4p is needed to reduce the level of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate on secretory vesicles as they mature

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Yading; Hayano, Scott; Novick, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) is produced on both the Golgi and the plasma membrane. Despite extensive vesicular traffic between these compartments, genetic analysis suggests that the two pools of PI4P do not efficiently mix with one another. Several lines of evidence indicate that the PI4P produced on the Golgi is normally incorporated into secretory vesicles, but the fate of that pool has been unclear. We show here that in yeast the oxysterol-binding proteins Osh1?Osh7 are collect...

  13. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-­ray crystallographic analysis of erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jun Yong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Do Jin; Lee, Hyung Ho; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Suh, Se Won

    2006-01-01

    The enzyme erythronate-4-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyses the conversion of erythronate-4-phosphate to 3-hydroxy-4-phospho-hydroxy-α-ketobutyrate. It belongs to the d-isomer-specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family. It is essential for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). Erythronate-4-­phosphate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a homodimeric enzyme consisting of two identical 380-residue subunits, has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal purification tag and crystallized at 297 K using 0.7 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.4 M ammonium tartrate, 0.1 M sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 10 mM cupric chloride. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.20 Å from a crystal grown in the presence of NADH. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.77, b = 101.28, c = 142.58 Å. A dimeric molecule is present in the asymmetric unit, giving a crystal volume per protein weight (V M) of 3.64 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 66%. PMID:16511285

  14. The Integration of MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe into the European Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Hokovský

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the level of integration of Members of the European Parliament from Central and Eastern Europe in the European Parliament after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007. The main objective is to address the puzzle of how the European Parliament’s political groups could maintain or even increase their voting cohesion after the influx of a significantly large number of new MEPs coming from countries with different historical experience, socio-economic characteristics, and political and party systems. Three indicators of MEP integration are defined: integration into parliamentary leadership, integration into parliamentary work, and integration into voting patterns. The article uses data from the VoteWatch.eu website on MEPs’ activities and voting between the years 2004-2011, as well as data from official documents of the European Parliament and its political groups. Analysis of the data reveals that the new member states’ MEPs were significantly under-represented in parliamentary leadership and key legislative activities, despite the fact that their voting loyalty to their political groups was greater than that of their colleagues from older member states.

  15. TIE2-expressing macrophages limit the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular-disrupting agent combretastatin A4 phosphate in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, Abigail F.; Biziato, Daniela; Coffelt, Seth B.; Nucera, Silvia; Fisher, Matthew; Pucci, Ferdinando; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele; Tozer, Gillian M.; Lewis, Claire E.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) such as combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) selectively disrupt blood vessels in tumors and induce tumor necrosis. However, tumors rapidly repopulate after treatment with such compounds. Here, we show that CA4P-induced vessel narrowing, hypoxia, and hemorrhagic necrosis in murine mammary tumors were accompanied by elevated tumor levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and infiltration by proangiogenic TIE2-expressing macrophages (TEMs). Inhibiting TEM recruitment to CA4P-treated tumors either by interfering pharmacologically with the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis or by genetically depleting TEMs in tumor-bearing mice markedly increased the efficacy of CA4P treatment. These data suggest that TEMs limit VDA-induced tumor injury and represent a potential target for improving the clinical efficacy of VDA-based therapies. PMID:21490397

  16. Surface Modification of LiMn2O4 for Lithium Batteries by Nanostructured LiFePO4 Phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available LiMn2O4 spinel cathode materials have been successfully synthesized by solid-state reaction. Surface of these particles was modified by nanostructured LiFePO4 via sol gel dip coating method. Synthesized products were characterized by thermally analyzed thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The results of electrochemical tests showed that the charge/discharge capacities improved and charge retention of battery enhanced. This improved electrochemical performance is caused by LiFePO4 phosphate layer on surfaces of LiMn2O4 cathode particles.

  17. Comparison of Australian and US Cost-Benefit Approaches to MEPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.

    2004-03-12

    The Australian Greenhouse Office contracted with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) for LBNL to compare US and Australian approaches to analyzing costs and benefits of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS). This report compares the approaches for three types of products: household refrigerators and freezers, small electric storage water heaters, and commercial/industrial air conditioners. This report presents the findings of similarities and differences between the approaches of the two countries and suggests changes to consider in the approach taken in Australia. The purpose of the Australian program is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while the US program is intended to increase energy efficiency; each program is thus subject to specific constraints. The market and policy contexts are different, with the USA producing most of its own products and conducting pioneering engineering-economic studies to identify maximum energy efficiency levels that are technologically feasible and economically justified. In contrast, Australia imports a large share of its products and adopts MEPS already in place elsewhere. With these differences in circumstances, Australia's analysis approach could be expected to have less analytical detail and still result in MEPS levels that are appropriate for their policy and market context. In practice, the analysis required to meet these different objectives is quite similar. To date, Australia's cost-benefit analysis has served the goals and philosophies of the program well and been highly effective in successfully identifying MEPS that are significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions while providing economic benefits to consumers. In some cases, however, the experience of the USA--using more extensive data sets and more detailed analysis--suggests possible improvements to Australia's cost-benefit analysis. The principal findings of the comparison are: (1) The Technology and Market

  18. Metabolic plasticity for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gil, Jordi; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2013-05-15

    Isoprenoids are a large family of compounds synthesized by all free-living organisms. In most bacteria, the common precursors of all isoprenoids are produced by the MEP (methylerythritol 4-phosphate) pathway. The MEP pathway is absent from archaea, fungi and animals (including humans), which synthesize their isoprenoid precursors using the completely unrelated MVA (mevalonate) pathway. Because the MEP pathway is essential in most bacterial pathogens (as well as in the malaria parasites), it has been proposed as a promising new target for the development of novel anti-infective agents. However, bacteria show a remarkable plasticity for isoprenoid biosynthesis that should be taken into account when targeting this metabolic pathway for the development of new antibiotics. For example, a few bacteria use the MVA pathway instead of the MEP pathway, whereas others possess the two full pathways, and some parasitic strains lack both the MVA and the MEP pathways (probably because they obtain their isoprenoids from host cells). Moreover, alternative enzymes and metabolic intermediates to those of the canonical MVA or MEP pathways exist in some organisms. Recent work has also shown that resistance to a block of the first steps of the MEP pathway can easily be developed because several enzymes unrelated to isoprenoid biosynthesis can produce pathway intermediates upon spontaneous mutations. In the present review, we discuss the major advances in our knowledge of the biochemical toolbox exploited by bacteria to synthesize the universal precursors for their essential isoprenoids.

  19. Nuclear pool of phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate 5 kinase 1α is modified by polySUMO-2 during apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhargava, Varsha; Bhar, Kaushik; Siddhanta, Anirban, E-mail: asiddhanto@yahoo.com

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Nuclear pool of PIP5K is SUMOylated. •Enhancement of SUMOylated nuclear PIP5K during apoptosis. •Nuclear PIP5K is modified by polySUMO-1 during apoptosis. •Nuclear PIP5K is modified by polySUMO-2 chain during apoptosis. -- Abstract: Phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate 5 kinase 1α (PIP5K) is mainly localized in the cytosol and plasma membrane. Studies have also indicated its prominent association with nuclear speckles. The exact nature of this nuclear pool of PIP5K is not clear. Using biochemical and microscopic techniques, we have demonstrated that the nuclear pool of PIP5K is modified by SUMO-1 in HEK-293 cells stably expressing PIP5K. Moreover, this SUMOylated pool of PIP5K increased during apoptosis. PolySUMO-2 chain conjugated PIP5K was detected by pull-down experiment using affinity-tagged RNF4, a polySUMO-2 binding protein, during late apoptosis.

  20. Biosynthesis of ribose-5-phosphate and erythrose-4-phosphate in archaea: a phylogenetic analysis of archaeal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Soderberg

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP, the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP pathway, and the chorismate pathway of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, employing data from 13 complete archaeal genomes, provides a potential explanation for the enigmatic phylogenetic patterns of the PPP genes in archaea. Genomic and biochemical evidence suggests that three archaeal species (Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, Thermoplasma acidophilum and Thermoplasma volcanium produce ribose-5-phosphate via the nonoxidative PPP (NOPPP, whereas nine species apparently lack an NOPPP but may employ a reverse RuMP pathway for pentose synthesis. One species (Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 lacks both the NOPPP and the RuMP pathway but may possess a modified oxidative PPP (OPPP, the details of which are not yet known. The presence of transketolase in several archaeal species that are missing the other two NOPPP genes can be explained by the existence of differing requirements for erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P among archaea: six species use transketolase to make E4P as a precursor to aromatic amino acids, six species apparently have an alternate biosynthetic pathway and may not require the ability to make E4P, and one species (Pyrococcus horikoshii probably does not synthesize aromatic amino acids at all.

  1. Peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane protein Mep45 of rumen anaerobe Selenomonas ruminantium forms a non-specific diffusion pore via its C-terminal transmembrane domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Hayashi, Kanako; Tochigi, Saeko; Kusano, Tomonobu; Kaneko, Jun; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    The major outer membrane protein Mep45 of Selenomonas ruminantium, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium, comprises two distinct domains: the N-terminal S-layer homologous (SLH) domain that protrudes into the periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan, and the remaining C-terminal transmembrane domain, whose function has been unknown. Here, we solubilized and purified Mep45 and characterized its function using proteoliposomes reconstituted with Mep45. We found that Mep45 forms a nonspecific diffusion channel via its C-terminal region. The channel was permeable to solutes smaller than a molecular weight of roughly 600, and the estimated pore radius was 0.58 nm. Truncation of the SLH domain did not affect the channel property. On the basis of the fact that Mep45 is the most abundant outer membrane protein in S. ruminantium, we conclude that Mep45 serves as a main pathway through which small solutes diffuse across the outer membrane of this bacterium.

  2. Oxysterol-binding Protein Activation at Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Contact Sites Reorganizes Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate Pools*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Asako; Charman, Mark; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2016-01-01

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) exchanges cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P) at contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25OH) competitively inhibits this exchange reaction in vitro and causes the constitutive localization of OSBP at the ER/Golgi interface and PI-4P-dependent recruitment of ceramide transfer protein (CERT) for sphingomyelin synthesis. We used PI-4P probes and mass analysis to determine how OSBP controls the availability of PI-4P for this metabolic pathway. Treatment of fibroblasts or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with 25OH caused a 50–70% reduction in Golgi-associated immunoreactive PI-4P that correlated with Golgi localization of OSBP. In contrast, 25OH caused an OSBP-dependent enrichment in Golgi PI-4P that was detected with a pleckstrin homology domain probe. The cellular mass of phosphatidylinositol monophosphates and Golgi PI-4P measured with an unbiased PI-4P probe (P4M) was unaffected by 25OH and OSBP silencing, indicating that OSBP shifts the distribution of PI-4P upon localization to ER-Golgi contact sites. The PI-4P and sterol binding activities of OSBP were both required for 25OH activation of sphingomyelin synthesis, suggesting that 25OH must be exchanged for PI-4P to be concentrated at contact sites. We propose a model wherein 25OH activation of OSBP promotes the binding and retention of PI-4P at ER-Golgi contact sites. This pool of PI-4P specifically recruits pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins involved in lipid transfer and metabolism, such as CERT. PMID:26601944

  3. Oxysterol-binding Protein Activation at Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Contact Sites Reorganizes Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate Pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Asako; Charman, Mark; Ridgway, Neale D

    2016-01-15

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) exchanges cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P) at contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the trans-Golgi/trans-Golgi network. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25OH) competitively inhibits this exchange reaction in vitro and causes the constitutive localization of OSBP at the ER/Golgi interface and PI-4P-dependent recruitment of ceramide transfer protein (CERT) for sphingomyelin synthesis. We used PI-4P probes and mass analysis to determine how OSBP controls the availability of PI-4P for this metabolic pathway. Treatment of fibroblasts or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with 25OH caused a 50-70% reduction in Golgi-associated immunoreactive PI-4P that correlated with Golgi localization of OSBP. In contrast, 25OH caused an OSBP-dependent enrichment in Golgi PI-4P that was detected with a pleckstrin homology domain probe. The cellular mass of phosphatidylinositol monophosphates and Golgi PI-4P measured with an unbiased PI-4P probe (P4M) was unaffected by 25OH and OSBP silencing, indicating that OSBP shifts the distribution of PI-4P upon localization to ER-Golgi contact sites. The PI-4P and sterol binding activities of OSBP were both required for 25OH activation of sphingomyelin synthesis, suggesting that 25OH must be exchanged for PI-4P to be concentrated at contact sites. We propose a model wherein 25OH activation of OSBP promotes the binding and retention of PI-4P at ER-Golgi contact sites. This pool of PI-4P specifically recruits pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins involved in lipid transfer and metabolism, such as CERT. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Meningococcal X polysaccharide quantification by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography using synthetic N-acetylglucosamine-4-phosphate as standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoli, F; Adamo, R; Proietti, D; Gavini, M; Romano, M R; MacLennan, C A; Costantino, P; Berti, F

    2013-11-15

    A method for meningococcal X (MenX) polysaccharide quantification by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) is described. The polysaccharide is hydrolyzed by strong acidic treatment, and the peak of glucosamine-4-phosphate (4P-GlcN) is detected and measured after chromatography. In the selected conditions of hydrolysis, 4P-GlcN is the prevalent species formed, with GlcN detected for less than 5% in moles. As standard for the analysis, the monomeric unit of MenX polysaccharide, N-acetylglucosamine-4-phosphate (4P-GlcNAc), was used. This method for MenX quantification is highly selective and sensitive, and it constitutes an important analytical tool for the development of a conjugate vaccine against MenX. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. TNF-a-induced down-regulation of CDX2 suppresses MEP1A expression in colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Olsen, Anders Krüger; Holm, Thomas Lindebo

    2012-01-01

    was investigated in colonic biopsies of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. CDX2 protein expression was investigated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical procedures. CDX2 and MEP1A regulation was examined in TNF-a-treated Caco-2 cells by reverse transcription...

  6. Microcomputer Materials from MEP. An Annotated Directory of Packages of Interest to Further Education. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Leslie

    Designed to disseminate information to the post-school sector of United Kingdom education, this directory provides information on 50 microcomputer software packages developed by the Microelectronics Education Program (MEP) and available through educational publishers. Subject areas represented include accountancy, biology, business education,…

  7. Effect of sucrose, erythrose-4-phosphate and phenylalanine on biomassa and flavonoid content of callus culture from leaves of Gynura procumbens Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurisa, Aryana; Kristanti, Alfinda Novi; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to know the effect of concentration of sucrose, erythrose-4-phosphate and phenylalanine on biomass and flavonoid content of callus cultures from leaves of sambung nyawa (Gynura procumbens Merr.). This study was experimental research with complete randomized design. Callus induction was treated in MS medium supplemented with NAA 2 mg/L, BAP 1 mg/L and sucrose concentration (10 g/L, 30 g/L and 50 g/L) respectively were combined with erythrose-4-phosphate (0 µM, 2,5 µM and 5 µM) and phenylalanine (0 mg/L, 2 mg/L and 3 mg/L), each treatment were repeated four times. After six weeks of culture, fresh and dry weight of calli were measured and extracted with ethanol absolut. Crude extract ethanolic of callus was analyzed used by a modified colorimetric with spectrophotometer method. The best yield of calli biomass (0,672 ± 0,112 gram of fresh weight and 0,033 ± 0,009 gram of dry weight) was obtained in treatment of 30 g/L sucrose of and 5 µM erythrose-4-phosphate. The highest total flavonoid content was obtained of calli treated with 30 g/L of sucrose and 3 mg/L of phenylalanine (3633,4 ppm quercetin/gram dry weight and 15777,8 ppm kaempferol/gram dry weight).

  8. Association of MEP1A gene variants with insulin metabolism in central European women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Uyen D P; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Schweighofer, Natascha; Trummer, Olivia; Eberhard, Katharina; Genser, Bernd; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2014-03-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) shows not only hyperandrogenemia, hirsutism and fertility problems, but also metabolic disturbances including obesity, cardiovascular events and type-2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence suggests some degree of inflammation associated with prominent aspects of PCOS. We aimed to investigate the association of genetic variants 3'UTR rs17468190 (G/T) of the inflammation-associated gene MEP1A (GenBank ID: NM_005588.2) with metabolic disturbances in PCOS and healthy control women. Genetic variants rs17468190 (G/T) of MEP1A gene were analyzed in 576 PCOS women and 206 controls by using the Taqman fluorogenic 5'-exonuclease assay. This polymorphism was tested for association with anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, and functional parameters of PCOS. There was a borderline significant difference in genotype distribution between PCOS and control women (p=0.046). In overweight/obese PCOS patients, the variants rs17468190 (G/T) in the MEP1A gene are associated with glucose and insulin metabolism. In a dominant model, the GG genotype of the MEP1A gene was more strongly associated with insulin metabolism in overweight/obese PCOS women (body mass index, BMI>25 kg/m(2)), than in GT+TT genotypes. The MEP1A GG-carriers showed a significantly increased homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.003), elevation of fasting insulin (p=0.004) and stimulated insulin (30 min, pdisease modification in PCOS. It might contribute to the abnormalities of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity and serve as a diagnostic or therapeutic target gene for PCOS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular structure, vibrational, HOMO-LUMO, MEP and NBO analysis of hafnium selenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankova, Rumyana; Genieva, Svetlana; Dimitrova, Ginka

    2017-08-01

    In hydrothermal condition hafnium selenite with estimated chemical composition Hf(SeO3)2·n(H2O) was obtained and characterized by powder X-Ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetrical analysis. The composition of the obtained crystalline phase was established as dihydrate of tetraaqua complex of the hafnium selenite [Hf(SeO3)2(H2O)4]·2H2O. The results of the thermogravimetrical analysis are shown that the two hydrated water molecules are released in the temperature interval 80-110°C, while the four coordinated water molecules - at 210-300°C. By DFT method, with Becke's three parameter exchange-functional combined with gradient-corrected correlation functional of Lee, Yang and Parr and 6-31G(d), 6-311 + G(d,p) basis sets and LANL2DZ for Hf atom were calculated the molecular structure, vibrational frequencies and thermodynamic properties of the structure. The UV-Vis spectra and electronic properties are presented. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by time-dependent density functional theory corresponds well with the experimental ones. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was performed. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges was also calculated. The stability and intramolecular interactions are interpreted by NBO analysis.

  10. Expression and function of androgen receptor coactivator p44/Mep50/WDR77 in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ligr

    Full Text Available Hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, and their receptors play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma. Androgen, its receptor and coactivators have also been implicated in these processes. p44/Mep50/WDR77 was identified as a subunit of the methylosome complex and lately characterized as a steroid receptor coactivator that enhances androgen receptor as well as estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity in a ligand-dependent manner. We previously described distinct expression and function of p44 in prostate, testis, and breast cancers. In this report, we examined the expression and function of p44 in ovarian cancer. In contrast to findings in prostate and testicular cancer and similar to breast cancer, p44 shows strong cytoplasmic localization in morphologically normal ovarian surface and fallopian tube epithelia, while nuclear p44 is observed in invasive ovarian carcinoma. We observed that p44 can serve as a coactivator of both androgen receptor (AR and estrogen receptor (ER in ovarian cells. Further, overexpression of nuclear-localized p44 stimulates proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of estrogen or androgen. These findings strongly suggest that p44 plays a role in mediating the effects of hormones during ovarian tumorigenesis.

  11. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MIKROBA EFEKTIF PRODUKTIF PLUS (MEP+ PADA MEDIUM BUDIDAYA IKAN NILA YANG DIBERI PAKAN FERMENTATIF TERHADAP KEPADATAN BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Wulandari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbes Effective Productive Plus (MEP+ in fish culture has role as probiotics and decomposer. Application of MEP+ is done by adding MEP+ on culture medium of Tilapia and fish feed. Fish feed is fermentative feed with addition of different concentration of cassava peel flour. The aim of this research were to find out the influence of MEP+ administration in culture medium and in fermentative feed with addition cassava peel flour on the increasing density of lactic acid bacteria in culture medium and find out the highest density of lactic acid bacteria. The research was done experimentally, used Complete Randomized Design with treatment of MEP+ administration in culture medium with fermentative feed cassava peel flour addition of 25%, 50%, 75% and without MEP+ administration on culture medium with fermentative feed cassava peel flour addition of 25%. The data obtained were analyzed using a variety analysis. The result showed that MEP+ administration on culture medium and in fermentative feed cassava peel flour addition did not influence the increasing density of lactic acid bacteria and total density of lactic acid bacteria in culture medium was not different inter treatment.

  12. Involvement of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway in biosynthesis of aphidicolin-like tetracyclic diterpene of Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkembo, Marguerite Kasidimoko; Lee, Jung-Bum; Nakagiri, Takeshi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2006-05-01

    Specific inhibitors of the MVA pathway (pravastatin) and the MEP pathway (fosmidomycin) were used to interfere with the biosynthetic flux which leads to the production of aphidicolin-like diterpene in leaf organ cultures of Scoparia dulcis. Treatment of leaf organs with fosmidomycin resulted in dose dependent inhibition of chlorophylls, carotenoids, scopadulcic acid B (SDB) and phytol production, and no effect on sterol production was observed. In response to the pravastatin treatment, a significant decrease in sterol and perturbation of SDB production was observed.

  13. Changes of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries Under Polluted Conditions with Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollution on the Thi Vai River has been spreading out rapidly over the two lasted decades caused by the wastewater from the industrial parks in the left bank of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The evaluation of the benthic macroinvertebrate changes was very necessary to identify the consequences of the industrial wastewater on water quality and aquatic ecosystem of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. In this study, the variables of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality were investigated in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries, Southern Vietnam. The monitoring data of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters covered the period from 1989 to 2015 at 6 sampling sites in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The basic water quality parameters were also tested including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The biodiversity indices of benthic macroinvertebrates were applied for water quality assessment. The results showed that pH ranged from 6.4 – 7.6 during the monitoring. The DO concentrations were in between 0.20 - 6.70 mg/L. The concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorous ranged from 0.03 - 5.70 mg/L 0.024 - 1.380 mg/L respectively. Macroinvertebrate community in the study area consisted of 36 species of polychaeta, gastropoda, bivalvia, and crustacea, of which, species of polychaeta were dominant in species number. The benthic macroinvertebartes density ranged from 0 - 2.746 individuals/m−1 with the main dominant species of Neanthes caudata, Prionospio malmgreni, Paraprionospio pinnata, Trichochaeta carica, Maldane sarsi, Capitella capitata, Terebellides stroemi, Euditylia polymorpha, Grandidierella lignorum, Apseudes vietnamensis. The biodiversity index values during the monitoring characterized for aquatic environmental conditions of mesotrophic to polytrophic. Besides, species richness positively correlated with DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The results

  14. cisMEP: an integrated repository of genomic epigenetic profiles and cis-regulatory modules in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Chung-Ching; Hung, Po-Cheng; Wu, Wei-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), or the DNA sequences required for regulating gene expression, play the central role in biological researches on transcriptional regulation in metazoan species. Nowadays, the systematic understanding of CRMs still mainly resorts to computational methods due to the time-consuming and small-scale nature of experimental methods. But the accuracy and reliability of different CRM prediction tools are still unclear. Without comparative cross-analysis of the results and combinatorial consideration with extra experimental information, there is no easy way to assess the confidence of the predicted CRMs. This limits the genome-wide understanding of CRMs. It is known that transcription factor binding and epigenetic profiles tend to determine functions of CRMs in gene transcriptional regulation. Thus integration of the genome-wide epigenetic profiles with systematically predicted CRMs can greatly help researchers evaluate and decipher the prediction confidence and possible transcriptional regulatory functions of these potential CRMs. However, these data are still fragmentary in the literatures. Here we performed the computational genome-wide screening for potential CRMs using different prediction tools and constructed the pioneer database, cisMEP (cis-regulatory module epigenetic profile database), to integrate these computationally identified CRMs with genomic epigenetic profile data. cisMEP collects the literature-curated TFBS location data and nine genres of epigenetic data for assessing the confidence of these potential CRMs and deciphering the possible CRM functionality. cisMEP aims to provide a user-friendly interface for researchers to assess the confidence of different potential CRMs and to understand the functions of CRMs through experimentally-identified epigenetic profiles. The deposited potential CRMs and experimental epigenetic profiles for confidence assessment provide experimentally testable hypotheses for the molecular mechanisms

  15. MEP family of wind speed distribution function and comparison with the empirical Weibull distribution. Paper no. IGEC-1-156

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Li, X.

    2005-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of wind speed is one of the important wind characteristics for the assessment of wind energy potential and for the performance of wind energy conversion systems, as well as for the structural and environmental design and analysis. In this study, an exponential family of distribution functions has been developed for the description of the probabilistic distribution of wind speed, and comparison with the wind speed data taken from different sources and measured at different geographical locations in the world has been made. This family of distributions is developed by introducing a pre-exponential term to the theoretical distribution derived from the Maximum Entropy Principle (MEP). The statistical analysis parameter based on the wind power density is used as the suitability judgement for the distribution functions. It is shown that the MEP-type distributions not only agree better with a variety of the measured wind speed data than the conventionally used empirical Weibull distribution, but also can represent the wind power density much more accurately. Therefore, the MEP-type distributions are more suitable for the assessment of the wind energy potential and the performance of wind energy conversion systems. (author)

  16. Conjunct SEP and MEP monitoring in resection of infratentorial lesions: lessons learned in a cohort of 210 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Kunihiko; Javadi, Mani; Seifert, Volker; Szelényi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    During the surgical removal of infratentorial lesions, intraoperative neuromonitoring is mostly focused on cranial nerve assessment and brainstem auditory potentials. Despite the known risk of perforating vessel injury during microdissection within the vicinity of the brainstem, there are few reports about intraoperative neuromonitoring with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) assessing the medial lemniscus and corticospinal tract. This study analyses the occurrence of intraoperative changes in MEPs and SEPs with regard to lesion location and postoperative neurological outcome. The authors analyzed 210 cases in which patients (mean age 49 ± 13 years, 109 female) underwent surgeries involving the skull base (n = 104), cerebellum (n = 63), fourth ventricle (n = 28), brainstem (n = 12), and foramen magnum (n = 3). Of 210 surgeries, 171 (81.4%) were uneventful with respect to long-tract monitoring. Nine (23%) of the 39 SEP and/or MEP alterations were transient and were only followed by a slight permanent deficit in 1 case. Permanent deterioration only was seen in 19 (49%) of 39 cases; the deterioration was related to tumor dissection in 4 of these cases, and permanent deficit (moderate-severe) was seen in only 1 of these 4 cases. Eleven patients (28%) had losses of at least 1 modality, and in 9 of these 11 cases, the loss was related to surgical microdissection within the vicinity of the brainstem. Four of these 9 patients suffered a moderate-to-severe long-term deficit. For permanent changes, the positive predictive value for neuromonitoring of the long tracts was 0.467, the negative predictive value was 0.989, the sensitivity was 0.875, and the specificity 0.918. Twenty-eight (72%) of 39 SEP and MEP alterations occurred in 66 cases involving intrinsic brainstem tumors or tumors adjacent to the brainstem. Lesion location and alterations in intraoperative neuromonitoring significantly correlated with patients' outcome (p < 0

  17. Energy and mass dependence of the contribution to storm-time plasma pressure observed by Arase/MEP-i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, S.; Keika, K.; Yokota, S.; Hoshino, M.; Seki, K.; Nose, M.; Amano, T.; Yoshizumi, M.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-12-01

    The ring current is mainly controlled by the ion pressure and its spatial gradient. The ion pressure is dominated by ions with energies of a few to a few 100s keV. Oxygen ions of ionospheric origin can be energized in the plasma sheet and/or the inner magnetosphere up to a few tens to a few hundreds of keV. The ionospheric oxygen ions make a significant contribution to the ion pressure during geomagnetically active periods. This paper examines spatial variations and energy-spectral evolution of energetic ( 10 to 200 keV/q) ions during the main phase of a CIR-driven storm on 17 March 2017 (Storm 1) and a CME-driven storm on 27-28 May 2017 (Storm 2). We use ion data from the MEP-i instrument on board the Arase satellite. The instrument measured energetic ions with energies of 5-120 keV/q during Storm 1 and 9-180 keV/q during Storm 2; ion mass/charge was derived from energy and velocity measurements by an electrostatic analyzer and the time-of-flight system, respectively. Below is a brief summary of the MEP-i observations during the two storms. During Storm 1, MEP-i saw high fluxes of >10 keV/q protons and oxygen ions (and possibly other minor ions) at Lm 3.5 around midnight. MEP-i continued to observe high-flux ions until the end of the main phase. Both proton and oxygen ion pressures increased; the O-to-H ratio increased by about an order of magnitude, from 0.02 to 0.2-0.3. The high-flux >10 keV/q ions consisted of clearly different two populations: one dominated by 5-20 keV/q ions, likely originating from pre-existing cold plasma sheet population; and the other with structured dispersion signatures at 30-90 keV/q, likely due to the penetration of ions accelerated in the near-Earth plasma sheet. We found that both populations contributed to the total pressure almost equally. During Storm 2, MEP-i observed proton and oxygen high fluxes in a wide energy range (10-120 keV/q). The pressure increased for both protons and oxygen ions; the O-to-H ratio increased from 0

  18. Medium-Energy Particle experiments (MEPs) for the Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace (ERG) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, S.; Yokota, S.; Mitani, T.; Asamura, K.; Hirahara, M.; Shibano, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Takashima, T.

    2017-12-01

    ERG (Exploration of energization and Radiation in Geospace) is the geospace exploration spacecraft, which was launched on 20 December 2016. The mission goal is to unveil the physics behind the drastic radiation belt variability during space storms. One of key observations is the measurement of ions and electrons in the medium-energy range (10-200 keV), since these particles excite EMIC, magnetosonic, and whistler waves, which are theoretically suggested to play significant roles in the relativistic electron acceleration and loss. Medium-Energy Particle experiments - electron analyser (MEP-e) measures the energy and the direction of each incoming electron in the range of 7 to 87 keV. The sensor covers 2π radian disk-like field-of-view with 16 detectors, and the solid angle coverage is achieved by using spacecraft spin motion. The electron energy is independently measured by an electrostatic analyser and avalanche photodiodes, enabling the significant background reduction. Medium-Energy Particle experiments - ion mass analyzer (MEP-i) measures the energy, mass, and charge state of the direction of each incoming ion in the medium-energy range (180 keV/q). MEP-i thus provides the velocity distribution functions of medium-energy ions (e.g., protons and oxygens), from which we can obtain significant information on local ion energization and pitch angle scattering in the inner magnetosphere. Heavy ion measurements can also play an important role to restrict global mass transport including the ionosphere and the plasmasheet. Here we show the technical approaches, data output, and highlights of initial observations.

  19. KUALITAS PAKAN FERMENTATIF BERBAHAN KULIT UBI KAYU DENGAN INOKULAN MEP+ UNTUK KULTUR IKAN NILA GESIT (Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahiadir Ali Akbar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Feed is a major component in fish farming. However, the relatively high price of feed is very burdensome for fish farmers. Therefore a relatively low-cost solution is needed to address that problem. The use of local materials such as bran, waste mushroom, tofu, onggok starch, and skin cassava can be utilized as an alternative to reduce the needs of imported materials. However, the local materials have constraints regarding nutrition and digestibility, so an appropriate technology is required to overcome this. Improving the quality of the feed can be done by fermentation. Fermentation works by breaking macromolecules such as carbohydrates and amino acids into micromolecules, so the absorption of feed nutrients in the fish intestines become more efficient. The use of inoculants MEP+ aimed to improve the digestibility of feed, detoxification and increased the productivity of tilapia GESIT (Oreochromis niloticus. This study aimed to determine the effect of fermentation on enhancing the quality of feed nutrients made from cassava skin chips by the application of inoculant MEP+. The study was carried out experimentally using a complete randomized design. The independent variable in this study was the type of feed. Observed dependent variable was feed quality. The main parameter measured was the proximate level. Supporting parameter was the growth of tilapia GESIT. The results showed a progressive increase in the levels of nutrients of feed fermented in each treatment. The increments were recorded in treatment A from 16.15 became 21.64, in B from 13.21 became 15.46, in C from 9.66 became 11.53, and in D from 8.34 became 9.87. This result implies that the use of MEP+ fermentation inoculants could boost the nutritional content of food, with an average of the increment value of 11-15%. The increment of nutrient contents in each treatment was also affected the weight gain of fish although no significant difference were observed.

  20. Suprasegmental neurophysiological monitoring with H reflex and TcMEP in spinal surgery. Transient loss due to hypotension. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Saponaro-González

    Full Text Available Objective: H-reflex is a well known neurophysiological test used to evaluate sensory afferent and motor efferent impulses of S1 root. Despite its simplicity and feasibility, it is not used very often in the operating room. Methods: We report the case of a 16-year-old male patient who undergoes a surgical correction for a severe paralytic scoliosis (160°. On account of previous deficits, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring was achieved through TcMEP and H-reflex. Results: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM showed a transient and simultaneous loss of bilateral TcMEP and H-reflex, coinciding with an abrupt hypotension during pedicle screw placement. After having dismissed mechanical injury and after increasing blood pressure, TcMEP and H-reflex were equivalent to those at baseline. Conclusions: The H-reflex is a classic neurophysiological test not used very frequently in the operating room. It is a feasible and reliable technique that can be helpful during spine surgery IONM, especially in patients with preexisting neurological deficits. Although simultaneous TcMEP and H-reflex monitoring has been previously described, to our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of a decline in both associated with abrupt hypotension. Keywords: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, TcMEP, H-reflex, Scoliosis, Hypotension

  1. Study of the factors affecting the performance of microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) using liquid scintillation counter and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altun, Zeki; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) is a new technique for sample preparation that can be connected on-line with LC or GC. In MEPS, approximately 1-2 mg of the solid packing material is inserted into a syringe (100-250 μL) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. The bed can be packed or coated to provide selective and suitable sampling conditions. The new method is very promising for extraction of drugs and metabolites from biological samples. In this paper, some factors affecting the performance of MEPS such as recovery, carry-over, leakage, washing volume and elution volume were studied using C18 and hydroxylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (ENV+) as sorbents. Radioactively labelled bupivacaine in plasma samples was used as test analyte. For the extraction of this drug, using methanol/water 95:5 (v/v) (0.25% ammonium hydroxide) was used as elution solvent. The analyte response increased with increasing the elution volume and it was linear upp up to 100 μL utilizing liquid scintillation counter. Further, for concentrating the sample, we found that MEPS may be used such that the sample can be drawn through the needle, up and down, several times. The analyte leakage increases as the volume washing increases, though higher washing volumes may also result in cleaner extracts. To eliminate analyte carry-over, the sorbents were washed first with 3 x 250 μL elution solution and then with 3 x 250 μL washing solution. In addition, the reproducibility measurements show relatively good relative standard deviation (RSD) % values concerning analyte recovery and analyte leakage. The present study provides an understanding of basic aspects when optimizing methods for MEPS. In this study, MEPS was used off-line with liquid scintillation counter and on-line with LC-MS/MS

  2. Study of the factors affecting the performance of microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) using liquid scintillation counter and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Zeki [Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, SE-651 88 Karlstad (Sweden); Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed [Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, SE-651 88 Karlstad (Sweden); Clinical Pharmacology and DMPK, AstraZeneca R and D Soedertaelje, SE-151 85 Soedertaelje (Sweden)], E-mail: Mohamed.Abdel-Rehim@Astrazeneca.com

    2008-12-23

    Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) is a new technique for sample preparation that can be connected on-line with LC or GC. In MEPS, approximately 1-2 mg of the solid packing material is inserted into a syringe (100-250 {mu}L) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. The bed can be packed or coated to provide selective and suitable sampling conditions. The new method is very promising for extraction of drugs and metabolites from biological samples. In this paper, some factors affecting the performance of MEPS such as recovery, carry-over, leakage, washing volume and elution volume were studied using C18 and hydroxylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer (ENV+) as sorbents. Radioactively labelled bupivacaine in plasma samples was used as test analyte. For the extraction of this drug, using methanol/water 95:5 (v/v) (0.25% ammonium hydroxide) was used as elution solvent. The analyte response increased with increasing the elution volume and it was linear upp up to 100 {mu}L utilizing liquid scintillation counter. Further, for concentrating the sample, we found that MEPS may be used such that the sample can be drawn through the needle, up and down, several times. The analyte leakage increases as the volume washing increases, though higher washing volumes may also result in cleaner extracts. To eliminate analyte carry-over, the sorbents were washed first with 3 x 250 {mu}L elution solution and then with 3 x 250 {mu}L washing solution. In addition, the reproducibility measurements show relatively good relative standard deviation (RSD) % values concerning analyte recovery and analyte leakage. The present study provides an understanding of basic aspects when optimizing methods for MEPS. In this study, MEPS was used off-line with liquid scintillation counter and on-line with LC-MS/MS.

  3. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole D. Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg; and a fast T2W* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2W* signal intensity under carbogen (T+ was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2W* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  4. Early effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate assessed by anatomic and carbogen-based functional magnetic resonance imaging on rat bladder tumors implanted in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole D; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  5. Analysis of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma, urine and saliva by MEPS-LC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrioli, Roberto; Mercolini, Laura; Lateana, Domenico; Boncompagni, Giancarlo; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2011-01-15

    Risperidone is currently one of the most frequently prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs; its main active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone contributes significantly to the therapeutic effects observed. An original analytical method is presented for the simultaneous analysis of risperidone and the metabolite in plasma, urine and saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an original sample pre-treatment procedure based on micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). The assays were carried out using a C8 reversed-phase column and a mobile phase composed of 73% (v/v) acidic phosphate buffer (30 mM, pH 3.0) containing 0.23% triethylamine and 27% (v/v) acetonitrile. The UV detector was set at 238 nm and diphenhydramine was used as the internal standard. The sample pre-treatment by MEPS was carried out on a C8 sorbent. The extraction yields values were higher than 92% for risperidone and 90% for 9-hydroxyrisperidone, with RSD for precision always lower than 7.9% for both analytes. Limit of quantification values in the different matrices were 4 ng/mL or lower for risperidone and 6 ng/mL or lower for the metabolite. The method was successfully applied to plasma, urine and saliva samples from psychotic patients undergoing therapy with risperidone, with satisfactory accuracy results (recovery>89%) and no interference from other drugs. Thus, the method seems to be suitable for the therapeutic drug monitoring of schizophrenic patients using the three different biological matrices plasma, urine and saliva. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction between the PH and START domains of ceramide transfer protein competes with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate binding by the PH domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashek, Jennifer; Bouyain, Samuel; Fu, Mingui; Li, Yong; Berkes, Dusan; Yao, Xiaolan

    2017-08-25

    De novo synthesis of the sphingolipid sphingomyelin requires non-vesicular transport of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi by the multidomain protein ceramide transfer protein (CERT). CERT's N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain targets it to the Golgi by binding to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P) in the Golgi membrane, whereas its C-terminal StAR-related lipid transfer domain (START) carries out ceramide transfer. Hyperphosphorylation of a serine-rich motif immediately after the PH domain decreases both PtdIns(4)P binding and ceramide transfer by CERT. This down-regulation requires both the PH and START domains, suggesting a possible inhibitory interaction between the two domains. In this study we show that isolated PH and START domains interact with each other. The crystal structure of a PH-START complex revealed that the START domain binds to the PH domain at the same site for PtdIns(4)P-binding, suggesting that the START domain competes with PtdIns(4)P for association with the PH domain. We further report that mutations disrupting the PH-START interaction increase both PtdIns(4)P-binding affinity and ceramide transfer activity of a CERT-serine-rich phosphorylation mimic. We also found that these mutations increase the Golgi localization of CERT inside the cell, consistent with enhanced PtdIns(4)P binding of the mutant. Collectively, our structural, biochemical, and cellular investigations provide important structural insight into the regulation of CERT function and localization. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Characterization of the sterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate binding properties of Golgi-associated OSBP-related protein 9 (ORP9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Liu

    Full Text Available Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP and OSBP-related proteins (ORPS have a conserved lipid-binding fold that accommodates cholesterol, oxysterols and/or phospholipids. The diversity of OSBP/ORPs and their potential ligands has complicated the analysis of transfer and signalling properties of this mammalian gene family. In this study we explored the use of the fluorescent sterol cholestatrienol (CTL to measure sterol binding by ORP9 and competition by other putative ligands. Relative to cholesterol, CTL and dehydroergosterol (DHE were poor ligands for OSBP. In contrast, both long (ORP9L and short (ORP9S variants of ORP9 rapidly extracted CTL, and to a lesser extent DHE, from liposomes. ORP9L and ORP9S also extracted [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P from liposomes, which was inhibited by mutating two conserved histidine residues (HH488,489AA at the entrance to the binding pocket but not by a mutation in the lid region that inhibited cholesterol binding. Results of direct binding and competition assays showed that phosphatidylserine was poorly extracted from liposomes by ORP9 compared to CTL and PI-4P. ORP9L and PI-4P did not co-localize in the trans-Golgi/TGN of HeLa cells, and siRNA silencing of ORP9L expression did not affect PI-4P distribution in the Golgi apparatus. However, transient overexpression of ORP9L or ORP9S in CHO cells, but not the corresponding PI-4P binding mutants, prevented immunostaining of Golgi-associated PI-4P. The apparent sequestration of Golgi PI-4P by ORP9S was identified as a possible mechanism for its growth inhibitory effects. These studies identify ORP9 as a dual sterol/PI-4P binding protein that could regulate PI-4P in the Golgi apparatus.

  8. Characterization of the sterol and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate binding properties of Golgi-associated OSBP-related protein 9 (ORP9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinwei; Ridgway, Neale D

    2014-01-01

    Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and OSBP-related proteins (ORPS) have a conserved lipid-binding fold that accommodates cholesterol, oxysterols and/or phospholipids. The diversity of OSBP/ORPs and their potential ligands has complicated the analysis of transfer and signalling properties of this mammalian gene family. In this study we explored the use of the fluorescent sterol cholestatrienol (CTL) to measure sterol binding by ORP9 and competition by other putative ligands. Relative to cholesterol, CTL and dehydroergosterol (DHE) were poor ligands for OSBP. In contrast, both long (ORP9L) and short (ORP9S) variants of ORP9 rapidly extracted CTL, and to a lesser extent DHE, from liposomes. ORP9L and ORP9S also extracted [32P]phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI-4P) from liposomes, which was inhibited by mutating two conserved histidine residues (HH488,489AA) at the entrance to the binding pocket but not by a mutation in the lid region that inhibited cholesterol binding. Results of direct binding and competition assays showed that phosphatidylserine was poorly extracted from liposomes by ORP9 compared to CTL and PI-4P. ORP9L and PI-4P did not co-localize in the trans-Golgi/TGN of HeLa cells, and siRNA silencing of ORP9L expression did not affect PI-4P distribution in the Golgi apparatus. However, transient overexpression of ORP9L or ORP9S in CHO cells, but not the corresponding PI-4P binding mutants, prevented immunostaining of Golgi-associated PI-4P. The apparent sequestration of Golgi PI-4P by ORP9S was identified as a possible mechanism for its growth inhibitory effects. These studies identify ORP9 as a dual sterol/PI-4P binding protein that could regulate PI-4P in the Golgi apparatus.

  9. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole D.; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease post-CA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents. PMID:16867221

  10. Differential Subplastidial Localization and Turnover of Enzymes Involved in Isoprenoid Biosynthesis in Chloroplasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Perello

    Full Text Available Plastidial isoprenoids are a diverse group of metabolites with roles in photosynthesis, growth regulation, and interaction with the environment. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway produces the metabolic precursors of all types of plastidial isoprenoids. Proteomics studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that all the enzymes of the MEP pathway are localized in the plastid stroma. However, immunoblot analysis of chloroplast subfractions showed that the first two enzymes of the pathway, deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS and reductoisomerase (DXR, can also be found in non-stromal fractions. Both transient and stable expression of GFP-tagged DXS and DXR proteins confirmed the presence of the fusion proteins in distinct subplastidial compartments. In particular, DXR-GFP was found to accumulate in relatively large vesicles that could eventually be released from chloroplasts, presumably to be degraded by an autophagy-independent process. Together, we propose that protein-specific mechanisms control the localization and turnover of the first two enzymes of the MEP pathway in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

  11. Uneconomical tops of renewable electricity options. Advice with regard to the determination of the MEP subsidies for the period July up to and including December 2006 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; De Vries, H.; Cleijne, J.W.; Pfeiffer, E.A.

    2004-11-01

    On assignment of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs ECN and KEMA investigated the financial gaps of renewable electricity production technologies. These form the basis for determining the level of the MEP-subsidies (subsidy for the environmental quality of power generation) for different renewable electricity sources and technologies by the Ministry. This report contains an advice on the financial gaps that are to be used for determining the subsidy levels. The calculation of the financial gaps is based on an earlier report on the inputs for the calculations and on the subsequent stakeholder consultation with respect to these inputs. A detailed description is given of the assumptions, calculations and stakeholder inputs underlying the financial gaps for the establishment of the MEP-subsidies for new projects starting from July 2006 till December 2007 [nl

  12. Spared Primary Motor Cortex and the Presence of MEP in Cerebral Palsy Dictate the Responsiveness to tDCS During Gait Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanda Collange Grecco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current priority of investigations involving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and neurorehabilitation is to identify biomarkers associated with the positive results of the interventions such that respondent and non-respondent patients can be identified in the early phases of treatment. The aims were to determine whether; 1 present motor evoked potential (MEP and, 2 injuries involving the primary motor cortex, are associated with tDCS-enhancement in functional outcome following gait training in children with cerebral palsy (CP. We reviewed the data from our parallel, randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind studies. Fifty-six children with spastic CP received gait training (either treadmill training or virtual reality training and tDCS (active or sham. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to identify clinical, neurophysiologic and neuroanatomic predictors associated with the responsiveness to treatment with tDCS. MEP presence during the initial evaluation and the subcortical injury were associated with positive effects in the functional results. The logistic regression revealed that present MEP was a significant predictor for the six-minute walk test (p=0.003 and gait speed (p=0.028, whereas the subcortical injury was a significant predictor of gait kinematics (p=0.013 and gross motor function (p = 0.021. In this preliminary study involving children with CP, two important prediction factors of good responses to anodal tDCS combined with gait training were identified. Apparently, MEP (integrity of the corticospinal tract and subcortical location of the brain injury exerted different influences on aspects related to gait, such as velocity and kinematics.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Highly Virulent Race 4/Biovar 3 of Ralstonia solanacearum CaRs_Mep Causing Bacterial Wilt in Zingiberaceae Plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aundy; Munjal, Vibhuti; Sheoran, Neelam; Prameela, Thekkan Puthiyaveedu; Suseelabhai, Rajamma; Aggarwal, Rashmi; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Eapen, Santhosh J

    2017-01-05

    The genome of Ralstonia solanacearum CaRs_Mep, a race 4/biovar 3/phylotype I bacterium causing wilt in small cardamom and other Zingiberaceae plants, was sequenced. Analysis of the 5.7-Mb genome sequence will aid in better understanding of the genetic determinants of host range, host jump, survival, pathogenicity, and virulence of race 4 of R. solanacearum. Copyright © 2017 Kumar et al.

  14. Evidence that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) generates little-to-no reliable neurophysiologic effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation in healthy human subjects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Forte, Jason D; Carter, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of neuromodulation that is increasingly being utilized to examine and modify a number of cognitive and behavioral measures. The theoretical mechanisms by which tDCS generates these changes are predicated upon a rather large neurophysiological literature. However, a robust systematic review of this neurophysiological data has not yet been undertaken. tDCS data in healthy adults (18-50) from every neurophysiological outcome measure reported by at least two different research groups in the literature was collected. When possible, data was pooled and quantitatively analyzed to assess significance. When pooling was not possible, data was qualitatively compared to assess reliability. Of the 30 neurophysiological outcome measures reported by at least two different research groups, tDCS was found to have a reliable effect on only one: MEP amplitude. Interestingly, the magnitude of this effect has been significantly decreasing over the last 14 years. Our systematic review does not support the idea that tDCS has a reliable neurophysiological effect beyond MEP amplitude modulation - though important limitations of this review (and conclusion) are discussed. This work raises questions concerning the mechanistic foundations and general efficacy of this device - the implications of which extend to the steadily increasing tDCS psychological literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of MEP Pathway Genes and Non-volatile Sequestration Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm of Dominant Terpenoids Emission in Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riru Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Osmanthus fragrans Lour. is one of the top 10 traditional ornamental flowers in China famous for its unique fragrance. Preliminary study proved that the terpenoids including ionone, linalool, and ocimene and their derivatives are the dominant aroma-active compounds that contribute greatly to the scent bouquet. Pollination observation implies the emission of aromatic terpenoids may follow a circadian rhythm. In this study, we investigated the variation of volatile terpenoids and its potential regulators. The results showed that both volatile and non-volatile terpenoids presented circadian oscillation with high emission or accumulation during the day and low emission or accumulation during the night. The volatile terpenoids always increased to reach their maximum values at 12:00 h, while free and glycosylated compounds continued increasing throughout the day. The depletion of non-volatile pool might provide the substrates for volatile emission at 0:00–6:00, suggesting the sequestration of non-volatile compounds acted like a buffer regulating emission of terpenoids. Further detection of MEP pathway genes demonstrated that their expressions increased significantly in parallel with the evident increase of both volatile and non-volatile terpenoids during the day, indicating that the gene expressions were also closely associated with terpenoid formation. Thus, the expression of MEP pathway genes and internal sequestration both played crucial roles in modulating circadian rhythm of terpenoid emission in O. fragrans.

  16. Balanced activation of IspG and IspH to eliminate MEP intermediate accumulation and improve isoprenoids production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingyan; Fan, Feiyu; Gao, Xiang; Yang, Chen; Bi, Changhao; Tang, Jinlei; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Xueli

    2017-11-01

    The MEP pathway genes were modulated to investigate whether there were new rate-limiting steps and toxic intermediates in this pathway. Activating IspG led to significant decrease of cell growth and β-carotene production. It was found that ispG overexpression led to accumulation of intermediate HMBPP, which seriously interfered with synthesis machinery of nucleotide and protein in Escherichia coli. Activation of the downstream enzyme IspH could solve HMBPP accumulation problem and eliminate the negative effects of ispG overexpression. In addition, intermediate MECPP accumulated in the starting strain, while balanced activation of IspG and IspH could push the carbon flux away from MECPP and led to 73% and 77% increase of β-carotene and lycopene titer respectively. Our work for the first time identified HMBPP to be a cytotoxic intermediate in MEP pathway and demonstrated that balanced activation of IspG and IspH could eliminate accumulation of HMBPP and MECPP and improve isoprenoids production. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental and genetic factors associated with solanesol accumulation in potato leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Campbell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solanesol is a high value 45-carbon, unsaturated, all-trans-nonaprenol isoprenoid. Recently solanesol has received particular attention because of its utility, both in its own right and as a precursor in the production of numerous compounds used in the treatment of disease states. Solanesol is found mainly in solanaceous crops such as potato, tomato, tobacco and pepper where it accumulates in the foliage. There is considerable potential to explore the extraction of solanesol from these sources as a valuable co-product. In this study we have characterised the genetic variation in leaf solanesol content in a biparental, segregating diploid potato population. We demonstrate that potato leaf solanesol content is genetically controlled and identify several quantitative trait loci associated with leaf solanesol content. Transient over-expression of genes from the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP and mevalonic acid (MVA pathways, either singly or in combination, resulted in enhanced accumulation of solanesol in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana, providing insights for genetically engineering the pathway. We also demonstrate that in potato, leaf solanesol content is enhanced by up to six-fold on exposure to moderately elevated temperature and show corresponding changes in expression patterns of MEP and MVA genes. Our combined approaches offer new insights into solanesol accumulation and strategies for developing a bio-refinery approach to potato production.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Tocopherol Biosynthesis Genes and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Vinutha; Bansal, Navita; Kumari, Khushboo; Prashat G, Rama; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Krishnan, Veda; Kumari, Sweta; Dahuja, Anil; Lal, S K; Sachdev, Archana; Praveen, Shelly

    2017-12-20

    Tocopherols composed of four isoforms (α, β, γ, and δ) and its biosynthesis comprises of three pathways: methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP), shikimate (SK) and tocopherol-core pathways regulated by 25 enzymes. To understand pathway regulatory mechanism at transcriptional level, gene expression profile of tocopherol-biosynthesis genes in two soybean genotypes was carried out, the results showed significantly differential expression of 5 genes: 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-P-reductoisomerase (DXR), geranyl geranyl reductase (GGDR) from MEP, arogenate dehydrogenase (TyrA), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) from SK and γ-tocopherol methyl transferase 3 (γ-TMT3) from tocopherol-core pathways. Expression data were further analyzed for total tocopherol (T-toc) and α-tocopherol (α-toc) content by coregulation network and gene clustering approaches, the results showed least and strong association of γ-TMT3/tocopherol cyclase (TC) and DXR/DXS, respectively, with gene clusters of tocopherol biosynthesis suggested the specific role of γ-TMT3/TC in determining tocopherol accumulation and intricacy of DXR/DXS genes in coordinating precursor pathways toward tocopherol biosynthesis in soybean seeds. Thus, the present study provides insight into the major role of these genes regulating the tocopherol synthesis in soybean seeds.

  19. Microextraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS and Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME as Sample Preparation Procedures for the Metabolomic Profiling of Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, sample preparation was unrecognized as a critical issue in the analytical methodology, thus limiting the performance that could be achieved. However, the improvement of microextraction techniques, particularly microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS and solid-phase microextraction (SPME, completely modified this scenario by introducing unprecedented control over this process. Urine is a biological fluid that is very interesting for metabolomics studies, allowing human health and disease characterization in a minimally invasive form. In this manuscript, we will critically review the most relevant and promising works in this field, highlighting how the metabolomic profiling of urine can be an extremely valuable tool for the early diagnosis of highly prevalent diseases, such as cardiovascular, oncologic and neurodegenerative ones.

