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Sample records for methylene chloride perchloroethylene

  1. Permeation of protective clothing materials by methylene chloride and perchloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdat, N

    1987-07-01

    The permeation of methylene chloride and perchloroethylene through seven protective clothing materials was studied to determine the permeation parameters, and to investigate the effect of solubility (polymer weight gain) and material thickness on the permeation parameters. The materials tested were two different nitrile rubbers, neoprene, Combination (a blend of natural rubber, neoprene and nitrile), two different polyvinyl chlorides, and polyvinyl alcohol. Methylene chloride permeated through all materials, except PVA, with breakthrough times in the range of 2 to 8 min, and permeation rates in the range of 1250-5800 micrograms/cm2 X min. PVA and unsupported nitrile offered good protection against perchloroethylene with breakthrough time occurring after 2 hr. Perchloroethylene permeated through the other materials with breakthrough times in the range of 8 to 36 min and permeation rates in the range of 200 to 1600 micrograms/cm2 X min. It was shown that for both chemicals, there is a correlation between the solubility (weight gain) and the ratio of permeation rate to breakthrough time (PR/BT). For all material/chemical pairs, an increase in solubility, increased (PR/BT). The change in material thickness had an effect on breakthrough time and permeation rate, but no effect on normalized breakthrough time. An increase in thickness reduced permeation rate and increased breakthrough time.

  2. Methylene chloride: two-generation inhalation reproductive study in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitschke, K.D.; Eisenbrandt, D.L.; Lomax, L.G.; Rao, K.S.

    1988-07-01

    Reproductive parameters in Fischer 344 rats were evaluated following inhalation of methylene chloride (MeCl/sub 2/) for two successive generations. Thirty male and female rats were exposed to 0, 100, 500, or 1500 ppm MeCl/sub 2/ for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks and then mated to produce f1 litters. After weaning, 30 randomly selected f1 pups/sex/group were exposed to MeCl/sub 2/ for 17 weeks and subsequently mated to produce f2 litters. Reproductive parameters examined included fertility, litter size and neonatal growth, and survival. All adults and selected weanlings were examined for grossly visible lesions. Tissues from selected weanlings were examined histopathologically. No adverse effects on reproductive parameters, neonatal survival, or neonatal growth were noted in animals exposed to methylene chloride in either the f0 or f1 generations. Similarly, there were no treatment-related gross pathologic observations in f0 or f1 adults or f1 and f2 weanlings. Histopathologic examination of tissues from f1 and f2 weanlings did not reveal any lesions attributed to methylene chloride. Thus, exposure of rats to concentrations as high as 1500 ppm methylene chloride, which has been shown in a 2-year study to produce treatment-related effects, did not affect any reproductive parameters.

  3. Temperature dependence of electron attachment to methylene chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Tav, C.; McCorkle, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

    1999-05-01

    Temperature dependence of dissociative electron attachment to methylene chloride in the electron energy range of 0-10 eV was studied in a high-temperature electron swarm apparatus. The measurements were made using N2 and Ar as buffer gases. From the measured electron attachment rate constants, the electron attachment cross sections at 300, 400, and 500 K were determined using an unfolding technique. The maximum electron attachment cross sections at 300, 400, and 500 K were ≈3.1×10-18, ≈8.2×10-18, and ≈1.7×10-17 cm2, and occurred at electron energies of ≈0.8, ≈0.65, and ≈0.55 eV, respectively. The increase in electron attachment to methylene chloride with temperature is attributed to the increase in the vibrational energy of the molecule.

  4. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  5. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Electron Microscope SERDP - Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Tg – Glass Transition TGA – Thermal Gravimetric Analysis UV... analysis , visible microscopy and spectroscopy and vibrational spectroscopy to understand the mechanism of how methylene chloride based paint removers...allowed for analysis of the different components of methylene chloride based paint strippers. Methocel is the trade name of hydroxypropyl

  6. Interim Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    free unreacted functional groups. After observing satisfactory results, TGA analysis was performed to ensure the absence of nontraditional species...methylene chloride, EtOH, water and PhOH decomposed into small pieces, like MIL-85285, preventing DSC and TGA analysis . Exposure to methylene chloride and

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER CHLORIDE, METHYLENE CHLORIDE,AND 6-AMINONICOTINAMIDE TO EMBRYOS OF THE GRASS SHRIMPPALAEMONETES PUGIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embryos of estuarine grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio have demonstrated sensitivity to various solvents and petroleum products, indicating utility for evaluating estuarine contamination. Testing was performed to establish concentration-response curves for methylene chloride, cop...

  8. Fatal exposure to methylene chloride among bathtub refinishers - United States, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    In 2010, the Michigan Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program conducted an investigation into the death of a bathtub refinisher who used a methylene chloride-based paint stripping product marketed for use in aircraft maintenance. The program identified two earlier, similar deaths in Michigan. Program staff members notified CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which in turn notified the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition to the three deaths, OSHA identified 10 other bathtub refinisher fatalities associated with methylene chloride stripping agents that had been investigated in nine states during 2000-2011. Each death occurred in a residential bathroom with inadequate ventilation. Protective equipment, including a respirator, either was not used or was inadequate to protect against methylene chloride vapor, which has been recognized as potentially fatal to furniture strippers and factory workers but has not been reported previously as a cause of death among bathtub refinishers. Worker safety agencies, public health agencies, methylene chloride-based stripper manufacturers, and trade organizations should communicate the extreme hazards of using methylene chloride-based stripping products in bathtub refinishing to employers, workers, and consumers. Employers should strongly consider alternative methods of bathtub stripping and always ensure worker safety protections that reduce the risk for health hazards to acceptable levels. Employers choosing to use methylene chloride-based stripping products must comply with OSHA's standard to limit methylene chloride exposures to safe levels.

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF PAINT APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AND ALTERNATIVES TO METHYLENE CHLORIDE AND METHYL ETHYL KETONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of demonstrations of technologies to prevent or control emissions of hazardous air pollutant (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from processes with high solvent usage: (1) paint stripping using methylene chloride, (2) cleaning paint equipment wi...

  10. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-22

    Polyurethane 31 Cobalt titanate spinel 0.4 Dispersant 1 Methyl isoamyl ketone 23.5 Rheology modifier 0.1 VM&P naptha 3.2 Flow modifier ɘ.1 Xylene...partial formulation films, with pigments and no fillers, and full formulation films of current military polyurethane coatings were analyzed in this...time of the solvents. 22-01-2014 Memorandum Report Paint stripper Methylene chloride Phenol Polyurethane 7 June 2012 – 6 June 2013 SERDP WP-2244

  11. ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

    2012-06-07

    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  12. Evaluation of COSHH essentials: methylene chloride, isopropanol, and acetone exposures in a small printing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Harper, Martin; Bowen, Russell B; Slaven, James

    2009-07-01

    The current study evaluated the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model for short-term task-based exposures and full-shift exposures using measured concentrations of three volatile organic chemicals at a small printing plant. A total of 188 exposure measurements of isopropanol and 187 measurements of acetone were collected and each measurement took approximately 60 min. Historically, collected time-weighted average concentrations (seven results) were evaluated for methylene chloride. The COSHH Essentials model recommended general ventilation control for both isopropanol and acetone. There was good agreement between the task-based exposure measurements and the COSHH Essentials predicted exposure range (PER) for cleaning and print preparation with isopropanol and for cleaning with acetone. For the other tasks and for full-shift exposures, agreement between the exposure measurements and the PER was either moderate or poor. However, for both isopropanol and acetone, our findings suggested that the COSHH Essentials model worked reasonably well because the probabilities of short-term exposure measurements exceeding short-term occupational exposure limits (OELs) or full-shift exposures exceeding the corresponding full-shift OELs were <0.05 under the recommended control strategy. For methylene chloride, the COSHH Essentials recommended containment control but a follow-up study was not able to be performed because it had already been replaced with a less hazardous substance (acetone). This was considered a more acceptable alternative to increasing the level of control.

  13. Reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine/methylene chloride/n-hexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D.H.; Hong, W.H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Tajeon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    The trioctylamine (TOA)/methylene chloride (MC)/n-hexane system was used as the extraction agent for the extraction of lactic acid. Curves of equilibrium and hydration were obtained at various temperatures and concentrations of TOA. A modified mass action model was proposed to interpret the equilibrium and the hydration curves. The reaction mechanism and the corresponding parameters which best represent the equilibrium data were estimated, and the concentration of water in the organic phase was predicted by inserting the parameters into the simple mathematical equation of the modified model. The concentration of MC and the change of temperature were important factors for the extraction and the stripping process. The stripping was performed by a simple distillation which was a combination of temperature-swing regeneration and diluent-swing regeneration. The type of inactive diluent has no influence on the stripping. The stripping efficiencies were about 70%.

  14. Determination of Key Flavor Components in Methylene Chloride Extracts from Processed Grapefruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jella; Rouseff; Goodner; Widmer

    1998-01-19

    The relative correlation of 52 aroma and 5 taste components in commercial not-from-concentrate grapefruit juices with flavor panel preference was determined. Methylene chloride extracts of juice were analyzed using GC/MS with a DB-5 column. Nonvolatiles determined included limonin and naringin by HPLC, degrees Brix, total acids, and degrees Brix/acid ratio. Juice samples were classified into low, medium, or high categories, based on average taste panel preference scores (nine-point hedonic scale). Principal component analysis demonstrated that highest quality juices were tightly clustered. Discriminant analysis indicated that 82% of the samples could be identified in the correct preference category using only myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, linalool, nootkatone, and degrees Brix. Nootkatone alone was not strongly associated with preference scores. The most preferred juices were strongly associated with low myrcene, low linalool, and intermediate levels of beta-caryophyllene.

  15. Phosgene Poisoning Caused by the Use of Chemical Paint Removers Containing Methylene Chloride in Ill-Ventilated Rooms Heated by Kerosene Stoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, W. B.; Buschmann, C. H.

    1960-01-01

    Two cases resembling poisoning by phosgene following the use of a paint remover containing methylene chloride in ill-ventilated rooms heated by an oil stove are described. Experiments carried out under similar conditions demonstrated the production of phosgene in toxic concentrations. The potential hazards from non-inflammable solvents are discussed. PMID:13827592

  16. Renal effects of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae stem bark methanol/methylene chloride extract on L-NAME hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguelefack-Mbuyo Elvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The present study aims at evaluating the effects of methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of Mammea africana on the renal function of L-NAME treated rats. Material and Methods : Normotensive male Wistar rats were divided into five groups respectively treated with distilled water, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day, L-NAME + L-arginine (100 mg/kg/day, L-NAME + captopril (20 mg/kg/day or L-NAME + M. africana extract (200 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure was measured before and at the end of treatment. Body weight was measured at the end of each week. Urine was collected 6 and 24 h after the first administration and further on day 15 and 30 of treatment for creatinine, sodium and potassium quantification, while plasma was collected at the end of treatment for the creatinine assay. ANOVA two way followed by Bonferonni or one way followed by Tukey were used for statistical analysis. Results : M. africana successfully prevented the rise in blood pressure and the acute natriuresis and diuresis induced by L-NAME. When given chronically, the extract produced a sustained antinatriuretic effect, a non-significant increase in urine excretion and reduced the glomerular hyperfiltration induced by L-NAME. Conclusions : The above results suggest that the methanol/methylene chloride extract of the stem bark of M. africana may protect kidney against renal dysfunction and further demonstrate that its antihypertensive effect does not depend on a diuretic or natriuretic activity.

  17. Antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of a methanol/methylene-chloride extract of Laportea ovalifolia (Urticaceae), measured in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, C E N; Oben, J E; Tazoo, D; Dongo, E

    2006-01-01

    A decoction of the leaves of Laportea ovalifolia is widely used in Cameroon for the treatment of several illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of a methanol/methylene-chloride extract of the aerial parts of L. ovalifolia have now been investigated, in normal rats and rats with diabetes induced by the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (at 150 mg/kg bodyweight). In the diabetic rats, 2 weeks of daily, intragastric treatment with the L. ovalifolia extract not only produced a significant reduction in the fasting serum glucose concentrations but also lowered the serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, lowered the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and increased the serum concentration of HDL cholesterol. At least in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes, the methanol/methylene-chloride extract of L. ovalifolia therefore appears to possess antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic properties.

  18. NEUROTOXICITY OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE): DISCUSSION PAPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper is a background document for a meeting of neurotoxicity experts to discuss the central nervous system effects of exposure to perchloroethylene (perc). The document reviews the literature on neurological testing of people exposed to perc occupationally in dry cleanin...

  19. 75 FR 24509 - Notice of Availability of the Regulatory Flexibility Act Review of the Methylene Chloride Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... on the American people, their families, their communities, their State, local, and tribal governments... methylene dichloride or dichloromethane [DCM or MC]) is a common industrial solvent used in a number of....\\2\\ It reduced the permissible exposure limit from an 8-hour-time-weighted-average (TWA) of 500 parts...

  20. Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl chloride) films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ushamani; N G Leenadeenja; K Sreekumar; C Sudha Kartha; Rani Joseph

    2003-04-01

    Significant results of our experimental investigations on the dependence of pH on real time transmission characteristics on recording media fabricated by doping PVC with complexed methylene blue are presented. The optimum pH value for faster bleaching was found to be 4.5. In typical applications, the illumination from one side, normal to the surface of this material, initiates a chemical sequence that records the incident light pattern in the polymer. Thus direct imaging can be successfully done on this sample. The recorded letters were very legible with good contrast and no scattering centres. Diffraction efficiency measurements were also carried out on this material.

  1. Fluorescence Spectrometric Determination of Drugs Containing -Methylene Sulfone/Sulfonamide Functional Groups Using N1-Methylnicotinamide Chloride as a Fluorogenic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Elokely

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple spectrofluorometric method has been developed, adapted, and validated for the quantitative estimation of drugs containing -methylene sulfone/sulfonamide functional groups using N1-methylnicotinamide chloride (NMNCl as fluorogenic agent. The proposed method has been applied successfully to the determination of methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM (1, tinidazole (2, rofecoxib (3, and nimesulide (4 in pure forms, laboratory-prepared mixtures, pharmaceutical dosage forms, spiked human plasma samples, and in volunteer's blood. The method showed linearity over concentration ranging from 1 to 150 g/mL, 10 to 1000 ng/mL, 1 to 1800 ng/mL, and 30 to 2100 ng/mL for standard solutions of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and over concentration ranging from 5 to 150 g/mL, 10 to 1000 ng/mL, 10 to 1700 ng/mL, and 30 to 2350 ng/mL in spiked human plasma samples of 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The method showed good accuracy, specificity, and precision in both laboratory-prepared mixtures and in spiked human plasma samples. The proposed method is simple, does not need sophisticated instruments, and is suitable for quality control application, bioavailability, and bioequivalency studies. Besides, its detection limits are comparable to other sophisticated chromatographic methods.

  2. Risk Assessment: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners Refined Human Health Risk Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 2005 memo and appendices describe the methods by which EPA conducted its refined risk assessment of the Major Source and Area Source facilities within the perchloroethylene (perc) dry cleaners source category.

  3. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (PERCHLOROETHYLENE) (INTERAGENCY SCIENCE DISCUSSION DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment...

  4. Antioxidant potential of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of Terminalia glaucescens leaves on mice liver in streptozotocin-induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njomen Guy Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The antioxidant effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae leaves was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ-induced oxidative stress. Methods: Oxidative stress was induced in mice by a daily dose of STZ (45 mg/kg body weight i.p. for five days. From day one, before STZ injection, normal and diabetic-test mice received an oral dose of the extract (100 or 300 mg/kg b.w. daily. Plasma metabolites, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes in the liver were assessed and gain in body weight recorded. Results: In normal mice the plant extract reduced food and water intake, blood glucose and LDL-C level and body weight gain, did not affect the lipid peroxidation in the liver, while the antioxidant enzyme activities seemed increased. Blood glucose was decreased (P < 0.05 in normal mice treated with 300 mg/kg extract. Diabetic mice pretreated with 100 mg/kg extract as diabetic control mice (DC showed significant (P < 0.001 body weight loss, polyphagia and polydipsia, high plasma glucose level, decrease in the liver catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities, and increase in lipid peroxidation. The HDL-C level was lowered (P < 0.05 whereas LDL-C increased. In 300 mg/kg extract-pretreated diabetic mice the extract prevented body weight loss, increase of blood glucose level, lipid peroxidation in liver, food and water intake, and lowering of plasma HDL-C level and liver antioxidants; this extract prevented LDL-C level increase. Conclusion: These results indicate that T. glaucescens protects against STZ-induced oxidative stress and could thus explain its traditional use for diabetes and obesity treatment or management.

  5. Resonant two-photon ionization of phenol in methylene chloride doped solid argon using 248 nm KrF laser and 254 nm Hg lamp radiation, a comparative study. The UV/VIS absorption spectrum of phenol radical cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesper, Karl; Diehl, Frank; Simon, Jens Georg Günther; Specht, Harald; Schweig, Armin

    1991-06-01

    Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) of phenol (PhOH) has been successfully achieved in methylene chloride (CH 2Cl 2) doped solid argon using a KrF laser and a Hg resonance lamp. The result constitutes the first-time TPI of a typically organic molecule in this medium using an excimer laser as well as the first-time spectroscopic identification of PhOH +•. A qualitative model is proposed which is consistent with both the unexpected photostability of PhOH +• and the incomplete running of the TPI process in the applied medium.

  6. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON HUMAN NEURONAL NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchloroethylene (PERC) is a volatile organic solvent with a variety of industrial uses. PERC exposure has been shown to cause adverse neurological effects including deficits in vision and memory in exposed individuals. Despite knowledge of these effects, the mechanisms by whi...

  7. Review of the epidemiologic literature on residential exposure to perchloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, John A

    2011-10-01

    Perchloroethylene is a solvent that is widely used for dry cleaning. There has been considerable interest in the toxicity of this chemical because of the potential for low-level exposure among a large portion of the US population. Although substantial epidemiologic literature exists on high-level occupational exposure to perchloroethylene, there are relatively few studies dealing with lower-level residential exposure. In the current paper, the author reviews this limited residential literature, with special emphasis on strengths, limitations, and consistency. Reviewed studies primarily address neurobehavioral, cancer, and reproductive endpoints. Most studies used an ecological or cross-sectional design, with exposure defined by either drinking-water contamination or proximity to dry cleaning. In general, reviewed studies were highly exploratory, with inconsistencies and potential for bias that detract from interpretation of study findings. The magnitudes of reported effects are frequently incompatible with the effects reported from much higher occupational and human-chamber exposures. Overall, few reliable conclusions can be drawn from this sparse and highly limited body of literature.

  8. 21 CFR 500.27 - Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals... Decisions § 500.27 Methylene blue-containing drugs for use in animals. (a) New information requires a re- evaluation of the status of drugs containing methylene blue (tetramethylthionine chloride) for oral use...

  9. Quantification of perchloroethylene residues in dry-cleaned fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlach, Katy S; Gorka, Alexander P; Dantzler, Alexa; Roepe, Paul D

    2011-11-01

    We have used a novel gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based approach to quantify perchloroethylene (PCE) residues in dry-cleaned fabrics. Residual PCE was extracted from fabric samples with methanol and concentration was calculated by the gas chromatographic peak area, standardized using PCE calibration data. Extracts examined were from samples of 100% wool, polyester, cotton, or silk, which were dry cleaned from one to six times in seven different Northern Virginia dry-cleaning establishments. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of PCE release in the extraction solvent and to the open air. We found that polyester, cotton, and wool retained ≥ µM levels of PCE, that these levels increased in successive dry-cleaning cycles, and that PCE is slowly volatilized from these fabrics under ambient room air conditions. We found that silk does not retain appreciable PCE. Measured differences across dry-cleaning establishments and fabric type suggest more vigorous monitoring of PCE residues may be warranted. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011;30:2481-2487. © 2011 SETAC.

  10. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a solvent in the extraction of caffeine from green...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... good solvent for oils, fats, waxes, resins, bitumen, rubber and cellulose acetate and is a useful paint... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1052...

  12. Photolytic and photocatalytic oxidation of perchloroethylene in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Chieh

    2000-11-01

    The perchloroethylene (PCE) photolytic and photocatalytic oxidation reactions took place simultaneously when the UVC light and TiO2 catalyst were used. Each of these two processes was studied separately in this work. The photolytic oxidation of PCE was performed using UVC light without TiO2 under different reaction conditions including temperature, humidity, reactor diameter, PCE inlet concentration, and space time. It was found that the PCE photolytic oxidation process followed the second-order reaction model. Both the chlorine free radical induced chain reaction and the non-chain reaction were proposed to explain the PCE degradation and by- products. The reactor wall played an important role in quenching the photolytic oxidation reaction. The PCE conversion increased to a maximum when the diameter of the reactor decreased to 35-mm, and then decreased after that. This phenomenon could be due to a wall quenching effect. The PCE conversion decreased when temperature increased. This was caused by a decrease of UVC light intensity and significant wall effect at high temperature. The PCE conversion was found to be independent from humidity condition. This indicated that the water molecule was not involved in the PCE photolytic oxidation reaction. The PCE photocatalytic oxidation reaction was performed using UVA light with TiO2 catalyst under various factors: humidity, temperature, space time, PCE inlet concentration, and light intensity. This was done to examine their effect on PCE conversion. The PCE conversion decreased as the humidity or temperature increased. The temperature effect could be caused by the decrease of UVA light intensity and desorption of PCE molecules from the catalyst surface at high temperature. The PCE inlet concentration effect showed the PCE photocatalytic oxidation followed the Langmuir- Hinshelwood model. The light intensity had a positive effect on PCE conversion. The effect of TiO2 catalyst distribution on PCE conversion was also studied. A

  13. FY00 Phytoremediation of Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene in the Southern Sector of SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.

    2000-12-15

    This treatability study addresses the fate of volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) in an experiment that simulates a vegetated seepline supplied with trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) -contaminated groundwater. The primary objective is to determine how the trees uptake TCE and PCE, accumulate it, and/or transform it.

  14. PERCHLOROETHYLENE (PERC) INHIBITS FUNCTION OF VOLTAGE-GATED CALCIUM CHANNELS IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The industrial solvent perchloroethylene (PERC) is listed as a hazardous air pollutant in the 1990 Ammendments to Clean Air Act and is a known neurotoxicant. However, the mechanisms by which PERC alters nervous system function are poorly understood. In recent years, it has been d...

  15. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosanagara N Harishkumar; Kittappa M Mahadevan; Hittalumane C Kiran Kumar; Nayak D Satyanarayan

    2011-01-01

    .... The active methylene compounds such as meldrum's acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride...

  16. Protective effect of Mollugo nudicaulis Lam. on acute liver injury induced by perchloroethylene in experimental rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sundaraj Rajamanikandan; Thangaraj Sindhu; Dhanapal Durgapriya; Dominic Sophia; Paramasivam Ragavendran

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the protective effect of ethanol extract of Mollugo nudicaulis (M. nudicaulis) against perchloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of M. nudicaulis (200 mg/kg body wt) was studied in percholoroethylene (1 000 mg/kg body wt) induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. The serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and the liver content of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, vitamin C were assessed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract. The activity of the extract was compared with silymarin, a standard reference drug. In addition, serum urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were measured to evaluate the kidney function. The histopathological examination of the liver tissues was observed to support the biochemical parameters. Results:The results revealed that the extract significantly (P<0.05) restored the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and significantly (P<0.05) increased the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, vitamin C in perchloroethylene-induced rats to its normalcy. The biochemical observations were supported by the histopathological studies of the liver tissues. Conclusions:The results led to the conclusion that M. nudicaulis possess hepatoprotective and antioxidant activites against perchloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  17. Methylene blue test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methemoglobinemia - methylene blue test ... No special preparation is required for this test. ... which are genetic (problem with your genes). This test is used to tell the difference between methemoglobinemia ...

  18. Impact Factors on Removal of Perchloroethylene with Nano-Ni/Fe Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fei; HUANG Yuanying; CUI Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely detected in groundwater, but conventional removal methodologies are not time-and-cost effective. With the development of iron reducing technology in recent years, research on nano-iron and nano-bimetal has become a hot spot. The paper presents the results of impact factors on perchloroethylene (PCE) removal by nano-Ni/Fe method. The data show that the reaction rate of unexposed nano-Ni/Fe is 4 times higher than exposed one; and temperature is one of the important controlling factors. Reaction rate constant KsA increases by 2-3 times with every 10℃ increment of temperature. Within a specific range, higher Ni/Fe ratio favors dechlorination process. When the Ni/Fe is 8%, the dechlorination process reaches the highest rate. Dissoved oxygen in the solution does not favor the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons.

  19. ACUTE NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF INHALED PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON PATTERN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AS A FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE AND ESTIMATED BLOOD AND BRAIN CONCENTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous experiments have shown the effects of acute inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene are related to the target tissue concentration at the time of testing. The current studies examined exposure to another volatile organic compound, perchloroethylene (P...

  20. ACUTE NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF INHALED PERCHLOROETHYLENE ON PATTERN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS AS A FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE AND ESTIMATED BLOOD AND BRAIN CONCENTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous experiments have shown the effects of acute inhalation exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and toluene are related to the target tissue concentration at the time of testing. The current studies examined exposure to another volatile organic compound, perchloroethylene (P...

  1. Comparative Sorption of Methylene Blue onto Hydrophobic Clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro D. Sponza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modifications of clay to remove methylene blue (MB from aqueous solutions at room temperature were compared. Natural bentonite (NC was modified by cation exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (HC, bencyltriethylammonium chloride (BC, and tetramethylammonium chloride (TC to reverse the surface polarity of the hydrophilic bentonite. The adsorption of MB was studied and fitted by the adsorption theories of Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Temkin. Equilibrium parameters were calculated, indicating that chemical modification did not improve the adsorption, due to the electrostatic adsorption mechanism. Specific surface area was determined, reporting the following trend: NC > TC > BC > HC. Isotherms show that TC is the best modified clay for the adsorption of MB with a capacity of 217 mg/g. Adsorbents were characterized by SEM and the determination of their point zero charge, indicating a charge reversal at pH 9.5 and a heterogeneous surface that is optimum for the adsorption of molecules and ions onto their surfaces.

  2. Effects of trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene on wild rodents at Edwards Air Force Base, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Sarah E; Miles, A Keith; Anderson, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Effects of inhalation of volatilized trichloroethylene (TCE) or perchloroethylene (PCE) were assessed based on the health and population size of wild, burrowing mammals at Edwards Air Force Base (CA, USA). Organic soil-vapor concentrations were measured at three sites with aquifer contamination of TCE or PCE of 5.5 to 77 mg/L and at two uncontaminated reference sites. Population estimates of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys merriami and D. panamintinus) as well as hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology of kangaroo rats and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were compared between contaminated and uncontaminated populations. Maximum soil-gas concentrations associated with groundwater contamination were less than 1.5 microl/L of TCE and 0.07 microl/L of PCE. Population estimates of kangaroo rats were similar at contaminated and reference sites. Hematology, blood chemistry, and histopathology of kangaroo rats and deer mice indicated no evidence of health effects caused by exposure. Trichloroethylene or PCE in groundwater and in related soil gas did not appear to reduce the size of small mammal populations or impair the health of individuals.

  3. Solubilization and degradation of perchloroethylene (PCE) in cationic and nonionic surfactant solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivaram Harendra; Cumaraswamy Vipulanandan

    2011-01-01

    Solubilization of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a nonionic (Triton X-100) and a cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)) surfactant solutions and the degradation of surfactant solubilized PCE using fine to nanosize Fe and bi-metallic Fe-Ni particles were investigated.Micelle partition coefficients (Km) and molar solubility ratio (MSR) for PCE in 10 g/L of surfactant solutions have been quantified and the solubility of PCE (100 mg/L in water) in the surfactant solutions increased by about ten fold.Of the two surfactants studied,Triton X-100 solubilized the higher amount of PCE per gram of surfactant.To degrade solubilized PCE,both iron and bimetallic Fe-Ni particles were used in continuously stirred batch reactors.The iron and bi-metallic particles were synthesized using the solution method and the particles were characterized using the SEM,EDS,TEM and XRD.The PCE solubilized up to 500 mg/L in both surfactant solutions were totally degraded at various rates by 200 g/L of bi-metallic Fe-Ni particles in less than 20 hr,which is the highest concentration of PCE degraded in the shortest time compared to data in the literature.The degradations of PCE solubilized in surfactant solutions were represented by nonlinear kinetic relationships which depended on the type of surfactant used for solubilizing the PCE.

  4. Target Organ Metabolism, Toxicity, and Mechanisms of Trichloroethylene and Perchloroethylene: Key Similarities, Differences, and Data Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Joseph A; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Guha, Neela; Chiu, Weihsueh A; Rusyn, Ivan; Lash, Lawrence H

    2016-10-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene (PCE) are high-production volume chemicals with numerous industrial applications. As a consequence of their widespread use, these chemicals are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which the general population is commonly exposed. It is widely assumed that TCE and PCE are toxicologically similar; both are simple olefins with three (TCE) or four (PCE) chlorines. Nonetheless, despite decades of research on the adverse health effects of TCE or PCE, few studies have directly compared these two toxicants. Although the metabolic pathways are qualitatively similar, quantitative differences in the flux and yield of metabolites exist. Recent human health assessments have uncovered some overlap in target organs that are affected by exposure to TCE or PCE, and divergent species- and sex-specificity with regard to cancer and noncancer hazards. The objective of this minireview is to highlight key similarities, differences, and data gaps in target organ metabolism and mechanism of toxicity. The main anticipated outcome of this review is to encourage research to 1) directly compare the responses to TCE and PCE using more sensitive biochemical techniques and robust statistical comparisons; 2) more closely examine interindividual variability in the relationship between toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics for TCE and PCE; 3) elucidate the effect of coexposure to these two toxicants; and 4) explore new mechanisms for target organ toxicity associated with TCE and/or PCE exposure. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Electrochemical Polymerization of Methylene Green

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU,Hong-Ping; MU,Shao-Lin

    2001-01-01

    The electrochemical polymerization of methylene green has been carried out using cyclic voltammetry. The electrolytic so lution consisted of 4 × 10-3 mol/L methylene green, 0.1 mol/L NaNO3 and 1 × 10-2 mol/L sodium tetraborate with pH 11.0. The temperature for polymerization is controlled at 60℃. The scan potential is set between -0.2 and 1.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl with saturated KCl solution). There are an anodic peak and a cathodic peak on the cyclic voltammogram of poly(methylene green) at pH≤3.8. Both peak potentials shift towards nega tive potentials with increasing pH value, and their peak cur rents decrease with increasing pH value. Poly(methylene green) has a good electrochemical activity and stability in aqueous solutions with pH ≤ 3.8. The UV-Visible spectrum and FTIR spectrum of poly (methylene green) are different from those of methylene green.

  6. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    protects against STZ-induced diabetic effects and could explain the traditional use of this plant in the .... Figure 2: Variations of mice food (FI) and water (WI) intake (expressed as % of initial values .... muscle and promote hepatic production of.

  7. The Condensation of Aromatic Aldehydes with Acidic Methylene Compounds in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Qing SHI; Jing CHEN; Qi Ya ZHUANG; Xiang Shan WANG; Hong Wen HU

    2003-01-01

    The condensation of aromatic aldehydes with acidic methylene compounds such as malononitrile, methyl cyanoacetate, cyanoacetamide, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, bartbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid proceeded very efficiently in water in the presence of triethylbenzylammonium chloride (TEBA) and the products were isolated simply by filtration.

  8. Citrus pectin derived porous carbons as a superior adsorbent toward removal of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlin; Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-11-01

    An adsorbent, citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of methylene blue, was synthesized by a facile zinc chloride activation approach in this study. The materials hold a great potential for treatment of dye wastewater.

  9. Occurrence of perchloroethylene in surface water and fish in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlingerová, Zdena; Macháčková, Jiřina; Petruželková, Anna; Zimová, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Long-term monitoring of the content of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination was performed at a site in the Czech Republic. The quality of surface water was monitored quarterly between 1994 and 2013, and fish were collected from the affected ecosystem to analyse the content of PCE in their tissue in 1998, 2011 and 2012. Concentrations of PCE (9-140 μg/kg) in the tissue of fish collected from the contaminated part of the river were elevated compared to the part of the river unaffected by the contamination (ND to 5 μg/kg PCE). The quality of surface water has improved as a result of groundwater remediation during the evaluated period. Before the remedial action, PCE concentrations ranged from 30 to 95 μg/L (1994-1997). Following commencement of remedial activities in September 1997, a decrease in the content of PCE in the surface water to 7.3 μg/L (1998) and further to 1 μg/L (2011) and 1.1 μg/L (2012) led to a progressive decrease in the average concentration of PCE in the fish muscle tissue from 79 μg/kg (1998) to 24 (2011) and 30 μg/kg (2012), respectively. It was determined that the bioconcentration of PCE does not have a linear dependence because the decrease in contamination in the fish muscle tissue is not directly proportional to the decrease in contamination in the river water. The observed average bioconcentration factors were 24 and 28 for the lower concentrations of PCE and 11 for the higher concentrations of PCE in the river. In terms of age, length and weight of the collected fish, weight had the greatest significance for bioconcentration, followed by the length, with age being evaluated as a less significant factor.

  10. Indoor exposure to perchloroethylene (PCE) in individuals living with dry-cleaning workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggazzotti, G; Fantuzzi, G; Predieri, G; Righi, E; Moscardelli, S

    1994-11-25

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) is the most widely used solvent in dry-cleaning; it is toxic to the liver, kidney and central nervous system and may be a human carcinogen. PCE levels in the ambient air of dry-cleaners' homes were measured, and samples of end-exhaled air (alveolar air) from subjects who were not themselves occupationally exposed, but who were members of the household of dry-cleaners were compared with samples from the general population. Thirty apartments were visited housing dry-cleaners and their families, and located well away from the dry-cleaning premises. Indoor air samples and alveolar air samples were collected contemporaneously from the dry-cleaners (36) and members of their household (34). The same sampling procedure was followed in 25 private homes where samples of alveolar air were collected from 41 subjects who were not occupationally exposed and who acted as control group. All the samples were analysed by direct-injection gas-chromatography. PCE levels in dry-cleaners' homes proved to be significantly higher than in control houses (geometric means: 265 vs. 2 micrograms/m3, P < 0.001). PCE levels in the alveolar air exhaled by dry-cleaners, their family members and control subjects were statistically different (geometric means: 5140, 225 and 3 micrograms/m3, respectively; P < 0.001). PCE is a ubiquitous substance in indoor air, but is present at higher concentrations in apartments where dry-cleaners and their families live. Biological monitoring of PCE in alveolar air confirms that family members of dry-cleaners are more exposed than the general population.

  11. Kinetics of release of methylene blue immobilized in calcium alginate microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inal Bakhytkyzy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The swelling kinetics of microparticles obtained with different concentrations of calcium chloride was studied to learn the ability of sodium alginate to gelation. To increase the effect of prolongation it is necessary to obtain microparticles with sustained release of drugs. For this purpose the drying kinetics of alginate microparticles was investigated. Also the kinetics of release of methylene blue immobilized in calcium alginate microparticles was studied. It was found that the release of methylene blue from the microparticles depends on the amount of immobilized material.

  12. Chloride transference during electrochemical chloride extraction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chemical titration method and lab-made chloride probes were jointly adopted to investigate the effects of water-to-cement (W/C) ratio and the impressed current density on chloride transport for cement-based materials during electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) process.The dissolution of bound chlorides and the effect of current density on dissolution were analyzed.The variations of chloride concentration at different depths and the chloride transference process were monitored.Test results show that W/C ratios adopted have slight influence on chloride extraction,while chloride extraction efficiency is mainly determined by the impressed current density.During ECE process a portion of bound chloride ions dissolved and the amount of bound chlorides released is directly proportional to current density.

  13. Tribenzylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  14. Three-dimensional model evaluation of the Ozone Depletion Potentials for n-propyl bromide, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Wuebbles

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing solvents trichloroethylene (TCE and perchloroethylene (PCE and proposed solvent n-propyl bromide (nPB have atmospheric lifetimes from days to a few months, but contain chlorine or bromine that could affect stratospheric ozone. Several previous studies estimated the Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs for various assumptions for location of nPB emissions, but these studies used simplified modeling treatments. The primary purpose of this study is to reevaluate the ODP for nPB using a current-generation chemistry-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere. For the first time, ODPs for TCE and PCE are also evaluated. Emissions representing industrial use of each compound are incorporated on land surfaces from 30° N to 60° N. The atmospheric chemical lifetime obtained for nPB is 24.7 days, similar to past literature, but the ODP is 0.0049, lower than in past studies. The derived atmospheric lifetime for TCE is 13.0 days and for PCE is 111 days. The corresponding ODPs are 0.00035 and 0.0060, respectively.

  15. Process for crosslinking methylene-containing aromatic polymers with ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process for crosslinking aromatic polymers containing radiation-sensitive methylene groups (-CH2-) by exposing the polymers to ionizing radiation thereby causing crosslinking of the polymers through the methylene groups is described. Crosslinked polymers are resistant to most organic solvents such as acetone, alcohols, hydrocarbons, methylene, chloride, chloroform, and other halogenated hydrocarbons, to common fuels and to hydraulic fluids in contrast to readily soluble uncrosslinked polymers. In addition, the degree of crosslinking of the polymers depends upon the percentage of the connecting groups which are methylene which ranges from 5 to 50 pct and preferably from 25 to 50 pct of the connecting groups, and is also controlled by the level of irradiation which ranges from 25 to 1000 Mrads and preferably from 25 to 250 Mrads. The temperature of the reaction conditions ranges from 25 to 200 C and preferably at or slightly above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The crosslinked polymers are generally more resistant to degradation at elevated temperatures such as greater than 150 C, have a reduced tendency to creep under load, and show no significant embrittlement of parts fabricated from the polymers.

  16. Cytogenetic analysis of an exposed-referent study: perchloroethylene-exposed dry cleaners compared to unexposed laundry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKernan Lauralynn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant numbers of people are exposed to tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE every year, including workers in the dry cleaning industry. Adverse health effects have been associated with PCE exposure. However, investigations of possible cumulative cytogenetic damage resulting from PCE exposure are lacking. Methods Eighteen dry cleaning workers and 18 laundry workers (unexposed controls provided a peripheral blood sample for cytogenetic analysis by whole chromosome painting. Pre-shift exhaled air on these same participants was collected and analyzed for PCE levels. The laundry workers were matched to the dry cleaners on race, age, and smoking status. The relationships between levels of cytological damage and exposures (including PCE levels in the shop and in workers' blood, packyears, cumulative alcohol consumption, and age were compared with correlation coefficients and t-tests. Multiple linear regressions considered blood PCE, packyears, alcohol, and age. Results There were no significant differences between the PCE-exposed dry cleaners and the laundry workers for chromosome translocation frequencies, but PCE levels were significantly correlated with percentage of cells with acentric fragments (R2 = 0.488, p Conclusions There does not appear to be a strong effect in these dry cleaning workers of PCE exposure on persistent chromosome damage as measured by translocations. However, the correlation between frequencies of acentric fragments and PCE exposure level suggests that recent exposures to PCE may induce transient genetic damage. More heavily exposed participants and a larger sample size will be needed to determine whether PCE exposure induces significant levels of persistent chromosome damage.

  17. The Mechanochemical Reaction of Palladium(II) Chloride with a Bidentate Phosphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David E.; Carrie, Philippa; Fawkes, Kelli L.; Rebner, Bruce; Xing, Yao

    2010-01-01

    This experiment describes the reaction of palladium(II) chloride with 1,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)pentane by grinding the two powders together in the solid state. The product is the precursor for the metalation reaction at one of the methylene carbon atoms of the ligand's backbone. The final product is known to be a catalyst for Suzuki-Miyaura…

  18. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica stems ash. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Abstract. Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk.

  19. Methylene Blue Causing Serotonin Syndrome Following Cystocele Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Kailash; Cheung, Felix; Lee, Wai; Thalappillil, Richard; Florence, F Barry; Kim, Jason

    2016-11-01

    Methylene blue is an intravenously administered agent that may potentiate serotonin syndrome. The usage of methylene blue to evaluate ureters for injuries and patency during urological surgeries is recognized as common practice. However, there is no mention of serotonin syndrome caused by methylene blue in urological literature or for urological surgery. We report the first urological case in order to raise awareness of the risk for serotonin toxicity with utilizing methylene blue.

  20. Methylene Blue Causing Serotonin Syndrome Following Cystocele Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kapadia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue is an intravenously administered agent that may potentiate serotonin syndrome. The usage of methylene blue to evaluate ureters for injuries and patency during urological surgeries is recognized as common practice. However, there is no mention of serotonin syndrome caused by methylene blue in urological literature or for urological surgery. We report the first urological case in order to raise awareness of the risk for serotonin toxicity with utilizing methylene blue.

