WorldWideScience

Sample records for methylene chloride carbon

  1. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  2. 21 CFR 173.255 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methylene chloride. 173.255 Section 173.255 Food... Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.255 Methylene chloride. Methylene chloride may be present in food under the following conditions: (a) In spice oleoresins as a residue from...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1152 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1926.1152 Section 1926.1152 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction employment under this section are...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1052 - Methylene chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methylene chloride. 1915.1052 Section 1915.1052 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1052 Methylene chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  5. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Terminalia glaucescens (Combretaceae) is traditionally used in Cameroon in the treatment of diabetes. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by a ...

  6. Methylene chloride exposure and carboxyhemoglobin levels in cabinetmakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjoko, Sunny O.; Sridhar Mynapelli, K. C.; Ogunkola, Isiah O.; Masheyi, Olatunde O.

    2007-01-01

    Methylene chloride (MeCl2) is a clear colorless volatile sweet smelling lipophilic solvent used as a constituent of wood vanishes and paints. Human exposure is mainly due to inhalation and its biotransformation by the hepatic mixed function oxidases (MFO) leads to formation of carbon monoxide (CO). Simultaneous exposure to MeCl2 and increased ambient CO results in undesirably increased carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) formation, which predisposes to carboxyhemoglobinaemia with the central nervous system as the primary target organ of toxicity. In this study, ambient CO levels were determined using a CO personal monitor in different pasts of Ibadan Nigeria and work place microenvironment of 50 Cabinet makers (test group) and 50 volunteer (control) in non-furniture making occupations. Mann Whitney U and Kruskaal Wallis were the statistical methods of analysis used. Questionnaires were administered to both groups carboxyhaemoglobin levels were determined in venous blood drawn from individuals in the two groups by differential spectrophotometric method. Ambient CO levels in Ibadan were observed to be between 4 and 52 ppm with a mean of 20 ppm. Work environment CO levels were significantly higher in test subjects than controls at 5.2 ± 1.08 ppm and 2.08 ± 0.91 ppm respectively (P 0.05). It is therefore imperative to substitute MeCl2 for safer chemicals in wood vanish and paints and the use of protective gas masks and adequate ventilation should be mandatory whenever MeCl2 is used. PMID:21938216

  7. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been used...

  8. Kinetics of pyridine degradation along with toluene and methylene chloride with Bacillus sp. in packed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma, B.; Sandhya, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, CSIR-Complex, Madras (India)

    1998-04-01

    Bacillus coagulans strain isolated from contaminated soil was immobilised on activated carbon for degradation of pyridine, toluene and methylene chloride containing synthetic wastewaters. Pyridine was supplied as the only source of nitrogen in the wastewaters. Continuous runs in a packed bed laboratory reactor showed that immobilized B. coagulans can degrade pyridine along with other organics rapidly and the effluent ammonia is also controlled in presence of ``organic carbon``. About 644 mg/l of influent TOC was efficiently degraded (82.85%) at 64.05 mg/l/hr loading. (orig.) With 2 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs.

  9. Citrus pectin derived porous carbons as a superior adsorbent toward removal of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenlin; Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Xi Juan; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-01-01

    An adsorbent, citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of methylene blue, was synthesized by a facile zinc chloride activation approach in this study. The materials hold a great potential for treatment of dye wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward methylene blue removal. - Highlights: • Citrus pectin derived porous carbons (CPPCs) were synthesized a facile zinc chloride activation approach. • CPPCs had abundant macro/meso/micropores for trapping MB molecules. • CPPCs exhibited ultrahigh adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of MB.

  10. Citrus pectin derived porous carbons as a superior adsorbent toward removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenlin [College of Horticulture and landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Zhang, Lian Ying [Institute for Clean Energy & Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhao, Xi Juan [College of Horticulture and landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountainous Regions, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhou, Zhiqin, E-mail: zhouzhiqin@swu.edu.cn [College of Horticulture and landscape Architecture, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716 (China); Key Laboratory of Horticulture Science for Southern Mountainous Regions, Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2016-11-15

    An adsorbent, citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of methylene blue, was synthesized by a facile zinc chloride activation approach in this study. The materials hold a great potential for treatment of dye wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Citrus pectin derived porous carbons with ultra-high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward methylene blue removal. - Highlights: • Citrus pectin derived porous carbons (CPPCs) were synthesized a facile zinc chloride activation approach. • CPPCs had abundant macro/meso/micropores for trapping MB molecules. • CPPCs exhibited ultrahigh adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption rate and good reusability toward removal of MB.