  20. Molecular structure, vibrational, UV, NMR, HOMO-LUMO, MEP, NLO, NBO analysis of 3,5 di tert butyl 4 hydroxy benzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathammal, R.; Sangeetha, K.; Sangeetha, M.; Mekala, R.; Gadheeja, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 3,5 di tert butyl 4 hydroxy benzoic acid. The properties of title compound have been evaluated by quantum chemical calculation (DFT) using B3LYP functional and 6-31 + G (d, p) as basis set. IR Spectra has been recorded using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the region 4000-400 cm-1. The vibrational assignment of the calculated normal modes has been made on the basis set. The isotropic chemical shifts computed by 13C and 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analyses also show good agreement with experimental observations. The theoretical UV-Vis spectrum of the compound are used to study the visible absorption maxima (λ max). The structure activity relationship have been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface (MEP), which is valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug receptor interactions. The Mullikan charges, HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital) - LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy are analyzed. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis is carried out to investigate the various intra and inter molecular interactions of molecular system. The Non-linear optical properties such as dipole moment (μ), polarizability (αtot) and molecular first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the title compound are computed with B3LYP/6-31 + G (d,p) level of theory.

  1. Molecular structure, spectral studies, NBO, HOMO-LUMO profile, MEP and Mulliken analysis of 3β,6β-dichloro-5α-hydroxy-5α-cholestane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahboob; Park, Soonheum

    2018-05-01

    The synthesis of 3β,6β-dichloro-5α-hydroxy-5α-cholestane (in general, steroidal chlorohydrin or steroidal halohydrin) and theoretical study of the structure are reported in this paper. The individuality of chlorohydrin was confirmed by FT-IR, NMR, MS, CHN microanalysis and X-ray crystallography. DFT calculations on the titled molecule have been performed. The molecular structure and spectra explained by Gaussian hybrid computational analysis theory (B3LYP) are found to be in correlation with the experimental data obtained from the various spectrophotometric techniques. The theoretical geometry optimization data were compared with the X-ray data. The vibrational bands appearing in the FT-IR are assigned with accuracy using harmonic frequencies along with intensities and animated modes. Molecular properties like NBO, HOMO-LUMO analysis, chemical reactivity descriptors, MEP mapping and dipole moment have been dealt at same level of theory. The calculated electronic spectrum of chlorohydrin is interpreted on the basis of TD-DFT calculations.

  2. Theoretical analysis of the binding of iron(III) protoporphyrin IX to 4-methoxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone via DFT-D3, MEP, QTAIM, NCI, ELF, and LOL studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkungli, Nyiang Kennet; Ghogomu, Julius Numbonui

    2017-07-01

    Thiosemicarbazones display diverse pharmacological properties, including antimalarial activities. Their pharmacological activities have been studied in depth, but little of this research has focused on their antimalarial mode of action. To elucidate this antimalarial mechanism, we investigated the nature of the interactions between iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)PPIX) and the thione-thiol tautomers of 4-methoxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (MAPTSC). Dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D3), the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), the noncovalent interaction (NCI) index, the electron localization function (ELF), the localized orbital locator (LOL), and thermodynamic calculations were employed in this work. Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC binding is expected to inhibit hemozoin formation, thereby preventing Fe(III)PPIX detoxification in plasmodia. Preliminary studies geared toward the identification of atomic binding sites in the thione-thiol tautomers of MAPTSC were carried out using molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) maps and conceptual DFT-based local reactivity indices. The thionic sulfur and the 2 N-azomethine nitrogen/thiol sulfur of, respectively, the thione and thiol tautomers of MAPTSC were identified as the most favorable nucleophilic sites for electrophilic attack. The negative values of the computed Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC binding energies, enthalpies, and Gibbs free energies are indicative of the existence and stability of Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC complexes. MAPTSC-Fe(III) coordinate bonds and strong hydrogen bonds (N-H···O) between the NH 2 group in MAPTSC and the C=O group in one propionate side chain of Fe(III)PPIX are crucial to Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC binding. QTAIM, NCI, ELF, and LOL analyses revealed a subtle interplay of weak noncovalent interactions dominated by dispersive-like van der Waals interactions between Fe(III)PPIX and MAPTSC that stabilize the Fe(III)PPIX-MAPTSC complexes.

  3. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…

  4. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  5. Nuclear Polluters' Charter. Council directive 96/29/EURATOM (OJ L159 29th June 1996), the 'Basic Standards Directive'; briefing for MPs and MEPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramhall, R.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear industry has huge 'back end' problems: acres of radioactive waste stacked up with no final disposal route; hundreds of thousands of tonnes of metals, glass, plastic, and concrete too 'hot' to re-use or dump. Sea dumping has been ruled out, Nirex's deep repository is back to square one, the waste mountain is growing, and hundreds of nuclear factories and power stations await decommissioning. But by May 2000 the UK and all member states are required to conform with a dangerously vague and permissive Directive, and deregulate much of this expensive, embarrassing, and harmful waste. Below certain very lax limits it will become a financial asset to be sold on the open market. What cannot be sold will be landfilled and incinerated without restriction. Ostensibly, the Directive is a 'harmonisation' of radiation exposure standards. It was promulgated by the European Commission under the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The European Parliament has no power over Euratom, and (with one exception) amendments advised by MEPs were ignored. The Directive effectively deregulates reuse, recycling, disposal, and incineration of radioactive materials below certain threshold levels. It specifically allows recycling of contaminated materials and drops a precautionary proviso used in earlier European legislation. Spokesmen from the nuclear industry, the regulators, and the Commission openly admit that there is nothing to stop hundreds of thousands of tonnes of radioactive materials from nuclear licensed sites - potentially, their entire inventory - being diluted into industrial feedstocks of recyclable materials and ending up in consumer goods, fertilisers or any product. The Commission's view is let the buyers beware if they don't want contaminated goods or raw materials. National radiation protection agencies which advise the Commission and national governments claim that there is no threat to health, according to internationally accepted radiation risk factors. But those same

  6. MEPs : ban hammer, sickle and swastika

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Europarlamendi liikmete Vytautas Landsbergise ja Jozsef Szajeri avalduse kohaselt tuleks Euroopa Liidus ettevalmistatava seaduse raames, mis keelustaks natsisümboli - haakristi - kasutamise, keelata ka kommunismi sümboolika kasutamine

  7. Estonian MEPs : common energy policy unlikely

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Euroopa Parlamendi liikmed Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja Andres Tarand kahtlevad, kas Euroopa Liit on valmis pakkuma ühtset energiapoliitikat. Energeetiline julgeolek Euroopas. Baltimaade ja Skandinaavia energeetikaalane koostöö

  8. Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the…

  9. Terpenoids and Their Biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagmi Pattanaik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, or isoprenoids, are a family of compounds with great structural diversity which are essential for all living organisms. In cyanobacteria, they are synthesized from the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP pathway, using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate produced by photosynthesis as substrates. The products of the MEP pathway are the isomeric five-carbon compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, which in turn form the basic building blocks for formation of all terpenoids. Many terpenoid compounds have useful properties and are of interest in the fields of pharmaceuticals and nutrition, and even potentially as future biofuels. The MEP pathway, its function and regulation, and the subsequent formation of terpenoids have not been fully elucidated in cyanobacteria, despite its relevance for biotechnological applications. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about cyanobacterial terpenoid biosynthesis, both regarding the native metabolism and regarding metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for heterologous production of non-native terpenoids.

  10. Terpenoids and Their Biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Bagmi; Lindberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Terpenoids, or isoprenoids, are a family of compounds with great structural diversity which are essential for all living organisms. In cyanobacteria, they are synthesized from the methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate produced by photosynthesis as substrates. The products of the MEP pathway are the isomeric five-carbon compounds isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, which in turn form the basic building blocks for formation of all terpenoids. Many terpenoid compounds have useful properties and are of interest in the fields of pharmaceuticals and nutrition, and even potentially as future biofuels. The MEP pathway, its function and regulation, and the subsequent formation of terpenoids have not been fully elucidated in cyanobacteria, despite its relevance for biotechnological applications. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge about cyanobacterial terpenoid biosynthesis, both regarding the native metabolism and regarding metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for heterologous production of non-native terpenoids. PMID:25615610

  11. MEP parabolic hydrodynamical model for holes in silicon semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascali, G.; Romano, V.; Sellier, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Consistent hydrodynamical models for electron transport in semi-conductors, free of any fitting parameter, have been formulated on the basis of the maximum entropy principle in Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 11 (1999) 307, 12 (2000) 31 for silicon and in Continuum Mech. Thermodyn., 14 (2002) 405 for GaAs. In this paper we use the same approach for studying the hole transport in Si, by considering a parabolic approximation for the valence energy band. Scattering of holes with non-polar optical phonons, acoustic phonons and impurities have been taken into account. On the basis of these results, a limiting energy-transport model and an explicit expression for the low field hole mobility have been obtained. The high field mobility is also analyzed by taking into account the influence of impurities

  12. Lithuanian MEP loses his immunity / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2010-01-01

    7. septembril otsustas Euroopa Parlament parlamendisaadiku Viktor Uspaskihhi puutumatuse ära võtta, kuna teda kahtlustatakse Tööerakonna raamatupidamise võltsimises. Viktor Uspaskihhi poliitilisest tegevusest

  13. MEP : Political parties funded by bribes / Steven Paulikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulikas, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Leedu Sotsiaaldemokraatliku Partei liikme, Euroopa Parlamendi saadiku Aloyzas Sakalase hinnangul finantseeritakse Leedu parteisid altkäemaksudest ja korruptsioonis süüdistatavad parlamendiliikmed tegutsesid oma parteide nimel

  14. Inclusive cross sections in ME+PS merging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaetzer, Simon

    2013-07-01

    We discuss an extension of matrix element plus parton shower merging at leading and next-to-leading order. The algorithm does preserve inclusive cross sections at the respective input order. This constraint avoids potentially large logarithmic contributions, which would require approximate (N)NLO contributions to cancel against.

  15. A novel synthesis of octahydropyrido[3,2-c]carbazole framework of aspidospermidine alkaloids and a combined computational, FT-IR, NMR, NBO, NLO, FMO, MEP study of the cis-4a-Ethyl-1-(2hydroxyethyl)-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,11c-octahydro-1H-pyrido[3,2-c]carbazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludağ, Nesimi; Serdaroğlu, Goncagul; Yinanc, Abdullah

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we performed a novel synthesis of the octahydropyrido[3,2-c]carbazole derivative 6 from 1 in five steps with a 34% overall yield. We also developed a unique compound 2 by a cyclization reaction from the cyanoethylation of compound 1, which is an intermediate step in the synthesis of Aspidospermidine. The parent compound of Aspidospermidine alkaloids, comprise a large family of diverse structures. As a result, we obtained octahydropyrido[3,2-c]carbazole (6)and the proposed method may be applicable to other alkaloids. All quantum chemical calculations of the cis-4a-Ethyl-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,11c-octahydro-1H-pyrido[3,2-c]carbazole have been performed with the DFT/B3LYP and HF methods by using the Gaussian 09W software package. The most stable conformer obtained from the Potential Energy Surface (PES) scan analysis at the B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory in the gas phase was used as the starting structure of the title compound to further computational analysis. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and NLO analyses were performed to evaluate the intra-molecular interactions contributing to the molecular stability and to predict the optical properties of the title compound, respectively. Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) approach was used to determine the 1H and 1C NMR chemical shifts of the title compound by subtracting the shielding constants of TMS at both methods. The calculated vibrational frequencies of the title compound were assigned by using the VEDA program and were scaled down by using the scaling factor 0.9668 for B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) and 0.9050 for HF/6-311++G(d, p) to improve the calculated vibrational frequencies. The FMO (frontier molecular orbital) analysis was evaluated to predict the chemical and physical properties of the title compound and the HOMO, LUMO, and MEP diagrams were visualized by GaussView 4.1 program to present the reactive site of the title compound.

  16. De novo fragment-based design of inhibitors of DXS guided by spin-diffusion-based NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masini, T.; Pilger, J.; Kroezen, B. S.; Illarionov, B.; Lottmann, P.; Fischer, M.; Griesinger, C.; Hirsch, A. K. H.

    We applied for the first time an innovative ligand-based NMR methodology (STI) to a medicinal-chemistry project aimed at the development of inhibitors for the enzyme 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS). DXS is the first enzyme of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway,

  17. Dynamics of Monoterpene Formation in Spike Lavender Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mendoza-Poudereux

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic cross-talk between the mevalonate (MVA and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathways was analyzed in spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med on the basis of 13CO2-labelling experiments using wildtype and transgenic plants overexpressing the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR, the first and key enzyme of the MVA pathway. The plants were labelled in the presence of 13CO2 in a gas chamber for controlled pulse and chase periods of time. GC/MS and NMR analysis of 1,8-cineole and camphor, the major monoterpenes present in their essential oil, indicated that the C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP of both monoterpenes are predominantly biosynthesized via the MEP pathway. Surprisingly, overexpression of HMGR did not have significant impact upon the crosstalk between the MVA and MEP pathways indicating that the MEP route is the preferred pathway for the synthesis of C5 monoterpene precursors in spike lavender.

  18. Optimization of the IPP precursor supply for the production of lycopene, decaprenoxanthin and astaxanthin by Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine A.E. Heider

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnologically relevant bacterium C. glutamicum, currently used for the million ton-scale production of amino acids for the food and feed industries, is pigmented due to synthesis of the rare cyclic C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin and its glucosides. The precursors of carotenoid biosynthesis, isopenthenyl pyrophosphate (IPP and its isomer dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP, are synthesized in this organism via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP or non-mevalonate pathway. Terminal pathway engineering in recombinant C. glutamicum permitted the production of various nonnative C50 and C40 carotenoids. Here, the role of engineering isoprenoid precursor supply for lycopene production by C. glutamicum was characterized. Overexpression of dxs encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of the MEP-pathway by chromosomal promoter exchange in a prophage-cured, genome-reduced C. glutamicum strain improved lycopene formation. Similarly, an increased IPP supply was achieved by chromosomal integration of two artificial operons comprising MEP pathway genes under the control of a constitutive promoter. Combined overexpression of dxs and the other six MEP pathways genes in C. glutamicum strain LYC3-MEP was not synergistic with respect to improving lycopene accumulation. Based on C. glutamicum strain LYC3-MEP astaxanthin could be produced in the mg per g cell dry weight range when the endogenous genes crtE, crtB and crtI for conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to lycopene were coexpressed with the genes for lycopene cyclase and β-carotene hydroxylase from Pantoea ananatis and carotene C(4 oxygenase from Brevundimonas aurantiaca.

  19. Optimization of the IPP Precursor Supply for the Production of Lycopene, Decaprenoxanthin and Astaxanthin by Corynebacterium glutamicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heider, Sabine A. E.; Wolf, Natalie; Hofemeier, Arne; Peters-Wendisch, Petra; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2014-01-01

    The biotechnologically relevant bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, currently used for the million ton-scale production of amino acids for the food and feed industries, is pigmented due to synthesis of the rare cyclic C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin and its glucosides. The precursors of carotenoid biosynthesis, isopenthenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, are synthesized in this organism via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) or non-mevalonate pathway. Terminal pathway engineering in recombinant C. glutamicum permitted the production of various non-native C50 and C40 carotenoids. Here, the role of engineering isoprenoid precursor supply for lycopene production by C. glutamicum was characterized. Overexpression of dxs encoding the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of the MEP-pathway by chromosomal promoter exchange in a prophage-cured, genome-reduced C. glutamicum strain improved lycopene formation. Similarly, an increased IPP supply was achieved by chromosomal integration of two artificial operons comprising MEP pathway genes under the control of a constitutive promoter. Combined overexpression of dxs and the other six MEP pathways genes in C. glutamicum strain LYC3-MEP was not synergistic with respect to improving lycopene accumulation. Based on C. glutamicum strain LYC3-MEP, astaxanthin could be produced in the milligrams per gram cell dry weight range when the endogenous genes crtE, crtB, and crtI for conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to lycopene were coexpressed with the genes for lycopene cyclase and β-carotene hydroxylase from Pantoea ananatis and carotene C(4) oxygenase from Brevundimonas aurantiaca.

  20. Nanoscale domain formation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate in the plasma and vacuolar membranes of living yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioku, Kan-Na; Shigekuni, Mikiko; Hayashi, Hiroki; Yoshida, Akane; Futagami, Taiki; Tamaki, Hisanori; Tanabe, Kenji; Fujita, Akikazu

    2018-05-01

    In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PtdIns(4)P serves as an essential signalling molecule in the Golgi complex, endosomal system, and plasma membrane, where it is involved in the control of multiple cellular functions via direct interactions with PtdIns(4)P-binding proteins. To analyse the distribution of PtdIns(4)P in yeast cells at a nanoscale level, we employed an electron microscopy technique that specifically labels PtdIns(4)P on the freeze-fracture replica of the yeast membrane. This method minimizes the possibility of artificial perturbation, because molecules in the membrane are physically immobilised in situ. We observed that PtdIns(4)P is localised on the cytoplasmic leaflet, but not the exoplasmic leaflet, of the plasma membrane, Golgi body, vacuole, and vesicular structure membranes. PtdIns(4)P labelling was not observed in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, and in the outer and inner membranes of the nuclear envelope or mitochondria. PtdIns(4)P forms clusters of plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane according to point pattern analysis of immunogold labelling. There are three kinds of compartments in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. In the present study, we showed that PtdIns(4)P is specifically localised in the flat undifferentiated plasma membrane compartment. In the vacuolar membrane, PtdIns(4)P was concentrated in intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient raft-like domains, which are tightly bound to lipid droplets, but not surrounding IMP-rich non-raft domains in geometrical IMP-distributed patterns in the stationary phase. This is the first report showing microdomain formations of PtdIns(4)P in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane of budding yeast cells at a nanoscale level, which will illuminate the functionality of PtdIns(4)P in each membrane. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.M.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Zhang, Y.; Gadella, Th.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair-defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed

  2. Lipophilic prodrugs of FR900098 are antimicrobial against Francisella novicida in vivo and in vitro and show GlpT independent efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S McKenney

    Full Text Available Bacteria, plants, and algae produce isoprenoids through the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway, an attractive pathway for antimicrobial drug development as it is present in prokaryotes and some lower eukaryotes but absent from human cells. The first committed step of the MEP pathway is catalyzed by 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR/MEP synthase. MEP pathway genes have been identified in many biothreat agents, including Francisella, Brucella, Bacillus, Burkholderia, and Yersinia. The importance of the MEP pathway to Francisella is demonstrated by the fact that MEP pathway mutations are lethal. We have previously established that fosmidomycin inhibits purified MEP synthase (DXR from F. tularensis LVS. FR900098, the acetyl derivative of fosmidomycin, was found to inhibit the activity of purified DXR from F. tularensis LVS (IC(50=230 nM. Fosmidomycin and FR900098 are effective against purified DXR from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well, but have no effect on whole cells because the compounds are too polar to penetrate the thick cell wall. Fosmidomycin requires the GlpT transporter to enter cells, and this is absent in some pathogens, including M. tuberculosis. In this study, we have identified the GlpT homologs in F. novicida and tested transposon insertion mutants of glpT. We showed that FR900098 also requires GlpT for full activity against F. novicida. Thus, we synthesized several FR900098 prodrugs that have lipophilic groups to facilitate their passage through the bacterial cell wall and bypass the requirement for the GlpT transporter. One compound, that we termed "compound 1," was found to have GlpT-independent antimicrobial activity. We tested the ability of this best performing prodrug to inhibit F. novicida intracellular infection of eukaryotic cell lines and the caterpillar Galleria mellonella as an in vivo infection model. As a lipophilic GlpT-independent DXR inhibitor, compound 1 has the potential to be a broad

  3. Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals partially rate-limiting product release by parallel pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Murkin, Andrew S

    2012-07-03

    As part of the non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl pyrophosphate, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) reductoisomerase (DXR) catalyzes the conversion of DXP into 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) by consecutive isomerization and NADPH-dependent reduction reactions. Because this pathway is essential to many infectious organisms but is absent in humans, DXR is a target for drug discovery. In an attempt to characterize its kinetic mechanism and identify rate-limiting steps, we present the first complete transient kinetic investigation of DXR. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements with Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXR (MtDXR) revealed that NADPH and MEP bind to the free enzyme and that the two bind together to generate a nonproductive ternary complex. Unlike the Escherichia coli orthologue, MtDXR exhibited a burst in the oxidation of NADPH during pre-steady-state reactions, indicating a partially rate-limiting step follows chemistry. By monitoring NADPH fluorescence during these experiments, the transient generation of MtDXR·NADPH·MEP was observed. Global kinetic analysis supports a model involving random substrate binding and ordered release of NADP(+) followed by MEP. The partially rate-limiting release of MEP occurs via two pathways--directly from the binary complex and indirectly via the MtDXR·NADPH·MEP complex--the partitioning being dependent on NADPH concentration. Previous mechanistic studies, including kinetic isotope effects and product inhibition, are discussed in light of this kinetic mechanism.

  4. 77 FR 37653 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Centers for Arizona, Maryland and Rhode Island...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... committed local partners and demonstrated experience of the leadership team in manufacturing, outreach and.../FR-2008-02-11/pdf/E8-2482.pdf . Employer/Taxpayer Identification Number (EIN/TIN), Dun and Bradstreet...

  5. 77 FR 12563 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Centers for South Dakota and Kentucky; Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    .... This includes committed local partners and demonstrated experience of the leadership team in.../FR-2008-02-11/pdf/E8-2482.pdf . Employer/Taxpayer Identification Number (EIN/TIN), Dun and Bradstreet...

  6. 78 FR 21109 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Center for Nebraska; Availability of Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Generation Strategies: Continuous Improvement, Technology Acceleration, Supplier Development (Supply Chain... Administration questions should be addressed to: Scott McNichol, Grants and Agreements Management Division..., and strengthen the global competitiveness of primarily small- and medium-sized U.S.-based...

  7. 78 FR 34346 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST MEP Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... spur job creation through a variety of projects, including initiatives that connect innovative small... National Science Foundation. Ten Award Recipients were selected though a competitive multi- agency grant..., and additional investment. These figures will be used to determine the effectiveness of the project...

  8. Order no 000039/MEP/DGE from may 12,2014 provides for the organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foumakoye, Gado

    2014-01-01

    Of this order, it is created within the Ministry of Energy and Oil, a cell called cell energy planning of Niger. The cell members are appointed by order of the Minister in charge of Energy on the proposal of the General Secretary and they like tasks: - collect, analyze, validate and organize the energy data - Establish a network of data providers - educate and train providers produce data disaggregated data - prepare each year the national energy balance - energy define indicators to monitor the priorities of the national energy policy. This cell, it is attached to the General Secretary and it operates in collaboration with the Ministries and structures involved in energy planning. [fr

  9. Development of MEPS-UHPLC-MS/MS multistatin methods for clinical analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčková, H.; Svoboda, P.; Novák, Ondřej; Solich, P.; Nováková, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2016), s. 333-349 ISSN 1757-6180 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : bioanalysis * dwell time * interconversion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.673, year: 2016

  10. Rhinovirus uses a phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate/cholesterol counter-current for the formation of replication compartments at the ER-Golgi interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, Pascal S; Lötzerich, Mark; Torta, Federico; Tanner, Lukas B; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156614723; Wenk, Markus R; Greber, Urs F

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other positive-strand RNA viruses, rhinovirus, the causative agent of the common cold, replicates on a web of cytoplasmic membranes, orchestrated by host proteins and lipids. The host pathways that facilitate the formation and function of the replication membranes and complexes are poorly

  11. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging allows monitoring the effect of combretastatin A4 phosphate on rabbit implanted VX2 tumor model: 12-Day dynamic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Haibo; Ni Yicheng; Dai Xu; Zhang Jian; Chen Feng; Fan, Guoguang; Sun Ziping; Li Yaming; Zhou Hongxu; Xu Ke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the 12-day dynamic characteristics of tumor response to intravenous administration of CA4P in rabbit VX2 tumor models. Methods: Study protocol was approved by local ethical committee for animal care and use. Sixteen rabbits with 32 tumors on bilateral legs were randomly divided into treated and control groups. Conventional and DWI images were acquired before and 24 h, 4 days, 8 days and 12 days after treatment. The dynamic changes of tumor on images were correlated with histological results. ADCs were compared among and between groups at different time points. Results: The tumors in treated group grew slower than those in control group. In treaded group, the mean ADC decreased slightly at 24 h point due to cell edema caused by ischemia. Then, it increased significantly at 4 days and 8 days because of progressive central necrosis. Finally, peripheral tumor proliferation caused a second decrease of ADC at 12 days. The significant difference of ΔADC% between the two groups at 24 h, 4 days and 8 days indicated that the change of ADC in treated group was really caused by CA4P. Conclusion: The dynamic histological changes of tumor caused by CA4P as reflected exactly by diffusion-weighted MR imaging indicate a noninvasive measure for monitoring tumor vascular targeting treatment.

  12. Intergroup friendships in intractable conflicts : a case study of the Middle East Program for Young Leaders (MEP)

    OpenAIRE

    Breivik, Norunn

    2006-01-01

    The contact hypothesis proposes that interaction of different groups reduces intergroup prejudice if certain optimal conditions are present (e.g. Allport, 1958). Critics, though, have pointed to the danger of research built on the contact hypothesis of Gordon Allport being applicable only in rare contexts, under highly idealized conditions (e.g. Dixon et al. 2005: 1). The generalisation of such research may not be useful in specific contexts where these conditions are lacking. When applied to...

  13. Up-to-Date on Preventive Care Services Under Affordable Care Act: A Trend Analysis From MEPS 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Rock; Jo, Ara; Mainous, Arch G

    2017-08-01

    The utilization of preventive care services has been less than optimal. As part of an effort to address this, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandated that private health insurance plans cover evidence-based preventive services. To evaluate whether the provisions of ACA have increased being up-to-date on recommended preventive care services among privately insured individuals aged 18-64. Multivariate linear regression models were used to examine trends in prevalence of being up-to-date on selected preventive services, diagnosis of health conditions, and health expenditures between pre-ACA (2007-2010) and post-ACA (2011-2014). Adjusted difference-in-difference analyses were used to estimate changes in those outcomes in the privately insured that differed from changes in the uninsured (control group). After the passage of ACA, up-to-date rates of routine checkup (2.7%; 95% confidence interval, 0.8%-4.7%; P=0.007) and flu vaccination (5.9%; 95% confidence interval, 4.2%-7.6%; Ppreventive care services. Additional efforts may be required to take full advantage of the elimination of cost-sharing under the ACA.

  14. Estonian President and ex-MEP Toomas Ilves : new states "open to change" / Toomas Hendrik Ilves ; [interv. Kristiina Randmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2007-01-01

    President T.H. Ilvese intervjuu Euroopa Parlamendi internetiväljaandele. President räägib oma töökogemustest Euroopa Parlamendi saadikuna, Euroopa Liidu uute liikmesriikide erinevustest, Euroopa Liidu ja Venemaa suhetest, Eesti infotehnoloogilisest arengust

  15. Effect of light on 2H/1H fractionation in lipids from continuous cultures of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Julian P.; Maloney, Ashley E.; Gregersen, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    Continuous cultures of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana were grown at irradiances between 6 and 47 μmol m-2 s-1 in order to evaluate the effect of light on hydrogen isotope fractionation in lipids. δ2H values increased with irradiance in phytol by 1.1‰ (μmol m-2 s-1)-1 and by 0.3‰ (μmol m-2 s-1)-1 in the C14:0 fatty acid, but decreased by 0.8‰ (μmol m-2 s-1)-1 in the sterol 24-methyl-cholesta-5,24(28)-dien-3β-ol (C28Δ5,24(28)). The anticorrelation between δ2H values in C28Δ5,24(28) and irradiance is attributed to enhanced sterol precursor synthesis via the plastidic methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway at high irradiance, relative to the cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway, and the supposition that MEP precursors are 2H-depleted compared to MVA precursors because they incorporate a greater proportion of hydrogen from photosynthetically produced NADPH. Increasing δ2H values of phytol and C14:0 with irradiance is attributed to a greater proportion of pyruvate, the last common precursor to both lipids, being sourced from glycolysis in the mitochondria and cytosol, where enhanced incorporation of metabolic NADPH and further hydrogen exchange with cell water can enrich pyruvate with 2H relative to pyruvate from the chloroplast. Irrespective of the biosynthetic mechanisms responsible for the 2H/1H fractionation response to light, the high sensitivity of lipid δ2H values in T. pseudonana continuous cultures would result in -30‰ to +40‰ variations in δ2H over a 40 μmol m-2 s-1 range in sub-saturating irradiance if expressed in the environment, depending on the lipid.

  16. Expression of Terpenoid Biosynthetic Genes and Accumulation of Chemical Constituents in Valeriana fauriei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ji Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana fauriei (V. fauriei, which emits a characteristic and unpleasant odor, is important in traditional medicine. In this study, the expression of terpenoid biosynthetic genes was investigated in different organs that were also screened for volatile compounds including valerenic acid and its derivatives. Specific expression patterns from different parts of V. fauriei were observed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The highest transcript levels of biosynthetic genes involved in mevalonic acid (MVA and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP production were found in the stem. Although the amounts of volatile compounds were varied by organ, most of the volatile terpenoids were accumulated in the root. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis identified 128 volatile compounds, which represented 65.33% to 95.66% of total volatiles. Certain compounds were only found in specific organs. For example, isovalerenic acid and valerenic acid and its derivatives were restricted to the root. Organs with high transcript levels did not necessarily have high levels of the corresponding chemical constituents. According to these results, we hypothesize that translocation may occur between different organs in V. fauriei.

  17. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome-based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome (GT) was carried out. In addition to the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPSs) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (three from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  18. Isoprenoid biosynthesis in eukaryotic phototrophs: A spotlight on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohr M.; Schwender J.; Polle, J. E. W.

    2012-04-01

    Isoprenoids are one of the largest groups of natural compounds and have a variety of important functions in the primary metabolism of land plants and algae. In recent years, our understanding of the numerous facets of isoprenoid metabolism in land plants has been rapidly increasing, while knowledge on the metabolic network of isoprenoids in algae still lags behind. Here, current views on the biochemistry and genetics of the core isoprenoid metabolism in land plants and in the major algal phyla are compared and some of the most pressing open questions are highlighted. Based on the different evolutionary histories of the various groups of eukaryotic phototrophs, we discuss the distribution and regulation of the mevalonate (MVA) and the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways in land plants and algae and the potential consequences of the loss of the MVA pathway in groups such as the green algae. For the prenyltransferases, serving as gatekeepers to the various branches of terpenoid biosynthesis in land plants and algae, we explore the minimal inventory necessary for the formation of primary isoprenoids and present a preliminary analysis of their occurrence and phylogeny in algae with primary and secondary plastids. The review concludes with some perspectives on genetic engineering of the isoprenoid metabolism in algae.

  19. Una revisión sobre la producción de taxoides anticancerígenos en cultivos in vitro de callos y células de Taxus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Jair Barrales Cureño

    2013-07-01

    Palabras clave: cáncer, biotecnología, metabolismo secundario, taxol, Taxaceae.  Abstract: The taxoids are polioxigenated diterpenes from the metabolic pathway of the 2-methyl-erythritol 4-phosphate whose biosynthesis is generated in the plastides. The importance of the taxoides including taxol, in the area of human medicine is very valuable due to the use in oncology, drug used against breast, lung and ovarian cancer. The species of trees of Taxus spp. are in danger of extinction due to logging immoderate, to the low reproduction rate, slow growth; therefore, the plant tissue culture in vitro is a biotechnological alternative high-impact and a great help to the knowledge of the production of the taxoides to level in vitro and above all, for the conservation of this valuable natural resource. The objectives of this article are to determine some general information about the geographical distribution of Taxus spp.; chemical characteristics of taxoids, biological mechanism of action of taxol; path of biosynthesis, methods of extraction and analysis of the taxoids and a current review of the production of taxoids in situ and in vitro cultures and cells of Taxus spp.  Key words: cancer, biotechnology, secondary metabolism, taxol, Taxaceae.

  20. Enhanced accumulation of phytosterols and phenolic compounds in cyclodextrin-elicited cell suspension culture of Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras-Moreno, Begoña; Almagro, Lorena; Pedreño, M A; Sabater-Jara, Ana Belén

    2016-09-01

    In this work, suspension-cultured cells of Daucus carota were used to evaluate the effect of β-cyclodextrins on the production of isoprenoid and phenolic compounds. The results showed that the phytosterols and phenolic compounds were accumulated in the extracellular medium (15100μgL(-1) and 477.46μgL(-1), respectively) in the presence of cyclodextrins. Unlike the phytosterol and phenolic compound content, β-carotene (1138.03μgL(-1)), lutein (25949.54μgL(-1)) and α-tocopherol (8063.82μgL(-1)) chlorophyll a (1625.13μgL(-1)) and b (9.958 (9958.33μgL(-1)) were mainly accumulated inside the cells. Therefore, cyclodextrins were able to induce the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, increasing the biosynthesis of phytosterols and phenolic compounds, and accumulate them outside the cells. However, in the absence of these cyclic oligosaccharidic elicitors, carrot cells mainly accumulated carotenoids through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Therefore, the use of cyclodextrins would allow the extracellular accumulation of both phytosterols and phenolic compounds by diverting the carbon flux towards the cytosolic mevalonate/phenylpropanoid pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sterol partitioning by HMGR and DXR for routing intermediates toward withanolide biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shefali; Pal, Shaifali; Shanker, Karuna; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Withanolides biosynthesis in the plant Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is hypothesized to be diverged from sterol pathway at the level of 24-methylene cholesterol. The conversion and translocation of intermediates for sterols and withanolides are yet to be characterized in this plant. To understand the influence of mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways on sterols and withanolides biosynthesis in planta, we overexpressed the WsHMGR2 and WsDXR2 in tobacco, analyzed the effect of transient suppression through RNAi, inhibited MVA and MEP pathways and fed the leaf tissue with different sterols. Overexpression of WsHMGR2 increased cycloartenol, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol compared to WsDXR2 transgene lines. Increase in cholesterol was, however, marginally higher in WsDXR2 transgenic lines. This was further validated through transient suppression analysis, and pathway inhibition where cholesterol reduction was found higher due to WsDXR2 suppression and all other sterols were affected predominantly by WsHMGR2 suppression in leaf. The transcript abundance and enzyme analysis data also correlate with sterol accumulation. Cholesterol feeding did not increase the withanolide content compared to cycloartenol, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol. Hence, a preferential translocation of carbon from MVA and MEP pathways was found differentiating the sterols types. Overall results suggested that MVA pathway was predominant in contributing intermediates for withanolides synthesis mainly through the campesterol/stigmasterol route in planta. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. A high-yield co-expression system for the purification of an intact drs2p-cdc50p lipid flippase complex, critically dependent on and stabilized by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azouaoui, Hassina; Montigny, Cédric; Ash, Miriam-Rose

    2014-01-01

    , the Drs2p-Cdc50p complex. After recovery of yeast membranes expressing both proteins, efficient purification was achieved in a single step by affinity chromatography on streptavidin beads, yielding ∼1-2 mg purified Drs2p-Cdc50p complex per liter of culture. Importantly, the procedure enabled us to recover...... was critically dependent on the simultaneous presence of PI4P and PS. We also identified a prominent role for PI4P in stabilization of the Drs2p-Cdc50p complex towards temperature- or C12E8-induced irreversible inactivation. These results indicate that the Drs2p-Cdc50p complex remains functional after affinity...... purification and that PI4P as a cofactor tightly controls its stability and catalytic activity. This work offers appealing perspectives for detailed structural and functional characterization of the Drs2p-Cdc50p lipid transport mechanism....

  3. A high-yield co-expression system for the purification of an intact drs2p-cdc50p lipid flippase complex, critically dependent on and stabilized by phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azouaoui, Hassina; Montigny, Cédric; Ash, Miriam-Rose

    2014-01-01

    P-type ATPases from the P4 subfamily (P4-ATPases) are energy-dependent transporters, which are thought to establish lipid asymmetry in eukaryotic cell membranes. Together with their Cdc50 accessory subunits, P4-ATPases couple ATP hydrolysis to lipid transport from the exoplasmic to the cytoplasmic...... leaflet of plasma membranes, late Golgi membranes, and endosomes. To gain insights into the structure and function of these important membrane pumps, robust protocols for expression and purification are required. In this report, we present a procedure for high-yield co-expression of a yeast flippase......, the Drs2p-Cdc50p complex. After recovery of yeast membranes expressing both proteins, efficient purification was achieved in a single step by affinity chromatography on streptavidin beads, yielding ∼1-2 mg purified Drs2p-Cdc50p complex per liter of culture. Importantly, the procedure enabled us to recover...

  4. Measuring the absolute disintegration rate of a radioactive gas with a moveable endplate discharge counter (MEP) and theoretical calculation of wall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffey, A.H.; Gray, J.; Bentley, W.C.; Lerner, J.L.

    1987-09-01

    A precision built moveable endplate Geiger-Mueller counter was used to measure the absolute disintegration rate of a beta-emitting radioactive gas. A Geiger-Mueller counter used for measuring gaseous radioactivity has 85 Kr (beta energy, 0.67 MeV). The wall effect calculation is readily extendable to other beta energies

  5. A combination of whey protein and potassium bicarbonate supplements during head-down-tilt bed rest: Presentation of a multidisciplinary randomized controlled trial (MEP study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Mulder, Edwin; Noppe, Alexandra; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Angerer, Oliver; Rudwill, Floriane; Biolo, Gianni; Smith, Scott M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Heer, Martina

    2014-02-01

    Inactivity, as it appears during space flight and in bed rest, induces reduction of lean body and bone mass, glucose intolerance, and weakening of the cardiovascular system. Increased protein intake, whey protein in particular, has been proposed to counteract some of these effects, but has also been associated with negative effects on bone, likely caused by a correspondingly high ratio of acid to alkali precursors in the diet.

  6. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra, MEP, HOMO-LUMO and NBO analysis of Hf(SeO3)(SeO4)(H2O)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankova, Rumyana; Genieva, Svetlana; Halachev, Nenko; Dimitrova, Ginka

    2016-02-01

    Hf(SeO3)(SeO4)(H2O)4 was obtained with the hydrothermal synthesis. The geometry optimization of this molecule was done by Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d) basis set and LANL2DZ for Hf. The experimental infrared spectrum was compared with calculated and complete vibrational assignment was provided. The bond orders and the electronic properties of the molecule were calculated. The natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) was performed in order to study the intramolecular bonding interactions among bonds and delocalization of unpaired electrons. The calculated highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) with frontier orbital gap were presented. The electrostatic potential was calculated in order to investigate the reaction properties of the molecule. The thermodynamic properties of the studied compound at different temperatures were calculated.

  7. Employment exit and entry among U.S. adults with and without arthritis during the Great Recession. A longitudinal study: 2007-2009, NHIS/MEPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, K A; Roblin, D; Helmick, C G; Luo, R

    2018-05-28

    Negative employment consequences of arthritis are known but not fully understood. Examining transitions in and out of work can provide valuable information. To examine associations of arthritis with employment during the Great Recession and predictors of employment transitions. Data were for 3,277 adults ages 30-62 years with and without arthritis from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey followed in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2008-2009. Employment (working vs. not working) was ascertained at baseline and five follow-ups. We estimated Kaplan Meier survival curves with 95% confidence intervals (CI) separately for time to stopping work (working at baseline) and starting work (not working at baseline) using Cox proportional hazards regression models with hazard ratios (HR). Arthritis was significantly associated with greater risk of stopping work (HR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3-2.2; adjusted HR= 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0) and significantly associated with 40% lower chance of starting work (HR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4-0.8); which reversed on adjustment (HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.2). Employment predictors were mixed by outcome. During the Great Recession, adults with arthritis stopped work at higher rates and started work at lower rates than those without arthritis.

  8. Validation of a homology model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXS: rationalization of observed activities of thiamine derivatives as potent inhibitors of two orthologues of DXS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, T; Lacy, B; Monjas, L; Hawksley, D; de Voogd, A R; Illarionov, B; Iqbal, A; Leeper, F J; Fischer, M; Kontoyianni, M; Hirsch, A K H

    2015-12-14

    The enzyme DXS catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP, 1) pathway using thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) as cofactor; the DXS-catalyzed reaction constitutes also the first step in vitamin B1 and B6 metabolism in bacteria. DXS is the least studied among the enzymes of this pathway in terms of crystallographic information, with only one complete crystal structure deposited in the Protein Data Bank (Deinococcus radiodurans DXS, PDB: ). We synthesized a series of thiamine and ThDP derivatives and tested them for their biochemical activity against two DXS orthologues, namely D. radiodurans DXS and Mycobacterium tuberculosis DXS. These experimental results, combined with advanced docking studies, led to the development and validation of a homology model of M. tuberculosis DXS, which, in turn, will guide medicinal chemists in rationally designing potential inhibitors for M. tuberculosis DXS.

  9. Transcript Quantification of Genes Involved in Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Arpan; Kumar, Nitish; Narayanan, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a medicinal plant having sweet, diterpenoid glycosides known as steviol glycosides which are 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose (0.4 % solution). They are synthesized mainly in the leaves via plastid localized 2-C-methyl-D-erythrose-4-phosphate pathway (MEP pathway). Fifteen genes are involved in the formation of these glycosides. In the present protocol, a method for the quantification of transcripts of these genes is shown. The work involves RNA extraction and cDNA preparation, and therefore, procedures for the confirmation of DNA-free cDNA preparation have also been illustrated. Moreover, details of plant treatments are not mentioned as this protocol may apply to relative gene expression profile in any medicinal plant with any treatment. The treatments are numbered as T0 (Control), T1, T2, T3, and T4.

  10. Effect of temperature on postillumination isoprene emission in oak and poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Ratliff, Ellen A; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2011-02-01

    Isoprene emission from broadleaf trees is highly temperature dependent, accounts for much of the hydrocarbon emission from plants, and has a profound effect on atmospheric chemistry. We studied the temperature response of postillumination isoprene emission in oak (Quercus robur) and poplar (Populus deltoides) leaves in order to understand the regulation of isoprene emission. Upon darkening a leaf, isoprene emission fell nearly to zero but then increased for several minutes before falling back to nearly zero. Time of appearance of this burst of isoprene was highly temperature dependent, occurring sooner at higher temperatures. We hypothesize that this burst represents an intermediate pool of metabolites, probably early metabolites in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway, accumulated upstream of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP). The amount of this early metabolite(s) averaged 2.9 times the amount of plastidic DMADP. DMADP increased with temperature up to 35°C before starting to decrease; in contrast, the isoprene synthase rate constant increased up to 40°C, the highest temperature at which it could be assessed. During a rapid temperature switch from 30°C to 40°C, isoprene emission increased transiently. It was found that an increase in isoprene synthase activity is primarily responsible for this transient increase in emission levels, while DMADP level stayed constant during the switch. One hour after switching to 40°C, the amount of DMADP fell but the rate constant for isoprene synthase remained constant, indicating that the high temperature falloff in isoprene emission results from a reduction in the supply of DMADP rather than from changes in isoprene synthase activity.

  11. Metabolite Profiling of Peppers of Various Colors Reveals Relationships Between Tocopherol, Carotenoid, and Phytosterol Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jin; Choi, Jaehyuk; Kim, Kil Won; Ahn, Soon Kil; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Yongsoo; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2017-12-01

    Peppers are widely consumed in Korea; the varietal development of peppers with increased content of beneficial plant metabolites is, therefore, of considerable interest. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic profile of pepper plants and the factors affecting this profile. To this end, we determined the content of various metabolites, such as hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoids in peppers of various colors (green, red, pale green, and violet peppers) and in a high-pungency (green) pepper. We also performed principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) to determine the relationships among these metabolites in peppers. PCA results indicated no significant variances among the 3 sample replicates. The HCA showed correlations between the metabolites resulting from common or closely linked biosynthesis pathways. Our results showed that carotenoids correlated positively with tocopherols and negatively with phytosterols; our findings also indicated a close relationship between the methylerythritol 4-phosphate and mevalonic acid biosynthesis pathways, providing evidence in favor of an earlier hypothesis regarding crosstalk across the chloroplast membrane. We, thus, demonstrate that metabolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis is a useful tool for analyzing metabolic networks. A total of 71 metabolites were measured in 5 peppers of different colors. The metabolic profiling with multivariate analysis revealed that tocopherol content had a positive correlation with the carotenoid content and a negative correlation with the phytosterol content. The results of this study may help in breeding programs to produce new germplasm with enhanced nutritional quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Dissecting molecular and physiological response mechanisms to high solar radiation in cyanic and acyanic leaves: a case study on red and green basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattini, Massimiliano; Sebastiani, Federico; Brunetti, Cecilia; Fini, Alessio; Torre, Sara; Gori, Antonella; Centritto, Mauro; Ferrini, Francesco; Landi, Marco; Guidi, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Photosynthetic performance and the expression of genes involved in light signaling and the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids were analysed in green ('Tigullio', TIG) and red ('Red Rubin', RR) basil. The aim was to detect the physiological and molecular response mechanisms to high sunlight. The attenuation of blue-green light by epidermal anthocyanins was shown to evoke shade-avoidance responses with consequential effects on leaf morpho-anatomical traits and gas exchange performance. Red basil had a lower mesophyll conductance, partially compensated by the less effective control of stomatal movements, in comparison with TIG. Photosynthesis decreased more in TIG than in RR in high sunlight, because of larger stomatal limitations and the transient impairment of PSII photochemistry. The methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway promoted above all the synthesis and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin-cycle pigments in TIG and of neoxanthin and lutein in RR. This enabled the green leaves to process the excess radiant energy effectively, and the red leaves to optimize light harvesting and photoprotection. The greater stomatal closure observed in TIG than in RR was due to enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) glucose ester deglucosylation and reduced ABA oxidation, rather than to superior de novo ABA synthesis. This study shows a strong competition between anthocyanin and flavonol biosynthesis, which occurs at the level of genes regulating the oxidation of the C2-C3 bond in the dihydro-flavonoid skeleton. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Transcriptome analysis of thermogenic Arum concinnatum reveals the molecular components of floral scent production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Keiichi; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Seymour, Roger S; Umekawa, Yui; Pirintsos, Stergios Arg; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Ito, Kikukatsu

    2015-03-04

    Several plant species can generate enough heat to increase their internal floral temperature above ambient temperature. Among thermogenic plants, Arum concinnatum shows the highest respiration activity during thermogenesis. However, an overall understanding of the genes related to plant thermogenesis has not yet been achieved. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of flower organs in A. concinnatum. The de novo transcriptome assembly represented, in total, 158,490 non-redundant transcripts, and 53,315 of those showed significant homology with known genes. To explore genes associated with thermogenesis, we filtered 1266 transcripts that showed a significant correlation between expression pattern and the temperature trend of each sample. We confirmed five putative alternative oxidase transcripts were included in filtered transcripts as expected. An enrichment analysis of the Gene Ontology terms for the filtered transcripts suggested over-representation of genes involved in 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) activity. The expression profiles of DXS transcripts in the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway were significantly correlated with thermogenic levels. Our results suggest that the MEP pathway is the main biosynthesis route for producing scent monoterpenes. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the candidate pathway and the key enzyme for floral scent production in thermogenic plants.

  14. 2C-Methyl- D- erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a functional gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, Kashmir; Kumar, Sanjay

    2012-12-01

    Stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)] is a perennial herb which accumulates sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides (SGs) in its leaf tissue. SGs are synthesized by 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Of the various enzymes of the MEP pathway, 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (MDS) (encoded by MDS) catalyzes the cyclization of 4-(cytidine 5' diphospho)-2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2-phosphate into 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate. Complementation of the MDS knockout mutant strain of Escherichia coli, EB370 with putative MDS of stevia (SrMDS) rescued the lethal mutant, suggesting SrMDS to be a functional gene. Experiments conducted in plant growth chamber and in the field suggested SrMDS to be a light regulated gene. Indole 3-acetic acid (IAA; 50, 100 μM) down-regulated the expression of SrMDS at 4 h of the treatment, whereas, abscisic acid did not modulate its expression. A high expression of SrMDS was observed during the light hours of the day as compared to the dark hours. The present work established functionality of SrMDS and showed the role of light and IAA in regulating expression of SrMDS.

  15. Enhanced limonene production in cyanobacteria reveals photosynthesis limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Xin, Changpeng; Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yanbing; Sun, Su; Li, Runze; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Dai, Susie Y; Rentzepis, Peter M; Yuan, Joshua S

    2016-12-13

    Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study. Computational modeling of limonene flux in response to photosynthetic output has revealed the downstream terpene synthase as a key metabolic flux-controlling node in the MEP (2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate) pathway-derived terpene biosynthesis. By enhancing the downstream limonene carbon sink, we achieved over 100-fold increase in limonene productivity, in contrast to the marginal increase achieved through stepwise metabolic engineering. The establishment of a strong limonene flux revealed potential synergy between photosynthate output and terpene biosynthesis, leading to enhanced carbon flux into the MEP pathway. Moreover, we show that enhanced limonene flux would lead to NADPH accumulation, and slow down photosynthesis electron flow. Fine-tuning ATP/NADPH toward terpene biosynthesis could be a key parameter to adapt photosynthesis to support biofuel/bioproduct production in cyanobacteria.

  16. S-Carvone Suppresses Cellulase-Induced Capsidiol Production in Nicotiana tabacum by Interfering with Protein Isoprenylation1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchelmann, Alexandre; Gastaldo, Clément; Veinante, Mickaël; Zeng, Ying; Heintz, Dimitri; Tritsch, Denis; Schaller, Hubert; Rohmer, Michel; Bach, Thomas J.; Hemmerlin, Andréa

    2014-01-01

    S-Carvone has been described as a negative regulator of mevalonic acid (MVA) production by interfering with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) activity, a key player in isoprenoid biosynthesis. The impact of this monoterpene on the production of capsidiol in Nicotiana tabacum, an assumed MVA-derived sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin produced in response to elicitation by cellulase, was investigated. As expected, capsidiol production, as well as early stages of elicitation such as hydrogen peroxide production or stimulation of 5-epi-aristolochene synthase activity, were repressed. Despite the lack of capsidiol synthesis, apparent HMGR activity was boosted. Feeding experiments using (1-13C)Glc followed by analysis of labeling patterns by 13C-NMR, confirmed an MVA-dependent biosynthesis; however, treatments with fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of the MVA-independent 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) isoprenoid pathway, unexpectedly down-regulated the biosynthesis of this sesquiterpene as well. We postulated that S-carvone does not directly inhibit the production of MVA by inactivating HMGR, but possibly targets an MEP-derived isoprenoid involved in the early steps of the elicitation process. A new model is proposed in which the monoterpene blocks an MEP pathway–dependent protein geranylgeranylation necessary for the signaling cascade. The production of capsidiol was inhibited when plants were treated with some inhibitors of protein prenylation or by further monoterpenes. Moreover, S-carvone hindered isoprenylation of a prenylable GFP indicator protein expressed in N. tabacum cell lines, which can be chemically complemented with geranylgeraniol. The model was further validated using N. tabacum cell extracts or recombinant N. tabacum protein prenyltransferases expressed in Escherichia coli. Our study endorsed a reevaluation of the effect of S-carvone on plant isoprenoid metabolism. PMID:24367019

  17. Virus-Induced Silencing of Key Genes Leads to Differential Impact on Withanolide Biosynthesis in the Medicinal Plant, Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aditya Vikram; Singh, Deeksha; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Michael, Rahul; Gupta, Parul; Chandra, Deepak; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Withanolides are a collection of naturally occurring, pharmacologically active, secondary metabolites synthesized in the medicinally important plant, Withania somnifera. These bioactive molecules are C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids and their synthesis is proposed to take place via the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways through the sterol pathway using 24-methylene cholesterol as substrate flux. Although the phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities of Withania extracts have been well studied, limited genomic information and difficult genetic transformation have been a major bottleneck towards understanding the participation of specific genes in withanolide biosynthesis. In this study, we used the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach to study the participation of key genes from MVA, MEP and triterpenoid biosynthesis for their involvement in withanolide biosynthesis. TRV-infected W. somnifera plants displayed unique phenotypic characteristics and differential accumulation of total Chl as well as carotenoid content for each silenced gene suggesting a reduction in overall isoprenoid synthesis. Comprehensive expression analysis of putative genes of withanolide biosynthesis revealed transcriptional modulations conferring the presence of complex regulatory mechanisms leading to withanolide biosynthesis. In addition, silencing of genes exhibited modulated total and specific withanolide accumulation at different levels as compared with control plants. Comparative analysis also suggests a major role for the MVA pathway as compared with the MEP pathway in providing substrate flux for withanolide biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of selected Withania genes of the triterpenoid biosynthetic pathway critically affects withanolide biosynthesis, providing new horizons to explore this process further, in planta.