  1. Compound list: methylene dianiline [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available methylene dianiline DAPM 00155 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/meth...es/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/methylene_dianiline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc....jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/methylene_dianiline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  2. Methylene Blue Protects against TDP-43 and FUS Neuronal Toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A.; Ciura, Sorana; Maios, Claudia; Therrien, Martine; Drapeau, Pierre; Kabashi, Edor; Parker, J. Alex

    2012-01-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C) or FUS (S57Δ or R521H) that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress. PMID:22848727

  3. Methylene blue promotes quiescence of rat neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav R; Wang, Jixian; Park, Yong; Liu, Ran; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Chun-Li; Yorio, Thomas; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cell-based treatment holds a new therapeutic opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we investigated the effect of methylene blue on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. We found that methylene blue inhibited proliferation and promoted quiescence of NPCs in vitro without affecting committed neuronal differentiation. Consistently, intracerebroventricular infusion of methylene blue significantly inhibited NPC proliferation at the subventricular zone (SVZ). Methylene blue inhibited mTOR signaling along with down-regulation of cyclins in NPCs in vitro and in vivo. In summary, our study indicates that methylene blue may delay NPC senescence through enhancing NPCs quiescence.

  4. Urea enhances the photodynamic efficiency of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Silvia C; Yoshimura, Tania M; Ribeiro, Martha S; Junqueira, Helena C; Maciel, Cleiton; Coutinho-Neto, Maurício D; Baptista, Maurício S

    2015-09-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is a well-known photosensitizer used mostly for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT). MB tends to aggregate, interfering negatively with its singlet oxygen generation, because MB aggregates lean towards electron transfer reactions, instead of energy transfer with oxygen. In order to avoid MB aggregation we tested the effect of urea, which destabilizes solute-solute interactions. The antimicrobial efficiency of MB (30 μM) either in water or in 2M aqueous urea solution was tested against a fungus (Candida albicans). Samples were kept in the dark and irradiation was performed with a light emitting diode (λ = 645 nm). Without urea, 9 min of irradiation was needed to achieve complete microbial eradication. In urea solution, complete eradication was obtained with 6 min illumination (light energy of 14.4 J). The higher efficiency of MB/urea solution was correlated with a smaller concentration of dimers, even in the presence of the microorganisms. Monomer to dimer concentration ratios were extracted from the absorption spectra of MB solutions measured as a function of MB concentration at different temperatures and at different concentrations of sodium chloride and urea. Dimerization equilibrium decreased by 3 and 6 times in 1 and 2M urea, respectively, and increased by a factor of 6 in 1M sodium chloride. The destabilization of aggregates by urea seems to be applied to other photosensitizers, since urea also destabilized aggregation of Meso-tetra(4-n-methyl-pyridyl)porphyrin, which is a positively charged porphyrin. We showed that urea destabilizes MB aggregates mainly by causing a decrease in the enthalpic gain of dimerization, which was exactly the opposite of the effect of sodium chloride. In order to understand this phenomenon at the molecular level, we computed the free energy for the dimer association process (ΔG(dimer)) in aqueous solution as well as its enthalpic component in aqueous and in aqueous/urea solutions by molecular dynamics

  5. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  6. Intravital staining with methylene blue in tympanoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiman, Michael; Sarfaty, Shlomo; Gavriel, Haim; Kraus, Moshe; Kaplan, Daniel; Puterman, Max

    2010-09-01

    Objective of the study is to investigate usefulness of the methylene blue staining for the operation of tympanoplasty in surgical training process with randomized, controlled trial. Two hospitals were involved: Department of Otolaryngology, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center, and Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Soroka University Medical Center. Tympanoplasty with graft placement was performed by young surgeons on 30 patients (30 ears) with anterior perforations using intraoperative staining of tympanoplasty grafts with methylene blue (Group 1). The same number of patients/ears was operated by the young surgeons without intraoperative staining (Group 2). 76 patients operated without staining by experienced surgeons served as a control group. Results showed tympanic membrane healing (graft take) in 30 (100%) cases in Group 1 and in 26 (86.66%) cases in Group 2. The pure-tone audiogram testing revealed significant improvement of hearing in all successful cases (p < 0.05). No side immediate or postponed effects were detected. We conclude that intravital staining with methylene blue in tympanoplasty simplifies the operation and could assist in better visualization and proper placement of the graft. This technique could be most useful in a training process for resident surgeons.

  7. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of methylene blue active substances by spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Mark R.; Cinotto, Pete J.; Frahm, Galen W.; Woodworth, Mark T.; Pritt, Jeffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the determination of methylene blue active substances in whole-water samples by liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometric detection is described. Sulfate and sulfonate-based surfectants are reacted with methylene blue to form a blue-colored complex. The complex is extracted into chloroform, back-washed with an acidified phosphate-based buffer solution, and measured against external standards with a probe spectrophotometer. The method detection limt for routine analysis is 0.02 milligram per liter. The precision is plus/minus 10 percent relative standard deviation. The positive bias from nitrate and chloride and U.S. Geological Survey method O-3111-83 for methylene blue active substances is minized by adding a back-washing step.

  8. Spectrometric study of α-methylene aromatic araminenone and aminoketone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Thirteen α-methylene aromatic araminenone and four α-methylene aromatic aminoketones were prepared by modified Mannich reaction. On the basis of isotopic labeling, a plausible way of cleavage was proposed for the formation of the M+- 17 fragment peak in the MS of the α-methylene aromatic araminenone and aminoketones. The characteristic chemical shift of the olefinic protons in 1H NMR is also discussed.

  9. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

  11. Evaluation of Methylene Chloride Emission Control Technologies at Anniston Army Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    3 summarizes the results of the stripping. Using Kolene® Recover™, the green paint coupons were stripped within 60 minutes at 275 °F. Ultrasound was... aborted . If two stripping tests for the same temperature reflect a sizeable difference in stripping time, repeat the test a third time. See testing

  12. Combined Exposure of Methylene Chloride and Carbon Monoxide in Smoking and Nonsmoking Paint Strippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    plateau of about 7% COHb following an eight-hour time-weighted-average (TWA) exposure of approximately 1800 mg/m3 . The smokers dose response curve did...37 5 Dose Response Curve for Nonsmokers Considering Differences in COHb Increases on Both Exposure and Nonexposure Days...contains no human metabolism studies or studies on animals other than the rat. Ott et al. (17) found that the dose - response curve for humans J

  13. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping Mechanism for Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    emulsion and a water dispersible polyisocyanate.5 The Navy is considering using Class W on support equipment. The Army developed the two component...completion of curing, the mold was allowed to cool in the oven to room temperature to avoid thermal shock . The clips were removed from the edges and...mm glass NMR tubes loosely sealed with Teflon tape to minimize evaporation. Film samples for 2H NMR were prepared similarly. The MIL-DTL-53039 film

  14. Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    observing NMR of the solvent molecules themselves, 1H NMR can be useful in more highly swollen cases such as chloroform in copolymer gel beads,14 or in...formaldehyde 2.2 Epoxy resin 14.7 Polyamid resin 7 Dispersion agent 0.2 Silica gel 3 Ceramic microspheres 3 Titanium dioxide 6.5 Extender...spinel 0.4 Dispersant 1 Methyl isoamyl ketone 23.5 Rheology modifier 0.1 VM&P naptha 3.2 Flow modifier ɘ.1 Xylene 1.4 Surfactant 0.1 n-Butyl

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

  16. Copper nanoparticles supported onto montmorillonite clays as efficient catalyst for methylene blue dye degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mekewi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the production of copper nanoparticles through the reduction of copper chloride (CuCl2·2H2O by hydrazine in the aqueous cetyle trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB solution. The copper nanoparticles were then supported on chemically activated Montmorillonite clay (MMT. The native and modified clays as well as synthesized Cu-nanoparticle-clay were structurally and texturally characterized by XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM and TEM in addition to the estimation of exchange capacity parameters. BET surface characterization revealed a decrease in surface area of the clay support after the incorporation of Cu nanoparticles. Cu/clay was then utilized as a catalyst for the degradation of aqueous solutions containing methylene blue (MB over a wide pH range. Diverse kinetics models were employed to examine the degradation process revealing a better fit with pseudo-first-order model. The present study offers a novel modified clay based catalysts for the degradation of methylene blue dye contaminant from wastewater.

  17. Serotonin syndrome following methylene blue administration during cardiothoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christina J; Wang, Dorothy; Sgambelluri, Anna; Kramer, Robert S; Gagnon, David J

    2015-04-01

    Despite its favorable safety profile, there have been reports of methylene blue-induced encephalopathy and serotonin syndrome in patients undergoing parathyroidectomy. We report a case of serotonin syndrome following methylene blue administration in a cardiothoracic surgery patient. A 59-year-old woman taking preoperative venlafaxine and trazodone was given a single dose of 2 mg/kg methylene blue (167 mg) during a planned coronary artery bypass and mitral valve repair. Postoperatively, she was febrile to 38.7°C and developed full-body tremors, rhythmic twitching of the perioral muscles, slow conjugate roving eye movements, and spontaneous movements of the upper extremities. Electroencephalography revealed generalized diffuse slowing consistent with toxic encephalopathy, and a computed tomography scan showed no acute process. The patient's symptoms were most consistent with a methylene blue-induced serotonin syndrome. Her motor symptoms resolved within 48 hours and she was eventually discharged home. Only 2 cases of methylene blue-induced serotonin syndrome during cardiothoracic surgery have been described in the literature, with this report representing the third case. Methylene blue and its metabolite, azure B, are potent, reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A which is responsible for serotonin metabolism. Concomitant administration of methylene blue with serotonin-modulating agents may precipitate serotonin syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-09-24

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases.

  19. Preparation of Methylene Blue-Silica Composite Microcapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Hideo. [Nihon Millipore Corp., Yamagata (Japan); Takahashi, Koji. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    1999-06-01

    Silica microcapsules comprising methylene blue (MB-SiO{sub 2}) of mean diameter 4.0 {mu}m were prepared by solgel and water-in-oil emulsion techniques where water pools are use as microreactors in which methylene blue is dissolved at a high water to surfactant molar ratio. It is confirmed that the cationic methylene blue is incorporated in the silica microcapsule wall during hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane. Fixation of methylene blue in the silica wall is examined by passing water or acetic acid aq. soln. (pH 2-4) through a cartridge in which MB-SiO{sub 2} is packed and then measuring the fractions using UV-VIS analysis. The elution behavior is affected drastically by the pH value of the eluent. Methylene blue tends to stay in the wall when the pH value of eluent is above the isoelectric point (IEP) of the silica microcapsules. However, release of methylene blue cation occurs when it is below the IEP. These results reveal that coulomb interaction has an important role to fix methylene blue in the silica microcapsule. (author)

  20. Reduction of chlorinated solvents at the Y-12 Oak Ridge Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been actively seeking replacements for chlorinated solvents for several years. The first step in the reduction program was the identification of the solvents and their usages. The four main solvents used at the plant include Freon, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and methylene chloride. The main reduction has been in the use of perchloroethylene. Other significant reductions have occurred in the area of changing out vapor degreasers which utilized perchloroethylene or methyl chloroform. These degreasers were replaced with ultrasonic cleaners which utilize aqueous detergent for cleaning. Ultrasonic cleaning has many advantages, but the one disadvantage is that it requires a rinse step. Currently, the work on reduction of chlorinate solvents is focused on finding solvents which can be substituted for squirt bottle type applications. Concerns which were addressed when looking at replacement solvents were disposal, compatibility, and health effects.

  1. Reduction of chlorinated solvents at the Y-12 Oak Ridge Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been actively seeking replacements for chlorinated solvents for several years. The first step in the reduction program was the identification of the solvents and their usages. The four main solvents used at the plant include Freon, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and methylene chloride. The main reduction has been in the use of perchloroethylene. Other significant reductions have occurred in the area of changing out vapor degreasers which utilized perchloroethylene or methyl chloroform. These degreasers were replaced with ultrasonic cleaners which utilize aqueous detergent for cleaning. Ultrasonic cleaning has many advantages, but the one disadvantage is that it requires a rinse step. Currently, the work on reduction of chlorinate solvents is focused on finding solvents which can be substituted for squirt bottle type applications. Concerns which were addressed when looking at replacement solvents were disposal, compatibility, and health effects.

  2. [Seven cases of parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism using methylene blue: suggestion for the method of methylene blue infusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoya, Tatsuo; Kinoshita, Yuki; Shiraishi, Munehiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Suetsugu, Keiko

    2014-08-01

    Intraoperative staining of the parathyroid glands with intravenously administered methylene blue is well described and has been demonstrated as an effective and safe method to facilitate parathyroidectomy. However, there have been several literatures of the development of postoperative neurological toxicity in patients who received methylene blue infusion during parathyroidectomy. We report the method of methylene blue infusion during parathyroidectomy at our institution. Seven adult patients who had undergone parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with chronic renal failure were included in this study. Methylene blue was administered at a constant rate of 4 mg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) with a 1% solution just before the start of operation. The infusion was stopped after the first parathyroid gland was identified. The mean dose of methylene blue used was 2.2 +/- 0.8 mg x kg(-1). Consequently, the dose of methylene blue by this method could be decreased to less than half of the previously administered dose (6 mg x kg(-1)) at our institution. The dose of methylene blue used should be kept to the minimum required to identify the parathyroid glands in each case.

  3. chloride mass balance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    1Geology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University ... characterization of groundwater, rainfall and the unsaturated zone were also carried out using a .... 2008 in collaboration with the Senegal National Meteorological .... [Cl]sm is estimated as average chloride concentration in ..... sands of Australia.

  4. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    and time, and where both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time; the Mejlbro-Poulsen model is the general solution to Fick’s 2nd law. The paper also presents conversion formulas for the four decisive but rather abstract parameters to parameters, which...

  5. Adsorption Kinetics of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions onto Palygorskite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Shuchuan; WANG Shisheng; CHEN Tianhu; JIANG Shaotong; HUANG Chuanhui

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption kinetics of methylene blue from aqueous solutions on purified palygorskite was investigated. The kinetics data related to the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions are in good agreement with the pseudo-second order equation in ranges of initial concentration of 120-210 mg/L, oscillation speed of 100-200 r/min and temperature of 298-328K. The experimental results show that methylene blue is only adsorbed onto the external surface of purified palygorskite,and the apparent adsorption activation energy is 13.92 k J/mol. The relatively low apparent adsorption activation energy suggests that the adsorption of methylene blue involves in not only a chemical, but also a physical adsorption process, and it is controlled by the combination of chemical adsorption and liquid-film diffusion.

  6. Use of Aspergillus wentii for biosorption of methylene blue from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(6), pp. ... Key words: Aspergillus wentii, dye, methylene blue, biosorption, desorption, isotherm. INTRODUCTION. Wastewaters from textile, cosmetics, printing, dying, food coloring ...

  7. Neurometabolic mechanisms for memory enhancement and neuroprotection of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Julio C.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides the first review of the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective metabolic mechanisms of action of methylene blue in vivo. These mechanisms have important implications as a new neurobiological approach to improve normal memory and to treat memory impairment and neurodegeneration associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylene blue’s action is unique because its neurobiological effects are not determined by regular drug-receptor interactions or drug-response paradigms. Methylene blue shows a hormetic dose-response, with opposite effects at low and high doses. At low doses, methylene blue is an electron cycler in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, with unparalleled antioxidant and cell respiration-enhancing properties that affect the function of the nervous system in a versatile manner. A major role of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase on the memory-enhancing effects of methylene blue is supported by available data. The memory-enhancing effects have been associated with improvement of memory consolidation in a network-specific and use-dependent fashion. In addition, low doses of methylene blue have also been used for neuroprotection against mitochondrial dysfunction in humans and experimental models of disease. The unique auto-oxidizing property of methylene blue and its pleiotropic effects on a number of tissue oxidases explain its potent neuroprotective effects at low doses. The evidence reviewed supports a mechanistic role of low-dose methylene blue as a promising and safe intervention for improving memory and for the treatment of acute and chronic conditions characterized by increased oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. PMID:22067440

  8. Methylene blue inhibits lumefantrine-resistant Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Victor Irungu; Mumo, Ruth Mwende; Kiboi, Daniel Muthui; Omar, Sabah Ahmed; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah Waithera; Ozwara, Hastings Suba

    2016-06-30

    Chemotherapy still is the most effective way to control malaria, a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. The large-scale use of the combination therapy artemether-lumefantrine for malaria treatment in Africa predisposes lumefantrine to emergence of resistance. There is need to identify drugs that can be used as substitutes to lumefantrine for use in combination therapy. Methylene blue, a synthetic anti-methemoglobinemia drug, has been shown to contain antimalarial properties, making it a candidate for drug repurposing. The present study sought to determine antiplasmodial effects of methylene blue against lumefantrine- and pyrimethamine-resistant strains of P. berghei. Activity of methylene blue was assessed using the classical four-day test on mice infected with lumefantrine-resistant and pyrimethamine-resistant P. berghei. A dose of 45 mg/kg/day was effective for testing ED90. Parasitemia and mice survival was determined. At 45 mg/kg/day, methylene blue sustained significant parasite inhibition, over 99%, for at least 6 days post-treatment against lumefantrine-resistant and pyrimethamine-resistant P. berghei (p = 0.0086 and p = 0.0191, respectively). No serious adverse effects were observed. Our results indicate that methylene blue at a concentration of 45 mg/kg/day confers over 99% inhibition against lumefantrine- and pyrimethamine-resistant P. berghei for six days. This shows the potential use methylene blue in the development of antimalarials against lumefantrine- and pyrimethamine-resistant parasites.

  9. International, prospective haemovigilance study on methylene blue-treated plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noens, L; Vilariño, Ma D; Megalou, A; Qureshi, H

    2017-05-01

    Methylene blue is a phenothiazine dye, which in combination with visible light has virucidal and bactericidal properties, disrupting the replication of a broad range of enveloped viruses and some non-enveloped viruses. The study objective was to collect data on adverse reactions occurring with methylene blue plasma administered in a routine clinical practice environment and document their characteristics and severity. This was an open label, multicentre, non-controlled, non-randomized, non-interventional study. Patients who receive a methylene blue plasma transfusion were observed for any signs and symptoms (adverse reactions) within 24 h safter the start of the transfusion, in different hospitals for a study duration of at least 1 year. A total of 19 315 methylene blue plasma units were transfused. There were eight patients with adverse reactions recorded during the study, one of them serious. Two had more than one reaction (two and four, respectively). Three patients had previous transfusions with methylene blue plasma only. Methylene blue plasma has a very acceptable safety profile with a rate of serious adverse reactions of 0·5/10 000 units. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. DNA Electrochemistry with Tethered Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheeney, Catrina G.

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB′), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C12 alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB′ is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB′–DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)–DNA, indicating that MB′ is even more strongly coupled to the π-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB′ on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB′ at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

  11. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  12. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Carol A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapo...

  13. Methylene blue is associated with poor outcomes in vasoplegic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Menachem M; Lin, Hung-Mo; Danforth, Dennis; Rao, Srikar; Hosseinian, Leila; Fischer, Gregory W

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients who received methylene blue as treatment for vasoplegia during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass had decreased morbidity and mortality. Retrospective analysis. Single tertiary care university hospital. Adult patients who suffered from vasoplegia and underwent all types of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at this institution between 2007 and 2008. With IRB approval, the authors reviewed the charts of the identified patients and divided them into 2 groups based on whether they had received methylene blue. Two hundred twenty-six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria for the study. Fifty-seven of these patients had received methylene blue for vasoplegia. The authors collected data on preoperative and intraoperative variables as well as outcomes. The patients who received methylene blue had higher rates of in-hospital mortality, a compilation of morbidities, as well as renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that receiving methylene blue was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (p value: 0.007, OR 4.26, 95% CI: 1.49-12.12), compilation of morbidities (p value: 0.001, OR 4.80, 95% CI: 1.85-12.43), and hyperbilirubinemia (p value:methylene blue as treatment for vasoplegia to be independently associated with poor outcomes. While further studies are required, a thorough risk-benefit analysis should be applied before using methylene blue and, perhaps, it should be relegated to rescue use and not as first-line therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R

    2011-08-01

    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  15. Synthesis and biological study of novel methylene-bis-benzofuranyl-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeeva R. Cherkupally

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel methylene-bis-[1,5]-benzothiazepines 4 and methylene-bis-benzofuranyl-[1,5]-benzothiazepines 5 were prepared by the reaction of methylene-bis-chalcones 3 with 2-aminothiophenolfollowed by the condensation with -bromoacetophenone. The structures of the synthesized compounds wereconfirmed by their IR, 1H, 13C NMR and Mass spectral analyses. All the synthesized compounds were tested fortheir antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Among the synthesizedcompounds, the compounds 4f, 4g, 5f and 5g were found to be the most active against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillussphaericus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella aerogenes and Chromobacterium violaceum. Similarly thesecompounds showed potent antifungal effect against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophytonrubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It is interesting to note that the compounds with heterocyclic ringsubstituents at the 4th position of benzothiazepine system displayed notable antibacterial activity, almost equalto that of streptomycin and penicillin.

  16. [Methylene blue therapy for vasoplegia after cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Katarzyna; Chmielniak, Sergiusz; Dziuk, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Ewa; Pawlak, Szymon; Knapik, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) may be associated with critically decreased vascular resistance (vasoplegia syndrome) and become resistant to noradrenaline. Such a condition may be successfully treated with intravenous methylene blue. A 73-year-old patient with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock was admitted to our centre after failed percutaneous coronary interventions to the left anterior descending coronary artery and underwent emergency coronary revascularisation. After surgery, his ejection fraction was 25%. X-ray revealed pulmonary oedema. The patient became severely hypotensive with marked vasoplegia and metabolic acidosis, despite incremental doses of adrenaline and noradrenaline. 2 mg kg(-1) of methylene blue was administered, which quickly stabilized the patient's general condition. Methylene blue applied to vasoplegic patients can effectively increase systemic vascular resistance and restore satisfactory organ perfusion.

  17. pH influences the biocompatibility of methylene blue solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusman, David Jonathan Rodrigues; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Novaes, Vivian Cristina Noronha; Matheus, Henrique Rinaldi; de Araujo, Nathália Januario; de Almeida, Juliano Milanezi

    2017-05-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of methylene blue at different pH levels through the method of implantation in subcutaneous tissue. Eighty-four sterilized polyethylene tubes were allocated in the subcutaneous tissue of 28 rats, each one receiving four tubes, set into four groups: group tube (G-T)-empty tube, fibrin group (G-F)-tube filled with fibrin sponge, group methylene blue pH 7 (G-MB/pH 7)-tube filled with fibrin sponge soaked by methylene blue (100 μg/ml) at pH 7.0, and group methylene blue pH 1 (G-MB/pH 1)-tube filled with fibrin sponge and soaked by methylene blue (100 μg/ml) at pH 1.0. After 7, 15, and 30 days, seven animals from each group were euthanized, and the tubes involved by the surrounding tissue were removed and fixed with 4% buffered formaldehyde solution. The collected pieces were processed and histological sections (4 μm) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. Scores were assigned to analysis of histopathologic parameters. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (p ≤ 0.05). At 7 and 30 days, the G-MB/pH 1 group showed no significant difference in the G-T control group, while G-MB/pH 7 had a significant increase on tissue reaction, also when compared to G-T. At 15 days, there was no statistical difference between the groups. Within the limits of this study, it is concluded that methylene blue at pH 1.0 provides better biocompatibility than at pH 7.0.

  18. Methylene blue-related corneal edema and iris discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Ozgur Bulent; Karadag, Mehmet Fatih; Aslanci, Mehmet Emin; Baykara, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old female patient who developed corneal edema and iris discoloration following the inadvertent use of 1% methylene blue instead of 0.025% trypan blue to stain the anterior capsule during cataract phacoemulsification surgery. Copious irrigation was performed upon realization of incorrect dye use. Corneal edema and iris discoloration developed during the early postoperative period and persisted at 24-months follow-up. However, keratoplasty was not required. The intracameral use of 1% methylene blue has a cytotoxic effect on the corneal endothelium and iris epithelium. Copious irrigation for at least 30 min using an anterior chamber maintainer may improve outcomes.

  19. Simple procedures for analyzing and purifying methylene green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glusko, C A; Previtali, C M; Chesta, C A; Montejano, H A

    2012-07-01

    Methylene green is a versatile dye that can be used in a wide range of technical applications, most of which require the dye to be pure. Because commercial lots of methylene green are known to be heterogeneous, we report a thin layer chromatographic method for checking purity. We also describe a simple and effective flash chromatographic purification procedure for subsequent purification. The identity and purity of the dye can be checked easily using UV-visible absorption spectrum measurements or by more sophisticated procedures if necessary.

  20. Nitroreductase-triggered activation of a novel caged fluorescent probe obtained from methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jungeun; McNamara, Louis E; Nael, Manal A; Mahdi, Fakhri; Doerksen, Robert J; Bidwell, Gene L; Hammer, Nathan I; Jo, Seongbong

    2015-08-18

    A near-infrared fluorescent probe based on methylene blue (p-NBMB) was developed for the detection of nitroreductase. Conjugating methylene blue with a p-nitrobenzyl moiety enables it to be activated by nitroreductase-catalyzed 1,6-elimination, resulting in the release of an active methylene blue fluorophore.

  1. Occupational solvent exposure and adult chronic lymphocytic leukemia: No risk in a population-based case-control study in four Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talibov, Madar; Auvinen, Anssi; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hansen, Johnni; Martinsen, Jan-Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of occupational solvent exposure on the risk of adult chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The current case-control study was nested in the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA) cohort. 20,615 CLL cases diagnosed in 1961-2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, and 103,075 population-based controls matched by year of birth, sex, and country were included. Occupational histories for cases and controls were obtained from census records in 1960, 1970, 1980/1981, and 1990. Exposure to selected solvents was estimated by using the NOCCA job-exposure matrix (NOCCA-JEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression models. Overall, nonsignificant CLL risk elevations were observed for methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Compared to unexposed, significantly increased risks were observed for cumulative perchloroethylene exposure ≤13.3 ppm-years (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.16-2.96) and average life-time perchloroethylene exposure ≤2.5 ppm (1.61, 95% CI 1.01-2.56) among women, and cumulative methylene chloride exposure ≤12.5 ppm-years (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.41) and 12.5-74.8 ppm-years (OR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.51) among men in an analysis with 5 years lag-time, though without dose-response pattern. Decreased CLL risk was observed for aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents and toluene. This study did not support associations for solvent exposure and CLL. Observed weak associations for methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane exposures, aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons and toluene were not consistent across sexes, and showed no gradient with amount of exposure. © 2017 UICC.

  2. Research on the Purification Technologies for Methylene Bisthiocyanate%溴硝醇提纯技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝; 朱春来; 王鹤童

    2013-01-01

    The crude product of methylene bisthiocyanate, which is synthesized by chloride, is purified with the methods of recrystalization, extraction and silica gel column chromatography etc. It is proved that the purity of the crude product is improved from 80% to 97. 8% using the purification method.%文章针对氯化溴法合成溴硝醇过程中得到的粗品,提出采用重结晶、萃取、硅胶柱色谱等方法对产品进行提纯.研究证明,经过提纯后,产品纯度由80%提高到97.8%.

  3. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  4. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  5. Intraoperatively Testing the Anastomotic Integrity of Esophagojejunostomy Using Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, S; Almalı, N; Aras, A; Yılmaz, Ö; Kızıltan, R

    2017-03-01

    Intraoperative testing of gastrointestinal anastomosis effectively ensures anastomotic integrity. This study investigated whether the routine use of methylene blue intraoperatively identified leaks to reduce the postoperative proportion of clinical leaks. This study retrospectively analyzed consecutive total gastrectomies performed from January 2007 to December 2014 in a university hospital setting by a general surgical group that exclusively used the methylene blue test. All surgeries were performed for gastric or junctional cancers (n = 198). All reconstructions (Roux-en Y esophagojejunostomy) were performed using a stapler. The methylene blue test was used in 108 cases (group 1) via a nasojejunal tube. No test was performed for the other 90 cases (group 2). Intraoperative leakage rate, postoperative clinical leakage rate, length of hospitalization, and mortality rate were the outcome measures. The intraoperative leakage rate was 7.4% in group 1. The postoperative clinical leakage rate was 8.6%. The postoperative clinical leakage rate was 3.7% in group 1 and 14.4% in group 2 (p = 0.007). There were no postoperative clinical leaks when an intraoperative leak led to concomitant intraoperative repair. The median length of hospital stay was 6 days in group 1 and 8 days in group 2 (p methylene blue test for esophagojejunostomy is a safe and reliable method for the assessment of anastomosis integrity, especially in cases with difficult esophagojejunostomic construction.

  6. Spatial interaction of methylene blue stained soil pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we compare different types of patterns that emerge when applying methylene blue dye as a tracer on soils to detect preferential flow paths as a result of large cracks. Patterns on channels, vughs and cracks are analyzed with the J-function and with indicator variograms. By means of a

  7. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  8. Extinction Memory Improvement by the Metabolic Enhancer Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Bruchey, Aleksandra K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether postextinction administration of methylene blue (MB) could enhance retention of an extinguished conditioned response. MB is a redox compound that at low doses elevates cytochrome oxidase activity, thereby improving brain energy production. Saline or MB (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were administered to rats for 5 d following…

  9. Methylene Blue-Ascorbic Acid: An Undergraduate Experiment in Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehalatha, K. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise involving methylene blue and L-ascorbic acid in a simple clock reaction technique to illustrate the basic concepts of chemical kinetics. If stock solutions are supplied and each type of experiment takes no more than half an hour, the entire investigation can be completed in three practical sessions of three hours…

  10. Spatial interaction of methylene blue stained soil pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Booltink, H.W.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we compare different types of patterns that emerge when applying methylene blue dye as a tracer on soils to detect preferential flow paths as a result of large cracks. Patterns on channels, vughs and cracks are analyzed with the J-function and with indicator variograms. By means of a

  11. Accumulation of 99m TC-methylene diphosphonate radiotracer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accumulation of 99m TC-methylene diphosphonate radiotracer in rat's forelimb. ... by gamma camera 2 h after the injection of 99mTc-MDP via the tail vein. ... can be used for survey radioactivity examination in different bones of the forelimb.

  12. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... color removals from industrial effluents including ion exchange, adsorption ... efficient adsorbent for the removal of dyes from effluents. (Malik, 2002). ... biosorbent Ulva lactuca and Saragassum as a natural, renewable ... Stock solution of 1 × 10-3 M of methylene blue dye was prepared in double distilled ...

  13. INTERACTION MODE BETWEEN METHYLENE BLUE-Sm(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Spectroscopic and viscosity methods were applied to investigate the interaction between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange as a spectral probe ... Thermodynamic function computation demonstrates ... By combination analysis of the Scatchard method, circular dichroism.

  14. Wiring of heme enzymes by methylene-blue labeled dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh; Ferapontova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    - and molibdopterin-containing sulfite oxidase (SOx), wired to gold by the methylene blue (MB)-labeled polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. The enzymes’ electrochemical transformation and bioelectrocatalytic function could be followed at both unlabeled and MB-labeled dendrimer-modified electrodes with the formal redox...

  15. Intradiskal methylene blue treatment for diskogenic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, David S; Horn, Scott; Walko, Edward

    2014-11-01

    Low back pain is a leading cause of pain and disability. The intervertebral disk has been identified as the most common source of chronic low back pain. Although prior treatments directed at intervertebral disks have been disappointing, recent studies show promising improvement of pain and function after a single intradiskal injection of methylene blue. To assess changes in pain and function in patients with diskogenic low back pain, diagnosed by diskography, after an intradiskal injection of methylene blue. Prospective trial. Patients diagnosed with diskogenic pain by diskography underwent a single treatment of intradiskal injection of methylene blue, determined by prior provocation diskography. Pain and function measurements were completed at baseline and 1, 2, and 6 months after treatment. Treatment was considered a categorical success based on a 30% improvement in pain according to a visual analog scale (VAS) and function on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Treatment was considered a categorical failure if less than 30% improvement in pain and function was achieved or if the patient pursued other invasive treatment options during the trial period. Sixteen patients received the intradiskal methylene blue injection. Eleven patients received a single-level injection, 4 patients received a 2-level injection, and one patient received injections at 3 levels. For the VAS, at 1, 2, and 6 months after the injection, the categorical success rates were 25%, 21%, and 25%, respectively. For the ODI, at 1, 2 and 6 months after the injection, the categorical success rates were 25%, 21%, and 33%, respectively. The overall categorical success rates at 1, 2, and 6 months after the injection were 19%, 21%, and 25%, respectively. This small trial did not demonstrate overall clinical success of intradiskal methylene blue injection for patients diagnosed with diskogenic pain by diskography. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by

  16. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  17. Parameters Affecting Hydrogen Chloride Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    contain sea salt, which is hygroscopic because of the magnesium chloride present, or ammonium bisulfate , which mostly comes from sulfur pollution and is...boosters release hydrogen chloride as a combustion product, and hydrazines or nitric acid can be spilled from liquid fuel motors. Monitoring the...solubility constant, and the second is the acid ionization constant. From experimental work, the product of the two constants is well established (Reference

  18. Methylene blue adsorption on graphene oxide/calcium alginate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhui; Du, Qiuju; Liu, Tonghao; Sun, Jiankun; Wang, Yonghao; Wu, Shaoling; Wang, Zonghua; Xia, Yanzhi; Xia, Linhua

    2013-06-05

    Graphene oxide has been used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment. However, the dispersibility in aqueous solution and the biotoxicity to human cells of graphene oxide limits its practical application in environmental protection. In this research, a novel environmental friendly adsorbent, calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites was prepared. The effects of pH, contact time, temperature and dosage on the adsorption properties of methylene blue onto calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation was 181.81 mg/g. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion equation were used to evaluate the kinetic data. Thermodynamic analysis of equilibriums indicated that the adsorption reaction of methylene blue onto calcium alginate immobilized graphene oxide composites was exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  19. An introduction to photocatalysis through methylene blue photodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Matthieu; Michez, Lisa; Raimundo, Jean-Manuel; Malinowski, Tuhiti; Dumas, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    We described a simple experimental set-up for lab work on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by TiO2 nanoparticles. The photocatalysis process can be used for many applications. Treatments for diluted wastewater industries, air purifying in underground car parks, and preventing fouling on glass surfaces, are some of the potential applications of this phenomenon. The described experiment is easy to perform and the interpretation can be easily adapted to different levels of students, from high school students demonstrating their interest in sustainable development, to students obtaining a Masters in science departments who want to propose a full explanation for all phenomena of the photocatalytic process. Starting with a description of the experimental set-up, we analysed the photocatalyst nanoparticles and applied the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model to our experimental data. Finally we briefly discussed the respective energetic levels of the photocatalyst semiconductor and methylene blue.

  20. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  1. Intravenous methylene blue venography during laparoscopic paediatric varicocelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, David J B; Cervellione, Raimondo M

    2014-02-01

    One of the challenges of varicocele surgery is to prevent hydrocele formation while still ensuring success. Methylene blue has been used to identify and preserve lymphatic vessels, and venography has been a standard component of sclerotherapy and percutaneous retrograde techniques. The authors have combined both approaches during laparoscopic varicocelectomy and report their experience. A prospective study was performed of adolescents with idiopathic varicocele and spontaneous venous reflux on Doppler ultrasound. A pampiniform plexus vein was cannulated via scrotal incision before creating the pneumoperitoneum. A mixture of methylene blue and Omnipaque™ was injected into the pampiniform plexus with fluoroscopic screening. Laparoscopic selective vein ligation was then performed using 5mm endoscopic clips or a bipolar vessel sealing device such as Plasmakinetic™ or Ligasure™. Venography was repeated to confirm complete ligation of the internal testicular veins. Patients were followed-up at 3, 6, and 9 months post-surgery with clinical examination and Doppler ultrasound. Data are presented as median (interquartile range). Twenty-four patients underwent laparoscopic selective vein ligation with venography and methylene blue injection. The median age was 14.7 (14.6-15.7) years. The recurrence rate was 12%. No patients developed a hydrocele. The length of surgery was 120 (100-126) minutes. Intra-operative intra-venous methylene blue injection and venography helps to identify venous duplications of the internal testicular veins and enhances the success rate of laparoscopic selective vein ligation. This approach prevents hydrocele formation but has a 12% recurrence rate, which appears to be higher than some techniques described in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adsorption behavior of methylene blue by bone char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Puqi; Tan, Hongwei; Liu, Kuiren; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This work studies the adsorption behavior of methylene blue (MB) from water by bone char (BC). The effects of pH, initial dye concentration and dosage of adsorbent on the adsorption were investigated. It was found that the adsorption capacity of MB was affected by the mount of OH-, initial concentration gradient driving force of MB, the surface charge and adsorption site of BC.

  3. Methylene blue treatment for resistant shock following renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershman, Eli; Hadash, Amir; Attias, Ori; Ben-Ari, Josef

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a history of hyperoxaluria type 1 and renal failure. The patient presented for a second renal transplantation 17 years after her first combined liver and kidney transplantation. Postoperative shock was highly resistant to fluids and required massive pharmacologic hemodynamic support. Vasoplegic shock was the presumed diagnosis, and methylene blue was utilized as a rescue therapy, with a rapid hemodynamic response and no apparent side effects.

  4. An introduction to photocatalysis through methylene blue photodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Matthieu; Michez, Lisa; Raimundo, Jean-Manuel; Malinowski, Tuhiti; Dumas, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We described a simple experimental setup for a lab work on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by T iO 2 nanoparticles. The photocatalysis process can be used for many applications. Treatments for diluted wastewaters industries, air purifying in underground car parks, preventing fouling on glass surfaces, these are some of the things this phenomenon has the ability to do. The described experiment is easy to perform and the interpretation can be easily adap...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  6. Analysis of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by methylene blue complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Neissa M; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2009-04-01

    Rhamnolipids, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, represent an important group of biosurfactants having various industrial, environmental, and medical applications. Current methods for rhamnolipid quantification involve the use of strong hazardous acids/chemicals, indirect measurement of the concentration of sugar moiety, or require the availability of expensive equipment (HPLC-MS). A safer, easier method that measures the whole rhamnolipid molecules would significantly enhance strain selection, metabolic engineering, and process development for economical rhamnolipid production. A semi-quantitative method was reported earlier to differentiate between the rhamnolipid-producing and non-producing strains using agar plates containing methylene blue and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). In this study, a rapid and simple method for rhamnolipid analysis was developed by systematically investigating the complexation of rhamnolipids and methylene blue, with and without the presence of CTAB. The method relies on measuring the absorbance (at 638 nm) of the rhamnolipid-methylene blue complex that partitions into the chloroform phase. With P. aeruginosa fermentation samples, the applicability of this method was verified by comparison of the analysis results with those obtained from the commonly used anthrone reaction technique.

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  8. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene...

  9. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  10. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of NiO-Decorated ZnO Nanowhiskers for Methylene Blue Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    I. Abdul Rahman; Ayob, M. T. M.; Radiman, S.

    2014-01-01

    ZnO nanowhiskers were used for photodecomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The rate of methylene blue degradation increased linearly with time of UV irradiation. 54% of degradation rate was observed when the ZnO nanowhiskers were used as photocatalysts for methylene blue degradation for 80 min under UV irradiation. The decoration of p-type NiO nanoparticles on n-type ZnO nanowhiskers significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and reached 72% degradation ...

  11. EXTRACTION OF METHYLENE BLUE DYE FROM POLLUTED WATERS USING SOME BIOADSORBENTS

    OpenAIRE

    B. Srinivasa Reddy; K. Venkata Ramana; Ravindhranath, K.

    2012-01-01

    Sorbents derived from roots of Tephrosia purpurea, leaves and stems of Terminalia Arjuna and Bivalve snail shells have been explored for their sorption abilities towards Methylene Blue using synthetically prepared simulated waste waters. It is found that at high pHs, these bio-materials have shown strong affinity towards Methylene Blue. The physicochemical properties such as pH, sorbent concentration and time of equilibration have been optimized for the maximum removal of Methylene Blue from ...

  12. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  13. Methylene blue for distributive shock: a potential new use of an old antidote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H; Nelson, Lewis S; Hoffman, Robert S

    2013-09-01

    Methylene blue is used primarily in the treatment of patients with methemoglobinemia. Most recently, methylene blue has been used as a treatment for refractory distributive shock from a variety of causes such as sepsis and anaphylaxis. Many studies suggest that the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of distributive shock. There are some experimental and clinical experiences with the use of methylene blue as a selective inhibitor of the NO-cGMP pathway. Methylene blue may play a role in the treatment of distributive shock when standard treatment fails.

  14. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  15. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao, E-mail: yangst@pku.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} enabled the magnetic separation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS. The facile regeneration of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed.

  16. High-pressure FT IR measurements of crystalline methylene chloride up to 120 kbar in the diamond anvil cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H.; Xu, J.; Mao, H. K.; Bell, P. M.

    1984-03-01

    The FT IR spectra of pressure-induced crystalline CH 2Cl 2 at room temperature were measured at hydrostatic pressures up to 120 kbar in the diamond anvil cell. The pressure dependences of the internal modes (ν 3, ν 9, ν 8, and ν 2) are reported and compared with the result of Raman scattering measurements. The discontinuity of the slope (dν/d P) at ≈ 45 kbar for the ν 9 antisymmetric CCl streching mode indicates the pressure-induced second-order phase transition which seems to be triggered by the interaction between the ν 9 mode and the ν 3 symmetric CCl stretching mode.

  17. ADSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION ON ATTAPULGITE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution using attapulgite as adsorbent. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, contact time, the pH value, and attapulgite dosage on the adsorption performance were investigated. The standard curve and regression equation were established by spectrophotometry. The adsorption experimental results showed that the adsorption equilibrium data were well in accord with Langmuir adsorptive model. The optimal result was acquired under the experimental condition of attapulgite dosage 0.18g, MB concentration 50.0mg/L, pH 10, and adsorption time 20min at room temperature.