  11. SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE EMISSIONS FROM EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, ROCHESTER, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an assessment of potential control technologies for methylene chloride (also known as dichloromethane or DCM) emission sources at Eastman Kodak Company's Kodak Park facility in Rochester, NY. DCM is a solvent used by Kodak in the manufacture of cellulo...

  12. Adsorption of methylene blue onto treated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin Yasin; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Faujan Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    The potential feasibility of treated and untreated activated carbon for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution was investigated. The effects of various experimental parameters such as contact time, solution pH and adsorbent dosage were investigated. The extent of methylene blue removal increased with the increased in contact time, solution pH and amount of adsorbent used. Adsorption data was better fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The results in this study indicated that the treated activated carbon was an attractive candidate for removing organic dye of methylene blue which shows great reduction of colour while reducing the time contact to achieve equilibrium. (author)

  13. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenbecker Michael J

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective

  14. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Elucidated Combinatorial Mechanism of Methylene Chloride and Phenol Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-22

    TiO2 9.5 Isobutyl ketone 0.1 Iron oxide hydrate 2.5 n-Butyl acid phosphate 0.1 Carbazole dioxazine violet ɘ.1 Bentone 0.5 Table 3: MIL-PRF-85285...partial formulation films, with pigments and no fillers, and full formulation films of current military polyurethane coatings were analyzed in this...time of the solvents. 22-01-2014 Memorandum Report Paint stripper Methylene chloride Phenol Polyurethane 7 June 2012 – 6 June 2013 SERDP WP-2244

  15. Comparing toxicologic and epidemiologic studies: methylene chloride--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayner, L T; Bailer, A J

    1993-12-01

    Exposure to methylene chloride induces lung and liver cancers in mice. The mouse bioassay data have been used as the basis for several cancer risk assessments. The results from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to methylene chloride have been mixed with respect to demonstrating an increased cancer risk. The results from a negative epidemiologic study of Kodak workers have been used by two groups of investigators to test the predictions from the EPA risk assessment models. These two groups used very different approaches to this problem, which resulted in opposite conclusions regarding the consistency between the animal model predictions and the Kodak study results. The results from the Kodak study are used to test the predictions from OSHA's multistage models of liver and lung cancer risk. Confidence intervals for the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) from the Kodak study are compared with the predicted confidence intervals derived from OSHA's risk assessment models. Adjustments for the "healthy worker effect," differences in length of follow-up, and dosimetry between animals and humans were incorporated into these comparisons. Based on these comparisons, we conclude that the negative results from the Kodak study are not inconsistent with the predictions from OSHA's risk assessment model.

  16. Derivation of an occupational exposure limit (OEL) for methylene chloride based on acute CNS effects and relative potency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J E; Rozman, K K

    1998-06-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methylene chloride Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) or 25 ppm is quantitatively derived from mouse tumor results observed in a high-exposure National Toxicology Program bioassay. Because this approach depends on controversial interspecies and low-dose extrapolations, the PEL itself has stimulated heated debate. Here, an alternative safety assessment for methylene chloride is presented. It is based on an acute human lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 200 ppm for subtle central nervous system (CNS) depression. Steep, parallel exposure-response curves for anesthetic and subanesthetic CNS effects associated with compounds mechanistically and structurally related to methylene chloride are shown to support a safety factor of two to account for inter-individual variability in response. LOAEL/no-observed-adverse-effect ratios for subtle CNS effects associated with structurally related solvents are shown to support a safety factor range of two to four to account for uncertainty in identifying a subthreshold exposure level. Anesthetic relative potencies and anesthetic/subanesthetic effect level ratios are shown to be constant for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating that subanesthetic relative potencies are also constant. Relative potencies among similarly derived occupational exposure limits (OELs) for solvents structurally related to methylene chloride are therefore used to validate the derived methylene chloride OEL range of 25-50 ppm. Because this safety assessment is based on human (rather than rodent) data and empirical (rather than theoretical) exposure-response relationships and is supported by relative potency analysis, it is a defensible alternative to to the OSHA risk assessment and should positively contribute to the debate regarding the appropriate basis and value for a methylene chloride PEL.