  18. A transcriptional analysis of carotenoid, chlorophyll and plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis genes during development and osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Meier, Stuart; Tzfadia, Oren; Vallabhaneni, Ratnakar; Gehring, Christoph A; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

    2011-01-01

    Background: The carotenoids are pure isoprenoids that are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus and are coordinately synthesized with chlorophylls in chloroplasts. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis or the mechanisms that coordinate this synthesis with that of chlorophylls and other plastidial synthesized isoprenoid-derived compounds, including quinones, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Here, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of individual carotenoid and isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes was performed in order to elucidate the role of transcriptional regulation in the coordinated synthesis of these compounds and to identify regulatory components that may mediate this process in Arabidopsis thaliana.Results: A global microarray expression correlation analysis revealed that the phytoene synthase gene, which encodes the first dedicated and rate-limiting enzyme of carotenogenesis, is highly co-expressed with many photosynthesis-related genes including many isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes. Chemical and mutant analysis revealed that induction of the co-expressed genes following germination was dependent on gibberellic acid and brassinosteroids (BR) but was inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA). Mutant analyses further revealed that expression of many of the genes is suppressed in dark grown plants by Phytochrome Interacting transcription Factors (PIFs) and activated by photoactivated phytochromes, which in turn degrade PIFs and mediate a coordinated induction of the genes. The promoters of PSY and the co-expressed genes were found to contain an enrichment in putative BR-auxin response elements and G-boxes, which bind PIFs, further supporting a role for BRs and PIFs in regulating expression of the genes. In osmotically stressed root tissue, transcription of Calvin cycle, methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and carotenoid biosynthesis genes is induced and uncoupled from that of

  19. A transcriptional analysis of carotenoid, chlorophyll and plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis genes during development and osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Meier, Stuart

    2011-05-19

    Background: The carotenoids are pure isoprenoids that are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus and are coordinately synthesized with chlorophylls in chloroplasts. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis or the mechanisms that coordinate this synthesis with that of chlorophylls and other plastidial synthesized isoprenoid-derived compounds, including quinones, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Here, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of individual carotenoid and isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes was performed in order to elucidate the role of transcriptional regulation in the coordinated synthesis of these compounds and to identify regulatory components that may mediate this process in Arabidopsis thaliana.Results: A global microarray expression correlation analysis revealed that the phytoene synthase gene, which encodes the first dedicated and rate-limiting enzyme of carotenogenesis, is highly co-expressed with many photosynthesis-related genes including many isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes. Chemical and mutant analysis revealed that induction of the co-expressed genes following germination was dependent on gibberellic acid and brassinosteroids (BR) but was inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA). Mutant analyses further revealed that expression of many of the genes is suppressed in dark grown plants by Phytochrome Interacting transcription Factors (PIFs) and activated by photoactivated phytochromes, which in turn degrade PIFs and mediate a coordinated induction of the genes. The promoters of PSY and the co-expressed genes were found to contain an enrichment in putative BR-auxin response elements and G-boxes, which bind PIFs, further supporting a role for BRs and PIFs in regulating expression of the genes. In osmotically stressed root tissue, transcription of Calvin cycle, methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and carotenoid biosynthesis genes is induced and uncoupled from that of

  20. A transcriptional analysis of carotenoid, chlorophyll and plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis genes during development and osmotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallabhaneni Ratnakar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The carotenoids are pure isoprenoids that are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus and are coordinately synthesized with chlorophylls in chloroplasts. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis or the mechanisms that coordinate this synthesis with that of chlorophylls and other plastidial synthesized isoprenoid-derived compounds, including quinones, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. Here, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of individual carotenoid and isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes was performed in order to elucidate the role of transcriptional regulation in the coordinated synthesis of these compounds and to identify regulatory components that may mediate this process in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results A global microarray expression correlation analysis revealed that the phytoene synthase gene, which encodes the first dedicated and rate-limiting enzyme of carotenogenesis, is highly co-expressed with many photosynthesis-related genes including many isoprenoid-related biosynthesis pathway genes. Chemical and mutant analysis revealed that induction of the co-expressed genes following germination was dependent on gibberellic acid and brassinosteroids (BR but was inhibited by abscisic acid (ABA. Mutant analyses further revealed that expression of many of the genes is suppressed in dark grown plants by Phytochrome Interacting transcription Factors (PIFs and activated by photoactivated phytochromes, which in turn degrade PIFs and mediate a coordinated induction of the genes. The promoters of PSY and the co-expressed genes were found to contain an enrichment in putative BR-auxin response elements and G-boxes, which bind PIFs, further supporting a role for BRs and PIFs in regulating expression of the genes. In osmotically stressed root tissue, transcription of Calvin cycle, methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and carotenoid biosynthesis genes is induced

  1. Biosynthesis of sesquiterpenes in grape berry exocarp of Vitis vinifera L.: evidence for a transport of farnesyl diphosphate precursors from plastids to the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Bianca; Lange, B Markus; Wüst, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    The participation of the mevalonic acid (MVA) and 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways in sesquiterpene biosynthesis of grape berries was investigated. There is an increasing interest in this class of terpenoids, since the oxygenated sesquiterpene rotundone was identified as the peppery aroma impact compound in Australian Shiraz wines. To investigate precursor supply pathway utilization, in vivo feeding experiments were performed with the deuterium labeled, pathway specific, precursors [5,5-(2)H2]-1-deoxy-d-xylulose and [5,5-(2)H2]-mevalonic acid lactone. Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) analysis of the generated volatile metabolites demonstrated that de novo sesquiterpene biosynthesis is mainly located in the grape berry exocarp (skin), with no detectable activity in the mesocarp (flesh) of the Lemberger variety. Interestingly, precursors from both the (primarily) cytosolic MVA and plastidial DOXP/MEP pathways were incorporated into grape sesquiterpenes in the varieties Lemberger, Gewürztraminer and Syrah. Our labeling data provide evidence for a homogenous, cytosolic pool of precursors for sesquiterpene biosynthesis, indicating that a transport of precursors occurs mostly from plastids to the cytosol. The labeling patterns of the sesquiterpene germacrene D were in agreement with a cyclization mechanism analogous to that of a previously cloned enantioselective (R)-germacrene D synthase from Solidago canadensis. This observation was subsequently confirmed by enantioselective GC-MS analysis demonstrating the exclusive presence of (R)-germacrene D, and not the (S)-enantiomer, in grape berries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influencia de la configuración del kit de conversión en el desempeño mecánico-ambiental de un motor de encendido provocado (MEP) bicombustible gasolina-gas natural vehicular

    OpenAIRE

    John Ramiro Agudelo; Ricardo Moreno; Iván Darío Bedoya

    2004-01-01

    Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio experimental realizado sobre un motor Toyota Hilux de 2.400 cm3 en el que se determinó la influencia de la modificación de varios factores (el tamaño del regulador, el tamaño del venturi de un mezclador fijo y su ubicación en ducto de admisión o sobre carburador) en los parámetros de operación mecánico-ambientales (consumo de combustible, rendimiento volumétrico, dosado relativo, emisiones de monóxido de carbono (CO) y emisiones de metano...

  3. Adsorption properties of the molecule resveratrol on CNT(8,0-10) nanotube: Geometry optimization, molecular structure, spectroscopic (NMR, UV/Vis, excited state), FMO, MEP and HOMO-LUMO investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Masoome; Shahab, Siyamak; Khaleghian, Mehrnoosh; Hajikolaee, Fatemeh Haji; Balakhanava, Iryna; Alnajjar, Radwan

    2018-05-01

    In the present work the adsorption properties of the molecule Resveratrol (RSV) (trans-3,5,4‧-Trihydroxystilbene) on CNT(8,0-10) nanotube was investigated by Density Functional Theory (DFT) in the gaseous phase for the first time. The non-bonded interaction effects of compounds RSV and CNT(8,0-10) nanotube on the electronic properties, chemical shift tensors and natural charge were determined and discussed. The electronic spectra of the RSV and the complex CNT(8,0-10)/RSV in the gaseous phase were calculated by Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) for investigation of the maximum wavelength value of the RSV before and after the non-bonded interaction with the CNT(8,0-10) nanotube and molecular orbitals involved in the formation of absorption spectrum of the complex RSV at maximum wavelength.

  4. Favorable cardiovascular risk factor profile is associated with lower healthcare expenditure and resource utilization among adults with diabetes mellitus free of established cardiovascular disease: 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, David I; Valero-Elizondo, Javier; Salami, Joseph A; Rana, Jamal S; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Spatz, Erica S; Virani, Salim S; Blankstein, Ron; Blaha, Michael J; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-03-01

    Given the prevalence and economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM), we studied the impact of a favorable cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) profile on healthcare expenditures and resource utilization among individuals without cardiovascular disease (CVD), by DM status. 25,317 participants were categorized into 3 mutually-exclusive strata: "Poor", "Average" and "Optimal" CRF profiles (≥4, 2-3, 0-1 CRF, respectively). Two-part econometric models were utilized to study cost data. Mean age was 45 (48% male), with 54% having optimal, 39% average, and 7% poor CRF profiles. Individuals with DM were more likely to have poor CRF profile vs. those without DM (OR 7.7, 95% CI 6.4, 9.2). Individuals with DM/poor CRF profile had a mean annual expenditure of $9,006, compared to $6,461 among those with DM/optimal CRF profile (p profile is associated with significantly lower healthcare expenditures and utilization in CVD-free individuals across DM status, suggesting that these individuals require aggressive individualized prescriptions targeting lifestyle modifications and therapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Interaction Between New Anti-cancer Drug Syndros and CNT(6,6-6) Nanotube for Medical Applications: Geometry Optimization, Molecular Structure, Spectroscopic (NMR, UV/Vis, Excited state), FMO, MEP and HOMO-LUMO Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Masoome; Shahab, Siyamak; Khaleghian, Mehrnoosh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, Density Functional Theory (DFT) was first time employed to investigate the interaction between new drug (6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-trimethyl-3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol (Syndros) and the CNT(6,6-6) Nanotube in the gaseous phase. The interaction effects of compounds Syndros and CNT (6,6-6) nanotube on the electronic properties, chemical shift tensors and natural charge was also determined and discussed. The electronic spectra of the Syndros and the complex CNT(6,6-6)/Syndros in the gas phase were calculated by Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) for the formation of adsorption effect on maximum wavelength of the Syndros. Nucleus-Independent Chemical Shifts (NICS) calculations have also been carried out for the compound Syndors and the complex CNT(6,6-6)/Syndros and the aromaticity of the compound Syndors before and after interaction with the CNT(6,6-6) Nanotube was investigated.

  6. Health Care Use, Health Behaviors, and Medical Conditions Among Individuals in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partnerships: A Cross-Sectional Observational Analysis of the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS), 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John R; Hanmer, Janel; Yu, Lan; Matthews, Derrick D; Kavalieratos, Dio

    2016-06-01

    Prior research documents disparities between sexual minority and nonsexual minority individuals regarding health behaviors and health services utilization. However, little is known regarding differences in the prevalence of medical conditions. To examine associations between sexual minority status and medical conditions. We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2003-2011). We identified individuals who reported being partnered with an individual of the same sex, and constructed a matched cohort of individuals in opposite-sex partnerships. A total of 494 individuals in same-sex partnerships and 494 individuals in opposite-sex partnerships. Measures of health risk (eg, smoking status), health services utilization (eg, physician office visits), and presence of 15 medical conditions (eg, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, HIV, alcohol disorders). Same-sex partnered men had nearly 4 times the odds of reporting a mood disorder than did opposite-sex partnered men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.85-8.48]. Compared with opposite-sex partnered women, same-sex partnered women had greater odds of heart disease (aOR=2.59; 95% CI, 1.19-5.62), diabetes (aOR=2.75; 95% CI, 1.10-6.90), obesity (aOR=1.92; 95% CI, 1.26-2.94), high cholesterol (aOR=1.89; 95% CI, 1.03-3.50), and asthma (aOR=1.90; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19). Even after adjusting for sociodemographics, health risk behaviors, and health conditions, individuals in same-sex partnerships had 67% increased odds of past-year emergency department utilization and 51% greater odds of ≥3 physician visits in the last year compared with opposite-sex partnered individuals. A combination of individual-level, provider-level, and system-level approaches are needed to reduce disparities in medical conditions and health care utilization among sexual minority individuals.

  7. Influencia de la configuración del kit de conversión en el desempeño mecánico-ambiental de un motor de encendido provocado (MEP bicombustible gasolina-gas natural vehicular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ramiro Agudelo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio experimental realizado sobre un motor Toyota Hilux de 2.400 cm3 en el que se determinó la influencia de la modificación de varios factores (el tamaño del regulador, el tamaño del venturi de un mezclador fijo y su ubicación en ducto de admisión o sobre carburador en los parámetros de operación mecánico-ambientales (consumo de combustible, rendimiento volumétrico, dosado relativo, emisiones de monóxido de carbono (CO y emisiones de metano (CH4 del motor en cinco modos de operación diferentes (factor secundario.Utilizando un diseño experimental multifactor y el análisis de varianza (tabla Anova se evaluó estadísticamente el efecto que cada factor tuvo sobre la variación de cada una de los parámetros de operación, con la respectiva validación de los supuestos estadísticos de no autocorrelación y homoscedasticidad.Los resultados mostraron una marcada influencia del tamaño del regulador y la ubicación del mezclador en el consumo de combustible y en la concentración de CO (proceso de combustión, mientras que el tamaño del venturi del mezclador afectó considerablemente la concentración de CH4 (combustión incompleta

  8. Los textos literarios que asigna el MEP para el tercer ciclo de la educación general básica en Costa Rica: algunas reflexiones al respecto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Orozco, Grettel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se detallan y analizan las principales modificaciones que presenta la lista de lecturas obligatorias propuesta en el año 2010 e implementada por el Ministerio de Educación Pública a partir del año 2011, en el Tercer Ciclo de la Educación General Básica costarricense. El estudio fue realizado a partir de la búsqueda bibliográfica de revistas especializadas, tesis de grado, libros, los Planes de Estudios de Español del 2005 y del año 2009, la lista de lecturas obligatorias implementada en el 2011, así como también gracias a entrevistas a especialistas en el área de la educación costarricense. Se concluye que las principales modificaciones responden a la dosificación, la categorización y la flexibilidad del listado de lecturas, pues la cantidad de textos y los géneros literarios que se estudian por nivel se modifican, así como también ahora se le brinda una gama de opciones al docente para que elija qué leer con su grupo estudiantil; no obstante, también se evidencia que ninguno de estos cambios ha sido debidamente fundamentado en la nueva propuesta. Finalmente, se destaca la incorporación de un corpus significativo de textos literarios que hacen referencia al personaje del presidente Juan Mora Porras, cuyo fin se vislumbra de carácter identitario e ideológico, pues su propósito es contrarrestar el desencanto político que ha aumentado en los últimos años e instaurarse como el nuevo referente del héroe nacional.

  9. An improved synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, NMR) study and DFT computational analysis (IR, NMR, UV-Vis, MEP diagrams, NBO, NLO, FMO) of the 1,5-methanoazocino[4,3-b]indole core structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludağ, Nesimi; Serdaroğlu, Goncagül

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the synthesis of azocino[4,3-b]indole structure, which constitutes the tetracyclic framework of uleine, dasycarpidoneand tubifolidineas well as ABDE substructure of the strychnosalkaloid family. It has been synthesized by Fischer indolization of 2 and through the cylization of 4 by 2,3-dichlor-5-6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ). 1H and 1C NMR chemical shifts have been predicted with GIAO approach and the calculated chemical shifts show very good agreement with observed shifts. FT-IR spectroscopy is important for the analysis of functional groups of synthesized compounds and we also supported FT-IR vibrational analysis with computational IR analysis. The vibrational spectral analysis was performed at B3LYP level of the theory in both the gas and the water phases and it was compared with the observed IR values for the important functional groups. The DFT calculations have been conducted to determine the most stable structure of the 1,2,3,4,5,6,7-Hexahydro-1,5-methanoazocino [4,3-b] indole (5). The Frontier Molecular Orbital Analysis, quantum chemical parameters, physicochemical properties have been predicted by using the same theory of level in both gas phase and the water phase, at 631 + g** and 6311++g** basis sets. TD- DFT calculations have been performed to predict the UV- Vis spectral analysis for this synthesized molecule. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis have been performed at B3LYP level of theory to elucidate the intra-molecular interactions such as electron delocalization and conjugative interactions. NLO calculations were conducted to obtain the electric dipole moment and polarizability of the title compound.

  10. Co-expression of peppermint geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit enhances monoterpene production in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun-Lin; Wong, Woon-Seng; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2017-02-01

    Monoterpenes are important for plant survival and useful to humans. In addition to their function in plant defense, monoterpenes are also used as flavors, fragrances and medicines. Several metabolic engineering strategies have been explored to produce monoterpene in tobacco but only trace amounts of monoterpenes have been detected. We investigated the effects of Solanum lycopersicum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (SlDXS), Arabidopsis thaliana geranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (AtGPS) and Mentha × piperita geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit (MpGPS.SSU) on production of monoterpene and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) diversities, and plant morphology by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana and overexpression in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum. We showed that MpGPS.SSU could enhance the production of various monoterpenes such as (-)-limonene, (-)-linalool, (-)-α-pinene/β-pinene or myrcene, in transgenic tobacco by elevating geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPS) activity. In addition, overexpression of MpGPS.SSU in tobacco caused early flowering phenotype and increased shoot branching by elevating contents of GA 3 and cytokinins due to upregulated transcript levels of several plastidic 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases 3 (GGPPS3) and GGPPS4. Our method would allow the identification of new monoterpene synthase genes using transient expression in N. benthamiana and the improvement of monoterpene production in transgenic tobacco plants. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Jasmonate-induced biosynthesis of andrographolide in Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shiv Narayan; Jha, Zenu; Sinha, Rakesh Kumar; Geda, Arvind Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Andrographolide is a prominent secondary metabolite found in Andrographis paniculata that exhibits enormous pharmacological effects. In spite of immense value, the normal biosynthesis of andrographolide results in low amount of the metabolite. To induce the biosynthesis of andrographolide, we attempted elicitor-induced activation of andrographolide biosynthesis in cell cultures of A. paniculata. This was carried out by using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) as an elicitor. Among the various concentrations of MeJA tested at different time periods, 5 µM MeJA yielded 5.25 times more andrographolide content after 24 h of treatment. The accumulation of andrographolide was correlated with the expression level of known regulatory genes (hmgs, hmgr, dxs, dxr, isph and ggps) of mevalonic acid (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways. These results established the involvement of MeJA in andrographolide biosynthesis by inducing the transcription of its biosynthetic pathways genes. The coordination of isph, ggps and hmgs expression highly influenced the andrographolide biosynthesis. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. Carotenoid Derivates in Achiote (Bixa orellana Seeds: Synthesis and Health Promoting Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rivera-Madrid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bixa orellana (family Bixaceae is a neotropical fast growing perennial tree of great agro-industrial value because its seeds have a high carotenoid content, mainly bixin. It has been used since pre-colonial times as a culinary colorant and spice, and for healing purposes. It is currently used as a natural pigment in the food, in pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries, and it is commercially known as annatto. Recently, several studies have addressed the biological and medical properties of this natural pigment, both as potential source of new drugs or because its ingestion as a condiment or diet supplement may protect against several diseases. The most documented properties are anti-oxidative; but its anti-cancer, hypoglucemic, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties are also being studied. Bixin’s pathway elucidation and its regulation mechanisms are critical to improve the produce of this important carotenoid. Even though the bixin pathway has been established, the regulation of the genes involved in bixin production remains largely unknown. Our laboratory recently published B. orellana’s transcriptome and we have identified most of its MEP (methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate and carotenoid pathway genes. Annatto is a potential source of new drugs and can be a valuable nutraceutical supplement. However, its nutritional and healing properties require further study.

  13. Patchoulol Production with Metabolically Engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja A. Henke

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Patchoulol is a sesquiterpene alcohol and an important natural product for the perfume industry. Corynebacterium glutamicum is the prominent host for the fermentative production of amino acids with an average annual production volume of ~6 million tons. Due to its robustness and well established large-scale fermentation, C. glutamicum has been engineered for the production of a number of value-added compounds including terpenoids. Both C40 and C50 carotenoids, including the industrially relevant astaxanthin, and short-chain terpenes such as the sesquiterpene valencene can be produced with this organism. In this study, systematic metabolic engineering enabled construction of a patchoulol producing C. glutamicum strain by applying the following strategies: (i construction of a farnesyl pyrophosphate-producing platform strain by combining genomic deletions with heterologous expression of ispA from Escherichia coli; (ii prevention of carotenoid-like byproduct formation; (iii overproduction of limiting enzymes from the 2-c-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP-pathway to increase precursor supply; and (iv heterologous expression of the plant patchoulol synthase gene PcPS from Pogostemon cablin. Additionally, a proof of principle liter-scale fermentation with a two-phase organic overlay-culture medium system for terpenoid capture was performed. To the best of our knowledge, the patchoulol titers demonstrated here are the highest reported to date with up to 60 mg L−1 and volumetric productivities of up to 18 mg L−1 d−1.

  14. Overexpressing 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR in the lactococcal mevalonate pathway for heterologous plant sesquiterpene production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelene Ai-Lian Song

    Full Text Available Isoprenoids are a large and diverse group of metabolites with interesting properties such as flavour, fragrance and therapeutic properties. They are produced via two pathways, the mevalonate pathway or the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP pathway. While plants are the richest source of isoprenoids, they are not the most efficient producers. Escherichia coli and yeasts have been extensively studied as heterologous hosts for plant isoprenoids production. In the current study, we describe the usage of the food grade Lactococcus lactis as a potential heterologous host for the production of sesquiterpenes from a local herbaceous Malaysian plant, Persicaria minor (synonym Polygonum minus. A sesquiterpene synthase gene from P. minor was successfully cloned and expressed in L. lactis. The expressed protein was identified to be a β-sesquiphellandrene synthase as it was demonstrated to be functional in producing β-sesquiphellandrene at 85.4% of the total sesquiterpenes produced based on in vitro enzymatic assays. The recombinant L. lactis strain developed in this study was also capable of producing β-sesquiphellandrene in vivo without exogenous substrates supplementation. In addition, overexpression of the strain's endogenous 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase (HMGR, an established rate-limiting enzyme in the eukaryotic mevalonate pathway, increased the production level of β-sesquiphellandrene by 1.25-1.60 fold. The highest amount achieved was 33 nM at 2 h post-induction.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of bitter acid biosynthesis and precursor pathways in hop (Humulus lupulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Shawn M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter acids (e.g. humulone are prenylated polyketides synthesized in lupulin glands of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus which are important contributors to the bitter flavour and stability of beer. Bitter acids are formed from acyl-CoA precursors derived from branched-chain amino acid (BCAA degradation and C5 prenyl diphosphates from the methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP pathway. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq to obtain the transcriptomes of isolated lupulin glands, cones with glands removed and leaves from high α-acid hop cultivars, and analyzed these datasets for genes involved in bitter acid biosynthesis including the supply of major precursors. We also measured the levels of BCAAs, acyl-CoA intermediates, and bitter acids in glands, cones and leaves. Results Transcripts encoding all the enzymes of BCAA metabolism were significantly more abundant in lupulin glands, indicating that BCAA biosynthesis and subsequent degradation occurs in these specialized cells. Branched-chain acyl-CoAs and bitter acids were present at higher levels in glands compared with leaves and cones. RNA-seq analysis showed the gland-specific expression of the MEP pathway, enzymes of sucrose degradation and several transcription factors that may regulate bitter acid biosynthesis in glands. Two branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT enzymes, HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2, were abundant, with gene expression quantification by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR indicating that HlBCAT1 was specific to glands while HlBCAT2 was present in glands, cones and leaves. Recombinant HlBCAT1 and HlBCAT2 catalyzed forward (biosynthetic and reverse (catabolic reactions with similar kinetic parameters. HlBCAT1 is targeted to mitochondria where it likely plays a role in BCAA catabolism. HlBCAT2 is a plastidial enzyme likely involved in BCAA biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis of the hop BCATs and those from other plants showed that they group into distinct biosynthetic (plastidial and

  16. Mars Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA’s Mars Exploration Program (MEP) calls for a series of highly ambitious missions over the next decade and beyond. The overall goals of the MEP must be...

  17. Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Biologically Based Assay of Lower Extremity Impairment and Gait Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather T. Peters

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (a To determine associations among motor evoked potential (MEP amplitude, MEP latency, lower extremity (LE impairment, and gait velocity and (b determine the association between the presence of a detectable MEP signal with LE impairment and with gait velocity. Method. 35 subjects with chronic, stable LE hemiparesis were undergone TMS, the LE section of the Fugl-Meyer Impairment Scale (LE FM, and 10-meter walk test. We recorded presence, amplitude, and latency of MEPs in the affected tibialis anterior (TA and soleus (SO. Results. MEP presence was associated with higher LEFM scores in both the TA and SO. MEP latency was larger in subjects with lower LEFM and difficulty walking. Conclusion. MEP latency appears to be an indicator of LE impairment and gait. Significance. Our results support the precept of using TMS, particularly MEP latency, as an adjunctive LE outcome measurement and prognostic technique.

  18. Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Biologically Based Assay of Lower Extremity Impairment and Gait Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Heather T; Dunning, Kari; Belagaje, Samir; Kissela, Brett M; Ying, Jun; Laine, Jarmo; Page, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives . (a) To determine associations among motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, MEP latency, lower extremity (LE) impairment, and gait velocity and (b) determine the association between the presence of a detectable MEP signal with LE impairment and with gait velocity. Method . 35 subjects with chronic, stable LE hemiparesis were undergone TMS, the LE section of the Fugl-Meyer Impairment Scale (LE FM), and 10-meter walk test. We recorded presence, amplitude, and latency of MEPs in the affected tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SO). Results . MEP presence was associated with higher LEFM scores in both the TA and SO. MEP latency was larger in subjects with lower LEFM and difficulty walking. Conclusion . MEP latency appears to be an indicator of LE impairment and gait. Significance . Our results support the precept of using TMS, particularly MEP latency, as an adjunctive LE outcome measurement and prognostic technique.

  19. Sequence Classification: 776671 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar zinc finger protein, Mog interacting, Ectopic P granules MEP-1, GEX (Gut on EXterior) Interacting protein GEI-2 (97.4 kD) (mep-1) || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/25152712 ...

  20. Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Biologically Based Assay of Lower Extremity Impairment and Gait Velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Heather T.; Dunning, Kari; Belagaje, Samir; Kissela, Brett M.; Ying, Jun; Laine, Jarmo; Page, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. (a) To determine associations among motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, MEP latency, lower extremity (LE) impairment, and gait velocity and (b) determine the association between the presence of a detectable MEP signal with LE impairment and with gait velocity. Method. 35 subjects with chronic, stable LE hemiparesis were undergone TMS, the LE section of the Fugl-Meyer Impairment Scale (LE FM), and 10-meter walk test. We recorded presence, amplitude, and latency of MEPs in the a...

  1. Prerequisite for highly efficient isoprenoid production by cyanobacteria discovered through the over-expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase and carbon allocation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudoh, Kai; Kawano, Yusuke; Hotta, Shingo; Sekine, Midori; Watanabe, Takafumi; Ihara, Masaki

    2014-07-01

    Cyanobacteria have recently been receiving considerable attention owing to their potential as photosynthetic producers of biofuels and biomaterials. Here, we focused on the production of isoprenoids by cyanobacteria, and aimed to provide insight into metabolic engineering design. To this end, we examined the over-expression of a key enzyme in 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. In the DXS-over-expression strain (Dxs_ox), the mRNA and protein levels of DXS were 4-times and 1.5-times the levels in the wild-type (WT) strain, respectively. The carotenoid content of the Dxs_ox strain (8.4 mg/g dry cell weight [DCW]) was also up to 1.5-times higher than that in the WT strain (5.6 mg/g DCW), whereas the glycogen content dramatically decreased to an undetectable level. These observations suggested that the carotenoid content in the Dxs_ox strain was increased by consuming glycogen, which is a C-storage compound in cyanobacteria. We also quantified the total sugar (145 and 104 mg/g DCW), total fatty acids (31 and 24 mg/g DCW) and total protein (200 and 240 mg/g DCW) content in the WT and Dxs_ox strains, respectively, which were much higher than the carotenoid content. In particular, approximately 54% of the proteins were phycobiliproteins. This study demonstrated the major destinations of carbon flux in cyanobacteria, and provided important insights into metabolic engineering. Target yield can be improved through optimization of gene expression, the DXS protein stabilization, cell propagation depression and restriction of storage compound synthesis. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. State Title I Migrant Participation Information, 1998-99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Allison; Daft, Julie

    States use federal Migrant Education Program (MEP) funds to provide migrant children with services that address the special needs related to continual educational disruption. MEP services can be instructional or supporting. This report summarizes MEP participation information provided by state education agencies for the 1998-99 school year. The…

  3. Corticobulbar motor evoked potentials from tongue muscles used as a control in cervical spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gun Kim

    Full Text Available Objective: Motor evoked potentials (MEPs changes might be caused to the non-surgically induced factors during cervical spinal surgery. Therefore, control MEPs recorded cranially to the exit of the C5 root are highly recommendable in cervical spinal surgery. We studied whether corticobulbar MEPs (C-MEPs from tongue muscle could be used as a control MEPs in cervical spinal surgery. Methods: Twenty-five consecutive cervical spinal surgeries were analyzed. Stimulation of motor area for tongue was done by subcutaneous electrodes placed at C3/C4 (10–20 EEG System, and recording was done from both sides of tongue. Results: C-MEPs were recorded successfully 24 out of the 25 (96% tested patients. Forty-six out of fifty MEPs (92% from tongue muscles were monitorable from the baseline. In two patients, we could obtain only unilateral C-MEPs. Mean MEPs latencies obtained from the left and right side of the tongue were 11.5 ± 1 ms and 11.5 ± 0.8 ms, respectively. Conclusions: Monitoring C-MEPs from tongue muscles might be useful control in cervical spinal surgery. They were easily elicited and relatively free from phenomenon of peripheral stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves. Significance: This is first study to identify the usefulness of C-MEPs as a control of cervical spinal surgery. Keywords: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Motor-evoked potential, Corticospinal tract, Corticobulbar MEPs, Hypoglossal nerve

  4. Corticospinal tract damage in patients with severe diffuse axonal injury in a chronic stage on diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging and motor evoked potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasokawa, Yu-to; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Iwama, Toru; Okumura, Ayumi; Shinoda, Jun; Miwa, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the disturbed motor function of the corticospinal tract (CST) of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (DTMR) imaging and motor evoked potential (MEP) examination, and to analyze these comparatively. Forty-three patients (86 sides of the CST) with severe DAI in a chronic stage underwent DTMR imaging and MEP examination using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Fractional anisotrophy (FA) values of 6 regions of interests (ROIs) in the CST were measured on FA map obtained from DTMR imaging. The lowest FA value among the FA values of the 6 ROIs in each of the CSTs was defined as the minimum FA value. And the lowest magnetic stimulation strength that could derive MEP was defined as the minimum threshold of MEP. The mean minimum FA value of the CSTs in which MEP could not be obtained even by the maximum strength of magnetic stimulation (the MEP (-) group) was significantly lower than that of the CSTs in which MEP could be obtained (the MEP (+) group). In the MEP (+) group, the minimum FA value decreased with the increase of the minimum threshold of MEP with a significant correlation. These results demonstrate that physiological motor dysfunction disclosed on MEP is significantly correlated with morphological damage of the CST observed on DTMR imaging in patients with DAI in a chronic stage. DTMR imaging is strongly suggested to be helpful to evaluate disturbed motor function and to infer its severity in DAI. (author)

  5. Towards assessing corticospinal excitability bilaterally: Validation of a double-coil TMS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Julien; Derosiere, Gerard; Vassiliadis, Pierre; Quemener, Louise; Wilde, Ysaline de; Duque, Julie

    2018-01-01

    For several decades, Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to monitor corticospinal excitability (CSE) changes in various contexts. Habitually, single-coil TMS is applied over one primary motor cortex (M1), eliciting motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in a contralateral limb muscle, usually a hand effector. However, in many situations, it would be useful to obtain MEPs in both hands simultaneously, to track CSE bilaterally. Such an approach requires stimulating both M1 concurrently while avoiding interference between the two descending stimuli. We examined MEPs obtained at rest using a double-coil TMS approach where the two M1 are stimulated with a 1ms inter-pulse interval (double-coil 1ms ). MEPs were acquired using double-coil 1ms (MEP double ) or single-coil (MEP single ) TMS, at five different intensities of stimulation (100, 115, 130, 145 or 160% of the resting motor threshold, rMT). Given the 1ms inter-pulse interval in double-coil 1ms trials, MEP double were either evoked by a 1st (MEP double-1 ) or a 2nd (MEP double-2 ) TMS pulse. All MEP TYPE (MEP TYPE =MEP single , MEP double-1 and MEP double-2 ) were equivalent, regardless of the hand within which they were elicited, the intensity of stimulation or the pulse order. This method allows one to observe state-related CSE changes for the two hands simultaneously on a trial-by-trial basis. These results infer the absence of any neural interactions between the two cortico-spinal volleys with double-coil 1ms TMS. Hence, this technique can be reliably used to assess CSE bilaterally, opening new research perspectives for scientists interested in physiological markers of activity in the motor output system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dihydroxylation of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Tony V; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Taylor, Dennis K

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of 2-C-branched erythritol derivatives, including the plant sugar (+/-)-2-C-methylerythritol 2, was achieved through a dihydroxylation/reduction sequence on a series of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines 3. The asymmetric dihydroxylation of 1,2-dioxines was examined, providing access...... to optically enriched dihydroxy 1,2-dioxanes 4. The synthesized 1,2-dioxanes were converted to other erythro sugar analogues and tetrahydrofurans through controlled cleavage of the endoperoxide linkage....

  7. Prospective Evaluation of the Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of China’s 2010 – 2013 Efficiency Standards for Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group

    2016-07-01

    Since China introduced its first mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for eight major household products in 1989, its MEPS program has expanded significantly to cover nearly 60 residential, industrial and commercial products. In June of 2012, the pace of standards development for new and revised standards was further accelerated with the launch of the national “100 Energy Efficiency Standards.” Initiatives. An unprecedented 21 MEPS were adopted by China from 2012 to 2013, compared to only 7 MEPS adopted from 2010 to 2011. The Chinese MEPS program now covers 15 products in the residential sector, 15 types of commercial and office equipment, 14 types of industrial equipment and 13 lighting products, making it one of the most comprehensive MEPS program in the world. This study provides an updated prospective evaluation of the potential energy and CO2 impact of 23 of the 28 MEPS adopted by China from 2010 to 2013. This study updates a previous analysis (Zhou et al. 2011) by quantifying the additional potential energy and CO2 reductions from the newest standards that have been adopted since 2010. The most recent actual and projected sales, usage, and efficiency data were collected for 14 product categories covered under 23 MEPS adopted between 2010 and 2013. Three scenarios are then used to quantify the energy and CO2 reduction potential of the one-time implementation of these 23 MEPS, including a baseline counterfactual scenario, the actual MEPS scenario and a best available technologies efficiency scenario. The setting of the baseline efficiency is crucial to determining the savings potential of the new and revised MEPS and international best available technology efficiency levels, as it reflects the market average in the absence of MEPS. For this study, the average baseline is based on either the reported 2010 market-average efficiency if sales-weighted efficiency data is available for new product MEPS and

  8. Comparison of false-negative/positive results of intraoperative evoked potential monitoring between no and partial neuromuscular blockade in patients receiving propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery: A retrospective analysis of 685 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jin, Seok-Joon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Jin; Jeong, Hye-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; Ha, Seung-Il; Kim, Joung-Uk

    2016-08-01

    Although the elicited responses of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents and muscle relaxants, the use of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during MEP monitoring is still controversial because of serious safety concerns and diagnostic accuracy. Here, we evaluated the incidence of unacceptable movement and compared false-negative MEP results between no and partial NMB during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. We reviewed patient medical records for demographic data, anesthesia regimen, neurophysiology event logs, MEP results, and clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraoperative use of NMB: no NMB group (n = 276) and partial NMB group (n = 409). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of MEP results to predict postoperative outcomes between both groups. Additionally, we evaluated unwanted patient movement during MEP monitoring in both groups. Of the 685 patients, 622 (90.8%) manifested no intraoperative changes in MEP and no postoperative motor deficits. Twenty patients showed postoperative neurologic deficits despite preserved intraoperative MEP. False-positive MEP results were 3.6% in the no NMB group and 3.9% in the partial NMB group (P = 1.00). False-negative MEP results were 1.1% in the no NMB group and 4.2% in the partial NMB group (P = 0.02). No spontaneous movement or spontaneous respiration was observed in either group. Propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia without NMB decreases the stimulation intensity of MEPs, which may reduce the false-negative ratio of MEP monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Our anesthetic protocol enabled reliable intraoperative MEP recording and patient immobilization during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery.

  9. Electrical and magnetic repetitive transcranial stimulation of the primary motor cortex in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Francesca; Iacovelli, Elisa; Frasca, Vittorio; Gabriele, Maria; Giacomelli, Elena; De Lena, Carlo; Cipriani, Anna Maria; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2009-05-08

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered in short trains at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity over the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy subjects facilitates the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude by increasing cortical excitability through mechanisms resembling short-term synaptic plasticity. In this study, to investigate whether rTES acts through similar mechanisms we compared the effects of rTMS and repetitive transcranial electrical stimulation (rTES) (10 stimuli-trains, 5Hz frequency, suprathreshold intensity) delivered over the M1 on the MEP amplitude. Four healthy subjects were studied in two separate sessions in a relaxed condition. rTMS and anodal rTES were delivered in trains to the left M1 over the motor area for evoking a MEP in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Changes in MEP size and latency during the course of the rTMS and rTES trains were compared. The possible effects of muscle activation on MEP amplitude were evaluated, and the possible effects of cutaneous trigeminal fibre activation on corticospinal excitability were excluded in a control experiment testing the MEP amplitude before and after supraorbital nerve repetitive electrical stimulation. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that rTES and rTMS trains elicited similar amplitude first MEPs and a similar magnitude MEP amplitude facilitation during the trains. rTES elicited a first MEP with a shorter latency than rTMS, without significant changes during the course of the train of stimuli. The MEP elicited by single-pulse TES delivered during muscle contraction had a smaller amplitude than the last MEP in the rTES trains. Repetitive supraorbital nerve stimulation left the conditioned MEP unchanged. Our results suggest that 5 Hz-rTES delivered in short trains increases cortical excitability and does so by acting on the excitatory interneurones probably through mechanisms similar to those underlying the rTMS-induced MEP facilitation.

  10. Employer Health Benefit Costs and Demand for Part-Time Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Feenstra Schultz; David Doorn

    2009-01-01

    The link between rising employer costs for health insurance benefits and demand for part-time workers is investigated using non-public data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey- Insurance Component (MEPS-IC). The MEPS-IC is a nationally representative, annual establishment survey from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Pooling the establishment level data from the MEPS-IC from 1996-2004 and matching with the Longitudinal Business Database and supplemental economic dat...

  11. Epitope mapping of Ebola virus dominant and subdominant glycoprotein epitopes facilitates construction of an epitope-based DNA vaccine able to focus the antibody response in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    Homo sapiens and...6D8 A B C Figure 1 D GP Figure 2 A B C D EL IS A OD EL IS A OD EL IS A OD EL IS A OD Amino Acid # Amino Acid Sequence Mouse...Figure 3 Furin cleavage 497-501 Figure 4 DAPI 6D8 Merge Mep1 Mock WT GP Mep2 Figure 5 A 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Mep1 Mock Mep2 B C EL

  12. Characterization of dengue virus 2 growth in megakaryocyte–erythrocyte progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Kristina B. [Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Bassit, Leda [Center for AIDS Research, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, GA (United States); Crowe, James E. [Departments of Pediatrics, Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Schinazi, Raymond F. [Center for AIDS Research, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, GA (United States); Perng, Guey Chuen [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Villinger, Francois [Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); New Iberia Research Center, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, New Iberia, LA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Megakaryocyte–erythrocyte progenitor (MEP) cells are potential in vivo targets of dengue virus (DENV); the virus has been found associated with megakaryocytes ex vivo and platelets during DENV-induced thrombocytopenia. We report here that DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) propagates well in human nondifferentiated MEP cell lines (Meg01 and K562). In comparison to virus propagated in Vero cells, viruses from MEP cell lines had similar structure and buoyant density. However, differences in MEP-DENV2 stability and composition were suggested by distinct protein patterns in western blot analysis. Also, antibody neutralization of envelope domain I/II on MEP-DENV2 was reduced relative to that on Vero-DENV2. Infectious DENV2 was produced at comparable kinetics and magnitude in MEP and Vero cells. However, fewer virion structures appeared in electron micrographs of MEP cells. We propose that DENV2 infects and produces virus efficiently in megakaryocytes and that megakaryocyte impairment might contribute to dengue disease pathogenesis. - Highlights: • DenV replicates efficiently in undifferentiated megakaryocyte–erythrocyte progenitors. • MEP produced DenV differs in protein content from Vero produced DenV. • MEP produced DenV may be more difficult to neutralize relative to Vero DenV.

  13. Monomorphic Epithelial Proliferations of the Breast: A Possible Precursor Lesion Associated With Ipsilateral Breast Failure After Breast Conserving Therapy in Patients With Negative Lumpectomy Margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Neal S.; Kestin, Larry L.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is generally believed that ipsilateral breast failures (IBFs) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) develop from incompletely eradicated carcinoma. We previously suggested that monomorphic epithelial proliferations (MEPs) in the breast may be a pool of partially transformed clones from which breast carcinomas can arise and that radiation therapy (RT) may also reduce the risk of IBF by eradicating MEPs. We examined salvage mastectomy specimens in patients experiencing an IBF to define the relationship between MEPs and IBFs and an additional potential mechanism for IBF risk reduction by RT. Methods and Materials: The location, number, and distribution of radiation changes and MEPs relative to 51 IBFs were mapped in salvage mastectomy specimens from BCT patients with adequately excised, initial carcinomas (negative lumpectomy margins). Results: All 51 salvage mastectomies had diffuse, late radiation changes. None had active fibrocystic lesions. MEPs were predominantly located in the immediate vicinity of the IBFs. A mean of 39% of MEP cases were located within the IBF, 46% were located within 2 cm of the IBF, and 14% were 2-3 cm from the IBF. Conclusions: MEPs appear to be a pool of partially transformed precursor lesions that can give rise to ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinomas (CAs). Many IBFs may arise from MEPs that reemerge after RT. Radiation may also reduce IBF risk after BCT (including in patients with negative margins) by primarily eradicating MEPs.

  14. Evaluation of the Predictive Value of Intraoperative Changes in Motor-Evoked Potentials of Caudal Cranial Nerves for the Postoperative Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Marcel; Tatagiba, Marcos; Liebsch, Marina; Feigl, Guenther C

    2016-11-01

    The predictive value of changes in intraoperatively acquired motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) IX-X (glossopharyngeal-vagus nerve) and CN XII (hypoglossal nerve) on operative outcomes was investigated. MEPs of CN IX-X and CN XII were recorded intraoperatively in 63 patients undergoing surgery of the posterior cranial fossa. We correlated the changes of the MEPs with postoperative nerve function. For CN IX-X, we found a correlation between the amplitude of the MEP ratio and uvula deviation (P = 0.028) and the amplitude duration of the MEP and gag reflex function (P = 0.027). Patients with an MEP ratio of the glossopharyngeal-vagus amplitude ≤1.47 μV had a 3.4 times increased risk of developing a uvula deviation. Patients with a final MEP duration of the CN IX-X ≤11.6 milliseconds had a 3.6 times increased risk for their gag reflex to become extinct. Our study greatly contributes to the current knowledge of intraoperative MEPs as a predictor for postoperative cranial nerve function. We were able to extent previous findings on MEP values of the facial nerve on postoperative nerve function to 3 additional cranial nerves. Finding reliable predictors for postoperative nerve function is of great importance to the overall quality of life for a patient undergoing surgery of the posterior cranial fossa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of dengue virus 2 growth in megakaryocyte–erythrocyte progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Kristina B.; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Bassit, Leda; Crowe, James E.; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Perng, Guey Chuen; Villinger, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Megakaryocyte–erythrocyte progenitor (MEP) cells are potential in vivo targets of dengue virus (DENV); the virus has been found associated with megakaryocytes ex vivo and platelets during DENV-induced thrombocytopenia. We report here that DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) propagates well in human nondifferentiated MEP cell lines (Meg01 and K562). In comparison to virus propagated in Vero cells, viruses from MEP cell lines had similar structure and buoyant density. However, differences in MEP-DENV2 stability and composition were suggested by distinct protein patterns in western blot analysis. Also, antibody neutralization of envelope domain I/II on MEP-DENV2 was reduced relative to that on Vero-DENV2. Infectious DENV2 was produced at comparable kinetics and magnitude in MEP and Vero cells. However, fewer virion structures appeared in electron micrographs of MEP cells. We propose that DENV2 infects and produces virus efficiently in megakaryocytes and that megakaryocyte impairment might contribute to dengue disease pathogenesis. - Highlights: • DenV replicates efficiently in undifferentiated megakaryocyte–erythrocyte progenitors. • MEP produced DenV differs in protein content from Vero produced DenV. • MEP produced DenV may be more difficult to neutralize relative to Vero DenV.

  16. State Title I Migrant Participation Information 1996-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Allison; Daft, Julie; Fong, Pauline

    The Migrant Education Program (MEP) is a federal formula grant to states to provide migratory children aged 3-21 with services that address special needs resulting from continual educational disruption. Services can be instructional or supporting, such as social work and health. This report summarizes MEP participation information provided by…

  17. State Title I Migrant Participation Information, 1997-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Allison; Daft, Julie; Fong, Pauline

    The Migrant Education Program (MEP) is a federal formula grant to states for educational services to migrant children, ages 3-21, who made an eligible move in the past 3 years. States use MEP funds to address effects of continual educational disruption by providing instructional or supporting services. This report summarizes participation…

  18. The European Parliament's Rejection of the Take-over Directive Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Knudsen, Jette

    2003-01-01

    national characteristics: labour marketlegislation (national schemes to protect employees against dismissals) and corporategovernance issues. Labour market legislation can explain the UK and German MEP votesbut not the Swedish and French MEPs votes. These votes can be explained byemphasising measures...... against take-overs such as a high level of market capitalisation andunequal voting rights....

  19. 27 May 2010 - Members of the Scientific and Technological Options Assessment Panel (STOA), European Parliament, visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (SM18) with Technology Deputy Department Head L. Rossi and accompanied by CERN Head of the EU Project Office S. Stavrev and CERN EU Projects for Accelerator Technology and Coordinator of FP7 EuCRAD J.-P. Koutchouk.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2010-01-01

    CERN-HI-1005086 tirage 16: The delegation was led by STOA Vice Chairman and Member of IMCO Committee A. F. Correia de Campos MEP and STOA Vice Chairman and IMCO Committee Chairman M. Harbour MEP (2nd and 3rd on this photograph).

  20. Evaluating the Association Between Acute and Chronic Pain After Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilron, Ian; Vandenkerkhof, Elizabeth; Katz, Joel

    2017-01-01

    PAR or MEP reported a significant relationship. Another 3 studies reporting a relationship with CPSP did not specify whether this was for PAR, MEP, or both. All investigations incorporating severity of CPSP in their analyses (n=7) demonstrated a significant relationship, whereas only 10 of the 15...

  1. Diagnostic transcranial magnetic stimulation in children with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Voitenkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of our work was to evaluate MEPs characteristics in children with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and evaluate usefulness of TMS as an additional diagnostic method in this disorder.Methods. 20 healthy children (7–14 years old, average 12 years, 7 females, 13 males without any signs of neurological disorders were enrolled as controls and 37 patients (8–13 years old, average 11 years, 19 females, 18 males with AIDP were enrolled as the main group. EMG and TMS were performed on 3–7 day from the onset of the first symptoms. Cortical and lumbar MEP`s latencies, shapes and amplitudes and CMCT were averaged and analyzed.Results. Significant differences between children with AIDP and controls on latencies of both cortical and lumbar MEPs were registered. Cortical MEPs shapes were disperse in 100% of the cases, and lumbar MEPs were disperse in 57% of the cases. Amplitudes changes for both lumbar and cortical MEPs were not significant.Conclusions. Diagnostic transcranial magnetic stimulation on the early stage of the acute demyelinating polyneuropathy in children may be implemented as the additional tool. Main finding in this population is lengthening of the latency of cortical and lumbar motor evoked potentials. Disperse shape of the lumbar MEPs may also be used as the early sign of the acute demyelization of the peripheral nerves.

  2. The prognostic value of cortical magnetic stimulation in acute middle cerebral artery infarction compared to other parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerhuis, Th.P.J.; Hageman, G.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.; Rozeboom, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    The prognostic value of magnetic evoked potentials (MEP), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), age and radiological parameters was determined in 50 patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction. We performed MEP and SSEP within 4 days and after 6 weeks and 3 months of the infarction and

  3. Prevalence and Costs of Five Chronic Conditions in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gabrielle F.; Coffield, Edward; Leroy, Zanie; Wallin, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to examine the prevalence and health-care costs associated with asthma, epilepsy, hypertension, food allergies, and diabetes in children aged 0-18 years. Prevalence was calculated using 2005-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data, a population-based, nationally representative sample. Using MEPS, two-part models…

  4. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections in the Psoas Muscle of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Muscle Atrophy after Motor End Plate-Targeted Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Anja; Verhaegen, Ann; Pans, Steven; Molenaers, Guy

    2013-01-01

    MEP targeting during BoNT-A injections has been demonstrated to improve outcome. Two injection techniques of the psoas muscle--proximal MEP targeting versus a widely used more distal injection technique--are compared using muscle volume assessment by digital MRI segmentation as outcome measure. Method: 7 spastic diplegic children received…

  5. 77 FR 20790 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ...: This meeting is being held in conjunction with MEP's Manufacturing Innovations 2012 Conference in... Board members, (2) a national manufacturing strategy, and (3) an update on MEP's workforce initiatives. The agenda may change to accommodate other Board business. Admission Instructions: Anyone wishing to...

  6. Effect of Training Frequency on Maximum Expiratory Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Supraja; El-Bashiti, Nour; Sapienza, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) frequency on maximum expiratory pressure (MEP). Method: We assigned 12 healthy participants to 2 groups of training frequency (3 days per week and 5 days per week). They completed a 4-week training program on an EMST trainer (Aspire Products, LLC). MEP was the primary…

  7. Series expansion of the modified Einstein Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema Chandrakant Shah-Fairbank

    2009-01-01

    This study examines calculating total sediment discharge based on the Modified Einstein Procedure (MEP). A new procedure based on the Series Expansion of the Modified Einstein Procedure (SEMEP) has been developed. This procedure contains four main modifications to MEP. First, SEMEP solves the Einstein integrals quickly and accurately based on a series expansion. Next,...

  8. Transcranial motor evoked potential monitoring outcome in the high-risk brain and spine surgeries: Correlation of clinical and neurophysiological data - An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Amit Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the safety, feasibility and clinical value of transcranial motor evoked potential (MEP monitoring by electrical stimulation. Setting: Clinical neurophysiology department of tertiary reach hospital. Materials and Methods: MEP monitoring was attempted in 44 "high risk" patients. Intraoperative surgical, anesthesia and neurophysiological findings were documented prospectively. MEP monitoring results were correlated with motor outcome. Results: The success for reliable MEP recording from the lower limbs was 75%. Incidence of new permanent post-operative motor deficit was zero. Nearly, 76.5% of the cases (13 out of 17 cases who showed unobtainable and unstable MEP outcome had lesion location in the spine as compared with 23.5% (4 out of 17 cases that had lesion location in the brain. Chi-square test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between these two groups (P = 0.0020. Out of these 13 spine surgery cases, 8 (62% were operated for deformity. Seven out of 12 (60% patients less than 12 years of age had a poor MEP monitoring outcome suggesting that extremes of age and presence of a spine deformity may be associated with a lesser incidence of successful MEP monitoring. No complications related to the repetitive transcranial electrical stimulation for eliciting MEP were observed. Conclusion: MEP monitoring is safe. The protocol used in this study is simple, feasible for use and has a fairly high success rate form the lower limbs. Pediatric age group and spine lesions, particularly deformities have an adverse effect on stable MEP recording.

  9. Periodic changes in effluent chemistry at cold-water geyser: Crystal geyser in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weon Shik; Watson, Z. T.; Kampman, Niko; Grundl, Tim; Graham, Jack P.; Keating, Elizabeth H.

    2017-07-01

    Crystal geyser is a CO2-driven cold-water geyser which was originally drilled in the late 1930's in Green River, Utah. Utilizing a suite of temporal groundwater sample datasets, in situ monitoring of temperature, pressure, pH and electrical conductivity from multiple field trips to Crystal geyser from 2007 to 2014, periodic trends in groundwater chemistry from the geyser effluent were identified. Based on chemical characteristics, the primary sourcing aquifers are characterized to be both the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones with a minor contribution from Paradox Formation brine. The single eruption cycle at Crystal geyser lasted over four days and was composed of four parts: Minor Eruption (mEP), Major Eruption (MEP), Aftershock Eruption (Ae) and Recharge (R). During the single eruption cycle, dissolved ionic species vary 0-44% even though the degree of changes for individual ions are different. Generally, Na+, K+, Cl- and SO42- regularly decrease at the onset and throughout the MEP. These species then increase in concentration during the mEP. Conversely, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+ and Sr2+ increase and decrease in concentration during the MEP and mEP, respectively. The geochemical inverse modeling with PHREEQC was conducted to characterize the contribution from three end-members (Entrada Sandstone, Navajo Sandstone and Paradox Formation brine) to the resulting Crystal geyser effluent. Results of the inverse modeling showed that, during the mEP, the Navajo, Entrada and brine supplied 62-65%, 36-33% and 1-2%, respectively. During the MEP, the contribution shifted to 53-56%, 45-42% and 1-2% for the Navajo, Entrada and Paradox Formation brine, respectively. The changes in effluent characteristics further support the hypothesis by Watson et al. (2014) that the mEP and MEP are driven by different sources and mechanisms.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the semi-quantitative, pre-operative assessment of patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasby, Michael A; Tsirikos, Athanasios I; Henderson, Lindsay; Horsburgh, Gillian; Jordan, Brian; Michaelson, Ciara; Adams, Christopher I; Garrido, Enrique

    2017-08-01

    To compare measurements of motor evoked potential latency stimulated either magnetically (mMEP) or electrically (eMEP) and central motor conduction time (CMCT) made pre-operatively in conscious patients using transcranial and intra-operatively using electrical cortical stimulation before and after successful instrumentation for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A group initially of 51 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis aged 12-19 years was evaluated pre-operatively in the outpatients' department with transcranial magnetic stimulation. The neurophysiological data were then compared statistically with intra-operative responses elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation both before and after successful surgical intervention. MEPs were measured as the cortically evoked compound action potentials of Abductor hallucis. Minimum F-waves were measured using conventional nerve conduction methods and the lower motor neuron conduction time was calculated and this was subtracted from MEP latency to give CMCT. Pre-operative testing was well tolerated in our paediatric/adolescent patients. No neurological injury occurred in any patient in this series. There was no significant difference in the values of mMEP and eMEP latencies seen pre-operatively in conscious patients and intra-operatively in patients under anaesthetic. The calculated quantities mCMCT and eCMCT showed the same statistical correlations as the quantities mMEP and eMEP latency. The congruency of mMEP and eMEP and of mCMCT and eCMCT suggests that these measurements may be used comparatively and semi-quantitatively for the comparison of pre-, intra-, and post-operative spinal cord function in spinal deformity surgery.