  18. Methylene blue upregulates Nrf2/ARE genes and prevents tau-related neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Cliona; Jainuddin, Shari; Elipenahli, Ceyhan; Gerges, Meri; Starkova, Natalia; Starkov, Anatoly A; Jové, Mariona; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Launay, Nathalie; Pujol, Aurora; Kaidery, Navneet Ammal; Thomas, Bobby; Tampellini, Davide; Beal, M Flint; Dumont, Magali

    2014-07-15

    Methylene blue (MB, methylthioninium chloride) is a phenothiazine that crosses the blood brain barrier and acts as a redox cycler. Among its beneficial properties are its abilities to act as an antioxidant, to reduce tau protein aggregation and to improve energy metabolism. These actions are of particular interest for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with tau protein aggregates known as tauopathies. The present study examined the effects of MB in the P301S mouse model of tauopathy. Both 4 mg/kg MB (low dose) and 40 mg/kg MB (high dose) were administered in the diet ad libitum from 1 to 10 months of age. We assessed behavior, tau pathology, oxidative damage, inflammation and numbers of mitochondria. MB improved the behavioral abnormalities and reduced tau pathology, inflammation and oxidative damage in the P301S mice. These beneficial effects were associated with increased expression of genes regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE), which play an important role in antioxidant defenses, preventing protein aggregation, and reducing inflammation. The activation of Nrf2/ARE genes is neuroprotective in other transgenic mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases and it appears to be an important mediator of the neuroprotective effects of MB in P301S mice. Moreover, we used Nrf2 knock out fibroblasts to show that the upregulation of Nrf2/ARE genes by MB is Nrf2 dependent and not due to secondary effects of the compound. These findings provide further evidence that MB has important neuroprotective effects that may be beneficial in the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases with tau pathology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general d

  20. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  1. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki

    2005-02-01

    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  2. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No... Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or...

  3. The efficacy of methylene blue encapsulated in silica nanoparticles compared to naked methylene blue for photodynamic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhadmeh, Ghaseb Naser; Abdul Aziz, Azlan; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the physical effects of methylene blue (MB) encapsulated within silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) in photodynamic therapy. The optimum concentration of MB needed to destroy red blood cells (RBCs) was determined, and the efficacy of encapsulated MB-SiNPs compared to that of naked MB was verified. The results confirmed the applicability of MB encapsulated in SiNPs on RBCs, and established a relationship between the concentration of the SiNP-encapsulated MB and the time required to rupture 50% of the RBCs (t50). The MB encapsulated in SiNPs exhibited higher efficacy compared to that of naked MB.

  4. Nuclear overhauser spectroscopy of chiral CHD methylene groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, Rafal [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Stanek, Jan [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Colaux, Henri; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Koźmiński, Wiktor [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Herrmann, Torsten [Université de Lyon/UMR 5280 CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs (France); Ferrage, Fabien, E-mail: Fabien.Ferrage@ens.fr [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France)

    2016-01-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) can provide a great deal of information about structure and dynamics of biomolecules. The quality of an NMR structure strongly depends on the number of experimental observables and on their accurate conversion into geometric restraints. When distance restraints are derived from nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), stereo-specific assignments of prochiral atoms can contribute significantly to the accuracy of NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids. Here we introduce a series of NOESY-based pulse sequences that can assist in the assignment of chiral CHD methylene protons in random fractionally deuterated proteins. Partial deuteration suppresses spin-diffusion between the two protons of CH{sub 2} groups that normally impedes the distinction of cross-relaxation networks for these two protons in NOESY spectra. Three and four-dimensional spectra allow one to distinguish cross-relaxation pathways involving either of the two methylene protons so that one can obtain stereospecific assignments. In addition, the analysis provides a large number of stereospecific distance restraints. Non-uniform sampling was used to ensure optimal signal resolution in 4D spectra and reduce ambiguities of the assignments. Automatic assignment procedures were modified for efficient and accurate stereospecific assignments during automated structure calculations based on 3D spectra. The protocol was applied to calcium-loaded calbindin D{sub 9k}. A large number of stereospecific assignments lead to a significant improvement of the accuracy of the structure.

  5. Aminothienopyridazines and methylene blue affect Tau fibrillization via cysteine oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Alex; James, Michael J; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Smith, Amos B; Trojanowski, John Q; Ballatore, Carlo; Brunden, Kurt R

    2013-04-19

    Alzheimer disease and several other neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by the accumulation of intraneuronal fibrils comprised of the protein Tau. Tau is normally a soluble protein that stabilizes microtubules, with splice isoforms that contain either three (3-R) or four (4-R) microtubule binding repeats. The formation of Tau fibrils is thought to result in neuronal damage, and inhibitors of Tau fibrillization may hold promise as therapeutic agents. The process of Tau fibrillization can be replicated in vitro, and a number of small molecules have been identified that inhibit Tau fibril formation. However, little is known about how these molecules affect Tau fibrillization. Here, we examined the mechanism by which the previously described aminothieno pyridazine (ATPZ) series of compounds inhibit Tau fibrillization. Active ATPZs were found to promote the oxidation of the two cysteine residues within 4-R Tau by a redox cycling mechanism, resulting in the formation of a disulfide-containing compact monomer that was refractory to fibrillization. Moreover, the ATPZs facilitated intermolecular disulfide formation between 3-R Tau monomers, leading to dimers that were capable of fibrillization. The ATPZs also caused cysteine oxidation in molecules unrelated to Tau. Interestingly, methylene blue, an inhibitor of Tau fibrillization under evaluation in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, caused a similar oxidation of cysteines in Tau and other molecules. These findings reveal that the ATPZs and methylene blue act by a mechanism that may affect their viability as potential therapeutic agents.

  6. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P. A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  7. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  8. Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, W.H.; Miller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents. Th...

  9. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ... It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an inherited disorder that makes kids sick ...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O,...

  11. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the...

  12. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review... revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...

  13. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. Singlet oxygen luminescence detecting in presence of hybrid associates of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots with methylene blue molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Kondratenko, T. S.; Smirnov, M. S.; Perepelitsa, A. S.; Grevtseva, I. G.; Vinokur, Y. A.; Aslanov, S. V.; Matsukovich, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    In our work we demonstrate some spectroscopic investigation of colloidal Ag2S QDs associates with methylene blue. The photosensitizing of singlet oxygen by associates of colloidal Ag2S QDs with methylene blue was found.

  16. Suspected serotonin syndrome in a patient being treated with methylene blue for ifosfamide encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, A M; Rybak, I; Wadleigh, M; Fisher, D C

    2012-12-01

    Methylene blue has been used not only as a diagnostic agent, but also as an agent in the treatment of ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy (IIE) for several years. Recently, several cases of suspected serotonin syndrome have been reported in patients who received methylene blue in combination with serotonin active agents. Rodent models have revealed that methylene blue is a potent, reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A. It is well known that serotonin active drugs, in combination with monoamine oxidase inhibitors can produce profound serotonin syndrome. To date, cases of serotonin syndrome, which resulted from concurrent methylene blue and serotonin active agents, have been published in the anesthesia literature. We report the first known case of serotonin syndrome in a patient receiving methylene blue for IIE.

  17. Improvement in Hemodynamics After Methylene Blue Administration in Drug-Induced Vasodilatory Shock: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laes, JoAn R; Williams, David M; Cole, Jon B

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a case where methylene blue improved hemodynamics in a poisoned patient. This is a single case report where a poisoned patient developed vasodilatory shock following ingestion of atenolol, amlodipine, and valsartan. Shock persisted after multiple therapies including vasopressors, high-dose insulin, hemodialysis, and 20% intravenous fat emulsion. Methylene blue (2 mg/kg IV over 30 min) was administered in the ICU with temporal improvement as measured by pulmonary artery catheter hemodynamic data pre- and post-methylene blue administration. Within 1 h of methylene blue administration, systemic vascular resistance improved (240 dyn s/cm5 increased to 1204 dyn s/cm5), and vasopressor requirements decreased with maintenance of mean arterial pressure 60 mmHg. Methylene blue may improve hemodynamics in drug-induced vasodilatory shock and should be considered in critically ill patients poisoned with vasodilatory medications refractory to standard therapies.

  18. Evaluation of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as an indoor air pollutant and biological assessment of methylene dianiline in the polyurethane factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmohammadi Mirtaghi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today many raw materials used in factories may have a dangerous effect on the physiological system of workers. One of them, which is widely used in the polyurethane factories, is diisocyanates. These compounds are widely used in surface coatings, polyurethane foams, adhesives, resins, elastomers, binders, and sealants. Exposure to diisocyanates causes irritation to the skin, mucous membranes, eyes, and respiratory tract. Methylene dianiline (MDA is a metabolite of methylene diphenyle diisocyanate (MDI, an excretory material of worker′s urine who are exposed to MDI. Around 100 air samples were collected among five factories by the Midget Impinger, which contained DMSO absorbent as a solvent and Tryptamine as a reagent. Samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with an ECUV detector using the NIOSH 5522 method of sampling and analysis. Also, fifty urine samples were collected from workers by using William′s biological analysis method. The concentration of MDI in all air samples was more than 88 µg/m³, showing a high concentration of the pollutant in the workplaces in comparison with the NIOSH standard, and all the worker′s urine was contaminated by MDA. The correlation and regression tests were used to obtain statistical model for MDI and MDA that is useful for prediction of diisocyanates pollution situation in the polyurethane factories.

  19. Preparation of semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghaway, J; Soine, T O

    1979-05-01

    Semisynthetic (+)-tubocurarine chloride (II) was prepared by monoquaternization of (+)-tubocurine. The method involved treating (+)-tubocurine with a 0.5 M equivalent of hydrochloric acid prior to quaternization with methyl iodide, followed by neutralization and iodide-chloride ion-exchange. Column chromatography and crystallization procedures were utilized for pure semisynthetic II preparation. The neuromuscular junction blocking activities of the semisynthetic and commercial II were determined by the in vivo cat hypoglossal nerve-tongue muscle preparation. No delectable differences among physical constants, spectral data, and neuromuscular junction blocking activities were noted between the commercial product and the semisynthetic II. This result substantiates the chemical and biological data for the well-accepted new formula for II. The unexplained M + n14 mass spectral peaks shown by the curare-type bases are characteristic of the molecular species rather than a result of contaminants.

  20. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Deuterated Methylene Bi-Radical CD_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Hiroyuki; Bailleux, Stephane

    2015-06-01

    Methylene, the parent of the carbene compounds, plays a crucial role in many chemical reactions. This bi-radical is a known interstellar molecule that has been detected towards hot cores in dense interstellar clouds. CH_2 is also thought to be present in cometary atmospheres. In the gas phase chemical models of both dense and diffuse molecular clouds, CH_2 is a key intermediate in interstellar carbon chemistry which is produced primarily by dissociative recombination of the methyl ion, CH^+_3. Recently tentative detection of the mono-deuterated methyl ion, CH_2D^+ has been reported toward an infrared source in the vicinity of Orion. Deuterated methylene CHD and CD_2 can be produced from this ion or its counterpart CHD^+_2 by dissociative recombination with an electron: CH2D+ + e- → CHD+ H or {CH2 + D}, CHD2+ ~+ e- → CHD+ D or CD2 + H. Thus, both CHD and CD_2 can be observed in warm interstellar clouds, where the deuterium fractionation process is important. Precise laboratory reference data are desirable for radioastronomical observation of these molecules. Here we report on our high-resolution spectroscopic investigation on the deuterated methylene radical, CD_2 (X ^3B_1) up to 1.45 THz. At present time, eleven out of the twelve fine-structure components of four pure rotational transitions have been newly recorded, and these measurements double the number of previously observed transitions. CD_2 was generated in a discharge in CD_2CO which was obtained from the flash pyrolysis of acetic anhydride-d6 ((CD_3CO)_2O). Effort is currently made to measure the astronomically important 111 - 000 transition whose fine-structure components are predicted to occur at 1.224,1.228 and 1.234 THz. D. C. Lis, P. F. Goldsmith, E. A. Bergin et al. 2009, in Submillimeter Astrophysics and Technology, ASP Conf. Ser., 417, 23. H. Ozeki and S. Saito J. Chem. Phys. 1996, 104, 2167.

  1. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Mehmet Akkurt; Yathirajan, H.S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxophenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethylpropanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothiazine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions.

  2. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  3. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  4. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  5. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; El-Mohr, M.A.K.; Dyer, T.D. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-11-01

    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimize resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole/liter were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50% and to then decline. It increased with chloride exposure concentration as well as water/binder ratio. The coefficient of chloride diffusion of concrete samples was found to be dependent on both the intrinsic permeability of the concrete and the ability of its cement matrix to bind chlorides.

  6. Preparation of photocrosslinkable polystyrene methylene cinnamate nanofibers via electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chuan; Nirmala, R; Navamathavan, R; Li, Xiang-Dan; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2011-10-01

    Nanoscaled photocrosslinkable polystyrene methylene cinnamate (PSMC) nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning. The PSMC was prepared by the modification of polystyrene as a starting material via a two-step reaction process, chloromethylation and esterification. The chemical structure of PSMC was confirmed by 1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photosensitivity of the PSMC was investigated using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic methods. Electrospun PSMC nanofiber mat showed excellent solubility in many organic solvents. UV irradiation of the electrospun mats led to photodimerization to resist dissolving in organic solvents. The morphology of the nanofiber was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the result indicated that the average diameter of nanofibers is 350 nm and the crosslinked nanofibers were not collapsed after dipping into organic solvent showing good solvent-stability. This photocrosslinked nanofibers has the potential application in filtration, catalyst carrier and protective coating.

  7. ANTIVIRAL TESTS OF METHYLENE BLUE INJECTION ON VZV IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Methylene blue injection has a stronger direct inactivation on VZV in vitro. When the injection was diluted from 1:16 to 1:128, which was obvious (P<0.01 and P<0.05). The MIC was 1:222, the IC50 was 1:135 and IC90 was 1:77. The results of microcellculture method showed when the injection was diluted from 1:16 to 1:64, it also effectively inhibited the proliferation of VZV in WISH continuous cell-lines (P<0.01 and P<0.05). The MIC was 1:95, the IC50 was 1:45 and the IC90 was 1:21.

  8. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Tao; Chen, Sheng; Chang, Yanli; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2011-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a highly effective absorbent of methylene blue (MB) and can be used to remove MB from aqueous solution. A huge absorption capacity of 714 mg/g is observed. At initial MB concentrations lower than 250 mg/L, the removal efficiency is higher than 99% and the solution can be decolorized to nearly colorless. The removal process is fast and more efficient at lower temperatures and higher pH values. The increase of ionic strength and the presence of dissolved organic matter would further enhance the removal process when MB concentration is high. The results indicate that GO can be applied in treating industrial effluent and contaminated natural water. The implications to graphene-based environmental technologies are discussed.

  9. Synthesis and properties of polybenzazoles containing flexible methylene in backbone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui XU; Xiaoyun LIU; Chengjun ZHOU; Qixin ZHUANG; Zhewen HAN

    2008-01-01

    A novel series of polybenzazoles with rigid-rod benzoxazole cycle and soft methylene segment was designed and synthesized via solution condensation poly-merizations from 4,6-diamino-l,3-benzenediol dipho-sphate, terephthalic acid and aliphatic dicarboxylic acid. The structures of polybenzazoles were characterized by means of FT-IR,1H NMR and Wide-angle X-ray diffrac-tion (WAXRD). All the polymers show excellent thermal stability and the TdS was above 471℃, The intrinsic vis-cosities [η] of the polymers ranged from 0.8 to 0.9. The UV-Vis absorption peaks of the polymers in MSA were blue-shifted from 429 nm for PBO to 291 nm for PBOC7, and the Stokes shifts in PL spectra enlarged.

  10. Effect of lipiodol and methylene blue on the thoracoscopic preoperative positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuan-Yu; Yu, Hua-Long; Liu, Shi-He; Jiang, Gang; Wang, Yong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the site-specific accuracy of mixture of lipiodol and methylene blue (MLM) (0.6 ml, 1:5) and pure methylene blue (0.5 ml) on the rabbit lungs. In this study, CT-guided percutaneous injection of MLM and methylene blue. Compare the staining degree by biopsy of lung tissue. Use 4 points system to evaluate the site-specific accuracy at 6h and 24 h after injection. For MLM, evaluate its radiopacity by radiation. When evaluate the positioning, 2 points mean acceptable, 3 points mean excellent. The results indicated that the staining range of MLM is obvious less than that of methylene blue (0.6 vs. 1.0 cm, Pmethylene blue (2.8 vs. 2.2, P = 0.01). About the staining abilities which are evaluated as excellent, MLM group accounts for 81%, methylene blue group accounts for 38% (P = 0.011). About the radiopacity which are evaluated as acceptable or excellent, MLM group accounts for 62%. With good direct vision, the suitable positioning rate of MLM can be 100%, which is better than that of methylene blue. In conclusion, percutaneous injection of MLM can be used to lung positioning. The result shows that use MLM is better than only using methylene blue. But it is necessary to do the investigation in human beings in order to confirm the feasibility of its clinical application.

  11. Effectiveness of purified methylene blue in an experimental model of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Roger B D; Asmar, Shady; Napez, Claude; Lépidi, Hubert; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is responsible for Buruli ulcer, characterised by extensive, disabling ulcers. Standard treatment combining rifampicin and streptomycin exposes patients to toxicity and daily painful injections. In this study, the in vitro susceptibilities of 3 M. ulcerans strains, 1 Mycobacterium marinum strain and 18 strains representative of eleven other Mycobacterium species and subspecies to methylene blue were determined. Whilst growth of M. ulcerans was inhibited by 0.0125 g/L methylene blue, growth of all other tested strains was not inhibited by 1 g/L methylene blue. The effectiveness of methylene blue in a murine model of M. ulcerans infection was then tested. Topical treatment by brushing a methylene blue solution on the skin lesion, systemic treatment by intraperitoneal injection of methylene blue, and a combined treatment (topical and systemic) were tested. The three treatment groups exhibited a significantly lower clinical score compared with the non-treated control group (P methylene blue against the initial stage of Buruli ulcer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. [Research on degradation of methylene blue by coal bottom ash-microwave irradiation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Wei; Li, Na; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-De

    2010-05-01

    Coal bottom ash is rich in metals and transition metals, and with microwave irradiation these metals can effectively degradate organic matter. Methylene blue degradation by coal bottom ash-microwave irradiation mainly through hydroxyl radicals to degrade organic matter, and metals and rare metals in bottom ash can be used as a catalyst for deep oxidation of organic matter, can reduce processing costs, and reduce environmental pollution. In the present paper the main parameters including the amount of coal bottom ash, H2O2 dosage and time of microwave irradiation were investigated. The UV-visible spectra of methylene blue were determined. The results show that: under coal bottom ash and H2O2 microwave condition the degeneration rate of methylene blue was almost 100%. The dosage of coal ash can accelerate the reaction process, speeding up the degradation of methylene blue. The increase of H2O2 may provide more * OH and speed up the reaction process, but when up to a certain amount, the influence is weakened. The lengthening of microwave time may enhance the reaction temperature, and urge the methylene blue to degrade completely. For 0.125 g x L(-1) of methylene blue, by adding 1.0 g coal bottom ash, 5 mL H2O2 and under mesotherm microwave temperature for 4 min, the methylene blue can be all degradated.

  13. Preparation of the methylene blue silica compound microcapsule; Mechirenburushirika fukugo maikuro kapuseru no chosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Koji [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan); Ono, Hideo

    1999-07-05

    By using methylene blue aqueous solution of the cationy for the dispersed phase of the W/0 emulsion, and using this for hydrolysis of TEOS and reaction field of the degeneracy conjunction, force - methylene blue compound microcapsule of 4.0 {mu}m mean particle sizes was prepared. When the water was supplied, though there was elution behavior of the methylene blue from this microcapsule in the condition that the methylene blue was fixed in the silica microcapsule without completely dissolving, the elution amount of methylene blue increased eluate isoelectric point silica, and the pH dependence was shown. Therefore, a part of methylene blue in dispersed phase combines with the silica in Coulomb force like during hydrolysis and degeneracy conjunction of TEOS, and it is fixed in the silica microcapsule resistant, and by the consistency of pH of the eluate, it is meanwhile regarded out for acidic as a dissolution of the methylene blue of the isoelectric point of the silica from the silica microcapsule. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  15. Modified methylene blue injection improves lymph node harvest in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianpei; Huang, Pinjie; Zheng, Zongheng; Chen, Tufeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nodal metastases in rectal cancer plays an important role in accurate staging and prognosis, which depends on adequate lymph node harvest. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the feasibility and survival benefit of improving lymph node harvest by a modified method with methylene blue injection in rectal cancer specimens. One hundred and thirty-one patients with rectal cancer were randomly assigned to the control group in which lymph nodes were harvested by palpation and sight, or to the methylene blue group using a modified method of injection into the superior rectal artery with methylene blue. Analysis of clinicopathologic records, including a long-term follow-up, was performed. In the methylene blue group, 678 lymph nodes were harvested by simple palpation and sight. Methylene blue injection added 853 lymph nodes to the total harvest as well as 32 additional metastatic lymph nodes, causing a shift to node-positive stage in four patients. The average number of lymph nodes harvested was 11.7 ± 3.4 in the control group and 23.2 ± 4.7 in the methylene blue group, respectively. The harvest of small lymph nodes (methylene blue group. The modified method of injection with methylene blue had no impact on overall survival. The modified method with methylene blue injection improved lymph node harvest in rectal cancer, especially small node and metastatic node retrieval, which provided more accurate staging. However, it was not associated with overall survival. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Methylene blue prevents retinal damage in an experimental model of ischemic proliferative retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Funes, Manuel; Larrayoz, Ignacio M; Fernández, Juan C; Contartese, Daniela S; Rolón, Federico; Inserra, Pablo I F; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; López-Costa, Juan J; Dorfman, Verónica B; Martínez, Alfredo; Loidl, César F

    2016-06-01

    Perinatal asphyxia induces retinal lesions, generating ischemic proliferative retinopathy, which may result in blindness. Previously, we showed that the nitrergic system was involved in the physiopathology of perinatal asphyxia. Here we analyze the application of methylene blue, a well-known soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, as a therapeutic strategy to prevent retinopathy. Male rats (n = 28 per group) were treated in different ways: 1) control group comprised born-to-term animals; 2) methylene blue group comprised animals born from pregnant rats treated with methylene blue (2 mg/kg) 30 and 5 min before delivery; 3) perinatal asphyxia (PA) group comprised rats exposed to perinatal asphyxia (20 min at 37°C); and 4) methylene blue-PA group comprised animals born from pregnant rats treated with methylene blue (2 mg/kg) 30 and 5 min before delivery, and then the pups were subjected to PA as above. For molecular studies, mRNA was obtained at different times after asphyxia, and tissue was collected at 30 days for morphological and biochemical analysis. Perinatal asphyxia produced significant gliosis, angiogenesis, and thickening of the inner retina. Methylene blue treatment reduced these parameters. Perinatal asphyxia resulted in a significant elevation of the nitrergic system as shown by NO synthase (NOS) activity assays, Western blotting, and (immuno)histochemistry for the neuronal isoform of NOS and NADPH-diaphorase activity. All these parameters were also normalized by the treatment. In addition, methylene blue induced the upregulation of the anti-angiogenic peptide, pigment epithelium-derived factor. Application of methylene blue reduced morphological and biochemical parameters of retinopathy. This finding suggests the use of methylene blue as a new treatment to prevent or decrease retinal damage in the context of ischemic proliferative retinopathy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Complications of Methylene Blue Dye in Breast Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FJ Reyes, MB Noelck, C Valentino, L Grasso-LeBeau, JE Lang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methylene blue dye has been used worldwide successfully with few complications in breast surgery. We present two different complications involving methylene blue: 1 skin and parenchymal necrosis when dye was injected in a subdermal fashion and 2 Mycoplasma infection caused by contaminated methylene blue in breast reduction surgery.Methods: We present two cases seen at the University of Arizona during 2008 and referred to a breast surgeon for management. We evaluated and managed complications of methylene blue dye injected by 2 referring surgeons for different indications. A review of the literature was performed.Results: The first case is a 67 year old female diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast for which she was treated by her initial surgeon with left segmental mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy. The operating surgeon injected methylene blue in a subareolar subdermal fashion (distant from the primary tumor; unfortunately the patient suffered skin and breast necrosis requiring multiple surgical debridements and finally achieving delayed primary closure. The second case is a 45 year old female with infiltrating lobular carcinoma with a history of Mycoplasma infection secondary to methylene blue injected for breast reduction surgery. She required multiple debridements and had granulomas masquerading as cancer on MRI that confounded her extent of disease.Conclusions: The use of methylene blue dye in breast surgery is not without risk. In both cases methylene blue was responsible for complications requiring surgical debridement for local wound problems. In each case severe necrosis and infection were present. Methylene blue may cause not only significant morbidity, but may also produce cosmetically unsatisfactory results.

  18. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C., E-mail: zuhra_kadirova@yahoo.com [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Mirzo Ulugbek Str. 77a, Tashkent 100170 (Uzbekistan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Katsumata, Ken-ichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Isobe, Toshihiro [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9–10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (S{sub BET} 50 m{sup 2}/g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (S{sub BET} 4 and 111 m{sup 2}/g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA < BAU-CL < BAU-HA sample and the adsorption followed Langmuir model. The apparent MB photodegradation rate constant (k{sub app}) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015–0.025 mM; sample content – 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration – 0.43 mM; pH 3–4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  19. Differential responses of nitrifying archaea and bacteria to methylene blue toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, A J; Urakawa, H

    2016-02-01

    Methylene blue, a heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound used to treat fish diseases in the ornamental fish aquaculture industry, is believed to impair nitrification as a side effect. However, very little is known about the toxicity of methylene blue to nitrifying micro-organisms. Here, we report the susceptibility of six bacterial and one archaeal ammonia-oxidizing micro-organisms to methylene blue within the range of 10 ppb to 10 ppm. Remarkably high susceptibility was observed in the archaeal species Nitrosopumilus maritimus compared to the bacterial species. Ammonia oxidation by Nitrosopumilus maritimus was inhibited 65% by 10 ppb of methylene blue. Of the bacterial species examined, Nitrosococcus oceani was the most resistant to methylene blue toxicity. For similar inhibition of Nitrosococcus oceani (75% inhibition), one thousand times more methylene blue (10 ppm) was needed. The examination of single cell viability on Nitrosomonas marina demonstrated that methylene blue is lethal to the cells rather than reducing their single cell ammonia oxidation activity. The level of susceptibility to methylene blue was related to the cell volume, intracytoplasmic membrane arrangement and the evolutionary lineage of nitrifying micro-organisms. Our findings are relevant for effectively using methylene blue in various aquaculture settings by helping minimize its impact on nitrifiers during the treatment of fish diseases. In the future, resistant nitrifiers such as Nitrosococcus oceani may be purposely added to aquaculture systems to maintain nitrification activity during treatments with methylene blue. The susceptibility of six bacterial and one archaeal nitrifying micro-organisms to methylene blue was tested. Remarkably high susceptibility was observed in the archaeal species compared to the bacterial species. The level of resistance to methylene blue was related to the cell volume, cytomembrane system and the taxonomic position of the nitrifying micro

  20. Upstaging of early colorectal cancers following improved lymph node yield after methylene blue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Rikke Karlin; Ingeholm, Peter; Lund, Eva Charlotte Løbner

    2012-01-01

    Jepsen R K, Ingeholm P & Lund E L (2012) Histopathology 61, 788-794 Upstaging of early colorectal cancers following improved lymph node yield after methylene blue injection Aims:  To evaluate whether the use of intra-arterial methylene blue injection improves lymph node yield, and to determine...... concerning tumour characteristics, lymph node count, number of positive lymph nodes and success of methylene injection had been prospectively collected in accordance with the department's ongoing registration. The method was easy to implement and perform with a high rate of success (86%). The number...

  1. Methylene Blue for Vasoplegia When on Cardiopulmonary Bypass During Double-Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Michelle; Schaff, Jacob; Lai, Terrance; Poppers, Jeremy

    2015-10-15

    Vasoplegia syndrome, characterized by hypotension refractory to fluid resuscitation or high-dose vasopressors, low systemic vascular resistance, and normal-to-increased cardiac index, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after cardiothoracic surgery. Methylene blue inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase, and has been used to treat vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, because methylene blue is associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, its use in patients undergoing lung transplantion has been limited. Herein, we report the use of methylene blue to treat refractory vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient undergoing double-lung transplantation.

  2. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue by Fe/ZnO/SiO2 Nanoparticles under Visiblelight

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Mohamed; Mkhalid, I. A.; Baeissa, E. S.; M. A. Al-Rayyani

    2012-01-01

    The photocatalytic activity of Fe/ZnO/SiO2 catalysts under visible-light irradiation for the degradation of methylene blue was evaluated. The effect of pH, illumination time, amount of catalyst loaded, and initial dye concentration on the degradation efficiency of methylene blue was investigated. The results reveal that the optimum photocatalytic oxidation conditions of methylene blue are as follows: pH=4 and illumination time is 30 min, the amount of catalyst loading is 0.075 g/L and 50 ppm ...

  3. Degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency plasmas in water under ultraviolet irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Tsunehiro; Nishiyama, Kyohei; Onishi, Shingo; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Kuramoto, Makoto; Nomura, Shinfuku; Kawashima, Ayato

    2010-02-15

    The degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency (RF) plasmas in water under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied experimentally. When the methylene blue solution was exposed to RF plasma, UV irradiation from a mercury vapor lamp enhanced degradation significantly. A lamp without power supply also enhanced degradation since weak UV light was emitted weakly from the lamp due to the excitation of mercury vapor by stray RF power. Such an enhancement is explained by the fact that after hydrogen peroxide is produced via the recombination process of OH radicals around the plasma, OH radicals reproduced from hydrogen peroxide via the photolysis process degrade methylene blue.

  4. Kinetics of Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue over TiO2 Particles in Aqueous Suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史载锋; 范益群; 徐南平; 时钧

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of photodegradation of methylene blue over UV light illuminated titania particles in aqueous suspensions has been studied with different initial methylene blue concentrations and TiO2 particle sizes. The degradation rate increases with the decrease of initial concentration and particle size. A quasi-experienced model for photodegradation rate is derived based mainly on the coinstantaneous effects of different initial concentrations and particle sizes. The mathematical relationships of model parameters with initial concentration and particle size are given. The model results of the photodegradation rate of methylene blue are coincident with the experimental data.

  5. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  6. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  7. Chloride Ion Critical Content in Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chloride ion critical content was studied under soaking and cycle of dry and wet conditions,with three electrochemical nondestructive measuring techniques, i e, half-cell potential, A C impedance, and time potential. The experimental results show that chloride ion critical content is primarily determined by the water cement ratio, while for the same concrete mixture the chloride ion critical content in soaking conditions is larger than that in a cycle of dry and wet conditions.

  8. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

  9. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  11. Novel management of methylene blue extravasation: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Saeed Khokhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue is a highly irritant drug and has been used intraoperatively. Its accidental extravasation can lead to tissue necrosis. In this report, a unique management is described, and the patient recovered without any morbidity.

  12. Fast and considerable adsorption of methylene blue dye onto graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Chunjiao; Zhou, Weichang; Lei, Aihua; Zhang, Qinglin; Wan, Qiang; Zou, Bingsuo

    2011-07-01

    The quite efficient adsorption of methylene blue dye from an aqueous solution by graphene oxide was studied. The favorable electrostatic attraction is the main interaction between methylene blue and graphene oxide. As graphene oxide has the special nanostructural properties and negatively charged surface, the positively charged methylene blue molecules can be easily adsorbed on it. In the aqueous solution of methylene blue at 293 K, the adsorption data could be fitted by the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption amount of 1.939 mg/mg and a Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant of 18.486 mL/mg. The adsorption amount increased with the increase of the solution pH (3-11), was not affected significantly by KCl under the examined condition and the adsorption process was exothermic in nature. The fast and considerable adsorption of graphene oxide could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal in wastewater treatment process.

  13. Photoacoustic Signals in Methylene Blue Solutions in Water/Glycerol Mixture Containing Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvekov, A. A.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Korzh, M. G.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Aduev, B. P.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the features of photoacoustic phenomena induced by the second harmonic of YAG:Nd3+ laser pulses (532 nm) in a methylene blue solution in a water/glycerol (1:1) mixture containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles as the light-scattering component. Using stationary spectroscopy, it was found that the dimerization degree of methylene blue is substantially lower in this solvent than in water. The dependencies of the signal amplitude normalized to the pulse energy density and of the effective signal rise constant on the methylene blue and titanium dioxide nanoparticle concentrations were obtained. It is shown that the signal rise constant depends linearly on the concentration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, while the amplitude is almost independent. A method is suggested for simultaneous photoacoustic determination of concentrations of both components. For testing samples, the uncertainty of the determination of the components concentration is less than 5% for methylene blue and less than 37% for titanium dioxide.

  14. Fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using a low-power diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianhua; Yang, Yulou; Shi, Xiaoxuan; Li, Kexun

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the application of diode lasers as alternative light sources for the fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under 443 nm laser light irradiation was found to be technically feasible using Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as photocatalysts. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, light source, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, and laser energy on decolorization and degradation were investigated. The mineralization of methylene blue was confirmed by chemical oxygen demand analysis. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced photocatalytic process can effectively degrade methylene blue under the optimum conditions (pH 9.63, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 1.4 g/L Ag/AgCl nanoparticles). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intrauterine Methylene Blue Injection Influences the Accuracy of Pulse Oximetry Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Cheng Yeh

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: Intraoperative administration of methylene blue may induce false low readings on pulse oximetry. The patient was not hypoxemic. If there is any doubt, arterial blood gas analysis should be done to ensure that the patient is well oxygenated.

  16. {alpha}-methylene and glycidic acid analogs of IPPA as potential myocardial imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyan, M. K.; Bakan, D. A.; Skinner, R. W. S.; Newman, C.; Gross, M. D.; Counsell, R. E

    1995-01-01

    Using organozinc cross-coupling reactions, two radiolabeled analogs of 15-(p-iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) have been designed and synthesized as potential scintigraphic imaging agents for the heart. Both 15-(4-iodophenyl)-tridecylglycidic acid and 15-(4-iodophenyl)-2-methylene pentadecanoic acid were synthesized and radioiodinated. In tissue biodistribution studies in rats, only the {alpha}-methylene derivative of IPPA displayed a consistently higher heart to blood ratio and a substantially lower degree of thyroid accumulation than did IPPA alone. With respect to a scintigraphic imaging efficacy, the {alpha}-methylene analog of IPPA and IPPA itself showed essentially equivalent cardiac imaging profiles in rabbits, with a slight extension in imaging time for the {alpha}-methylene analog of IPPA.

  17. Efficacy of Methylene Blue in an Experimental Model of Calcium Channel Blocker Induced Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H.; Donovan, Sean; Nelson, Lewis S.; Bania, Theodore C.; Hoffman, Robert S.; Chu, Jason

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Calcium channel blocker poisonings account for a substantial number of reported deaths from cardiovascular drugs. While supportive care is the mainstay of treatment, experimental therapies such as high dose insulin-euglycemia and lipid emulsion have been studied in animal models and used in humans. In the most severe cases even aggressive care is inadequate and deaths occur. In both experimental models and clinical cases of vasodilatory shock, methylene blue improves hemodynamic measures. Methylene blue acts as both a nitric oxide scavenger and inhibits guanylate cyclase that is responsible for the production of cGMP. Excessive cGMP production is associated with refractory vasodilatory shock in sepsis and anaphylaxis. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of methylene blue in an animal model of amlodipine-induced shock. METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, ventilated and instrumented for continuous blood pressure and heart rate monitoring. The dose of amlodipine that produced death within 60 minutes was 17 mg/kg/hour (LD50). Rats were divided into 2 groups: amlodipine followed by methylene blue or amlodipine followed by normal saline (NS) with 15 rats in each group. Rats received methylene blue at 2 mg/kg over 5 mins or an equivalent amount of NS in three intervals from the start of the protocol: Minute 5, 30, and 60. The animals were observed for a total of 2 hours after the start of the protocol. Mortality risk and survival time were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test and Kaplan Meier survival analysis with the log rank test. RESULTS Overall, 1/15 (7%) rats in the saline-treated group survived to 120 minutes compared with 5/15 (33%) rats in the methylene blue-treated group (difference −26%, 95% CI –54%, 0.3%). The median survival time for the NS group was 42 min (95% CI, 28.1,55.9) and the methylene blue group was 109 min (95% CI, 93.9,124.1). Heart rate and MAP differences between groups were analyzed until 60 minutes

  18. Methylene Blue to Treat Protamine-induced Anaphylaxis Reactions. An Experimental Study in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Afrodite S. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To examine if methylene blue (MB can counteract or prevent protamine (P cardiovascular effects. Methods: The protocol included five heparinized pig groups: Group Sham -without any drug; Group MB - MB 3 mg/kg infusion; Group P - protamine; Group P/MB - MB after protamine; Group MB/P - MB before protamine. Nitric oxide levels were obtained by the nitric oxide/ozone chemiluminescence method, performed using the Nitric Oxide Analizer 280i (Sievers, Boulder, CO, USA. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were estimated using the thiobarbiturate technique. Results: 1 Groups Sham and MB presented unchanged parameters; 2 Group P - a Intravenous protamine infusion caused mean arterial pressure decrease and recovery trend after 25-30 minutes, b Cardiac output decreased and remained stable until the end of protamine injection, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased until the end of protamine injection; 3 Methylene blue infusion after protamine (Group P/MB - a Marked mean arterial pressure decreased after protamine, but recovery after methylene blue injection, b Cardiac output decreased after protamine infusion, recovering after methylene blue infusion, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased after protamine infusion and methylene blue injections; 4 Methylene blue infusion before protamine (Group MB/P - a Mean arterial pressure decrease was less severe with rapid recovery, b After methylene blue, there was a progressive cardiac output increase up to protamine injection, when cardiac output decreased, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance decreased after protamine, followed by immediate Sustained systemic vascular resistance increase; 5 Plasma nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde values did not differ among the experimental groups. Conclusion: Reviewing these experimental results and our clinical experience, we suggest methylene blue safely prevents and treats hemodynamic protamine complications, from the

  19. Methylene Blue to Treat Protamine-induced Anaphylaxis Reactions. An Experimental Study in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite S; Margarido, Edson A; Menardi, Antonio Carlos; Scorzoni, Adilson; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Rodrigues, Alfredo J; Vicente, Walter Vilella A; Evora, Paulo Roberto B

    2016-01-01

    To examine if methylene blue (MB) can counteract or prevent protamine (P) cardiovascular effects. The protocol included five heparinized pig groups: Group Sham -without any drug; Group MB - MB 3 mg/kg infusion; Group P - protamine; Group P/MB - MB after protamine; Group MB/P - MB before protamine. Nitric oxide levels were obtained by the nitric oxide/ozone chemiluminescence method, performed using the Nitric Oxide Analizer 280i (Sievers, Boulder, CO, USA). Malondialdehyde plasma levels were estimated using the thiobarbiturate technique. 1) Groups Sham and MB presented unchanged parameters; 2) Group P - a) Intravenous protamine infusion caused mean arterial pressure decrease and recovery trend after 25-30 minutes, b) Cardiac output decreased and remained stable until the end of protamine injection, and c) Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased until the end of protamine injection; 3) Methylene blue infusion after protamine (Group P/MB) - a) Marked mean arterial pressure decreased after protamine, but recovery after methylene blue injection, b) Cardiac output decreased after protamine infusion, recovering after methylene blue infusion, and c) Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased after protamine infusion and methylene blue injections; 4) Methylene blue infusion before protamine (Group MB/P) - a) Mean arterial pressure decrease was less severe with rapid recovery, b) After methylene blue, there was a progressive cardiac output increase up to protamine injection, when cardiac output decreased, and c) Sustained systemic vascular resistance decreased after protamine, followed by immediate Sustained systemic vascular resistance increase; 5) Plasma nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde values did not differ among the experimental groups. Reviewing these experimental results and our clinical experience, we suggest methylene blue safely prevents and treats hemodynamic protamine complications, from the endothelium function point of view.

  20. Efficient alpha-Methylenation of Carbonyl Compounds in Ionic Liquids at Room Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, JA; Zanchetta, DF; Moran, PJS; RODRIGUES, JAR

    2009-01-01

    The application of several 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salt ionic liquids as solvent in the alpha-methylenation of carbonyl compounds at room temperature is reported. The ionic liquid [BMIM][NTf(2)] gave a clean reaction in a short time and good yields of several alpha-methylene carbonyl compounds. This ionic liquid was reused without affecting the reaction rates or yields over seven runs.