  17. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled ethyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanski, R.

    1976-01-01

    A new efficient method of synthesis of ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C), based on the Ba 14 CO 3 and dry hydrogen chloride as starting materials has been developed and described. Addition of the hydrogen chloride to ethylene (1,2- 14 C), obtained from Ba 14 CO 3 , has been carried out in the presence of the AlCl 3 as catalyst. The outlined method leads to ethyl chloride (1,2- 14 C) of high specific activity. The radiochemical yield of the reaction based on the activity of barium carbonate used was 72%. (author)

  18. Performance Evaluation of Hap-Free Paint Strippers vs. Methylene-Chloride-Based Strippers for Removing Army Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings (CARC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, John; Considine, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ...). The purpose of this effort is to investigate HAP-free alternative chemical paint strippers as potential replacements for the methylene-chloride- based chemical strippers currently used in both processes...

  19. Niobium interaction with chloride-carbonate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, S.A.; Kuznetsova, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    Niobium interaction with chloride-carbonate melt NaCl-KCl-K 2 CO 3 (5 mass %) in the temperature range of 973-1123 K has been studied. The products and niobium corrosion rate have been ascertained, depending on the temperature of melt and time of allowance. Potentials of niobium corrosion have been measured. Refs. 11, figs. 3, tabs. 2

  20. Estimation of surface area and pore volume of activated carbons by methylene blue and iodine numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton A. Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of methylene blue number and iodine number of activated carbons samples were calibrated against the respective surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume using multiple regression. The models obtained from the calibrations were used in predicting these physical properties of a test group of activated carbon samples produced from several raw materials. In all cases, the predicted values were in good agreement with the expected values. The method allows extracting more information from the methylene blue and iodine adsorption studies than normally obtained with this type of material.

  1. Carbon and TiO{sub 2} synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes, E-mail: evelynalvesnunes@yahoo.com.br; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio

    2016-07-01

    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO{sub 2} structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO{sub 2} structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO{sub 2}-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO{sub 2} phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO{sub 2} during the sol-gel step, with a TiO{sub 2} structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO{sub 2} based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO{sub 2}-Carbon

  2. Carbon and TiO_2 synergistic effect on methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, Evelyn Alves Nunes; Simone Cividanes, Luciana de; Campos, Tiago Moreira Bastos; Rossi Canuto de Menezes, Beatriz; Brito, Felipe Sales; Thim, Gilmar Patrocínio

    2016-01-01

    Due to its high efficiency, low cost and a simple operation, the adsorption process is an important and widely used technique for industrial wastewater treatment. Recent studies on the removal of artificial dyes by adsorption include a large number of adsorbents, such as: activated carbon, silicates, carbon nanotube, graphene, fibers, titanates and doped titanates. The carbon insertion in the TiO_2 structure promotes a synergistic effect on the adsorbent composite, improving the adsorption and the charge-transfer efficiency rates. However, there are few studies regarding the adsorption capacity of TiO_2/Carbon composites with the carbon concentration. This study evaluates the effect of carbon (resorcinol/formaldehyde) insertion on TiO_2 structure through the adsorption process. Adsorbents were prepared by varying the carbon weight percentages using the sol-gel method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts prepared, such as crystallinity, particle size, surface morphology, specific surface area and pore volume were investigated. The kinetic study, adsorption isotherm, pH effect and thermodynamic study were examined in batch experiments using methylene blue as organic molecule. In addition, the effect of carbon phase on the adsorption capacity of TiO_2-carbon composite was deeply investigated. SEM micrographs showed that TiO_2 phase grows along the carbon phase and FT-IR results showed the presence of Ti−O−C chemical bonding. The experiments indicate that the carbon phase acted as a nucleation agent for the growth of TiO_2 during the sol-gel step, with a TiO_2 structure suitable for blue methylene adsorption, resulting in a material with large surface area and slit-like or wedge-shaped pores. Further experiments will show the best carbon concentration for methylene blue adsorption using a TiO_2 based material. - Highlights: • This article deals with the adsorption of methylene blue onto TiO_2-Carbon composite. • The sol-gel synthesis was efficient

  3. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Bhati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway.