  11. An orthologue of the cor gene is involved in the exclusion of temperate lambdoid phages. Evidence that Cor inactivates FhuA receptor functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uc-Mass, Augusto; Loeza, Eva Jacinto; Garza, Mireya de la; Guarneros, Gabriel; Hernandez-Sanchez, Javier; Kameyama, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A new set of lambdoid phages (mEp) classified into different immunity groups was previously described. Phages mEp213, mEp237, and mEp410 were unable to grow in mEp167 lysogenic cells, presumably due to an exclusion mechanism expressed constitutively by the mEp167 repressed prophage. In this work, to analyze the exclusion phenomenon, we constructed a genomic library from mEp167 phage in a pPROEX derivative plasmid. A DNA fragment containing an open reading frame for a 77 amino acid polypeptide was selected by its ability to confer resistance to heteroimmune phage infection. This ORF shows high amino acid sequence identity with putative Cor proteins of phages HK022, φ80 and N15. Cells expressing the mEp167 cor gene from a plasmid (Cor + phenotype) excluded 13 of 20 phages from different infection immunity groups. This exclusion was observed in both tonB - and tonB + cells. Lambdoid mEp phages that were excluded in these cells were unable to infect cells defective in the outer membrane FhuA receptor (fhuA - ). Thus, Cor-mediated exclusion was only observed in fhuA + cells. Phage production after DNA transfection or the spontaneous induction of mEp prophage in Cor + cells was not blocked. In addition, ferrichrome uptake, which is mediated by FhuA, was inhibited in Cor + cells. Our results show that not only phage infection via FhuA but also a FhuA transport activity (ferrichrome uptake) are inhibited by Cor, presumably by inactivation of FhuA

  12. Multi-channel motor evoked potential monitoring during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gun Kim

    Full Text Available Objectives: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF surgery is the most common surgical procedure for the cervical spine with low complication rate. Despite the potential prognostic benefit, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM, a method for detecting impending neurological compromise, is not routinely used in ACDF surgery. The present study aimed to identify the potential benefits of monitoring multi-channel motor evoked potentials (MEPs during ACDF surgery. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 200 consecutive patients who received IONM with multi-channel MEPs and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs. On average, 9.2 muscles per patient were evaluated under MEP monitoring. Results: The rate of MEP change during surgery in the multi-level ACDF group was significantly higher than the single-level group. Two patients from the single-level ACDF group (1.7% and four patients from the multi-level ACDF group (4.9% experienced post-operative motor deficits. Multi-channel MEPs monitoring during single and multi-level ACDF surgery demonstrated higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive value than SSEP monitoring. Conclusions: Multi-channel MEP monitoring might be beneficial for the detection of segmental injury as well as long tract injury during single- and multi-level ACDF surgery. Significance: This is first large scale study to identify the usefulness of multi-channel MEPs in monitoring ACDF surgery. Keywords: Disc disease, Somatosensory evoked potentials, Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, Motor evoked potentials, Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

  13. Preparation and Thermal Properties of Molecular-Bridged Expanded Graphite/Polyethylene Glycol Composite Phase Change Materials for Building Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Meizhu; Liu, Quantao; Wan, Jiuming; Hu, Jinxuan

    2018-05-16

    Using phase change materials (PCMs) in building envelopes became a reliable method to improve indoor comfort and reduce buildings' energy consumption. This research developed molecular-bridged expanded graphite (EG)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite PCMs (m-EPs) to conserve energy in buildings. The m-EPs were prepared through a vacuum absorption technique, and a titanate coupling agent was used to build a molecular bridge between EG and PEG. SEM, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), the leakage test, microcalorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were conducted to characterize the morphology, pore structure, absorbability, and modifying effects of the m-EPs. The phase change temperature, latent heat, thermal stability, and thermal conductivity of the m-EPs were determined by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), TGA, and a thermal constants analyzer. Results showed that the maximum mass ratio of PEG to EG without leakage was 1:7, and a stable connection was established in the m-EPs after modification. Compared with the unmodified EPs, the supercooling degree of the m-EPs reduced by about 3 °C, but the latent heats and initial decomposition temperatures increased by approximately 10% and 20 °C, respectively, which indicated an improvement in the thermal energy storage efficiency. The thermal conductivities of the m-EPs were 10 times higher than those of the pristine PEGs, which ensured a rapid responding to building temperature fluctuations.

  14. Wave Change of Intraoperative Transcranial Motor-Evoked Potentials During Corrective Fusion for Syndromic and Neuromuscular Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Machino, Masaaki; Ota, Kyotaro; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki; Imagama, Shiro

    2018-03-29

    There is little information on intraoperative neuromonitoring during correction fusion surgery for syndromic scoliosis. To investigate intraoperative TcMEPs and conditions (body temperature and blood pressure) for syndromic scoliosis. The subjects were 23 patients who underwent 25 surgeries for corrective fusion using TcMEP. Patients were divided into groups based on a decrease (DA+) or no decrease (DA-) of the amplitude of the TcMEP waveform of ≥70%. The groups were compared for age, sex, disease, type of surgery, fusion area, operation time, estimated blood loss, body temperature, blood pressure, Cobb angle, angular curve (Cobb angle/number of vertebra), bending flexibility, correction rate, and recovery. The mean Cobb angles before and after surgery were 85.2° and 29.1°, giving a correction rate of 68.2%. There were 16 surgeries (64.0%) with intraoperative TcMEP wave changes. The DA+ and DA- groups had similar intraoperative conditions, but the short angular curve differed significantly between these groups. Amplitude deterioration occurred in 4 cases during first rod placement, in 8 during rotation, and in 3 during second rod placement after rotation. Seven patients had complete loss of TcMEP. However, most TcMEP changes recovered after pediclectomy or decreased correction. The preoperative angular curve differed significantly between patients with and without TcMEP changes (P corrective fusion, and all but one of these changes occurred during the correction procedure. The angular curve was a risk factor for intraoperative motor deficit.

  15. Bilateral responses of upper limb muscles to transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, P; Hamm, J D; Dhillon, P; Gross, P A

    2004-10-01

    Anatomical and behavioural work on primates has shown bilateral innervation of axial and proximal limb muscles, and contralateral control of distal limb muscles. The following study examined if a clear boundary exists between the distal and proximal upper limb muscles that are controlled contralaterally or bilaterally. The right motor cortical area representing the upper limb was stimulated, while surface EMG was recorded bilaterally from various upper limb muscles during rest and phasic voluntary contractions. Peak-to-peak amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP) was measured for each muscle on both sides. The ratio R = (ipsilateral MEP: contralateral MEP) was calculated for seven pairs of muscles. For each of the seven pairs, R was less than 1.0, implying that for each muscle and subject, the contralateral control is stronger. The boundary where R changed from almost zero to a clearly measurable magnitude depended on the subject. Ipsilateral MEPs from trapezius and pectoralis could be recorded with a small background contraction from almost all subjects; on the other hand, in deltoid and biceps brachii, ipsilateral MEPs were observed only with bimanual phasic contractions. The forearm and hand muscles, in general, did not show any ipsilateral MEPs. Major differences between subjects lay in the presence or the absence of ipsilateral MEPs in biceps brachii and deltoid, without defining a sharp boundary between proximal and distal muscles.

  16. Twenty-five years of maximum-entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, J. N.

    1983-04-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of the maximum entropy principle (MEP) are examined and some challenging problems that remain outstanding at the end of the first quarter century of the principle are discussed. The original formalism of the MEP is presented and its relationship to statistical mechanics is set forth. The use of MEP for characterizing statistical distributions, in statistical inference, nonlinear spectral analysis, transportation models, population density models, models for brand-switching in marketing and vote-switching in elections is discussed. Its application to finance, insurance, image reconstruction, pattern recognition, operations research and engineering, biology and medicine, and nonparametric density estimation is considered.

  17. Labor Supply of Politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisman, Raymond; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Kamenica, Emir

    2015-01-01

    Using data on Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), we examine the impact of salaries on the composition and the behavior of legislators. Employing a differences-in-differences approach, we exploit the introduction of a law that equalized MEPs’ salaries which had previously differed by as much...... as a factor of ten. Increasing salaries raises the fraction of MEPs who run for reelection but decreases the quality of elected MEPs (proxied by college quality). Salary has no discernible impact on effort or legislative output. Higher salaries induce more political competition....

  18. Labor Supply of Politicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisman, Raymond; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Kamenica, Emir

    Using data on Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), we examine the impact of salaries on the composition and the behavior of legislators. Employing a differences-in-differences approach, we exploit the introduction of a law that equalized MEPs’ salaries which had previously differed by as much...... as a factor of ten. Increasing salaries raises the fraction of MEPs who run for reelection but decreases the quality of elected MEPs (proxied by college quality.) Salary has no discernible impact on effort or legislative output. Higher salaries induce more political competition....

  19. The Maximum Entropy Production Principle: Its Theoretical Foundations and Applications to the Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Kleidon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Maximum Entropy Production (MEP principle has been remarkably successful in producing accurate predictions for non-equilibrium states. We argue that this is because the MEP principle is an effective inference procedure that produces the best predictions from the available information. Since all Earth system processes are subject to the conservation of energy, mass and momentum, we argue that in practical terms the MEP principle should be applied to Earth system processes in terms of the already established framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, with the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium at the appropriate scales.

  20. Germans don’t make Jokes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravier, Magali

    This paper presents early results of a study on the uses of humour by members of the European Parliament. The paper is based on semi-structured interviews done with French, German and Romanian MEPS. The interviews reveal how humour is used by MEPS as well the constraints the interviewees perceive...... develop political strategies which are adapted to the particularities of the political and institutional game at play in an atypical parliament like the EP. On the other hand, they reveal cultural and language borders between MEPs who may have a harder time than expected evolving in a multicultural...

  1. Improved Cholinergic Transmission is Detrimental to Behavioural Plasticity in Honeybees (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Wu Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unravelling the role of neuromessenger processes in learning and memory has long interested researchers. We investigated the effects of an acetylcholinesterase blocker, Methyl Parathion (MeP, on honeybee learning. We used visual and olfactory tasks to test whether MeP had a detrimental effect on the acquisition of new knowledge when this new knowledge contradicts previously acquired one. Our results indicate that treatment with MeP prior to conditioning was significantly detrimental to the acquisition of incongruous (but not irrelevant or congruous new knowledge due to improved recall. The neurobiological and ecotoxicological consequences of these results are discussed.

  2. Human rights or security? Positions on asylum in European Parliament speeches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid-Nielsen, Snorre Sylvester

    2018-01-01

    parties’ general ‘right-left’ preferences, and duration of EU membership. Generally, MEPs from Central and Eastern Europe and the European People's Party take up pro-security stances. Wordfish was effective and valid, confirming the relevance of automated content analysis for studying the EU.......-2014, scaling MEPs along a unidimensional policy space. Debates on asylum predominantly concern positions for or against European Union (EU) security measures. Surprisingly, national party preferences for EU integration were not the dominant factor. The strongest predictors of MEPs' positions are their national...

  3. Motor-evoked potential amplitudes elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation do not differentiate between patients and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunhaus, Leon; Polak, Dana; Amiaz, Revital; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2003-12-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the motor cortex depolarizes neurons and leads to motor-evoked potentials (MEP). To assess cortico-spinal excitability we compared the motor threshold (MT) and the averaged MEP amplitude generated by TMS in patients with major depression (MD) and matched controls. Nineteen patients, who where participants in a protocol comparing the antidepressant effects of rTMS with those of ECT, and thirteen age- and gender-matched normal controls were studied. MT was similar between patients and normal controls. The MEP amplitude response was significantly increased by rTMS, however, the magnitude of the response was similar in patients and normal controls. Correlations between the averaged MEP amplitude and age revealed that older subjects demonstrated significantly lower responses at all time-points. We conclude that cortico-spinal excitability is increased following rTMS, however, differences between patients and normal controls were not apparent with the paradigm used.

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... time, meet their expectation when purchasing them because from ... comprehensive criteria, process of EEL certification has existed that .... “…the decision of using MEPS is decided in the committee meeting where our main.

  5. Master environmental plan for Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Peters, R.W.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)

    1991-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has prepared a master environmental plan (MEP) for Fort Devens, Massachusetts, for the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency. The MEP is an assessment based on environmental laws and regulations of both the federal government and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The MEP assess the physical and environmental status of 58 potential hazardous waste sites, including 54 study areas (SAs) that pose a potential for releasing contamination into the environment and 4 areas of concern (AOCs) that are known to have substantial contamination. For each SA or AOC, this MEP describes the known history and environment, identifies additional data needs, and proposes possible response actions. Most recommended response actions consist of environmental sampling and monitoring and other characterization studies. 74 refs., 63 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. 78 FR 79221 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged; Migrant Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... reading and mathematics assessments for some time after the child has already migrated to a new State or... availability of records in MSIX only if school registrars, counselors, MEP specialists, and other local and...

  7. Pulmonary function and dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, S C; Utell, M J; Rudick, R A; Herndon, R M

    1988-11-01

    Pulmonary function was studied in 25 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis with a range of motor impairment. Forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) were normal in the ambulatory patients (mean greater than or equal to 80% predicted) but reduced in bedridden patients (mean, 38.5%, 31.6%, and 36.3% predicted; FCV, MVV, and MEP, respectively) and wheelchair-bound patients with upper extremity involvement (mean, 69.4%, 50.4%, and 62.6% predicted; FVC, MVV, and MEP, respectively). Forced vital capacity, MVV, and MEP correlated with Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status scores (tau = -0.72, -0.70, and -0.65) and expiratory muscle weakness occurred most frequently. These findings demonstrate that marked expiratory weakness develops in severely paraparetic patients with multiple sclerosis and the weakness increases as the upper extremities become increasingly involved.

  8. AN INVESTIGATION OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL ENERGY POVERTY IN PAKISTAN: A PROVINCE LEVEL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falak Sher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study employs Alkire and Foster’s (2007 methodology to measure Multidimensional Energy Poverty (MEP at provincial level in Pakistan. MEP Headcount has been calculated using PSLM data. Indoor pollution is found to be the largest contributor to MEP Headcount in all four provinces of Pakistan while cooking fuel is the second largest contributor. Results of MEP Headcount show that 47%, 51%, 69% and 66% of the households residing in Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtoon Khaw (KPK and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan respectively are energy poor. Households of all the four provinces are most deprived in the dimension of indoor pollution i.e. in the range of 49% to 63% followed by cooking fuel i.e. in the range of 35% to 59%. Deprivation is least in the dimension of home appliances for all provinces except Baluchistan which is least deprived in entertainment appliances dimension.

  9. Use and validity of principles of extremum of entropy production in the study of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitor Reis, A.

    2014-01-01

    It is shown how both the principles of extremum of entropy production, which are often used in the study of complex systems, follow from the maximization of overall system conductivities, under appropriate constraints. In this way, the maximum rate of entropy production (MEP) occurs when all the forces in the system are kept constant. On the other hand, the minimum rate of entropy production (mEP) occurs when all the currents that cross the system are kept constant. A brief discussion on the validity of the application of the mEP and MEP principles in several cases, and in particular to the Earth’s climate is also presented. -- Highlights: •The principles of extremum of entropy production are not first principles. •They result from the maximization of conductivities under appropriate constraints. •The conditions of their validity are set explicitly. •Some long-standing controversies are discussed and clarified

  10. E3 Success Story - Getting Insight Into Our Organization and Processes at Beachley Furniture Co., Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachley Furniture contacted the U.S. EPA to participate in the Green Suppliers Network (GSN) program which is a collaborative venture among industry, EPA, and the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) program.

  11. Effecten van het verzuringsbeleid in de provincie Limburg; evaluatie en prognose voor de realisatie van de gewenste natuurkwaliteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, N.A.C.; Bleeker, A.; Huiskes, H.P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Effecten van verzurende depositie op de natuur. Alterra en MEP TNO hebben gekeken naar huidige en toekomstige effecten, zowel op provinciaal niveau als voor een 16 tal natuurgebieden. Vervolgens is het verzuringsbeleid geëvalueerd

  12. Transformation of methylparaben during water chlorination: Effects of bromide and dissolved organic matter on reaction kinetics and transformation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoom, Hoonsik; Shin, Jaedon; Ra, Jiwoon; Son, Heejong; Ryu, Dongchoon; Kim, Changwon; Lee, Yunho

    2018-09-01

    The reaction kinetics, products, and pathways of methylparaben (MeP) during water chlorination with and without bromide (Br - ) were investigated to better understand the fate of parabens in chlorinated waters. During the chlorination of MeP-spiked waters without Br - , MeP was transformed into mono-Cl-MeP and di-Cl-MeP with apparent second-order rate constants (k app ) of 64M -1 s -1 and 243M -1 s -1 at pH7, respectively, while further chlorination of di-Cl-MeP was relatively slower (k app =1.3M -1 s -1 at pH7). With increasing Br - concentration, brominated MePs, such as mono-Br-MeP, Br-Cl-MeP, and di-Br-MeP, became major transformation products. The di-halogenated MePs (di-Cl-MeP, Br,Cl-MeP, and di-Br-MeP) showed relatively low reactivity to chlorine at pH7 (k app =1.3-4.6M -1 s -1 ) and bromine (k app =32-71M -1 s -1 ), which explains the observed high stability of di-halogenated MePs in chlorinated waters. With increasing pH from 7 to 8.5, the transformation of di-halogenated MePs was further slowed due to the decreasing reactivity of di-MePs to chlorine. The formation of the di-halogenated MePs and their further transformation become considerably faster at Br - concentrations higher than 0.5μM (40μg/L). Nonetheless, the accelerating effect of Br - diminishes in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) extract (Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA)) due to a more rapid consumption of bromine by DOM than chlorine. The effect of Br - on the fate of MeP was less in the tested real water matrices, possibly due to a more rapid bromine consumption by the real water DOM compared to SRHA. A kinetic model was developed based on the determined species-specific second-order rate constants for chlorination/bromination of MeP and its chlorinated and brominated MePs and the transformation pathway information, which could reasonably simulate the transformation of MePs during the chlorination of water in the presence of Br - and selected DOM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  13. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  14. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  15. Cortical Reorganization Is Associated with Surgical Decompression of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Green

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM results in sensorimotor limb deficits, bladder, and bowel dysfunction, but mechanisms underlying motor plasticity changes before and after surgery are unclear. Methods. We studied 24 patients who underwent decompression surgery and 15 healthy controls. Patients with mixed upper and lower limb dysfunction (Group A and only lower limb dysfunction (Group B were then analysed separately. Results. The sum amplitude of motor evoked potentials sMEP (p<0.01 and number of focal points where MEPs were elicited (N (p<0.001 were significantly larger in CSM patients compared with controls. For Group A (16 patients, sMEP (p<0.01 and N (p<0.001 showed similar findings. However, for Group B (8 patients, only N (p=0.03 was significantly larger in patients than controls. Group A had significantly increased grip strength (p=0.02 and reduced sMEP (p=0.001 and N (p=0.003 after surgery. Changes in sMEP (cMEP significantly correlated inversely with improved feeding (p=0.03 and stacking (p=0.04 times as was the change in number of focal points (NDiff with improved writing times (p=0.03. Group B did not show significant reduction in sMEP or N after surgery, or significant correlation of cMEP or NDiff with all hand function tests. No significant differences in H reflex parameters obtained from the flexor carpi radialis, or central motor conduction time changes, were noted after surgery. Discussion. Compensatory expansion of motor cortical representation occurs largely at cortical rather than spinal levels, with a tendency to normalization after surgery. These mirrored improvements in relevant tasks requiring utilization of intrinsic hand muscles.

  16. New evidence on the formation of oxidizing species in corona discharge in contact with liquid and their reactions with organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magureanu, M; Dobrin, D; Bradu, C; Gherendi, F; Mandache, N B; Parvulescu, V I

    2016-12-01

    The objective of these investigations is to understand in more detail how organic compounds in water are degraded during plasma treatment. The formation of oxidizing species (ozone (O 3 ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and hydroxyl radicals (OH)) in a pulsed corona discharge in contact with liquid is investigated. The degradation of a target organic compound (methylparaben) in aqueous solution was increased when combining plasma treatment with ozonation, using the O 3 generated in the discharge. Enhanced mass transfer of O 3 obtained in this plasma+O 3 configuration leads to a six fold increase of MeP oxidation rate. The evolution of oxidants concentration during treatment of MeP solutions provides information on their consumption in reactions with MeP and its oxidation products. The correlation of MeP degradation results (MeP removal and mineralization) with O 3 consumption and the identified reaction products confirms that although O 3 plays an important role in the degradation, for the mineralization OH radicals have an essential contribution. The concentration of OH radicals is diminished in the solutions containing MeP as compared to plasma-treated water, indicating OH consumption in reactions with the target compound and its degradation products. The concentration of H 2 O 2 in the liquid can be either increased or reduced in the presence of MeP, depending on its initial concentration. On the one hand, decomposition of H 2 O 2 by OH or O 3 is suppressed in the presence of MeP, but on the other hand less OH radicals are available for its formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Corticospinal integrity and motor impairment predict outcomes after excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Wang, Chih-Pin; Tsai, Po-Yi; Chan, Rai-Chi; Lin, Shan-Hui; Lin, Fu-Gong; Hsieh, Chin-Yi

    2015-01-01

    To identify the effective predictors for therapeutic outcomes based on intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). A sham-controlled, double-blind parallel study design. A tertiary hospital. People with stroke (N=72) who presented with unilateral hemiplegia. Ten consecutive sessions of real or sham iTBS were implemented with the aim of enhancing hand function. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to the presence (MEP+) or absence (MEP-) of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and grip strength according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Cortical excitability, Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), finger-tapping task (FT), and simple reaction time were performed before and after the sessions. MEPs and the MRC scale were predictive of iTBS therapeutic outcomes. Group A (MEP+, MRC>1) exhibited the greatest WMFT change (7.6±2.3, P1; 5.2±2.2 score change) and group C (MEP-, MRC=0; 2.3±1.5 score change). These improvements were correlated significantly with baseline motor function and ipsilesional maximum MEP amplitude. The effectiveness of iTBS modulation for poststroke motor enhancement depends on baseline hand grip strength and the presence of MEPs. Our findings indicate that establishing neurostimulation strategies based on the proposed electrophysiological and clinical criteria can allow iTBS to be executed with substantial precision. Effective neuromodulatory strategies can be formulated by using electrophysiological features and clinical presentation information as guidelines. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Motorcycle exhaust particles induce airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in BALB/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2004-06-01

    A number of large studies have reported that environmental pollutants from fossil fuel combustion can cause deleterious effects to the immune system, resulting in an allergic reaction leading to respiratory tract damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP), a major pollutant in the Taiwan urban area, on airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in laboratory animals. BALB/c mice were instilled intratracheally (i.t.) with 1.2 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg of MEP, which was collected from two-stroke motorcycle engines. The mice were exposed 3 times i.t. with MEP, and various parameters for airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness were sequentially analyzed. We found that MEP would induce airway and pulmonary inflammation characterized by infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung. In addition, MEP treatment enhanced BALF interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) cytokine levels and serum IgE production. Bronchial response measured by unrestrained plethysmography with methacholine challenge showed that MEP treatment induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in BALB/c mice. The chemical components in MEP were further fractionated with organic solvents, and we found that the benzene-extracted fraction exerts a similar biological effect as seen with MEP, including airway inflammation, increased BALF IL-4, serum IgE production, and induction of AHR. In conclusion, we present evidence showing that the filter-trapped particles emitted from the unleaded-gasoline-fueled two-stroke motorcycle engine may induce proinflammatory and proallergic response profiles in the absence of exposure to allergen.

  19. Integrated Air Pollution Management in China : Developing Particulate Matter Control

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study is a joint effort of the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Chinese experts, and the World Bank to inform the policy-making process in line with the government of China s medium- and long-term objectives. Specifically the study aims to assist MEP, provincial governments, and municipalities by: (1) Proposing a national PM10 compliance plan to help non-compliant cities at...

  20. Counterintelligence Screening Needed lo Reduce Security Threat That Unscreened Local National Linguists Pose to U.S. Forces (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    Logistics Civil Augmentation Program MEP Mission Essential Personnel MFR Memorandum for Record OCI Organizational Conflict of Interest OCONUS Outside...reports would draw conclusions and recollllllel1dations on the retention, hir.ing, or threat posed by the LNs. MEP would send thjl MFRs to tlie...office responsible for issning badges on the local installations if the MFRs had no negative CI infonnation. If the MFRs had CI exploitable information

  1. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction

    OpenAIRE

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. Subjects and methods: 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was perfor...

  2. Impaired transmission in the corticospinal tract and gait disability in spinal cord injured persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundell, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    with the degree of foot drop, as measured by toe elevation and ankle angle excursion in the first part of swing. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the TA. The amplitude of the MEPs at rest and their latency during contraction were correlated to the degree...... that transmission in the corticospinal tract is of importance for lifting the foot during the swing phase of human gait....

  3. Differences in motor evoked potentials induced in rats by transcranial magnetic stimulation under two separate anesthetics: implications for plasticity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sykes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when

  4. Differences in Motor Evoked Potentials Induced in Rats by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation under Two Separate Anesthetics: Implications for Plasticity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Matthew; Matheson, Natalie A; Brownjohn, Philip W; Tang, Alexander D; Rodger, Jennifer; Shemmell, Jonathan B H; Reynolds, John N J

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is primarily used in humans to change the state of corticospinal excitability. To assess the efficacy of different rTMS stimulation protocols, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are used as a readout due to their non-invasive nature. Stimulation of the motor cortex produces a response in a targeted muscle, and the amplitude of this twitch provides an indirect measure of the current state of the cortex. When applied to the motor cortex, rTMS can alter MEP amplitude, however, results are variable between participants and across studies. In addition, the mechanisms underlying any change and its locus are poorly understood. In order to better understand these effects, MEPs have been investigated in vivo in animal models, primarily in rats. One major difference in protocols between rats and humans is the use of general anesthesia in animal experiments. Anesthetics are known to affect plasticity-like mechanisms and so may contaminate the effects of an rTMS protocol. In the present study, we explored the effect of anesthetic on MEP amplitude, recorded before and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), a patterned rTMS protocol with reported facilitatory effects. MEPs were assessed in the brachioradialis muscle of the upper forelimb under two anesthetics: a xylazine/zoletil combination and urethane. We found MEPs could be induced under both anesthetics, with no differences in the resting motor threshold or the average baseline amplitudes. However, MEPs were highly variable between animals under both anesthetics, with the xylazine/zoletil combination showing higher variability and most prominently a rise in amplitude across the baseline recording period. Interestingly, application of iTBS did not facilitate MEP amplitude under either anesthetic condition. Although it is important to underpin human application of TMS with mechanistic examination of effects in animals, caution must be taken when selecting an

  5. GLYCOL METHACRYLATE EMBEDDING OF ALGINATE-POLYLYSINE MICROENCAPSULATED PANCREATIC-ISLETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FRITSCHY, WM; GERRITS, PO; WOLTERS, GHJ; PASMA, A; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    A method for processing and embedding alginate-polylysine microencapsulated pancreatic tissue in glycol methacrylate resin (GMA) is described. Fixation in 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde, processing in ascending concentrations of glycol methacrylate monomer and embedding in Technovit 7100 results

  6. Ipsilesional motor-evoked potential absence in pediatric hemiparesis impacts tracking accuracy of the less affected hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jessica M; Carey, James R; Lu, Chiahao; Krach, Linda E; Feyma, Tim; Durfee, William K; Gillick, Bernadette T

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between electrophysiological responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), finger tracking accuracy, and volume of neural substrate in children with congenital hemiparesis. Nineteen participants demonstrating an ipsilesional motor-evoked potential (MEP) were compared with eleven participants showing an absent ipsilesional MEP response. Comparisons of finger tracking accuracy from the affected and less affected hands and ipsilesional/contralesional (I/C) volume ratio for the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC) were done using two-sample t-tests. Participants showing an ipsilesional MEP response demonstrated superior tracking performance from the less affected hand (p=0.016) and significantly higher I/C volume ratios for M1 (p=0.028) and PLIC (p=0.005) compared to participants without an ipsilesional MEP response. Group differences in finger tracking accuracy from the affected hand were not significant. These results highlight differentiating factors amongst children with congenital hemiparesis showing contrasting MEP responses: less affected hand performance and preserved M1 and PLIC volume. Along with MEP status, these factors pose important clinical implications in pediatric stroke rehabilitation. These findings may also reflect competitive developmental processes associated with the preservation of affected hand function at the expense of some function in the less affected hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic analysis of Brazilian policies for energy efficient electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Cássio Tersandro de Castro; Pontes, Ricardo Silva Thé

    2017-01-01

    Brazil is leading several energy efficiency initiatives and has ambitious goals for 2030, according to the Brazilian National Energy Plan 2030. One of the main initiatives is the minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) program for energy-driven equipment and the electric motors appear as the most significant one (49% share of the total electricity consumption). The MEPS levels set new grades for efficiency, and then manufacturers and consumers have to conform to the new products and costs. Policy makers have to economically assess the effects of these MEPS in order to maintain the market stability. Since the benefits of this program come from future energy savings, this cost-effective analysis has to consider the parameters uncertainty and the results should reinforce the market players’ confidence. Thus, the goal of this work is, first, to analyze the economic viability of the MEPS transitions in Brazil considering the uncertainty of the parameters involved and then, to estimate the effects of this program on the energy savings goals for 2030. At the end, we also verify whether this investment in energy efficiency is competitive with other forms of investments in energy. - Highlights: • A cost-effectiveness method with uncertainty for efficiency program is presented. • Savings from electric motors MEPS program makes the 2030 Brazilian goals possible. • Electric motors MEPS program cost-effectiveness in Brazil is confirmed. • Saved energy cost from efficiency improvement is a competitive energy investment.

  8. ‘Normal Parliament’: Exploring the Organisation of Everyday Political Life in an MEP’s Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Busby

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty has again enhanced the role and powers of the European Parliament [EP] and therefore increased the workload of individual MEPs. However many citizens remain unaware of what MEPs do and how they represent them. This paper reviews the academic literature and argues that we need to know more about how individual MEPs practise European politics inside this institution. Throughout, it argues that ethnography can play a key role in opening up this institutional black-box and enhancing our understanding of this profession by focusing on daily activities and backstage processes. It begins by exploring the working environment of MEPs, which is characterised by shortage of time, constant travelling, information overload, and highly technical issues. Secondly, it describes strategies MEPs employ to pursue their aims here, namely: specialisation, filtering, employing assistants, and information management. Thirdly, it draws comparisons with other professional fields to remind us the EP is a normal professional work environment. The contributions are twofold: the article provides a deeper, more nuanced, and more holistic understanding of (individual MEP behaviour; and also helps to demystify the profession and thus help alleviate the democratic deficit by beginning to close the gap between politicians and citizens.

  9. A comparative approach of methylparaben photocatalytic degradation assisted by UV-C, UV-A and Vis radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doná, Giovanna; Dagostin, João Luiz Andreoti; Takashina, Thiago Atsushi; de Castilhos, Fernanda; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana

    2018-05-01

    Due to the widespread use of methylparaben (MEP) and its high chemical stability, it can be found in wastewater treatment plants and can act as an endocrine disrupting compound. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of MEP solutions were evaluated under UV-A, UV-C and Vis radiations in the presence of the photocatalyst TiO 2 . In this sense, the effects of the catalyst load, pH and MEP initial concentration were studied. Remarkably higher reaction rates and total photodegradation were achieved in systems assisted by UV-C radiation. The complete degradation was achieved after 60 min of reaction using the MEP concentration of 30 mg L -1 at pH 9 and 500 mg L -1 TiO 2 . The experimental data apparently followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, which could predict 88-98% of the reaction behavior. For the best photodegradation condition, the model predicted an apparent reaction rate constant (k app ) equal to 0.0505 min -1 and an initial reaction rate of 1.5641 mg (L min) -1 . Mineralization analyses showed high removal for MEP and derived compounds from the initial solution when using UV-C after 90 min of reaction. The lower toxicity was also confirmed by in vivo tests using MEP solutions previously treated by photocatalysis.

  10. Effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) in children with infantile-onset Pompe disease and respiratory muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harrison N; Crisp, Kelly D; Moss, Tronda; Strollo, Katherine; Robey, Randy; Sank, Jeffrey; Canfield, Michelle; Case, Laura E; Mahler, Leslie; Kravitz, Richard M; Kishnani, Priya S

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness is a primary therapeutic challenge for patients with infantile Pompe disease. We previously described the clinical implementation of a respiratory muscle training (RMT) regimen in two adults with late-onset Pompe disease; both demonstrated marked increases in inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength in response to RMT. However, the use of RMT in pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease has not been previously reported. We report the effects of an intensive RMT program on maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) using A-B-A (baseline-treatment-posttest) single subject experimental design in two pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease. Both subjects had persistent respiratory muscle weakness despite long-term treatment with alglucosidase alfa. Subject 1 demonstrated negligible to modest increases in MIP/MEP (6% increase in MIP, d=0.25; 19% increase in MEP, d=0.87), while Subject 2 demonstrated very large increases in MIP/MEP (45% increase in MIP, d=2.38; 81% increase in MEP, d=4.31). Following three-month RMT withdrawal, both subjects maintained these strength increases and demonstrated maximal MIP and MEP values at follow-up. Intensive RMT may be a beneficial treatment for respiratory muscle weakness in pediatric survivors of infantile Pompe disease.

  11. Application of best practice for setting minimum energy efficiency standards in technically disadvantaged countries: Case study of Air Conditioners in Brunei Darussalam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xunpeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Setting MEPS requires significant data, financial resources and technical capacity. • Application of best practice in technical disadvantaged countries (TDCs) was demonstrated. • Best practice was successfully applied to Brunei for its AC MEPS. • For Brunei, COP at 2.9 is recommended and 15% efficiency improvement is achievable. • The methodology is applicable to other appliances in any TDCs. - Abstract: Application of the best practice of setting minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in technically disadvantaged countries (TDCs) faces many barriers. The best practice of determining MEPS has a comprehensive analytical framework including engineering-economic analysis, life-cycle cost-benefit analysis, as well stakeholders’ and market impact assessments. However, TDCs usually are lack of reference product classes, market data, and other necessary inputs data. This study demonstrated how to overcome those barriers to apply the best practice to TDCs using the actual experience in setting initial MEPS for Air Conditioners (ACs) in Brunei from scratch with limited secondary data as an example. The series of application works include definition of the product classes and the baseline group; collection of market data; formulation of cost-efficiency relationship from the market data; examination of the economic, environmental, and financial impacts of various MEPS options; revealing of the consumers’ willingness to pay; and analysis of the impacts and responses from the industry and consumers. The coordination with the compliance of the Montreal Protocol was also considered. The methodology should also be applicable to setting MEPF for other appliances in any TDCs.

  12. Degradation of methylparaben in water by corona plasma coupled with ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrin, D; Magureanu, M; Bradu, C; Mandache, N B; Ionita, P; Parvulescu, V I

    2014-11-01

    The degradation of methylparaben (MeP) in water was investigated using a pulsed corona discharge generated in oxygen, above the liquid. A comparison was made between results obtained in semi-batch corona (SBC) configuration (stationary solution, continuous gas flow) and results obtained in a semi-batch corona with recirculation combined with ozonation (SBCR + O3), where the liquid is continuously circulated between a solution reservoir and the plasma reactor and the effluent gas containing ozone is bubbled through the solution in the reservoir. It was found that MeP was completely degraded after 10-15 min of treatment in both configurations. Oxidation by ozone alone, in the absence of plasma, was a slower process. The energy efficiency for MeP removal (Y MeP) and for mineralization (Y TOC) was significantly higher in the SBCR + O3 configuration (Y MeP = 7.1 g/kWh at 90 % MeP removal and Y TOC = 0.41 g/kWh at 50 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal) than in the SBC configuration (Y MeP = 0.6 g/kWh at 90 % MeP removal and Y TOC = 0.11 g/kWh at 50 % TOC removal).

  13. Predictive equations for respiratory muscle strength according to international and Brazilian guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela M. B. S. Pessoa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The maximum static respiratory pressures, namely the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP, reflect the strength of the respiratory muscles. These measures are simple, non-invasive, and have established diagnostic and prognostic value. This study is the first to examine the maximum respiratory pressures within the Brazilian population according to the recommendations proposed by the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS and the Brazilian Thoracic Association (SBPT. Objective: To establish reference equations, mean values, and lower limits of normality for MIP and MEP for each age group and sex, as recommended by the ATS/ERS and SBPT. Method: We recruited 134 Brazilians living in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, aged 20-89 years, with a normal pulmonary function test and a body mass index within the normal range. We used a digital manometer that operationalized the variable maximum average pressure (MIP/MEP. At least five tests were performed for both MIP and MEP to take into account a possible learning effect. Results: We evaluated 74 women and 60 men. The equations were as follows: MIP=63.27-0.55 (age+17.96 (gender+0.58 (weight, r2 of 34% and MEP= - 61.41+2.29 (age - 0.03(age2+33.72 (gender+1.40 (waist, r2 of 49%. Conclusion: In clinical practice, these equations could be used to calculate the predicted values of MIP and MEP for the Brazilian population.

  14. Scaling of motor cortical excitability during unimanual force generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Monica A; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2009-10-01

    During performance of a unimanual force generation task primary motor cortices (M1s) experience clear functional changes. Here, we evaluated the way in which M1s interact during parametric increases in right wrist flexion force in healthy volunteers. We measured the amplitude and the slope of motor evoked potentials (MEP) recruitment curves to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the left and right flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles at rest and during 10%, 30% and 70% of maximal wrist flexion force. At rest, no differences were observed in the amplitude and slope of MEP recruitment curves in the left and right FCR muscles. With increasing right wrist flexion force, MEP amplitudes increased in both FCR muscles, with larger amplitudes in the right FCR. We found a significant correlation between the left and right MEP amplitudes across conditions. The slope of right and left FCR MEP recruitment curve was significantly steeper at 70% of force compared to rest and 10% of force. A significant correlation between the slope of left and right FCR MEP amplitudes was found at 70% of force only. Our results indicate a differential scaling of excitability in the corticospinal system controlling right and left FCR muscles at increasing levels of unimanual force generation. Specifically, these data highlights that at strong levels of unimanual force the increases in motor cortical excitability with increasing TMS stimulus intensities follow a similar pattern in both M1s, while at low levels of force they do not.

  15. Maximum Entropy Production Is Not a Steady State Attractor for 2D Fluid Convection

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    Stuart Bartlett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple authors have claimed that the natural convection of a fluid is a process that exhibits maximum entropy production (MEP. However, almost all such investigations were limited to fixed temperature boundary conditions (BCs. It was found that under those conditions, the system tends to maximize its heat flux, and hence it was concluded that the MEP state is a dynamical attractor. However, since entropy production varies with heat flux and difference of inverse temperature, it is essential that any complete investigation of entropy production allows for variations in heat flux and temperature difference. Only then can we legitimately assess whether the MEP state is the most attractive. Our previous work made use of negative feedback BCs to explore this possibility. We found that the steady state of the system was far from the MEP state. For any system, entropy production can only be maximized subject to a finite set of physical and material constraints. In the case of our previous work, it was possible that the adopted set of fluid parameters were constraining the system in such a way that it was entirely prevented from reaching the MEP state. Hence, in the present work, we used a different set of boundary parameters, such that the steady states of the system were in the local vicinity of the MEP state. If MEP was indeed an attractor, relaxing those constraints of our previous work should have caused a discrete perturbation to the surface of steady state heat flux values near the value corresponding to MEP. We found no such perturbation, and hence no discernible attraction to the MEP state. Furthermore, systems with fixed flux BCs actually minimize their entropy production (relative to the alternative stable state, that of pure diffusive heat transport. This leads us to conclude that the principle of MEP is not an accurate indicator of which stable steady state a convective system will adopt. However, for all BCs considered, the quotient of

  16. Is Trait Rumination Associated with the Ability to Generate Effective Problem Solving Strategies? Utilizing Two Versions of the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Nishimura, Haruki; Mastuda, Yuko; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Adachi, Masaki

    This study examined the relationship between trait rumination and the effectiveness of problem solving strategies as assessed by the Means-Ends Problem-Solving Test (MEPS) in a nonclinical population. The present study extended previous studies in terms of using two instructions in the MEPS: the second-person, actual strategy instructions, which has been utilized in previous studies on rumination, and the third-person, ideal-strategy instructions, which is considered more suitable for assessing the effectiveness of problem solving strategies. We also replicated the association between rumination and each dimension of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version (SPSI-R:S). Japanese undergraduate students ( N  = 223) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS), MEPS, and SPSI-R:S. One half of the sample completed the MEPS with the second-person, actual strategy instructions. The other participants completed the MEPS with the third-person, ideal-strategy instructions. The results showed that neither total RRS score, nor its subscale scores were significantly correlated with MEPS scores under either of the two instructions. These findings taken together with previous findings indicate that in nonclinical populations, trait rumination is not related to the effectiveness of problem solving strategies, but that state rumination while responding to the MEPS deteriorates the quality of strategies. The correlations between RRS and SPSI-R:S scores indicated that trait rumination in general, and its brooding subcomponent in particular are parts of cognitive and behavioral responses that attempt to avoid negative environmental and negative private events. Results also showed that reflection is a part of active problem solving.

  17. Application of an expandable pedicle screw in the severe osteoporotic spine: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zi-xiang; Cui, Geng; Lei, Wei; Fan, Yong; Wan, Shi-yong; Ma, Zhen-sheng; Sang, Hong-xun

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the clinical abstract and radiographic outcome of multi-axial expandable pedicle screws (MEPS) in patients with osteoporosis. One hundred and twenty-five consecutive patients received MEPS from the UPASS spinal fixation system to obtain thoracolumbar or lumbosacral stabilization. All patients underwent bone mineral density (BMD) scans. The indications for use of the MEPS were spinal diseases with severe osteoporosis (degenerative diseases 46 cases, compression fractures 28 cases, lumbar tuberculosis 27 cases and revision spine surgery 24 cases). The pre-operative and three months post-operative functional evaluations were graded with JOA and VAS scoring system. One week, six months and 12 months after surgery, plain film and three-dimensional CT scans were obtained to evaluate the spinal fusion and fixation effectiveness of MEPS. The mean follow-up period was 18 months (ranged from 6 to 33 months). All patients suffered from severely osteoporosis with a decrease of 25.3% in BMD. The pre-operative JOA and VAS scores were 11.3±3.0 and 6.7±1.8 mm, respectively. Three months after operation, the JOA and VAS scores were 25.2±2.0 and 2.3±1.7 mm. The recovery rate was 78.1±11.5% and the clinical results were satisfying. There were no instances of screw loosening or pullout of the MEPS and the screw-bone interface was excellent. The radiographic results showed that bone healing, both around the screws and inter-vertebral, was achieved. In osteoporosis spine surgery, excellent bone-screw interface and fixation strength can be achieved by using MEPS. MEPS are a novel approach to increase the pedicle screw fixation in osteoporotic and revision spine surgeries.

  18. Role of motor-evoked potential monitoring in conjunction with temporary clipping of spinal nerve roots in posterior thoracic spine tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleraky, Mohammed A; Setzer, Matthias; Papanastassiou, Ioannis D; Baaj, Ali A; Tran, Nam D; Katsares, Kiesha M; Vrionis, Frank D

    2010-05-01

    The vascular supply of the thoracic spinal cord depends on the thoracolumbar segmental arteries. Because of the small size and ventral course of these arteries in relation to the dorsal root ganglion and ventral root, they cannot be reliably identified during surgery by anatomic or morphologic criteria. Sacrificing them will most likely result in paraplegia. The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel method of intraoperative testing of a nerve root's contribution to the blood supply of the thoracic spinal cord. This is a clinical retrospective study of 49 patients diagnosed with thoracic spine tumors. Temporary nerve root clipping combined with motor-evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring was performed; additionally, postoperative clinical evaluation was done and reported in all cases. All cases were monitored by SSEP and MEPs. The nerve root to be sacrificed was temporarily clipped using standard aneurysm clips, and SSEP/MEP were assessed before and after clipping. Four nerve roots were sacrificed in four cases, three nerve roots in eight cases, and two nerve roots in 22 cases. Nerve roots were sacrificed bilaterally in 12 cases. Most patients (47/49) had no changes in MEP/SSEP and had no neurological deficit postoperatively. One case of a spinal sarcoma demonstrated changes in MEP after temporary clipping of the left T11 nerve root. The nerve was not sacrificed, and the patient was neurologically intact after surgery. In another case of a sarcoma, MEPs changed in the lower limbs after ligation of left T9 nerve root. It was felt that it was a global event because of anesthesia. Postoperatively, the patient had complete paraplegia but recovered almost completely after 6 months. Temporary nerve root clipping combined with MEP and SSEP monitoring may enhance the impact of neuromonitoring in the intraoperative management of patients with thoracic spine tumors and favorably influence neurological outcome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier

  19. The effect of stimulation interval on plasticity following repeated blocks of intermittent theta burst stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Nga Yan; Goldsworthy, Mitchell R; Ridding, Michael C; Coxon, James P; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Fornito, Alex; Rogasch, Nigel C

    2018-06-04

    This study assessed the effect of interval duration on the direction and magnitude of changes in cortical excitability and inhibition when applying repeated blocks of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) over motor cortex. 15 participants received three different iTBS conditions on separate days: single iTBS; repeated iTBS with a 5 minute interval (iTBS-5-iTBS); and with a 15 minute interval (iTBS-15-iTBS). Changes in cortical excitability and short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI) were assessed via motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) before and up to 60 mins following stimulation. iTBS-15-iTBS increased MEP amplitude for up to 60 mins post stimulation, whereas iTBS-5-iTBS decreased MEP amplitude. In contrast, MEP amplitude was not altered by single iTBS. Despite the group level findings, only 53% of individuals showed facilitated MEPs following iTBS-15-iTBS, and only 40% inhibited MEPs following iTBS-5-iTBS. Modulation of SICI did not differ between conditions. These results suggest interval duration between spaced iTBS plays an important role in determining the direction of plasticity on excitatory, but not inhibitory circuits in human motor cortex. While repeated iTBS can increase the magnitude of MEP facilitation/inhibition in some individuals compared to single iTBS, the response to repeated iTBS appears variable between individuals in this small sample.

  20. Biosynthesis of the sesquiterpene germacrene D in Solidago canadensis: 13C and (2)H labeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis; Wüst, Matthias; Adam, Klaus-Peter; Mosandl, Armin

    2002-05-01

    The biogenetic origin of the isoprenoid building blocks of the sesquiterpene germacrene D was studied in Solidago canadensis. Feeding experiments were carried out with 1-[5,5-D(2)]deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (D(2)-DOXP), [5-13C]mevalonolactone (13C-MVL) and [1-13C]-D-glucose. The hydrodistillate of a cut shoot fed with D(2)-DOXP was investigated by enantio-MDGC-MS and the volatile fraction of a shoot supplied with 13C-MVL was examined by GC-C-IRMS. The incorporation of [1-13C]-D-glucose was analyzed by quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy after isolation of germacrene D from the essential oil. Our labeling studies revealed that the biosynthesis of the C-15 skeleton of sesquiterpene germacrene D in Solidago canadensis proceeds predominantly via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway.

  1. Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinol Congeners Possessing Diverse Structures from Hypericum henryi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Wei; Li, Ming-Ming; Liu, Xia; Ferreira, Daneel; Ding, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Liao, Yang; Qin, Hong-Bo; Xu, Gang

    2015-04-24

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are a class of hybrid natural products sharing the mevalonate/methylerythritol phosphate and polyketide biosynthetic pathways and showing considerable structural and bioactive diversity. In a systematic phytochemical investigation of Hypericum henryi, 40 PPAP-type derivatives, including the new compounds hyphenrones G-Q, were obtained. These compounds represent 12 different structural types, including four unusual skeletons exemplified by 5, 8, 10, and 17. The 12 different core structures found are explicable in terms of their biosynthetic origin. The structure of a known PPAP, perforatumone, was revised to hyphenrone A (5) by NMR spectroscopic and biomimetic synthesis methods. Several compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase and human tumor cell lines. This study deals with the structural diversity, function, and biogenesis of natural PPAPs.

  2. Genomewide association study of methane emissions in Angus beef cattle with validation in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; De Haas, Y; Hayes, B J; Veerkamp, R F; Khansefid, M; Donoghue, K A; Arthur, P F; Pryce, J E

    2016-10-01

    Methane (CH) is a product of enteric fermentation in ruminants, and it represents around 17% of global CH emissions. There has been substantial effort from the livestock scientific community toward tools that can help reduce this percentage. One approach is to select for lower emitting animals. To achieve this, accurate genetic parameters and identification of the genomic basis of CH traits are required. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to perform a genomewide association study to identify SNP associated with several CH traits in Angus beef cattle (1,020 animals) and validate them in a lactating Holstein population (population 1 [POP1]; 205 animals); 2) to validate significant SNP for DMI and weight at test (WT) from a second Holstein population, from a previous study (population 2 [POP2]; 903 animals), in an Angus population; and 3) to evaluate 2 different residual CH traits and determine if the genes associated with CH also control residual CH traits. Phenotypes calculated for the genotyped Angus population included CH production (MeP), CH yield (MeY), CH intensity (MI), DMI, and WT. The Holstein population (POP1) was multiparous, with phenotypes on CH traits (MeP, MeY, and MI) plus genotypes. Additionally, 2 CH traits, residual genetic CH (RGM) and residual phenotypic CH (RPM), were calculated by adjusting MeP for DMI and WT. Estimated heritabilities in the Angus population were 0.30, 0.19, and 0.15 for MeP, RGM, and RPM, respectively, and genetic correlations of MeP with DMI and WT were 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. Estimated heritabilities in Holstein POP1 were 0.23, 0.30, and 0.42 for MeP, MeY, and MI, respectively. Strong associations with MeP were found on chromosomes 4, 12, 14, 20, and 30 at Angus population, the number of significant SNP for MeP at Angus population was used to estimate genetic parameters for MeP and MeY in Holstein POP1, the genetic variance and, consequently, the heritability slightly increased, meaning that most of the

  3. Development of a brief multidisciplinary education programme for patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe Rikke H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a prevalent progressive musculoskeletal disorder, leading to pain and disability. Patient information and education are considered core elements in treatment guidelines for OA; however, there is to our knowledge no evidence-based recommendation on the best approach, content or length on educational programmes in OA. Objective: to develop a brief, patient oriented disease specific multidisciplinary education programme (MEP to enhance self-management in patients with OA. Method Twelve persons (80% female mean age 59 years diagnosed with hand, hip or knee OA participated in focus group interviews. In the first focus group, six participants were interviewed about their educational needs, attitudes and expectations for the MEP. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and thereafter condensed. Based on results from focus group interviews, current research evidence, clinical knowledge and patients' experience, a multidisciplinary OA team (dietist, nurse, occupational therapist, pharmacist, physical therapist and rheumatologist and a patient representative developed a pilot-MEP after having attended a work-shop in health pedagogics. Finally, the pilot-MEP was evaluated by a second focus group consisting of four members from the first focus group and six other experienced patients, before final adjustments were made. Results The focus group interviews revealed four important themes: what is OA, treatment options, barriers and coping strategies in performing daily activities, and how to live with osteoarthritis. Identified gaps between patient expectations and experience with the pilot-programme were discussed and adapted into a final MEP. The final MEP was developed as a 3.5 hour educational programme provided in groups of 6-9 patients. All members from the multidisciplinary team are involved in the education programme, including a facilitator who during the provision of the programme ensures that the individual

  4. Using a Double-Coil TMS Protocol to Assess Preparatory Inhibition Bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, Pierre; Grandjean, Julien; Derosiere, Gerard; de Wilde, Ysaline; Quemener, Louise; Duque, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the primary motor cortex (M1), elicits motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in contralateral limb muscles which are valuable indicators of corticospinal excitability (CSE) at the time of stimulation. So far, most studies have used single-coil TMS over one M1, yielding MEPs in muscles of a single limb-usually the hand. However, tracking CSE in the two hands simultaneously would be useful in many contexts. We recently showed that, in the resting state, double-coil stimulation of the two M1 with a 1 ms inter-pulse interval (double-coil 1 ms TMS) elicits MEPs in both hands that are comparable to MEPs obtained using single-coil TMS. To further evaluate this new technique, we considered the MEPs elicited by double-coil 1 ms TMS in an instructed-delay choice reaction time task where a prepared response has to be withheld until an imperative signal is displayed. Single-coil TMS studies have repetitively shown that in this type of task, the motor system is transiently inhibited during the delay period, as evident from the broad suppression of MEP amplitudes. Here, we aimed at investigating whether a comparable inhibitory effect can be observed with MEPs elicited using double-coil 1 ms TMS. To do so, we compared the amplitude as well as the coefficient of variation (CV) of MEPs produced by double-coil 1 ms or single-coil TMS during action preparation. We observed that MEPs were suppressed (smaller amplitude) and often less variable (smaller CV) during the delay period compared to baseline. Importantly, these effects were equivalent whether single-coil or double-coil 1 ms TMS was used. This suggests that double-coil 1 ms TMS is a reliable tool to assess CSE, not only when subjects are at rest, but also when they are involved in a task, opening new research horizons for scientists interested in the corticospinal correlates of human behavior.