  1. Sonocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with TiO2 pellets in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nobuaki; Ogino, Chiaki; Dadjour, Mahmoud Farshbaf; Murata, Tomoyuki

    2007-02-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to study the degradation of methylene blue by the irradiation of ultrasound onto TiO(2) in aqueous solution. A statistically significant decrease in the concentration of methylene blue was observed after 60 min irradiation. While the reduction was 22% of the initial concentration without H(2)O(2), addition of H(2)O(2) significantly enhanced the degradation of methylene blue for the TiO(2) containing system (85% reduction of the initial concentration). The addition of H(2)O(2) had no effect on the methylene blue degradation when the system contained Al(2)O(3). The degradation ratio of methylene blue was dependent on the amount of TiO(2) and also the specific surface area of TiO(2) in the solution. The effects of radical scavenging agents on the degradation of methylene blue were also investigated for the system with TiO(2). It was found that the radical scavenging agents dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol, and mannitol suppressed the degradation, with DMSO being the most effective. The effect of pH on the degradation of methylene blue was further investigated. An U-shaped change in the concentration of methylene blue in the presence of TiO(2) was observed along with the change in pH values (pH 3-12), and the highest degradation ratio was observed at around pH 7. In conclusion, ultrasound irradiation of TiO(2) in aqueous solution resulted in significant generation of hydroxyl radicals, and this process may have potential for the treatment of organic dyes in wastewater.

  2. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue using ZnO Nano-Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaee, A.; H Masombaigi; Nasiri, A

    2009-01-01

    "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Textile industrial wastewaters are one of the important sources of environmental contaminants. In the recent years, use of advanced oxidation processes, by producing highly active and reactive components such as hydroxyl radicals has been proposed. The aim of this research is photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using the ZnO-nanoparticle with UVA irradiation. "nMaterials and Methods: photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue color using the ZnO- n...

  3. A nonradioactive assay for poly(a)-specific ribonuclease activity by methylene blue colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Wei-Feng; Yan, Yong-Bin; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2006-01-01

    A simple nonradioactive assay, which was based on the specific shift of the absorbance maximum of methylene blue induced by its intercalation into poly(A) molecules, was developed for poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN). A good linear relationship was found between the absorbance at 662 nm and the poly(A) concentration. The assay conditions, including the concentration of methylene blue, the incubation temperature and time, and the poly(A) concentration were evaluated and optimized.

  4. The Adsorption Efficiency of Chemically Prepared Activated Carbon from Cola Nut Shells by on Methylene Blue

    OpenAIRE

    Julius Ndi Nsami; Joseph Ketcha Mbadcam

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from cola nut shell has been investigated under batch mode. The influence of major parameters governing the efficiency of the process such as, solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, and contact time on the removal process was investigated. The time-dependent experimental studies showed that the adsorption quantity of methylene blue increases with initial concentration and decreasing adsorbent dosa...

  5. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2003-10-01

    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  6. Electrochemical Behavior of Copper in Thionyl Chloride Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Thionyl chloride is known *3 to react...electrolyte for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . 8R. K. McAlpine and B. A. Soule, Prescott and Johnson’s Qualitative Chemical Analysis, D. Van...black carbon electrodes, cupric chloride appears to be a useful cathode additive for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Preliminary results2l

  7. Methylene Blue: The Long and Winding Road From Stain to Brain: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2016-10-01

    Methylene blue was the first synthetic drug ever used in medicine, having been used to treat clinical pain syndromes, malaria, and psychotic disorders more than one century ago. Methylene blue is a cationic thiazine dye with redox-cycling properties and a selective affinity for the nervous system. This drug also inhibits the activity of monoamine oxidase, nitric oxide synthase, and guanylyl cyclase, as well as tau protein aggregation; increases the release of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine; reduces amyloid-beta levels; and increases cholinergic transmission. The action of methylene blue on multiple cellular and molecular targets justifies its investigation in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Investigations of methylene blue were instrumental in the serendipitous development of phenothiazine antipsychotic drugs. Although chlorpromazine is heralded as the first antipsychotic drug used in psychiatry, methylene blue is a phenothiazine drug that had been used to treat psychotic patients half a century earlier. It has also been studied in bipolar disorder and deserves further investigation for the treatment of unipolar and bipolar disorders. More recently, methylene blue has been the subject of preclinical and clinical investigations for cognitive dysfunction, dementia, and other neurodegenerative disorders. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(10), 21-26.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Identification of ocular surface squamous neoplasia by in vivo staining with methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jonel; Rice, James; Lecuona, Karin; Carrara, Henri

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of methylene blue used as a non-invasive in vivo stain to detect ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). A test validation study was performed according to Standards for the reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) guidelines on 75 consecutive patients who presented with ocular surface lesions suspicious of OSSN. Methylene blue 1% was instilled in vivo following local anaesthetic. Stain results were documented photographically and read by an independent observer. Lesions were excised at the same visit and evaluated histologically by pathologists who were blind to the stain results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were determined. Thirty-three patients had histologically malignant lesions, of which 32 stained with methylene blue, and 42 patients had benign or premalignant lesions, of which 21 stained with methylene blue. Methylene blue had a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 50% and positive and negative predictive values of 60% and 96%, respectively. The topical application of methylene blue is a simple, inexpensive, non-invasive diagnostic test that can be helpful in excluding malignant ocular surface lesions but cannot replace histology as gold standard for diagnosis of OSSN.

  9. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using a low-power diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xianhua, E-mail: lxh@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang, Yulou; Shi, Xiaoxuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Kexun, E-mail: likx@nankai.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300074 (China)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Photocatalytic oxidation of methylene blue was studied under laser light irradiation. • Fast removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution was achieved. • The photocatalyst Ag/AgCl is efficient and stable under 443 nm laser light irritation. • Diode laser is a good light source for photocatalytic degradation of dyes. - Abstract: This study focused on the application of diode lasers as alternative light sources for the fast photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under 443 nm laser light irradiation was found to be technically feasible using Ag/AgCl nanoparticles as photocatalysts. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as irradiation time, light source, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, pH, and laser energy on decolorization and degradation were investigated. The mineralization of methylene blue was confirmed by chemical oxygen demand analysis. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced photocatalytic process can effectively degrade methylene blue under the optimum conditions (pH 9.63, 4 mg/L MB concentration, and 1.4 g/L Ag/AgCl nanoparticles)

  11. Can methylene blue only be used in sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Mehra; Nakhlis, Faina

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an accepted standard of care to stage the axilla for clinically node-negative early stage breast cancer. In experienced hands, studies have shown an acceptable rate of identification of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) with blue dye only. Lymphazurin is occasionally associated with severe allergic reaction, including anaphylaxis and death. The use of methylene blue alone as a method of identifying the SLN in breast cancer has been reported once previously in the literature. Methylene blue may be an acceptable alternative with fewer deleterious side effects. Medical records of patients, who underwent sentinel node mapping between September 2003 and March 2005 by two surgeons at an academic medical center were reviewed. SLN mapping was performed by periareolar injection of 5 cc of 1% methylene blue. All patients with positive SLNs underwent completion axillary node dissection. During the study period, 141 consecutive patients with clinically node-negative axillas and without evidence of inflammatory breast cancer underwent SLNB with injection of methylene blue only. A SLN was identified in 136 of 141 patients (96.5%). Thirty-three of 136 SLNs (24%) harbored metastatic disease. No cases of anaphylaxis were noted. In experienced hands, methylene blue alone is a highly sensitive method of detecting SLNs. Avoiding the greater frequency of allergic reactions seen with lymphazurin is an important advantage of methylene blue.

  12. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-02-23

    The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer-methylene blue (MB). As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an) was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  13. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dabrzalska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer—methylene blue (MB. As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  14. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liquid separation easier during the next stage. The electrocoagulation stages must be optimized in order to design an economically feasible process. The results showed that the optimum electrolysis was 10–20 min at a current density of 8 mA/cm2, while the optimum concentration of the electrolyte (NaOH was found to be 2 wt.% when the dye concentration was 50 mg/L. The utilization of an electromagnetic field enhanced the dye removal due to the induced motion of paramagnetic ions inside the solution. The power consumption required to remove the dye was reduced by 45% in the case of applying an electromagnetic field.

  15. Optical Stark Spectroscopy of Chloro-Methylene HCCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C.; Wang, Zhong

    2011-06-01

    The optical spectrum of chloro-methylene, HCCl, has been studied for more than 40 years by both conventional and laser-based spectroscopy. Surprisingly, numerous visible bands have yet to be characterized, due in part to known perturbations. Furthermore, the permanent electric dipole moment, μEl, for any state has yet to be determined. Here we report on the field-free and optical Stark spectrum of the tilde{A}1A'' (060)- tilde{X}1A '(000) band system. A cold molecular beam sample was produced by skimming the output of a pulsed discharge source and the spectrum recorded at a resolution of approximately 30 MHz via LIF detection. The field-free spectrum was analyzed to produce an improved set of spectroscopic parameters for the tilde{A}1A''(060)state. The Stark induced shifts were analyzed to determine the values of the a-component of μEl for the tilde{X}1A^ {'}(000)state of 0.498(8)D. Small perturbations in the tilde{A}1A''(060)state will be described. A. J. Merer and D.N. Travis Can. J. Phys., 44, 525 1966. M.Kakimoto, S.Saito and E. Hirota J.Mol.Spectrosc., 97, 194 1983. B.-C.Chang and T. Sears J.Mol.Spectrosc., 173, 391 1995. H. Fan, I. Ionescu, C. Annesley, J. Cummins, M. Bowers and S. A. Reid J.Mol.Spectrosc., 225, 43 2004.

  16. Methylene blue alleviates nuclear and mitochondrial abnormalities in progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zheng-Mei; Choi, Ji Young; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Haoyue; Tariq, Zeshan; Wu, Di; Ko, Eunae; LaDana, Christina; Sesaki, Hiromi; Cao, Kan

    2016-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a fatal premature aging disease, is caused by a single-nucleotide mutation in the LMNA gene. Previous reports have focused on nuclear phenotypes in HGPS cells, yet the potential contribution of the mitochondria, a key player in normal aging, remains unclear. Using high-resolution microscopy analysis, we demonstrated a significantly increased fraction of swollen and fragmented mitochondria and a marked reduction in mitochondrial mobility in HGPS fibroblast cells. Notably, the expression of PGC-1α, a central regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, was inhibited by progerin. To rescue mitochondrial defects, we treated HGPS cells with a mitochondrial-targeting antioxidant methylene blue (MB). Our analysis indicated that MB treatment not only alleviated the mitochondrial defects but also rescued the hallmark nuclear abnormalities in HGPS cells. Additional analysis suggested that MB treatment released progerin from the nuclear membrane, rescued perinuclear heterochromatin loss and corrected misregulated gene expression in HGPS cells. Together, these results demonstrate a role of mitochondrial dysfunction in developing the premature aging phenotypes in HGPS cells and suggest MB as a promising therapeutic approach for HGPS.

  17. [3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV) epidemic?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2011-12-11

    Little is known about 3,4-methylene-dioxy-pyrovalerone (MDPV), a new designer drug that has become popular in Hungary in the last couple of months. At the same time, its consumption, as a consequence of its low street-price, rises so fast that the event can be considered an epidemic. This paper reviews the chemistry, biochemistry and metabolism of MDPV. Then, on the basis of a few international reports and the author's own clinical observations, it discusses MDPV intoxication and withdrawal. In the metabolism of MDPV, the most important catalyst is the CYP2C19 isoenzyme, but the CYP1A2 and the CYP2D6 isoenzymes also play a crucial role. The formed catechols are conjugated with either glucuronic acid or sulfate. It is important to note that MDPV is consumed either together or in a sequence with other illicit drugs of abuse. As far as it can be established, MDPV use increases the activity and vigilance, decreases appetite and claim to sleep, but it can also provoke cardiac sensations and disturbance of perception. In the course of coming down, withdrawal after MDPV use, bone and muscle pain, hypersomnia, disturbance of vision are experienced, but panic attack may also occur. The appearance of new designer drugs on the market draws attention to a need of paradigm changing in spiritual field. Unless it happens these negative trends likely will speed up.

  18. Degradation of methylene blue using biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaja, M; Paulkumar, K; Baburaja, M; Rajeshkumar, S; Gnanajobitha, G; Malarkodi, C; Sivakavinesan, M; Annadurai, G

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has great interest and achievement due to its eco-benign and low time consuming properties. In this study silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Morinda tinctoria leaf extract under different pH. The aqueous leaf extract was added to silver nitrate solution; the color of the reaction medium was changed from pale yellow to brown and that indicates reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Thus synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Dispersity and morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM); crystalline nature and purity of synthesized silver nanoparticles were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectrum was examined to identify the effective functional molecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined by degradation of methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles were effectively degrading the dye nearly 95% at 72 h of exposure time.

  19. Methylene blue as a cerebral metabolic and hemodynamic enhancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ling Lin

    Full Text Available By restoring mitochondrial function, methylene blue (MB is an effective neuroprotectant in many neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. MB has also been proposed as a brain metabolic enhancer because of its action on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. We used in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine how MB affects brain metabolism and hemodynamics. For in vitro, we evaluated the effect of MB on brain mitochondrial function, oxygen consumption, and glucose uptake. For in vivo, we applied neuroimaging and intravenous measurements to determine MB's effect on glucose uptake, cerebral blood flow (CBF, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2 under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in rats. MB significantly increases mitochondrial complex I-III activity in isolated mitochondria and enhances oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in HT-22 cells. Using positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we observed significant increases in brain glucose uptake, CBF, and CMRO(2 under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Further, MRI revealed that MB dramatically increased CBF in the hippocampus and in the cingulate, motor, and frontoparietal cortices, areas of the brain affected by Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Our results suggest that MB can enhance brain metabolism and hemodynamics, and multimetric neuroimaging systems offer a noninvasive, nondestructive way to evaluate treatment efficacy.

  20. Biosorption of Methylene Blue by Chemically Modified Cellulose Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yanqiao; ZHANG Yizhuan; Lü Qiufeng; CHENG Xiansu

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid modified cellulose waste (CMCW) was prepared via esterification and used as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The effects of biosorbent concentration, initial pH of MB solution, biosorption temperature, contact time, and initial MB concentration on the biosorption of MB were investigated using batch biosorption technique under static conditions. The experimental results showed that CMCW exhibited excellent biosorption characteristics for MB. The maximum biosorption capacity of MB was up to 214.5 mg/g at an adsorption temperature of 293 K. The removal rate of MB onto CMCW reached the maximum at pH>4 and the biosorption reached an equilibrium at about 50 min. The kinetic data can be described well with the pseudo-second-order model and the isotherm data was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 211.42 mg/g. The biosorption appears to be controlled by chemisorption and may be involved in surface adsorption and pore diffusion during the whole biosorption process.

  1. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging of dissolved oxygen using methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Shai

    2010-07-01

    Measuring distribution of dissolved oxygen in biological tissue is of prime interest for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy optimization. Tumor hypoxia indicates poor prognosis and resistance to radiotherapy. Despite its major clinical significance, no current imaging modality provides direct imaging of tissue oxygen. We present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) for noninvasive, 3-D imaging of tissue oxygen. The technique is based on photoacoustic probing of the excited state lifetime of methylene blue (MB) dye. MB is an FDA-approved water soluble dye with a peak absorption at 660 nm. A double pulse laser system (pump probe) is used to excite the dye and probe its transient absorption by detecting photoacoustic emission. The relaxation rate of MB depends linearly on oxygen concentration. Our measurements show high photoacoustic signal contrast at a probe wavelength of 810 nm, where the excited state absorption is more than four times higher than the ground state absorption. Imaging of a simple phantom is demonstrated. We conclude by discussing possible implementations of the technique in clinical settings and combining it with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for real-time therapy monitoring.

  2. Reduction of Methylene Green by EDTA: Kinetic and Thermodynamic Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AZMAT Rafia; QAMAR Noshab; SAEED Amber; UDDIN Fahim

    2008-01-01

    The reduction of methylene green (MG) into protonated leuco dye with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)in aqueous alkaline medium was studied spectrophotometrically at λmax 660 nm. EDTA behaved as an effective electron donor during the reduction of MG in an aerobic condition. Consumption of EDTA in the reduction of MG means that it is oxidized. This is an unexpected result since EDTA does not normally function as a reducing agent.The nitrogen-containing chelating agents with secondary or tertiary nitrogen behaved as an electron donor in photochemical reaction of dye. The rate of reduction depends upon pH in the same way as the base titration of EDTA.Effects of salt and temperature have been investigated for the reduction process. The salting agent KNO3 has been found to uniquely enhance the rate of reduction of MG by EDTA in the aerobic condition. Detailed kinetic and thermodynamic aspects have been discussed to realize the interaction between MG and EDTA. Kinetic studies revealed that reaction was sensitive and regeneration of oxidized form of the dye was observed. Reversible first order reaction kinetics with respect to EDTA, MG and NaOH was found.

  3. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  4. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Y.; Graaf, de D.B.; Olthuis, W.; Berg, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference electr

  5. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  6. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  9. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de result

  10. Ageing effect of chloride diffusion coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Most of the currently used models to predict chloride ingress a constant diffusion coefficient over time. However, a reduction of the diffusion coefficient over time, is ob-served at specimens that are exposed to chlorides. This reduction of the diffusion coefficient is expressed with the ageing coe

  11. SN2 and SN2' reaction dynamics of cyclopropenyl chloride with halide ion : A direct ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) study

    OpenAIRE

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2005-01-01

    Direct ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) calculations have been carried out for the reaction of cyclopropenyl chloride with halide ion (F–) (F– + (CH)3Cl → F(CH)3 + Cl–) in gas phase. Both SN2 and SN2′ channels were found as product channels. These channels are strongly dependent on the collision angle of F– to the target (CH)3Cl molecule. The collision at one of the carbon atoms of the C=C double bond leads to the SN2′ reaction channel; whereas the collision at the methylene carbon atom lead...

  12. Air stripping in sieve plate tower for the simulated treatment of the groundwater polluted by perchloroethylene%采用筛板塔吹脱模拟处理四氯乙烯污染地下水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫; 李丽; 林匡飞; 李炳智; 吕树光; 杜晓明; 郭美锦; 崔心红

    2012-01-01

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) as a typical chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent was widely used in industry. Now the groundwater of contaminated sites is badly polluted due to improper handling of PCE, which results in a serious threat to human health and ecological security. Air stripping in sieve plate tower for the treatment of the water polluted by PCE was studied. The results are as follows: After air stripping, PCE concentration declined from 25.68mg/L to 0.62mg/L, and removal rate amounted to 97.59%; Gas-liquid ratio obviously affected PCE removal rate and the optimum gas-liquid ratio was around 200; Initial concentration influenced the removal effect slightly; Waste water was better treated by 4 plates column; Experimental data followed one-order decay model very well; Economic cost was about ¥0.31 per ton of waste water, and therefore air stripping as a pre-treatment process of biochemical method was desirable.%利用自主设计的筛板塔装置模拟吹脱四氯乙烯(PCE)污染废水,综合考察了影响吹脱的各因素(气液体积比、初始浓度和筛板数等),同时对吹脱工艺条件进行了优化,并建立了吹脱模型.研究表明:25.68mg/L PCE废水经吹脱后出水浓度降至0.62mg/L,去除率可达97.59%;气液比对废水的吹脱效果影响很大,且最佳气液比在200左右;PCE初始浓度对去除率的影响并不明显;采用4层塔板时PCE去除效果较好;实验数据很好地遵从一级衰变模型;吨水吹脱成本约为0.31元,可作为后续生化处理的预处理工艺.

  13. Methylene blue solder re-absorption in microvascular anastomoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Jeremy F.; Hepplewhite, J.; Frier, Malcolm; Bell, Peter R. F.

    2003-06-01

    Soldered vascular anastomoses have been reported using several chromophores but little is known of the optimal conditions for microvascular anastomosis. There are some indications of the optimal protein contents of a solder, and the effects of methylene blue on anastomotic strength. The effects of varying laser power density in vivo have also been described, showing a high rate of thrombosis with laser power over 22.9Wcm-2. However no evidence exists to describe how long the solder remains at the site of the anastomosis. Oz et al reported that the fibrin used in their study had been almost completely removed by 90 days but without objective evidence of solder removal. In order to address the issue of solder re-absorption from the site of an anastomosis we used radio-labelled albumin (I-125) incorporated into methylene blue based solder. This was investigated in both the situation of the patent and thrombosed anastomosis with anastomoses formed at high and low power. Iodine-125 (half life: 60.2 days) was covalently bonded to porcine albumin and mixed with the solder solution. Radio-iodine has been used over many years to determine protein turnover using either I-125 or I-131. Iodine-125 labelled human albumin is regularly used as a radiopharmaceutical tool for the determination of plasma volume. Radio-iodine has the advantages of not affecting protein metabolism and the label is rapidly excreted after metabolic breakdown. Labelling with chromium (Cr-51) causes protein denaturation and is lost from the protein with time. Labelled albumin has been reported in human studies over a 21-day period, with similar results reported by Matthews. Most significantly McFarlane reported a different rate of catabolism of I-131 and I-125 over a 22-day period. The conclusion from this is that the rate of iodine clearance is a good indicator of protein catabolism. In parallel with the surgery a series of blank standards were prepared with a known mass of solder to correct for isotope

  14. Separation of Methylene Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Triton X-114 Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunagiri Appusamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction energy between Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue or water and methylene blue + water was investigated using Hartree-Fock (HF theory with 6-31G* basis set. The results of structures and interaction energies show that these complexes have good physical and chemical interactions at atom and molecular levels. However, the Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue complex shows stronger molecular interaction compared to other complexes systems. The order of the interaction energy is 4303.472023 (Triton X-114 surfactant + water > -1222.962 (methylene blue + water > -3573.28 (Triton X-114 surfactant + methylene blue kJ·mole−1. Subsequently, the cloud point extraction was carried out for 15 ppm of methylene blue in a mixture at 313.15 and 323.15 K over the surfactant concentration range from 0.01 M to 0.1 M. From the measured data, the excess molar volume was calculated for both phases. The results show a positive deviation in the dilute phase and a negative deviation in the surfactant rich phase. It is confirmed that the interaction between Triton X-114 and methylene blue is stronger than other complex systems due to the presence of chemical and structural orientation. The concentration of dyes and surfactant in the feed mixture and temperature effect in both phases has been studied. In addition, the thermodynamics feasibility and efficiency of the process have also been investigated.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of A Small Molecule CFTR Chloride Channel Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cheng-yan; ZHANG Heng-jun; SU Zhong-min; ZHOU Jin-song; YANG Hong; MA Tong-hui

    2004-01-01

    A thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor(CFTRinh-172) was synthesized by a three-step procedure with trifluromethylaniline as the starting material. The synthesized CFTR inhibitor was characterized structurally by means of 1H NMR and functionally in a CFTR-expressing cell line FRT/hCFTR/EYFP-H148Q by both fluorescent and electrophysiological methods. A large amount(100 g) of high-quality small molecule thiazolidinone CFTR chloride channel inhibitor, CFTRinh-172, can be produced with this simple three-step synthetic procedure. The structure of the final product 2-thioxo-3-(3-trifluromethylphenyl)-5-[4-carboxyphenyl-methylene]-4-thiazolidinone was confirmed by 1H NMR. The overall yield was 58% with a purity over 99% as analyzed by HPLC. The synthesized CFTRinh-172 specifically inhibited CFTR chloride channel function in a cell-based fluorescence assay(Kd≈1.5 μmol/L) and in a Ussing chamber-based short-circuit current assay(Kd≈0.2 μmol/L), indicating better quality than that of the commercial combinatorial compound. The synthesized inhibitor is nontoxic to cultured cells at a high concentration and to mouse at a high dose. The synthetic procedure developed here can be used to produce a large amount of the high-quality CFTRinh-172 suitable for antidiarrheal studies and for creation of cystic fibrosis models in large animals. The procedure can be used to synthesize radiolabled CFTRinh-172 for in vivo pharmacokinetics studies.

  16. Elaeagnus angustifolia STONE AS A LOW-COST BIOSORBENT PRECURSOR FOR REMOVAL OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    KILIÇ, Murat; POYRAZ, Zakir

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions by biosorption onto Elaeagnus angustifolia stone has investigated. Optimum biosorption conditions have determined as a function of pH, biosorbent dosage, initial methylene blue concentration, contact time and temperature of the solution for the removal of methylene blue. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models have used to describe the biosorption isotherm model. The experimental data have fitted t...

  17. Photoinduced protein modifications by methylene blue and naproxen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracchitta, Giuseppina; Catalfo, Alfio; De Guidi, Guido

    2012-12-01

    HPLC and emission spectroscopy were used to investigate UVA photosensitization of methylene blue (MB) or naproxen (NAP) towards bovine serum albumin (BSA). In addition, time resolved singlet oxygen measurements were carried out. The most stable drug : protein adducts stoichiometry of MB-BSA (1 : 1) and NAP-BSA (9 : 1) were verified by means of binding constant determination. UVA photosensitization of MB or NAP on BSA was studied by monitoring tryptophan (Trp) residue integrity. The sensitized photodegradation of the BSA resulted in different degrees of Trp damage. Thus, protein damage was determined by quantitative measurements of the different Trp (photo)-products. Indeed, many of these Trp derivatives are diagnostic for the photosensitization mechanism and some of them, for the first time in this work, were obtained by UVA photosensitization in proteins. The analysis of quantum yields of the photoproduct distribution allowed to weigh up the type I/II contribution to the UVA photosensitization mechanism. As expected, additional experiments in deuterated solvent resulted in an increase of the photodegradation quantum yields for those species where a singlet oxygen mechanism was involved. The UVA mediated generation of these Trp derivatives is consistent with the occurrence of singlet oxygen formation (almost dominant in MB), and photoionization (significant in NAP) within the protein matrix. Additional experiments at lower NAP concentration, as well as with human serum albumin (which differs for Trp content and, partially, localization), support further the molecular mechanism of photosensitization proposed. The results obtained in the case of this more complex system are in agreement with the free Trp model, even if, in almost all cases, the Trp photoproduct formation quantum yields are lower, due to the higher number of sensitization targets in the proteins.

  18. Methylene blue for clinical anaphylaxis treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Moreira Rodrigues

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in modulating systemic changes associated with anaphylaxis. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may exacerbate bronchospasm in anaphylaxis and worsen clinical conditions, with limited roles in anaphylactic shock treatment. The aim here was to report an anaphylaxis case (not anaphylactic shock, reversed by methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old female suddenly presented urticaria and pruritus, initially on her face and arms, then over her whole body. Oral antihistamine was administered initially, but without improvement in symptoms and signs until intravenous methylprednisolone 500 mg. Recurrence occurred after two hours, plus vomiting. Associated upper respiratory distress, pulmonary sibilance, laryngeal stridor and facial angioedema (including erythema and lip edema marked the evolution. At sites with severe pruritus, petechial lesions were observed. The clinical situation worsened, with dyspnea, tachypnea, peroral cyanosis, laryngeal edema with severe expiratory dyspnea and deepening unconsciousness. Conventional treatment was ineffective. Intubation and ventilatory support were then considered, because of severe hypoventilation. But, before doing that, based on our previous experience, 1.5 mg/kg (120 mg bolus of 4% MB was infused, followed by one hour of continuous infusion of another 120 mg diluted in dextrose 5% in water. Following the initial intravenous MB dose, the clinical situation reversed completely in less than 20 minutes, thereby avoiding tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Although the nitric oxide hypothesis for MB effectiveness discussed here remains unproven, our intention was to share our accumulated cohort experience, which strongly suggests MB is a lifesaving treatment for anaphylactic shock and/or anaphylaxis and other vasoplegic conditions.

  19. Low-temperature synthesis and investigations on photocatalytic activity of nanoparticles BiFeO3 for methylene blue and methylene orange degradation and some toxic organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiem Dao, Ngoc; Luu, Minh Dai; Chuc Pham, Ngoc; Dung Doan, Trung; Nguyen, Thi Ha Chi; Bac Nguyen, Quang; Lim Duong, Thi

    2016-12-01

    The photocatalytic BiFeO3 perovskite nanoparticles were fabricated by gel combustion method using polyvinyl alcohol and corresponding metal nitrate precursors under the optimum mild conditions such as pH 2, gel formation temperature of 80 °C, metal/polyvinyl alcohol molar ratio of 1/3, metal molar ratio Bi/Fe of 1/1 and calcination temperature at 500 °C for 2 h. The prepared sample was characterized by x-ray diffraction, field scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmetl-Teller nitrogen adsorption method at 77 K, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometry, and thermal analysis. The effects of molar ratios of starting material and calcination temperature on phase formation and morphology were investigated. The degradation of methylene blue, methylene orange and some toxic organic compounds such as phenol and diazinon under visible light irradiation by photocatalytic BiFeO3 nanoparticles were evaluated at different parameters and conditions such as the light intensity determined from the light source to the measured sample, the addition H2O2, reaction time and the regeneration performance. Obtained results showed that the synthesized perovskite BiFeO3 nanoparticles for the optimized sample have a size smaller than 50 nm and the high mean surface area of 50 m2 g-1. Degradation efficiency was almost 90.0% for methylene blue and 80.0% for methylene orange with added H2O2 after 30 min of reaction. After the 3rd time of regeneration, the BiFeO3 nanoparticles still have 92.8% of the degradation performance for removing methylene blue. Phenol and diazinon toxic compound were degraded with the performance of 92.42% and 85.7%, respectively, for 150 min

  20. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  1. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used......In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...

  2. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 kPa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly infl...

  3. Methylene blue treatment for residual symptoms of bipolar disorder: randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Martin; McKinnon, Margaret; Blagdon, Ryan; Garnham, Julie; MacLellan, Susan; O'Donovan, Claire; Hajek, Tomas; Nair, Cynthia; Dursun, Serdar; MacQueen, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    Residual symptoms and cognitive impairment are among important sources of disability in patients with bipolar disorder. Methylene blue could improve such symptoms because of its potential neuroprotective effects. We conducted a double-blind crossover study of a low dose (15 mg, 'placebo') and an active dose (195 mg) of methylene blue in patients with bipolar disorder treated with lamotrigine. Thirty-seven participants were enrolled in a 6-month trial (trial registration: NCT00214877). The outcome measures included severity of depression, mania and anxiety, and cognitive functioning. The active dose of methylene blue significantly improved symptoms of depression both on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (P = 0.02 and 0.05 in last-observation-carried-forward analysis). It also reduced the symptoms of anxiety measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (P = 0.02). The symptoms of mania remained low and stable throughout the study. The effects of methylene blue on cognitive symptoms were not significant. The medication was well tolerated with transient and mild side-effects. Methylene blue used as an adjunctive medication improved residual symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  4. Methylene Blue Assay for Estimation of Regenerative Re-Epithelialization In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyavsky, Maresha; Dickie, Renee

    2017-02-01

    The rapidity with which epithelial cells cover a wound surface helps determine whether scarring or scar-less healing results. As methylene blue is a vital dye that is absorbed by damaged tissue but not undamaged epidermis, it can be used to assess wound closure. We sought to develop a quantitative methylene blue exclusion assay to estimate the timeframe for re-epithelialization in regenerating appendages in zebrafish and axolotls, two classic model systems of regeneration. Following application of methylene blue to the amputation plane and extensive washing, the regenerating tail was imaged in vivo until staining was no longer visible. The percent area of the amputation plane positive for methylene blue, representing the area of the amputation plane not yet re-epithelialized, was measured for each time point. The loss of methylene blue occurred rapidly, within ~2.5 h in larval and juvenile axolotls and <1 h in adult zebrafish, consistent with high rates of re-epithelialization in these models of regeneration. The assay allows simple, rapid estimation of the time course for regenerative re-epithelialization without affecting subsequent regenerative ability. This technique will permit comparison of re-epithelialization across different strains and stages, as well as under the influence of various pharmacological inhibitors that affect regeneration.

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes Using New Methylene Blue as the Photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Chicón, P; Gulías, Ò; Nonell, S; Agut, M

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combines the use of a photosensitizing drug with light and oxygen to eradicate pathogens. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a dermatophytic fungus able to invade the skin and keratinized tissues. We have investigated the use of new methylene blue as the photosensitizing agent for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to produce the in vitro inactivation of T mentagrophytes. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the parameters for photoinactivation of the dermatophyte. The parameters studied were new methylene blue concentration, contact time between the photosensitizing agent and the fungus prior to light treatment, and the fluence of red light (wavelength, 620-645nm) applied. The minimum concentration of new methylene blue necessary to induce the death of all T. mentagrophytes cells in the initial suspension (approximate concentration, 10(6) colony forming units per milliliter) was 50μM for a fluence of 81J/cm(2) after a contact time of 10minutes with the photosensitizing-agent. Increasing the concentration to 100μM allowed the fluence to be decreased to 9J/cm(2). Comparison of our data with other published data shows that the susceptibility of T. mentagrophytes to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with new methylene blue is strain-dependent. New methylene blue is a photosensitizing agent that should be considered for the treatment of fungal skin infections caused by this dermatophyte. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Methylene blue dye for identification of processus vaginalis during hydrocele repair: experience in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Salvatore; Russo, Tiziana; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Antonuccio, Pietro; Perrone, Patrizia; Romeo, Carmelo

    2017-02-07

    To investigate the use of methylene blue in perioperative identification of the patent processus vaginalis in a group of boys presenting with congenital or recurrent hydrocele where surgery was performed by junior surgeons in training. We retrospectively reviewed the notes of 22 boys with hydrocele, of which two recurrences, who were operated on via a standard inguinal approach, by trainees. Methylene blue 0.3-0.5 ml was injected into the hydrocele fluid through the scrotal wall. A processus vaginalis was identified as a blue line. Methylene blue injection clearly identified a patent processus vaginalis in 91% of patients. In 9% (2 cases), of which one recurrence, methylene blue injection demonstrated a hydrocele with an obliterated processus vaginalis. There were no intraoperative complications. No testicular atrophy was recorded. Injection of methylene blue into the hydrocele sac may be considered a useful aid for a clearer identification of a difficult patent processus vaginalis. In the present series, there were no complications, and thus we believe that this technique might be suitable and especially helpful, in cases of recurrent hydrocele, and for junior surgeons in training.

  7. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of NiO-Decorated ZnO Nanowhiskers for Methylene Blue Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowhiskers were used for photodecomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The rate of methylene blue degradation increased linearly with time of UV irradiation. 54% of degradation rate was observed when the ZnO nanowhiskers were used as photocatalysts for methylene blue degradation for 80 min under UV irradiation. The decoration of p-type NiO nanoparticles on n-type ZnO nanowhiskers significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and reached 72% degradation rate of methylene blue by using the same method. NiO-decorated ZnO was recycled for second test and shows 66% degradation from maximal peak of methylene blue within the same period. The increment of photocatalytic activity of NiO-decorated ZnO nanowhiskers was explained by the extension of the electron depletion layer due to the formation of nanoscale p-n junctions between p-type NiO and n-type ZnO. Hence, these products provide new alternative proficient photocatalysts for wastewater treatment.

  8. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue using ZnO Nano-Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Textile industrial wastewaters are one of the important sources of environmental contaminants. In the recent years, use of advanced oxidation processes, by producing highly active and reactive components such as hydroxyl radicals has been proposed. The aim of this research is photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye using the ZnO-nanoparticle with UVA irradiation. "nMaterials and Methods: photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue color using the ZnO- nanoparticles excited with UVA irradiation. In this research, photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye was study using different concentration of ZnO-nanoparticles under UVA irradiation in a batch reactor. "nResults: The results of this research show that removal of methylene blue dye has direct correlation with UVA intensity. The best results of dye degradation were reported in concentration of 150 mg/L ZnO nano-particles and the radiation intensity of 240 µW/cm2. Rate of dye removal was decrease with increasing of color concentration. Subsequent of color degradation, the initial COD were decresed by %60. "nConclusion: The photocatalytic degradation process using ZnO nano-particles under UVA irradiation could be remove the methylene blue dye and 60% of COD.

  9. Sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis using methylene blue dye technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Vinayak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Penile carcinoma is a common disease in India. This paper shows the results of sentinel node biopsy using methylene blue and discusses the incidence of false-negative rates. Materials and Methods: From September 2005 to March 2008, 22 newly diagnosed penile carcinoma patients (T1, T2, N0 were included in this prospective study. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping was done using methylene blue dye and the sentinel node was identified and removed. Lymphadenectomy was performed for positive inguinal lymph node metastasis. Results : There were 22 patients (mean age 52.7. The tumors were mostly located in the glans (73%. Eighty six percent was T1 lesions and 14% was T2. Ninety one percent of the patients underwent partial penectomy, and 9% underwent total penectomy. Sentinel node was identified in 20 patients (90.9%. In total, 49 sentinel nodes were identified (2.45 nodes per person. Only one patient had a positive pathological lymph node metastasis at the time of the surgery. Additionally, two patients became inguinal lymph node positive at the follow-up. This data yielded a sensitivity rate of 33% and a false-negative rate of 66%. There were no complications due to methylene blue. Conclusion : Sentinel node biopsy using only methylene blue for penile carcinoma has a very low sensitivity and a high false-negative rate. However, methylene blue can be used as a substitute for lymphazurin.

  10. The catalytic dehydrochlorination of pentachloroethane with activated carbon supported calcium chloride%活性炭负载CaCl2催化五氯乙烷脱HCl的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智春; 陈胜洲; 陈汉伦; 谢文健

    2012-01-01

    Supported catalyst calcium chloride/activated carbon(CaCl2/AC) was prepared and used in dehydrochlorination of pentachloroethane to produce perchloroethylene.Influences of reaction temperature,space velocity and CaCl2 loading amount on catalytic activity of CaCl2/AC were investigated.Stability of catalytic activity of catalyst was also studied.Results of the experiment showed that the optimal conditions were reaction temperature 240℃,space velocity 3.4h-1,CaCl2 loading amount 0.3mmol/g.Under the optimal conditions,the conversion of pentachloroethane and the yield of perchloroethylene can reach more than 99% and 95%,respectively.And the repeatability of catalytic activity of catalyst was fine.The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption method.The results showed that the dispersion of CaCl2 on activated carbon surface was good.The BET surface area and pore volume of CaCl2/AC catalyst gradually decreased with the CaCl2 loading amount increased.%筛选出了催化性能较好的活性炭负载氯化钙(CaCl2/AC)催化剂用于五氯乙烷脱HCl制备四氯乙烯。考察了反应温度、空速、CaCl2负载量对CaCl2/AC催化剂催化性能的影响及催化剂的稳定性。实验结果表明最佳反应条件:反应温度为240℃,空速为3.4h-1,CaCl2负载量为0.3mmol/g,在此反应条件下五氯乙烷的转化率可达99%以上,四氯乙烯的收率达95%以上,催化剂催化性能重现性良好。采用X射线衍射(XRD)、氮气吸附-脱附对催化剂进行了表征。结果表明CaCl2在活性炭表面分散良好;随着CaCl2负载量的增加,CaCl2/AC催化剂的BET比表面及孔容逐渐减小。

  11. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (ΔH=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (ΔG=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (ΔS=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and molar adsorption coefficient (μa) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when

  12. Methylene blue mediated photobiomodulation on human osteoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Gamze Bölükbaşı; Ak, Ayşe; Garipcan, Bora; Gülsoy, Murat

    2017-08-04

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are two major methods, which use light in medicine and dentistry. PBM uses low-level laser light to induce cell proliferation and activity. In contrast, PDT use laser light combined with a photosensitizer (PS) to cause cell death. Due to similar, not fully understood mechanisms and biphasic response of light, unexpected and complex outcomes may be observed. In the present study, the effect of 635 nm laser light, with power density 50 mW/cm(2), at three different energy densities (0.5, 1, and 2 J/cm(2) which last 10, 20, and 40 s, respectively) mediated by methylene blue (MB) on the human osteoblast cell line (ATCC-CRL-11372, Rockville, MD, USA) was investigated. Cell viability (MTT assay and acridine orange/propidium iodide staining) and proliferation (Alamar Blue assay) were assessed at 24, 48, and 72 h post irradiation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization (Alizarin Red staining) and gene expressions (RT-PCR analysis) were analyzed at 7th and 14th days after treatment. Five groups were formed as the control group (no MB, no irradiation), MB (only 0.05 μM MB), MB + 0.5 J/cm(2), MB + 1 J/cm(2), and MB + 2 J/cm(2). Cell viability was decreased at 72 h (ANOVA; p < 0.05) for MB + 0.5 J/cm(2), MB + 1 J/cm(2), and MB + 2 J/cm(2) groups. Although proliferation does not seem to be effected by MB-mediated laser application, osteo-anabolic activity is altered. ALP activity was significantly increased at day 7 (ANOVA; p < 0.05) for MB-combined laser groups; on the other hand, mineralization was significantly decreased (ANOVA; p < 0.05) in all treatment groups. Alkaline phosphatase and collagen-I expressions were upregulated in MB + 2 J/cm(2) group at 7th and 14th days, respectively. These results may contribute to the low-dose PDT researches and understanding PBM effects on osteoblast behavior but further studies are needed since inappropriate conditions may lead to

  13. Methylene blue modulates transendothelial migration of peripheral blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Werner

    Full Text Available Vasoplegia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. Within the last years the administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor methylene blue (MB became a new therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to investigate the role of MB on transendothelial migration of circulating blood cells, the potential role of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS in this process, and the influence of MB on endothelial cell apoptosis. Human vascular endothelial cells (HuMEC-1 were treated for 30 minutes or 2 hours with different concentrations of MB. Inflammation was mimicked by LPS stimulation prior and after MB. Transmigration of PBMCs and T-Lymphocytes through the treated endothelial cells was investigated. The influence of MB upon the different subsets of PBMCs (Granulocytes, T- and B-Lymphocytes, and Monocytes was assessed after transmigration by means of flow-cytometry. The effect of MB on cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin-V and Propidium Iodide stainings. Analyses of the expression of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS were performed by means of RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results were analyzed using unpaired Students T-test. Analysis of endothelial cell apoptosis by MB indicated a dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cells. We observed time- and dose-dependent effects of MB on transendothelial migration of PBMCs. The prophylactic administration of MB led to an increase of transendothelial migration of PBMCs but not Jurkat cells. Furthermore, HuMEC-1 secretion of cGMP correlated with iNOS expression after MB administration but not with eNOS expression. Expression of these molecules was reduced after MB administration at protein level. This study clearly reveals that endothelial response to MB is dose- and especially time-dependent. MB shows different effects on circulating blood cell-subtypes, and modifies the release patterns of eNOS, iNOS, and cGMP. The transendothelial migration is modulated after treatment with MB. Furthermore, MB provokes apoptosis of endothelial

  14. Methylene blue modulates transendothelial migration of peripheral blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Isabella; Guo, Fengwei; Bogert, Nicolai V; Stock, Ulrich A; Meybohm, Patrick; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Vasoplegia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. Within the last years the administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor methylene blue (MB) became a new therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to investigate the role of MB on transendothelial migration of circulating blood cells, the potential role of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS in this process, and the influence of MB on endothelial cell apoptosis. Human vascular endothelial cells (HuMEC-1) were treated for 30 minutes or 2 hours with different concentrations of MB. Inflammation was mimicked by LPS stimulation prior and after MB. Transmigration of PBMCs and T-Lymphocytes through the treated endothelial cells was investigated. The influence of MB upon the different subsets of PBMCs (Granulocytes, T- and B-Lymphocytes, and Monocytes) was assessed after transmigration by means of flow-cytometry. The effect of MB on cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin-V and Propidium Iodide stainings. Analyses of the expression of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS were performed by means of RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results were analyzed using unpaired Students T-test. Analysis of endothelial cell apoptosis by MB indicated a dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cells. We observed time- and dose-dependent effects of MB on transendothelial migration of PBMCs. The prophylactic administration of MB led to an increase of transendothelial migration of PBMCs but not Jurkat cells. Furthermore, HuMEC-1 secretion of cGMP correlated with iNOS expression after MB administration but not with eNOS expression. Expression of these molecules was reduced after MB administration at protein level. This study clearly reveals that endothelial response to MB is dose- and especially time-dependent. MB shows different effects on circulating blood cell-subtypes, and modifies the release patterns of eNOS, iNOS, and cGMP. The transendothelial migration is modulated after treatment with MB. Furthermore, MB provokes apoptosis of endothelial cells in a dose

  15. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  16. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures.......The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k...