  5. Dosimetric impact of mixed-energy volumetric modulated arc therapy plans for high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Pokharel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study investigated the dosimetric impact of mixing low and high energy treatment plans for prostate cancer treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT technique in the form of RapidArc.Methods: A cohort of 12 prostate cases involving proximal seminal vesicles and lymph nodes was selected for this retrospective study. For each prostate case, the single-energy plans (SEPs and mixed-energy plans (MEPs were generated.  First, the SEPs were created using 6 mega-voltage (MV energy for both the primary and boost plans. Second, the MEPs were created using 16 MV energy for the primary plan and 6 MV energy for the boost plan. The primary and boost MEPs used identical beam parameters and same dose optimization values as in the primary and boost SEPs for the corresponding case. The dosimetric parameters from the composite plans (SEPs and MEPs were evaluated. Results: The dose to the target volume was slightly higher (on average <1% in the SEPs than in the MEPs. The conformity index (CI and homogeneity index (HI values between the SEPs and MEPs were comparable. The dose to rectum and bladder was always higher in the SEPs (average difference up to 3.7% for the rectum and up to 8.4% for the bladder than in the MEPs. The mean dose to femoral heads was higher by about 0.8% (on average in the MEPs than in the SEPs. The number of monitor units and integral dose were higher in the SEPs compared to the MEPs by average differences of 9.1% and 5.5%, respectively.Conclusion: The preliminary results from this study suggest that use of mixed-energy VMAT plan for high-risk prostate cancer could potentially reduce the integral dose and minimize the dose to rectum and bladder, but for the higher femoral head dose.-----------------------------------------------Cite this article as:Pokharel S. Dosimetric impact of mixed-energy volumetric modulated arc therapy plans for high-risk prostate cancer. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013;1(1:01011.DOI: http

  6. Different corticospinal control between discrete and rhythmic movement of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of the soleus MEPs. Only trials in which background EMG level, ankle angle, and ankle velocity were similar among the movement conditions were included for data analysis. In addition, only trials with a similar M-wave were included for data analysis in the experiment evoking H-reflexes. Results showed that H reflex and MEP amplitudes in the soleus muscle during discrete movement were not significantly different from those during rhythmic movement. MEP amplitude in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement was significantly larger than that during the initial cycle of the rhythmic movement or during discrete movement. Higher corticospinal excitability in the tibialis anterior muscle during the later cycles of rhythmic movement may reflect changes in corticospinal control from the initial cycle to the later cycles of rhythmic movement.

  7. Immediate increases in quadriceps corticomotor excitability during an electromyography biofeedback intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosimone, Brian; McLeod, Michelle M; Florea, David; Gribble, Phillip A; Tevald, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of EMG-BF on vastus lateralis corticomotor excitability, measured via motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes elicited using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). We also determined the effect of EMG-BF on isometric knee extensor strength. Fifteen healthy participants volunteered for this crossover study with two sessions held one-week apart. Participants were randomly assigned to condition order, during which five intervention MVICs were performed with or without EMG-BF. MEP amplitudes were collected with TMS during five knee extension contractions (5% of MVIC) at baseline and again during intervention MVICs within each session. During the control condition, participants were instructed to perform the same number of MVICs without any EMG-BF. Percent change scores were used to calculate the change in peak-to-peak MEP amplitudes that occurred during EMG-BF and Control MVICs compared to the baseline MEPs. Peak knee extension torque was recorded during MVICs prior to TMS for each condition. EMG-BF produced significantly increased MEP change scores and significantly greater torque than the control condition. The results of the current study suggest that EMG-BF may be a viable clinical method for targeting corticomotor excitability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Different stimulation frequencies alter synchronous fluctuations in motor evoked potential amplitude of intrinsic hand muscles – a TMS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Victor Sale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz. MEPs (n = 50 were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs.

  9. Different Stimulation Frequencies Alter Synchronous Fluctuations in Motor Evoked Potential Amplitude of Intrinsic Hand Muscles—a TMS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V.; Rogasch, Nigel C.; Nordstrom, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) varies from trial-to-trial. Synchronous oscillations in cortical neuronal excitability contribute to this variability, however it is not known how different frequencies of stimulation influence MEP variability, and whether these oscillations are rhythmic or aperiodic. We stimulated the motor cortex with TMS at different regular (i.e., rhythmic) rates, and compared this with pseudo-random (aperiodic) timing. In 18 subjects, TMS was applied at three regular frequencies (0.05 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 1 Hz) and one aperiodic frequency (mean 0.2 Hz). MEPs (n = 50) were recorded from three intrinsic hand muscles of the left hand with different functional and anatomical relations. MEP amplitude correlation was highest for the functionally related muscle pair, less for the anatomically related muscle pair and least for the functionally- and anatomically-unrelated muscle pair. MEP correlations were greatest with 1 Hz, and least for stimulation at 0.05 Hz. Corticospinal neuron synchrony is higher with shorter TMS intervals. Further, corticospinal neuron synchrony is similar irrespective of whether the stimulation is periodic or aperiodic. These findings suggest TMS frequency is a crucial consideration for studies using TMS to probe correlated activity between muscle pairs. PMID:27014031

  10. bcc-to-hcp transformation pathways for iron versus hydrostatic pressure: Coupled shuffle and shear modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J. B.; Johnson, D. D.

    2009-04-01

    Using density-functional theory, we calculate the potential-energy surface (PES), minimum-energy pathway (MEP), and transition state (TS) versus hydrostatic pressure σhyd for the reconstructive transformation in Fe from body-centered cubic (bcc) to hexagonal closed-packed (hcp). At fixed σhyd , the PES is described by coupled shear (γ) and shuffle (η) modes and is determined from structurally minimized hcp-bcc energy differences at a set of (η,γ) . We fit the PES using symmetry-adapted polynomials, permitting the MEP to be found analytically. The MEP is continuous and fully explains the transformation and its associated magnetization and volume discontinuity at TS. We show that σhyd (while not able to induce shear) dramatically alters the MEP to drive reconstruction by a shuffle-only mode at ≤30GPa , as observed. Finally, we relate our polynomial-based results to Landau and nudge-elastic-band approaches and show they yield incorrect MEP in general.

  11. Development of an analytical method coupling cell membrane chromatography with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry via microextraction by packed sorbent and its application in the screening of volatile active compounds in natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2015-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are important sources of lead compounds in modern drug discovery. To facilitate the screening of volatile active compounds in NPs, we have developed a new biochromatography method that uses rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), which are rich in L-type calcium channels (LCC), to prepare the stationary phase. This integrated method, which couples cell membrane chromatography (CMC) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) via microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) technology, has been termed VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS. Methodological validation confirmed its specificity, reliability and convenience. Screening results for Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Fructus Cnidii obtained using VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS were consistent with those obtained using VSMC/CMC-offline-GC-MS. MEPS connection plays as simplified solid-phase extraction and replaces the uncontrollable evaporation operation in reported offline connections, so our new method is supposed to be more efficient and reliable than the offline ones, especially for compounds that are volatile, thermally unstable or difficult to purify. In application, senkyunolide A and ligustilide were preliminary identified as the volatile active components in Rhizoma Chuanxiong. We have thus confirmed the suitability of VSMC/CMC-MEPS-GC-MS for volatile active compounds screening in NP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic treatment with rivastigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a study on primary motor cortex excitability tested by 5 Hz-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbastoni, A; Gilio, F; D'Antonio, F; Cambieri, C; Ceccanti, M; de Lena, C; Inghilleri, M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate changes in cortical excitability and short-term synaptic plasticity we delivered 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex in 11 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) before and after chronic therapy with rivastigmine. Resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP), cortical silent period (CSP) after single stimulus and MEP facilitation during rTMS trains were tested three times during treatment. All patients underwent neuropsychological tests before and after receiving rivastigmine. rTMS data in patients were compared with those from age-matched healthy controls. At baseline, RMT was significantly lower in patients than in controls whereas CSP duration and single MEP amplitude were similar in both groups. In patients, rTMS failed to induce the normal MEP facilitation during the trains. Chronic rivastigmine intake significantly increased MEP amplitude after a single stimulus, whereas it left the other neurophysiological variables studied unchanged. No significant correlation was found between patients' neuropsychological test scores and TMS measures. Chronic treatment with rivastigmine has no influence on altered cortical excitability and short-term synaptic plasticity as tested by 5 Hz-rTMS. The limited clinical benefits related to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy in patients with AD depend on factors other than improved plasticity within the cortical glutamatergic circuits. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface modification of Ni–Ti alloys for stent application after magnetoelectropolishing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, Puneet; Musaramthota, Vishal; Munroe, Norman; Datye, Amit; Dua, Rupak; Haider, Waseem; McGoron, Anthony; Rokicki, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The constant demand for new implant materials and the multidisciplinary design approaches for stent applications have expanded vastly over the past decade. The biocompatibility of these implant materials is a function of their surface characteristics such as morphology, surface chemistry, roughness, surface charge and wettability. These surface characteristics can directly influence the material's corrosion resistance and biological processes such as endothelialization. Surface morphology affects the thermodynamic stability of passivating oxides, which renders corrosion resistance to passivating alloys. Magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) is known to alter the morphology and composition of surface films, which assist in improving corrosion resistance of Nitinol alloys. This work aims at analyzing the surface characteristics of MEP Nitinol alloys by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wettability of the alloys was determined by contact angle measurements and the mechanical properties were assessed by Nanoindentation. Improved mechanical properties were observed with the addition of alloying elements. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed to determine the corrosion susceptibility. Further, the alloys were tested for their cytotoxicity and cellular growth with endothelial cells. Improved corrosion resistance and cellular viability were observed with MEP surface treated alloys. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectropolishing (MEP) reduces the surface asperities of Nitinol alloys and formed stable oxides on the surface. • Improved corrosion resistance and reduced Nickel ion leaching were observed for MEP surfaces. • Ni–Ti alloyed with Cr showed improved mechanical properties. • Enhanced endothelial cell proliferation on ternary Nitinol alloys

  14. Eating tools in hand activate the brain systems for eating action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kaori; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Oga, Tatsuhide; Nakajima, Yasoichi

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that visually presented tools automatically activate the human sensorimotor system coding learned motor actions relevant to the visual stimuli. Such crossmodal activation may reflect a general functional property of the human motor memory and thus can be operating in other, non-limb effector organs, such as the orofacial system involved in eating. In the present study, we predicted that somatosensory signals produced by eating tools in hand covertly activate the neuromuscular systems involved in eating action. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured motor evoked response (MEP) of the masseter muscle in normal humans to examine the possible impact of tools in hand (chopsticks and scissors) on the neuromuscular systems during the observation of food stimuli. We found that eating tools (chopsticks) enhanced the masseter MEPs more greatly than other tools (scissors) during the visual recognition of food, although this covert change in motor excitability was not detectable at the behavioral level. In Experiment 3, we further observed that chopsticks overall increased MEPs more greatly than scissors and this tool-driven increase of MEPs was greater when participants viewed food stimuli than when they viewed non-food stimuli. A joint analysis of the three experiments confirmed a significant impact of eating tools on the masseter MEPs during food recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that eating tools in hand exert a category-specific impact on the neuromuscular system for eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of the Liverpool Elbow Score as a postal questionnaire for the assessment of outcome after total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Alexander M; Gozzard, Charles; Blewitt, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Liverpool Elbow Score (LES) is a newly developed, validated elbow-specific score. It consists of a patient-answered questionnaire (PAQ) and a clinical assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the PAQ portion of the LES could be used independently as a postal questionnaire for the assessment of outcome after total elbow arthroplasty and to correlate the LES and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). A series of 51 total elbow replacements were reviewed by postal questionnaire. Patients then attended the clinic for assessment by use of both the LES and the MEPS. There was an excellent response rate to the postal questionnaire (98%), and 44 elbows were available for clinical review. Good correlation was shown between the LES and the MEPS (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.84; P PAQ portion of the LES and the MEPS (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.76; P PAQ component and the MEPS, suggesting that outcome assessment is possible by postal questionnaire.

  16. Intermittent theta-burst stimulation induces correlated changes in cortical and corticospinal excitability in healthy older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedankien, Tamara; Fried, Peter J; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Shafi, Mouhsin M

    2017-12-01

    We studied the correlation between motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and early TMS-evoked EEG potentials (TEPs) from single-pulse TMS before and after intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation (iTBS) to the left primary motor cortex (M1) in 17 healthy older participants. TMS was targeted to the hand region of M1 using a MRI-guided navigated brain stimulation system and a figure-of-eight biphasic coil. MEPs were recorded from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle using surface EMG. TEPs were extracted from a 61-channel EEG recording. Participants received 90 single TMS pulses at 120% of resting motor threshold before and after iTBS. Across all participants, the change in N15-P30 TEP and MEP amplitudes were significantly correlated (r=0.69; piTBS, whereas MEP amplitudes showed a significant increase. Changes in corticospinal reactivity and cortical reactivity induced by iTBS are related. However, the effect of iTBS on TEPs, unlike MEPs, is not straightforward. Our findings help elucidate the relationship between changes in cortical and corticospinal excitability in healthy older individuals. Going forward, TEPs may be used to evaluate the effects of theta-burst stimulation in non-motor brain regions. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. HIGHLIGHTS OF MAGNETOELECTROPOLISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eHryniewicz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research work has been concerned on the studies and development of electrochemical polishing in the magnetic field (MEP in comparison with the standard electropolishing methods performed without stirring (EP and the process with the forced electrolyte mixing (MIX. Advanced techniques were used in the studies, to measure the effects of the surface treatment. They are as follows: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS, surface roughness, and nanoindentation measurements. For the corrosion studies, the electrochemical methods were used, such as: open circuit potential OCP, potentiodynamic curves PC, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS measurements. The MEP process is advised mainly due to the opportunity to enrich the surface layer with the chromium compounds (austenitic stainless steels, or titanium compounds (CP Ti Grade 2, Nitinol. The surface layers of biomaterials after MEP process contain much lower amount of carcinogenic compounds, like chromium VI oxidation stage (Cr6+ (austenitic stainless steels and nickel compounds (austenitic stainless steel & Nitinol versus those ones obtained after EP & MIX treatments. It is interesting that apart from the significant modification of the surface layer obtained after MEP, also mechanical properties, such as nanohardness, modulus of elasticity, and mechanical resistance to bending and torsion, undergo considerable advantageous changes. All they make the MEP process very promising for application in many clean industries, such as medical equipment and devices, electronics, food industry, etc.

  18. Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and socialization of adolescent affect: The moderating role of adolescent temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Marie B H; Allen, Nicholas B; Leve, Craig; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2008-10-01

    This study explored the associations between maternal meta-emotion philosophy (MEP) and maternal socialization of preadolescents' positive and negative affect. It also investigated whether adolescent temperament and gender moderated this association. MEP involves parental awareness and acceptance of their own and their child's emotions and their coaching of child emotions. Event-planning (EPI) and problem-solving (PSI) interactions were observed in 163 mother-adolescent dyads, and maternal behaviors were coded to provide indices of socialization responses to adolescent emotion. In addition, maternal MEP was assessed via interview, and preadolescents provided self-reports of temperament on 2 occasions. Maternal MEP that is higher in awareness and acceptance was associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization behaviors during the EPI. Moreover, preadolescents' temperamental negative emotionality (NEM) and effortful control (EC) moderated some of these MEP-socialization associations. During the positive EPI task, greater maternal awareness and acceptance is associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization toward preadolescents with "easy" temperaments, that is, low NEM or high EC. However, during the conflict task, greater maternal awareness is associated with reduced likelihood of negative socialization among preadolescents with "difficult" temperaments. Some male-specific associations were also found. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Experimental study of brachial plexus and vessel compression: evaluation of combined central and peripheral electrodiagnostic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaoqun; Xu, Jianguang; Chen, Jie; Li, Shulin; Cao, Yu; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Lei

    2017-08-01

    We sought to investigate the reliability of a new electrodiagnostic method for identifying Electrodiagnosis of Brachial Plexus & Vessel Compression Syndrome (BPVCS) in rats that involves the application of transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) combined with peripheral nerve stimulation compound muscle action potentials (PNS-CMAPs). The latencies of the TES-MEP and PNS-CMAP were initially elongated in the 8-week group. The amplitudes of TES-MEP and PNS-CMAP were initially attenuated in the 16-week group. The isolateral amplitude ratio of the TES-MEP to the PNS-CMAP was apparently decreased, and spontaneous activities emerged at 16 weeks postoperatively. Superior and inferior trunk models of BPVCS were created in 72 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats that were divided into six experimental groups. The latencies, amplitudes and isolateral amplitude ratios of the TES-MEPs and PNS-CMAPs were recorded at different postoperative intervals. Electrophysiological and histological examinations of the rats' compressed brachial plexus nerves were utilized to establish preliminary electrodiagnostic criteria for BPVCS.

  20. Suppression of EMG activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique

    2001-01-01

    1. The involvement of the motor cortex during human walking was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex at a variety of intensities. Recordings of EMG activity in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during walking were rectified and averaged. 2. TMS of low...... intensity (below threshold for a motor-evoked potential, MEP) produced a suppression of ongoing EMG activity during walking. The average latency for this suppression was 40.0 +/- 1.0 ms. At slightly higher intensities of stimulation there was a facilitation of the EMG activity with an average latency of 29.......5 +/- 1.0 ms. As the intensity of the stimulation was increased the facilitation increased in size and eventually a MEP was clear in individual sweeps. 3. In three subjects TMS was replaced by electrical stimulation over the motor cortex. Just below MEP threshold there was a clear facilitation at short...

  1. Rapid changes in corticospinal excitability during force field adaptation of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Alain, S; Grey, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    measured changes in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before, during, and after subjects adapted to a force field applied to the ankle joint during treadmill walking. When the force field assisted dorsiflexion during...... the swing phase of the step cycle, subjects adapted by decreasing TA EMG activity. In contrast, when the force field resisted dorsiflexion, they increased TA EMG activity. After the force field was removed, normal EMG activity gradually returned over the next 5 min of walking. TA MEPs elicited in the early...... be explained by changes in background TA EMG activity. These effects seemed specific to walking, as similar changes in TA MEP were not seen when seated subjects were tested during static dorsiflexion. These observations suggest that the corticospinal tract contributes to the adaptation of walking...

  2. A critical review of microextraction by packed sorbent as a sample preparation approach in drug bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gilberto; Rodrigues, Márcio; Fortuna, Ana; Falcão, Amílcar; Queiroz, João

    2013-06-01

    Sample preparation is widely accepted as the most labor-intensive and error-prone part of the bioanalytical process. The recent advances in this field have been focused on the miniaturization and integration of sample preparation online with analytical instrumentation, in order to reduce laboratory workload and increase analytical performance. From this perspective, microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) has emerged in the last few years as a powerful sample preparation approach suitable to be easily automated with liquid and gas chromatographic systems applied in a variety of bioanalytical areas (pharmaceutical, clinical, toxicological, environmental and food research). This paper aims to provide an overview and a critical discussion of recent bioanalytical methods reported in literature based on MEPS, with special emphasis on those developed for the quantification of therapeutic drugs and/or metabolites in biological samples. The advantages and some limitations of MEPS, as well as its comparison with other extraction techniques, are also addressed herein.

  3. Entropy production and multiple equilibria: the case of the ice-albedo feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Herbert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear feedbacks in the Earth System provide mechanisms that can prove very useful in understanding complex dynamics with relatively simple concepts. For example, the temperature and the ice cover of the planet are linked in a positive feedback which gives birth to multiple equilibria for some values of the solar constant: fully ice-covered Earth, ice-free Earth and an intermediate unstable solution. In this study, we show an analogy between a classical dynamical system approach to this problem and a Maximum Entropy Production (MEP principle view, and we suggest a glimpse on how to reconcile MEP with the time evolution of a variable. It enables us in particular to resolve the question of the stability of the entropy production maxima. We also compare the surface heat flux obtained with MEP and with the bulk-aerodynamic formula.

  4. Comparison of clinical, magnetic resonance and evoked potentials data in a case of valproic-acid-related hyperammonemic coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantson, Philippe; Grandin, Cecile; Duprez, Thierry; Nassogne, Marie-Cecile; Guerit, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) multimodality evoked potentials (MEPs) and clinical findings were correlated in a 47-year-old epileptic man in whom parenteral valproic acid (VPA) therapy induced severe comatose hyperammonemic encephalopathy without biological signs of hepatotoxicity (or hepatocytic dysfunction). Although the plasma VPA level remained within a normal therapeutic range, the ammoniemia increased to a toxic peak level at 411 μmol/l 24 h after symptom onset, requiring VPA therapy discontinuation. Brain MR monitoring demonstrated early cytotoxic edema evolving into delayed vasogenic edema and final brain atrophy. Concomitantly to abnormalities within the brainstem on MR images, an increase in brainstem conduction at MEPs and clinical disturbance of brainstem reflexes were observed at the initial phase of the disease course. Later, the resolution of the MR and MEPs abnormalities paralleled the clinical recovery of the reflexes. (orig.)

  5. Female exposure to phthalates and time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anne Marie L.; Riis, Anders H.; Olsen, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is female exposure to phthalate metabolites associated with reduced fecundity, as estimated by prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Female exposure to monoethyl phthalate (MEP) but not monobutyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethylhexyl phthalate...... with prospective data based on 229 women from a Danish cohort of 430 first pregnancy planning couples enrolled in 1992-1994. In 2009, urinary analyses of phthalate metabolites were performed on stored urine samples from this cohort. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING AND METHODS: We analyzed MEP, MBP, MBzP and MEHP...... to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% CI in relation to the average urine metabolite concentration exposure level, controlled for age and BMI, and the time-varying variables smoking and alcohol. MAIN RESULT AND ROLE OF CHANCE: Urinary concentration of MEP was associated with a decreased fecundity...

  6. Effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation on force of finger pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Masato; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hiwaki, Osamu

    2009-04-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is used to explore many aspects of brain function, and to treat neurological disorders. Cortical motor neuronal activation by TMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) produces efferent signals that pass through the corticospinal tracts. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) are observed in muscles innervated by the stimulated motor cortex. TMS can cause a silent period (SP) following MEP in voluntary electromyography (EMG). The present study examined the effects of TMS eliciting MEP and SP on the force of pinching using two fingers. Subjects pinched a wooden block with the thumb and index finger. TMS was applied to M1 during the pinch task. EMG of first dorsal interosseous muscles and pinch forces were measured. Force output increased after the TMS, and then oscillated. The results indicated that the motor control system to keep isotonic forces of the muscles participated in the finger pinch was disrupted by the TMS.

  7. ε-Polylysine-based thermo-responsive adsorbents for immunoglobulin adsorption-desorption under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Masashi; Shibuya, Keisuke

    2017-08-22

    Thermo-responsive adsorbents for immunoglobulin G (IgG) employing ε-polylysine (EPL) as a polymer backbone were developed. The introduction of mercaptoethylpyridine (MEP) as an IgG-binding ligand and hydrophobization of side chains afforded thermo-responsive IgG adsorbents, whose thermo-responsive IgG desorption ratio was up to 88% (EPL/MEP derivative 3m). The changes in surface densities of active MEP groups, which are caused by thermal conformational changes of the adsorbents, play key roles for IgG desorption. Although a trade-off of IgG adsorption capacity and IgG desorption ratio was observed, the present study offers a novel molecular design for thermo-responsive adsorbents with high synthetic accessibility and potentially low toxicity.

  8. Cerebellar transcranial static magnetic field stimulation transiently reduces cerebellar brain inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsugi, Akiyoshi; Okada, Y

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) delivered using a compact cylindrical NdFeB magnet over the cerebellum modulates the excitability of the cerebellum and contralateral primary motor cortex, as measured using cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and resting motor threshold (rMT). These parameters were measured before tSMS or sham stimulation and immediately, 5 minutes and 10 minutes after stimulation. There were no significant changes in CBI, MEPs or rMT over time in the sham stimulation condition, and no changes in MEPs or rMT in the tSMS condition. However, CBI was significantly decreased immediately after tSMS as compared to that before and 5 minutes after tSMS. Our results suggest that tSMS delivered to the cerebellar hemisphere transiently reduces cerebellar inhibitory output but does not affect the excitability of the contralateral motor cortex.

  9. Comparison of clinical, magnetic resonance and evoked potentials data in a case of valproic-acid-related hyperammonemic coma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantson, Philippe [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Intensive Care, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Grandin, Cecile; Duprez, Thierry [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Neuroradiology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Nassogne, Marie-Cecile [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium); Guerit, Jean-Michel [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Cliniques Saint-Luc, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) multimodality evoked potentials (MEPs) and clinical findings were correlated in a 47-year-old epileptic man in whom parenteral valproic acid (VPA) therapy induced severe comatose hyperammonemic encephalopathy without biological signs of hepatotoxicity (or hepatocytic dysfunction). Although the plasma VPA level remained within a normal therapeutic range, the ammoniemia increased to a toxic peak level at 411 {mu}mol/l 24 h after symptom onset, requiring VPA therapy discontinuation. Brain MR monitoring demonstrated early cytotoxic edema evolving into delayed vasogenic edema and final brain atrophy. Concomitantly to abnormalities within the brainstem on MR images, an increase in brainstem conduction at MEPs and clinical disturbance of brainstem reflexes were observed at the initial phase of the disease course. Later, the resolution of the MR and MEPs abnormalities paralleled the clinical recovery of the reflexes. (orig.)

  10. The human dorsal premotor cortex facilitates the excitability of ipsilateral primary motor cortex via a short latency cortico-cortical route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppa, Sergiu; Schlaak, Boris H; Münchau, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In non-human primates, invasive tracing and electrostimulation studies have identified strong ipsilateral cortico-cortical connections between dorsal premotor- (PMd) and the primary motor cortex (M1(HAND) ). Here, we applied dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (dsTMS) to left PMd and M1......(HAND) through specifically designed minicoils to selectively probe ipsilateral PMd-to-M1(HAND) connectivity in humans. A suprathreshold test stimulus (TS) was applied to M1(HAND) producing a motor evoked potential (MEP) of about 0.5 mV in the relaxed right first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI......) facilitation did not change as a function of CS intensity. Even at higher intensities, the CS alone failed to elicit a MEP or a cortical silent period in the pre-activated FDI, excluding a direct spread of excitation from PMd to M1(HAND). No MEP facilitation was present while CS was applied rostrally over...

  11. A chain-of-states acceleration method for the efficient location of minimum energy paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, E. R.; Herrero, C. P.; Soler, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a robust and efficient chain-of-states method for computing Minimum Energy Paths (MEPs) associated to barrier-crossing events in poly-atomic systems, which we call the acceleration method. The path is parametrized in terms of a continuous variable t ∈ [0, 1] that plays the role of time. In contrast to previous chain-of-states algorithms such as the nudged elastic band or string methods, where the positions of the states in the chain are taken as variational parameters in the search for the MEP, our strategy is to formulate the problem in terms of the second derivatives of the coordinates with respect to t, i.e., the state accelerations. We show this to result in a very simple and efficient method for determining the MEP. We describe the application of the method to a series of test cases, including two low-dimensional problems and the Stone-Wales transformation in C 60

  12. Modulation of sensory inhibition of motor evoked potentials elicited by TMS prior to movement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leukel, Christian; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    because the afferent information triggered the movement and therefore was important for motor performance. Alle et al. (2009). J Physiol 587:5163-5176 Chen et al. (1998). Ann Neurol 44:317-325 Tokimura et al. (2000). J Physiol 523 Pt 2:503-513......Short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) refers to a decrement of the size of a motor evoked potential (MEP) by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) after electrical stimulation of a peripheral afferent nerve (PNS) (Tokimura et al. 2000). Since SAI occurs when TMS is applied at the time...... of corticospinal cells to TMS, which starts approximately 100 ms prior to the onset of movement (Chen et al. 1998). Thus, it is hypothesized that the modulation of the MEP prior to movement is linked to the afferent volley arriving at the sensorimotor cortex. It might be speculated that the MEP was facilitated...

  13. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki; Osawa, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Otaka, Yohei; Sugawara, Kenichi

    2017-09-29

    To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist in dorsiflexion. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by TMS in the right extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR), were measured during motor imagery. MEPs were induced at five time points: prior to imagery, during the gradual generation of the imaged wrist dorsiflexion (Increasing phase), the peak value of the sine wave, during the gradual reduction (Decreasing phase), and after completion of the task. The MEP ratio, as the ratio of imaged MEPs to resting-state, was compared between pre- and post-training at each time point. In the ECR muscle, the MEP ratio significantly increased during the Increasing phase and at the peak force of dorsiflexion imagery after training. Moreover, the MEP ratio was significantly greater in the Increasing phase than in the Decreasing phase. In the FCR, there were no significant consistent changes. Corticospinal excitability during motor imagery in an isometric contraction task was modulated in relation to the phase of force control after image construction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute and chronic effects of hypercalcaemia on cortical excitability as studied by 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovelli, Elisa; Gilio, Francesca; Mascia, Maria Lucia; Scillitani, Alfredo; Romagnoli, Elisabetta; Pichiorri, Floriana; Fucile, Sergio; Minisola, Salvatore; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2011-04-01

    We designed the present study to disclose changes in cortical excitability in humans with hypercalcaemia, by delivering repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor area (M1). In 22 patients with chronic hypercalcaemia related to primary hyperparathyroidism and 22 age-matched healthy subjects 5 Hz-rTMS was delivered at rest and during a sustained voluntary contraction of the target muscle. Changes in the resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes and cortical silent period (CSP) duration were measured and compared in patients and healthy controls. Two of the 22 patients were re-tested after parathyroidectomy when serum calcium had normalized. In a subgroup of healthy subjects, changes in the rTMS parameters were tested before and after acute hypercalcaemia. No significant difference between healthy normocalcaemic subjects and chronic hypercalcaemic patients was found in the RMT values and MEP amplitude and CSP duration evoked by the first stimulus of the trains. During the course of 5 Hz-rTMS trains, MEP size increased significantly less in patients with chronic hypercalcaemia than in healthy subjects, whereas the CSP duration lengthened to a similar extent in both groups. In the two patients studied after parathyroidectomy, rTMS elicited a normal MEP amplitude facilitation. Our findings indicate that acute hypercalcaemia significantly decreased the MEP amplitude facilitation. Given that 5 Hz-rTMS modulates cortical excitability through mechanisms resembling short-term synaptic enhancement, the reduction of MEP amplitude facilitation by hypercalcaemia may be related to Ca2+-dependent changes in synaptic plasticity.

  15. Reproducibility of Single-Pulse, Paired-Pulse, and Intermittent Theta-Burst TMS Measures in Healthy Aging, Type-2 Diabetes, and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fried

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS can be used to assess neurophysiology and the mechanisms of cortical brain plasticity in humans in vivo. As the use of these measures in specific populations (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease; AD increases, it is critical to understand their reproducibility (i.e., test–retest reliability in the populations of interest.Objective: Reproducibility of TMS measures was evaluated in older adults, including healthy, AD, and Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM groups.Methods: Participants received two identical neurophysiological assessments within a year including motor thresholds, baseline motor evoked potentials (MEPs, short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, LICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF, and MEP changes following intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS. Cronbach’s α coefficients were calculated to assess reproducibility. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate factors related to intraindividual variability.Results: Reproducibility was highest for motor thresholds, followed by baseline MEPs, SICI and LICI, and was lowest for ICF and iTBS aftereffects. The AD group tended to show higher reproducibility than T2DM or controls. Intraindividual variability of baseline MEPs was related to age and variability of RMT, while the intraindividual variability in post-iTBS measures was related to baseline MEP variability, intervisit duration, and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF polymorphism.Conclusion: Increased reproducibility in AD may reflect pathophysiological declines in the efficacy of neuroplastic mechanisms. Reproducibility of iTBS aftereffects can be improved by keeping baseline MEPs consistent, controlling for BDNF genotype, and waiting at least a week between visits.Significance: These findings provide the first direct assessment of reproducibility of TMS measures in older clinical populations. Reproducibility coefficients may be used to adjust

  16. Abnormal cortical synaptic plasticity in primary motor area in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Belvisi, Daniele; Bologna, Matteo; Ottaviani, Donatella; Fabbrini, Giovanni; Colosimo, Carlo; Williams, David R; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    No study has yet investigated whether cortical plasticity in primary motor area (M1) is abnormal in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We studied M1 plasticity in 15 PSP patients and 15 age-matched healthy subjects. We used intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) to investigate long-term potentiation (LTP) and continuous TBS (cTBS) to investigate long-term depression (LTD)-like cortical plasticity in M1. Ten patients underwent iTBS again 1 year later. We also investigated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in M1 with paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, tested H reflex from upper limb flexor muscles before and after iTBS, and measured motor evoked potential (MEP) input-output (I/O) curves before and after iTBS. iTBS elicited a significantly larger MEP facilitation after iTBS in patients than in healthy subjects. Whereas in healthy subjects, cTBS inhibited MEP, in patients it significantly facilitated MEPs. In patients, SICI was reduced, whereas ICF was normal. H reflex size remained unchanged after iTBS. Patients had steeper MEP I/O slopes than healthy subjects at baseline and became even more steeper after iTBS only in patients. The iTBS-induced abnormal MEP facilitation in PSP persisted at 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, patients with PSP have abnormal M1 LTP/LTD-like plasticity. The enhanced LTP-like cortical synaptic plasticity parallels disease progression.

  17. Counteracting negative venous line pressures to avoid arterial air bubbles: an experimental study comparing two different types of miniaturized extracorporeal perfusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Anas; Mederos-Dahms, Hendrikje; Liebing, Kai; Zittermann, Armin; Schubert, Harald; Murray, Edward; Renner, Andre; Gummert, Jan; Börgermann, Jochen

    2015-05-29

    Because of its low rate of clinical complications, miniaturized extracorporeal perfusion systems (MEPS) are frequently used in heart centers worldwide. However, many recent studies refer to the higher probability of gaseous microemboli formation by MEPS, caused by subzero pressure values. This is the main reason why various de-airing devices were developed for today's perfusion systems. In the present study, we investigated the potential benefits of a simple one-way-valve connected to a volume replacement reservoir (OVR) for volume and pressure compensation. In an experimental study on 26 pigs, we compared MEPS (n = 13) with MEPS plus OVR (n = 13). Except OVR, perfusion equipment was identical in both groups. Primary endpoints were pressure values in the venous line and the right atrium as well as the number and volume of air bubbles. Secondary endpoints were biochemical parameters of systemic inflammatory response, ischemia, hemodilution and hemolysis. One animal was lost in the MEPS + OVR group. In the MEPS + OVR group no pressure values below -150 mmHg in the venous line and no values under -100 mmHg in right atrium were noticed. On the contrary, nearly 20% of venous pressure values in the MEPS group were below -150 and approximately 10% of right atrial pressure values were below -100 mmHg. Compared with the MEPS group, the bubble counter device showed lower numbers of arterial air bubbles in the MEPS + OVR group (mean ± SD: 13444 ± 5709 vs. 1 ± 2, respectively; p pressures and to reduce the number and volume of arterial air bubbles. This approach may lead to a lower rate of neurological complications.

  18. Maximum Entropy Production Modeling of Evapotranspiration Partitioning on Heterogeneous Terrain and Canopy Cover: advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Guan, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Bras, R. L.; Simmons, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of evapotranspiration (ET) and its partition over regions of heterogeneous topography and canopy poses a challenge using traditional approaches. In this study, we report the results of a novel field experiment design guided by the Maximum Entropy Production model of ET (MEP-ET), formulated for estimating evaporation and transpiration from homogeneous soil and canopy. A catchment with complex terrain and patchy vegetation in South Australia was instrumented to measure temperature, humidity and net radiation at soil and canopy surfaces. Performance of the MEP-ET model to quantify transpiration and soil evaporation was evaluated during wet and dry conditions with independently and directly measured transpiration from sapflow and soil evaporation using the Bowen Ratio Energy Balance (BREB). MEP-ET transpiration shows remarkable agreement with that obtained through sapflow measurements during wet conditions, but consistently overestimates the flux during dry periods. However, an additional term introduced to the original MEP-ET model accounting for higher stomatal regulation during dry spells, based on differences between leaf and air vapor pressure deficits and temperatures, significantly improves the model performance. On the other hand, MEP-ET soil evaporation is in good agreement with that from BREB regardless of moisture conditions. The experimental design allows a plot and tree scale quantification of evaporation and transpiration respectively. This study confirms for the first time that the MEP-ET originally developed for homogeneous open bare soil and closed canopy can be used for modeling ET over heterogeneous land surfaces. Furthermore, we show that with the addition of an empirical function simulating the plants ability to regulate transpiration, and based on the same measurements of temperature and humidity, the method can produce reliable estimates of ET during both wet and dry conditions without compromising its parsimony.

  19. Differences in supraspinal and spinal excitability during various force outputs of the biceps brachii in chronic- and non-resistance trained individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E P Pearcey

    Full Text Available Motor evoked potentials (MEP and cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEP may help determine the corticospinal adaptations underlying chronic resistance training-induced increases in voluntary force production. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of chronic resistance training on corticospinal excitability (CE of the biceps brachii during elbow flexion contractions at various intensities and the CNS site (i.e. supraspinal or spinal predominantly responsible for any training-induced differences in CE. Fifteen male subjects were divided into two groups: 1 chronic resistance-trained (RT, (n = 8 and 2 non-RT, (n = 7. Each group performed four sets of ∼5 s elbow flexion contractions of the dominant arm at 10 target forces (from 10%-100% MVC. During each contraction, subjects received 1 transcranial magnetic stimulation, 2 transmastoid electrical stimulation and 3 brachial plexus electrical stimulation, to determine MEP, CMEP and compound muscle action potential (Mmax amplitudes, respectively, of the biceps brachii. All MEP and CMEP amplitudes were normalized to Mmax. MEP amplitudes were similar in both groups up to 50% MVC, however, beyond 50% MVC, MEP amplitudes were lower in the chronic RT group (p<0.05. CMEP amplitudes recorded from 10-100% MVC were similar for both groups. The ratio of MEP amplitude/absolute force and CMEP amplitude/absolute force were reduced (p<0.012 at all contraction intensities from 10-100% MVC in the chronic-RT compared to the non-RT group. In conclusion, chronic resistance training alters supraspinal and spinal excitability. However, adaptations in the spinal cord (i.e. motoneurone seem to have a greater influence on the altered CE.

  20. Theory of using magnetic deflections to combine charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckbeck, Mackenzie K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Several radiation effects projects in the Ion Beam Lab (IBL) have recently required two disparate charged particle beams to simultaneously strike a single sample through a single port of the target chamber. Because these beams have vastly different mass–energy products (MEP), the low-MEP beam requires a large angle of deflection toward the sample by a bending electromagnet. A second electromagnet located further upstream provides a means to compensate for the small angle deflection experienced by the high-MEP beam during its path through the bending magnet. This paper derives the equations used to select the magnetic fields required by these two magnets to achieve uniting both beams at the target sample. A simple result was obtained when the separation of the two magnets was equivalent to the distance from the bending magnet to the sample, and the equation is given by: Bs= 1/2(rc/rs) Bc, where Bs and Bc are the magnetic fields in the steering and bending magnet and rc/rs is the ratio of the radii of the bending magnet to that of the steering magnet. This result is not dependent upon the parameters of the high MEP beam, i.e. energy, mass, charge state. Therefore, once the field of the bending magnet is set for the low-MEP beam, and the field in the steering magnet is set as indicted in the equation, the trajectory path of any high-MEP beam will be directed into the sample.

  1. Abnormal motor cortex excitability during linguistic tasks in adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, A; Marsili, L; Giovannelli, F; Di Stasio, F; Rocchi, L; Upadhyay, N; Ruoppolo, G; Cincotta, M; Berardelli, A

    2015-08-01

    In healthy subjects (HS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied during 'linguistic' tasks discloses excitability changes in the dominant hemisphere primary motor cortex (M1). We investigated 'linguistic' task-related cortical excitability modulation in patients with adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ASD), a speech-related focal dystonia. We studied 10 ASD patients and 10 HS. Speech examination included voice cepstral analysis. We investigated the dominant/non-dominant M1 excitability at baseline, during 'linguistic' (reading aloud/silent reading/producing simple phonation) and 'non-linguistic' tasks (looking at non-letter strings/producing oral movements). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral hand muscles. We measured the cortical silent period (CSP) length and tested MEPs in HS and patients performing the 'linguistic' tasks with different voice intensities. We also examined MEPs in HS and ASD during hand-related 'action-verb' observation. Patients were studied under and not-under botulinum neurotoxin-type A (BoNT-A). In HS, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited larger MEPs during 'reading aloud' than during the other 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. Conversely, in ASD, TMS over the dominant M1 elicited increased-amplitude MEPs during 'reading aloud' and 'syllabic phonation' tasks. CSP length was shorter in ASD than in HS and remained unchanged in both groups performing 'linguistic'/'non-linguistic' tasks. In HS and ASD, 'linguistic' task-related excitability changes were present regardless of the different voice intensities. During hand-related 'action-verb' observation, MEPs decreased in HS, whereas in ASD they increased. In ASD, BoNT-A improved speech, as demonstrated by cepstral analysis and restored the TMS abnormalities. ASD reflects dominant hemisphere excitability changes related to 'linguistic' tasks; BoNT-A returns these excitability changes to normal. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John

  2. Use of microextraction by packed sorbent directly coupled to an electron ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometer as an alternative for non-separative determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Ferreira, Ana María; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo; Pérez Pavón, José Luis

    2017-02-01

    Sometimes it is not necessary to separate the individual compounds of a sample to resolve an analytical problem, it is enough to obtain a signal profile of the sample formed by all the components integrating it. Within this strategy, electronic noses based on the direct coupling of a headspace sampler with a mass spectrometer (HS-MS) have been proposed. Nevertheless, this coupling is not suitable for the analysis of non-volatile compounds. In order to propose an alternative to HS-MS determinations for non-volatile compounds, here we present the first 'proof of concept' use of the direct coupling of microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) to a mass spectrometer device using an electron ionization (EI) and a single quadrupole as ionization source and analyzer, respectively. As target compounds, a set of analytes with different physic-chemical properties were evaluated (2-ethyl-1-hexanol, styrene, 2-heptanone, among others). The use of MEPS extraction present many advantages, such as it is fast, simple, easy to automate and requires small volumes of sample and organic solvents. Moreover, MEPS cartridges are re-usable as samples can be extracted more than 100 times using the same syringe. In order to introduce into the system all the elution volume from the MEPS extraction, a programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV) is proposed as the injector device. Results obtained with the proposed methodology (MEPS-PTV/MS) were compared with the ones obtained based on the separative scheme, i.e. using gas chromatography separation (MEPS-PTV-GC/MS), and both methods provided similar results. Limits of detection were found to be between 3.26 and 146.6μgL -1 in the non-separative scheme and between 0.02 and 1.72μgL -1 when the separative methodology was used. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated with values below 17% in all cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Iida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit; Komiyama, Osamu; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Kawara, Misao; Sessle, Barry; Svensson, Peter

    2015-11-19

    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41 min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two pressure levels (5 kPa and 10 kPa). All participants underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in four sessions: (1) before TLT on Day 1 (baseline), (2) after TLT on Day 1, (3) before TLT on Day 5, and (4) after TLT on Day 5. EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5 kPa, 10 kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during maximum voluntary contractions. The amplitudes and thresholds of tongue and masseter MEPs after TLT on Day 5 were respectively higher and lower than before TLT on Day 1 (P<0.005), and there was also a significant increase in tongue and masseter MEP areas; no significant changes occurred in MEP onset latencies. FDI MEP parameters (amplitude, threshold, area, latency) were not significantly different between the four sessions. Our findings suggest that repeated TLT can trigger neuroplasticity reflected in increased excitability of the corticomotor representation of not only the tongue muscles but also the masseter muscles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Higher success rate with transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuu; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-10-01

    During spine surgery, the spinal cord is electrophysiologically monitored via transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) to prevent injury. Transcranial electrical stimulation of motor-evoked potential involves the use of either constant-current or constant-voltage stimulation; however, there are few comparative data available regarding their ability to adequately elicit compound motor action potentials. We hypothesized that the success rates of TES-MEP recordings would be similar between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations in patients undergoing spine surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the success rates of TES-MEP recordings between constant-current and constant-voltage stimulation. This is a prospective, within-subject study. Data from 100 patients undergoing spinal surgery at the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar level were analyzed. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from each muscle were examined. Transcranial electrical stimulation with constant-current and constant-voltage stimulations at the C3 and C4 electrode positions (international "10-20" system) was applied to each patient. Compound muscle action potentials were bilaterally recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), deltoid (Del), abductor hallucis (AH), tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius (GC), and quadriceps (Quad) muscles. The success rates of the TES-MEP recordings from the right Del, right APB, bilateral Quad, right TA, right GC, and bilateral AH muscles were significantly higher using constant-voltage stimulation than those using constant-current stimulation. The overall success rates with constant-voltage and constant-current stimulations were 86.3% and 68.8%, respectively (risk ratio 1.25 [95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.31]). The success rates of TES-MEP recordings were higher using constant-voltage stimulation compared with constant-current stimulation in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Copyright © 2017

  5. Targeting the Full Length of the Motor End Plate Regions in the Mouse Forelimb Increases the Uptake of Fluoro-Gold into Corresponding Spinal Cord Motor Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Paul Tosolini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lower motor neuron dysfunction is one of the most debilitating motor conditions. In this regard, transgenic mouse models of various lower motor neuron dysfunctions provide insight into the mechanisms underlying these pathologies and can also aid the development of new therapies. Viral-mediated gene therapy can take advantage of the muscle-motor neuron topographical relationship to shuttle therapeutic genes into specific populations of motor neurons in these mouse models. In this context, motor end plates (MEPs are highly specialised regions on the skeletal musculature that offer direct access to the pre-synaptic nerve terminals, henceforth to the spinal cord motor neurons. The aim of this study was two-folded. First it was to characterise the exact position of the MEP regions for several muscles of the mouse forelimb using acetylcholinesterase histochemistry. This MEP-muscle map was then used to guide a series of intramuscular injections of Fluoro-Gold (FG in order to characterise the distribution of the innervating motor neurons. This analysis revealed that the MEPs are typically organised in an orthogonal fashion across the muscle fibres and extending throughout the full width of each muscle. Furthermore, targeting the full length of the MEP regions gave rise to a seemingly greater number of labelled motor neurons that are organised into columns spanning through more spinal cord segments than previously reported. The present analysis suggests that targeting the full width of the muscles’ MEP regions with FG increases the somatic availability of the tracer. This process ensures a greater uptake of the tracer by the pre-synaptic nerve terminals, hence maximising the labelling in spinal cord motor neurons. This investigation should have positive implications for future studies involving the somatic delivery of therapeutic genes into motor neurons for the treatment of various motor dysfunctions.

  6. Different corticospinal control between discrete and rhythmic movement of the ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Yumeno; Jono, Yasutomo; Hatanaka, Ryota; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated differences in corticospinal and spinal control between discrete and rhythmic ankle movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles and soleus H-reflex were elicited in the middle of the plantar flexion phase during discrete ankle movement or in the initial or later cycles of rhythmic ankle movement. The H-reflex was evoked at an intensity eliciting a small M-wave and MEPs were elicited at an intensity of 1.2 times the motor threshold of t...

  7. Nuclear and radiation emergency evaluation and decision-making support system for ministry of environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Huiguo; Lin Quanyi; Zhang Jiangang

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the design features and main functions of The Nuclear and Radiation Emergency Evaluation and Decision Support System. The Ministry of Environmental Protection will construct a complete set of evaluation and decision-making system at the Nuclear Safety Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection to cope with the sudden event. The system will provide a comprehensive technical support for the consequence evaluation and decision-making of anti-terrorism event according to the responsibility of MEP in the sudden event, with the data provided by the MEP's anti-terrorism information platform. (authors)

  8. The two-box model of climate: limitations and applications to planetary habitability and maximum entropy production studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D

    2010-05-12

    The 'two-box model' of planetary climate is discussed. This model has been used to demonstrate consistency of the equator-pole temperature gradient on Earth, Mars and Titan with what would be predicted from a principle of maximum entropy production (MEP). While useful for exposition and for generating first-order estimates of planetary heat transports, it has too low a resolution to investigate climate systems with strong feedbacks. A two-box MEP model agrees well with the observed day : night temperature contrast observed on the extrasolar planet HD 189733b.

  9. An Investigation of Groundwater Flow on a Coastal Barrier using Multi Electrode Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Christensen, Steen; Rasmussen, Keld Rømer

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary geophysical and hydrogeological investigations indicate that multi-electrode profiling (MEP) can be used to monitor groundwater salinity on a coastal barrier where a shallow thin aquifer discharges to the North Sea. A monitoring system including five groups of piezometers and five MEP...... groundwater modeling we hope to be able to quantify how time varying recharge, tides, and storms hitting the barrier affect groundwater flow and discharge to the sea. At the conference we will present monitoring results from the winter and spring 2008....

  10. Offsite Source Recovery Program (OSRP) Workshop Module: Tianjin, China, July 16-July 17, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlton, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-11

    Recovering and disposal of radioactive sources that are no longer in service in their intended capacity is an area of high concern Globally. A joint effort to recover and dispose of such sources was formed between the US Department of Energy and the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), in preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympics. LANL involvement in this agreement continues today under the DOE-Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program. LANL will be presenting overview information on their Offsite Source Recovery (OSRP) and Source Disposal programs, in a workshop for the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) at Tianjin, China, on July 16 and 17, 2012.

  11. Reference: 507 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Keiko et al. 2007 Feb. Plant Cell Physiol. 48(2):322-31. Higher plants have two metabolic pathways for isopr...espite the compartmentalization of these two pathways, metabolic flow occurs betw...een them. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the two pathways and the metabolic cro...lomazone, inhibitors of the MVA and MEP pathways, respectively. The accumulation of the major products of these pathways...be involved in isoprenoid biosynthesis in both the MVA and MEP pathways. Lovastatin insensitive 1, a Novel p

  12. Inhibiting mitochondrial β-oxidation selectively reduces levels of nonenzymatic oxidative polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Masoodi, Mojgan; Bazinet, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    Schönfeld and Reiser recently hypothesized that fatty acid β-oxidation is a source of oxidative stress in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we inhibited brain mitochondrial β-oxidation with methyl palmoxirate (MEP) and measured oxidative polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites in the rat brain. Upon MEP treatment, levels of several nonenzymatic auto-oxidative PUFA metabolites were reduced with few effects on enzymatically derived metabolites. Our finding confirms the hypothesis that reduced fatty acid β-oxidation decreases oxidative stress in the brain and β-oxidation inhibitors may be a novel therapeutic approach for brain disorders associated with oxidative stress.

  13. La adición de LH a la estimulación ovárica no produce más maduración endometrial prematura ni diferente patrón de expresión génica endometrial que la estimulación con solo FSH. Un estudio comparativo en donantes de ovocitos

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Muñoz, Elkin

    2015-01-01

    El papel de la LH es controvertido en los tratamientos de reproducción asistida. La LH permitiría la eliminación del exceso de progesterona durante la fase folicular. La estimulación ovárica favorece la maduración endometrial prematura (MEP). Esta tesis evalua el impacto de la LH sobre la MEP y describe su análisis génico endometrial. Material y Métodos: Seis donantes de ovocitos se sometieron a dos procesos de estimulación cada una. Cinco días después de suspendidos los anticonceptivos se es...

  14. [Changes of somatosensory and transcranial magnetic stimulation motor evoked potentials in experimental spinal cord injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Nie, Lin; Liu, Li-hong; Shao, Jun; Yuan, Yong-jian

    2008-03-18

    To study the changes of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and transcranial magnetic simulation motor evoked potential (TMS-MEP) in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty-two rabbits were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All rabbits were anesthetized for 90 min. A group (Group A) underwent only laminectomy of T12 without SCI, stimulation with different intensities was used to induce SEP and TMS-MEP to determine the most appropriate stimulation intensity. The EPs were recorded before and after the operation. The other 3 groups underwent laminectomy of T12 to expose the dura, and a spinal cord compressing apparatus weighing 40 g was put on the intact dura and dorsal surface of spinal cord underneath for 5, 15, and 30 min respectively (Groups B, C, and D). SEP and TMS-MEP were detected after anesthesia, after exposure of spinal cord, and 5 and 30 min, 1 and 6 h, and 1, 3, and 7 d. The latency and amplitude of each wave were measured. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance, t-test and linear correlation. Tarlov behavior score was used to assess the motor function before the operation and 1, 3, and 7 days after SCI. It was found that 100% intensity stimulus obtained stable and reliable MEP waves. Anesthetic did not influence the EPs. The amplitude of SEP began to decrease 5 min after SCI and the latency began to increase 30 min after SCI. And both the amplitude and latency, especially the former, of MEP began to significantly change 5 min after SCI. The latency levels of SEP and MEP increased and the amplitude decreased after compression time-dependently during a certain range of time (all P TMS-MEP are very sensitive to SCI, in particular, the change of amplitude is more sensitive then the latency change and can more accurately reflect the degree of SCI. Combination of SEP and TMS-MEP objectively reflects the SCI degree. EP measurement, as a noninvasive technique, has great value in monitoring spinal cord function.

  15. The impact of several craniotomies on transcranial motor evoked potential monitoring during neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomio, Ryosuke; Akiyama, Takenori; Toda, Masahiro; Ohira, Takayuki; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Transcranial motor evoked potential (tMEP) monitoring is popular in neurosurgery; however, the accuracy of tMEP can be impaired by craniotomy. Each craniotomy procedure and changes in the CSF levels affects the current spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of several craniotomies on tMEP monitoring by using C3-4 transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). METHODS The authors used the finite element method to visualize the electric field in the brain, which was generated by TES, using realistic 3D head models developed from T1-weighted MR images. Surfaces of 5 layers of the head (brain, CSF, skull, subcutaneous fat, and skin layer) were separated as accurately as possible. The authors created 5 models of the head, as follows: normal head; frontotemporal craniotomy; parietal craniotomy; temporal craniotomy; and occipital craniotomy. The computer simulation was investigated by finite element methods, and clinical recordings of the stimulation threshold level of upper-extremity tMEP (UE-tMEP) during neurosurgery were also studied in 30 patients to validate the simulation study. RESULTS Bone removal during the craniotomy positively affected the generation of the electric field in the motor cortex if the motor cortex was just under the bone at the margin of the craniotomy window. This finding from the authors' simulation study was consistent with clinical reports of frontotemporal craniotomy cases. A major decrease in CSF levels during an operation had a significantly negative impact on the electric field when the motor cortex was exposed to air. The CSF surface level during neurosurgery depends on the body position and location of the craniotomy. The parietal craniotomy and temporal craniotomy were susceptible to the effect of the changing CSF level, based on the simulation study. A marked increase in the threshold following a decrease in CSF was actually recorded in clinical reports of the UE-tMEP threshold from a temporal craniotomy

  16. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote.......Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...