  17. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  18. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  19. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  20. Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

  1. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  2. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  3. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes

    OpenAIRE

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear ...

  4. Methylene blue and parathyroid adenoma localization: Three new cases of a rare cutaneous complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Elliot D; Thambi, Rakhi; Pytynia, Kristen B

    2016-02-01

    Methylene blue has been safely used for the localization of parathyroid glands during parathyroidectomy, and only a few adverse effects have been documented. Methylene blue administration as a cause of pulse-oximetry-related skin injury is extremely rare. We describe 2 such cases in patients who developed a blister on the second digit at the pulse oximetry site after an uncomplicated excision of a parathyroid adenoma. In another case, a patient became bradycardic intraoperatively; she was successfully resuscitated, but she incurred a second-degree burn at the pulse oximetry site. In all 3 cases, the burns resolved with local wound care. We publish this report to alert surgeons and anesthesiologists to the risk of skin complications with the use of high-dose intraoperative methylene blue.

  5. Exploring two-state reactivity pathways in the cycloaddition reactions of triplet methylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Patricia; Andrés, J; Safont, V S; Contreras, Renato; Tapia, O

    2005-05-12

    Spin forbidden 1,2-cycloadditions of triplet methylene to alkenes have been theoretically studied as an example of the two-state reactivity paradigm in organic chemistry. The cycloadditions of triplet methylene to ethylene and the (E)- and (Z)-2-butene isomers show spin inversion after the transition state and therefore with no effect on the reaction rate. A local analysis shows that while triplet methylene addition to alkenes leading to the formation of a biradical intermediate is driven by spin polarization, the ring closure step to yield cyclopropane is a pericyclic process. We have found that at the regions in the potential energy surface where the spin crossover is likely to occur, the spin potential in the direction of increasing spin multiplicity, mu(+)(s), tends to equalize the one in the direction of decreasing spin multiplicity, mu(-)(s). This equalization facilitates the spin transfer process driven by changes in the spin density of the system.

  6. Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by AB-8 Macroreticular Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jun-ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of methylene blue by AB-8 macroreticular resin was carried out through static experiments. The results showed that the adsorption rate for the solute appear to be the first order kinetics, the intraparticle diffusion is the main rate-controlling step. In the experimental temperature, thermodynamic studies indicated that methylene blue adsorption onto resin AB-8 conforms to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Methylene blue adsorption quantity respectively 30 mg/L, 150 mg/L, and 300 mg/L . The adsorption enthalpy change is 40.3 kJ/moL , 39.2 kJ/moL , and 33.6 kJ/moL respectively. The uptake of salicylic acid on AB-8 macroreticular resin is a type of physical adsorption.

  7. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  8. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  9. Viral Inactivation of Human Osteochondral Grafts with Methylene Blue and Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, Donna M; Zhao, Zhixing; Call, Gazell M; Gao, Jizong; Yao, Jian Q

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage injury is one of the most common disorders of synovial joints. Fresh osteochondral allografts are becoming a standard treatment; however, they are supply constrained with a potential risk of disease transmission. There are no known virucidal processes available for osteochondral allografts and most methods presently available are detrimental to cartilage. Methylene blue light treatment has been shown to be successful in the literature for viral inactivation of fresh frozen plasma. The purpose of this study was to determine the capacity of methylene blue light treatment to inactivate a panel of clinically relevant viruses inoculated onto osteochondral allografts. Osteochondral grafts recovered from human cadaveric knees were inoculated with one of the following viruses: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), porcine parvovirus (PPV), and pseudorabies virus (PrV). The samples were processed through a methylene blue light treatment, which consisted of an initial soak in nonilluminated circulating methylene blue at ambient temperature, followed by light exposure with circulating methylene blue at cool temperatures. The final titer was compared with the recovery control for the viral log reduction. HIV-1, BVDV, and PrV were reduced to nondetectable levels while HAV and PPV were reduced by 3.1 and 5.6 logs, respectively. The methylene blue light treatment was effective in reducing (a) enveloped DNA and RNA viruses to nondetectable levels and (b) nonenveloped DNA and RNA viruses of inoculated human osteochondral grafts by 3.1 to 5.6 logs. This study demonstrates the first practical method for significantly reducing viral load in osteochondral implants.

  10. Multimodal Randomized Functional MR Imaging of the Effects of Methylene Blue in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pavel; Zhou, Wei; Barrett, Douglas W; Altmeyer, Wilson; Gutierrez, Juan E; Li, Jinqi; Lancaster, Jack L; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To investigate the sustained-attention and memory-enhancing neural correlates of the oral administration of methylene blue in the healthy human brain. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this prospective, HIPAA-compliant, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, and all patients provided informed consent. Twenty-six subjects (age range, 22-62 years) were enrolled. Functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed with a psychomotor vigilance task (sustained attention) and delayed match-to-sample tasks (short-term memory) before and 1 hour after administration of low-dose methylene blue or a placebo. Cerebrovascular reactivity effects were also measured with the carbon dioxide challenge, in which a 2 × 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed with a drug (methylene blue vs placebo) and time (before vs after administration of the drug) as factors to assess drug × time between group interactions. Multiple comparison correction was applied, with cluster-corrected P methylene blue increased response in the bilateral insular cortex during a psychomotor vigilance task (Z = 2.9-3.4, P = .01-.008) and functional MR imaging response during a short-term memory task involving the prefrontal, parietal, and occipital cortex (Z = 2.9-4.2, P = .03-.0003). Methylene blue was also associated with a 7% increase in correct responses during memory retrieval (P = .01). Conclusion Low-dose methylene blue can increase functional MR imaging activity during sustained attention and short-term memory tasks and enhance memory retrieval. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  11. A Methylene Blue–assisted Technique for Harvesting Lymph Nodes After Radical Surgery for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Toru; Fujikawa, Hirohito; Cho, Haruhiko; Ogata, Takashi; Shirai, Junya; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Oba, Mari S.; Morita, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting lymph nodes (LNs) after gastrectomy is essential for accurate staging. This trial evaluated the efficiency and quality of a conventional method and a methylene blue–assisted method in a randomized manner. The key eligibility criteria were as follows: (i) histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach; (ii) clinical stage I-III; (iii) R0 resection planned by gastrectomy with D1+ or D2 lymphadenectomy. The primary endpoint was the ratio of the pathologic number of harvested LNs per time (minutes) as an efficacy measure. The secondary endpoint was the number of harvested LNs, as a quality measure. Between August 2012 and December 2012, 60 patients were assigned to undergo treatment using the conventional method (n=29) and the methylene blue dye method (n=31). The baseline demographics were mostly well balanced between the 2 groups. The number of harvested LNs (mean±SD) was 33.6±11.9 in the conventional arm and 43.4±13.9 in the methylene blue arm (P=0.005). The ratio of the number of the harvested LNs per time was 1.12±0.46 LNs/min in the conventional arm and 1.49±0.59 LNs/min in the methylene blue arm (P=0.010). In the subgroup analyses, the quality and efficacy were both superior for the methylene blue dye method compared with the conventional method. The methylene blue technique is recommended for harvesting LNs during gastric cancer surgery on the basis of both the quality and efficacy. PMID:25356528

  12. Synthesis of mesoporous TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Gamra, Z M; Ahmed, M A

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a facile route for synthesis a new photocatalyst based on TiO2-curcumin nanoparticles for photodegradation of methylene blue dye under UV and visible light irradiation. The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method using chitosan as biodegradable polymer. The crystalline and the nanostructure were characteristic X-ray diffraction [XRD], adsorption-desorption isotherm and high resolution transmission electron microscopy [HRTEM]. However, the optical features of the samples were investigated by a UV-visible spectrophotometer. It is obvious to notice the removal of the majority of methylene blue dye on a pure titania surface via adsorption mechanism owing to the high surface area and to the organized mesoporous nature of the solid sample. Incorporation of curcumin on titania surface changes the removal direction from adsorption to the photocatalytic pathway. Various photocatalytic experiments were performed to investigate the influence of initial dye concentration, weight of catalyst, stirring and light intensity on the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue as primary pollutant model. Chemical oxygen demand [COD] test confirms the complete degradation of methylene blue dye. The exceptional photocatalytic reactivity of titania-curcumin nanoparticles is referred to reduction in band gap energy and to the facility of electron transfer from II* curcumin energy level to titania conduction band which increases the concentration of reactive oxygen superoxide radicals which in turn prevents the electron-hole recombination. The effect of various scavengers on the methylene blue dye degradation was investigated using ethanol, ascorbic acid and methyl viologen. The results have pointed out that O2(-) and HO(.) are considered the main active species in the degradation process. A plausible pathway and mechanism for the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by titania-curcumin nanoparticles were illustrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  13. Lymph node mapping in rabbit liver cancer with nanocarbon and methylene blue injecta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of lymph node mapping in rabbit liver cancer with nanocarbon and methylene blue injecta. Methods: Rabbit liver cancer model was established by transplanting VX2 cells with laparotomy in celiac planting method. Twenty Japan white rabbits were divided into two groups randomly. Each group had 10 rabbits. Lymph node mapping in two groups rabbit liver cancer were observed. Two groups rabbit liver cancer and local lymph nodes were removed. The number and location of local lymph nodes were recorded, and then the samples were obtained from both groups. Results: The lymph nodes dyed time was (100.50±29.92) s in nanocarbon group, and (11.20±4.18) s in methylene blue group with statistical significance between two groups (P=0.000). In the comparison of lymph node fading time, nanocarbon group was (2.22±0.74) h, methylene blue group was (1.63±0.54) h, nanocarbon group was longer than the methylene blue group, but without statistical significance (P=0.058). The accuracy was 87.5%(35/40) in methylene blue group, while, the nanocarbon group was 87.2% (34/39) , with statistical significance (P=1.000). Conclusions: Experimental results show that application of nanocarbon injection and methylene blue injection during resection of liver cancer and local lymph nodes in rabbit liver cancer model has obvious tracer function in liver cancer and lymphatic drainage. It can reduce the complexity and risk of the operation, and avoid the blindness in the process of traditional lymph node dissection surgery. Besides, they can effectively reduce the number of residual lymph nodes after operation. It can achieve the lymph node dissection more thoroughly, promptly, easily and safely.

  14. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  15. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of α-methylene-γ-hydroxy esters against pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, P Veeraraghavan; Helppi, Matthew A; Lehmkuhler, Arlie L; Marchi, Jennifer M; Schmidt, C Max; Yip-Schneider, Michele T

    2015-10-01

    A systematic study to identify the factors influencing the cytotoxicity of α-methylene-γ-hydroxy esters against three pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1, MIA-PaCa-2, and BxPC-3) has established that, in addition to Michael acceptor abilities, the possibility to lactonize to α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones is as important. The substitution pattern and the number of carbons between the hydroxy and ester moieties also influence the bio-activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Nature of tryptophan photooxidation products in lysozyme in the presence of methylene blue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakova, N I; Kravchenko, N A; Serebriakov, E P; Kaverzneva, E D

    1976-05-01

    One out of six trytophan residues in two lysozyme modification, obtained under lysozyme photooxidation in the presence of methylene blue, is found to be oxidized to N'-formylkinurenine (in one modification) and to kinurenine (in the other modification). The transition of one modification into another via detaching of N'-formyl group by soft acid hydrolysis has shown that one and the same tryptophan residue is oxidized in both products, Possible mechanism of tryptophan oxidation to the products mentioned is discu-sed on the basis of the hypothesis on signlet mechanism of lysozyme photooxidation in the presence of methylene blue.

  17. ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY SYNTHETIC APPROACHES TO β CARBOXY-α-METHYLENE-γ-BUTYROLACTONE ETHYL ESTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenaëlle Liberge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternative synthetic approaches to a variety of β substituted and carboxylated α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones have been developed. In the first approach the mandatory methylene unit was incorporated on precursor compounds at early stage of the synthesis on reliance with Horner-Emmons protocol. In the alternative approach which further tolerates multifarious substituents at γ-position of the lactone template the unsaturated moiety α to the lactone carbonyl group is connected at a later stage through a deprotonation / methoxymethylation / elimination sequence.

  18. Chemical Activation of Bentonite Clay and Its Adsorption Properties of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Susilawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study on adsorbent properties of bentonite such as optimum activation condition, concentration concentration effect of sulphuric acid, activation temperature and activation time on decolorization of methylene blue have been investigated in this paper. The study was started by activation of bentonite with sulfuric acid. The data was analysis by statistical method via Least Significant Difference (LSD test. The optimum condition of adsortion showed that the concentration of activating agent (sulphuric acid was 20%, activation temperature at 110 ºC and activation time was 30 minutes. At this optimum condition, methylene blue was absorbed by bentonite with 93.30% yield.

  19. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  20. Estimation of surface area and pore volume of activated carbons by methylene blue and iodine numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton A. Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of methylene blue number and iodine number of activated carbons samples were calibrated against the respective surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume using multiple regression. The models obtained from the calibrations were used in predicting these physical properties of a test group of activated carbon samples produced from several raw materials. In all cases, the predicted values were in good agreement with the expected values. The method allows extracting more information from the methylene blue and iodine adsorption studies than normally obtained with this type of material.

  1. Is Cytox 3522 (10% methylene-bis-thiocyanate) a human skin sensitizer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Methylene-bis-thiocyanate is an antimicrobial agent in Cytox 3522 (American Cyanamid Corporation) and Nalco 206 (Nalco Chemical Company). Both are wide-spectrum industrial biocides. Cytox 3522 showed a strong sensitization potential in guineau pigs using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test and the O......Methylene-bis-thiocyanate is an antimicrobial agent in Cytox 3522 (American Cyanamid Corporation) and Nalco 206 (Nalco Chemical Company). Both are wide-spectrum industrial biocides. Cytox 3522 showed a strong sensitization potential in guineau pigs using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test...

  2. Reflection mode holographic recording in methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Rajesh; R Anjana; S S Sreeroop; C Sudha Kartha

    2014-02-01

    Photopolymer systems can produce good image quality holograms that does not require any post-processing and are environmentally stable with good diffraction efficiency. The present work reports the development of a methylene blue-sensitized polyvinyl alcohol acrylamide (MBPVA/AA) photopolymer system for recording white light reflection holograms. Reflection gratings were recorded in the photopolymer films with different concentrations of methylene blue (MB). Various parameters affecting the holographic properties of the samples were also studied. The holographic performance of the material is found to depend on its chemical composition and the recording parameters.

  3. Methylene blue inhibits the asexual development of vivax malaria parasites from a region of increasing chloroquine resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Ong, Alice; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Chu, Cindy S; PyaePhyo, Aung; Malleret, Benoit; Nosten, François; Renia, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue, once discarded due to its unsettling yet mild side effects, has now found a renewed place in the pharmacopoeia of modern medicine. The continued spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum has also led to a recent re-examination of methylene blue's potent antimalarial properties. Here we examine the ex vivo susceptibility profile of Plasmodium spp. isolates to methylene blue; the isolates were from a region on the Thai-Myanmar border where there are increasing rates of failure when treating vivax malaria with chloroquine. To do this we used a newly developed ex vivo susceptibility assay utilizing flow cytometry and a portable flow cytometer with a near-UV laser. P. vivax (median methylene blue IC50 3.1 nM, IQR 1.7-4.3 nM) and P. falciparum (median methylene blue IC50 1.8 nM, IQR 1.6-2.3 nM) are susceptible to methylene blue treatment at physiologically relevant levels. Unfortunately, the addition of chloroquine to combination treatments with methylene blue significantly reduces the ex vivo effectiveness of this molecule. Our data support further efforts to employ methylene blue as a safe, low-cost antimalarial to treat drug-resistant malaria. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A dose-finding study of methylene blue to inhibit nitric oxide actions in the hemodynamics of human septic shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P. Juffermans; M.G. Vervloet; C.R. Daemen-Gubbels; J.M. Binnekade; M.D. de Jong; A.J. Groeneveld

    2010-01-01

    Methylene blue increases blood pressure and myocardial function in septic shock mainly by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) actions. However, a dose-dependency of methylene blue has not been established. Therefore, the compound is currently used as rescue treatment only. To evaluate dose-dependency, a pr

  5. The effects of methylene blue infusion on gastric tonometry and intestinal fatty acid binding protein levels in septic shock patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.M.P. van; Pickkers, P.; Foudraine, N.; Heemskerk, S.; Sleigh, J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We prospectively studied the effect of methylene blue (MB) infusion on gastric mucosal metabolism perfusion ratio, assessed by gastric tonometry, and on mucosal cell damage, assessed by urinary levels of intestinal fatty acid binding protein, in septic shock patients. METHODS: Methylene

  6. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  7. A comprehensive probabilistic model of chloride ingress in unsaturated concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Bastidas-Arteaga, Emilio; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio; Bressolette, Philippe; Schoefs, Franck

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Corrosion induced by chloride ions has become a critical issue for many reinforced concrete structures. The chloride ingress into concrete has been usually simplified as a diffusion problem where the chloride concentration throughout concrete is estimated analytically. However, this simplified approach has several limitations. For instance, it does not consider chloride ingress by convection which is essential to model chloride penetration in unsaturated conditions as ...

  8. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  9. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  10. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  11. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  12. Dynamic Electrochemical Measurement of Chloride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-02-05

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement, long-term and continuous monitoring is limited due to the inherent drift and the requirement of a stable reference electrode. We utilized the chronopotentiometric approach to minimize drift and avoid the use of a conventional reference electrode. A galvanostatic pulse is applied to an Ag/AgCl electrode which initiates a faradic reaction depleting the Cl- ions near the electrode surface. The transition time, which is the time to completely deplete the ions near the electrode surface, is a function of the ion concentration, given by the Nernst equation. The square root of the transition time is in linear relation to the chloride ion concentration. Drift of the response over two weeks is negligible (59 µM/day) when measuring 1 mM [Cl-]using a current pulse of 10 Am(-2). This is a dynamic measurement where the moment of transition time determines the response and thus is independent of the absolute potential. Any metal wire can be used as a pseudo-reference electrode, making this approach feasible for long-term measurement inside concrete structures.

  13. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  14. Adsorption of Methylene Blue and Amaranth on to tamarind pod shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahalya Naidu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, agricultural waste tamarind (Tamarindus indica pod shells were used for the adsorption of dyes like methylene blue and amaranth. The operating variables studied were initial concentration, initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The kinetics of methylene blue and amaranth onto tamarind pod shells was found to follow a pseudo first order kinetics. The maximum adsorption of amaranth and methylene blue are 65.04 and 60.11 mg/g of the adsorbent respectively.  The fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy reveals that –OH, -COOH, C=O and C-O groups are involved in the adsorption process. The optimum pH for the adsorption of amaranth is 2 and methylene blue, a cationic dye shows maximum adsorption in the pH range 6-12. Characterisation of the tamarind pod shells showed that the relative percentage of protein is very less making it an excellent adsorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater effluents.

  15. Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 doping with N-rich melamine produced a stable, active and visible light sentisized nanocatalyst that showed a remarkable efficiency towards the photobleaching of a model compound – methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The photobleaching followed a mixed reaction order ki...

  16. Reliability of assessing dye penetration along root canal fillings using methylene blue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, E.M.; Pappen, F.G.; Shemesh, H.; Bonato-Estrela, C.; Bonetti-Filho, I.

    2009-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) remains the most frequently used tracer for dye penetration tests of endodontic fillings, despite its chemical reactions with different materials. This study checked whether dye penetration displayed by MB is comparable to Rhodamine B (RB). One hundred and seventy-two root canals

  17. Retrograde Instillation of Methylene Blue in the Difficult Diagnosis of BPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ravenna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases in which we were able to diagnose bronchopleural fistula through retrograde methylene blue instillation during bronchoscopy. In the first case, methylene blue was injected through an abdominal drain, followed by air instillation and detected in the left bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the lingula’s bronchus. In the second case, methylene blue was injected into a pleural drain, through a breach on a surgical suture and detected in the right bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the right inferior bronchus. The retrograde instillation of methylene blue, through a drain in the abdomen or the thoracic wall, is a safe, cheap, and practical method that allows the bronchoscopist to identify the presence of a fistula and, more importantly, to identify the exact point on the bronchial tree where a fistula is located. This provides the possibility of sealing the fistula with a variety of devices. It is our opinion that this procedure should be considered a primary method of diagnosis when a bronchopleural fistula is suspected and a drain on the thoracic or abdominal wall is positioned such that effusions are able to drain.

  18. Rapid alkaline methylene blue supravital staining for assessment of anterior segment infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Katsuji

    2016-01-01

    To present the Löffler's alkaline methylene blue technique of staining eye discharges in eyes with anterior segment infections. The Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining method is a simple staining technique that can be used to differentiate bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. It is a cationic dye that stains cells blue because the positively charged dye is attracted to negatively charged particles such as polyphosphates, DNAs, and RNAs. Specimens collected from patients by swabbing are smeared onto microscope slides and the methylene blue solution is dropped on the slide. The slide is covered with a glass cover slip and examined under a microscope. The entire time from the collection to the viewing is about 30 seconds. Histopathological images of the conjunctival epithelial cells and neutrophils in eye discharges were dyed blue and the nuclei were stained more intensely blue. Bacterial infections consisted mainly of neutrophils, and viral infections consisted mainly of lymphocytes. Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining can be done in about 30 seconds for diagnosis. Even though this is a one color stain, it is possible to infer the cause of the infection by detection of the absence of bacteria and/or fungi in context of the differential distribution of neutrophils and lymphocytes.

  19. Methylene Blue halves the long-term recurrence rate in acute pilonidal sinus disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Dietrich; Novotny, Alexander; Rothe, Ronny

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the potential benefits of intraoperative methylene blue (MB) use in pilonidal sinus surgery, the correlation between long-term recurrence rate and intraoperative MB use in pilonidal sinus surgery was investigated. BACKGROUND: Explicit investigations of MB effects in sinus...

  20. [Enhanced reductive decoloration of methylene blue by polyacrylic acid modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Pei; Liu, Kun-Qian

    2015-03-01

    Nano zerovalent iron ( NZVI) technology has attracted tremendous amount of interests for degrading a number of environmental contaminants found both in surface water and underground water. However, these nanoscale particles are prone to aggregate, which may result in the decrease of its reactivity in liquid phase. Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) has enhanced the dispersion of NZVI and reduced its agglomeration. For the first time, PAA modified NPs (PAA-Fe NPs) were used for degradation of methylene blue in water phase. The PAA-Fe NPs prepared were characterized in terms of TEM, SEM, XRD and specific surface area. The results indicated that, the surface area of PAA-Fe NPs was increased, compared with unmodified pristine zero-valent iron NPs, and PAA-Fe NPs were smoother with smaller particle size. With addition of 0.1 g x L(-1) of PAA, the decolorization efficiency of methylene blue by PAA-Fe NPs was 98.84% in 60 min, which was 27.32% higher than that of pristine Fe NPs. Decolorization efficiencies were also affected by initial pH value, initial concentration of methylene blue, dosage of PAA-Fe NPs, and degradation temperature. Kinetic analyses based on the experimental data illustrated that the decolorization reaction of methylene blue fitted well to the pseudo first-order kinetics model.

  1. Reliability of assessing dye penetration along root canal fillings using methylene blue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, E.M.; Pappen, F.G.; Shemesh, H.; Bonato-Estrela, C.; Bonetti-Filho, I.

    2009-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) remains the most frequently used tracer for dye penetration tests of endodontic fillings, despite its chemical reactions with different materials. This study checked whether dye penetration displayed by MB is comparable to Rhodamine B (RB). One hundred and seventy-two root canals

  2. 76 FR 53050 - New Animal Drugs; Ampicillin Trihydrate, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, Flunixin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Trihydrate, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, Flunixin, Gonadotropin Releasing Factor Analog-Diphtheria.... Revise Sec. 520.970 to read as follows: Sec. 520.970 Flunixin. (a) Specifications. (1) Each 10-gram (g) packet of granules contains flunixin meglumine equivalent to 250 milligrams (mg) of flunixin. (2) Each...

  3. Chemical composition effects of methylene containing polymers on gas emission under γ-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, M., E-mail: muriel.ferry@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dannoux-Papin, A. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dély, N. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, LIDYL, PCR, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legand, S.; Durand, D.; Roujou, J.L.; Lamouroux, C.; Dauvois, V. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coignet, P.; Cochin, F. [AREVA NC DOR/RDP, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 La Défense (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, LIDYL, PCR, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-09-01

    The presence of different chemical groups in methylene containing polymers can lead to very different behaviors under ionizing radiation. To better understand the effect of these groups on gas production under γ-irradiation, especially on hydrogen formation, and to study the efficiency of energy transfer between chemical groups, several methylene containing polymers with different controlled group concentrations were studied in inert atmosphere. We analyzed the influence of the nature and position of the chemical group using methylene containing copolymers with aliphatic side-chains (different lengths), ester groups in the side-chains (different concentrations) and ester groups in the polymer backbone (different concentrations). Radiation chemical yields of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were determined at room temperature by high resolution mass spectrometry. On the basis of these results, we attempt to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. It can be observed that crystallinity and aliphatic side-chain have no effect on hydrogen formation. On contrary, esters on side-chain and in the backbone have an important influence on hydrogen formation, with the most important effect when esters groups are in the backbone. In these two kind of materials, energy fraction transferred from methylene to ester groups has been quantified and only 10 wt% (or less) of ester groups are sufficient to protect effectively the aliphatic moiety.

  4. Study of catalytic reduction and photodegradation of methylene blue by heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh

    2011-10-15

    The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue is investigated in aqueous solution containing CoS/nanoAl-MCM-41 photocatalyst under visible light. The catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The effect of CoS, nanoAl-MCM-41 support and different wt% of CoS over the support on the photocatalytic degradation and influence of parameters such as CoS loading, catalyst amount, pH and initial concentration of methylene blue on degradation are evaluated. Hypsochromic effects (i.e. blue shifts of spectral bands) resulting from N-demethylation of the dimethylamino group in methylene blue occurs in presence of CoS/nanoAl-MCM-41 under ambient condition. Meanwhile, the bleaching of methylene blue MB, by sulfide ion, in an aqueous solution is studied in the presence nanoAl-MCM-41 catalyst. In the presence of sulfide ions, MB is bleached to its colorless leuco (LMB) and MBH(2)(+) forms. In an acidified solution (pHdye to MBH(2)(+) form is observed. Using nanoAl-MCM-41 with encapsulated CoS nanoparticles only causes demethylation of MB in aqueous solution.

  5. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of methylene blue over titanate nanotubes: effect of adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lin; Sun, Weiling; Yang, Ye; Chen, Cheng; Ni, Jinren

    2011-04-01

    Titanate nanotubes were synthesized with hydrothermal reaction using TiO(2) and NaOH as the precursors and subsequent calcination at 400°C for 2h. The products were characterized with SEM and XRD. Adsorption and photocatalysis of methylene blue over titanate nanotubes and TiO(2) were investigated. The results indicated that titanate nanotubes exhibited a better photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in a simultaneous adsorption and photodegradation system than that in equilibrium adsorption followed by a photodegradation system, whereas TiO(2) showed no significant differences in photocatalytic activity in the two systems. The methylene blue overall removal efficiency over TNTs in the first system even exceeded that over TiO(2). The different catalytic performances of titanate nanotubes in the two systems were tentatively attributed to different effects of adsorption of methylene blue, i.e., the promoting effect in the former and the inhibition effect in the latter. Decantation experiments showed that the titanate nanotube photocatalyst could be easily separated from the reaction medium by sedimentation. Thus titanate nanotubes with high sedimentation rates and concurrent adsorption represent a new catalyst system with a strong potential for commercial applications.

  6. Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 doping with N-rich melamine produced a stable, active and visible light sentisized nanocatalyst that showed a remarkable efficiency towards the photobleaching of a model compound – methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The photobleaching followed a mixed reaction order ki...

  7. Methylene blue adsorption by algal biomass based materials: biosorbents characterization and process behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-08-17

    Dead algal biomass is a natural material that serves as a basis for developing a new family of sorbent materials potentially suitable for many industrial applications. In this work an algal industrial waste from agar extraction process, algae Gelidium and a composite material obtained by immobilization of the algal waste with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were physical characterized and used as biosorbents for dyes removal using methylene blue as model. The apparent and real densities and the porosity of biosorbents particles were determined by mercury porosimetry and helium picnometry. The methylene blue adsorption in the liquid phase was the method chosen to calculate the specific surface area of biosorbent particles as it seems to reproduce better the surface area accessible to metal ions in the biosorption process than the N2 adsorption-desorption dry method. The porous texture of the biosorbents particles was also studied. Equilibrium isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equation, giving maximum uptake capacities of 171, 104 and 74 mg g(-1), respectively for algae, algal waste and composite material. Kinetic experiments at different initial methylene blue concentrations were performed to evaluate the equilibrium time and the importance of the driving force to overcome mass transfer resistances. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models adequately describe the kinetic data. The biosorbents used in this work proved to be promising materials for removing methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

  8. REMOVAL OF METHYLENE BLUE BY ADSORPTION ONTO RETAMA RAETAM PLANT: KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Badis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using medicinal plants species Retama raetam as a low cost and an eco-friendly adsorbent for the adsorption of cationic dye methylene blue from simulated aqueous solution has been investigated. Adsorption kinetics of methylene blue onto Retama raetam plants was studied in a batch system. The effects of pH and contact time were examined. The methylene blue maximum adsorption occurred at pH 8 and the lowest adsorption occurred at pH 2. The apparent equilibrium was reached after 120 min. Optimal experimental conditions were determined. Adsorption modelling parameters for Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were determined and, based on R2, various error distribution functions were evaluated as well. Adsorption isotherm was best described by non linear Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic studies show that adsorption was spontaneous and exothermic. For determining the best-fit-kinetic adsorption model, the experimental data were analyzed by using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, pseudo-third-order, Esquivel, and Elovich models. Linear regressive and non-linear regressive method was used to obtain the relative parameters. The statistical functions were estimated to find the suitable method that fit better the experimental data. Both methods were appropriate for obtaining the parameters. The linear pseudo-second-order (type 9 and type 10 models were the best to fit the equilibrium data. The present work showed that plant Retama raetam can be used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from water.

  9. Catalytic liquid marbles: Ag nanowire-based miniature reactors for highly efficient degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yue-E; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Chew, Wee Shern; Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi; Ling, Xing Yi

    2014-06-04

    Ag nanowire-based catalytic liquid marbles are fabricated as miniature reactors, which demonstrate highly efficient, support-free and rate-controllable heterogeneous degradation of methylene blue, with catalytic efficiency close to 100%. Our miniature catalytic liquid marbles are essential for reactions involving highly toxic/hazardous or costly reactants, where small volume preliminary reactions are preferred.

  10. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue with Side-glowing Optical Fiber Deliverying Visible Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储金宇; 仲蕾

    2012-01-01

    The side-glowing optical fibers (SOFs) were chosen as the conducting medium of endogenous light; and 20 mg·L-1 methylene blue was chosen as the target to be degraded. The SOF is made up of quartz core with a silicon cladding, which can emit light through side surface more uniformly and transmit light for longer distance to avoid attenuation of light by liquid medium. The filament lamp was chosen as visible light source. Different reaction conditions, such as the presence of optical fiber or not, the quantity of SOF, light irradiation intensity were tested by measuring the methylene blue degradation of methylene blue. The results show that suitable reaction conditions were 1.167 g·L-1 Ag + /TiO 2 with 7% (by mass) of Ag + doped in TiO 2 , and 500 roots of SOF (30 cm length in solution). The photocatalytic degradation efficiency under 300W lamp irradiation for 8h was about 97%. And the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of methylene blue degradation was proportional to SOF quantity, light irradiation intensity and catalytic dosage within a certain range. Compared with general UV and visible light SOFs could save a huge amount of energy and cost, in the potential applications in dealing with organic pollutants on a large scale.

  11. The Adsorption Efficiency of Chemically Prepared Activated Carbon from Cola Nut Shells by on Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Ndi Nsami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from cola nut shell has been investigated under batch mode. The influence of major parameters governing the efficiency of the process such as, solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, and contact time on the removal process was investigated. The time-dependent experimental studies showed that the adsorption quantity of methylene blue increases with initial concentration and decreasing adsorbent dosage. The equilibrium time of 180 min was observed and maximum adsorption was favoured at pH 3.5. The dye removal using 0.1 g of adsorbent was more than 90%. This dosage (0.1 g was considered as the optimum dosage to remove methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The kinetics of methylene blue solution was discussed by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich models. The adsorption process follows the Elovich rate kinetic model, having a correlation coefficient in the range between 0.9811 and 1.

  12. Methylene blue protects the cortical blood-brain barrier against ischemia/reperfusion-induced disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclescu, Adriana; Sharma, Hari Shanker; Martijn, Cécile; Wiklund, Lars

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effects of cardiac arrest and the reperfusion syndrome on blood-brain barrier permeability and evaluate whether methylene blue counteracts blood-brain barrier disruption in a pig model of controlled cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Randomized, prospective, laboratory animal study. University-affiliated research laboratory. Forty-five piglets. Forty-five anesthetized piglets were subjected to cardiac arrest alone or 12-min cardiac arrest followed by 8 mins cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The first group (n = 16) was used to evaluate blood-brain barrier disruptions after untreated cerebral ischemia after 0, 15, or 30 mins after untreated cardiac arrest. The other two groups received either an infusion of saline (n = 10) or infusion of saline with methylene blue (n = 12) 1 min after the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and continued 50 mins after return of spontaneous circulation. In these groups, brains were removed for immunohistological analyses at 30, 60, and 180 mins after return of spontaneous circulation. An increase of injured neurons and albumin immunoreactivity was demonstrated with increasing duration of ischemia/reperfusion. Less blood-brain barrier disruption was observed in subjects receiving methylene blue as demonstrated by decreased albumin leakage (p blue treatment reduced cerebral tissue nitrite/nitrate content (p blood-brain barrier permeability and neurologic injury were increased early in reperfusion after cardiac arrest. Methylene blue exerted neuroprotective effects against the brain damage associated with the ischemia/reperfusion injury and ameliorated the blood-brain barrier disruption by decreasing nitric oxide metabolites.

  13. Comparative pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous ifosfamide/mesna/methylene blue therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschlimann, C; Küpfer, A; Schefer, H; Cerny, T

    1998-09-01

    Oral treatment with ifosfamide results in dose-limiting encephalopathy. Methylene blue is effective in reversal and prophylaxis of this side effect. In the present study, the pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide after iv and po therapy in combination with prophylactic administration of methylene blue were investigated. Nine patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer were treated by a combination of ifosfamide (3 days), sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (4 days), and etoposide (8 days). Cycles were repeated every 28 days. Ifosfamide was administered orally, with the exception of one of the first two cycles, when it was administered as a short infusion (randomly assigned). The patients received methylene blue in doses of 50 mg po 3 times daily; an initial dose of 50 mg was given the evening before chemotherapy. Urine samples were collected over the entire treatment period, and concentrations of ifosfamide and its major metabolite, 2-chloroethylamine, were measured by gas liquid chromatography. By the same technique, 2- and 3-dechloroethylifosfamide were determined in plasma and urine. Overall alkylating activity in urine was assayed by reaction of the alkylating metabolites with 4-(4'-nitrobenzyl)-pyridine. The chemotherapeutic regimen was well-tolerated by all of the patients studied. There was no evidence of a shift in the metabolic pattern dependent on the route of administration. From the data, we conclude that methylene blue has a neuroprotective effect and that the pharmacokinetics of ifosfamide are not influenced by its comedication.

  14. Graphene oxide functionalized with methylene blue and its performance in singlet oxygen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtoniszak, M., E-mail: mwojtoniszak@zut.edu.pl [West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Pulaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland); Rogińska, D.; Machaliński, B. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of General Pathology, Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland); Drozdzik, M. [Pomeranian Medical University, Department of Pharmacology, Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin (Poland); Mijowska, E. [West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Pulaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland)

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Adsorption of methylene blue (MB) on graphene oxide (GO). • Characterization of graphene oxide–methylene blue nanocomposite (MB–GO). • Examination of MB–GO efficiency in singlet oxygen generation (SOG). • MB–GO performs higher SOG efficiency than pristine MB. - Abstract: Due to unique electronic, mechanical, optical and structural properties, graphene has shown promising applications in many fields, including biomedicine. One of them is noninvasive anticancer therapy – photodynamic therapy (PDT), where singlet oxygen (SO), generated under the irradiation of light with appropriate wavelengths, kills cancer cells. In this study, authors report graphene oxide (GO) noncovalent functionalization with methylene blue (MB). MB molecules underwent adsorption on the surface of GO. Detailed characterization of the obtained material was carried out with UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, its performance in singlet oxygen generation (SOG) under irradiation of laser with excitation wavelengths of 785 nm was investigated. Interestingly, GO functionalized with MB (MB–GO) showed enhanced efficiency in singlet oxygen generation compared to pristine MB. The efficiency in SOG was detected by photobleaching of 9,10-anthracenediyl-bis(methylene)dimalonic acid (ABMDMA). These results indicate the material is promising in PDT anticancer therapy and further in vitro and in vivo studies are required.

  15. Microgel-encapsulated methylene blue for the treatment of breast cancer cells by photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Anil; Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Seo, Seong S

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gaining increasing recognition for breast cancer treatment because it offers local selectivity and reduced toxic side effects compared to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In PDT, photosensitizer drugs are loaded in different nanomaterials and used in combination with light exposure. However, the most representative issue with PDT is the difficulty of nanomaterials to encapsulate anticancer drugs at high doses, which results in low efficacy of the PDT treatment. Here, we proposed the development of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) microgel for the encapsulation of methylene blue, an anticancer drug, for its use as breast cancer treatment in MCF-7 cell line. We developed biocompatible microgels based on nonfunctionalized PNIPAM and its corresponding anionically functionalized PNIPAM and polyacrylic acid (PNIPAM-co-PAA) microgel. Methylene blue was used as the photosensitizer drug because of its ability to generate toxic reactive oxygen species upon exposure to light at 664 nm. Core PNIPAM and core/shell PNIPAM-co-PAA microgels were synthesized and characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The effect of methylene blue was evaluated using the MCF-7 cell line. Loading of methylene blue in core PNIPAM microgel was higher than that in the core/shell PNIPAM-co-PAA microgel, indicating that electrostatic interactions did not play an important role in loading a cationic drug. This behavior is probably due to the skin layer inhibiting the high uptake of drugs in the PNIPAM-co-PAA microgel. Core PNIPAM microgel effectively retained the cationic drug (i.e., methylene blue) for several hours compared to core/shell PNIPAM-co-PAA and enhanced its photodynamic efficacy in vitro more than that of free methylene blue. Our results showed that the employment of core PNIPAM and core/shell PNIPAM-co-PAA microgels enhanced the encapsulation of methylene blue. Core PNIPAM microgel released the drug more slowly

  16. [Sensitive determination of Bi3+ by spectrofluorimetry based on graphene oxide-methylene blue system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qiu-ge; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yan-ming

    2014-08-01

    Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummers method and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The interaction of graphene with methylene blue was studied by UV absorption, the intensity of two main absorption peaks of methylene blue decreased significantly after the fluorescence was quenched, and the energy transfer didn't occur because the overlap of the absorption spectrum of GO and the emission spectrum of MB is too small. Therefore, the fluorescence quenching of MB and GO was static. When adding a certain amount of Bi3+ in the graphene-methylene blue system, Bi3+ replaces the methylene blue from the graphene-methylene blue complexes because Bi3+ has the smaller volume and is more positively charged. The methylene blue therefore dissociates from the GO-MB complexes, resulting in the recovery of fluorescence of the system. Furthermore, the fluorescence of the system increases with the increase in the amount of Bi3+ due to the enhanced amount of MB in the system. A novel spectrofluorimetric method was therefore developed for the sensitive determination of Bi3+. Some parameters including the concentration of methylene blue, the amount of graphene oxide, the amount of nitric acid and the sequence of reagent adding were optimized to obtain higher sensitivity. The fluorescence of the system was detected at an emission wavelength of 667 nm with excitation at 690 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the concentration of Bi3+ showed good linear relationships with the fluorescence intensity in the range of 0.5-100 micromol x L(-1), with correlation coefficients of r = 0.9955. The limits of detection for Bi3+ was 1.0 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1) (S/N=3). The selectivity of the proposed method was evaluated and the results showed that 1000-fold K+, Ca+, Na+, Mg2+, Cu2+; 100-fold Fe3+, Be2+, SiO2- Al3+, Ni2+, Sb3+, NO3-, Cl-, F-, and 20-fold Pb2+, Hg2+, Cd2+ had negligible interference with the determination of Bi3+. The method has advantages of

  17. Efficacy of methylene blue in an experimental model of calcium channel blocker-induced shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, David H; Donovan, Sean; Nelson, Lewis S; Bania, Theodore C; Hoffman, Robert S; Chu, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Calcium channel blocker poisonings account for a substantial number of reported deaths from cardiovascular drugs. Although supportive care is the mainstay of treatment, experimental therapies such as high-dose insulin-euglycemia and lipid emulsion have been studied in animal models and used in humans. In the most severe cases, even aggressive care is inadequate and deaths occur. In both experimental models and clinical cases of vasodilatory shock, methylene blue improves hemodynamic measures. It acts as a nitric oxide scavenger and inhibits guanylate cyclase that is responsible for the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Excessive cGMP production is associated with refractory vasodilatory shock in sepsis and anaphylaxis. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of methylene blue in an animal model of amlodipine-induced shock. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented for continuous blood pressure and pulse rate monitoring. The dose of amlodipine that produced death within 60 minutes was 17 mg/kg per hour (LD50). Rats were divided into 2 groups: amlodipine followed by methylene blue or amlodipine followed by normal saline solution, with 15 rats in each group. Rats received methylene blue at 2 mg/kg during 5 minutes or an equivalent amount of normal saline solution in 3 intervals from the start of the protocol: minutes 5, 30, and 60. The animals were observed for a total of 2 hours after the start of the protocol. Mortality risk and survival time were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with the log rank test. Overall, 1 of 15 rats (7%) in the saline solution-treated group survived to 120 minutes compared with 5 of 15 (33%) in the methylene blue-treated group (difference -26%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -54% to 0.3%). The median survival time for the normal saline solution group was 42 minutes (95% CI 28.1 to 55.9 minutes); for the methylene blue group, 109 minutes (95% CI 93.9 to

  18. Is sodium chloride worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Euan; Andrews, Peter J

    2013-06-11

    The choice of fluid for resuscitation of the brain-injured patient remains controversial, and the 'ideal' resuscitation fluid has yet to be identified. Large volumes of hypotonic solutions must be avoided because of the risk of cerebral swelling and intracranial hypertension. Traditionally, 0.9% sodium chloride has been used in patients at risk of intracranial hypertension, but there is increasing recognition that 0.9% saline is not without its problems. Roquilly and colleagues show a reduction in the development of hyperchloremic acidosis in brain-injured patients given 'balanced' solutions for maintenance and resuscitation compared with 0.9% sodium chloride. In this commentary, we explore the idea that we should move away from 0.9% sodium chloride in favor of a more 'physiological' solution.

  19. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry.

  20. [Identification of internal fistolous orifice: evolution of methylene blue technique with a mini-probe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaj, F; Andreuccetti, J; Trecca, A; Crispino, P

    2012-01-01

    Often perianal fistulas can be difficult typing and traditional anatomical classifications do not help the surgeon in accurate diagnosis of the fistula as an outpatient procedure and therefore does not allow a timely surgical currettage. The aim of our study was to introduce in the management of anal fistulas performed on an outpatient injection with methylene blue of the fistula through a small polyethylene catheter in order to detect in real time the internal opening of the fistula and drive so the next currettage surgery. A total of 50 consecutive patients 21 female and 29 male, relating to our clinic with symptoms suggestive of colon proctology perianal fistula, aged between 36 and 69 years were selected for our study. After running the news-gathering medical history, physical examination, digital examination through examination anoscope, using a polyethylene catheter in a small scale, of methylene blue was injected through the external fistula orifice looking inside the spreading of liquid. Subsequently, the patient was started on specillazione currettage and possible surgery. 62 outpatients were treated intramural fistulas, diagnosed with the injection technique with methylene blue running always probing and practiced a wide dish made of the mucosa, submucosa and circular muscle layer of the internal drainage with sphincterotomy. In particular, the technique injection of methylene blue was sufficient to diagnose 42 out of 62 cases examined (67.7%). In the remaining 20 cases it was necessary to integrate diagnosis with MRI-defecates on the complexity of fistulas (10 horseshoe, 6 trans sphincteric and 4 intersphincteric. Methylene blue injection is a low-cost screening technique, simple to perform on an outpatient basis and in the case of suprasphincteric fistulas also a simple diagnostic technique is sufficient to allow the closure of the fistula.

  1. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  2. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  3. EVALUATION OF BACTERICIDAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammounium Compounds derivative under different names such as Afxhang, Hamoon, Mahan etc, which have great and expanded use in sanitation and medical affairs. Bactericidal activity of these disinfectants was fulfilled according to National Standard Method No.2842 on Staph. Aureus, Sal. Typhimouium and E. coli. This laboratory test showed that, except Mahan that has not bactericidal efficacy on E.coli at concentration 0.4 percent, other disinfectants under the study in concentrations of 0.4, 0.8, 1, 1.2 percent have reliable antibacterial properties, and bacterial resistance to benzalkonium chloride has not occurred yet.

  4. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert

    2009-09-01

    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

  5. Methylene blue induces macroautophagy through 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway to protect neurons from serum deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luokun; Li, Wenjun; Winters, Ali; Yuan, Fang; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Methylene blue has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple experimental neurodegenerative disease models. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy has multiple beneficial roles for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and that induction of macroautophagy after myocardial ischemia is protective. In the present study we demonstrated that methylene blue could protect HT22 hippocampal cell death induced by serum deprivation, companied by induction of macroautophagy. We also found that methylene blue-mediated neuroprotection was abolished by macroautophagy inhibition. Interestingly, 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, but not inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, was activated at 12 and 24 h after methylene blue treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Methylene blue-induced macroautophagy was blocked by AMPK inhibitor. Consistent with in vitro data, macroautophagy was induced in the cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains treated with methylene blue. Our findings suggest that methylene blue-induced neuroprotection is mediated, at least in part, by macroautophagy though activation of AMPK signaling. PMID:23653592

  6. Methylene blue induces macroautophagy through 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway to protect neurons from serum deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Luokun; Li, Wenjun; Winters, Ali; Yuan, Fang; Jin, Kunlin; Yang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Methylene blue has been shown to be neuroprotective in multiple experimental neurodegenerative disease models. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that macroautophagy has multiple beneficial roles for maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and that induction of macroautophagy after myocardial ischemia is protective. In the present study we demonstrated that methylene blue could protect HT22 hippocampal cell death induced by serum deprivation, companied by induction of macroautophagy. We also found that methylene blue-mediated neuroprotection was abolished by macroautophagy inhibition. Interestingly, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, but not inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, was activated at 12 and 24 h after methylene blue treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Methylene blue-induced macroautophagy was blocked by AMPK inhibitor. Consistent with in vitro data, macroautophagy was induced in the cortex and hippocampus of mouse brains treated with methylene blue. Our findings suggest that methylene blue-induced neuroprotection is mediated, at least in part, by macroautophagy though activation of AMPK signaling.

  7. Effects of post-session administration of methylene blue on fear extinction and contextual memory in adults with claustrophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Bruchey, Aleksandra K; Rosenfield, David; Cobb, Adam R; Smits, Jasper; Pahl, Sandra; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2014-10-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that low-dose methylene blue increases mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase activity in the brain and improves memory retention after learning tasks, including fear extinction. The authors report on the first controlled experiment to examine the memory-enhancing effects of posttraining methylene blue administration on retention of fear extinction and contextual memory following fear extinction training. Adult participants displaying marked claustrophobic fear were randomly assigned to double-blind administration of 260 mg of methylene blue (N=23) or administration of placebo (N=19) immediately following six 5-minute extinction trials in an enclosed chamber. Retesting occurred 1 month later to assess fear renewal as indexed by peak fear during exposure to a nontraining chamber, with the prediction that the effects of methylene blue would vary as a function of fear reduction achieved during extinction training. Incidental contextual memory was assessed 1 and 30 days after training to assess the cognitive-enhancing effects of methylene blue independent of its effects on fear attenuation. Consistent with predictions, participants displaying low end fear posttraining showed significantly less fear at the 1-month follow-up if they received methylene blue posttraining compared with placebo. In contrast, participants displaying moderate to high levels of posttraining fear tended to fare worse at the follow-up if they received methylene blue posttraining. Methylene blue's enhancement of contextual memory was unrelated to initial or posttraining claustrophobic fear. Methylene blue enhances memory and the retention of fear extinction when administered after a successful exposure session but may have a deleterious effect on extinction when administered after an unsuccessful exposure session.

  8. One Step Photopolymerization of N, N-Methylene Diacrylamide and Photocuring of Carboxymethyl Starch-Silver Nanoparticles onto Cotton Fabrics for Durable Antibacterial Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. El-Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The PI/UV system ((4-trimethyl ammonium methyl benzophenone chloride/UV was used to synthesize carboxymethyl starch- (CMS- stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. AgNPs so prepared had round shape morphology with size of 1–7 nm. The prepared AgNPs were utilized to impart antibacterial finishing for cotton fabrics. The PI/UV system was further utilized to fix AgNPs onto cotton fabrics by photocrosslinking of AgNPs-CMS composite onto cotton fabrics to impart durable antibacterial properties. Effect of irradiation time and incorporating N, N-methylene diacrylamide (MDA in different concentrations on antibacterial performance before and after repeated washing cycles was studied. S. aureus and E. coli were used to evaluate the antibacterial performance of finished fabrics. The antibacterial performance was directly proportional to the irradiation time and concentration of MDA but inversely proportional to the number of washing cycles. The inhibition zone of S. aureus and E. coli is the same although they are different in the cell wall structure and mode of action due to the nanosize structure formed.

  9. Fast-response humidity-sensing films based on methylene blue aggregates formed on nanoporous semiconductor films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Ryota; Katoh, Ryuzi

    2016-05-01

    We prepared fast-response colorimetric humidity-sensing (vapochromic) films based on methylene blue adsorption onto nanoporous semiconductor (TiO2, Al2O3) films. Color changes caused by changes of humidity could be easily identified visually. A characteristic feature of the vapochromic films was their fast response to changes of humidity. We found that the response began to occur within 10 ms. The response was rapid because all the methylene blue molecules attached to the nanoporous semiconductor surface were directly exposed to the environment. We also deduced that the color changes were caused by structural changes of the methylene blue aggregates on the surface.

  10. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  11. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  12. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  13. Gebromeerde vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van H.J.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Sinds begin 2008 worden in het Nationaal Plan Diervoeder Choline Chloride monsters (= diervoeder additief) gevonden waarbij de DR CALUX screenings-assay een sterk verdacht signaal geeft, maar bij de GC-HRMS geen dioxines en dl-PCB's worden gevonden. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van nader ond

  14. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2013-11-28

    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle.

  15. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  16. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia

    2013-11-01

    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle.

  17. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Kleizen, B.; Jonge, H.R. de

    2000-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Wh

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... possible exposure conditions. (2) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each use. (i... Required Authorized Personnel Only (3) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other... which may be useful: A. For kidney dysfunction: urine examination for albumin, red blood cells,...

  19. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  20. Spatial variability of chloride in concrete within homogeneously exposed areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angst, U.M.; Polder, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of variability is increasingly considered in service life predictions. This paper reports experimental data on the spatial distribution of chloride in uncracked concrete subjected to homogeneous exposure. Chloride concentrations were measured with potentiometric sensors embedded in concr

  1. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  2. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  3. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the

  4. Aspergilli Response to Benzalkonium Chloride and Novel-Synthesized Fullerenol/Benzalkonium Chloride Nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Unković; Milica Ljaljević Grbić; Miloš Stupar; Jelena Vukojević; Vesna Janković; Danica Jović; Aleksandar Djordjević

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles’ dimensions within 30–143 nm and maximum number...

  5. Prenatal susceptibility to carcinogenesis by xenobiotic substances including vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, J M

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride for experimental animals when administered transplacentally is reviewed in comparison with known transplacental carcinogens, including those that, like vinyl chloride, are dependent on enzyme-mediated metabolic conversion to a reactive intermediate in maternal or fetal tissues. Vinyl chloride is converted by mixed-function oxidases to the reactive metabolite chlorooxirane, the carcinogenicity of which is also reviewed. Vinyl chloride is unequivocally a tr...

  6. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  7. Homogeneous photosensitized degradation of pharmaceuticals by using red light LED as light source and methylene blue as photosensitizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Y.; Bruning, H.; Yntema, D.; Mayer, M.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2017-01-01

    Research on employing advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for pharmaceuticals removal is gaining interests. However, detrimental effects of background water constituents in complex water matrices are limiting their implementation. In this study, we report red light induced methylene blue

  8. Elaeagnus angustifolia STONE AS A LOW-COST BIOSORBENT PRECURSOR FOR REMOVAL OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KILIÇ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions by biosorption onto Elaeagnus angustifolia stone has investigated. Optimum biosorption conditions have determined as a function of pH, biosorbent dosage, initial methylene blue concentration, contact time and temperature of the solution for the removal of methylene blue. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm models have used to describe the biosorption isotherm model. The experimental data have fitted to pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion model to examine the sorption kinetics. The values of ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° have calculated by thermodynamic study to determine the nature of biosorption process. Experimental results have shown that Elaeagnus angustifolia stone can be used as an effective and low cost biosorbent precursor for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

  9. Homogeneous photosensitized degradation of pharmaceuticals by using red light LED as light source and methylene blue as photosensitizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Y.; Bruning, H.; Yntema, D.; Mayer, M.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2017-01-01

    Research on employing advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for pharmaceuticals removal is gaining interests. However, detrimental effects of background water constituents in complex water matrices are limiting their implementation. In this study, we report red light induced methylene blue photosensit

  10. Effects of post-session administration of methylene blue on fear extinction and contextual memory in adults with claustrophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telch, M.J.; Bruchey, A.K.; Rosenfield, D.; Cobb, A.R.; Smits, J.A.J.; Pahl, S.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.

    2014-01-01

    Administering methylene blue, a memory-enhancing agent, after successful exposure therapy promoted the retention of fear extinction in claustrophobic patients, but clinicians should carefully consider what level of fear reduction was achieved in session to avoid harmful

  11. Role of Methylene Blue in the Maintenance of Postinduction Hemodynamic Status in Patients with Perforation Peritonitis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilnathan, Muthapillai; Cherian, Anusha; Balachander, Hemavathi; Maroju, Nanda Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Methylene blue is an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase and hence prevents vasoplegia mediated by nitric oxide in patients with sepsis. This study aimed to analyze the effect of methylene blue on blood pressure maintenance following induction of anesthesia in patients presenting with peritonitis. Thirty patients diagnosed to have perforation peritonitis were randomized into two groups (Group MB, Group NS). Patients in Group MB were given injection methylene blue 2 mg/kg over 20 min and patients in Group NS were given 50 ml of normal saline over 20 min, before induction. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were recorded every 5 min for 1 h after infusion. Hemodynamic parameters were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni's test. Blood gas analysis was analyzed using independent Student's t-test, and P blue were noted. Methylene blue contributes to the maintenance of postinduction hemodynamic stability in patients with perforation peritonitis.

  12. 21 CFR 520.260 - n-Butyl chloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl chloride capsules. 520.260 Section 520.260... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.260 n-Butyl chloride capsules. (a)(1) Specifications. n-Butyl chloride capsules, veterinary contain 272 milligrams or 816 milligrams...

  13. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105, 109, 112, 114 and 120) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...

  14. Palladium-catalyzed silylation of aryl chlorides with hexamethyldisilane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Eric; Barder, Timothy E; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2007-09-13

    A method for the palladium-catalyzed silylation of aryl chlorides has been developed. The method affords desired product in good yield, is tolerant of a variety of functional groups, and provides access to a wide variety of aryltrimethylsilanes from commercially available aryl chlorides. Additionally, a one-pot procedure that converts aryl chlorides into aryl iodides has been developed.

  15. Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Youngbeom Ahn; Jeong Myeong Kim; Ohgew Kweon; Seong-Jae Kim; Jones, Richard C.; Kellie Woodling; Goncalo Gamboa da Costa; LiPuma, John J.; David Hussong; Marasa, Bernard S.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK) cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl), decyldimethyl...

  16. Retention of vinyl chloride in the human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Krajewski, J.; Dobecki, M; Gromiec, J

    1980-01-01

    Experiments with volunteers showed that 42% of an inhaled dose of vinyl chloride is retained in the lungs. This value is independent of the concentration of vinyl chloride in the air. Elimination of vinyl chloride through the lungs is negligible since its concentration in expired air decreases immediately after the cessation of exposure.

  17. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  18. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  19. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  20. Red blood cells donate electrons to methylene blue mediated chemical reduction of methemoglobin compartmentalized in liposomes in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiromi; Li, Bing; Lim, Wei Lee; Iga, Yumika

    2014-07-16

    Electron-energy-rich coenzymes in cells, NADH and NADPH, are re-energized repeatedly through the Embden-Meyerhof and pentose-phosphate glycolytic pathways, respectively. This study demonstrates extraction of their electron energies in red blood cells (RBCs) for in vivo extracellular chemical reactions using an electron mediator shuttling across the biomembrane. Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbVs) are an artificial oxygen carrier encapsulating purified and concentrated Hb solution in liposomes. Because of the absence of a metHb-reducing enzymatic system in HbV, HbO2 gradually autoxidizes to form metHb. Wistar rats received HbV suspension (10 mL/kg body weight) intravenously. At the metHb level of around 50%, methylene blue [MB(+); 3,7-bis(dimethylamino)phenothiazinium chloride] was injected. The level of metHb quickly decreased to around 16% in 40 min, remaining for more than 5 h. In vitro mixing of HbV/MB(+) with RBCs recreated the in vivo metHb reduction, but not with plasma. NAD(P)H levels in RBCs decreased after metHb reduction. The addition of glucose facilitated metHb reduction. Liposome-encapsulated NAD(P)H, a model of RBC, reduced metHb in HbV in the presence of MB(+). These results indicate that (i) NAD(P)H in RBCs reacts with MB(+) to convert it to leukomethylene blue (MBH); (ii) MB(+) and MBH shuttle freely between RBC and HbV across the hydrophobic lipid membranes; and (iii) MBH is transferred into HbV and reduces metHb in HbV. Four other electron mediators with appropriate redox potentials appeared to be as effective as MB(+) was, indicating the possibility for further optimization of electron mediators. We established an indirect enzymatic metHb reducing system for HbV using unlimited endogenous electrons created in RBCs in combination with an effective electron mediator that prolongs the functional lifespan of HbV in blood circulation.

  1. 亚甲蓝海藻酸微球的研究%Studies on Alginate Microparticles of Methylene Blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂家生; Sam Bolla; John Barr; Jelmer Miedema; XIAOling Li; Bhaskara Jiasti

    2004-01-01

    报道了一种适合于放大规模的制备多孔隙的海藻酸微球的方法-喷雾-凝聚法.当5%(w/v)海藻酸钠溶液通过3/8"的喷枪在40~60 psi气压下喷雾到1mol/L氯化钙溶液中可以形成空隙率最大的微球.亚甲蓝被选作水溶性阳离子模型药物.亚甲蓝的载药方法是吸附法.亚甲蓝的释放度结果表明载药微球在去离子水中释药不完全,在氯化钠溶液中由于钠离子和钙离子的交换使微球崩解而迅速释放药物.结果表明:由喷雾凝聚法制得的海藻酸微球可以作为通过温和的条件载运阳离子药物.%A spray coagulation method was developed for the preparation of large scale of porous alginate microparticles. When sodium alginate solution (5% w/v) was sprayed into calcium chloride solution (1mol/L) through a nozzle (3/8") at air pressures (40~60 psi), most porous microparticles were formed. Methylene blue (MB), a highly water soluble cationic compound was used. MB was loaded by adsorption method. Release experiments from alginate microparticles were conducted. The release of MB from the microparticles was found to depend upon the release medium, and incomplete in vitro release in deionized water was observed. Complete release of MB was observed in NaCl solution due to ion exchange between sodium and calcium ion. The results indicated that porous alginate microparticles produced by spray-coagulation method can be used to load cationic drugs by adsorption method.

  2. Involvement of chloride anion in photocatalytic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shi-ying; CHEN Ying-xu; LOU Li-ping; WU Xiao-na

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Cl- on photocatalytic degradation(PCD) of pollutants is an important factor since it is ubiquitous in nature. In examine the effects of Cl- on the PCD of Methylene Blue (MB) and Orange Ⅱ (Oll) in aqueous TiO2 suspensions under UV light illumination. It was found that low concentration of Cl- ( 0.10 mol/L) had a very different influence on the decolorization of dyes: a significant inhibition for MB but a great promotion for Oll. In the presence of 0.50 mol/L Cl- , the rate decreased by 70% for MB while increased 7.5-fold for Oll. Furthermore, two bands in the ultraviolet region of Oll were rapidly broken down. The proposed mechanism was discussed in detail.

  3. Reaction mechanisms of methylene-blue degradation in three-dimensionally integrated micro-solution plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirafuji, Tatsuru; Ishida, Yodai; Nomura, Ayano; Hayashi, Yui; Goto, Motonobu

    2017-06-01

    We have performed matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) on methylene-blue aqueous solutions treated with three-dimensionally integrated micro-solution plasma, in which we have acquired the time evolution of mass spectra as a function of treatment time. The time evolution of mass spectral peak intensities for major detected species has clearly indicated that the parent methylene-blue molecules are degraded through consecutive reactions. The primary reaction is the oxidation of the parent molecules. The oxidized species still have two benzene rings in the parent molecules. The secondary reactions are the separation of the oxidized species and the formation of compounds with one benzene ring. We have also performed the numerical fitting of the time evolution of the mass spectral peak intensities, the results of which have indicated that we must assume additional primary reactions before the primary oxidation for better agreement with experimental results.

  4. Adsorption studies of Methylene blue dye from aqueous solution onto phaseolus aureus biomaterials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Jirekar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigation was carried out by using commercially available husk of green gram (phaseolusaureus seed to removal ofmethylene blue from aqueous medium. Husk of green gram seed was characterized by performing particle size distribution. The effect of contact time, effect of initial concentration of dye, effect of dosage, effect of salt, effect of pH, zero point pH and effect of temperature were studied in batch technique. Adsorption kinetic was verified by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The rate of adsorption of methylene blue followed by pseudo-second-order model for the dye concentration studied in the present case. Adsorption of methylene blue on green gram (phaseolusaureus seed husk is also followed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

  5. Removal of methylene blue dye from wastewater by using supported liquid memberane technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Waqar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the application of Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM technology towards the removal and recovery of a cationic dye (Methylene Blue from aqueous solutions. Natural and non-toxic vegetable oils have been impregnated on microporous polymeric films of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF to constitute a liquid membrane. Different parameters affecting the transport, like pH of feed solution, acid concentration in the strip solution, initial dye concentration, oil types and stirring speeds have been investigated. Highest value of flux (1.7 × 10−5 mg/cm2/sec1 for methylene blue dye was achieved with sunflower oil impregnated on the PVDF support, with pH maintained at 12 in the feed solution and 0.3 M hydrochloric acid concentration in the strip solution. It took 6 hours to transport maximum amount of dye under optimum conditions.

  6. Is Cytox 3522 (10% methylene-bis-thiocyanate) a human skin sensitizer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K

    1983-01-01

    Methylene-bis-thiocyanate is an antimicrobial agent in Cytox 3522 (American Cyanamid Corporation) and Nalco 206 (Nalco Chemical Company). Both are wide-spectrum industrial biocides. Cytox 3522 showed a strong sensitization potential in guineau pigs using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test and the O......Methylene-bis-thiocyanate is an antimicrobial agent in Cytox 3522 (American Cyanamid Corporation) and Nalco 206 (Nalco Chemical Company). Both are wide-spectrum industrial biocides. Cytox 3522 showed a strong sensitization potential in guineau pigs using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test...... and the Open Epicutaneous Test procedures. In spite of this, human sensitization has not been reported. This may be explained by several factors such as limited exposure, low-use concentration and a lack of diagnostic patch tests in selected patients....

  7. Removal of methylene blue by tea wastages from the synthesis waste waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Giahi; Roohan Rakhshaee; Mohammad A. Bagherinia

    2011-01-01

    The tea wastages could remove methylene blue (MB) as a cationic dye from waste water corresponding to second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic studies showed that adsorption equilibrium constant (KL) and maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) were increased with increasing temperature. The removal efficiency of MB for Co 0.01 mmol/L at optimum conditions was about 85%. The maximum uptake capacity (Qmax) of methylene blue in a batch reactor was 0.328,0.542 and 0.659 mmol/g at 15,25 and 40 °C, respectively. The enthalpy change (△H) and entropy change (AS) were 11.356 kJ/mol and 20.563 J/(mol K), respectively.

  8. METHYLENE BLUE MINERALISATION BY ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESS MEDIATED BY COBALT CATALYST ON PLATINUM ELECTRODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouarda BRAHMIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the electrochemical decolorization of the Methylene Blue dye on Platinum electrodes was assessed. Direct oxidation results demonstrate a partial pollutant degradation reaching a maximum of 64 %. However, the addition of a small amount of a redox mediator Co2+/3+ is efficiently able to electrocatalyse the Methylene blue oxidation by shortening significantly the treatment time and enhancing clearly the dye decolorization rate. Nearly complete decolorization was achieved (92 % in 1h 45min. The most striking results achieved within the cyclic voltammetry study demonstrate undoubtedly the pollutant mineralisation. Electrochemical experiments were performed using the spectrophotometric method, which is very convenient, easy and allows monitoring the spectral changes as well as the determination of the dye concentration during the process. The kinetics data show a first-order indirect oxidation kinetics. A mechanism was proposed to explain the different phenomenon during the electrochemical process.

  9. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue with Fe doped ZnS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ruby; Kumar, Ashavani; Chaudhary, Ram Pal

    2013-09-01

    Fe doped ZnS nanoparticles (Zn1-xFexS; where x=0.00, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.10) were synthesized by a chemical precipitation method. The synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectrometer. The X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope studies show that the size of crystallites is in the range of 2-5 nm. Photocatalytic activities of ZnS and 3, 5 and 10 mol% Fe doped ZnS were evaluated by decolorization of methylene blue in aqueous solution under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. It was found that the Fe doped ZnS bleaches methylene blue much faster than the undoped ZnS upon its exposure to the visible light as compared to ultraviolet light. The optimal Fe/Zn ratio was observed to be 3 mol% for photocatalytic applications.

  10. Comparative study of calcium alginate, activated carbon, and their composite beads on methylene blue adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, A F; Abdel-Mohsen, A M; Fouda, Moustafa M G

    2014-02-15

    Three adsorbents, calcium alginate beads (AB), sodium hydroxide activated carbon based coconut shells (C), and calcium alginate/activated carbon composite beads (ACB) were prepared. Their textural properties were characterized by N2-adsorption at -196°C and scanning electron microscopy. The porosity, surface area and total pore volume of C>ACB>AB, but AB adsorbent was more acidic function groups more than the other adsorbents. Adsorption experiments were conducted to examine the effects of adsorbent dosage, pH, time, temperature and initial concentration of methylene blue. Methylene blue adsorption on C, AB and ACB was observed at pH>6 to avoid the competition of H(+). The amount of dye adsorbed increases as the adsorbent dosage increase. Adsorption of dye follows pseudo-second order mechanism. Thermodynamic studies show spontaneous and endothermic nature of the overall adsorption process.

  11. Methylene-blue aided rapid confocal laser endomicroscopy of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Khushi; Hughes, Michael; Leff, Daniel Richard; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2017-02-01

    Breast conserving surgery allows complete tumor resection while maintaining acceptable cosmesis for patients. Safe and rapid intraoperative margin assessment during the procedure is important to establish the completeness of tumor excision and minimizes the need for reoperation. Confocal laser endomicroscopy has demonstrated promise for real-time intraoperative margin assessment using acriflavine staining, but it is not approved for routine in-human use. We describe a custom high-speed line-scan confocal laser endomicroscopy (LS-CLE) system at 660 nm that enables high-resolution histomorphological imaging of breast tissue stained with methylene-blue, an alternative fluorescent stain for localizing sentinel nodes during breast surgery. Preliminary imaging results on freshly excised human breast tissue specimens are presented, demonstrating the potential of methylene-blue aided rapid LS-CLE to determine the oncological status of surgical margins in-vivo.

  12. Lack of Methylene Blue Staining in Superficial Epithelia as a Possible Marker for Superficial Lateral Spread of Bile Duct Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Maetani

    1996-01-01

    epithelia. The cancerous epithelia stained significantly less often than either the normal (p = 0.000005 or the metaplastic (p = 0.001 epithelia. Evaluation of methylene blue staining during PTCS revealed that this stain was absorbed by the cholangial epithelia, not superficially stuck to it. The difference in methylene blue staining properties between the cancerous and normal epithelia could be helpful to clarify the boundary of superficial lateral spread of bile duct cancer.

  13. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delport, Anzelle; Harvey, Brian H; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P

    2017-06-15

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, the present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC50=0.0037μM), Nile blue (IC50=0.0077μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC50=0.018μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC50=0.07μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.012μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preoperative Pulmonary Nodule Localization: A Comparison of Methylene Blue and Hookwire Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleedehn, Mark; Kim, David H; Lee, Fred T; Lubner, Meghan G; Robbins, Jessica B; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Hinshaw, J Louis

    2016-12-01

    Small pulmonary nodules are often difficult to identify during thoracoscopic resection, and preoperative CT-guided localization performed using either hookwire placement or methylene blue injection can be helpful. The purpose of this study is to compare the localization success and complication rates of these two techniques. One hundred two consecutive patients who underwent a total of 109 localization procedures performed with CT fluoroscopic guidance were analyzed. The procedures included 52 hookwire insertions and 57 methylene blue injections. The localization success and complication rates associated with the two groups were compared. All nodules in both groups were identified intraoperatively, except for those in two patients in the hookwire group who did not proceed to undergo same-day surgery, including one with a massive systemic air embolus that resulted in death. Hookwires were dislodged in seven of 52 cases (13%), but the surgeons were still able to locate the nodules through visualization of the parenchymal puncture sites. The total number of complications was higher in the hookwire insertion group than in the methylene blue injection group, but this trend was not statistically significant, with all types of complications occurring in 28 cases (54%) versus 26 cases (46%) (p = 0.45), major complications noted in four cases (8%) versus one case (2%) (p = 0.19), pneumothorax observed in 20 cases (38%) versus 14 cases (25%) (p = 0.15), and perilesional hemorrhage occurring in six cases (12%) versus two cases (4%) (p = 0.15), respectively. The present study suggests that methylene blue injection and hookwire insertion are statistically equivalent for preoperative pulmonary nodule localization; however, seven of 52 hookwires dislodged, and trends toward more frequent and severe complications were noted in the hookwire insertion group.

  15. A New Property of Conjugated Polymer PFP: Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new property of conjugated polymer poly(furancarbinol-co-phenol)(PFP) was studied.The target copolymer was used as a catalyst after proper heating treatment. And dye methylene blue (MB) could be fully degraded and largely mineralized on PFP, under natural light or even in dark, in a few minutes. Furthermore, the catalytic activity could be preserved after several runs and the catalyst was readily separated. The effect of calcination temperature was also observed.

  16. Photodynamic action of laser radiation and methylene blue on some opportunistic microorganisms of the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Krill I.; Titorenko, Vladimir A.; Shoub, Gennady M.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Ovchinnikov, Ilya S.; Mischenko, Oksana S.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2000-03-01

    We have studied photodynamic action of He-Ne laser radiation on cultures of Staphylococcus (strain 209 P), Streptococcus anhaemolyticus, and total microflora of dental deposit been sensitized by methylene blue. The concentration of the dye was varied from 0.001% to 0.1%, radiation power density was 100 mW/cm2. Irradiated strain was put into thermostat for 24 hours, then the number of colonies was counted and analyzed.

  17. USE OF NANOSIZED CHROMIUM DOPED TiO2 SUPPORTED ON ZEOLITE FOR METHYLENE BLUE DEGRADATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ameta, Aarti; Bhati, Indu; Ameta, Rakshit; SURESH C. AMETA

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light has been investigated using chromium modified titanium dioxide supported on zeolite (Cr-TiO2/zeolite). The photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The rate of photodegradation of dye was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of pH, dye concentration, amount of photocatalyst and intensity of light on the rate of photocatalytic reaction was observed. The results s...

  18. PHOTODEGRADATION METHYLENE BLUE HYDROGELS USING ALCOHOL WITH POL IVINÍLICO TiO2 NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Carhuapoma, Wilson; Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Lima, Perú; Ramos, Ángel; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; López, Álcides; Instituto Peruano de Energía Nuclear, Lima, Perú; Santiago, Julio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    A composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix, which was partially crosslinked by gamma radiation, was prepared. The colloidal suspension of TiO2 introduced in the polymeric matrix was characterized by UV-VIS, transmission electronic microscopy and X ray diffraction (XDR), whereas the composite PVA-TiO2 was characterized by UV-VIS and XRD. The efficiency of this material in photocatalysis has been evaluated against methylene blue. A fast fotodegrada...

  19. The Kinetics of the Photochemical Reaction of Methylene Green with Methylamine and Ethylamine

    OpenAIRE

    SAEED, Rehana; UDDIN, Fahim; KHALID, Zahida

    2004-01-01

    The photochemical reduction of methylene green with methylamine and ethylamine in 50% aqueous isopropanol was studied. The photochemical reduction was carried out in a special type of optical processor associated with a deoxygenating system, a temperature controlling unit and a magnetic stirring system. A monochromatic light of 657 nm wavelength was used for irradiation of oxygen free reaction solutions in a double walled reaction cell. The transmitted light was measured and recorde...

  20. Quantitative methylene blue decolourisation assays as rapid screening tools for assessing the efficiency of catalytic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruid, Jan; Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice Leigh

    2017-05-01

    Identifying the most efficient oxidation process to achieve maximum removal of a target pollutant compound forms the subject of much research. There exists a need to develop rapid screening tools to support research in this area. In this work we report on the development of a quantitative assay as a means for identifying catalysts capable of decolourising methylene blue through the generation of oxidising species from hydrogen peroxide. Here, a previously described methylene blue test strip method was repurposed as a quantitative, aqueous-based spectrophotometric assay. From amongst a selection of metal salts and metallophthalocyanine complexes, monitoring of the decolourisation of the cationic dye methylene blue (via Fenton-like and non-Fenton oxidation reactions) by the assay identified the following to be suitable oxidation catalysts: CuSO4 (a Fenton-like catalyst), iron(II)phthalocyanine (a non-Fenton oxidation catalyst), as well as manganese(II) phthalocyanine. The applicability of the method was examined for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), as measured by HPLC, during parallel oxidation experiments. The order of catalytic activity was identified as FePc > MnPc > CuSO4 for both BPA and MB. The quantitative MB decolourisation assay may offer a rapid method for screening a wide range of potential catalysts for oxidation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, M A; Ghaffar, A; Ahmed, K

    2002-01-01

    The effect of O sub 2 and O sub 3 bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 M OMEGA resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l sup - sup 1 methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O sub 2 at 10 ml min sup - sup 1 through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O sub 2 containing 1500 mu mol O sub 3 l sup - sup 1 at 10 ml min sup - sup 1 reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O sub 3 was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O sub 3 generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O sub 3 production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in...

  2. Microwave atmospheric pressure plasma jets for wastewater treatment: Degradation of methylene blue as a model dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María C; Mora, Manuel; Esquivel, Dolores; Foster, John E; Rodero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution as a model dye using a non thermal microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. Argon has been used as feed gas and aqueous solutions with different concentrations of the dye were treated using the effluent from plasma jet in a remote exposure. The removal efficiency increased as the dye concentration decreased from 250 to 5 ppm. Methylene blue degrades after different treatment times, depending on the experimental plasma conditions. Thus, kinetic constants up to 0.177 min(-1) were obtained. The higher the Ar flow, the faster the degradation rate. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to gather information about the species present in the gas phase, specifically excited argon atoms. Argon excited species and hydrogen peroxide play an important role in the degradation of the dye. In fact, the conversion of methylene blue was directly related to the density of argon excited species in the gas phase and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous liquid phase. Values of energy yield at 50% dye conversion of 0.296 g/kWh were achieved. Also, the use of two plasma applicators in parallel has been proven to improve energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of methylene blue in addition to norepinephrine on the intestinal microcirculation in experimental septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantais, Jordan; Dumbarton, Tristan C; Farah, Nizam; Maxan, Alexander; Zhou, Juan; Minor, Samuel; Lehmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) has been used with some success as a treatment for the vasoplegia of vasopressor-refractory septic shock. The putative mechanism of action of MB is the inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide within the microvasculature and improved responsiveness to endogenous catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE)). However, to date, no study has demonstrated the microcirculatory effect of methylene blue in septic shock. The objective of this randomized, controlled, animal study was to show, in an experimentally-induced, septic shock model in rats, the effects of MB and NE on global hemodynamics and the microcirculation. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was drastically reduced following bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) administration in animals not receiving vasopressors. Only the combination of NE + MB restored MAP to control levels by the end of the three hour experiment. Intravital microscopy of the microcirculation was performed in the terminal ileum in order to examine functional capillary density in intestinal muscle layers and the mucosa, as well as leukocyte activation in venules (rolling, adhesion to the endothelium). Untreated LPS animals showed a significant increase in leukocyte adhesion and a decrease in capillary perfusion in the intestinal microcirculation. In groups receiving NE or NE+MB, we observed a significant decrease in leukocyte adhesion and improved functional capillary density, indicating that microvasculature function was improved. This study suggests that methylene blue may be able to improve hemodynamics while preserving microvascular function in septic shock.

  4. Functional elastic hydrogel as recyclable membrane for the adsorption and degradation of methylene blue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Bao

    Full Text Available Developing the application of high-strength hydrogels has gained much attention in the fields of medical, pharmacy, and pollutant removal due to their versatility and stimulus-responsive properties. In this presentation, a high-strength freestanding elastic hydrogel membrane was constructed by clay nanosheets, N, N-dimethylacrylamide and 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid for adsorption of methylene blue and heavy metal ions. The maximum values of elongation and Young's modulus for 0.5% AMPSNa hydrogel were 1901% and 949.4 kPa, respectively, much higher than those of traditional hydrogels. The adsorptions were confirmed to follow pseudo-second kinetic equation and Langmuir isotherm model fits the data well. The maximum adsorption capacity of hydrogel towards methylene blue was 434.8 mg g(-1. The hydrogel also exhibited higher separation selectivity to Pb(2+ than Cu(2+. The methylene blue adsorbed onto the hydrogel membrane can be photocatalytically degraded by Fenton agent and the hydrogel membrane could be recycled at least five times without obvious loss in mechanical properties. In conclusion, this presentation demonstrates a convenient strategy to prepare tough and elastic clay nanocomposite hydrogel, which can not only be applied as recyclable membrane for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dye, but also for the recovery of valuables.