  17. Determination of the potential implementation impact of 2016 ministry of environmental protection generic assessment criteria for potentially contaminated sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Tang, Yu-Ting; Nathanail, C Paul

    2017-04-12

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection of China issued a 3rd draft edition of risk-based Generic Assessment Criteria (the MEP-GAC) in March 2016. Since these will be the first authoritative GAC in China, their implementation is likely to have a significant impact on China's growing contaminated land management sector. This study aims to determine the potential implementation impact of the MEP-GAC through an in-depth analysis of the management context, land use scenarios, health criteria values adopted and exposure pathways considered. The MEP-GAC have been proposed for two broad categories of land use scenarios for contaminated land risk assessment, and these two categories of land use scenarios need to be further delved, and a MEP-GAC for Chinese cultivated land scenario ought to be developed, to ensure human health protection of Chinese farmers. The MEP-GAC have adopted 10 -6 as the acceptable lifetime cancer risk, given the widespread extent and severe level of land contamination in China, consideration should be given to the decision on excess lifetime cancer risk of 10 -5 . During risk assessment process in practice, it is better to review the 20% TDI against local circumstances to determine their suitability before adopting it. The MEP-GAC are based on a SOM value of 1%, for regions with particularly high SOM, it might be necessary to develop regional GAC, due to SOM's significant impact on the GAC developed. An authoritative risk assessment model developed based on HJ25.3-2014 would help facilitate the DQRA process in practice. The MEP-GAC could better reflect the likely exposures of China's citizens due to vapour inhalation by using characteristics of Chinese exposure scenarios, including China-generic building stock, as inputs into the Johnson and Ettinger model as opposed to adoption of the US EPA parameters. The MEP-GAC once implemented will set the trajectory for the development of the investigation, assessment and remediation of land contamination

  18. Multimodal evoked potentials follow up in multiple sclerosis patients under fingolimod therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iodice, R; Carotenuto, A; Dubbioso, R

    2016-01-01

    related to EDSS at baseline (t=-1), while MEP and total EP sum score were related to EDSS at all time points. CONCLUSION: Fingolimod is able to improve visual and somatosensory evoked potential in RR-MS patients even if clinical disability scale remains stable. VEP and SEP could give eloquent information...... patients examined 12months prior to initiation of fingolimod (t=-1), at treatment initiation (t=0) and 1year later (t=+1) were compared. Each EP (VEP, MEP, SEP) and EP sum score, a global evoked potential score as the sum score of the each EP score was evaluated and correlated with Expanded Disability...

  19. Emergence and stability of intermediate open vesicles in disk-to-vesicle transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hongdong; Qiu, Feng; Shi, An-Chang

    2013-07-01

    The transition between two basic structures, a disk and an enclosed vesicle, of a finite membrane is studied by examining the minimum energy path (MEP) connecting these two states. The MEP is constructed using the string method applied to continuum elastic membrane models. The results reveal that, besides the commonly observed disk and vesicle, open vesicles (bowl-shaped vesicles or vesicles with a pore) can become stable or metastable shapes. The emergence, stability, and probability distribution of these open vesicles are analyzed. It is demonstrated that open vesicles can be stabilized by higher-order elastic energies. The estimated probability distribution of the different structures is in good agreement with available experiments.

  20. First-principles investigation of indium diffusion in a silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwan-Sun; Hwang, Chi-Ok; Yoo, Jae-Hyun; Won, Tae-Young

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report the total energy, the minimum energy path, and the migration energy of indium in a silicon substrate by using ab-initio calculations. Stable configurations during indium diffusion were obtained from the calculation of the total energy, and we estimated the minimum energy path (MEP) with the nudged elastic band (NEB) method. After finding the MEP, we found the energy barrier for the diffusion of indium to be 0.8 eV from an exact calculation of the total energies at the minimum and the transition state.

  1. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  2. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  3. Reflections on the exploration of paramilitary management in Northwest Regional Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Herui; Wang Fuquan; Zhang Zijie

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to reflect on the exploration of paramilitary management in Northwest Regional Office of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Inspection, MEP, China under current situation, so as to the improve the working style construction of the regulatory team, strengthening consciousness on nuclear safety, and to promote the level of nuclear safety regulation. (authors)

  4. Decrease of motor cortex excitability following exposure to a 20 Hz magnetic field as generated by a rotating permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallasch, Eugen; Rafolt, Dietmar; Postruznik, Magdalena; Fresnoza, Shane; Christova, Monica

    2018-04-19

    Rotation of a static magnet over the motor cortex (MC) generates a transcranial alternating magnetic field (tAMF), and a linked alternating electrical field. The aim of this transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study is to investigate whether such fields are able to influence MC excitability, and whether there are parallels to tACS induced effects. Fourteen healthy volunteers received 20 Hz tAMF stimulation over the MC, over the vertex, and 20 Hz tACS over the MC, each with a duration of 15 min. TMS assessments were performed before and after the interventions. Changes in motor evoked potentials (MEP), short interval intra-cortical inhibition (SICI) and intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) were evaluated. The tACS and the tAMF stimulation over the MC affected cortical excitability in a different way. After tAMF stimulation MEP amplitudes and ICF decreased and the effect of SICI increased. After tACS MEP amplitudes increased and there were no effects on SICI and ICF. The recorded single and paired pulse MEPs indicate a general decrease of MC excitability following 15 min of tAMF stimulation. The effects demonstrate that devices based on rotating magnets are potentially suited to become a novel brain stimulation tool in clinical neurophysiology. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics and Antitumor Activity of Morchella esculenta Polysaccharide Extracted by Pulsed Electric Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from Morchella esculenta have been proven to be functional and helpful for humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical structure and anti-proliferating and antitumor activities of a Morchella esculenta polysaccharide (MEP extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF in submerged fermentation. The endo-polysaccharide was separated and purified by column chromatography and Gel permeation chromatography, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The MEP with an average molecular weight of 81,835 Da consisted of xylose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose and galactose at the ratio of 5.4:5.0:6.5:7.8:72.3. Structure of MEP was further analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H and 13C liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apoptosis tests proved that MEP could inhibit the proliferation and growth of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner within 48 h. This study provides more information on chemical structure of anti-proliferating polysaccharides isolated from Morchella esculenta.

  6. Monitoring transcranial direct current stimulation induced changes in cortical excitability during the serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Chaieb, Leila; Stilling, Roman; Rothkegel, Holger; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2016-03-11

    The measurement of the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a common method to observe changes in motor cortical excitability. The level of cortical excitability has been shown to change during motor learning. Conversely, motor learning can be improved by using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In the present study, we aimed to monitor cortical excitability changes during an implicit motor learning paradigm, a version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). Responses from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and forearm flexor (FLEX) muscles were recorded before, during and after the performance of the SRTT. Online measurements were combined with anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS for the duration of the SRTT. Negative correlations between the amplitude of online FDI MEPs and SRTT reaction times (RTs) were observed across the learning blocks in the cathodal condition (higher average MEP amplitudes associated with lower RTs) but no significant differences in the anodal and sham conditions. tDCS did not have an impact on SRTT performance, as would be predicted based on previous studies. The offline before-after SRTT MEP amplitudes showed an increase after anodal and a tendency to decrease after cathodal stimulation, but these changes were not significant. The combination of different interventions during tDCS might result in reduced efficacy of the stimulation that in future studies need further attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential influence of the phthalates on normal liver function and cardiometabolic risk in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Nataša; Milić, Nataša; Živanović Bosić, Dragana; Bajkin, Ivana; Perčić, Ivanka; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Medić Stojanoska, Milica

    2017-12-13

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, massively used in industry as plasticizers and additives in cosmetics, which may impair the human endocrine system inducing fertility problems, respiratory diseases, obesity, and neuropsychological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on the liver function and cardiometabolic risk factors in males. In this research, 102 male participants (51 normal weight and 51 overweight/obese) were enrolled and examined for phthalate metabolites exposure in urine samples after 12 h of fasting. MEP was found in 28.43% (29/102) volunteers, while MEHP was detected among 20.59% (21/102) participants. Statistically significant increment in transaminase serum levels was observed in MEP-positive normal weight subgroup. Linear correlation was obtained between MEP concentration in urine samples and triglyceride (TG) serum levels (r 2  = 0.33; p adiposity index (VAI) (r 2  = 0.41; p HDL) ratio (r 2  = 0.40, p body mass index (p = 0.03) compared to MEHP-negative participants. Urine MEHP concentrations were negatively correlated with HDL serum levels (r 2  = 0.31; p correlated with increased TG and decreased HDL cholesterol serum levels and associated with indicators of cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance as LAP and VAI.

  8. 78 FR 49264 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... specified infra) to be utilized in the San Antonio River Walk Project, being performed under a subgrant from... quantities and of a satisfactory quality. The above items, utilized in the San Antonio River Walk Project... Standards and Technology (NIST) Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), in order to scour the domestic...

  9. 75 FR 59217 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... ``other acrylic polymers in other forms,'' to value the non-market economy (``NME'') portion of APP-China...: Application of Foreign Truck Freight Comment 16: Whether to Treat All of APP-China's Market Economy (``ME'') Pulp Purchases as Market Economy Purchases (``MEPs'') Comment 17: Whether to Accept APP-China's ME...

  10. 75 FR 16446 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... scientifically based research) to strengthen the involvement of migratory parents in the education of migratory... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Overview Information; Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grants Program; Notice inviting applications for new awards for...

  11. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  12. 77 FR 3455 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Migrant Education Bypass Program Student Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Migrant Education Bypass Program... (Privacy Act), the Department of Education (Department) publishes this notice of a new system of records... called a ``system of records.'' The Migrant Education Program (MEP) is authorized under Title I, Part C...

  13. A novel method to calculate the extent and amount of drug transported into CSF after intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenqi; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2005-01-31

    The aim of this paper is to establish a novel method to calculate the extent and amount of drug transported to brain after administration. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was chosen as the target region. The intranasal administration of meptazinol hydrochloride (MEP) was chosen as the model administration and intravenous administration was selected as reference. According to formula transform, the extent was measured by the equation of X(A)CSF, infinity/X0 = Cl(CSF) AUC(0-->infinity)CSF/X0 and the drug amount was calculated by multiplying the dose with the extent. The drug clearance in CSF (Cl(CSF)) was calculated by a method, in which a certain volume of MEP solution was injected directly into rat cistern magna and then clearance was assessed as the reciprocal of the zeroth moment of a CSF level-time curve normalized for dose. In order to testify the accurateness of the method, 14C-sucrose was chosen as reference because of its impermeable characteristic across blood-brain barrier (BBB). It was found out that the MEP concentrations in plasma and CSF after intranasal administration did not show significant difference with those after intravenous administration. However, the extent and amount of MEP transported to CSF was significantly lower compared with those to plasma after these two administrations. In conclusion, the method can be applied to measure the extent and amount of drug transported to CSF, which would be useful to evaluate brain-targeting drug delivery.

  14. Providing Co-Curricular Support: A Multi-Case Study of Engineering Student Support Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Walter C., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the student retention and diversity issues that have been persistent in undergraduate engineering education, many colleges have developed Engineering Student Support Centers (ESSCs) such as Minority Engineering Programs (MEPs) and Women in Engineering Programs (WEPs). ESSCs provide underrepresented students with co-curricular…

  15. Glucose and triglyceride lowering activity of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, College of ... santalinoides (AEPS and MEPS) were administered orally to rats in four groups, respectively, after a 12 ... have disadvantages such as primary and secondary .... All administration was by oral route.

  16. 75 FR 71675 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Review: Revision. Title of Collection: Migrant Education Program (MEP) Migrant Student Information... Public: State, Local, or Tribal Government, State Educational Agencies or Local Educational Agencies... three new data elements and two new values to the set of minimum data elements that are collected and...

  17. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites, phenols and parabens in rural and urban Danish mother-child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Jeanette Kolstrup Søgaard; Mørck, Thit Aarøe

    2013-01-01

    products such as parabens (MeP, EtP and n-PrP), benzophenone-3, triclosan and diethyl phthalate. However, a very high correlation between mothers and their children was observed for all chemicals. A high individual exposure to one chemical was often associated with a high exposure to other of the chemicals...

  18. Maximum entropy production: Can it be used to constrain conceptual hydrological models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. Westhoff; E. Zehe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, optimality principles have been proposed to constrain hydrological models. The principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) is one of the proposed principles and is subject of this study. It states that a steady state system is organized in such a way that entropy production is maximized. Although successful applications have been reported in...

  19. Middle Ear Pressure Regulation - Complementary Action of the Mastoid and Eustachian Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaihede, Michael; Dirckx, Joris J J; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    , MEP counter-regulation presented as Eustachian tube openings with steep and fast pressure changes toward 0 Pa, whereas in others, gradual and slow pressure changes presented related to the mastoid; these changes sometimes crossed 0 Pa into opposite pressures. In many cases, combinations...... to continuous regulation of smaller pressures, whereas the tube was related to intermittent regulation of higher pressures....

  20. Connectivity analysis of suggestive brain areas involved in middle ear pressure regulation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SA, Sami; Gaihede, Michael

    2010-01-01

    , MEP counter-regulation presented as Eustachian tube openings with steep and fast pressure changes toward 0 Pa, whereas in others, gradual and slow pressure changes presented related to the mastoid; these changes sometimes crossed 0 Pa into opposite pressures. In many cases, combinations...... to continuous regulation of smaller pressures, whereas the tube was related to intermittent regulation of higher pressures....

  1. Middle Ear Pressure Regulation - Complementary Action of the Mastoid and Eustachian Tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaihede, Michael; Jacobsen, Henrik; Tveterås, Kjell

    , MEP counter-regulation presented as Eustachian tube openings with steep and fast pressure changes toward 0 Pa, whereas in others, gradual and slow pressure changes presented related to the mastoid; these changes sometimes crossed 0 Pa into opposite pressures. In many cases, combinations...... to continuous regulation of smaller pressures, whereas the tube was related to intermittent regulation of higher pressures....

  2. Paired-Pulse TMS and Fine-Wire Recordings Reveal Short-Interval Intracortical Inhibition and Facilitation of Deep Multifidus Muscle Fascicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Massé-Alarie

    Full Text Available Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS is used to probe inhibitory and excitatory networks within the primary motor cortex (M1. These mechanisms are identified for limb muscles but it is unclear whether they share properties with trunk muscles. The aim was to determine whether it was possible to test the intracortical inhibition and facilitation of the deep multifidus muscle fascicles (DM and at which inter-stimulus intervals (ISI.In ten pain-free individuals, TMS was applied over M1 and motor evoked potentials (MEP were recorded using fine-wire electrodes in DM. MEPs were conditioned with subthreshold stimuli at ISIs of 1 to 12 ms to test short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and at 15 ms for long-interval intracortical facilitation. Short-interval facilitation (SICF was tested using 1-ms ISI.SICI of DM was consistently obtained with ISI of 1-, 3-, 4- and 12-ms. Facilitation of DM MEP was only identified using SICF paradigm.A similar pattern of MEP modulation with ISI changes for deep trunk and limb muscles implies that M1 networks share some functional properties.The ppTMS paradigm presents a potential to determine how M1 inhibitory and excitatory mechanisms participate in brain re-organization in back pain that affects control of trunk muscles.

  3. European Symposium on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases: Report of the European Union Parliament Symposium (October 14, 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Fokkens, W. J.; Pietikainen, S.; Borrelli, D.; Agache, I.; Bousquet, J.; Costigliola, V.; Joos, G.; Lund, V. J.; Poulsen, L. K.; Price, D.; Rolland, C.; Zuberbier, T.; Hellings, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the European Rhinologic Society (ERS), and the European Medical Association (EMA) organized, on October 14, 2015, a symposium in the European Parliament in Brussels on Precision Medicine in Allergy and Airways Diseases, hosted by MEP

  4. 77 FR 41547 - Medicare Program; Home Health Prospective Payment System Rate Update for Calendar Year 2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... national standardized 60- day episode rates, the national per-visit rates, the low-utilization payment... Care Hospital LUPA Low Utilization Payment Amount MEPS Medical Expenditures Panel Survey MMA Medicare... units of services, adjustments for geographic differences in wage levels, outlier payments, the...

  5. Development of a cost-effective heat pump system for family dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, J.P. van der; Traversari, A.A.L.; Veldhoven, L.A.A.

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1970s TNO MEP has played an important role in heat pump research, focused on perfonnance improvement, implementation, testing and development. In 1996/1997 a heat pump competition was organised. The main conclusion was, that the capital cost was too high and system performance was not

  6. 78 FR 48866 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... fixtures, exterior, LED color- changing direct view lighting fixtures, and multicolor DMX-512 LED wash and... recipients of EERE Recovery Act funds, and from suppliers, distributors, retailers and trade associations... was not identified through a thorough search by EERE, MEP and several trade groups. Direct line...

  7. Evaluation of the dew point cooling technology; Beoordeling technologie dauwpuntskoeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootsveld, N.R.; Afink, J. [TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie TNO-MEP, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Uges, P.G.H. (ed.) [Standex Periodieken, Veenendaal (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    Results of measurements on an indirect adiabatic dew point cooling system are presented and discussed. The cooling system has been developed by ComfortAir, Raalte, Netherlands. [Dutch] De meetresultaten van door ComfortAir in samenwerking met TNO-MEP uitgevoerde metingen aan een indirect werkende adiabatische dauwpuntkoeler worden gepresenteerd en besproken.

  8. 78 FR 55337 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... project in the State of Ohio. The MEP identified some domestic suppliers capable of casting part of the...'' class 150 cast steel gate valves for rehabilitation of the Oxbow Bridge project in the State of Ohio... (including protective coatings) that are permanently incorporated in a Federal-aid construction project. The...

  9. 75 FR 43933 - Request for nominations for members to serve on National Institute of Standards and Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... duties. Selection of ISPAB members will not be limited to individuals who are nominated. Nominations that.... Selection of MEP Advisory Board members will not be limited to individuals who are nominated. Nominations... in its official role as the private sector policy advisor of the Institute is concerned. Each such...

  10. 78 FR 67121 - Request for Nominations for Members To Serve on National Institute of Standards and Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... to individuals who are nominated. Nominations that are received and meet the requirements will be.... Selection of MEP Advisory Board members will not be limited to individuals who are nominated. Nominations... official role as the private sector policy adviser of NIST is concerned. Each such report shall identify...

  11. Postural control and central motor pathway involvement in type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Logistic regression analysis showed peripheral neuropathy as the main factor implicated in postural instability in these patients. However, significant correlation was found between MEP amplitude and MCT composite score in patients without peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion: Although type 2 diabetic patients had ...

  12. Behavioral and Mental Healthcare: Total Warrior Care Commitment. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal, July-September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    International Critical Inci- dent Stress Foundation, Inc; 2003. 23. Bolton EE, Glenn DM , Orsillo S, Roemer L, Litz BT. The relationship between self...Seligman MEP, eds. Positive Psychology in Practice. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2004:20. Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. Crisp R, trans. New York

  13. Power Processing Unit For Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Spiridon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Micro Satellite Electric Propulsion System (MEPS program has been originated by the increasing need to provide a low-cost and low-power Electric Propulsion System (EPS for small satellites ( 92%, small size and weight and high reliability. Its functional modules and preliminary results obtained at breadboard level are also presented.

  14. 76 FR 22674 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... 5 p.m. on May 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Orlando World Center Marriott... Open Meeting. SUMMARY: NIST announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will hold an open meeting on Sunday, May 15, 2011...

  15. 75 FR 19941 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... 4:30 p.m. on May 2, 2010. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at Orlando World Center Marriott... open meeting. SUMMARY: NIST announces that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will hold an open meeting on Sunday, May 2, 2010 from...

  16. The motor system resonates to the distal goal of observed actions: testing the inverse pliers paradigm in an ecological setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Maule, Francesca; Barchiesi, Guido; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    Does motor mirroring in humans reflect the observed movements or the goal of the observed motor acts? Tools that dissociate the agent/object dynamics from the movements of the body parts used to operate them provide a model for testing resonance to both movements and goals. Here, we describe the temporal relationship of the observer's motor excitability, assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with the observed goal-directed tool actions, in an ecological setting. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to TMS were recorded from the opponens pollicis (OP, thumb flexor) and the extensor indicis proprius (EIP, index extensor) muscles of participants while they observed a person moving several small objects with a pair of normal pliers (closed by finger flexion) or reverse pliers (opened by finger flexion). The MEPs were a significant predictor of the pliers' kinematics that occurred in a variable time interval between -400 and +300 ms from TMS. Whatever pliers' type was being observed, OP MEPs correlated positively and EIP MEPs correlated negatively with the velocity of pliers' tips closure. This datum was confirmed both at individual and at a group level. Motor simulation can be demonstrated in single observers in a "real-life" ecological setting. The relation of motor resonance to the tool type shows that the observer's motor system codes the distal goal of the observed acts (i.e., grasping and releasing objects) in terms of its own motor vocabulary, irrespective of the actual finger movements that were performed by the observed actor.

  17. The Soviet Union and the Socialist and Social Democratic Parties of Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    British forces, Craxi stated, "Those missiles are not on the moon," Corriere della Sera, May 30, 1985. • 7 .- P.- N" It.- ’j -9.’-V 1.r". k7 17- -. W...Party (PIP) Progressive Labor Party of St. Lucia (PLP) People’s Electoral Movement (MEP), Venezuela Consultative Parties-in-Exile Bulgarian Social

  18. An automated method for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing micro-extraction coupled on-line to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with in-liner derivatisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; Kaal, E.; Horsting, I.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing ‘Micro-extraction in packed sorbent’ (MEPS) coupled on-line to in-liner derivatisation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ion-pairing reagent served a dual purpose. It was used both to improve

  19. Physical Inactivity as a Predictor of High Prevalence of Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the association between physical activity, prevalence of hypertension, and total healthcare and pharmaceutical expenditure in the United States of America (US). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adult United States residents were included from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) for ...

  20. A comparison of myogenic motor evoked responses to electrical and magnetic transcranial stimulation during nitrous oxide/opioid anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubags, L. H.; Kalkman, C. J.; Been, H. D.; Koelman, J. H.; Ongerboer de Visser, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    Transcranial motor evoked potentials (tc-MEPs) are used to monitor spinal cord integrity intraoperatively. We compared myogenic motor evoked responses with electrical and magnetic transcranial stimuli during nitrous oxide/opioid anesthesia. In 11 patients undergoing spinal surgery, anesthesia was

  1. Bilateral sensory deprivation of trigeminal afferent fibers on corticomotor control of human tongue musculature: A preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Svensson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has demonstrated changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in human limb muscles following modulation of sensory afferent inputs. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether bilateral local anaesthesia (LA) of the lingual ne...

  2. [Recommendations for the clinical use of motor evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, V; Valls-Sole, J; Relova, J L; Raguer, N; Miralles, F; Dinca, L; Taramundi, S; Costa-Frossard, L; Ferrandiz, M; Ramió-Torrentà, Ll; Villoslada, P; Saiz, A; Calles, C; Antigüedad, A; Alvarez-Cermeño, J C; Prieto, J M; Izquierdo, G; Montalbán, X; Fernández, O

    2013-09-01

    To establish clinical guidelines for the clinical use and interpretation of motor evoked potentials (MEP) in diagnosing and monitoring patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recommendations for MEP use and interpretation will help us rationalise and optimise resources used in MS patient diagnosis and follow up. We completed an extensive literature review and pooled our own data to produce a consensus statement with recommendations for the clinical use of MEPs in the study of MS. MEPs, in addition to spinal and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), help us diagnose and assess MS patients whose disease initially presents as spinal cord syndrome and those with non-specific brain MRI findings, or a normal brain MRI and clinical signs of MS. Whenever possible, a multimodal evoked potential study should be performed on patients with suspected MS in order to demonstrate involvement of the motor pathway which supports a diagnosis of dissemination in space. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 35399 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Instrument. The core instrument collects data about persons in sample households. Topical areas asked in each... prescribed medicines, expense and payment, employment, and health insurance. Other topical areas that are... ``family level'' respondents, also referred to as RU respondents. Since the MEPS-HC consists of 5 rounds of...

  4. Intracranial epidural hemorrhage during lumbar spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Yasuaki; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Nishida, Norihiro; Goto, Hisaharu; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The authors report a case of intracranial epidural hemorrhage (ICEH) during spinal surgery. We could not find ICEH, though we recorded transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs). A 35-year-old man was referred for left anterior thigh pain and low back pain that hindered sleep. Sagittal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural tumor at L3-L4 vertebral level. We performed osteoplastic laminectomy and en bloc tumor resection. TcMEPs were intraoperatively recorded at the bilateral abductor digiti minimi (ADM), quadriceps, tibialis anterior and abductor hallucis. When we closed a surgical incision, we were able to record normal TcMEPs in all muscles. The patient did not fully wake up from the anesthesia. He had right-sided unilateral positive ankle clonus 15 min after surgery in spite of bilateral negative of ankle clonus preoperatively. Emergent brain computed tomography scans revealed left epidural hemorrhage. The hematoma was evacuated immediately via a partial craniotomy. There was no restriction of the patient's daily activities 22 months postoperatively. We should pay attention to clinical signs such as headache and neurological findgings such as DTR and ankle clonus for patients with durotomy and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Spine surgeons should know that it was difficult to detect ICEH by monitoring with TcMEPs.

  5. 16 CFR 1203.17 - Impact attenuation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instrumentation shall be checked before and after each series of tests (at least at the beginning and end of each... aluminum plate. The geometric center of the MEP pad shall be aligned with the center vertical axis of the... performed at the beginning and end of the test series (at a minimum at the beginning and end of each test...

  6. 75 FR 67960 - Notice of Availability of Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... comments by one of the following methods: E-mail: [email protected] . Mail: Kate Renahan, U.S. EPA... engineering methods * * *'' (See section 402(p)(3)(B)(iii) of the CWA). MEP is the statutory standard that.... Non-Numeric Effluent Limitations When EPA has not promulgated effluent limitations for a category of...

  7. Spectral collocation for multiparameter eigenvalue problems arising from separable boundary value problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plestenjak, Bor; Gheorghiu, Călin I.; Hochstenbach, Michiel E.

    2015-10-01

    In numerous science and engineering applications a partial differential equation has to be solved on some fairly regular domain that allows the use of the method of separation of variables. In several orthogonal coordinate systems separation of variables applied to the Helmholtz, Laplace, or Schrödinger equation leads to a multiparameter eigenvalue problem (MEP); important cases include Mathieu's system, Lamé's system, and a system of spheroidal wave functions. Although multiparameter approaches are exploited occasionally to solve such equations numerically, MEPs remain less well known, and the variety of available numerical methods is not wide. The classical approach of discretizing the equations using standard finite differences leads to algebraic MEPs with large matrices, which are difficult to solve efficiently. The aim of this paper is to change this perspective. We show that by combining spectral collocation methods and new efficient numerical methods for algebraic MEPs it is possible to solve such problems both very efficiently and accurately. We improve on several previous results available in the literature, and also present a MATLAB toolbox for solving a wide range of problems.

  8. Human rights or security? Positions on asylum in European Parliament speeches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid-Nielsen, Snorre Sylvester

    2018-01-01

    This study examines speeches in the European Parliament relating to asylum. Conceptually, it tests hypotheses concerning the relation between national parties and Members of European Parliament (MEPs). The computer-based content analysis method Wordfish is used to examine 876 speeches from 2004-2...

  9. The facilitatory effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation on corticospinal excitability are enhanced by nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, Orlando B C; Teo, James T H; Greenwood, Richard J; Rothwell, John C

    2009-08-01

    Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is increasingly widely used as a means of facilitating corticospinal excitability in the human primary motor cortex. This form of facilitatory plasticity within the stimulated cortex may occur by induction of long term potentiation (LTP). In animal models, agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been shown to modulate or induce LTP; we thus sought to test whether nicotine may modulate the effects of iTBS on corticospinal excitability in humans. A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design study was conducted with 10 healthy subjects. iTBS was delivered 60min after subjects took either 4mg nicotine or placebo lozenges, and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were then recorded for 40min after the end of stimulation. In the placebo arm, iTBS produced an increase in the amplitudes of MEPs which lasted for 5min. In the nicotine arm, iTBS produced a more pronounced facilitation of MEPs that was still present at 40min. In a control experiment, nicotine alone had no effect on MEP amplitudes when given in the absence of iTBS. These data indicate that the effects of iTBS can be enhanced and prolonged by nicotine. These results are consistent with animal models demonstrating nicotinic modulation of facilitatory plasticity, and will be of interest to investigators seeking to enhance artificially induced changes in cortical excitability.

  10. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Lida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    . EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5kPa, 10kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during...

  11. Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability Depends on the Pattern of Mechanical Tactile Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Kojima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of different patterns of mechanical tactile stimulation (MS on corticospinal excitability by measuring the motor-evoked potential (MEP. This was a single-blind study that included nineteen healthy subjects. MS was applied for 20 min to the right index finger. MS intervention was defined as simple, lateral, rubbing, vertical, or random. Simple intervention stimulated the entire finger pad at the same time. Lateral intervention stimulated with moving between left and right on the finger pad. Rubbing intervention stimulated with moving the stimulus probe, fixed by protrusion pins. Vertical intervention stimulated with moving in the forward and backward directions on the finger pad. Random intervention stimulated to finger pad with either row protrudes. MEPs were measured in the first dorsal interosseous muscle to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left motor cortex before, immediately after, and 5–20 min after intervention. Following simple intervention, MEP amplitudes were significantly smaller than preintervention, indicating depression of corticospinal excitability. Following lateral, rubbing, and vertical intervention, MEP amplitudes were significantly larger than preintervention, indicating facilitation of corticospinal excitability. The modulation of corticospinal excitability depends on MS patterns. These results contribute to knowledge regarding the use of MS as a neurorehabilitation tool to neurological disorder.

  12. Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability Depends on the Pattern of Mechanical Tactile Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Sho; Onishi, Hideaki; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kotan, Shinichi; Sasaki, Ryoki; Nakagawa, Masaki; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different patterns of mechanical tactile stimulation (MS) on corticospinal excitability by measuring the motor-evoked potential (MEP). This was a single-blind study that included nineteen healthy subjects. MS was applied for 20 min to the right index finger. MS intervention was defined as simple, lateral, rubbing, vertical, or random. Simple intervention stimulated the entire finger pad at the same time. Lateral intervention stimulated with moving between left and right on the finger pad. Rubbing intervention stimulated with moving the stimulus probe, fixed by protrusion pins. Vertical intervention stimulated with moving in the forward and backward directions on the finger pad. Random intervention stimulated to finger pad with either row protrudes. MEPs were measured in the first dorsal interosseous muscle to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left motor cortex before, immediately after, and 5-20 min after intervention. Following simple intervention, MEP amplitudes were significantly smaller than preintervention, indicating depression of corticospinal excitability. Following lateral, rubbing, and vertical intervention, MEP amplitudes were significantly larger than preintervention, indicating facilitation of corticospinal excitability. The modulation of corticospinal excitability depends on MS patterns. These results contribute to knowledge regarding the use of MS as a neurorehabilitation tool to neurological disorder.

  13. Assessment of transmission in specific descending pathways in relation to gait and balance following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria; Lundell, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    . Coherence was found to correlate to all clinical measures to the same extent as the MEP amplitude. The latency and duration of medium-latency responses in the soleus muscle to galvanic stimulation as measures of vestibulospinal transmission showed very good correlation to BBS (r(2)=-0.8) and moderately good...

  14. Health Utilization and Cost Impact of Childhood Constipation in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, Olivia; Harman, Jeffrey; Benninga, Marc; Kelleher, Kelly; Mousa, Hayat; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the total health care utilization and costs for children with constipation in the United States. Study design We analyzed data from 2 consecutive years (2003 and 2004) of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative household survey. We identified

  15. Evaluation of a membrane based carbon dioxide absorber for spacecraft ECLS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, P.H.M.; Eckhard, F.; Witt, J.

    1996-01-01

    In an on-going harmonized ESA/NIVR project, performed by Stork Comprimo and TNO-MEP, the removal of the carbon dioxide with membranes is studied. The use of membrane gas absorption for carbon dioxide removal is currently hampered by the fact that the commonly used alkanolamines result in leakage

  16. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemical reactivity descriptors, such as electronegativity, hardness and electrophilicity of major oxides computed from density functional theory are reported in this paper. These parameters are plotted within a fitness landscape diagram, showing that the principles of minimum electrophilicity (MEP) and maximum ...

  17. Identification of the pyramidal tract by neuronavigation based on intraoperative magnetic resonance tractography: correlation with subcortical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzao, Alessandro; Romano, Andrea; Calabria, Luigi Fausto; Coppola, Valeria; Fantozzi, Luigi Maria [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Neuroradiology, Rome (Italy); Angelini, Albina; D' Andrea, Giancarlo; Mastronardi, Luciano; Ferrante, Luigi [University of Rome Sapienza, Department of Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    To demonstrate the accuracy of magnetic resonance tractography (MRT) in localizing the cortical spinal tract (CST) close to brain tumours by using intraoperative electric subcortical stimulation. Nine patients with intra-axial brain tumours underwent neurosurgery. Planning was based on analysis of the course of streamlines compatible with the CST. After tumour removal, intraoperative MRT was reacquired. Sites at various distance from the CST were repeatedly stimulated to assess whether registered motor evoked potential (MEP) could be elicited. All patients were assessed clinically both pre- and postoperatively. The motor function was preserved in all patients. In all patients intraoperative MRT demonstrated shift of the bundle position caused by the surgical procedure. The distance between the estimated intraoperative CST and the point of elicited MEP was 1 cm or less in all nine patients. At distances greater than 2 cm, no patient reported positive MEP. Intraoperative MRT is a reliable technique for localization of CST. In all patients MEP were elicited by direct subcortical electrical stimulation at a distance below 1 cm from the CST as represented by MRT. Brain shifting might impact this evaluation since CST position may change during surgery in the range of 8 mm. (orig.)

  18. 75 FR 35447 - Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; Nationwide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... domestic manufacturers and possess extensive knowledge of their specific capabilities. The EERE--MEP... capabilities. De Minimis Public Interest Waiver Pursuant to the above-referenced delegation the Assistant... the physical structure of the project, such as nuts, bolts, wires, cables, switches, etc. For many of...

  19. Muscle potentials evoked by magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve in unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Soens, I.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Van Ham, L. M. L.

    Magnetic stimulation of the sciatic nerve and subsequent recording of the muscle-evoked potential (MEP) was performed in eight dogs and three cats with unilateral sciatic nerve dysfunction. Localisation of the lesion in the sciatic nerve was based on the history, clinical neurological examination

  20. Identification of the pyramidal tract by neuronavigation based on intraoperative magnetic resonance tractography: correlation with subcortical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzao, Alessandro; Romano, Andrea; Calabria, Luigi Fausto; Coppola, Valeria; Fantozzi, Luigi Maria; Angelini, Albina; D'Andrea, Giancarlo; Mastronardi, Luciano; Ferrante, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the accuracy of magnetic resonance tractography (MRT) in localizing the cortical spinal tract (CST) close to brain tumours by using intraoperative electric subcortical stimulation. Nine patients with intra-axial brain tumours underwent neurosurgery. Planning was based on analysis of the course of streamlines compatible with the CST. After tumour removal, intraoperative MRT was reacquired. Sites at various distance from the CST were repeatedly stimulated to assess whether registered motor evoked potential (MEP) could be elicited. All patients were assessed clinically both pre- and postoperatively. The motor function was preserved in all patients. In all patients intraoperative MRT demonstrated shift of the bundle position caused by the surgical procedure. The distance between the estimated intraoperative CST and the point of elicited MEP was 1 cm or less in all nine patients. At distances greater than 2 cm, no patient reported positive MEP. Intraoperative MRT is a reliable technique for localization of CST. In all patients MEP were elicited by direct subcortical electrical stimulation at a distance below 1 cm from the CST as represented by MRT. Brain shifting might impact this evaluation since CST position may change during surgery in the range of 8 mm. (orig.)

  1. A highly efficient six-stroke internal combustion engine cycle with water injection for in-cylinder exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, James C.; Szybist, James P.

    2010-01-01

    A concept adding two strokes to the Otto or Diesel engine cycle to increase fuel efficiency is presented here. It can be thought of as a four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. A partial exhaust event coupled with water injection adds an additional power stroke. Waste heat from two sources is effectively converted into usable work: engine coolant and exhaust gas. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection and expansion was used to investigate this modification. By changing the exhaust valve closing timing during the exhaust stroke, the optimum amount of exhaust can be recompressed, maximizing the net mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEP steam ). The valve closing timing for maximum MEP steam is limited by either 1 bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens. The range of MEP steam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline engine and is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEP combustion ) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy.

  2. 78 FR 40084 - Proposed Requirement-Migrant Education Program Consortium Incentive Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter II Proposed Requirement--Migrant Education Program... educational agencies (SEAs) under the Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grant (CIG) Program... the interstate or intrastate coordination of migrant education programs by addressing key needs of...

  3. Paired-Associative Stimulation-Induced Long-term Potentiation-Like Motor Cortex Plasticity in Healthy Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C. Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using paired-associative stimulation (PAS to study excitatory and inhibitory plasticity in adolescents while examining variables that may moderate plasticity (such as sex and environment.MethodsWe recruited 34 healthy adolescents (aged 13–19, 13 males, 21 females. To evaluate excitatory plasticity, we compared mean motor-evoked potentials (MEPs elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS before and after PAS at 0, 15, and 30 min. To evaluate inhibitory plasticity, we evaluated the cortical silent period (CSP elicited by single-pulse TMS in the contracted hand before and after PAS at 0, 15, and 30 min.ResultsAll participants completed PAS procedures. No adverse events occurred. PAS was well tolerated. PAS-induced significant increases in the ratio of post-PAS MEP to pre-PAS MEP amplitudes (p < 0.01 at all post-PAS intervals. Neither socioeconomic status nor sex was associated with post-PAS MEP changes. PAS induced significant CSP lengthening in males but not females.ConclusionPAS is a feasible, safe, and well-tolerated index of adolescent motor cortical plasticity. Gender may influence PAS-induced changes in cortical inhibition. PAS is safe and well tolerated by healthy adolescents and may be a novel tool with which to study adolescent neuroplasticity.

  4. Reduced cortico-motor facilitation in a normal sample with high traits of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzo, Ignazio; Cooper, Nicholas R; Vetter, Petra; Russo, Riccardo; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2009-12-25

    Recent research in social neuroscience proposes a link between mirror neuron system (MNS) and social cognition. The MNS has been proposed to be the neural mechanism underlying action recognition and intention understanding and more broadly social cognition. Pre-motor MNS has been suggested to modulate the motor cortex during action observation. This modulation results in an enhanced cortico-motor excitability reflected in increased motor evoked potentials (MEPs) at the muscle of interest during action observation. Anomalous MNS activity has been reported in the autistic population whose social skills are notably impaired. It is still an open question whether traits of autism in the normal population are linked to the MNS functioning. We measured TMS-induced MEPs in normal individuals with high and low traits of autism as measured by the autistic quotient (AQ), while observing videos of hand or mouth actions, static images of a hand or mouth or a blank screen. No differences were observed between the two while they observed a blank screen. However participants with low traits of autism showed significantly greater MEP amplitudes during observation of hand/mouth actions relative to static hand/mouth stimuli. In contrast, participants with high traits of autism did not show such a MEP amplitude difference between observation of actions and static stimuli. These results are discussed with reference to MNS functioning.

  5. Mirror and (absence of) counter-mirror responses to action sounds measured with TMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticini, Luca F; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Waszak, Florian

    2017-11-01

    To what extent is the mirror neuron mechanism malleable to experience? The answer to this question can help characterising its ontogeny and its role in social cognition. Some suggest that it develops through sensorimotor associations congruent with our own actions. Others argue for its extreme volatility that will encode any sensorimotor association in the environment. Here, we added to this debate by exploring the effects of short goal-directed 'mirror' and 'counter-mirror' trainings (a 'mirror' training is defined as the first type of training encountered by the participants) on human auditory mirror motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). We recorded MEPs in response to two tones void of previous motor meaning, before and after mirror and counter-mirror trainings in which participants generated two tones of different pitch by performing free-choice button presses. The results showed that mirror MEPs, once established, were protected against an equivalent counter-mirror experience: they became manifest very rapidly and the same number of training trials that lead to the initial association did not suffice to reverse the MEP pattern. This steadiness of the association argues that, by serving direct-matching purposes, the mirror mechanism is a good solution for social cognition. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. 78 FR 77774 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... individual with epilepsy or a seizure disorder should be allowed to operate a CMV.\\3\\ The MEP recommendations... Seizure Disorders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... ``Evidence Report on Seizure Disorders and Commercial Vehicle Driving'' (Evidence Report) [CD-ROM HD TL230.3...

  7. 78 FR 67449 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... epilepsy or a seizure disorder should be allowed to operate a CMV.\\3\\ The MEP recommendations are included...-0094; FMCSA- 2013-0107] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure... ``Evidence Report on Seizure Disorders and Commercial Vehicle Driving'' (Evidence Report) [CD-ROM HD TL230.3...

  8. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We implement a hierarchical Bayesian spatiotemporal (HBST) model to forecast the daily trapped particle flux distribution over the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-15 data from 1–30 March 2008 with particle energies as < 30 keV (mep0e1) and < 300 keV ...

  9. Hemispheric asymmetry and somatotopy of afferent inhibition in healthy humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, R.C.G.; Baumer, T.; Siebner, H.R.; Bloem, B.R.; Munchau, A.

    2005-01-01

    A conditioning electrical stimulus to a digital nerve can inhibit the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in adjacent hand muscles elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1) when given 25-50 ms before the TMS pulse. This is referred to as

  10. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was performed to the all patients. The MEP measurements for both ears were applied under 1 minute; before induction (BI) and after intubation (AI) with a middle ear analyzer. Also hemodynamic parameters were recorded before induction and after intubation. Of the 44 patients were 25 women and 19 men with a 43.5±15.1 mean age. A statistically significant rise in MEP was seen in all patients subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube (Ptube, size and type of the blades, drugs and face masking time. But on the other hand in our opinion cardiovascular and haemodynamic response to LOTI has the most impact over the middle ear mucosa with mucosal venous congestion.

  11. Intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation for preservation of facial nerve function in patients with large acoustic neuroma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bai-yun; TIAN Yong-ji; LIU Wen; LIU Shu-ling; QIAO Hui; ZHANG Jun-ting; JIA Gui-jun

    2007-01-01

    Background Although various monitoring techniques have been used routinely in the treatment of the lesions in the skull base, iatrogenic facial paresis or paralysis remains a significant clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation on preservation of facial nerve function.Method From January to November 2005, 19 patients with large acoustic neuroma were treated using intraoperative facial motor evoked potentials monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation (TCEMEP) for preservation of facial nerve function. The relationship between the decrease of MEP amplitude after tumor removal and the postoperative function of the facial nerve was analyzed.Results MEP amplitude decreased more than 75% in 11 patients, of which 6 presented significant facial paralysis (H-B grade 3), and 5 had mild facial paralysis (H-B grade 2). In the other 8 patients, whose MEP amplitude decreased less than 75%, 1 experienced significant facial paralysis, 5 had mild facial paralysis, and 2 were normal.Conclusions Intraoperative TCEMEP can be used to predict postoperative function of the facial nerve. The decreased MEP amplitude above 75 % is an alarm point for possible severe facial paralysis.

  12. 76 FR 53666 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... MEP's Next Generation Strategy, and (3) discussion of innovation strategies for manufacturers... Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF) Offices, 1101 K Street, NW., Suite 610, Washington, DC... business. Admission Instructions: Anyone wishing to attend this meeting should submit their name, e-mail...

  13. Uneconomical top calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Noord, M.; Vanm Sambeek, E.J.W.

    2003-08-01

    The methodology used to calculate the financial gap of renewable electricity sources and technologies is described. This methodology is used for calculating the production subsidy levels (MEP subsidies) for new renewable electricity projects in 2004 and 2005 in the Netherlands [nl

  14. In Defense of the Practical: An Evaluation of Effects and Relationships in One Component of a Teacher Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patricia

    This study is based on the evaluation of the Methods Experience Project (MEP) in the College of Education at Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio. Specifically, the study identifies and describes the nature and direction of possible changes in selected preservice teacher behavior which occurred during the project and explores the…

  15. Comparison study of selected geophysical and geotechnical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs

    Successful foundation of constructions relies on accurate characterization of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. By implementing data from geophysical surveys, the placement of geotechnical drillings can be significantly improved, potentially reducing the number of required drillings....... This case study is mainly to compare geophysical investigations (MEP/IP) with existing PACES data and information from geotechnical drillings....

  16. Comparison of the two cerebral hemispheres in inhibitory processes operative during movement preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Pierre-Alexandre; Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Ivry, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies suggest that in right-handed individuals, the left hemisphere plays a dominant role in praxis, relative to the right hemisphere. However hemispheric asymmetries assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has not shown consistent differences in corticospinal (CS) excitability of the two hemispheres during movements. In the current study, we systematically explored hemispheric asymmetries in inhibitory processes that are manifest during movement preparation and initiation. Single-pulse TMS was applied over the left or right primary motor cortex (M1LEFT and M1RIGHT, respectively) to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the contralateral hand while participants performed a two-choice reaction time task requiring a cued movement of the left or right index finger. In Experiments 1 and 2, TMS probes were obtained during a delay period following the presentation of the preparatory cue that provided partial or full information about the required response. MEPs were suppressed relative to baseline regardless of whether they were elicited in a cued or uncued hand. Importantly, the magnitude of these inhibitory changes in CS excitability was similar when TMS was applied over M1LEFT or M1RIGHT, irrespective of the amount of information carried by the preparatory cue. In Experiment 3, there was no preparatory cue and TMS was applied at various time points after the imperative signal. When CS excitability was probed in the cued effector, MEPs were initially inhibited and then rose across the reaction time interval. This function was similar for M1LEFT and M1RIGHT TMS. When CS excitability was probed in the uncued effector, MEPs remained inhibited throughout the RT interval. However, MEPs in right FDI became more inhibited during selection and initiation of a left hand movement, whereas MEPs in left FDI remained relatively invariant across RT interval for the right hand. In addition to these task-specific effects, there

  17. The physiological basis of the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation of the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, V; Pilato, F; Dileone, M; Profice, P; Oliviero, A; Mazzone, P; Insola, A; Ranieri, F; Meglio, M; Tonali, P A; Rothwell, J C

    2008-08-15

    Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). When applied to motor cortex it leads to after-effects on corticospinal and corticocortical excitability that may reflect LTP/LTD-like synaptic effects. An inhibitory form of TBS (continuous, cTBS) suppresses MEPs, and spinal epidural recordings show this is due to suppression of the I1 volley evoked by TMS. Here we investigate whether the excitatory form of TBS (intermittent, iTBS) affects the same I-wave circuitry. We recorded corticospinal volleys evoked by single pulse TMS of the motor cortex before and after iTBS in three conscious patients who had an electrode implanted in the cervical epidural space for the control of pain. As in healthy subjects, iTBS increased MEPs, and this was accompanied by a significant increase in the amplitude of later I-waves, but not the I1 wave. In two of the patients we tested the excitability of the contralateral cortex and found a significant suppression of the late I-waves. The extent of the changes varied between the three patients, as did their age. To investigate whether age might be a significant contributor to the variability we examined the effect of iTBS on MEPs in 18 healthy subjects. iTBS facilitated MEPs evoked by TMS of the conditioned hemisphere and suppressed MEPs evoked by stimulation of the contralateral hemisphere. There was a slight but non-significant decline in MEP facilitation with age, suggesting that interindividual variability was more important than age in explaining our data. In a subgroup of 10 subjects we found that iTBS had no effect on the duration of the ipsilateral silent period suggesting that the reduction in contralateral MEPs was not due to an increase in ongoing transcallosal inhibition. In conclusion, iTBS affects the excitability of excitatory synaptic inputs to pyramidal tract neurones that are recruited by a TMS pulse, both in the stimulated hemisphere and in the contralateral hemisphere

  18. Vertical and horizontal processes in the global atmosphere and the maximum entropy production conjecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to reconsider the Maximum Entropy Production conjecture (MEP in the context of a very simple two-dimensional zonal-vertical climate model able to represent the total material entropy production due at the same time to both horizontal and vertical heat fluxes. MEP is applied first to a simple four-box model of climate which accounts for both horizontal and vertical material heat fluxes. It is shown that, under condition of fixed insolation, a MEP solution is found with reasonably realistic temperature and heat fluxes, thus generalising results from independent two-box horizontal or vertical models. It is also shown that the meridional and the vertical entropy production terms are independently involved in the maximisation and thus MEP can be applied to each subsystem with fixed boundary conditions. We then extend the four-box model by increasing its resolution, and compare it with GCM output. A MEP solution is found which is fairly realistic as far as the horizontal large scale organisation of the climate is concerned whereas the vertical structure looks to be unrealistic and presents seriously unstable features. This study suggest that the thermal meridional structure of the atmosphere is predicted fairly well by MEP once the insolation is given but the vertical structure of the atmosphere cannot be predicted satisfactorily by MEP unless constraints are imposed to represent the determination of longwave absorption by water vapour and clouds as a function of the state of the climate. Furthermore an order-of-magnitude estimate of contributions to the material entropy production due to horizontal and vertical processes within the climate system is provided by using two different methods. In both cases we found that approximately 40 mW m−2 K−1 of material entropy production is due to vertical heat transport and 5–7 mW m−2 K−1 to horizontal heat transport.

  19. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  20. Enzymatic synthesis of pyrene-labeled polyphosphoinositides and their behavior in organic solvents and phosphatidylcholine bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, Th.W.J.; Moritz, A.; Westerman, J.; Wirtz, K.W.A.

    1990-01-01

    A method is reported for the synthesis of pyrene-labeled analogues of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (Pyr-PIP) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (Pyr-PIP,) from sn-2-(pyrenyl-decanoy1)phosphatidylinositol (Pyr-PI) using partially purified PI and PIP kinase preparations. Phos-phorylation of

  1. Inhibition of Pancreatic Cancer Cell Proliferation by LRH-1 Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Synthesis of polyphosphoinositides in nuclei of Friend cells. Evidence for polyphosphoinositide metabolism inside the nucleus which changes with cell...537, S531-532. 23. de Saint-Jean M, et al. (2011) Osh4p exchanges sterols for phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate between lipid bilayers. J Cell Biol 195(6

  2. Formulation and evaluation of matrix microspheres for simultaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prepared microspheres were characterized for their micromeritic properties and drug loading, as well as by infrared spectroscopy (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray powder diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vitro release studies were performed in pH 7.4, phosphate ...

  3. A potential phosphorite deposit on the continental margin off Chennai

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P; Rao, K.M.; Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.; Subramaniam, M.M.; Souza, C.G.A.

    into four types as (1) light brown friable phosphorites (2) grey dense phosphorites (3) phosphorite sands and (4) phosphatized algal nodules/limestones. Major element composition of phosphorites indicate that the P@d2@@ O@d5@@ content is highest (31...

  4. Effects of a common transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocol on motor evoked potentials found to be highly variable within individuals over 9 testing sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Vogrin, Simon J; Carter, Olivia; Cook, Mark J; Forte, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) uses a weak electric current to modulate neuronal activity. A neurophysiologic outcome measure to demonstrate reliable tDCS modulation at the group level is transcranial magnetic stimulation engendered motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Here, we conduct a study testing the reliability of individual MEP response patterns following a common tDCS protocol. Fourteen participants (7m/7f) each underwent nine randomized sessions of 1 mA, 10 min tDCS (3 anode; 3 cathode; 3 sham) delivered using an M1/orbito-frontal electrode montage (sessions separated by an average of ~5.5 days). Fifteen MEPs were obtained prior to, immediately following and in 5 min intervals for 30 min following tDCS. TMS was delivered at 130 % resting motor threshold using neuronavigation to ensure consistent coil localization. A number of non-experimental variables were collected during each session. At the individual level, considerable variability was seen among different testing sessions. No participant demonstrated an excitatory response ≥20 % to all three anodal sessions, and no participant demonstrated an inhibitory response ≥20 % to all three cathodal sessions. Intra-class correlation revealed poor anodal and cathodal test-retest reliability [anode: ICC(2,1) = 0.062; cathode: ICC(2,1) = 0.055] and moderate sham test-retest reliability [ICC(2,1) = 0.433]. Results also revealed no significant effect of tDCS at the group level. Using this common protocol, we found the effects of tDCS on MEP amplitudes to be highly variable at the individual level. In addition, no significant effects of tDCS on MEP amplitude were found at the group level. Future studies should consider utilizing a more strict experimental protocol to potentially account for intra-individual response variations.

  5. Influence of Concurrent Finger Movements on Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)-Induced Aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Yuichiro; Terney, Daniella; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to have bidirectional influence on the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in resting participants in a polarity-specific manner: anodal tDCS increased and cathodal tDCS decreased them. More recently, the effects of tDCS have been shown to depend on a number of additional factors. We investigated whether a small variety of movements involving target and non-target muscles could differentially modify the efficacy of tDCS. MEPs were elicited from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle, defined as the target muscle, by single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1). During M1 tDCS, which lasted for 10 min applying anodal, cathodal, or sham condition, the participants were instructed to squeeze a ball with their right hand (Task 1), to move their right index finger only in the medial (Task 2), in the lateral direction (Task 3), or in medial and lateral direction alternatively (Task 4). Anodal tDCS reduced MEP amplitudes measured in Task 1 and Task 2, but to a lesser extent in the latter. In Task 3, anodal tDCS led to greater MEP amplitudes than cathodal stimulation. Alternating movements resulted in no effect of tDCS on MEP amplitude (Task 4). The results are congruent with the current notion that the aftereffects of tDCS are highly variable relying on a number of factors including the type of movements executed during stimulation.