  5. The kinetics of electron transfer reaction of methylene green and titanium trichloride in different solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Rehana; Nadeem, Syed Muhammad Saqib

    2016-06-01

    The kinetics of the electron transfer reaction of methylene green and titanium trichloride was investigated in different solvents by spectrophotometry at different temperatures. The the reaction rate was determined by monitoring the absorbance as a function of time at λmax 655 nm. The reaction is pseudo-first order, dependent only on the concentration of titanium trichloride at a fixed concentration of methylene green. The effect of an aqueous alcoholic solvent was studied in the acidic range of pH from 4 to 7. It was observed that the reaction rate increased with an increase in polarity of the reaction medium. The the reaction rate was high in acidic conditions and decreased with a further increase in acidity. The increase in temperature increased the rate of the electron transfer reaction of methylene green and titanium trichloride. The activation energy ( E a) was calculated by the Arrhenius relation. The absence of any reaction intermediate was confirmed by spectroscopic and kinetic investigations. A plausible mechanism for the reaction in line with outer-sphere reaction pathway has been proposed. Thermodynamic parameters such as the activation energy ( E a), enthalpy change (Δ H), free energy change (Δ G), and entropy change (Δ S) were also evaluated

  6. Application of High-frequency Electrosurgical Scalpel and Methylene Blue Staining in Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongling Luo; Lixin Zhang; Yueguang Qiu; Xiaofang Luo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.To evaluate the application of a high-frequency electrosurgical scalpel and methylene blue staining in the en-donasal dacryocystorhinostomy. Methods:.This retrospective study included 37 patients (43 eyes).undergoing endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy in our hospital between 2011 and 2013 using methylene blue staining of the lacrimal sac and a high-frequency electrosurgical scalpel for cutting nasal mucosa, intraoperative stanch, and fixation of lacrimal sac and nasal mucosal flaps. Surgical efficacy, in-traoperative challenges,.and corresponding handling methods were evaluated and summarized. Results:.Among 43 eyes,.42 were successfully cured (97.7%) and the symptoms in 1 eye were improved (2.3%). Total effi-cacy rate was 100%. All surgeries were successfully performed.. No severe intraoperative complications were observed. Conclusion:.A high-frequency electrosurgical scalpel,.com-bined with methylene blue staining of the lacrimal sac, is effi-cacious for nasal mucosal cutting,.intraoperative stanch,.and fixation of mucosal flap by cauterization,.which significantly alleviates intraoperative complications and enhances surgical success rate..It deserves widespread application in clinical practice. .(Eye Science 2014; 29:25-29).

  7. Functional elastic hydrogel as recyclable membrane for the adsorption and degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Song; Wu, Dongbei; Wang, Qigang; Su, Teng

    2014-01-01

    Developing the application of high-strength hydrogels has gained much attention in the fields of medical, pharmacy, and pollutant removal due to their versatility and stimulus-responsive properties. In this presentation, a high-strength freestanding elastic hydrogel membrane was constructed by clay nanosheets, N, N-dimethylacrylamide and 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid for adsorption of methylene blue and heavy metal ions. The maximum values of elongation and Young's modulus for 0.5% AMPSNa hydrogel were 1901% and 949.4 kPa, respectively, much higher than those of traditional hydrogels. The adsorptions were confirmed to follow pseudo-second kinetic equation and Langmuir isotherm model fits the data well. The maximum adsorption capacity of hydrogel towards methylene blue was 434.8 mg g(-1). The hydrogel also exhibited higher separation selectivity to Pb(2+) than Cu(2+). The methylene blue adsorbed onto the hydrogel membrane can be photocatalytically degraded by Fenton agent and the hydrogel membrane could be recycled at least five times without obvious loss in mechanical properties. In conclusion, this presentation demonstrates a convenient strategy to prepare tough and elastic clay nanocomposite hydrogel, which can not only be applied as recyclable membrane for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dye, but also for the recovery of valuables.

  8. Photo-kinetics of photoinduced transformation reaction of methylene green with titanium trichloride in different solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Syed Muhammad Saqib; Saeed, Rehana

    2017-08-01

    The photo-kinetics of photoinduced transformation reaction of methylene green and titanium trichloride was investigated in water and different aqueous-alcoholic solvents. The reaction is pseudo-first order, dependent only on the concentration of titanium trichloride at fixed concentration of methylene green. The effect of water and aqueous-alcoholic solvents was studied in the acidic range from 4 to 7. It was observed that the quantum yield (φ) of reaction increased with increase in polarity of the solvent. The quantum yield (φ) was high in acidic condition and decreased with further increase in acidity. The quantum yield (φ) increased sharply with increase in concentration of titanium trichloride while it almost remained unaffected by change in concentration of methylene green. The addition of ions increased the quantum yield (φ) of reaction. The increase in temperature decreased the rate and quantum yield (φ) of reaction. An electron transfer mechanism for the reaction has been proposed in accordance with the kinetics of reaction. The absence of any reaction intermediate was confirmed by spectroscopic investigations. Activation energy ( E a) was calculated by Arrhenius relation. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy ( E a), enthalpy change (Δ H), free energy change (Δ G) and entropy change (Δ S) were also evaluated.

  9. New α-Methylene-γ-Butyrolactone Derivatives as Potential Fungicidal Agents: Design, Synthesis and Antifungal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongling Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the fact that the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety is a major bio-functional group in the structure of carabrone and possesses some agricultural biological activity, forty-six new ester and six new ether derivatives containing α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moieties were synthesized, and their fungicidal activities against Colletotrichum lagenarium and Botrytis cinerea were investigated. Most of the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant fungicidal activity. Among them, halogen atom-containing derivatives showed better activity than others, especially compounds 6a,d which exhibited excellent fungicidal activity against C. lagenarium, with IC50 values of 7.68 and 8.17 μM. The structure-activity relationship (SAR analysis indicated that ester derivatives with electron-withdrawing groups on the benzene ring showed better fungicidal activity than those with electron-donating groups. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR model (R2 = 0.9824, F = 203.01, S2 = 0.0083 was obtained through the heuristic method. The built model revealed a strong correlation of fungicidal activity against C. lagenarium with the molecular structures of these compounds. These results are expected to prove helpful in the design and exploration of low toxicity and high efficiency α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone-based fungicides.

  10. METHYLENE BLUE IMPROVES MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATION AND DECREASES OXIDATIVE STRESS IN A SUBSTRATE-DEPENDENT MANNER IN DIABETIC RAT HEARTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duicu, Oana M; Privistirescu, Andreea; Wolf, Adrian; Petrus, Alexandra; Dănilă, Maria D; Ratiu, Corina; Muntean, Danina M; Sturza, Adrian

    2017-07-24

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been systematically associated with compromised mitochondrial energetics and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that underlie its progression to heart failure. Methylene blue is a redox-drug with reported protective effects mainly on brain mitochondria. The present study was purported to characterize the effects of acute administration of methylene blue on mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production, and calcium sensitivity in rat heart mitochondria isolated from healthy and 2 months (streptozotocin-induced) diabetic rats. Mitochondrial respiratory function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry. Hydrogen peroxide production and calcium retention capacity were measured spectrofluorimetrically. The addition of methylene blue (0.1 μM) elicited an increase in oxygen consumption of mitochondria energized with complex I and II substrates in both normal and diseased mitochondria. Interestingly, methylene blue elicited a significant increase in H2O2 release in the presence of CI substrates (glutamate-malate), but had an opposite effect in mitochondria energized with CII substrate (succinate). No changes in the calcium retention capacity of healthy or diabetic mitochondria were found in the presence of methylene blue. In conclusion, in cardiac mitochondria isolated from diabetic and non-diabetic rat hearts, methylene blue improved respiratory function and elicited a dichotomic, substrate-dependent effect on ROS production.

  11. Effect of ultrasound sonication on clonogenic survival and mitochondria of ovarian cancer cells in the presence of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Junyan; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Xu, Chuanshan

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of ultrasound sonication in the presence of methylene blue on clonogenic survival and mitochondria of ovarian cancer cells. Human ovarian cancer HO-8910 cells, which were incubated with different concentrations of methylene blue for 1 hour, were exposed to an ultrasonic wave for 5 seconds with intensity of 0.46 W/cm(2). Clonogenic survival of HO-8910 cells after ultrasound sonication was measured by a colony-forming unit assay. Mitochondrial structural changes were observed on transmission electron microscopy, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by confocal laser-scanning microscopy with rhodamine 123 staining. The colony-forming units of HO-8910 cells decreased considerably after ultrasound sonication in the presence of methylene blue. Transmission electron microscopy showed slightly enlarged mitochondria in the ultrasound-treated cells in the absence of methylene blue; however, seriously damaged mitochondria, even with almost complete disappearance of cristae, were found in the cells treated by ultrasound sonication in the presence of methylene blue. The mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed significantly when HO-8910 cells were treated by ultrasound sonication in the presence of methylene blue (P cells. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange, methylene blue and rhodamine B with AgCl nanocatalyst synthesised from its bulk material in the ionic liquid [P6 6 6 14]Cl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabo, Borja; Rodríguez-Palmeiro, Iago; Corchero, Raquel; Rodil, Rosario; Rodil, Eva; Arce, Alberto; Soto, Ana

    2017-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of wastewater containing three industrial dyes belonging to different families, methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RhB), was studied under UV-Vis irradiation using synthesised silver chloride nanoparticles. The nanocatalyst was prepared by a dissolution/reprecipitation method starting from the bulk powder and the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride, [P6 6 6 14]Cl, without addition of other solvents. The obtained catalyst was characterised by UV-Vis absorbance, X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The decolourisation of the samples was studied by UV-Vis absorbance at the corresponding wavelength. Starting from 10 ppm dye solutions and 1 g L(-1) of the synthesised AgCl nanoparticles, degradation efficiencies of 98.4% for MO, 98.6% for MB and 99.9% for RhB, were achieved in 1 h. The degradation mechanisms for the different dyes were studied. Comparison with other frequently used nanocatalysts, namely P-25 Degussa, TiO2 anatase, Ag and ZnO, highlights the strong catalytic activity of AgCl nanoparticles. Under the same experimental conditions, these nanoparticles led to higher (more than 10%) and faster degradations.

  14. Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, T.

    1985-12-01

    This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project was divided into two main tasks. Task One was to consist of component optimization and stability studies. Once sufficiently advanced, the ongoing results of Task One were to be integrated with Task Two. Task Two was to consist of demonstration of an optimized primary cell. In July, 1983, the program was redirected. Task Two was split, with effort to be directed toward both the original primary cell and toward a high discharge rate reserve configuration cell. Additional electrolyte salts were to be evaluated as a means of improving the storability of the active calcium-thionyl chloride cell.

  15. Carbonisation of coal with chlorides content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Plevova

    2002-07-01

    From accessible literature it is evident that the addition of Lewis acids to coal before carbonisation can effect the course of reactions in the way of getting required products. An investigation was carried out into the effects of addition of chloride solutions. For experiments low concentration of solutions of three chlorides (PbCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, AlC{sub 3}) were used. Then samples were carbonised in a special coking retort. Volatile products were collected to establish the mass balance of this process. The resultant properties of obtained char and coal tar were estimated. Evaluation of the solid phase showed the increasing of specific surface although the used solution concentration was quite low. Estimation of obtained tar indicated mainly increasing of aromatic hydrocarbons in consequence of charring and aromatisation of carbon skeleton. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholc, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  17. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1996-01-01

    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  18. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  19. Iron (III) chloride doping of CVD graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Hsu, Allen L; Kong, Jing

    2014-10-03

    Chemical doping has been shown as an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. We present the results of our investigations into doping large area chemical vapor deposition graphene using Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl(3)). It is shown that evaporating FeCl(3) can increase the carrier concentration of monolayer graphene to greater than 10(14) cm(-2) and achieve resistances as low as 72 Ω sq(-1). We also evaluate other important properties of the doped graphene such as surface cleanliness, air stability, and solvent stability. Furthermore, we compare FeCl(3) to three other common dopants: Gold (III) Chloride (AuCl(3)), Nitric Acid (HNO(3)), and TFSA ((CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH). We show that compared to these dopants, FeCl(3) can not only achieve better sheet resistance but also has other key advantages including better solvent stability.

  20. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... mixtures are tested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures. Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP water absorption in fresh concrete and without extra water, the internal curing water held by SAP may...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient...

  1. Control Technology for Depainting Operations: Estimation of Life-Cycle Costs of Controlling Methylene Chloride in Aircraft-Depainting Operations Versus Alternative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    contained in this MSDS is based on information bolioved (o b« accurate «I Ihij dato Eldorado Cnemirm Cu . Inc mokus nu ouurnntou or warranty c In...Force Base FL 32403-5323 NOTICES This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither...manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may in any way be related thereto. This technical report has been reviewed by the Public Affairs Office

  2. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a... is not to exceed 0.02 g vinyl chloride/kg (0.04 lb vinyl chloride/ton) of polyvinyl chloride...

  3. SELECTIVE SODIUM REMOVAL FROM LITHIUM CHLORIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. .... Impurities contents in the feedstock brine. Component. LiCl. Na. Ca. Mg. SO4. 2- ... The pH was varied from 5.0 to 9.0 by careful addition of 0.01 M HCl or ... effect on the structure. ... with sodium ion in lithium chloride brine as follows. +. +. +. +. −= +. yLi. PO. Zr. La.

  4. Electrochemical Studies in Aluminum Chloride Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-31

    Molten Salt Systems", Symposium on Molten Salts, Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , in press (1976). Manuscripts in Preparation--Related to...Fused Salt Technology, Electrochemical Society Meeting, Chicaao, May 8-13, 1973. R. A. Osteryoung, R. H. Abel, L. G. Boxall and B. H. Vassos, "An...aluminate Melts", Electrochemical Society , San Francisco, CA, May, 1974. R. A. Osteryoung, "Chemistry in Aluminum Chloride Melts", Fifth International

  5. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Güler, Ekrem; Olgar, Şeref; Davutoğlu, Mehmet; Garipardıç, Mesut; Karabiber, Hamza

    2011-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is ...

  6. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrem Güler; Şeref Olgar; Mehmet Davutoğlu; Mesut Garipardıç; Hamza Karabiber

    2014-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is...

  7. EVALUATION OF BACTERICIDAL EFFECTIVENESS OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    K. Imandel; M.B. Shaywaard; F. Mobaraki

    1996-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammounium Compounds derivative under different names such as Afxhang, Hamoon, Mahan etc, which have great and expanded use in sanitation and medical affairs. Bactericidal activity of these disinfectants was fulfilled according to National Standard Method No.2842 on Staph. Aureus, Sal. Typhimouium and E. coli. This laboratory test showed that, except Mahan that has not bactericidal efficacy on E.coli at concentration 0.4 percent, other disinfectants under ...

  8. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.

    1964-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  9. Evaluation of the protein biomarkers and the analgesic response to systemic methylene blue in patients with refractory neuropathic pain: a double-blind, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miclescu AA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adriana A Miclescu,1 Martin Svahn,1 Torsten E Gordh1,2 1Multidisciplinary Pain Clinic, Uppsala University Hospital, 2Pain Research, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Aim: This study was carried out in patients with neuropathic pain in order to assess the analgesic effects and changes in protein biomarkers after the administration of methylene blue (MB, a diaminophenothiazine with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide.Materials and methods: Ten patients with chronic refractory neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either MB (10 mg/mL Methylthioninium chloride 2 mg/kg (MB group or MB 0.02 mg/kg (control group infused over 60 minutes. Sensory function and pain (Numerical Rating Scale were evaluated at baseline and at 60 minutes after the start of the infusion. The patients kept a pain diary during the next 24 hours and for the following 4 days. Plasma and urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α and plasma protein biomarkers prior to and after the infusions were measured with radioimmunoassay and with proximity extension assay.Results: A decrease of the Numerical Rating Scale at 60 minutes in comparison with baseline was observed in the MB (P=0.047 group. The decrease was significant between the MB and the control group on the day of and day after MB infusion (P=0.04 and P=0.008, respectively. There was no difference in systemic protein expressions between groups except for prolactin (PRL (P=0.02. Three patients demonstrated diminished dynamic mechanical allodynia.Conclusion: MB decreased the pain levels in patients with chronic therapy-resistant neuropathic pain on the first 2 days after administration. Known as an endocrine modulator on the anterior pituitary gland, MB infusion produced a decrease of PRL. The detailed role of PRL effects in chronic neuropathic pain remains undetermined.Keywords: methylene blue, nitric oxide

  10. Carbon and TiO{sub 2} synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes, E-mail: evelynalvesnunes@yahoo.com.br; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio

    2016-07-01

    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO{sub 2} structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO{sub 2} structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO{sub 2} phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO{sub 2} during the sol-gel step, with a TiO{sub 2} structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO{sub 2} based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO{sub 2}-Carbon

  11. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffarel-Salvador, Ester; Kearney, Mary-Carmel; Mairs, Rachel; Gallo, Luigi; Stewart, Sarah A.; Brady, Aaron J.; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed “photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy” (PACT). In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs) are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1–2.5 mg/mL) and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96%, were achieved for

  12. The Accelerated Test of Chloride Permeability of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ke-feng; ODD E Gjφrv

    2003-01-01

    The availability of accelerated chloride permeability test and the effect of w/c ratio, incorporation of silica fume, maximum aggregate size and aggregate type on the chloride permeability were studied. The mathematic analysis certifies that there is a linear relationship between accelerated test and natural diffusion. Test results show that the chloride permeability of concrete increases as w/c ratio increases whilst a limited amount of replacement of cement with silica fume, the chloride permeability decreases dramatically. The maximum aggregate size in the range of 8 to 25 mm seems also affect chloride permeability but with a much less significant level. The chloride permeability of silica fume lightweight aggregate concrete is very low, especially the concrete made with dry lightweight concrete. The chloride permeability can be evaluated by this accelerated test method.

  13. Developing Polymer Cathode Material for the Chloride Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhigang; Yang, Meng; Xia, Hui; Yu, Tingting; Shen, Xiaodong

    2017-01-25

    The chloride ion battery is an attractive rechargeable battery owing to its high theoretical energy density and sustainable components. An important challenge for research and development of chloride ion batteries lies in the innovation of the cathode materials. Here we report a nanostructured chloride ion-doped polymer, polypyrrole chloride, as a new type of potential cathode material for the chloride ion battery. The as-prepared polypyrrole chloride@carbon nanotubes (PPyCl@CNTs) cathode shows a high reversible capacity of 118 mAh g(-1) and superior cycling stability. Reversible electrochemical reactions of the PPyCl@CNTs cathode based on the redox reactions of nitrogen species and chloride ion transfer are demonstrated. Our work may guide and offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of rechargeable batteries with anion transfer.

  14. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-10-01

    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature.

  15. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  16. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS.

  17. Anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility of a green high performance concrete admixture in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongbao; LIU Xinrong; LIU Dongyan; CHEN Jiangong; HUANG Xiongjun

    2003-01-01

    The effects of green high performance concrete (GHPC) admixture on the anti-chloride permeability and anti- chloride corrodibility of concrete are studied by a series of experiments designed on the basis of the diffusion principle and electrochemical principle. The GHPC admixture consists of fly ash, gangue, slag, red mud, etc., of which the mass fraction of industrial residues is over 96 %. The anti-permeabilities and anti-corrodibilities of the tested GHPC and normal concrete (NC) are evaluated by the Diffusion Coefficients of chloride which was obtained by measuring the concentration of chloride in the tested systems by the voltage difference method. It is found that the adoption of GHPC admixture greatly improves the anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility by modifying the inner structure and contracting the porosity of concrete to the reduce considerably the diffusion rate of chloride. The admixture is desirable regarding its engineering performances as well as economical and environmental interests.

  18. Disparate Behavior of Carbonyl and Thiocarbonyl Compounds: Acyl Chlorides vs Thiocarbonyl Chlorides and Isocyanates vs Isothiocyanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Kenneth B.; Wang, Yi-gui; Miller, Scott J.; Puchlopek, Angela L.A.; Bailey, William F.; Fair, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of benzoyl chloride with methanol catalyzed by pyridine is 9 times more rapid than is the same reaction with thiobenzoyl chloride. The difference in reactivity, as well as the dealkylation reactions that occur when the reaction of thiobenzoyl chloride is catalyzed by bases such as Et3N, can be understood in terms of the charge distributions in the intermediate acylammonium ions. The reaction of PhNCO with ethanol occurs at a much higher rate (4.8 × 104) than that of PhNCS, corresponding to a difference in activation free energies for the additions of 6 kcal/mol. Transition states for each of these reactions were located, and each involves two alcohol molecules in a hydrogen bonded six-membered ring arrangement. Information concerning differences in reactivity was derived from analysis of Hirshfeld atomic charge distributions and calculated hydrogenolysis reaction energies. PMID:19371054

  19. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...... that the effect of the extra time of hydration obtained when casting in spring increases the expected service life of the concrete structure significantly....

  20. Randomized single-blind clinical trial of intradermal methylene blue on pain reduction after open diathermy haemorrhoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, H-L; Tan, K-Y

    2014-08-01

    Open haemorrhoidectomy has been associated with considerable postoperative pain and discomfort. Perianal intradermal injection of methylene blue has been shown to ablate perianal nerve endings and may bring about temporary pain relief after haemorrhoidectomy. We hypothesized that the administration of intradermal methylene blue would reduce postoperative pain during the initial period after surgery. A randomized, prospective, single-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Patients were randomized to intradermal injection at haemorrhoidectomy of either 4 ml 1% methylene blue and 16 ml 0.5% marcaine or of 16 ml 0.5% marcaine and 4 ml saline prior to surgical dissection. Patients were asked to fill in a pain diary with a visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measure was pain score and analgesic use. Secondary outcomes were complications. There were 37 patients in the methylene blue arm and 30 patients in the placebo arm. There were no statistically significant differences in the sex, type of haemorrhoid, number of haemorrhoids excised, duration of surgery or hospital stay. The mean pain scores were significantly lower and the use of paracetamol was also significantly less in the methylene blue group during the first three postoperative days. The risk ratio of acute urinary retention occurring when methylene blue was not used was 2.320 (95% CI 1.754-3.067). Other complication rates were not significantly different. Perianal intradermal injection of methylene blue was useful in reducing the initial postoperative pain of open haemorrhoidectomy. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. A dose-finding study of methylene blue to inhibit nitric oxide actions in the hemodynamics of human septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffermans, Nicole P; Vervloet, Marc G; Daemen-Gubbels, Catharina R G; Binnekade, Jan M; de Jong, Martin; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2010-05-15

    Methylene blue increases blood pressure and myocardial function in septic shock mainly by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) actions. However, a dose-dependency of methylene blue has not been established. Therefore, the compound is currently used as rescue treatment only. To evaluate dose-dependency, a prospective, randomized, double blind, single centre study was performed in 15 consecutive, mechanically ventilated patients with septic shock admitted to the intensive care unit, in whom methylene blue was infused at 1 mg/kg (n=4), 3 mg/kg (n=6) or 7 mg/kg (n=5) over 20 min. Hemodynamic parameters were measured before and after the infusion. Gastric tonometry was performed. Methylene blue treatment increased heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial, pulmonary artery, pulmonary artery occlusion and central venous pressures, systemic vascular resistance, ventricular stroke work indices and O(2) delivery and uptake, and decreased lactate levels. Methylene blue had a dose-dependent effect on cardiac index, mean arterial, mean pulmonary artery and pulmonary artery occlusion pressures, left ventricular function, O(2) delivery and consumption and lactate levels. The drug dose-dependently increased the gastric-arterial blood PCO(2) gap. The data suggest that in human septic shock, methylene blue increases mean arterial blood pressure by an increase in cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance. The rise in cardiac index is caused by an increase in left ventricular filling and function, increasing tissue oxygenation, even at a dose of 1mg/kg. High doses of methylene blue may compromise splanchnic perfusion, even though further enhancing global hemodynamics, and should therefore, be avoided in future studies.

  2. 40 CFR 721.8485 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester. 721.8485 Section 721.8485 Protection of...-methyl-, (octahydro-4,7-methano-1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester. (a) Chemical substance and...-, (octahydro-4,7-methano- 1H- indene-5-diyl)bis(methylene) ester (PMN P-99-1075; CAS No. 43048-08-4) is...

  3. Photography - Determination of thiosulphate and other residual chemicals in processed photographic films, plates and papers - Methylene blue photometric method and silver sulphide densitometric method

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1977-01-01

    Photography - Determination of thiosulphate and other residual chemicals in processed photographic films, plates and papers - Methylene blue photometric method and silver sulphide densitometric method

  4. Adsorption of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution onto a Low-Cost Natural Jordanian Tripoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef S. ALzaydien

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyes and pigments are widely used, mostly in the textiles, paper, plastics, leather, food and cosmetic industry to color products. The release of colored wastewater from these industries may present an eco-toxic hazard. Various techniques like precipitation, ion exchange, chemical oxidation, and adsorption have been used for the removal of toxic pollutant from, wastewater. Methylene blue (MB is selected as a model compound for evaluating the potential of tripoli to remove dye from wastewaters. Objective: In this study, Jordanian low- cost locally available tripoli was studied for its potential use as an adsorbent for removal of a cationic dye (methylene blue,MB from aqueous solution. Factors affecting adsorption, such as , initial dye concentration, pH, contact time , adsorbent dose and temperature, were evaluated. The equilibrium of adsorption was modelled by using the Langmuir , Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models, the kinetic parameters and intraparticle diffusion were also then determined for the methylene blue-tripoli system. Methodology: The raw tripoli samples were kindly supplied by the Authority of Natural Resources (Jordan, Amman. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD analysis was carried out with PANalytical X-ray, Philips Analytical. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR analysis was conducted. The cation exchange capacity (CEC of tripoli was estimated using The copper bis-ethylenediamine complex method. The specific surface area of tripoli was estimated using Sears’ method by agitating 1.5 g of the tripoli sample in 100 ml of diluted hydrochloric acid of a pH = 3. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out by adding 0.5 g of tripoli in a series of 250mL flasks containing 100mL of MB solution of different dye concentrations at four different temperatures (20, 30, and 50 ◦C. The experiments of adsorption kinetics were carried out in stirred batch mode. For each experiment, 0.1 L

  5. 1-Carboxymethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium chloride 2-(3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium-1-yl)acetate monohydrate: a crystal stabilized by imidazolium zwitterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Chang, Liangliang; Wang, Na; Xuan, Xiaopeng

    2013-10-01

    The title compound, C6H9N2O2(+)·Cl(-)·C6H8N2O2·H2O, contains one 2-(3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium-1-yl)acetate inner salt molecule, one 1-carboxymethyl-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium cation, one chloride ion and one water molecule. In the extended structure, chloride anions and water molecules are linked via O-H···Cl hydrogen bonds, forming an infinite one-dimensional chain. The chloride anions are also linked by two weak C-H···Cl interactions to neighbouring methylene groups and imidazole rings. Two imidazolium moieties form a homoconjugated cation through a strong and asymmetric O-H···O hydrogen bond of 2.472 (2) Å. The IR spectrum shows a continuous D-type absorption in the region below 1300 cm(-1) and is different to that of 1-carboxymethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [Xuan, Wang & Xue (2012). Spectrochim. Acta Part A, 96, 436-443].

  6. N-(2-Benzoylethylpropan-2-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C12H18NO+·Cl−, N—H...Cl interactions between the free chloride anions and the organic cations connect the molecules into hydrogen-bond dimers, forming a R22(8 motif. The dimers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [301]. The carbonyl group is co-planar with the phenyl ring [C—C—C=O torsion angle = −3.3 (7°]. The side chain has an E conformation.

  7. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  8. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...

  9. Synthesis of Aminolaurylpyridinium Chloride as Antimicrobial Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tao; SONG Xin-yuan; SUN Gang

    2008-01-01

    4-amino-laurylpyridinium chloride (ALPC) was synthesized and employed in antimicrobial finishing of wool fabrics. The structures of the salt was fully characterized by using FTIR, 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR analysis. The effects of pH conditions of finishing baths, finishing time and temperature, and salt concentrations were investigated. ALPC could form ionic interactions with anionic groups on wool, which contribute to durable antimicrobial functions. The finished wool fabrics exhibited antimicrobial efficacy against Escherichia coli. The washing durability of antimicrobial functions on the finished wool fabrics was also studied.

  10. Magnesium anode for chloride ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Li, Qiang; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Gao, Ping; Fink, Karin; Shen, Xiaodong; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2014-07-23

    A key advantage of chloride ion battery (CIB) is its possibility to use abundant electrode materials that are different from those in Li ion batteries. Mg anode is presented as such a material for the first time and Mg/C composite prepared by ball milling of Mg and carbon black powders or thermally decomposed MgH2/C composite has been tested as anode for CIB. The electrochemical performance of FeOCl/Mg and BiOCl/Mg was investigated, demonstrating the feasibility of using Mg as anode.

  11. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg....../m(3) rapid-hardening Portland cement, w/c = 0.5, maturity minimum 6 months) stored at 65% and 85% RH, as well as in vacuum-saturated mortar samples, illustrate the applicability of the method. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. 3,4-Dimethylanilinium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C8H12N+·Cl−·H2O, consists of hydrophobic layers of dimethylanilinium cations parallel to the bc plane alternated by hydrophilic layers of chloride anions and water molecules. The layers are linked by N—H...O and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds involving the ammonium groups of the cations. The cohesion of the ionic structure is further stabilized by O—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  13. Methylene Blue as a Diagnostic Aid in the Early Detection of Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Oral Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejoy, Abraham; Arpita, Rai; Krishna, Burde; Venkatesh, Naikmasur

    2016-05-01

    In vivo stains are the prompt resources, which have emerged in recent years to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early potentially malignant and malignant lesions. Toluidine blue, by its property of retaining in the increased DNA and RNA cellular activity areas, aids in delineating the suspicious areas. However, it is hazardous if swallowed, and has been shown to have toxicity to fibroblasts. Methylene blue has a similar chemical structure and exhibits similar physicochemical properties as toluidine blue. It is less toxic to the human body and has recently been proposed for screening some gastrointestinal or prostate tumors. The application of this material in detecting oral lesions has so far not been addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of in vivo staining with methylene blue as a diagnostic adjunct in screening for oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions. The present study involved the examination of 75 patients suspected of having oral malignant or potentially malignant lesions by methylene blue staining. The results of methylene blue uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. The overall sensitivity was 95% (100% for malignancy and 92% for potentially malignant lesions) and specificity was 70%. The positive predictive value was 91% and negative predictive value of 80% was observed in the study. We consider that methylene blue staining is a useful diagnostic adjunct in a large, community-based oral cancer screening program for high-risk individuals.

  14. Methylene blue does not reverse existing neurofibrillary tangle pathology in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires-Jones, Tara L; Friedman, Taylor; Pitstick, Rose; Polydoro, Manuela; Roe, Allyson; Carlson, George A; Hyman, Bradley T

    2014-03-06

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized pathologically by aggregation of amyloid beta into senile plaques and aggregation of pathologically modified tau into neurofibrillary tangles. While changes in amyloid processing are strongly implicated in disease initiation, the recent failure of amyloid-based therapies has highlighted the importance of tau as a therapeutic target. "Tangle busting" compounds including methylene blue and analogous molecules are currently being evaluated as therapeutics in Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies indicated that methylene blue can reverse tau aggregation in vitro after 10 min, and subsequent studies suggested that high levels of drug reduce tau protein levels (assessed biochemically) in vivo. Here, we tested whether methylene blue could remove established neurofibrillary tangles in the rTg4510 model of tauopathy, which develops robust tangle pathology. We find that 6 weeks of methylene blue dosing in the water from 16 months to 17.5 months of age decreases soluble tau but does not remove sarkosyl insoluble tau, or histologically defined PHF1 or Gallyas positive tangle pathology. These data indicate that methylene blue treatment will likely not rapidly reverse existing tangle pathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gold nanoparticles enhance methylene blue-induced photodynamic therapy: a novel therapeutic approach to inhibit Candida albicans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shakir; Alam, Fahad; Azam, Ameer; Khan, Asad U

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the novel gold nanoparticle-enhanced photodynamic therapy of methylene blue against recalcitrant pathogenic Candida albicans biofilm. Physiochemical (X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption, photon cross-correlation, FTIR, and fluorescence spectroscopy) and electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize gold nanoparticles as well as gold nanoparticle-methylene blue conjugate. A 38.2-J/cm(2) energy density of 660-nm diode laser was applied for activation of gold nanoparticle-methylene blue conjugate and methylene blue against C. albicans biofilm and cells. Antibiofilm assays, confocal laser scanning, and electron microscopy were used to investigate the effects of the conjugate. Physical characteristics of the gold nanoparticles (21 ± 2.5 nm and 0.2 mg/mL) and methylene blue (20 μg/mL) conjugation were confirmed by physicochemical and electron microscopy techniques. Antibiofilm assays and microscopic studies showed significant reduction of biofilm and adverse effect against Candida cells in the presence of conjugate. Fluorescence spectroscopic study confirmed type I photo toxicity against biofilm. Gold nanoparticle conjugate-mediated photodynamic therapy may be used against nosocomially acquired refractory Candida albicans biofilm.

  16. Methylene blue staining: a new technique for identifying intersegmental planes in anatomic segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Liao, Yongde; Ai, Bo; Liu, Changyu

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary segmentectomy is being increasingly used to resect small lung nodules; however, identifying the intersegmental plane is difficult. We describe a new methylene blue staining technique that we developed to identify the intersegmental planes in anatomic segmentectomy using video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) or thoracotomy and to evaluate its feasibility and safety. Between October 2013 and December 2013, 14 consecutive patients with lung disease underwent anatomic segmentectomy at our institution (10 VATS, 4 conventional thoracotomy). Methylene blue 0.1% (20 mL) was slowly injected into the bronchus of the target pulmonary segments using an intravenous needle after division of the artery, vein, and bronchus of the target segments, and the boundaries were detected, followed by anatomic segmentectomy. The staining took only 3 min. The target pulmonary segments stained blue, allowing for the clear identification of the intersegmental plane on both the surface and in the lung parenchyma, and all operations were successfully completed. Staining did not affect pathologic examination of the resected specimens. The fluid that drained from the chest tube and the patients' sputum, urine, and feces were not blue. There were no perioperative deaths or major complications. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a safe and feasible methylene blue staining method for identifying the lung segment borders that does not require any special equipment. More importantly, this method can clearly detect the intersegmental planes on the pleural surface and within the lung parenchyma, enabling thoracic surgeons to accurately perform anatomic segmentectomy. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel methylene blue staining technique for localizing small esophageal leiomyomas during thoracoscopic enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Ai, B; Liao, Y; Liu, L; Liu, M

    2016-11-01

    The treatment of choice for leiomyoma, the most common benign esophageal tumor, is thoracoscopic enucleation. One of the most difficult aspects of thoracoscopic enucleation is the precise localization of small tumors (≤1.5 cm) and tumors without external protrusion. No simple, feasible solutions to this problem are available. We developed a novel methylene blue staining technique to localize small esophageal leiomyomas and evaluated the feasibility of our technique. Between January 2013 and July 2014, eight patients with small esophageal leiomyomas (≤1.5 cm) underwent thoracoscopic enucleation in Tongji Hospital. Preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography was performed in all patients. The leiomyomas were located in the middle (n = 5) and lower (n = 3) thirds of the esophagus. We preoperatively injected 0.5-1.0 mL methylene blue in the submucosa adjacent to the tumors under standard gastroscope guidance. The entire staining process took about 10 minutes. Staining was successful in all patients. The unstained tumor was exposed after the blue-stained mediastinal pleura, and overlying muscle were incised longitudinally. All procedures were successfully completed without conversion to open surgery. No abnormalities were detected in the esophageal mucosa. The median operating time was 60 minutes (range, 40-90 minutes). Postoperative histopathology confirmed leiomyoma in all patients. The median postoperative hospital stay was 6 days (range, 5-7 days). No major complications, such as esophageal leakage or esophageal diverticulum, occurred. Endoscopic methylene blue staining is safe and feasible for localizing small esophageal leiomyomas during thoracoscopic enucleation. This method will enable precise and easy enucleation. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  18. Kinetics and Isotherm Studies of Methylene Blue Adsorption from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s Rezaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Colored Wastewater due to various environmental problems should be treated before discharge to the environment. Colors have many variety and different methods used for color wastewater treatment, the most widely methods that used is the absorption process by the low-cost adsorbent. To determine the isotherms and kinetics adsorption Process, absorption of methylene blue cationic dye as an indexed color were investigated by activated thermal power plant fly ash from of Zarand. Methods: In this experimental study, raw fly ash during 5h, acid concentration 1.8M, acid to fly ash ratio 7 and temperature 29±2 ˚C was activated by sulfuric acid. After determining the optimal values of parameters in the absorption process (pH, contact time, concentration of adsorbent isotherms Freundlich and Langmuir Type 1, 2, 3, 4 and Kinetics of first and second types1, 2, 3 and 4 and the separation factor was determined. Results: The activated fly ash removed 99.8% of methylene blue dye in concentration 50mg /L in optimal conditions (pH= 9, time: 30minutes, the  adsorbent dose 3g /L. Process comply from second kinetics with R = 1 and Langmuir isotherm type1 with R = 0.997. Conclusion: Since the separation factor and the adsorption is in the range between 0 and 1, therefore the absorption process is optimal. In conclusion, active fly ash, acts as a strong adsorbent in methylene blue dye adsorption and Isotherms and kinetics study of absorption process of this practice is confirmed.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic palygorskite nanoparticles and their application on methylene blue remotion from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middea, Antonieta, E-mail: amiddea@cetem.gov.br [Centre for Mineral Technology (CETEM), Av. Pedro Calmon, 900, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941908 (Brazil); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute of Macromolecules, Av. Horácio Macedo, 2030, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941598 (Brazil); Spinelli, Luciana S., E-mail: spinelli@ima.ufrj.br [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute of Macromolecules, Av. Horácio Macedo, 2030, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941598 (Brazil); Souza, Fernando G. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Institute of Macromolecules, Av. Horácio Macedo, 2030, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941598 (Brazil); Neumann, Reiner; Gomes, Otavio da F.M. [Centre for Mineral Technology (CETEM), Av. Pedro Calmon, 900, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941908 (Brazil); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, National Museum of Brazil, Postgraduate Program in Geosciences, Av. Quinta da Boa Vista, S/N Bairro Imperial de São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro 20940040 (Brazil); Fernandes, Thais L.A.P.; Lima, Luiz C. de [Centre for Mineral Technology (CETEM), Av. Pedro Calmon, 900, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941908 (Brazil); Barthem, Vitoria M.T.S. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Physics Institute, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941972 (Brazil); Carvalho, Fernanda V. de [Centre for Mineral Technology (CETEM), Av. Pedro Calmon, 900, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro 21941908 (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Nanopalygorskites’ surface modification was confirmed by characterization. • The magnetism of nanoparticles was characterized by different techniques. • Methylene blue was easily removed using the magnetic nanopalygorskites. - Abstract: Recently there has been considerable interest in magnetic sorbents materials, which is added excellent capabilities such as sorption and magnetic response to an applied field. Accordingly, palygorskite nanoparticles were covered by magnetite using a co-precipitation technique and characterized by: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface analysing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with element analysis and mapping, particle size, pore surface area (BET), density, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and zeta potential. Additionally, magnetic properties were studied by SQUID magnetometer, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and also using a simple experimental setup. Magnetic nanoparticles produced had average diameters in a nanometric range. The amount of iron present in the nanoparticles increased by six times after the magnetization and a superparamagnetic behavior was exhibited with high saturation magnetization, from 4.0 × 10{sup −4} Am{sup 2}/kg to about 20 Am{sup 2}/kg. A weight loss was also observed around 277 °C–339 °C by TGA, indicating a structural change from magnetite to maghemite, which confirms the magnetization of palygorskite. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of methylene blue cationic dye from aqueous solution using pure and covered by magnetite palygorskite nanoparticles as adsorbents. Furthermore, about 90% of methylene blue was removed within 3 min using magnetized palygorskite.

  20. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    . The results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors......-Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...

  1. Spinal meningeal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in meningeal seeding by malignant lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, T.; Or, R.; Matzner, Y.; Samuels, L.D.

    1980-12-01

    Definite diagnosis of meningeal seeding by systemic cancer relies on the presence of malignant cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the absence of such cells in the CSF, only two other tests strongly suggest the diagnosis - a CT scan and a myelogram. This paper reports a case in which the diagnosis was strongly suggested by an unusual uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate by the leptomeninges during a skeletal scan and later established by the presence of malignant cells in the CSF. The radionuclide scan may be an additional diagnostic test in some cases with meningeal seeding by systemic cancer.

  2. Reversible modulation of gold nanoclusters photoluminescence based on electrochromic poly(methylene blue).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhai, Yanling; Dong, Shaojun

    2014-11-01

    Reversible photoluminescence (PL) switches based on a complex of gold nanoclusters and electrochromic poly(methylene blue) (PMB) were realized. The gold nanoclusters PL of hybrid device can be modulated reversibly under electrochemical stimulation. Such an electrochromic device presents several advantages, such as large fluorescence contrast under reduction and oxidation potentials, good reversibility and excellent long-time stability. This simple protocol is anticipated to offer important hints for other nanoclusters and electrochromic materials in the field of photoelectric devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiographically Occult Latent Radiogenic Osteosarcoma Uncovered on Tc-99m Methylene-diphosphonate Bone Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Jolepalem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 70-year-old male who was referred for a technetium-99m methylene-diphosphonate bone scan for mild left hip pain and an elevated alkaline phosphatase level of 770 units/L. No additional information was provided and the patient′s history was limited due to a language barrier. We were able to ascertain that the patient had a remote history of prostate cancer, which had been treated with radiation. Originally, we felt the bone scan was compatible with Paget′s disease; however, further work-up revealed the presence of osteosarcoma, which was potentially radiation-induced.