  6. Electrophysiological and MRI study on poor outcome after surgery for cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, Osamu; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Occasionally, the outcome from laminoplasty for cervical spondylosis is disappointing despite an adequate operation. Before surgery, it is difficult to diagnose the pathological extent of the involvement of the spinal cord. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the indication of the surgery and prognosis. Retrospectively, we investigated the MEPs and the MRI of 31 patients in surgery for cervical myelopathy, involving 21 with cervical spondylosis and 10 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligamentum, and compared the findings from those with a poor outcome (n=3l) with the findings from those with a good outcome (n=32). The MEPs from the thenar muscle and the tibialis anterior were evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. In the poor-outcome patients, the spinal canal was narrow and lumbar spinal canal stenosis was seen in 5 cases which required lumbar laminectomy. Before operation, the MEPs from the thenar muscle could not be evoked in 5 cases while there was a remarkably prolonged central motor conduction time in the other 26 cases. MRI revealed the deformed spinal cord in the involved area, and the signal intensity of the involved spinal cord in the T2 weighted image was remarkably high. The signal intensity ratio was significantly higher in the poor-outcome patients than in the good-outcome patients. This study suggested that a high signal intensity in the T2 weighted image and a prolonged conduction time or absence of MEPs largely corresponded to the clinical and other investigative features of myelopathy responsible for a poor outcome. (author).

  7. Electrophysiological and MRI study on poor outcome after surgery for cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, Osamu; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei

    1995-01-01

    Occasionally, the outcome from laminoplasty for cervical spondylosis is disappointing despite an adequate operation. Before surgery, it is difficult to diagnose the pathological extent of the involvement of the spinal cord. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the indication of the surgery and prognosis. Retrospectively, we investigated the MEPs and the MRI of 31 patients in surgery for cervical myelopathy, involving 21 with cervical spondylosis and 10 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligamentum, and compared the findings from those with a poor outcome (n=3l) with the findings from those with a good outcome (n=32). The MEPs from the thenar muscle and the tibialis anterior were evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. In the poor-outcome patients, the spinal canal was narrow and lumbar spinal canal stenosis was seen in 5 cases which required lumbar laminectomy. Before operation, the MEPs from the thenar muscle could not be evoked in 5 cases while there was a remarkably prolonged central motor conduction time in the other 26 cases. MRI revealed the deformed spinal cord in the involved area, and the signal intensity of the involved spinal cord in the T2 weighted image was remarkably high. The signal intensity ratio was significantly higher in the poor-outcome patients than in the good-outcome patients. This study suggested that a high signal intensity in the T2 weighted image and a prolonged conduction time or absence of MEPs largely corresponded to the clinical and other investigative features of myelopathy responsible for a poor outcome. (author)

  8. Clinical rating systems in elbow research-a systematic review exploring trends and distributions of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P; Smith, Chris D; Fine, Nicola F; Porter, Ian; Gangannagaripalli, Jaheeda; Goodwin, Victoria A; Valderas, Jose M

    2018-04-01

    Clinical rating systems are used as outcome measures in clinical trials and attempt to gauge the patient's view of his or her own health. The choice of clinical rating system should be supported by its performance against established quality standards. A search strategy was developed to identify all studies that reported the use of clinical rating systems in the elbow literature. The strategy was run from inception in Medline Embase and CINHAL. Data extraction identified the date of publication, country of data collection, pathology assessed, and the outcome measure used. We identified 980 studies that reported clinical rating system use. Seventy-two separate rating systems were identified. Forty-one percent of studies used ≥2 separate measures. Overall, 54% of studies used the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). For arthroplasty, 82% used MEPS, 17% used Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and 7% used QuickDASH. For trauma, 66.7% used MEPS, 32% used DASH, and 23% used the Morrey Score. For tendinopathy, 31% used DASH, 23% used Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and 13% used MEPS. Over time, there was an increased proportional use of the MEPS, DASH, QuickDASH, PRTEE, and the Oxford Elbow Score. This study identified a wide choice and usage of clinical rating systems in the elbow literature. Numerous studies reported measures without a history of either a specific pathology or cross-cultural validation. Interpretability and comparison of outcomes is dependent on the unification of outcome measure choice. This was not demonstrated currently. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Velocity of Joint Mobilization on Corticospinal Excitability in Individuals With a History of Ankle Sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Beth E; Piraino, Andrew; Lee, Ya-Yun; Smith, Jo Armour; Johnson, Sean; Davenport, Todd E; Kulig, Kornelia

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Joint mobilization and manipulation decrease pain and improve patient function. Yet, the processes underlying these changes are not well understood. Measures of corticospinal excitability provide insight into potential mechanisms mediated by the central nervous system. Objectives To investigate the differential effects of joint mobilization and manipulation at the talocrural joint on corticospinal excitability in individuals with resolved symptoms following ankle sprain. Methods Twenty-seven participants with a history of ankle sprain were randomly assigned to the control, joint mobilization, or thrust manipulation group. The motor-evoked potential (MEP) and cortical silent period (CSP) of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius were obtained with transcranial magnetic stimulation at rest and during active contraction of the tibialis anterior. The slopes of MEP/CSP input/output curves and the maximal MEP/CSP values were calculated to indicate corticospinal excitability. Behavioral measures, including ankle dorsiflexion and dynamic balance, were evaluated. Results A repeated-measures analysis of variance of the MEP slope showed a significant group-by-time interaction for the tibialis anterior at rest (P = .002) and during active contraction (P = .042). After intervention, the thrust manipulation group had an increase in corticospinal excitability, while the corticospinal excitability decreased in the mobilization group. The thrust manipulation group, but not other groups, also demonstrated a significant increase in the maximal MEP amplitude of the tibialis anterior after intervention. Conclusion The findings suggest that joint manipulation and mobilization have different effects on corticospinal excitability. The increased corticospinal excitability following thrust manipulation may provide a window for physical therapists to optimize muscle recruitment and subsequently movement. The trial was registered at

  10. The Effects of Mirror Feedback during Target Directed Movements on Ipsilateral Corticospinal Excitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Yarossi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mirror visual feedback (MVF training is a promising technique to promote activation in the lesioned hemisphere following stroke, and aid recovery. However, current outcomes of MVF training are mixed, in part, due to variability in the task undertaken during MVF. The present study investigated the hypothesis that movements directed toward visual targets may enhance MVF modulation of motor cortex (M1 excitability ipsilateral to the trained hand compared to movements without visual targets. Ten healthy subjects participated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in which feedback (veridical, mirror and presence of a visual target (target present, target absent for a right index-finger flexion task were systematically manipulated in a virtual environment. To measure M1 excitability, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was applied to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the trained hand to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs in the untrained first dorsal interosseous (FDI and abductor digiti minimi (ADM muscles at rest prior to and following each of four 2-min blocks of 30 movements (B1–B4. Targeted movement kinematics without visual feedback was measured before and after training to assess learning and transfer. FDI MEPs were decreased in B1 and B2 when movements were made with veridical feedback and visual targets were absent. FDI MEPs were decreased in B2 and B3 when movements were made with mirror feedback and visual targets were absent. FDI MEPs were increased in B3 when movements were made with mirror feedback and visual targets were present. Significant MEP changes were not present for the uninvolved ADM, suggesting a task-specific effect. Analysis of kinematics revealed learning occurred in visual target-directed conditions, but transfer was not sensitive to mirror feedback. Results are discussed with respect to current theoretical mechanisms underlying MVF-induced changes in ipsilateral excitability.

  11. Dissociating the influence of response selection and task anticipation on corticospinal suppression during response preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Cazares, Christian; Ivry, Richard B

    2014-12-01

    Motor behavior requires selecting between potential actions. The role of inhibition in response selection has frequently been examined in tasks in which participants are engaged in some advance preparation prior to the presentation of an imperative signal. Under such conditions, inhibition could be related to processes associated with response selection, or to more general inhibitory processes that are engaged in high states of anticipation. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the degree of anticipatory preparation. Participants performed a choice reaction time task that required choosing between a movement of the left or right index finger, and used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the left hand agonist. In high anticipation blocks, a non-informative cue (e.g., fixation marker) preceded the imperative; in low anticipation blocks, there was no cue and participants were required to divide their attention between two tasks to further reduce anticipation. MEPs were substantially reduced before the imperative signal in high anticipation blocks. In contrast, in low anticipation blocks, MEPs remained unchanged before the imperative signal but showed a marked suppression right after the onset of the imperative. This effect occurred regardless of whether the imperative had signalled a left or right hand response. After this initial inhibition, left MEPs increased when the left hand was selected and remained suppressed when the right hand was selected. We obtained similar results in Experiment 2 except that the persistent left MEP suppression when the left hand was not selected was attenuated when the alternative response involved a non-homologous effector (right foot). These results indicate that, even in the absence of an anticipatory period, inhibitory mechanisms are engaged during response selection, possibly to prevent the occurrence of premature and inappropriate responses during a competitive selection process. Copyright

  12. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and maximum entropy production in the Earth system: applications and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2009-06-01

    The Earth system is maintained in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, as, for instance, reflected in the high concentration of reactive oxygen in the atmosphere. The myriad of processes that transform energy, that result in the motion of mass in the atmosphere, in oceans, and on land, processes that drive the global water, carbon, and other biogeochemical cycles, all have in common that they are irreversible in their nature. Entropy production is a general consequence of these processes and measures their degree of irreversibility. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) states that systems are driven to steady states in which they produce entropy at the maximum possible rate given the prevailing constraints. In this review, the basics of nonequilibrium thermodynamics are described, as well as how these apply to Earth system processes. Applications of the MEP principle are discussed, ranging from the strength of the atmospheric circulation, the hydrological cycle, and biogeochemical cycles to the role that life plays in these processes. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and the MEP principle have potentially wide-ranging implications for our understanding of Earth system functioning, how it has evolved in the past, and why it is habitable. Entropy production allows us to quantify an objective direction of Earth system change (closer to vs further away from thermodynamic equilibrium, or, equivalently, towards a state of MEP). When a maximum in entropy production is reached, MEP implies that the Earth system reacts to perturbations primarily with negative feedbacks. In conclusion, this nonequilibrium thermodynamic view of the Earth system shows great promise to establish a holistic description of the Earth as one system. This perspective is likely to allow us to better understand and predict its function as one entity, how it has evolved in the past, and how it is modified by human activities in the future.

  13. Moderate Ethanol Preconditioning of Rat Brain Cultures Engenders Neuroprotection Against Dementia-Inducing Neuroinflammatory Proteins: Possible Signaling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neafsey, Edward J.; Wang, Kewei; Achille, Nicholas J.; Mitchell, Robert M.; Sivaswamy, Sreevidya

    2010-01-01

    There is no question that chronic alcohol (ethanol) abuse, a leading worldwide problem, causes neuronal dysfunction and brain damage. However, various epidemiologic studies in recent years have indicated that in comparisons with abstainers or never-drinkers, light/moderate alcohol consumers have lower risks of age-dependent cognitive decline and/or dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Such reduced risks have been variously attributed to favorable circulatory and/or cerebrovascular effects of moderate ethanol intake, but they could also involve ethanol “preconditioning” phenomena in brain glia and neurons. Here we summarize our experimental studies showing that moderate ethanol preconditioning (MEP; 20–30 mM ethanol) of rat brain cultures prevents neurodegeneration due to β-amyloid, an important protein implicated in AD, and to other neuroinflammatory proteins such as gp120, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein linked to AIDS dementia. The MEP neuroprotection is associated with suppression of neurotoxic protein-evoked initial increases in [Ca+2]i and proinflammatory mediators—e.g., superoxide anion, arachidonic acid, and glutamate. Applying a sensor → transducer → effector model to MEP, we find that onset of neuroprotection correlates temporally with elevations in “effector” heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP27, and phospho-HSP27). The effector status of HSPs is supported by the fact that inhibiting HSP elevations due to MEP largely restores gp120-induced superoxide potentiation and subsequent neurotoxicity. As upstream mediators, synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may be initial prosurvival sensors of ethanol, and protein kinase C epsilon and focal adhesion kinase are likely transducers during MEP that are essential for protective HSP elevations. Regarding human consumption, we speculate that moderate ethanol intake might counter incipient cognitive deterioration during advanced aging or AD by exerting preconditioning

  14. Intracortical excitability in patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, A; Lenzi, D; Frasca, V; Gilio, F; Giacomelli, E; Gabriele, M; Bettolo, C Marini; Iacovelli, E; Pantano, P; Pozzilli, C; Inghilleri, M

    2009-06-01

    We designed this study to investigate possible correlations between variables measuring primary motor cortex excitability detected by single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and the severity of clinical manifestations in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thirty patients with MS in remission, 16 with relapsing-remitting (RR), 14 with secondary progressive disease (SP) and 17 healthy subjects participated in the study. In each subject, the central motor conduction time (CMCT) was calculated, and single-pulse and paired-pulse TMS at 3 and 10 ms interstimulus intervals was delivered over the primary motor cortex of the dominant hemisphere to measure the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), motor threshold (MTh), intracortical inhibition (ICI) and facilitation (ICF). Correlations were determined between the patients' TMS findings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (lesion load) and clinical features (expanded disability status scale, EDSS score). EDSS scores were significantly higher in SPMS than in RRMS patients. The MTh was significantly higher, and the MEP was significantly smaller in SPMS patients than in RRMS patients and control subjects. All patients had longer CMCTs than healthy subjects. In all patients, paired-pulse TMS elicited an inhibited test MEP at the 3-ms ISI and a facilitated test MEP at the 10 ms ISI. Post hoc analysis showed that ICI was significantly lower in SPMS patients than in those with RRMS and healthy subjects. EDSS scores correlated significantly with TMS measures (MEP, ICI, CMCT and MTh), but not with MRI lesion load. It was found that intracortical excitability as measured with TMS differs according to the clinical course of MS; it remains normal in patients with low EDSS scores and is altered in patients with high EDSS scores.

  15. Task-dependent changes of corticospinal excitability during observation and motor imagery of balance tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, A; Ruffieux, J; Wälchli, M; Keller, M; Taube, W

    2015-09-10

    Non-physical balance training has demonstrated to be efficient to improve postural control in young people. However, little is known about the potential to increase corticospinal excitability by mental simulation in lower leg muscles. Mental simulation of isolated, voluntary contractions of limb muscles increase corticospinal excitability but more automated tasks like walking seem to have no or only minor effects on motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). This may be related to the way of performing the mental simulation or the task itself. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify how corticospinal excitability is modulated during AO+MI, MI and action observation (AO) of balance tasks. For this purpose, MEPs and H-reflexes were elicited during three different mental simulations (a) AO+MI, (b) MI and (c) passive AO. For each condition, two balance tasks were evaluated: (1) quiet upright stance (static) and (2) compensating a medio-lateral perturbation while standing on a free-swinging platform (dynamic). AO+MI resulted in the largest facilitation of MEPs followed by MI and passive AO. MEP facilitation was significantly larger in the dynamic perturbation than in the static standing task. Interestingly, passive observation resulted in hardly any facilitation independent of the task. H-reflex amplitudes were not modulated. The current results demonstrate that corticospinal excitability during mental simulation of balance tasks is influenced by both the type of mental simulation and the task difficulty. As H-reflexes and background EMG were not modulated, it may be argued that changes in excitability of the primary motor cortex were responsible for the MEP modulation. From a functional point of view, our findings suggest best training/rehabilitation effects when combining MI with AO during challenging postural tasks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantification of the proportion of motor neurons recruited by transcranial electrical stimulation during intraoperative motor evoked potential monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Shunji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Minamide, Akihito; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito

    2013-12-01

    Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) are widely used to monitor motor function during spinal surgery. However, they are much smaller and more variable in amplitude than responses evoked by maximal peripheral nerve stimulation, suggesting that a limited number of spinal motor neurons to the target muscle are excited by transcranial stimulation. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of motor neurons recruited during TcMEP monitoring under general anesthesia. In twenty patients who underwent thoracic and/or lumbar spinal surgery with TcMEP monitoring, the triple stimulation technique (TST) was applied to the unilateral upper arm intraoperatively. Total intravenous anesthesia was employed. Trains of four stimuli were delivered with maximal intensity and an inter-pulse interval of 1.5 ms. TST responses were recorded from the abductor digiti minimi muscle, and the negative peak amplitude and area were measured and compared between the TST test (two collisions between transcranial and proximal and distal peripheral stimulation) and control response (two collisions between two proximal and one distal peripheral stimulation). The highest degree of superimposition of the TST test and control responses was chosen from several trials per patient. The average ratios (test:control) were 17.1 % (range 1.8-38 %) for the amplitudes and 21.6 % (range 2.9-40 %) for the areas. The activity of approximately 80 % of the motor units to the target muscle cannot be detected by TcMEP monitoring. Therefore, changes in evoked potentials must be interpreted cautiously when assessing segmental motor function with TcMEP monitoring.

  17. Dissociating the Influence of Response Selection and Task Anticipation on Corticospinal Suppression During Response Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Julie; Labruna, Ludovica; Cazares, Christian; Ivry, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Motor behavior requires selecting between potential actions. The role of inhibition in response selection has frequently been examined in tasks in which participants are engaged in some advance preparation prior to the presentation of an imperative signal. Under such conditions, inhibition could be related to processes associated with response selection, or to more general inhibitory processes that are engaged in high states of anticipation. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the degree of anticipatory preparation. Participants performed a choice reaction time task that required choosing between a movement of the left or right index finger, and used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the left hand agonist. In high anticipation blocks, a non-informative cue (e.g., fixation marker) preceded the imperative; in low anticipation blocks, there was no cue and participants were required to divide their attention between two tasks to further reduce anticipation. MEPs were substantially reduced before the imperative signal in high anticipation blocks. In contrast, in low anticipation blocks, MEPs remained unchanged before the imperative signal but showed a marked suppression right after the onset of the imperative. This effect occurred regardless of whether the imperative had signaled a left or right hand response. After this initial inhibition, left MEPs increased when the left hand was selected and remained suppressed when the right hand was selected. We obtained similar results in Experiment 2 except that the persistent left MEP suppression when the left hand was not selected was attenuated when the alternative response involved a non-homologous effector (right foot). These results indicate that, even in the absence of an anticipatory period, inhibitory mechanisms are engaged during response selection, possibly to prevent the occurrence of premature and inappropriate responses during a competitive selection process. PMID

  18. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in the Acute Phase of Stroke: The Role of Aging and Anthropometric Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Dos Santos, Maria Regina Lopes; Sartor, Lorena Cristina Alvarez; da Silva Rodrigues, Josiela Cristina; da Costa, Rafael Dalle Molle; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; de Oliveira Antunes, Letícia Cláudia; Souza, Juli Thomaz; de Carvalho Nunes, Hélio Rubens; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Bazan, Rodrigo

    2017-10-01

    During hospitalization, stroke patients are bedridden due to neurologic impairment, leading to loss of muscle mass, weakness, and functional limitation. There have been few studies examining respiratory muscle strength (RMS) in the acute phase of stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the RMS of patients with acute stroke compared with predicted values and to relate this to anthropometric variables, risk factors, and neurologic severity. This is a cross-sectional study in the acute phase of stroke. After admission, RMS was evaluated by maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP); anthropometric data were collected; and neurologic severity was evaluated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. The analysis of MIP and MEP with predicted values was performed by chi-square test, and the relationship between anthropometric variables, risk factors, and neurologic severity was determined through multiple linear regression followed by residue analysis by the Shapiro-Wilk test; P < .05 was considered statistically significant. In the 32 patients studied, MIP and MEP were reduced when compared with the predicted values. MIP declined significantly by 4.39 points for each 1 kg/m 2 increase in body mass index (BMI), and MEP declined significantly by an average of 3.89 points for each 1 kg/m 2 increase in BMI. There was no statistically significant relationship between MIP or MEP and risk factors, and between MIP or MIP and neurologic severity in acute phase of stroke. There is a reduction of RMS in the acute phase of stroke, and RMS was lower in individuals with increased age and BMI. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation with Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation Alters Corticospinal Output in Patients with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter J. Fassett

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS is intended primarily to alter corticospinal excitability, creating an attractive opportunity to alter neural output following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI. This study is the first to assess the effects of iTBS in SCI. Eight individuals with chronic incomplete SCI were studied. Sham or real iTBS was delivered (to each participant over primary motor and somatosensory cortices in separate sessions. Motor-evoked potential (MEP recruitment curves were obtained from the flexor carpi radialis muscle before and after iTBS. Results indicate similar responses for iTBS to both motor and somatosensory cortex and reduced MEPs in 56.25% and increased MEPs in 25% of instances. Sham stimulation exceeded real iTBS effects in the remaining 18.25%. It is our opinion that observing short-term neuroplasticity in corticospinal output in chronic SCI is an important advance and should be tested in future studies as an opportunity to improve function in this population. We emphasize the need to re-consider the importance of the direction of MEP change following a single session of iTBS since the relationship between MEP direction and motor function is unknown and multiple sessions of iTBS may yield very different directional results. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of including sham control in the experimental design. The fundamental point from this pilot research is that a single session of iTBS is often capable of creating short-term change in SCI. Future sham-controlled randomized trials may consider repeat iTBS sessions to promote long-term changes in corticospinal excitability.

  20. Assessment of respiratory muscle strength in children according to the classification of body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jung da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the respiratory muscle strength among eutrophic, overweight and obese school children, as well as to identify anthropometric and respiratory variables related to the results.METHODS: Cross-sectional survey with healthy schoolchildren aged 7-9 years old, divided into three groups: Normal weight, Overweight and Obese. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire was applied. The body mass index (BMI was evaluated, as well as the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 with a portable digital device. The maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP were measured by a digital manometer. Comparisons between the groups were made by Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlations among the variables.RESULTS: MIP of eutrophic school children was higher than MIP found in overweight (p=0.043 and obese (p=0.013 children. MIP was correlated with BMI percentile and weight classification (r=-0.214 and r=-0.256 and MEP was correlated with height (r=0.328. Both pressures showed strong correlation with each other in all analyses (r≥0.773, and less correlation with FEV1 (MIP - r=0.362 and MEP - r=0.494. FEV1 correlated with MEP in all groups (r: 0.429 - 0.569 and with MIP in Obese Group (r=0.565. Age was correlated with FEV1 (r=0.578, MIP (r=0.281 and MEP (r=0.328.CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese children showed lower MIP values, compared to eutrophic ones. The findings point to the influence of anthropometric variables on respiratory muscle strength in children.

  1. Motor evoked potential monitoring of the vagus nerve with transcranial electrical stimulation during skull base surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Eiji; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Itakura, Takeshi; Ando, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Yuka; Oda, Keiko; Sato, Taku; Watanabe, Tadashi; Sakuma, Jun; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Dysphasia is one of the most serious complications of skull base surgeries and results from damage to the brainstem and/or cranial nerves involved in swallowing. Here, the authors propose a method to monitor the function of the vagus nerve using endotracheal tube surface electrodes and transcranial electrical stimulation during skull base surgeries. Fifteen patients with skull base or brainstem tumors were enrolled. The authors used surface electrodes of an endotracheal tube to record compound electromyographic responses from the vocalis muscle. Motor neurons were stimulated using corkscrew electrodes placed subdermally on the scalp at C3 and C4. During surgery, the operator received a warning when the amplitude of the vagal motor evoked potential (MEP) decreased to less than 50% of the control level. After surgery, swallowing function was assessed clinically using grading criteria. In 5 patients, vagal MEP amplitude permanently deteriorated to less than 50% of the control level on the right side when meningiomas were dissected from the pons or basilar artery, or when a schwannoma was dissected from the vagal rootlets. These 5 patients had postoperative dysphagia. At 4 weeks after surgery, 2 patients still had dysphagia. In 2 patients, vagal MEPs of one side transiently disappeared when the tumors were dissected from the brainstem or the vagal rootlets. After surgery, both patients had dysphagia, which recovered in 4 weeks. In 7 patients, MEP amplitude was consistent, maintaining more than 50% of the control level throughout the operative procedures. After surgery all 7 patients were neurologically intact with normal swallowing function. Vagal MEP monitoring with transcranial electrical stimulation and endotracheal tube electrode recording was a safe and effective method to provide continuous real-time information on the integrity of both the supranuclear and infranuclear vagal pathway. This method is useful to prevent intraoperative injury of the brainstem

  2. Moderate ethanol preconditioning of rat brain cultures engenders neuroprotection against dementia-inducing neuroinflammatory proteins: possible signaling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael A; Neafsey, Edward J; Wang, Kewei; Achille, Nicholas J; Mitchell, Robert M; Sivaswamy, Sreevidya

    2010-06-01

    There is no question that chronic alcohol (ethanol) abuse, a leading worldwide problem, causes neuronal dysfunction and brain damage. However, various epidemiologic studies in recent years have indicated that in comparisons with abstainers or never-drinkers, light/moderate alcohol consumers have lower risks of age-dependent cognitive decline and/or dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such reduced risks have been variously attributed to favorable circulatory and/or cerebrovascular effects of moderate ethanol intake, but they could also involve ethanol "preconditioning" phenomena in brain glia and neurons. Here we summarize our experimental studies showing that moderate ethanol preconditioning (MEP; 20-30 mM ethanol) of rat brain cultures prevents neurodegeneration due to beta-amyloid, an important protein implicated in AD, and to other neuroinflammatory proteins such as gp120, the human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope protein linked to AIDS dementia. The MEP neuroprotection is associated with suppression of neurotoxic protein-evoked initial increases in [Ca(+2)](i) and proinflammatory mediators--e.g., superoxide anion, arachidonic acid, and glutamate. Applying a sensor --> transducer --> effector model to MEP, we find that onset of neuroprotection correlates temporally with elevations in "effector" heat shock proteins (HSP70, HSP27, and phospho-HSP27). The effector status of HSPs is supported by the fact that inhibiting HSP elevations due to MEP largely restores gp120-induced superoxide potentiation and subsequent neurotoxicity. As upstream mediators, synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors may be initial prosurvival sensors of ethanol, and protein kinase C epsilon and focal adhesion kinase are likely transducers during MEP that are essential for protective HSP elevations. Regarding human consumption, we speculate that moderate ethanol intake might counter incipient cognitive deterioration during advanced aging or AD by exerting preconditioning

  3. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for glioma removal: prognostic value in motor function recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Tomokazu; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Manabu; Maruyama, Takashi; Nitta, Masayuki; Niki, Chiharu; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) as a prognostic predictor for upper-extremity motor functional recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits. METHODS Preoperative and postoperative nTMS studies were prospectively applied in 14 patients (mean age 39 ± 12 years) who had intraparenchymal brain neoplasms located within or adjacent to the motor eloquent area in the cerebral hemisphere. Mapping by nTMS was done 3 times, i.e., before surgery, and 1 week and 3 weeks after surgery. To assess the response induced by nTMS, motor evoked potential (nTMS-MEP) was recorded using a surface electromyography electrode attached to the abductor pollicis brevis (APB). The cortical locations that elicited the largest electromyography response by nTMS were defined as hotspots. Hotspots for APB were confirmed as positive responsive sites by direct electrical stimulation (DES) during awake craniotomy. The distances between hotspots and lesions (D HS-L ) were measured. Postoperative neurological deficits were assessed by manual muscle test and dynamometer. To validate the prognostic value of nTMS in recovery from upper-extremity paresis, the following were investigated: 1) the correlation between D HS-L and the serial grip strength change, and 2) the correlation between positive nTMS-MEP at 1 week after surgery and the serial grip strength change. RESULTS From the presurgical nTMS study, MEPs from targeted muscles were identified in 13 cases from affected hemispheres. In one case, MEP was not evoked due to a huge tumor. Among 9 cases from which intraoperative DES mapping for hand motor area was available, hotspots for APB identified by nTMS were concordant with DES-positive sites. Compared with the adjacent group (D HS-L < 10 mm, n = 6), the nonadjacent group (D HS-L ≥ 10 mm, n = 7) showed significantly better recovery of grip strength at 3 months after surgery (p < 0.01). There were

  4. Fatigue-induced change in corticospinal drive to back muscles in elite rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Rick C; Strutton, Paul H; McGregor, Alison H; Davey, Nick J

    2002-09-01

    This study examined post-exercise changes in corticospinal excitability in five 'elite' rowers and six nonrowers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the motor cortex and bilateral electromyographic (EMG) recordings were made from erector spinae (ES) muscles at L3/L4 spinal level and from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of the dominant hand. Each subject completed two exercise protocols on a rowing ergometer: a light exercise protocol at a sub-maximal output for 10 min and an intense exercise protocol at maximum output for 1 min. A trial of ten magnetic stimuli was delivered before each of the protocols and, on finishing exercise, further trials of ten stimuli were delivered every 2 min for a 16 min period. Amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in each of the three test muscles were measured before exercise and during the recovery period after exercise. The non-rowers showed a brief facilitation of MEPs in ES 2 min after light and intense exercise that was only present in the elite rowers after intense exercise. In the period 4-16 min after light exercise, the mean (+/- S.E.M.) MEP amplitude (relative to pre-exercise levels) was less depressed in the elite rowers (79.4 +/- 2.1%) than in the non-rowers (60.9 +/- 2.5%) in the left ES but not significantly so in the right ES. MEP amplitudes in FDI were significantly larger in the elite rowers, averaging 119.0 +/- 3.1% pre-exercise levels, compared with 101.2 +/- 5.8% in the non-rowers. Pre-exercise MEP latencies were no different in the two groups. After light exercise MEP latencies became longer in the elite rowers (left ES, 16.1 +/- 0.5 ms; right ES, 16.1 +/- 0.4 ms; dominant FDI, 23.4 +/- 0.2 ms) than in the non-rowers (left ES, 15.0 +/- 0.3 ms; right ES, 15.2 +/- 0.3 ms; dominant FDI, 21.5 +/- 0.2 ms). There were no differences in MEP depression or latency between elite rowers and non-rowers after intense exercise. We conclude that the smaller degree of MEP depression in the

  5. Research Progress of Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Wei; Grossman, Robert B; Xu, Gang

    2018-04-11

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are a class of hybrid natural products sharing the mevalonate/methylerythritol phosphate and polyketide biosynthetic pathways and showing considerable structure and bioactivity diversity. This review discusses the progress of research into the chemistry and biological activity of 421 natural PPAPs in the past 11 years as well as in-depth studies of biological activities and total synthesis of some PPAPs isolated before 2006. We created an online database of all PPAPs known to date at http://www.chem.uky.edu/research/grossman/PPAPs . Two subclasses of biosynthetically related metabolites, spirocyclic PPAPs with octahydrospiro[cyclohexan-1,5'-indene]-2,4,6-trione core and complicated PPAPs produced by intramolecular [4 + 2] cycloadditions of MPAPs, are brought into the PPAP family. Some PPAPs' relative or absolute configurations are reassigned or critically discussed, and the confusing trivial names in PPAPs investigations are clarified. Pharmacologic studies have revealed a new molecular mechanism whereby hyperforin and its derivatives regulate neurotransmitter levels by activating TRPC6 as well as the antitumor mechanism of garcinol and its analogues. The antineoplastic potential of some type B PPAPs such as oblongifolin C and guttiferone K has increased significantly. As a result of the recent appearances of innovative synthetic methods and strategies, the total syntheses of 22 natural PPAPs including hyperforin, garcinol, and plukenetione A have been accomplished.

  6. Metabolic engineering of volatile isoprenoids in plants and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Claudia E; Bongers, Mareike; Liu, Qing; Delatte, Thierry; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2014-08-01

    The chemical properties and diversity of volatile isoprenoids lends them to a broad variety of biological roles. It also lends them to a host of biotechnological applications, both by taking advantage of their natural functions and by using them as industrial chemicals/chemical feedstocks. Natural functions include roles as insect attractants and repellents, abiotic stress protectants in pathogen defense, etc. Industrial applications include use as pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, fuels, fuel additives, etc. Here we will examine the ways in which researchers have so far found to exploit volatile isoprenoids using biotechnology. Production and/or modification of volatiles using metabolic engineering in both plants and microorganisms are reviewed, including engineering through both mevalonate and methylerythritol diphosphate pathways. Recent advances are illustrated using several case studies (herbivores and bodyguards, isoprene, and monoterpene production in microbes). Systems and synthetic biology tools with particular utility for metabolic engineering are also reviewed. Finally, we discuss the practical realities of various applications in modern biotechnology, explore possible future applications, and examine the challenges of moving these technologies forward so that they can deliver tangible benefits. While this review focuses on volatile isoprenoids, many of the engineering approaches described here are also applicable to non-isoprenoid volatiles and to non-volatile isoprenoids. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3-C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ekström

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono- and polysaccharides and polyols such as the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. Because of their high solubility these compounds are considered as potentially efficient CCN material. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Köhler curves for C3-C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what was expected, none of these compounds displayed a higher CCN efficiency than organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as saccharides and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation than other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, in contrary to recently suggested.

  8. Vertebral Column Resection for Kyphoscoliosis in a Patient with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: An Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangiri, Faisal R; Al Eissa, Sami; Sayegh, Samir; Al Helal, Fahad; Al-Sharif, Shomoukh A; Annaim, Monerah M; Muhammad, Sheryar; Aziz, Tanweer

    2016-08-31

    A 16-year-old male patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) and a back deformity since birth presented with severe kyphoscoliosis. The patient was neurologically intact but had respiratory and cardiac insufficiencies. A two-stage vertebral column resection (VCR) at T9-T10 with multiple level fusion with multimodality intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) was planned.  During the first stage, pedicle screws were placed at multiple spinal levels above and below the VCR level. Upper and lower somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEP), and electromyography were monitored continuously and showed no significant changes. The second stage was performed one week later. Baseline SSEP and TCeMEP responses were present in all extremities. The surgeon was informed of a sudden 70% amplitude drop in TCeMEP in the lower limbs with stable SSEP after ligating one of the left nerves/vessels fully stretching the spinal cord. The surgeon removed the ligation, and an improvement in motor responses followed. Surgery proceeded with the highest levels of caution. Later, there was a sudden loss of TCeMEP and SSEP in the lower limbs bilaterally. The correction was released, mean arterial pressure was increased, and intravenous dexamethasone was administered. The surgical correction was aborted, and the decision was made to close the site. Lower SSEP and TCeMEP responses remained absent until closing, while upper SSEP and TCeMEP responses remained stable. A wake-up test was done after closing. The patient moved his upper limbs but was unable to move his lower limbs bilaterally. The patient was sent for a magnetic resonance imaging scan while intubated and then sent to the intensive care unit. At 24 hours and 36 hours post-operation, the patient had no sensory and motor function below the T8 level. Forty-eight hours post-operation, the patient started to feel sensory stimuli at the T10 level. At one week post-operation, the

  9. Partially non-linear stimulation intensity-dependent effects of direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsikadze, G; Moliadze, V; Paulus, W; Kuo, M-F; Nitsche, M A

    2013-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA with an electrode size of 35 cm(2) has been shown to induce shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. These shifts are polarity-specific with cathodal tDCS resulting in a decrease and anodal stimulation in an increase of cortical excitability. In clinical and cognitive studies, stronger stimulation intensities are used frequently, but their physiological effects on cortical excitability have not yet been explored. Therefore, here we aimed to explore the effects of 2 mA tDCS on cortical excitability. We applied 2 mA anodal or cathodal tDCS for 20 min on the left primary motor cortex of 14 healthy subjects. Cathodal tDCS at 1 mA and sham tDCS for 20 min was administered as control session in nine and eight healthy subjects, respectively. Motor cortical excitability was monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Global corticospinal excitability was explored via single TMS pulse-elicited MEP amplitudes, and motor thresholds. Intracortical effects of stimulation were obtained by cortical silent period (CSP), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF), and I wave facilitation. The above-mentioned protocols were recorded both before and immediately after tDCS in randomized order. Additionally, single-pulse MEPs, motor thresholds, SICI and ICF were recorded every 30 min up to 2 h after stimulation end, evening of the same day, next morning, next noon and next evening. Anodal as well as cathodal tDCS at 2 mA resulted in a significant increase of MEP amplitudes, whereas 1 mA cathodal tDCS decreased corticospinal excitability. A significant shift of SICI and ICF towards excitability enhancement after both 2 mA cathodal and anodal tDCS was observed. At 1 mA, cathodal tDCS reduced single-pulse TMS-elicited MEP amplitudes and shifted SICI

  10. A Double-Coil TMS Method to Assess Corticospinal Excitability Changes at a Near-Simultaneous Time in the Two Hands during Movement Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Quoilin, Caroline; Petitjean, Charlotte; Duque, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have investigated corticospinal excitability changes occurring when choosing which hand to use for an action, one of the most frequent decision people make in daily life. So far, these studies have applied single-pulse TMS eliciting motor-evoked potential (MEP) in one hand when this hand is either selected or non-selected. Using such method, hand choices were shown to entail the operation of two inhibitory mechanisms, suppressing MEPs in the targeted hand either when it is non-selected (competition resolution, CR) or selected (impulse control, IC). However, an important limitation of this “Single-Coil” method is that MEPs are elicited in selected and non-selected conditions during separate trials and thus those two settings may not be completely comparable. Moreover, a more important problem is that MEPs are computed in relation to the movement of different hands. The goal of the present study was to test a “Double-Coil” method to evaluate IC and CR preceding the same hand responses by applying Double-Coil TMS over the two primary motor cortices (M1) at a near-simultaneous time (1 ms inter-pulse interval). Methods: MEPs were obtained in the left (MEPLEFT) and right (MEPRIGHT) hands while subjects chose between left and right hand key-presses in blocks using a Single-Coil or a Double-Coil method; in the latter blocks, TMS was either applied over left M1 first (TMSLRM1 group, n = 12) or right M1 first (TMSRLM1 group, n = 12). Results: MEPLEFT were suppressed preceding both left (IC) and right (CR) hand responses whereas MEPRIGHT were only suppressed preceding left (CR) but not right (IC) hand responses. This result was observed regardless of whether Single-Coil or Double-Coil TMS was applied in the two subject groups. However, in the TMSLRM1 group, the MEP suppression was attenuated in Double-Coil compared to Single-Coil blocks for both IC and CR, when probed with MEPLEFT (elicited by

  11. Three cDNAs encoding vitellogenin homologs from Antarctic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis: Cloning and transcriptional analysis in different maturation stages, temperatures, and putative reproductive hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Rin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Ah Ran; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun; Baek, Hea Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Three full-length cDNAs encoding lipoprotein homologs were identified in Tigriopus kingsejongensis, a newly identified copepod from Antarctica. Structural and transcriptional analyses revealed homology with two vitellogenin-like proteins, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2, which were 1855 and 1795 amino acids in length, respectively, along with a third protein, Tik-MEP, which produced a 1517-residue protein with similarity to a melanin engaging protein (MEP) in insects Phylogenetic analysis showed that Vgs in Maxillopods including two Tik-Vgs belong to the arthropod vitellogenin-like clade, which includes clottable proteins (CPs) in decapod crustaceans and vitellogenins in insects. Tik-MEP clustered together with insect MEPs, which appear to have evolved before the apoB-like and arthropod Vg-like clades. Interestingly, no genes orthologous to those found in the apoB clade were identified in Maxillopoda, suggesting that functions of large lipid transfer proteins (LLTPs) in reproduction and lipid metabolism may be different from those in insect and decapod crustaceans. As suggested by phylogenetic analyses, the two Tik-Vgs belonging to the arthropod Vg-like clade appear to play major roles in oocyte maturation, while Vgs belonging to the apoB clade function primarily in the reproduction of decapod crustaceans. Transcriptional analysis of Tik-Vg expression revealed a 24-fold increase in mature and ovigerous females compared with immature female, whereas expression of Tik-MEP remained low through all reproductive stages. Acute temperature changes did not affect the transcription of Tik-Vg genes, whereas Tik-MEP appeared to be affected by temperature change. Among the three hormones thought to be involved in molting and reproduction in arthropods, only farnesoic acid (FA) induced transcription of the two Tik-Vg genes. Regardless of developmental stage and hormone treatment, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2 exhibited a strong positive correlation in expression, suggesting that expression of these

  12. Development of methanol evaporation plate to reduce methanol crossover in a direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiming

    This research focuses on methanol crossover reduction in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) through separating the methanol vapor from its liquid phase and feeding the vapor passively at low temperature range. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated by using commercial available membrane with different thickness at different anode catalyst loading levels, and tested under the operating conditions below 100°C in cell temperature and cathode exit open to ambient pressure. Liquid methanol transport from the anode through the membrane into cathode ("methanol crossover") is identified as one of the major efficiency losses in a DMFC. It is known that the methanol crossover rate in the vapor phase is much lower than in liquid phase. Vapor feed can be achieved by heating the liquid methanol to elevated temperatures (>100°C), but other issues limit the performance of the cell when operating above 100°C. High temperature membranes and much more active cathode catalyst structures are required, and a complex temperature control system must be employed. However, methanol vapor feed can also occur at a lower temperature range (evaporation through a porous body. The methanol crossover with this vapor feed mode is lower compared with the direct liquid methanol feed. A new method of using a methanol evaporation plate (MEP) to separate the vapor from its liquid phase to reduce the liquid methanol crossover at low temperature range is developed. A MEP plays the roles of liquid/vapor methanol phase separation and evaporation in a DMFC. The goal of this study is to develop a MEP with the proper properties to achieve high methanol phase separation efficiency and fast methanol evaporation rate over a wide range of temperature, i.e., from room temperature up to near boiling temperature (100°C). MEP materials were selected and characterized. MEPs made from three different types were tested extensively with different MEA and porous back layer configurations. The benefits of

  13. Ceramic Surface Treatment with a Single-component Primer: Resin Adhesion to Glass Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Mayara; Prochnow, Catina; Marchionatti, Ana Maria Estivalete; Baldissara, Paolo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Wandscher, Vinicius Felipe

    2018-04-19

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of composite cement bonded to two machined glass ceramics and its durability, comparing conventional surface conditioning (hydrofluoric acid + silane) to a one-step primer (Monobond Etch & Prime). Machined slices of lithium disilicate ceramic (LDC) (IPS e.max CAD) and feldspathic ceramic (FC) (VITA Mark II) glass ceramics were divided into two groups (n = 10) according to two factors: 1. surface treatment: HF+S (ca 5% hydrofluoric acid [IPS Ceramic Etching GEL] + silane coupling agent [SIL; Monobond Plus]) or MEP (single-component ceramic conditioner; Monobond Etch & Prime); 2. storage condition: baseline (without aging; tested 24 h after cementing) or aged (70 days of water storage + 12,000 thermal cycles). Composite cement (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to starch matrices on the treated ceramic surfaces and photoactivated. A μSBS test was performed (0.5 mm/min) and the failure pattern was determined. Contact angle and micromorphological analyses were also performed. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test (α = 5%). For both ceramic materials, HF+S resulted in higher mean μSBS (MPa) at baseline (LDC: HF+S 21.2 ± 2.2 > MEP 10.4 ± 2.4; FC: HF+S 19.6 ± 4.3 > MEP 13.5 ± 5.4) and after aging (LDC: HF+S 14.64 ± 2.31 > MEP 9 ± 3.4; FC HF+S: 14.73 ± 3.33 > MEP 11.1 ± 3.3). HF+S resulted in a statistically significant decrease in mean μSBS after aging (p = 0.0001), while MEP yielded no significant reduction. The main failure type was adhesive between composite cement and ceramic. HF+S resuted in the lowest contact angle. Hydrofluoric acid + silane resulted in higher mean μSBS than Monobond Etch & Prime for both ceramics; however, Monobond Etch & Prime had stable bonding after aging.

  14. Acute hypotension in a patient undergoing posttraumatic cervical spine fusion with somatosensory and motor-evoked potential monitoring while under total intravenous anesthesia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, David F

    2009-02-01

    Hypotension should be vigilantly prevented in patients with spinal cord injury. Recent advances in neurological, intraoperative monitoring techniques have allowed Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists to assess the effects of spinal cord ischemia and compression as they occur. This case report describes a young, healthy man who sustained a cervical spine fracture and was scheduled for anterior spinal fusion with somatosensory and motor-evoked potential (MEP) monitoring while under total intravenous anesthesia. This patient experienced a brief period of intraoperative hypotension with evidence of abnormal MEPs. A wake-up test was performed, which showed normal functioning, and the case resumed an uneventful course. Although this scenario resulted in no neurological sequelae, the effects of spinal cord ischemia due to hypotension can lead to permanent, devastating motor and sensory damage.

  15. Real-time changes in corticospinal excitability related to motor imagery of a force control task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Junko; Numata, Atsuki

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate real-time excitability changes in corticospinal pathways related to motor imagery in a changing force control task, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods Ten healthy volunteers learnt to control the contractile force of isometric right wrist dorsiflexion...... in order to track an on-screen sine wave form. Participants performed the trained task 40 times with actual muscle contraction in order to construct the motor image. They were then instructed to execute the task without actual muscle contraction, but by imagining contraction of the right wrist...... in dorsiflexion. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), induced by TMS in the right extensor carpi radialis muscle (ECR) and flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR), were measured during motor imagery. MEPs were induced at five time points: prior to imagery, during the gradual generation of the imaged wrist dorsiflexion...

  16. Quadri-Pulse Theta Burst Stimulation using Ultra-High Frequency Bursts - A New Protocol to Induce Changes in Cortico-Spinal Excitability in Human Motor Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Gleich, Bernhard; Gattinger, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Patterned transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) such as theta burst stimulation (TBS) or quadri-pulse stimulation (QPS) can induce changes in cortico-spinal excitability, commonly referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP)-like and long-term depression (LTD)-like effects in human motor cortex (M...... of sinusoidal TMS pulses elicited either a posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) directed current in M1. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded before and after qTBS to probe changes in cortico-spinal excitability. PA-qTBS at 666 Hz caused a decrease in PA-MEP amplitudes, whereas AP...... in cortico-spinal excitability. Induced current direction in the brain appears to be relevant when qTBS targets I-wave periodicity, corroborating that high-fidelity spike timing mechanisms are critical for inducing bi-directional plasticity in human M1....

  17. Abnormal short-latency synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex of subjects with Becker muscular dystrophy: a rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golaszewski, Stefan; Schwenker, Kerstin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Brigo, Francesco; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen; Nardone, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to further investigate motor cortex excitability in 13 patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), six of them with slight mental retardation. RTMS delivered at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity progressively increases the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in healthy subjects; the rTMS-induced facilitation of MEPs was significantly reduced in the BMD patients mentally retarded or classified as borderline when compared with age-matched control subjects and the BMD patients with normal intelligence. The increase in the duration of the cortical silent period was similar in both patient groups and controls. These findings suggest an altered cortical short-term synaptic plasticity in glutamate-dependent excitatory circuits within the motor cortex in BMD patients with intellectual disabilities. RTMS studies may shed new light on the physiological mechanisms of cortical involvement in dystrophinopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a multimodal exercise program on the functional capacity of Parkinson's disease patients considering disease severity and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Orcioli-Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multimodal exercise program (MEP on the functional capacity of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD according to disease severity and gender. Fourteen patients with PD participated in the study and were distributed into groups according to 1 stage of disease and 2 gender. Functional capacity was evaluated before and after 6 months of intervention. The overall PD patient group improved their coordination and strength. Men and women improved in strength performance after exercise. Men also improved on coordination. For severity of disease, the unilateral group improved in strength, while the bilateral group improved in strength, balance, coordination and the UPDRS-functional score. In conclusion, a MEP is efficient in improving components of functional capacity in patients with PD, especially in strength. Gender may be considered in the exercise program. Individuals in the bilateral disease group appeared to benefit more from exercise.

  19. Reductions in Parental Use of Corporal Punishment on Pre-School Children Following Participation in the Moms' Empowerment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Galano, Maria M; Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2016-06-09

    Corporal punishment is a widely used and widely endorsed form of parental discipline. Inter-partner violence places enormous stress upon women. The rate of corporal punishment is higher in homes where other types of domestic violence are also occurring. This study compares two groups: those who participated in an intervention for women exposed to intimate partner violence (The Moms' Empowerment Program [MEP]) and those in a comparison group. Using standardized measures, women in both groups were assessed at baseline and at the end of the program, 5 weeks later. The 113 mothers who participated in the MEP program had significantly improved their parenting, such that they had less use of physical punishment post-intervention. Findings suggest that a relatively brief community-based intervention program can reduce the use of parental physical punishment even in disadvantaged populations coping with stressful circumstances. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Reliability of surface EMG measurements from the suprahyoid muscle complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Stubbs, Peter William; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2017-01-01

    of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days. Methods: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited. Measurements were performed twice with one week...... on stimulus type/intensity) had significantly different MEP values between day 1 and day 2 for single pulse and paired pulse TMS. A large stimulus artefact resulted in MEP responses that could not be assessed in four participants. Conclusions: The assessment of the SMC using sEMG following TMS was poorly...... reliable for ≈50% of participants. Although using sEMG to assess swallowing musculature function is easier to perform clinically and more comfortable to patients than invasive measures, as the measurement of muscle activity using TMS is unreliable, the use of sEMG for this muscle group is not recommended...

  1. A basic introduction to the thermodynamics of the Earth system far from equilibrium and maximum entropy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth system is remarkably different from its planetary neighbours in that it shows pronounced, strong global cycling of matter. These global cycles result in the maintenance of a unique thermodynamic state of the Earth's atmosphere which is far from thermodynamic equilibrium (TE). Here, I provide a simple introduction of the thermodynamic basis to understand why Earth system processes operate so far away from TE. I use a simple toy model to illustrate the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and to classify applications of the proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) to such processes into three different cases of contrasting flexibility in the boundary conditions. I then provide a brief overview of the different processes within the Earth system that produce entropy, review actual examples of MEP in environmental and ecological systems, and discuss the role of interactions among dissipative processes in making boundary conditions more flexible. I close with a brief summary and conclusion. PMID:20368248

  2. Technology assessment of dew point cooling; Beoordeling technologie dauwpuntskoeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uges, P.G.H. [Koudetechnisch Centrum, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Reinder, T.M.

    2003-03-01

    Results of measurements on an indirect adiabatic dew point cooling system are presented and discussed. The cooling system has been developed by OxyCom (formerly ComfortAir), Raalte, Netherlands. [Dutch] De techniek van dauwpuntskoeling is gebaseerd op bet principe van indirecte verdamping van water in een secundair circuit, waarbij geen extra vocht aan de te koelen luchtstroom wordt toegevoegd en waarmee luchttemperaturen worden bereikt die net boven het dauwpunt liggen en dus onder de natteboltemperatuur. Dauwpuntskoeling is een technische ontwikkeling met goede toekomstverwachtingen. Voorzover bekend zijn er tot op heden geen meetgegevens gepubliceerd met een dergelijke indirect werkende koeler. Dit artikel geeft de meetresultaten weer van een door OxyCorn in samenwerking met TNO-MEP uitgevoerd meetprogramma. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op de TNO-MEP rapportage met als auteurs N.R. Bootsveld en J. Afink en heeft eerder in het blad Koude en Luchtbehandeling, januari 2003, gestaan.

  3. Induction of motor associative plasticity in the posterior parietal cortex-primary motor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chao, Chi-Chao; Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Paine, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    There is anatomical and functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that plays a role in sensorimotor integration. In this study, we applied corticocortical paired-associative stimuli to ipsilateral PPC and M1 (parietal ccPAS) in healthy right......-handed subjects to test if this procedure could modulate M1 excitability and PPC–M1 connectivity. One hundred and eighty paired transcranial magnetic stimuli to the PPC and M1 at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 8 ms were delivered at 0.2 Hz. We found that parietal ccPAS in the left hemisphere increased...... the excitability of conditioned left M1 assessed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and the input–output curve. Motor behavior assessed by the Purdue pegboard task was unchanged compared with controls. At baseline, conditioning stimuli over the left PPC potentiated MEPs from left M1 when ISI was 8 ms...

  4. Genomic selection for methane emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Yvette; Pryce, Jennie E; Wall, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a growing area of international concern, and it is well established that the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. Of the various GHG produced by ruminants, enteric methane (CH4 ) is the most important contributor. One mitigation strategy is to reduce methane...... emission through genetic selection. Our first attempt used beef cattle and a GWAS to identify genes associated with several CH4 traits in Angus beef cattle. The Angus population consisted of 1020 animals with phenotypes on methane production (MeP), dry matter intake (DMI), and weight (WT). Additionally......, two new methane traits: residual genetic methane (RGM) and residual phenotypic methane (RPM) were calculated by adjusting CH4 for DMI and WT. Animals were genotyped using the 800k Illumina Bovine HD Array. Estimated heritabilities were 0.30, 0.19 and 0.15 for MeP, RGM and RPM respectively...

  5. Primary total elbow arthroplasty in complex fractures of the distal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Weng; Brorson, Stig; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    2014-01-01

    result. Patient satisfaction: 8 excellent, 10 good, 2 fair and 1 poor. There were two revisions due to infection treated successfully with revision and three months of antibiotics. In two patients the locking split had loosened. One was referred to re-insertion and one chose yearly controls. Two patients...... 3 had died, were lost to follow up. According to the AO classification there were 17 C3, 1 B2 and 2 A2 fractures. Mean follow-up was 21 months (range 4-54). Mean MEPS was 94 (range 65-100). Mean flexion was 114 degrees (range 80-140). According to MEPS there were 15 excellent, 4 good and 1 fair...

  6. Synthesis, crystal structures, computational studies and antimicrobial activity of new designed bis((5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio)alkanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Naeem; Sadiq, Beenish; Al-Masoudi, Najim A.; Yasin, Khawaja Ansar; Hameed, Shahid; Mahmood, Tariq; Ayub, Khurshid; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2018-03-01

    A new series of bis((5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio)alkanes 4-14 have been synthesized via nucleophilic substitution reaction of dihaloalkanes with respective 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiols 3a-f, and characterized by spectroscopic techniques. The structures of 4 and 12 were unambiguously confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Density functional theory calculations at B3LYP/6-31 + G(d) level of theory were performed for comparison of X-ray geometric parameters, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and frontier molecular orbital analyses of synthesized compounds. MEP analysis revealed that these compounds are nucleophilic in nature. Frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis of 4-14 was performed for evaluation of kinetic stability. All synthesized compounds were screened in vitro for antimicrobial activity against three bacterial and three fungal strains and showed promising results.

  7. Effect of slip-area scaling on the earthquake frequency-magnitude relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatorski, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    The earthquake frequency-magnitude relationship is considered in the maximum entropy principle (MEP) perspective. The MEP suggests sampling with constraints as a simple stochastic model of seismicity. The model is based on the von Neumann's acceptance-rejection method, with b-value as the parameter that breaks symmetry between small and large earthquakes. The Gutenberg-Richter law's b-value forms a link between earthquake statistics and physics. Dependence between b-value and the rupture area vs. slip scaling exponent is derived. The relationship enables us to explain observed ranges of b-values for different types of earthquakes. Specifically, different b-value ranges for tectonic and induced, hydraulic fracturing seismicity is explained in terms of their different triggering mechanisms: by the applied stress increase and fault strength reduction, respectively.

  8. Intra-cortical excitability in healthy human subjects after tongue training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Blicher, Jakob; Lapitskaya, Natallia

    2009-01-01

    Training of specific muscles causes plastic changes in corticomotor pathways which may underlie the effect of various clinical rehabilitation procedures. The paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) technique can be used to assess short interval intra-cortical inhibitory (SICI...... tongue muscles. In tongue motor cortex, bilateral SICI (P training. There were no significant effects of training on single MEPs or SICI/ICF (P > 0.063). The success rate improved during training (P ...) and intra-cortical facilitatory (ICF) networks. This study examined changes in SICI and ICF in tongue motor cortex after tongue training in 11 healthy volunteers using ppTMS. Paired pulse TMS was applied to the 'hot-spot' for the tongue motor cortex and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from...

  9. Differences in descending control of external oblique and latissimus dorsi muscles in humans: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Francesca; Delves, Suzanne; Alexander, Caroline M; Strutton, Paul H

    2011-07-01

    Descending bilateral control of external oblique (EO) and latissimus dorsi (LD) was investigated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Contralateral (CL) motor evoked potential (MEP) thresholds were lower and latencies were shorter than for ipsilateral (IL) MEPs. Hotspots for EO were symmetrical; this was not the case for LD. The volumes of drive to the left and right muscles were not different. The laterality index was not different between the left and right muscles. The average index for the EO muscles was closer to zero than that for LD, suggesting a stronger IL drive to EO. The symmetry of drive to each muscle did not differ; however, the symmetry of drive varies within a subject for different muscles and between subjects for the same muscle. The findings may be useful in understanding a number of clinical conditions relating to the trunk and also for predicting the outcome of rehabilitative strategies.

  10. A basic introduction to the thermodynamics of the Earth system far from equilibrium and maximum entropy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, A

    2010-05-12

    The Earth system is remarkably different from its planetary neighbours in that it shows pronounced, strong global cycling of matter. These global cycles result in the maintenance of a unique thermodynamic state of the Earth's atmosphere which is far from thermodynamic equilibrium (TE). Here, I provide a simple introduction of the thermodynamic basis to understand why Earth system processes operate so far away from TE. I use a simple toy model to illustrate the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and to classify applications of the proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) to such processes into three different cases of contrasting flexibility in the boundary conditions. I then provide a brief overview of the different processes within the Earth system that produce entropy, review actual examples of MEP in environmental and ecological systems, and discuss the role of interactions among dissipative processes in making boundary conditions more flexible. I close with a brief summary and conclusion.

  11. Euroscepticism in Britain and France: Implications for NATO and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    then the leader of the parliamentary Labour Party, threatened Brexit if Britain did not see reform of the EEC.5 In 2002, former British Prime Minister...foundations of statehood or imperial power that it can only exist through the satisfaction of accumulated vested interests.”34 In 2016, the possibility of a...crash39; and, of course, his Conservative and Labour party opponents. Farage, a member of the EP (MEP), uses his speaking time at the parliament to

  12. Absenteeism and Employer Costs Associated With Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Factors in the US Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Asay, Garrett R. Beeler; Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Howard, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). Methods We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measur...

  13. Evaluation of commercial chromatographic adsorbents for the direct capture of polyclonal rabbit antibodies from clarified antiserum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Hanne; Thomas, O.R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Protein A) as the affinity ligand, and differed from one another primarily with respect to the underlying base matrix. The remaining five matrices comprised various synthetic low molecular weight ligands immobilised on hydrophilic porous supports and these included: MEP HyperCel, MabSorbent AlP, Mab...... evaluated on the basis of dynamic binding capacity, recovery, and purity) were obtained, which allowed clear recommendations concerning the choice of adsorbents best suited for antibody capture from rabbit antisera, to be made....

  14. Modulation of sensorimotor circuits during retrieval of negative Autobiographical Memories: Exploring the impact of personality dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Ludovico; Concerto, Carmen; Patel, Dhaval; Mayorga, Tyrone; Chusid, Eileen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Aguglia, Eugenio; Sarraf, Yasmin; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2018-02-01

    Autobiographical Memory (AM) retrieval refers to recollection of experienced past events. Previous Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that presentation of emotional negative stimuli affects human motor cortex excitability resulting in larger motor evoked potentials (MEPs). Up to date no TMS studies have been carried out in order to investigate the effect of personal memories with negative emotional value on corticospinal excitability. In this study we hypothesized that negative AM retrieval will modulate corticomotor excitability and sensorimotor integration as determined by TMS neurophysiological parameters. Furthermore, we investigated whether TMS responses during retrieval of negative AM are associated with specific personality traits. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to recall either a negative or a neutral AM across two different days in a randomized order. During this memory retrieval, the following TMS parameters were recorded: MEPs; Short- interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and Intracortical facilitation (ICF); Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) and Long- latency afferent inhibition (LAI). Personality traits were assessed by using the Big Five scale. Statistical analysis was performed using factorial ANOVAs and multiple linear regression models. When compared to retrieval of neutral AM, recollection of negative AM induced a larger increase in MEP amplitude, an increase in ICF, and a decrease in SAI. The neuroticism personality trait was a significant predictor of the MEP amplitude increase during retrieval of negative AM. Altogether these results indicate that cortical excitability and sensorimotor integration are selectively modulated by the valence of AM. These results provide the first TMS evidence that the modulatory effect of the AM retrieval is associated with specific personality traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stimulus uncertainty enhances long-term potentiation-like plasticity in human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V; Nydam, Abbey S; Mattingley, Jason B

    2017-03-01

    Plasticity can be induced in human cortex using paired associative stimulation (PAS), which repeatedly and predictably pairs a peripheral electrical stimulus with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral motor region. Many studies have reported small or inconsistent effects of PAS. Given that uncertain stimuli can promote learning, the predictable nature of the stimulation in conventional PAS paradigms might serve to attenuate plasticity induction. Here, we introduced stimulus uncertainty into the PAS paradigm to investigate if it can boost plasticity induction. Across two experimental sessions, participants (n = 28) received a modified PAS paradigm consisting of a random combination of 90 paired stimuli and 90 unpaired (TMS-only) stimuli. Prior to each of these stimuli, participants also received an auditory cue which either reliably predicted whether the upcoming stimulus was paired or unpaired (no uncertainty condition) or did not predict the upcoming stimulus (maximum uncertainty condition). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked from abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle quantified cortical excitability before and after PAS. MEP amplitude increased significantly 15 min following PAS in the maximum uncertainty condition. There was no reliable change in MEP amplitude in the no uncertainty condition, nor between post-PAS MEP amplitudes across the two conditions. These results suggest that stimulus uncertainty may provide a novel means to enhance plasticity induction with the PAS paradigm in human motor cortex. To provide further support to the notion that stimulus uncertainty and prediction error promote plasticity, future studies should further explore the time course of these changes, and investigate what aspects of stimulus uncertainty are critical in boosting plasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. NASA: Assessments of Selected Large-Scale Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    REPORT DATE MAR 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessments Of Selected Large-Scale Projects...Volatile EvolutioN MEP Mars Exploration Program MIB Mishap Investigation Board MMRTG Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator MMS Magnetospheric...probes designed to explore the Martian surface, to satellites equipped with advanced sensors to study the earth , to telescopes intended to explore the

  17. Upper extremity rehabilitation of stroke: Facilitation of corticospinal excitability using virtual mirror paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Youn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several experimental studies in stroke patients suggest that mirror therapy and various virtual reality programs facilitate motor rehabilitation. However, the underlying mechanisms for these therapeutic effects have not been previously described. Objectives We attempted to delineate the changes in corticospinal excitability when individuals were asked to exercise their upper extremity using a real mirror and virtual mirror. Moreover, we attempted to delineate the role of visual modulation within the virtual environment that affected corticospinal excitability in healthy subjects and stroke patients. Methods A total of 18 healthy subjects and 18 hemiplegic patients were enrolled into the study. Motor evoked potential (MEPs from transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded in the flexor carpi radialis of the non-dominant or affected upper extremity using three different conditions: (A relaxation; (B real mirror; and (C virtual mirror. Moreover, we compared the MEPs from the virtual mirror paradigm using continuous visual feedback or intermittent visual feedback. Results The rates of amplitude increment and latency decrement of MEPs in both groups were higher during the virtual mirror task than during the real mirror. In healthy subjects and stroke patients, the virtual mirror task with intermittent visual feedback significantly facilitated corticospinal excitability of MEPs compared with continuous visual feedback. Conclusion Corticospinal excitability was facilitated to a greater extent in the virtual mirror paradigm than in the real mirror and in intermittent visual feedback than in the continuous visual feedback, in both groups. This provides neurophysiological evidence supporting the application of the virtual mirror paradigm using various visual modulation technologies to upper extremity rehabilitation in stroke patients.

  18. Effects of Commuting Distance on Participation Rates for Obligated Selected Marine Corps Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    AFQT Armed Forces Qualification Test AR Active Reserve ASAVB Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery BIC billet identification code...doorsteps of a recruiter’s office. The interested individual works with a recruiter and is verbally screened for any medical, moral, physical, educational...Station (MEPS) for a more thorough medical, physical, and educational screening (to include taking the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery [ASVAB

  19. Costs for renewable electricity. Learning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, R.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to provide an objective basis for the determination of the assumptions that are used for the calculation of the so-called uneconomic top of electricity production from renewable energy sources, carried out by ECN and KEMA. The results will be used for the determination of the subsidy tariffs for new renewable energy projects and is part of the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP, abbreviated in Dutch) policy [nl

  20. Strength Testing in the Air Force: Current Processes and Suggestions for Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    administered at the MEPS (their names are excluded to protect confidentiality ). We also thank the career field managers who participated in our interviews...machine (140–150 lbs) an average, adult, American woman (140–160 lbs) an average, adult, American man (170–190 lbs) an average, freestanding kitchen ...an average, adult, American woman (140–160 lbs) an average, adult, American man (170–190 lbs) an average, freestanding kitchen range and oven

  1. Mean echogenicity and area of puborectalis muscle in women with stress urinary incontinence during pregnancy and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waarsenburg, Maria K; Withagen, Mariëlla I J; Grob, Anique T M; Schweitzer, Karlijn J; van Veelen, Greetje A; van der Vaart, Carl H

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth are risk factors for the development of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Urinary continence depends on normal urethral support, which is provided by normal levator ani muscle function. Our objective was to compare mean echogenicity and the area of the puborectalis muscle between women with and those without SUI during and after their first pregnancy. We examined 280 nulliparous women at a gestational age of 12 weeks, 36 weeks, and 6 months after delivery. They filled out the validated Urogenital Distress Inventory and underwent perineal ultrasounds. SUI was considered present if the woman answered positively to the question "do you experience urine leakage related to physical activity, coughing, or sneezing?" Mean echogenicity of the puborectalis muscle (MEP) and puborectalis muscle area (PMA) were calculated. The MEP and PMA during pregnancy and after delivery in women with and without SUI were compared using independent Student's t test. After delivery the MEP was higher in women with SUI if the pelvic floor was at rest or in contraction, with effect sizes of 0.30 and 0.31 respectively. No difference was found in the area of the puborectalis muscle between women with and those without SUI. Women with SUI after delivery had a statistically significant higher mean echogenicity of the puborectalis muscle compared with non-SUI women when the pelvic floor was at rest and in contraction; the effect sizes were small. This higher MEP is indicative of a relatively higher intramuscular extracellular matrix component and could represent diminished contractile function.

  2. Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-22

    are funded through the NIH Management Fund, financed by taps on other NIH appropriations.) President Bush’s FY2009 budget proposal gave most of the... Alchemy of the 21st Century,” remarks, Texas Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science Fourth Annual Conference, Austin, Texas, January 4, 2007...significant decrease in financing for MEP. Funding for in-house research and development under the Scientific and Technology Research and Services (STRS

  3. Differences in short-term primary motor cortex synaptic potentiation as assessed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in migraine patients with and without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Barbanti, Piero; Frasca, Vittorio; Iacovelli, Elisa; Gabriele, Maria; Giacomelli, Elena; Aurilia, Cinzia; Pichiorri, Floriana; Gilio, Francesca; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    To find out more about glutamatergic and gabaergic transmission in migraine, in this study we investigated glutamate-dependent short-term synaptic potentiation and GABA-dependent inhibitory cortical interneuron excitability as assessed by 5Hz-rTMS delivered over primary motor cortex (M1) (motor evoked potential, MEP, amplitude facilitation and cortical silent period, CSP, duration lengthening) in migraine patients with (MA) and without aura (MwoA) and healthy controls. We studied 37 patients with migraine (19 MA and 18 MwoA) and 19 healthy control subjects. 5Hz-rTMS was delivered at 120% resting motor threshold to the hand motor area of the left hemisphere with the target muscle at rest and during contraction. Three of the MA patients were also tested at the end of visual aura during a spontaneous migraine attack. ANOVA showed that the MEP significantly increased in size and CSP significantly lengthened during 5Hz-rTMS in the three groups tested. The 5Hz-rTMS-induced MEP facilitation differed significantly being highest in MA patients. In the three patients tested both ictally and interictally the MEP increased during the interictal session but remained unchanged when the visual aura ended. Our study shows that the neurophysiological feature that differentiates MA patients from MwoA patients and healthy controls is an abnormal M1 susceptibility to 5Hz-rTMS both outside and during the attack suggesting that glutamate-dependent short-term M1 cortical potentiation patterns differ in migraine with and without aura. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Age-Related Differences in Corticospinal Excitability during Observation and Motor Imagery of Balance Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouthon, Audrey A; Ruffieux, Jan; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Postural control declines across adult lifespan. Non-physical balance training has been suggested as an alternative to improve postural control in frail/immobilized elderly people. Previous studies showed that this kind of training can improve balance control in young and older adults. However, it is unclear whether the brain of young and older adults is activated differently during mental simulations of balance tasks. For this purpose, soleus (SOL) and tibialis motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and SOL H-reflexes were elicited while 15 elderly (mean ± SD = 71 ± 4.6 years) and 15 young participants (mean ± SD = 27 ± 4.6 years) mentally simulated static and dynamic balance tasks using motor imagery (MI), action observation (AO) or the combination of AO and MI (AO + MI). Young subjects displayed significant modulations of MEPs that depended on the kind of mental simulation and the postural task. Elderly adults also revealed differences between tasks, but not between mental simulation conditions. Furthermore, the elderly displayed larger MEP facilitation during mental simulation (AGE-GROUP; F (1,28) = 5.9; p = 0.02) in the SOL muscle compared to the young and a task-dependent modulation of the tibialis background electromyography (bEMG) activity. H-reflex amplitudes and bEMG in the SOL showed neither task- nor age-dependent modulation. As neither mental simulation nor balance tasks modulated H-reflexes and bEMG in the SOL muscle, despite large variations in the MEP-amplitudes, there seems to be an age-related change in the internal cortical representation of balance tasks. Moreover, the modulation of the tibialis bEMG in the elderly suggests that aging partially affects the ability to inhibit motor output.

  5. Risk factors for decreased range of motion and poor outcomes in open periarticular elbow fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Jonathan F; Wilson, Kevin W; Tintle, Scott M; Heckert, Reed; Gordon, Wade T; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude G; Potter, Benjamin K

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors present at the time of injury that predict poor functional outcomes and heterotopic ossification (HO) in open periarticular elbow fractures. We performed a retrospective review of 136 combat-related open elbow fractures from 2003 to 2010. Patient demographics, injury characteristics, treatment variables, and complications were recorded. Functional outcomes were analyzed to determine range of motion (ROM) and Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). Secondary outcome measures included the development of HO, return to duty, and revision operation. At a median 2.7 years from injury the median MEPS was 67.8 (range 30-100) with an average ulnohumeral arc motion of 89°. Bipolar fractures, with periarticular fractures on both sides of the elbow and at least one side containing intra-articular extension, were independently associated with decreased ulnohumeral motion (p=0.02) and decreased MEPS (pROM included more severe osseous comminution (p=0.001), and increased time to definitive fixation (p=0.03) and HO (p=0.02). More severe soft tissue injury (Gustilo and Anderson fracture type, p=0.02), peripheral nerve injury (p=0.04), and HO (p=0.03) were independently associated with decreased MEPS. HO developed in 65% (89/136) of extremities and was associated with more severe Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) fracture type (p=0.01) and escalating Gustilo and Anderson fracture classification (p=0.049). In the largest series of open elbow fractures, we identified risk factors that portend a poor clinical outcome and decreased ROM. Bipolar elbow fractures, which have not previously been associated with worse results, are particularly prone to decreased ROM and worse outcomes. Prognostic level IV. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Reflecting on mirror mechanisms: motor resonance effects during action observation only present with low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Loporto

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies indicate that the observation of other people's actions influences the excitability of the observer's motor system. Motor evoked potential (MEP amplitudes typically increase in muscles which would be active during the execution of the observed action. This 'motor resonance' effect is thought to result from activity in mirror neuron regions, which enhance the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1 via cortico-cortical pathways. The importance of TMS intensity has not yet been recognised in this area of research. Low-intensity TMS predominately activates corticospinal neurons indirectly, whereas high-intensity TMS can directly activate corticospinal axons. This indicates that motor resonance effects should be more prominent when using low-intensity TMS. A related issue is that TMS is typically applied over a single optimal scalp position (OSP to simultaneously elicit MEPs from several muscles. Whether this confounds results, due to differences in the manner that TMS activates spatially separate cortical representations, has not yet been explored. In the current study, MEP amplitudes, resulting from single-pulse TMS applied over M1, were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI and abductor digiti minimi (ADM muscles during the observation of simple finger abductions. We tested if the TMS intensity (110% vs. 130% resting motor threshold or stimulating position (FDI-OSP vs. ADM-OSP influenced the magnitude of the motor resonance effects. Results showed that the MEP facilitation recorded in the FDI muscle during the observation of index-finger abductions was only detected using low-intensity TMS. In contrast, changes in the OSP had a negligible effect on the presence of motor resonance effects in either the FDI or ADM muscles. These findings support the hypothesis that MN activity enhances M1 excitability via cortico-cortical pathways and highlight a methodological framework by which the

  7. Elevated phthalates' exposure in children with constitutional delay of growth and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changming; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Lianlian; Chen, Jiao; Cai, Depei; Zhang, Yunhui

    2015-05-15

    Phthalates have been proven to be antiandrogenic, which may interfere with the timing of puberty. Children with Constitutional Delay of Growth and Puberty (CDGP) typically display short stature and pubertal delay. This study investigated whether phthalate's exposure was associated with CDGP, and evaluated the potential mediator role of testosterone. In this case-control study, a total of 167 boys, including 57 boys with CDGP (cases) and 110 controls were enrolled. We measured six major phthalate metabolites in urine samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The serum testosterone level was determined by radioimmunoassay. Children in the CDGP group were determined to have significantly elevated urinary phthalates concentration compared with control subjects (total phthalates median: case, 107.00 ng/ml; control, 62.22 ng/ml, p = 0.001). After adjustment for BMI and other confounding factors: mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and total phthalate concentrations were significantly negatively associated with serum testosterone level (MBP: β = -45.7, p = 0.017; MEP: β = -31.6, p = 0.022; total phthalates: β = -24.6, p = 0.011); MBP, MEP, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and total phthalates were significantly associated with CDGP (odds ratio: MBP: 8.30, p = 0.002; MEP: 5.43, p = 0.002; MEHP: 3.83, p = 0.017; total phthalates: 9.09, p = 0.001). Serum testosterone level acted as a mediator of the association between phthalates' exposure and CDGP (p = 0.002) (proportion mediated: 34.4%). In this case-control study, elevated phthalates' level was detected in children with CDGP in Shanghai, China and phthalate level was associated with CDGP, which appeared to be mediated by circulating testosterone level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence of anopheline mosquito resistance to agrochemicals in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Hans J; Sandve, Simen R; Suwonkerd, Wannapa

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess insecticide resistance in anopheline mosquito populations in agroecosystems with high and low insecticide use in a malaria endemic area in Chiang Mai province in northern Thailand. Anopheline mosquitoes were collected in May and June 2004 from two locations with different agricultural insecticide intensity (HIGH and LOW), but similar in vector control strategies. The F1-generation of Anopheles maculatus s.s. and An. sawadwongporni were subjected to diagnostic doses of methyl parathion (MeP) and cypermethrin (Cyp), both commonly used insecticides in fruit orchards in Thailand. An. minimus A from the HIGH location was subjected to diagnostic doses to Cyp. CDC bottle bioassays were used to determine insecticide susceptibility. Time-mortality data were subjected to Probit analyses to estimate lethal time values (LT50 and LT90). Lethal time ratios (LTR) were computed to determine differences in lethal time response between populations from HIGH and LOW locations. The mortality of An. maculatus to MeP was 74% and 92% in the HIGH and LOW locations, respectively. The corresponding figures for An. sawadwongporni were 94% and 99%. There was no indication of resistance to Cyp for all species tested in either location. The LT90 and LT50 values of An. maculatus s.s. subjected to diagnostic doses of MeP were significantly different between locations (p<0.05). Reduced susceptibility to MeP in mosquito populations in the HIGH location is caused by intensive agricultural pest control and not by vector control activities, because organophosphates have never been used for vector control in the area. Our results indicate that there are still susceptible anopheline populations to pyrethroids, which is consistent with other research from the region. Therefore, there is presently no direct threat to vector control. However increased use of pyrethroids in agriculture may cause problems for future vector control.

  9. The Difficulties of Adapting the Main Educational Program for University Students with Disabilities Hearing

    OpenAIRE

    Stanevsky A.G.; Stolyarova Z.F.

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes in detail various features of how learning process participants interact with each other, as well as classifies possible (observed) impairments of cognitive qualities in students, as compared to the normal level. It also determines and scrutinizes mutual connections between certain impairments, along with their effect on perception during learning. The usage of orientated graphs measuring labour-intensiveness during the acquisition of the main educational program (MEP) pr...

  10. Inclusion of gold nanoparticles in meso-porous silicon for the SERS analysis of cell adhesion on nano-structured surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, M.L.; De Vitis, S.; Strumbo, G.; Candeloro, P.; Perozziello, G.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Gentile, F.

    2016-01-01

    MeP Si surfaces were realized by anodization of a Si wafer, creating the device for cell adhesion and growth. Gold nanoparticles were deposited on porous silicon by an electroless technique. We thus obtained devices with superior SERS capabilities, whereby cell activity may be controlled using Raman spectroscopy. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were cultured on the described substrates and SERS maps revealing the different expression and distribution of adhesion molecules were obtained by Raman spectroscopic analyses.

  11. Looking at the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) chromophore from a different perspective: A computational insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-02-01

    In the present contribution Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been applied to explore molecular dipole moment, frontier molecular orbital (FMO) features, chemical hardness, and the molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPS) characteristics for optimized molecular geometry of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) chromophore p-hydroxybenzylideneimidazolinone (HBDI) both in its protonated (neutral) and deprotonated (anion) forms. The distribution of atomic charges over the entire molecular framework as obtained from Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis is found to faithfully replicate the predictions from the MEP map in respect of reactivity map of HBDI (neutral and anion) and possible sites for hydrogen bonding interactions etc. The three dimensional MEP map encompassing the entire molecule yields a reliable reactivity map of HBDI molecule also displaying the most probable regions for non-covalent interactions. The differential distribution of the electrostatic potential over the neutral and anionic species of HBDI is authentically reflected on MEP map and NBO charge distribution analysis. Thermodynamic properties such as heat capacity, thermal energy, enthalpy, entropy have been calculated and the correlation of the various thermodynamic functions with temperature has been established for neutral molecule. More importantly, however, the computational approach has been employed to unveil the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of protonated (neutral) and deprotonated (anion) HBDI. Also in an endeavor to achieve a fuller understanding on this aspect the effect of basis set on the NLO properties of the title molecule has been investigated. Our computations delineate the discernible differences in NLO properties between the neutral and anionic species of HBDI whereby indicating the possibility of development of photoswitchable NLO device.

  12. Command and Functional Analysis of the Intelligence Systems Architecture Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    was based on the personality of the officer. Official "responsibility" for the success or failure of the unit’s mission was still borne by the...kganiimtons (T/O) aid amgnnuaupWliiezbraadi di Person aaigwnes are bawd on Owifire of ship and the vubzler -oniudo ajws couufradon Embarked wdit...MAW units. • Provide mobile electric power (MEP) for the MAW. • Provide essential water and hygine support in the area of potable water, bath facilities

  13. Street to Navy Enlisted Sailor Costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    qualifications and authority to buy. Recruiters will use their “Web RTools” resources to document social security numbers, birthdate, citizenship ...series) (USMEPCOM, 2016b, p. 59). All data and signatures for the DD Form 4 series are tracked digitally via USMIRS and are accessible by MEPS staff...applicant is required to provide digital fingerprints immediately following their PEI and is transmitted to the Fingerprint Interface Server at HQ

  14. The Natural Philosophy of Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley N. Salthe

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Work, by dissipative structures (DS, imposes delay on energy gradientdegradation. It diverts energy flow into DS maintenance while enhancing energy degradation.DS can be viewed as tradeoffs between enhancing entropy production maximization (themaximum entropy production principle, MEP by way of convective gradient degradation,and the need to maintain DS form, which is what mediates the convective dissipation. Thistradeoff frameworked the origin of living DS. In the Big Bang, the Universe departedincreasingly from an ordered state of low entropy. As a result the Second Law (locally, dS>or = 0 became an ever more powerful attractor, insuring that work could have only limitedenergy efficiency (utilization / throughput. That is, the ‘>’ in ‘dS > or = 0’ increased onaverage locally as the universe departed further from thermodynamic equilibrium. Energyefficiency becomes significant in the context of possible energy shortage, which impliesembodied agency, implying in turn the possibility of some stability into the future. Energyefficiency is needed in living DS which yet serve MEP by becoming relatively less energyefficient when striving. Biodiversity multiplies modes of energy consumption, alsofurthering MEP by compensating for the diversion of energy flow into the maintenance ofliving DS. Modular (hierarchical structure is very stable to perturbations, and also generatesthe variety requisite for adaptive flexibility, affording as well evolutionary access toincreased adjacent possibilities. Dynamical rate separation between hierarchical levelsstreamlines energy flows, enhancing orderly energy gradient degradation. I conjecture thatnew levels are interpolated when that fosters MEP overall. Of the three phases of energyflow -- low level conduction, mid level convection, and high level explosion -- orderlyconvection associates with DS form, constraining moderated energy flows, and defusingpotential

  15. Predictions of Helmet Pad Suspension System Performance using Isolated Pad Impact Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    Equation 2 and Equation 3, respectively. 3. METHOD The primary method of data collection for this report is detailed in the 2008 Joint Live Fire ...tests and the helmet system tests (see Figure 3). All testing was performed with a monorail drop tower (see Figure 4) at three conditioning...right) and system test setup (right and center left) Figure 5. MEP monorail drop test setup with a hemispherical impactor (left and center left

  16. Short-latency afferent inhibition is a poor predictor of individual susceptibility to rTMS-induced plasticity in the motor cortex of young and older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle eYoung-Bernier

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cortical plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP-like plasticity, can be assessed non-invasively with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS protocols. In this study, we examined age differences in responses to intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS in a group of 20 young and 18 healthy older adults. Because the cholinergic system plays a role in the neural processes underlying learning and memory, including LTP, we also investigated whether short latency afferent inhibition (SAI, a neurophysiological marker of central cholinergic activity, would be associated with age-related differences in LTP-like plasticity induced by iTBS. Methods: SAI was first assessed by examining the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs in response to median nerve conditioning 20 ms prior to TMS. Participants then underwent iTBS (3 pulses at 50 HZ every 200 ms for 2 s with 8 s between trains, repeated 20 times. MEP responses (120% RMT were assessed immediately after iTBS and 5, 10, and 20 min post-application. Results: Responses to iTBS were quite variable in both age groups, with only approximately 60% of the participants (n=13 young and 10 older adults showing the expected facilitation of MEP responses. There were no significant age group differences in MEP facilitation following iTBS. Although older adults exhibited reduced SAI, individual variations were not associated with susceptibility to express LTP-like induced plasticity after iTBS. Conclusion: Overall, these results are consistent with reports of high inter-individual variability in responses to iTBS. Although SAI was reduced in older adults, consistent with a deterioration of the cholinergic system with age, SAI levels were not associated with LTP-like plasticity as assessed with iTBS.

  17. Dose-dependent effects of theta burst rTMS on cortical excitability and resting-state connectivity of the human motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettekoven, Charlotte; Volz, Lukas J; Kutscha, Martha; Pool, Eva-Maria; Rehme, Anne K; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2014-05-14

    Theta burst stimulation (TBS), a specific protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), induces changes in cortical excitability that last beyond stimulation. TBS-induced aftereffects, however, vary between subjects, and the mechanisms underlying these aftereffects to date remain poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether increasing the number of pulses of intermittent TBS (iTBS) (1) increases cortical excitability as measured by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and (2) alters functional connectivity measured using resting-state fMRI, in a dose-dependent manner. Sixteen healthy, human subjects received three serially applied iTBS blocks of 600 pulses over the primary motor cortex (M1 stimulation) and the parieto-occipital vertex (sham stimulation) to test for dose-dependent iTBS effects on cortical excitability and functional connectivity (four sessions in total). iTBS over M1 increased MEP amplitudes compared with sham stimulation after each stimulation block. Although the increase in MEP amplitudes did not differ between the first and second block of M1 stimulation, we observed a significant increase after three blocks (1800 pulses). Furthermore, iTBS enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the stimulated M1 and premotor regions in both hemispheres. Functional connectivity between M1 and ipsilateral dorsal premotor cortex further increased dose-dependently after 1800 pulses of iTBS over M1. However, no correlation between changes in MEP amplitudes and functional connectivity was detected. In summary, our data show that increasing the number of iTBS stimulation blocks results in dose-dependent effects at the local level (cortical excitability) as well as at a systems level (functional connectivity) with a dose-dependent enhancement of dorsal premotor cortex-M1 connectivity. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/346849-11$15.00/0.

  18. The effects of individualized theta burst stimulation on the excitability of the human motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownjohn, Philip W; Reynolds, John N J; Matheson, Natalie; Fox, Jonathan; Shemmell, Jonathan B H

    2014-01-01

    Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a pattern of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation that has been demonstrated to facilitate or suppress human corticospinal excitability when applied intermittently (iTBS) or continuously (cTBS), respectively. While the fundamental pattern of TBS, consisting of bursts of 50 Hz stimulation repeated at a 5 Hz theta frequency, induces synaptic plasticity in animals and in vitro preparations, the relationship between TBS and underlying cortical firing patterns in the human cortex has not been elucidated. To compare the effects of 5 Hz iTBS and cTBS with individualized TBS paradigms on corticospinal excitability and intracortical inhibitory circuits. Participants received standard and individualized iTBS (iTBS 5; iTBS I) and cTBS (cTBS 5; cTBS I), and sham TBS, in a randomised design. For individualized paradigms, the 5 Hz theta component of the TBS pattern was replaced by the dominant cortical frequency (4-16 Hz; upper frequency restricted by technical limitations) for each individual. We report that iTBS 5 and iTBS I both significantly facilitated motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude to a similar extent. Unexpectedly, cTBS 5 and cTBS I failed to suppress MEP amplitude. None of the active TBS protocols had any significant effects on intracortical circuits when compared with sham TBS. In summary, iTBS facilitated MEP amplitude, an effect that was not improved by individualizing the theta component of the TBS pattern, while cTBS, a reportedly inhibitory paradigm, produced no change, or facilitation of MEP amplitude in our hands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-latency afferent inhibition is a poor predictor of individual susceptibility to rTMS-induced plasticity in the motor cortex of young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Bernier, Marielle; Tanguay, Annick N; Davidson, Patrick S R; Tremblay, François

    2014-01-01

    Cortical plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity, can be assessed non-invasively with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocols. In this study, we examined age differences in responses to intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) in a group of 20 young and 18 healthy older adults. Because the cholinergic system plays a role in the neural processes underlying learning and memory, including LTP, we also investigated whether short latency afferent inhibition (SAI), a neurophysiological marker of central cholinergic activity, would be associated with age-related differences in LTP-like plasticity induced by iTBS. SAI was first assessed by examining the modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in response to median nerve conditioning 20 ms prior to TMS. Participants then underwent iTBS (3 pulses at 50 Hz every 200 ms for 2 s with 8 s between trains, repeated 20 times). MEP responses (120% resting motor threshold (RMT)) were assessed immediately after iTBS and 5, 10, and 20 min post-application. Responses to iTBS were quite variable in both age groups, with only approximately 60% of the participants (n = 13 young and 10 older adults) showing the expected facilitation of MEP responses. There were no significant age group differences in MEP facilitation following iTBS. Although older adults exhibited reduced SAI, individual variations were not associated with susceptibility to express LTP-like induced plasticity after iTBS. Overall, these results are consistent with reports of high inter-individual variability in responses to iTBS. Although SAI was reduced in older adults, consistent with a deterioration of the cholinergic system with age, SAI levels were not associated with LTP-like plasticity as assessed with iTBS.

  20. Whole-body water flow stimulation to the lower limbs modulates excitability of primary motor cortical regions innervating the hands: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sato

    Full Text Available Whole-body water immersion (WI has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. We measured the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs produced by single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulses and examined conditioned MEP amplitudes by paired-pulse TMS. We evaluated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF using the paired-TMS technique before and after 15-min intervention periods. Two interventions used were whole-body WI with water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WF and whole-body WI without water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WI. The experimental sequence included a baseline TMS assessment (T0, intervention for 15 min, a second TMS assessment immediately after intervention (T1, a 10 min resting period, a third TMS assessment (T2, a 10 min resting period, a fourth TMS assessment (T3, a 10 min resting period, and the final TMS assessment (T4. SICI and ICF were evaluated using a conditioning stimulus of 90% active motor threshold and a test stimulus adjusted to produce MEPs of approximately 1-1.2 mV, and were tested at intrastimulus intervals of 3 and 10 ms, respectively. Whole-body WF significantly increased MEP amplitude by single-pulse TMS and led to a decrease in SICI in the contralateral motor cortex at T1, T2 and T3. Whole-body WF also induced increased corticospinal excitability and decreased SICI. In contrast, whole-body WI did not change corticospinal excitability or intracortical circuits.

  1. Presence and Absence of Muscle Contraction Elicited by Peripheral Nerve Electrical Stimulation Differentially Modulate Primary Motor Cortex Excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Ryoki; Kotan, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Masaki; Miyaguchi, Shota; Kojima, Sho; Saito, Kei; Inukai, Yasuto; Onishi, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Modulation of cortical excitability by sensory inputs is a critical component of sensorimotor integration. Sensory afferents, including muscle and joint afferents, to somatosensory cortex (S1) modulate primary motor cortex (M1) excitability, but the effects of muscle and joint afferents specifically activated by muscle contraction are unknown. We compared motor evoked potentials (MEPs) following median nerve stimulation (MNS) above and below the contraction threshold based on the persistence of M-waves. Peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (PES) conditions, including right MNS at the wrist at 110% motor threshold (MT; 110% MNS condition), right MNS at the index finger (sensory digit nerve stimulation [DNS]) with stimulus intensity approximately 110% MNS (DNS condition), and right MNS at the wrist at 90% MT (90% MNS condition) were applied. PES was administered in a 4 s ON and 6 s OFF cycle for 20 min at 30 Hz. In Experiment 1 (n = 15), MEPs were recorded from the right abductor pollicis brevis (APB) before (baseline) and after PES. In Experiment 2 (n = 15), M- and F-waves were recorded from the right APB. Stimulation at 110% MNS at the wrist evoking muscle contraction increased MEP amplitudes after PES compared with those at baseline, whereas DNS at the index finger and 90% MNS at the wrist not evoking muscle contraction decreased MEP amplitudes after PES. M- and F-waves, which reflect spinal cord or muscular and neuromuscular junctions, did not change following PES. These results suggest that muscle contraction and concomitant muscle/joint afferent inputs specifically enhance M1 excitability. PMID:28392766

  2. Analysis of iridoids content and expression studies of genes encoding early enzymes in the indol terpenoid biosynthesis pathway in Catharanthus roseus Análisis de iridoides y expresión de genes que codifican enzimas tempranas en la síntesis de alcaloides indol terpenoicos en Catharanthus roseus

    OpenAIRE

    Leech Mark; Palacios-Rojas Natalia

    2004-01-01

    Terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA) are of pharmaceutical importance, however the industrial use of these compouds is very limited because its accumulation is very low in plant tissues. TIA are derived f rom the shikimate and terpenoid pathways, which supply secologanin and tryptamine, the indole and iridoid moieties, respectively. Secololganin is a terpenoid which is belived to be synthesised the MEP pathway rather than by the acetate/mevalonic acid pathway. Secologanin is thought to be a limit...

  3. Stereospecific suppression of active site mutants by methylphosphonate substituted substrates reveals the stereochemical course of site-specific DNA recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, Paul A.; Kachroo, Aashiq H.; Ma, Chien-Hui; Maciaszek, Anna D.; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine site-specific recombinases, which promote one class of biologically important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA, exemplify active site mechanisms for stabilizing the phosphate transition state. A highly conserved arginine duo (Arg-I; Arg-II) of the recombinase active site plays a crucial role in this function. Cre and Flp recombinase mutants lacking either arginine can be rescued by compensatory charge neutralization of the scissile phosphate via methylphosphonate (MeP) modificati...

  4. Corona ignition system for highly efficient gasoline engines; Corona-Zuendsystem fuer hocheffiziente Ottomotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, John [Federal-Mogul Limited, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lykowski, Jim; Mixell, Kristapher [Federal-Mogul, Plymouth, MI (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Many future gasoline engines will require higher air/fuel ratios and higher mean effective pressures to further improve fuel efficiency. Federal-Mogul has taken up this challenge and has developed the Advanced Corona Ignition System (ACIS) as a new solution to reliably ignite a mix with high AFR/EGR and high MEP. During engine tests ACIS enabled a direct fuel economy improvement of up to 10 %. (orig.)

  5. Frequency-dependent changes in sensorimotor and pain affective systems induced by empathy for pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Yoshimasa; Ogata, Katsuya; Hoka, Sumio; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2017-01-01

    Empathy for pain helps us to understand the pain of others indirectly. To better comprehend the processing of empathic pain, we report the frequency-dependent modulation of cortical oscillations induced by watching movies depicting pain using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and motor evoked potentials (MEP). Event-related desynchronization of EEG and MEG was assessed while participants viewed videos of painful (needle) or neutral (cotton swab) situations. The amplitudes of MEPs were also compared between the needle and cotton swab conditions. The degree of suppression in α/β band power was significantly increased, whereas that of γ band power was significantly decreased, in the needle condition compared with the cotton swab condition. EEG revealed that significant differences in α/β band were distributed in the right frontocentral and left parietooccipital regions, whereas significant γ band differences were distributed predominantly over the right hemisphere, which were confirmed by source estimation using MEG. There was a significant positive correlation between the difference in γ power of the two conditions and the visual analog scale subjective rating of aversion, but not in the α/β band. The amplitude of MEPs decreased in the needle condition, which confirmed the inhibition of the primary motor cortex. MEP suppression supports that modulation of cortical oscillations by viewing movies depicting pain involves sensorimotor processing. Our results suggest that α/β oscillations underlie the sensory qualities of others' pain, whereas the γ band reflects the cognitive aspect. Therefore, α/β and γ band oscillations are differentially involved in empathic pain processing under the condition of motor cortical suppression.

  6. Potential Consequences of E-Cigarette Use: Is Youth Health Going Up in Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    is). For regulatory purposes, however, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) places e-cigarettes in this category. 2 obesity on...DA Diacetyl DOD Department of Defense e-cigarette Electronic Cigarette FDA Food and Drug Administration MEPS Military Entrance Processing Station... associated with higher addiction rates [14]. In a separate study, researchers found huge variation in the amount of nicotine present in different e

  7. Chronic Disease Prevalence and Medicare Advantage Market Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Steven W. Howard; Stephanie Lazarus Bernell; Faizan M. Casim; Jennifer Wilmott; Lindsey Pearson; Caitlin M. Byler; Zidong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    By March 2015, 30% of all Medicare beneficiaries were enrolled in Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. Research to date has not explored the impacts of MA market penetration on individual or population health outcomes. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationships between MA market penetration and the beneficiary?s portfolio of cardiometabolic diagnoses. This study uses 2004 to 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component data to construct an aggregate inde...

  8. Comparison of three protocols for measuring the maximal respiratory pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria B. Sclauser Pessoa

    Full Text Available Introduction To avoid the selection of submaximal efforts during the assessment of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP, some reproducibility criteria have been suggested. Criteria that stand out are those proposed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS and European Respiratory Society (ERS and by the Brazilian Thoracic Association (BTA. However, no studies were found that compared these criteria or assessed the combination of both protocols. Objectives To assess the pressure values selected and the number of maneuvers required to achieve maximum performance using the reproducibility criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, the BTA and the present study. Materials and method 113 healthy subjects (43.04 ± 16.94 years from both genders were assessed according to the criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, BTA and the present study. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis, followed by ANOVA for repeated measures and post hoc LSD or by Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon, according to the data distribution. Results The criterion proposed by the present study resulted in a significantly higher number of maneuvers (MIP and MEP – median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 5[5-6], 4[3-5] and 3[3-4] for the present study criterion, BTA and ATS/ERS, respectively; p < 0.01 and higher pressure values (MIP – mean and 95% confidence interval: 103[91.43-103.72], 100[97.19-108.83] and 97.6[94.06-105.95]; MEP: median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 124.2[101.4-165.9], 123.3[95.4-153.8] and 118.4[95.5-152.7]; p < 0.05. Conclusion The proposed criterion resulted in the selection of pressure values closer to the individual’s maximal capacity. This new criterion should be considered in future studies concerning MIP and MEP measurements.

  9. BIM-Integration of solar thermal systems in early housing design

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla Castro, Alejandro; García Alvarado, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This paper sets a methodology to integrate solar thermal systems in BIM-software for the early architectural design of single houses in Concepción, Chile, using parametric families, programming in Dynamo, energy calculation with LadyBug and piping design in MEP. The results obtained allowed to select products, insert and adapts automatically the parametric designs into the model, as well as to identify changes in the type and number of solar components when the solar orientation of ...

  10. Different Spectrophotometric and Chromatographic Methods for Determination of Mepivacaine and Its Toxic Impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Nada S; Fared, Nehal F; Elagawany, Mohamed; Abdelmomen, Esraa H

    2017-09-01

    Stability-indicating spectrophotometric, TLC-densitometric, and ultra-performance LC (UPLC) methods were developed for the determination of mepivacaine HCl (MEP) in the presence of its toxic impurity, 2,6-dimethylanaline (DMA). Different spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of MEP and DMA. In a dual-wavelength method combined with direct spectrophotometric measurement, the absorbance difference between 221.4 and 240 nm was used for MEP measurements, whereas the absorbance at 283 nm was used for measuring DMA in the binary mixture. In the second-derivative method, amplitudes at 272.2 and 232.6 nm were recorded and used for the determination of MEP and DMA, respectively. The developed TLC-densitometric method depended on chromatographic separation using silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates as a stationary phase and methanol-water-acetic acid (9 + 1 + 0.1, v/v/v) as a developing system, with UV scanning at 230 nm. The developed UPLC method depended on separation using a C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm particle size) as a stationary phase and acetonitrile-water (40 + 60, v/v; pH 4 with phosphoric acid) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, with UV detection at 215 nm. The chromatographic run time was approximately 1 min. The proposed methods were validated with respect to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines regarding precision, accuracy, ruggedness, robustness, and specificity.

  11. Whole-body water flow stimulation to the lower limbs modulates excitability of primary motor cortical regions innervating the hands: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Yamashiro, Koya; Onishi, Hideaki; Baba, Yasuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body water immersion (WI) has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF) on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. We measured the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses and examined conditioned MEP amplitudes by paired-pulse TMS. We evaluated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) using the paired-TMS technique before and after 15-min intervention periods. Two interventions used were whole-body WI with water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WF) and whole-body WI without water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WI). The experimental sequence included a baseline TMS assessment (T0), intervention for 15 min, a second TMS assessment immediately after intervention (T1), a 10 min resting period, a third TMS assessment (T2), a 10 min resting period, a fourth TMS assessment (T3), a 10 min resting period, and the final TMS assessment (T4). SICI and ICF were evaluated using a conditioning stimulus of 90% active motor threshold and a test stimulus adjusted to produce MEPs of approximately 1-1.2 mV, and were tested at intrastimulus intervals of 3 and 10 ms, respectively. Whole-body WF significantly increased MEP amplitude by single-pulse TMS and led to a decrease in SICI in the contralateral motor cortex at T1, T2 and T3. Whole-body WF also induced increased corticospinal excitability and decreased SICI. In contrast, whole-body WI did not change corticospinal excitability or intracortical circuits.

  12. Aging Baby Boomers and the Rising Cost of Chronic Back Pain: Secular Trend Analysis of Longitudinal Medical Expenditures Panel Survey Data for Years 2000 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Monica; Davis, Matthew A.; Stano, Miron; Whedon, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purposes of this study were to analyze data from the longitudinal Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) to evaluate the impact of an aging population on secular trends in back pain and chronicity and to provide estimates of treatment costs for patients who used only ambulatory services. Methods Using the MEPS 2-year longitudinal data for years 2000 to 2007, we analyzed data from all adult respondents. Of the total number of MEPS respondent records analyzed (N = 71 838), we identified 12 104 respondents with back pain and further categorized 3842 as chronic cases and 8262 as nonchronic cases. Results Secular trends from the MEPS data indicate that the prevalence of back pain has increased by 29%, whereas chronic back pain increased by 64%. The average age among all adults with back pain increased from 45.9 to 48.2 years; the average age among adults with chronic back pain increased from 48.5 to 52.2 years. Inflation-adjusted (to 2010 dollars) biennial expenditures on ambulatory services for chronic back pain increased by 129% over the same period, from $15.6 billion in 2000 to 2001 to $35.7 billion in 2006 to 2007. Conclusion The prevalence of back pain, especially chronic back pain, is increasing. To the extent that the growth in chronic back pain is caused, in part, by an aging population, the growth will likely continue or accelerate. With relatively high cost per adult with chronic back pain, total expenditures associated with back pain will correspondingly accelerate under existing treatment patterns. This carries implications for prioritizing health policy, clinical practice, and research efforts to improve care outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness and for health workforce planning. PMID:23380209

  13. KOUAME DIDIER.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    en Afrique de l'Ouest et Centrale. Yamoussoukro : pp 98 - 102. Roseboom J., et Ng Kee Kwong K. F. 2007. Etude de faisabilité d'un programme d'appui à la recherche sucrière en Côte d'Ivoire : diagnostic et proposition d'orientations. ITALTREND en association avec SOPEX,. IAK, HYDRO-RD, MEP, ADAS. Contrat cadre.

  14. AGOA: A Hydration Procedure and Its Application to the 1-Phenyl-beta-Carboline Molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandes, Marcelo Z.; Silva, João B. P. da; Longo, Ricardo L.

    2002-01-01

    A new procedure, named AGOA, has been developed and implemented in a computer program written in FORTRAN 77 to explore the hydration structures of polar solutes using its molecular electrostatic potential (MEP). This procedure can be generalized to polar solvents other than water. It has been tested for several small molecules, and applied to complex molecules of pharmacological interest, such as the beta-carbolinic systems derived from indole. This is a stringent, but not general, test of th...

  15. Country policy profile - The Netherlands. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Main support scheme for renewable energy in the Netherlands is the SDE+, opened in 2011. It is a technology-neutral scheme, promoting the cheapest technologies and allocating the available budget on the basis of competition between renewable electricity, renewable heat and green gas projects. Other measures described in the Dutch Progress Report are: SDE, MEP, EIA (as of 2014 not anymore combined with SDE+), Green Projects Scheme, the Investment subsidy renewable energy (ISDE), Energy Top Sector and Green Deals

  16. Country policy profile - The Netherlands. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    Main support scheme for renewable energy in the Netherlands is the SDE+, opened in 2011. It is a technology-neutral scheme, promoting the cheapest technologies and allocating the available budget on the basis of competition between renewable electricity, renewable heat and green gas projects. Other measures described in the Dutch Progress Report are: SDE, MEP, EIA (as of 2014 not anymore combined with SDE+), Green Projects Scheme, Solar Panels Subsidy Scheme, Energy Top Sector and Green Deals

  17. Personal Care Product Use in Men and Urinary Concentrations of Select Phthalate Metabolites and Parabens: Results from the Environment And Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, Feiby L; Coull, Brent A; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Michelle A; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Ford, Jennifer B; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Braun, Joseph M; Hauser, Russ

    2017-08-18

    Personal care products (PCPs) are exposure sources to phthalates and parabens; however, their contribution to men's exposure is understudied. We examined the association between PCP use and urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and parabens in men. In a prospective cohort, at multiple study visits, men self-reported their use of 14 PCPs and provided a urine sample (2004-2015, Boston, MA). We measured urinary concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. We estimated the covariate-adjusted percent change in urinary concentrations associated with PCP use using linear mixed and Tobit mixed regressions. We also estimated weights for each PCP in a weighted binary score regression and modeled the resulting composite weighted PCP use. Four hundred men contributed 1,037 urine samples (mean of 3/man). The largest percent increase in monoethyl phthalate (MEP) was associated with use of cologne/perfume (83%, p -value<0.01) and deodorant (74%, p -value<0.01). In contrast, the largest percent increase for parabens was associated with the use of suntan/sunblock lotion (66-156%) and hand/body lotion (79-147%). Increases in MEP and parabens were generally greater with PCP use within 6 h of urine collection. A subset of 10 PCPs that were used within 6 h of urine collection contributed to at least 70% of the weighted score and predicted a 254-1,333% increase in MEP and parabens concentrations. Associations between PCP use and concentrations of the other phthalate metabolites were not statistically significant. We identified 10 PCPs of relevance and demonstrated that their use within 6 h of urine collection strongly predicted MEP and paraben urinary concentrations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1374.

  18. Determination of benzodiazepines in beverages using green extraction methods and capillary HPLC-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Maurizio; Cappiello, Achille; Famiglini, Giorgio; Termopoli, Veronica; Palma, Pierangela

    2018-05-30

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with and without ultrasound assistance (DLLME, UA-DLLME) and microextraction with packed sorbent (MEPS) methods for the extraction and determination of eight different benzodiazepines (BDZ) (chlordiazepoxide, flurazepam, bromazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, clobazam, clonazepam, and flunitrazepam) in three commercial non-alcoholic and light alcoholic beverages were optimized and compared. Benzodiazepines are frequently used for their extensive diffusion and strong numbing effect in drug-facilitated crimes (DFC). The tiny small amount of sample required for DLLME and MEPS extraction makes them very suitable for specimens collected at the crime scene of DFCs. Microextraction techniques are of increasing interest thanks to their accordance to green analytical chemistry (GAC) guidelines providing good recovery values. Ultrasound assistance (UA-DLLME) was used to investigate whether this type of energy can improve the recoveries of the analytes. Analyses of the extracts were performed with reverse-phase capillary high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC - UV), thanks to low environmental impact, robustness, diffusion, and affordability. Recovery percentages at three different concentrations in the three beverages were between 14.30% and 103.28% with intraday and interday RSD lower than ±2.78%. The same samples were extracted using a MEPS protocol, and the results were compared with those obtained with DLLME. MEPS gave recoveries between 20.90% and 101.88% for all matrices showing a better performance than DLLME at higher concentrations, though lower recoveries were observed with diluted samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Subclinical recurrent neck pain and its treatment impacts motor training-induced plasticity of the cerebellum and motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne K Baarbé

    Full Text Available The cerebellum processes pain inputs and is important for motor learning. Yet, how the cerebellum interacts with the motor cortex in individuals with recurrent pain is not clear. Functional connectivity between the cerebellum and motor cortex can be measured by a twin coil transcranial magnetic stimulation technique in which stimulation is applied to the cerebellum prior to stimulation over the motor cortex, which inhibits motor evoked potentials (MEPs produced by motor cortex stimulation alone, called cerebellar inhibition (CBI. Healthy individuals without pain have been shown to demonstrate reduced CBI following motor acquisition. We hypothesized that CBI would not reduce to the same extent in those with mild-recurrent neck pain following the same motor acquisition task. We further hypothesized that a common treatment for neck pain (spinal manipulation would restore reduced CBI following motor acquisition. Motor acquisition involved typing an eight-letter sequence of the letters Z,P,D,F with the right index finger. Twenty-seven neck pain participants received spinal manipulation (14 participants, 18-27 years or sham control (13 participants, 19-24 years. Twelve healthy controls (20-27 years also participated. Participants had CBI measured; they completed manipulation or sham control followed by motor acquisition; and then had CBI re-measured. Following motor acquisition, neck pain sham controls remained inhibited (58 ± 33% of test MEP vs. healthy controls who disinhibited (98 ± 49% of test MEP, P<0.001, while the spinal manipulation group facilitated (146 ± 95% of test MEP, P<0.001. Greater inhibition in neck pain sham vs. healthy control groups suggests that neck pain may change cerebellar-motor cortex interaction. The change to facilitation suggests that spinal manipulation may reverse inhibitory effects of neck pain.

  20. 2007 Joint Service Power Expo Held in San Diego, California on April 24-26, 2007. Volume 4: Thursday Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-26

    Ammonia Borane Core Attributes • Pellet Based Ammonia Borane • 12-14% Hydrogen Well Demonstrated • System Packaging Under Development Jadoo Power Systems...FY07 FY08 Pacing Technologies: Burner control/Heat- driven cooling Meso-components LW Blk III PM-MEP STEP Power...technology to the warfighter quicker” FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 Pacing Technologies: Burner