  4. Adsorption Capability of Cationic Dyes (Methylene Blue and Crystal Violet) onto Poly-γ-glutamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the adsorption capability of cationic dyes, which were methylene blue and crystal violet, by poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) in a single or binary solution system was investigated. The effect of the molecular weight of PGA, initial dye concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of dyes was evaluated. The adsorption mechanism of dyes onto PGA was the interaction between -COOH group on the PGA surface and the polarity groups of dyes. These results indicated that PGA is useful for removal of dyes and cationic organic compounds from a single or binary solution system.

  5. Hybrid TiO2-C composites for the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodegradation of methylene blue (MB on TiO2 in presence of activated carbons (AC was studied. Two different lamps were employed and results were compared against those obtained on a commercial TiO2. Apparent first order rate constant for the degradation of MB was higher in presence of any AC in comparison of TiO2 alone but much higher under visible light irradiation. It can be concluded that TiO2 enhances its photoactivity by a factor up to 8.7 in the degradation of MB in presence of AC and this increase was associated with the surface properties of AC.

  6. Metachromasy of methylene blue due to aggregation over phosphate-modified polymeric carbon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarasimhan, N.; Sangeetha, D. N.; Nivetha, G.

    2017-05-01

    Polymeric carbon nitride in graphitic form (g-C3N4) is an emerging visible light active photocatalyst. In this work, phosphate-modified polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) was synthesized by thermal condensation of melamine in the presence of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP). The addition of PCN to methylene blue (MB) solution showed the color intensification. The hypsochromic shift in the absorption spectrum of MB is due to metachromasy, a phenomenon in which aggregation of dye molecules occurs over the surface of a material. The polymerization of melamine into carbon nitride and MB trimerization depend on the amount of ADP and nature of phosphate species, respectively.

  7. Antitumor action of methylene blue%美蓝的抗肿瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许启泰; 杜钢军; 陈百泉

    2002-01-01

    @@ 美蓝(Methylene blue,MB)原为解毒药物,近年发现有抗肿瘤作用,临床报道将其在肿瘤部位直接介入治疗实体及腹水肿瘤[1~3].为确定美蓝的抗癌范围及为临床应用提供实验依据,我们对美蓝的抗肿瘤作用作了以下研究.

  8. Visible light photocatalytic decoloration of methylene blue on novel N-doped TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG JiWei; JIN ZhenSheng; WU ZhiShen; ZHANG ShunLi

    2007-01-01

    Novel N-doped TiO2 (denoted as N-NTA600) was prepared by treating nanotube titanic acid (NTA) in NH3 flow. Its visible light photocatalytic activity, evaluated by decoloration reaction of methylene blue, is higher than that of N-P25(600) prepared by treatment of P25-TiO2 in the same condition. It is suggested that the origin of visible-light photocatalytic activity is single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancy (Vo·) modified by chemisorbed NO.

  9. Improved detection of rhamnolipid production using agar plates containing methylene blue and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Neissa M; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2009-10-01

    Rhamnolipids, produced predominantly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are biosurfactants with important applications. For efficient culture screening according to rhamnolipid productivity, the method using agar plates containing methylene blue (MB) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was re-examined. An alternative set-up using a fixed underneath light source and image analysis software improved the detection of the circles formed due to complexation between anionic rhamnolipids and cationic MB/CTAB. The roles and effects of MB and CTAB concentrations and pH on the complexation phenomena are reported.

  10. Pyrolysis Synthesized g-C3N4 for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4 was synthesized at 520°C by the pyrolysis of cyanamide, dicyandiamide, and melamine. The samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction (XRD, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and elemental analyzer. The photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 was evaluated by the photodegrading experiments of methylene blue (MB. The results indicated that g-C3N4. A photocatalytic mechanism presumed the MB photodegradation over the C3N4 photocatalyst is attributed to photogenerated electron impelled multistep reduction of O2.

  11. Pyrite-enhanced methylene blue degradation in non-thermal plasma water treatment reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Luís Otávio de Brito; Cadorin, Bruno Mena; Baldissarelli, Vanessa Zanon; Geremias, Reginaldo; de Souza, Ivan Gonçalvez; Debacher, Nito Angelo

    2012-10-30

    In this study, methylene blue (MB) removal from an aqueous phase by electrical discharge non-thermal plasma (NTP) over water was investigated using three different feed gases: N(2), Ar, and O(2). The results showed that the dye removal rate was not strongly dependent on the feed gas when the electrical current was kept the same for all gases. The hydrogen peroxide generation in the water varied according to the feed gas (N(2)degradation occurs via high energy electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation in the benzene rings of the dye molecules.

  12. Catalytic degradation of methylene blue by Fenton like system:model to the environmental reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjay R. Thakare

    2004-01-01

    To develop more efficient chemical methods for the demineralization of organic pollutants from waterbodies, which one was also mimic to the nature, a degradation of methylene blue by Fe( Ⅲ ) and H2O2 in theabsence of light instead of Fe( Ⅱ ) and H2O2 was studied. Results showed that use of Fe ( Ⅲ ) is more promisingthan Fe( Ⅱ ). The present study reflects that Fenton reaction is more efficient, in the presence of a small amount ofsalicylic acid is added which is a one of the priority pollutant.

  13. Hybrid TiO2-C composites for the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Juan

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) on TiO2 in presence of activated carbons (AC) was studied. Two different lamps were employed and results were compared against those obtained on a commercial TiO2. Apparent first order rate constant for the degradation of MB was higher in presence of any AC in comparison of TiO2 alone but much higher under visible light irradiation. It can be concluded that TiO2 enhances its photoactivity by a factor up to 8.7 in the degr...

  14. (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy findings in posttransplant distal limb syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlin, Thorsten; Busch, Jasmin D; Bannas, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of posttransplant distal limb syndrome (PTDLS) representing a rare complication in kidney transplant recipients characterized by a pain syndrome of the distal extremities. A 68-year-old man with a history of kidney transplantation presented with symmetrical and incapacitating pain in the feet and knees and underwent whole-body Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy for further evaluation. Planar scintigraphy demonstrated marked tracer uptake in the distal femoral and tibial epiphyses, and magnetic resonance imaging showed corresponding osteoedema. Tc-MDP scintigraphy is a valuable tool for evaluation of the etiology of musculoskeletal pain and may demonstrate typical findings in case of PTDLS.

  15. Role of methylene spacer in the excitation energy transfer in europium 1- and 2- naphthylcarboxylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, K. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Tsaryuk, V., E-mail: vit225@ire216.msk.s [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Kudryashova, V.; Pekareva, I. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Sokolnicki, J. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of WrocLaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie str., WrocLaw 50-383 (Poland); Yakovlev, Yu. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15

    A series of compounds Ln(RCOO){sub 3}.Phen (Ln=Eu, Gd, Tb; RCOO{sup -}-1- and 2-naphthoate, 1- and 2-naphthylacetate, 1- and 2-naphthoxyacetate anions, Phen-1,10-phenanthroline) was investigated by methods of optical spectroscopy. Compounds of composition Ln(RCOO){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O with the same carboxylate ligands are also considered. Results of studies of the effects of methylene spacer decoupling the {pi}-{pi}- or p-{pi}-conjugation in the naphthylcarboxylate ligand on the structure of Eu{sup 3+} coordination centre, on the lifetime of {sup 5}D{sub 0} (Eu{sup 3+}) state, and on processes of the excitation energy transfer to Eu{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} ions are presented. Introduction of the methylene bridge in the ligand weakens the influence of the steric hindrances in forming of a crystal lattice and results in lowering the distortion of the Eu{sup 3+} luminescence centre, and in elongation of the observed {sup 5}D{sub 0} lifetime {tau}{sub obs}. The latter is caused by decrease in contribution of the radiative processes rate 1/{tau}{sub r}. This is confirmed by the correlation between the lifetimes {tau}{sub obs} and the quantities '{tau}{sub r}.const' inversely proportional to the total integral intensities of Eu(RCOO){sub 3}.Phen luminescence spectra. The methylene spacer performs a role of regulator of sensitization of the Ln{sup 3+} luminescence efficiency by means of an influence on mutual location of lowest triplet states of the ligands, the ligand-metal charge transfer (LMCT) states, and the emitting states of Ln{sup 3+} ions. The lowest triplet state in lanthanide naphthylcarboxylate adducts with Phen is related to carboxylate anion. A presence of the methylene spacer in naphthylcarboxylate ligand increases the triplet state energy. At the same time, the energy of 'carboxylic group-Eu{sup 3+} ion' charge transfer states falls, which can promote the degradation of excitation energy. In naphthylcarboxylates investigated a range of the

  16. Quantitative evaluation of plasma after methylene blue and white light treatment in four Chinese blood centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Yang; Guohui, Bian; Hong, Yang; Xiaopu, Xiao; Zherong, Bai; Mingyuan, Wang; Xinsheng, Zhang; Juanjuan, Wang; Changqing, Li; Wuping, Li

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen reduction technology is an important process in the blood safety system, including solvent/detergent treatment, filtration and methylene blue-photochemical technology (MB-PCT). To investigate the quality of MB-PCT-treated plasma, plasma samples from four Chinese blood centers were analyzed over 12 months of storage to determine the recovery of activities and levels of various plasma proteins. Ten plasma units each from the Suzhou, Yancheng, Chongqing and Shandong blood centers were divided into two aliquots. One was subjected to treatment with one of two methylene blue-photochemical technology instruments and the other was used as control. The treated and untreated sample pairs were stored at -30°C. The recovery rates of coagulation factors, inhibitor proteins, total protein, immunoglobulins, and complement proteins were measured at different time points after storage. The mean recovery of most proteins exceeded 80% after MB treatment. The exceptions were factor XI and fibrinogen, of which only 71.3-74% and 69.0-92.3% were retained during storage. The two equipment types differed in terms of residual MB concentration in the plasma samples (0.18 μM and 0.29 μM, respectively). They had similar protein recovery rates at 0.5 month but differed at later time points. The four blood centers differed significantly with regard to factor II, V, VIII and fibrinogen activities. Only the samples from the Shandong blood center met the methylene blue treated fresh frozen plasma requirement. The major factor that influenced the quality of the MB-FFP samples was the time taken between blood collection and storage. Methylene blue treated plasma showed reduced coagulation factor (CF) activity and protein levels. The MB treatment-induced damage to the proteins was acceptable at the four Chinese blood centers, but the quality of the MB-treated plasma in general was not satisfactory. The main factor affecting plasma quality may be the duration of the collection and

  17. Utilization of zeolites synthesized from coal ash for methylene blue removal from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution was carried out using zeolites synthesized from coal ash as low-cost adsorbents. The coal ash sample was converted to zeolites by hydrothermal treatment using different synthesis parameters. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, XRD and SEM studies. The adsorption isotherms can be fitted by Freundlich model. The values of the adsorption capacity of adsorbents were similar for adsorbents. Kinetic studies indicate that the adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  18. Pyrolysis Synthesized g-C3N4 for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was synthesized at 520°C by the pyrolysis of cyanamide, dicyandiamide, and melamine. The samples were characterized by X–ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and elemental analyzer. The photocatalytic activity of g-C3N4 was evaluated by the photodegrading experiments of methylene blue (MB). The results indicated that g-C3N4. A photocatalytic mechanism presumed the MB photodegradation o...

  19. High-efficiency photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using electrospun ZnO nanofibers as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P F; Song, L X; Xiong, J; Xi, Z Q; Chen, J J; Gao, L H; Wang, N Y

    2011-09-01

    In this work, ZnO nanofibers (ZNFs) were successfully prepared via a simple electrospinning technique using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2 2H2O) as precursors. The obtained ZNFs have an average diameter of ca. 95 nm and are composed of crystalline wurtzite phase. Methylene blue (MB) dye was used to investigate the photocatalytic performance of pure ZNFs. The study confirms that ZNFs have favorable catalytic activity, and the best degradation efficiency of MB can exceed 90% under UV light irradiation for 3 hours. In addition, we propose a possible photodegradation mechanism.

  20. Decolorization of Methylene Blue with TiO2 Sol via UV Irradiation Photocatalytic Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    TiO2 sol was prepared for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The absorption spectra of MB indicated that the maximum wavelength, 663 nm, almost kept the same. The performance of 92.3% for color removal was reached after 160 min. The particle size of TiO2 sol was about 22.5 nm. X-ray diffraction showed that TiO2 consisted of a single anatase phase. The small size and anatase phase probably resulted in high photocatalytic activity of TiO2 sol. Th...

  1. Highly selective palladium–benzothiazole carbene-catalyzed allylation of active methylene compounds under neutral conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Monopoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pd–benzothiazol-2-ylidene complex I was found to be a chemoselective catalyst for the Tsuji–Trost allylation of active methylene compounds carried out under neutral conditions and using carbonates as allylating agents. The proposed protocol consists in a simplified procedure adopting an in situ prepared catalyst from Pd2dba3 and 3-methylbenzothiazolium salt V as precursors. A comparison of the performance of benzothiazole carbene with phosphanes and an analogous imidazolium carbene ligand is also proposed.

  2. Congenital Methemoglobinemia Type II-Clinical Improvement with Short-Term Methylene Blue Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Monica S; Randall, Melinda; Rowell, Margaret; Charlton, Margaret; Greenway, Anthea; Barnes, Chris

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of prophylactic management with methylene blue (MB) in an almost 4-year-old male with congenital methemoglobinemia type II. He has a CYB5R3 compound heterozygote mutation, causing a cytochrome-b(5) reductase deficiency. Since the MB treatment regimen has commenced, his methemoglobin level has been significantly lower. He has shown modest behavioral improvements (as assessed on the Achenbach behavior report scales). There have been no iatrogenic side effects. These findings are encouraging for symptomatic improvement with regular prophylactic MB treatment but represent a single case report, which must be interpreted with caution.

  3. Primary neuroblastoma uptake of /sub 99m/technetium methylene diphosphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.W.; Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.; Reid, R.H.

    1980-11-01

    Forty patients, ages three days to 12 years, with neuroblastomas had bone scans with /sub 99m/technetium methylene diphosphonate (/sub 99m/Tc-MDP) as part of their pretreatment examination. Twenty-four (60%) had primary tumor uptake and 16 (40%) did not. No difference was seen between the two groups in the incidence of tumor calcification or necrosis. No relationship between the level of urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and the presence of primary tumor uptake of /sub 99m/Tc-MDP was found. The possible causes for the localization of /sub 99m/Tc-MDP are discussed.

  4. Investigation of Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTERY SAFETY HAZARDS(U) GOULD RESEARCH CENTER ROLLING MEADOWS IL MATERIALS LAB A I ATTIA ET...838-012 7 ontract No. 60921-81-C-0363 6// Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards AD A 1 T 2 , Alan I. Attia Gould Research...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Final Report Battery Safety Hazards 9/28/81 - 12/31/82 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  5. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Liu; Kaifeng Tang; Dong Pan; Zongru Lei; Weilun Wang; Feng Xing

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions...

  6. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Structural Engineering and Materials; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-11-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA is demonstrated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA.

  7. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  8. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  9. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  10. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions are immersed in NaCl solution with a mass concentration of 5%, to simulate the shallow immersion condition in sea water, and the surface chloride concentrations are measured at different ages. It is found that the surface chloride concentration increases following the increasing immersion durations, and varies from a weight percentage of 0.161%–0.781% in concretes with different mix proportions. The w/c (water-to-cement ratio influences the surface chloride concentration significantly, and the higher the w/c is, the higher the surface chloride concentration will be, at the same age. However, following the prolonging of immersion duration, the difference in surface chloride concentration induced by w/c becomes smaller and smaller. The incorporation of fly ash leads to higher surface chloride concentration. The phenomena are explained based on pore structure analyses.

  11. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride......For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...

  12. Fire's effect on chloride ingress related durability of concrete structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Wei-liang; ZHANG Yi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of fire on durability of reinforced concrete structures, and points out that fire not only damages the chemical composition and physical structure of concrete by high temperature, but also leads to an additional risk due to the generation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)combustion gases. A mathematical model is proposed to calculate chloride ingress profiles in fire damaged concrete, so as to explore the service life prediction of the structure. Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test was carried out to determine the chloride diffusion coefficients for the application of the mathematical model. Finally, the detected results of a reported case testified to the validity of the mathematical model.

  13. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well......Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  14. 40 CFR 464.11 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-cresol 23. chloroform (trichloromethane) 34. 2,4-dimethylphenol 39. fluoranthene 44. methylene chloride... (trichloromethane) 34. 2,4-dimethylphenol 39. fluoranthene 44. methylene chloride (dichloromethane) 55. naphthalene.... chloroform (trichloromethane) 34. 2,4-dimethylphenol 39. fluoranthene 44. methylene chloride...

  15. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  16. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  17. Cesium chloride compatibility testing program: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, G.H.

    1989-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the geologic disposal of the doubly encapsulated cesium chloride (CsCl) produced at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). Reliable estimates of long-term corrosion of the inner capsule material by the CsCl under repository storage conditions are needed to assess the hazards associated with geologic disposal of the fission product Cs. The Cesium Chloride Compatibility Program was carried out at PNL to obtain the short-term corrosion data required to accurately estimate long-term attack. In the compatibility tests six standard WESF CsCl capsules were placed vertically in individual insulated containers and allowed to self-heat to a nominal maximum 316L SS/CsCl interface temperature of 450{degree}C. The capsules were held at temperature for times ranging from 0.25 to 6 years. When a test was completed, the capsule was removed from the container and sectioned. Four samples were cut from the inner capsule at prescribed locations and subjected to metallographic examination. Corrosion was determined from photomicrographs of the samples. 16 refs., 41 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.

  19. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleizen, B; Braakman, I; de Jonge, H R

    2000-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Whereas a key role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in CFTR-channel gating has been firmly established, more recent studies have provided clear evidence for the existence of a second level of cAMP regulation, i.e. the exocytotic recruitment of CFFR to the plasma membrane and its endocytotic retrieval. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR Cl- channel has sofar been demonstrated only in a subset of CFTR-expressing cell types. However, with the introduction of more sensitive methods to measure CFTR cycling and submembrane localization, it might turn out to be a more general phenomenon that could contribute importantly to both the regulation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport itself and to the regulation of other transporters and CFTR-modulated cellular functions. This review aims to summarize the present state of knowledge regarding polarized and regulated CFTR trafficking and endosomal recycling in epithelial cells, to discuss present gaps in our understanding of these processes at the cellular and molecular level, and to consider its possible implications for cystic fibrosis.

  20. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  1. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  2. PREPARATION MICRO-FILTRATION CERAMIC MEMBRANE FROM NATURAL ZEOLITE FOR PROCION RED MX8B AND METHYLENE BLUE FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Choiriyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of ceramic membrane fabrication from natural zeolite and its utilization for filtration of procion red MX8B and methylene blue has been investigated. The purposes of this study are to determine the effect of pressure on membrane permeability and selectivity and utilize natural zeolite as ceramic membranes procion red MX8B and methylene blue filtration. The membrane was prepared by metide press pellets and then calcined at 850 oC. The membranes were characterized by mechanical test, flux and rejection of dye. The compression test of the membrane found the values of 1369.178 psi in dry conditions to 1388.933 psi in wet conditions. The flux test found that the higher the pressure applied, the flux was increase. However, the high pressure also decreased the selectivity. Rejection test found that the rejection of methylene blue filtration up to 70 %. Meanwhile, procion red MX8B filtration has rejectivity less than 20 %.

  3. Methylene blue microbubbles as a model dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound and activatable photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mansik; Song, Wentao; Huynh, Elizabeth; Kim, Jungho; Kim, Jeesu; Helfield, Brandon L; Leung, Ben Y C; Goertz, David E; Zheng, Gang; Oh, Jungtaek; Lovell, Jonathan F; Kim, Chulhong

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging are highly complementary modalities since both use ultrasonic detection for operation. Increasingly, photoacoustic and ultrasound have been integrated in terms of hardware instrumentation. To generate a broadly accessible dual-modality contrast agent, we generated microbubbles (a standard ultrasound contrast agent) in a solution of methylene blue (a standard photoacoustic dye). This MB2 solution was formed effectively and was optimized as a dual-modality contrast solution. As microbubble concentration increased (with methylene blue concentration constant), photoacoustic signal was attenuated in the MB2 solution. When methylene blue concentration increased (with microbubble concentration held constant), no ultrasonic interference was observed. Using an MB2 solution that strongly attenuated all photoacoustic signal, high powered ultrasound could be used to burst the microbubbles and dramatically enhance photoacoustic contrast (>800-fold increase), providing a new method for spatiotemporal control of photoacoustic signal generation.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light over Cr doped strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Inamur Rahman; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Cheol; Hassan, Mallick Shamshi; Yang, O-Bong

    2010-05-01

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) and chromium doped SrTiO3 (Cr/SrTiO3) were prepared by modified sol-gel method with the citric acid as a chelating agent in the ethylene glycol solution for the effective photodegradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation. The synthesized doped and un-doped SrTiO3 nanoparticles were structurally characterized and their photoresponse performances for the efficient degradation of methylene blue dye have been demonstrated. After introducing the Cr on SrTiO3, UV-Vis absorption was appeared the red-shift at 566 nm from 392 nm as compare with bare SrTiO3. The photocatalytic degradation activity of Cr/SrTiO3 was significantly improved to 60% degradation of methylene blue in 3 h under visible light, which is approximately 5 times higher than that of the bare SrTiO3.

  5. [Lymph node preparation in colorectal cancer. Ex vivo methylene blue injection as a novel technique to improve lymph node visualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Märkl, B; Kerwel, T; Jähnig, H; Anthuber, M; Arnholdt, H

    2008-07-01

    The UICC requires investigation of a minimum of 12 lymph nodes for adequate lymph node staging in colorectal cancer. Despite that, many authors recommend investigation of a larger number, and different techniques, such as fat clearance, have therefore been developed. In this study we introduce a novel technique involving ex vivo lymph node staining with intraarterial methylene blue injection in colon cancer. We compared 14 cases in which methylene injection was used with 14 cases from our records in which conventional investigation techniques were applied. The lymph node harvest differed highly significantly (pmethylene blue group and the unstained group, respectively. The largest difference occurred in the size group 2-4 mm (191 vs 70 lymph nodes). In 6 cases in the unstained group additional embedding of fatty tissue was necessary to reach an adequate number of investigated lymph nodes. Methylene blue injection is a novel and highly effective method that will improve lymph node preparation in colorectal cancer.

  6. DNA-binding Studies of Daunorubicin in the Presence of Methylene Blue by Spectroscopy and Voltammetry Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAJIAN Reza; SHAMS Nafiseh; PARVIN Afsaneh

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of daunorubicin with calf thymus DNA has been investigated with the use of methylene blue dye as a spectral probe by the application of UV-Vis spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry and voltammetry. The voltammetric behavior of daunorubicin has been investigated at a glassy carbon electrode using cyclic and differen-tial pulse voitammetry. Both UV-vis spectrophotometry and cyclic voltammetry studies confirmed the intercalation reaction. The results showed that both daunorubicin and methylene blue molecules could intercalate into the double helix of DNA. The apparent binding constant of daunorubicin with DNA has been found to be 7.8 × 104 L˙mol-1.The fluorescence signal of daunorubicin and methylene blue was quenched with DNA addition. The Stern-Volmer equation was plotted based on the quenching fluorescence signal of daunorubicin.

  7. [Localizating and Extracting Small Peripheral Nodules of Lung with Simulating 
Radiaotherapy Combining Methylene Blue Staining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Feng; Zhang, Liang; Gu, Hengle; Zhang, Hui; Lv, Changxing; Shen-Tu, Yang

    2016-09-20

    With the extensively application of HRCT (high resolution CT) and the popularization of early lung cancer screening, the proportion of small nodullar lung cancer to be operated increases rapidly. Identifying the focus lesions quickly and accurately in operation has shown to be a challenge. We carried out this research trying to make use of and evaluate a new method that localizaes and extracts small peripheral pulmonary nodules by way of simulating radiaotherapy combining methylene blue staining. From February 2012 to January 2015, 97 patients with 100 peripheral pulmonary nodules ≤10 mm in size were simulated puncturing using a radiotherapy planning. When the anaesthesia came into use, methylene blue dye was injected to the virtually identified point corresponding to the surface point, according to the angle and depth previously computed by the radiotherapy planning. The video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) wedge resections of the marked lesions were undertaken and the specimens were sent for frozen pathologic examination. The interval time from anesthesia-completing to puncture and injection, The interval time from methylene blue injection to identifying the stained area and the distances between the centre point of the stains and edge of coloured lesion were recorded. Our preoperative localization procedure was successful in 96 of 100 (96%) nodules. The interval time from anesthesia-completing to puncture and injection of methylene blue were (4.85±1.25) min. The interval time from methylene blue injection to identifying the stained area was (16.36±2.36) min. The distances between the centre point of the stains and edge of coloured lesion were (4.78±2.51) mm. No complication was observed in all participants. The new method of locating peripheral pulmonary nodules by simulating simulating radiaotherapy combining methylene blue staining has a high success rate and no complication for localizing small peripheral pulmonary lesions, avoiding the fear and

  8. Methylene Blue-Guided Debridement as an Intraoperative Adjunct for the Surgical Treatment of Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jeremy D; Miller, Steve; Plourde, Anna; Shaw, Daniel L; Wustrack, Rosanna; Hansen, Erik N

    2017-07-21

    Current methods to identify infected tissue in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) are inadequate. The purpose of this study was (1) to assess methylene blue-guided surgical debridement as a novel technique in PJI using quantitative microbiology and (2) to evaluate clinical success based on eradication of infection and infection-free survival. Sixteen total knee arthroplasty patients meeting Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria for PJI undergoing the first stage of 2-stage exchange arthroplasty were included in this prospective study. Dilute methylene blue (0.1%) was instilled in the knee before debridement, residual dye was removed, and stained tissue was debrided. Paired tissue samples, stained and unstained, were collected from the femur, tibia, and capsule during debridement. Samples were analyzed by neutrophil count, semiquantitative culture, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical success was a secondary outcome. The mean age was 64.0 ± 6.0 years, and follow-up was 24.4 ± 3.5 months. More bacteria were found in methylene blue-stained vs unstained tissue-based on semiquantitative culture (P = .001). PCR for staphylococcal species showed 9-fold greater bioburden in methylene blue-stained vs unstained tissue (P = .02). Tissue pathology found 53 ± 46 polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field in methylene blue-stained vs 4 ± 13 in unstained tissue (P = .0001). All subjects cleared their primary infection and underwent reimplantation. At mean 2-year follow-up, 25% of patients failed secondary to new infection with a different organism. These results suggest a role for methylene blue in providing a visual index of surgical debridement in the treatment of PJI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of Hsp70 by Methylene Blue Affects Signaling Protein Function and Ubiquitination and Modulates Polyglutamine Protein Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Adrienne M.; Morishima, Yoshihiro; Clapp, Kelly M.; Peng, Hwei-Ming; Pratt, William B.; Gestwicki, Jason E.; Osawa, Yoichi; Lieberman, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    The Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery regulates the activity and degradation of many signaling proteins. Cycling with Hsp90 stabilizes client proteins, whereas Hsp70 interacts with chaperone-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligases to promote protein degradation. To probe these actions, small molecule inhibitors of Hsp70 would be extremely useful; however, few have been identified. Here we test the effects of methylene blue, a recently described inhibitor of Hsp70 ATPase activity, in three well established systems of increasing complexity. First, we demonstrate that methylene blue inhibits the ability of the purified Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery to enable ligand binding by the glucocorticoid receptor and show that this effect is due to specific inhibition of Hsp70. Next, we establish that ubiquitination of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by the native ubiquitinating system of reticulocyte lysate is dependent upon both Hsp70 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP and is blocked by methylene blue. Finally, we demonstrate that methylene blue impairs degradation of the polyglutamine expanded androgen receptor, an Hsp90 client mutated in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. In contrast, degradation of an amino-terminal fragment of the receptor, which lacks the ligand binding domain and, therefore, is not a client of the Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery, is enhanced through homeostatic induction of autophagy that occurs when Hsp70-dependent proteasomal degradation is inhibited by methylene blue. Our data demonstrate the utility of methylene blue in defining Hsp70-dependent functions and reveal divergent effects on polyglutamine protein degradation depending on whether the substrate is an Hsp90 client. PMID:20348093

  10. Sustained methylene blue staining to guide anatomic hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma: Initial experience and technical details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-wang, Cai; Shi-zhong, Yang; Wen-ping, Lv; Geng, Chen; Wan-qing, Gu; Wei-dong, Duan; Wei-yi, Wang; Zhi-qiang, Huang; Jia-hong, Dong

    2015-07-01

    The boundary of the target hepatic segment within the liver parenchyma cannot be marked by the use of a conventional anatomic hepatectomy approach. This study describes a novel methylene blue staining technique for guiding the anatomic resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Between February 2009 and February 2012, anatomic hepatectomy was performed in 106 patients with HCC via a novel, sustained methylene blue staining technique. Sustained staining was achieved by injecting methylene blue into the distal aspect of the portal vein after exposing Glisson's sheath. The hepatic pedicle was immediately ligated, and the hepatic parenchymal transection was performed along the interface between methylene blue stained tissue and unstained tissue. Anatomic hepatectomies included subsegmentectomy (n = 16), monosegmentectomy (n = 57), multisegmentectomy (n = 27), and hemihepatectomy (n = 6). The portal vein was injected successfully with methylene blue in 100% of cases, and complete staining of the target hepatic segment was achieved in 98 of 106 (92.5%) cases. Mean intraoperative bleeding was 360 ± 90 mL, and the postoperative complication rate was 24.5% (26/106). No perioperative mortality occurred. Operative margins were all negative on pathologic examination. Mean duration of postoperative follow-up was 40 months (range, 24-60). No local recurrence (around the operative margin) occurred. This novel technique of achieving sustained staining by injecting methylene blue then immediately ligating the hepatic pedicle is simple and feasible. It can guide the selection of the operative margin during hepatic parenchyma transection to improve the accuracy of anatomic hepatectomy for the treatment of HCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of hsp70 by methylene blue affects signaling protein function and ubiquitination and modulates polyglutamine protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Adrienne M; Morishima, Yoshihiro; Clapp, Kelly M; Peng, Hwei-Ming; Pratt, William B; Gestwicki, Jason E; Osawa, Yoichi; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2010-05-21

    The Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery regulates the activity and degradation of many signaling proteins. Cycling with Hsp90 stabilizes client proteins, whereas Hsp70 interacts with chaperone-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligases to promote protein degradation. To probe these actions, small molecule inhibitors of Hsp70 would be extremely useful; however, few have been identified. Here we test the effects of methylene blue, a recently described inhibitor of Hsp70 ATPase activity, in three well established systems of increasing complexity. First, we demonstrate that methylene blue inhibits the ability of the purified Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery to enable ligand binding by the glucocorticoid receptor and show that this effect is due to specific inhibition of Hsp70. Next, we establish that ubiquitination of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by the native ubiquitinating system of reticulocyte lysate is dependent upon both Hsp70 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP and is blocked by methylene blue. Finally, we demonstrate that methylene blue impairs degradation of the polyglutamine expanded androgen receptor, an Hsp90 client mutated in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. In contrast, degradation of an amino-terminal fragment of the receptor, which lacks the ligand binding domain and, therefore, is not a client of the Hsp90/Hsp70-based chaperone machinery, is enhanced through homeostatic induction of autophagy that occurs when Hsp70-dependent proteasomal degradation is inhibited by methylene blue. Our data demonstrate the utility of methylene blue in defining Hsp70-dependent functions and reveal divergent effects on polyglutamine protein degradation depending on whether the substrate is an Hsp90 client.

  12. Alternative mitochondrial electron transfer for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and cancers: Methylene blue connects the dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shao-Hua; Li, Wenjun; Sumien, Nathalie; Forster, Michael; Simpkins, James W; Liu, Ran

    2017-10-01

    Brain has exceptional high requirement for energy metabolism with glucose as the exclusive energy source. Decrease of brain energy metabolism and glucose uptake has been found in patients of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases, providing a clear link between neurodegenerative disorders and energy metabolism. On the other hand, cancers, including glioblastoma, have increased glucose uptake and rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy metabolism. The switch of high efficient oxidative phosphorylation to low efficient aerobic glycolysis pathway (Warburg effect) provides macromolecule for biosynthesis and proliferation. Current research indicates that methylene blue, a century old drug, can receive electron from NADH in the presence of complex I and donates it to cytochrome c, providing an alternative electron transfer pathway. Methylene blue increases oxygen consumption, decrease glycolysis, and increases glucose uptake in vitro. Methylene blue enhances glucose uptake and regional cerebral blood flow in rats upon acute treatment. In addition, methylene blue provides protective effect in neuron and astrocyte against various insults in vitro and in rodent models of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease. In glioblastoma cells, methylene blue reverses Warburg effect by enhancing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, arrests glioma cell cycle at s-phase, and inhibits glioma cell proliferation. Accordingly, methylene blue activates AMP-activated protein kinase, inhibits downstream acetyl-coA carboxylase and cyclin-dependent kinases. In summary, there is accumulating evidence providing a proof of concept that enhancement of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation via alternative mitochondrial electron transfer may offer protective action against neurodegenerative diseases and inhibit cancers proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. THE COMPATIBILITY OF BLENDS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) OR CHLORINATED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingguo; CHENG Rongshi

    1988-01-01

    IR spectral shifts of carbonyl vibrational absorption for ethyl acetate, which acts analogically as the structural unit of poly(methyl methacrylate), in cyclohexane, chloroform, chlorinated paraffins, poly(vinyl chloride) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) were measured. The results suggest that there are specific interactions between the carbonyl groups and the chlorinated hydrocarbons which could be responsible for the apparent compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Additionally, the effects of the preparation mode of blend films on phase separation and observed compatibility are discussed.

  14. Electrochemical behavior of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukkitgar, Shikandar D.; Shetti, Nagaraj P., E-mail: dr.npshetti@gmail.com

    2016-08-01

    A novel sensor for the determination of 5-fluorouracil was constructed by electrochemical deposition of methylene blue on surface of carbon paste electrode. The electrode surface morphology was studied using Atomic force microscopy and XRD. The electrochemical activity of modified electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse method. The developed sensor shows impressive enlargement in sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil determination. The peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry was linear with concentration of 5-fluorouracil in the range 4 × 10{sup −5}–1 × 10{sup −7} M and detection limit and quantification limit were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM respectively. Further, the sensor was successfully applied in pharmaceutical and biological fluid sample analysis. - Highlights: • Electrochemical oxidation of 5-fluorouracil has been investigated for first time at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode • The electrode process was irreversible and diffusion controlled • Probable electrochemical mechanism was proposed which involved two proton and two electron transfer reaction • The LOD and LOQ values were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM, respectively, with good selectivity and sensitivity. • Proposed method was applied to 5-Fluorouracil determination in pharmaceutical and spiked human urine samples.

  15. Kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of methylene blue by a magnetic graphene-carbon nanotube composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peifang; Cao, Muhan; Wang, Chao; Ao, Yanhui, E-mail: andyao@hhu.edu.cn; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin

    2014-01-30

    A solvothermal method was employed to prepare a novel magnetic composite adsorbent composed of graphene, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The prepared adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the particle size distribution of the samples before and after adsorption was also carried out. The performance of as-prepared composites was investigated by the adsorption of dye methylene blue. Results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of the samples was up to 65.79 mg g{sup −1}, which was almost equal to the sum of magnetic graphene and magnetic MWCNTs. The effect of pH and temperature on the adsorption performance of methylene blue onto the magnetic adsorbents was investigated. The kinetic was well-described by pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model, while the isotherm obeyed the Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, the as-prepared composites were found to be regenerative and reusable. The application in the treatment of an artificial dye wastewater and its cost estimation were also discussed. Therefore, the as-prepared magnetic composites can be severed as a potential adsorbent for removal of dye pollutant, owing to its high adsorption performance, magnetic separability and efficient recyclable property.

  16. [Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto magnetic Fe3O4/ graphene oxide nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Jiang, Guo-Dong; Hu, Meng-Xuan; Huang, Jia; Tang, He-Qing

    2014-05-01

    A simple ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation method was developed to prepare magnetic Fe3O4/graphene oxide (Fe3O4/ GO) nanoparticles. The characterization with transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated that the products possessed small particle size. The hysteresis loop of the dried Fe3O4/GO nanoparticles demonstrated that the sample had typical features of superparamagnetic material. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to investigate the effects of the initial pH of the solution, the dosage of adsorbent, the contact time and temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue. The results indicated that the composites prepared could be used over a broad pH range (pH 6-9). The adsorption process was very fast within the first 25 min and the equilibrium was reached at 180 min. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process was a spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. The composite exhibited fairly high adsorption capacity (196.5 mg.g-1) of methylene blue at 313 K. In addition, the magnetic composite could be effectively and simply separated by using an external magnetic field, and then regenerated by hydrogen peroxide and recycled for further use. The results indicated that the adsorbent had a potential in the application of the dye wastewater treatment.

  17. Kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of methylene blue by a magnetic graphene-carbon nanotube composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Cao, Muhan; Wang, Chao; Ao, Yanhui; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin

    2014-01-01

    A solvothermal method was employed to prepare a novel magnetic composite adsorbent composed of graphene, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The prepared adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the particle size distribution of the samples before and after adsorption was also carried out. The performance of as-prepared composites was investigated by the adsorption of dye methylene blue. Results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of the samples was up to 65.79 mg g-1, which was almost equal to the sum of magnetic graphene and magnetic MWCNTs. The effect of pH and temperature on the adsorption performance of methylene blue onto the magnetic adsorbents was investigated. The kinetic was well-described by pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model, while the isotherm obeyed the Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, the as-prepared composites were found to be regenerative and reusable. The application in the treatment of an artificial dye wastewater and its cost estimation were also discussed. Therefore, the as-prepared magnetic composites can be severed as a potential adsorbent for removal of dye pollutant, owing to its high adsorption performance, magnetic separability and efficient recyclable property.

  18. A study of the Fenton-mediated oxidation of methylene blue-cucurbit[n]uril complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, Tomás; Fuentealba, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Cucurbit[n]urils efficiently decreased the Fenton-mediated oxidation of encapsulated dyes, providing a mechanism for some control and selectivity over the degradation. The encapsulation of methylene blue into cucurbit[7]uril made it highly refractory against Fenton oxidation in the dark or under UVA light irradiation. However, the oxidation of the encapsulated dye was significantly enhanced under visible light irradiation. This behavior was selective for the cucurbit[7]uril complex and not for the cucurbit[8]uril complex, which achieved the same degree of protection irrespective of the irradiation conditions. This different reactivity of the complexes was further discussed in terms of their excited state properties. The main mechanism for protection was the seclusion of the dye into cucurbit[n]urils as shown by the fact that the non-encapsulated dye safranin was protected much less than methylene blue. Additionally, cucurbit[n]urils efficiently trapped hydroxyl radicals, which contributed significantly to the protection of the dyes from Fenton-mediated oxidation.

  19. Hydrogen Bond Acceptors and Additional Cationic Charges in Methylene Blue Derivatives: Photophysics and Antimicrobial Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgenträger, Ariane; Maisch, Tim; Dobler, Daniel; Späth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PIB) by efficient singlet oxygen photosensitizers might be a beneficial alternative to antibiotics in the struggle against multiresistant bacteria. Phenothiazinium dyes belong to the most prominent classes of such sensitizers due to their intense absorption in the red-light region (λ abs, max ca. 600–680 nm, ε > 50000 L mol−1 cm−1), their low toxicity, and their attachment/penetration abilities. Except simple substituents like alkyl or hydroxyalkyl residues, nearly no modifications of the phenothiaziniums have been pursued at the auxochromic sites. By this, the properties of methylene blue derivatives and their fields of application are limited; it remains unclear if their potential antimicrobial efficacy may be enhanced, also to compete with porphyrins. We prepared a set of six mainly novel methylene blue derivatives with the ability of additional hydrogen bonding and/or additional cationic charges to study the substituents' effect on their activity/toxicity profiles and photophysical properties. Direct detection of singlet oxygen was performed at 1270 nm and the singlet oxygen quantum yields were determined. In suspensions with both, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some derivatives were highly active upon illumination to inactivate S. aureus and E. coli up to 7 log10 steps (99.99999%) without inherent toxicities in the nonirradiated state. PMID:23509728

  20. Methylene Blue-Aided In Vivo Staining of Central Airways during Flexible Bronchoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Zirlik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The early diagnosis of malignant and premalignant changes of the bronchial mucosa remains a major challenge during bronchoscopy. Intravital staining techniques are not new. Previous small case series suggested that analysis of the bronchial mucosal surface using chromoendoscopy allows a prediction between neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chromobronchoscopy as a method to identify malignant and premalignant lesions in the central airways in a prospective manner. Methods. In 26 patients we performed chromoendoscopy with 0.1% methylene blue during ongoing flexible white light bronchoscopy. Circumscribed lesions in central airways were further analyzed by biopsies and histopathologic examination. Results. In the majority of cases neither flat nor polypoid lesions in the central airways were stained by methylene blue. In particular, exophytic growth of lung cancer did not show any specific pattern in chromobronchoscopy. However, a specific dye staining was detected in one case where exophytic growth of metastatic colorectal cancer was present in the right upper lobe. In two other cases, a circumscribed staining was noted in unsuspicious mucosa. But histology revealed inflammation only. Conclusions. In contrast to previous studies, the present findings clearly indicate that chromobronchoscopy is not useful for early detection of malignant or premalignant lesions of the central airways.