  4. Nanomolar determination of 4-nitrophenol based on a poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Munusamy, Settu; Kumar, Sivakumar Praveen; Muthamizh, Selvamani; Narayanan, Vengidusamy

    2013-10-07

    A poly(methylene blue)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PMB/GCE) was fabricated by electropolymerisation of methylene blue on a GCE and further utilized to investigate the electrochemical determination of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry and chronocoulometry. The morphology of the PMB on GCE was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An oxidation peak of 4-NP at the PMB modified electrode was observed at 0.28 V, and in the case of bare GCE, no oxidation peak was observed, which indicates that PMB/GCE exhibits a remarkable effect on the electrochemical determination of 4-NP. Due to this remarkable effect of PMB/GCE, a sensitive and simple electrochemical method was proposed for the determination of 4-NP. The effect of the scan rate and pH was investigated to determine the optimum conditions at which the PMB/GCE exhibits a higher sensitivity with a lower detection limit. Moreover, kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer number, proton transfer number and standard heterogeneous rate constant were calculated. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 4-NP is proportional to its concentration in the range of 15-250 nM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9963. The detection limit was found to be 90 nM (S/N = 3). The proposed method based on PMB/GCE is simple, easy and cost effective. To further confirm its possible application, the proposed method was successfully used for the determination of 4-NP in real water samples with recoveries ranging from 97% to 101.6%. The interference due to sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, sulphate, carbonate, chloride, nitrate and phosphate was found to be almost negligible.

  5. The Adsorption Efficiency of Chemically Prepared Activated Carbon from Cola Nut Shells by on Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Ndi Nsami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto activated carbon prepared from cola nut shell has been investigated under batch mode. The influence of major parameters governing the efficiency of the process such as, solution pH, sorbent dose, initial concentration, and contact time on the removal process was investigated. The time-dependent experimental studies showed that the adsorption quantity of methylene blue increases with initial concentration and decreasing adsorbent dosage. The equilibrium time of 180 min was observed and maximum adsorption was favoured at pH 3.5. The dye removal using 0.1 g of adsorbent was more than 90%. This dosage (0.1 g was considered as the optimum dosage to remove methylene blue from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by the Freundlich, Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. The kinetics of methylene blue solution was discussed by pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich models. The adsorption process follows the Elovich rate kinetic model, having a correlation coefficient in the range between 0.9811 and 1.

  6. Degradation of fly ash concrete under the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jun; Qiu, Qiwen; Chen, Xiaochi; Wang, Xiaodong; Xing, Feng; Han, Ningxu; He, Yijian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbonation affects the chloride profile in concrete under chloride aerosol attack. • The chloride binding capacity can be reduced by the presence of carbonation. • Carbonation increases the rate of chloride diffusion for chloride aerosol ingress. • Chloride aerosol ingress reduces the carbonation depth and increases the pH value. • The use of fly ash in concrete enhances the resistance of chloride aerosol ingress. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the coupled effect of carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress on the durability performance of fly ash concrete. Test results demonstrate that carbonation significantly affects the chloride ingress profile, reduces the chloride binding capacity, and accelerates the rate of chloride ion diffusion. On the other hand, the carbonation rate of fly ash concrete is reduced by the presence of chlorides aerosol. The interaction nature between concrete carbonation and chloride aerosol ingress is also demonstrated by the microscopic analysis results obtained from scanning electron microscope and mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  7. Sorption study of methylene blue on activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaila Olalekan Saheed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets the effectiveness of the prepared activated carbon from Jatropha curcas and Terminalia catappa seed coats for the sorption of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solution. The prepared Jatropha activated carbon (JAC and Terminalia activated carbon (TAC were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Branauer- Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analysis. Effect of initial concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature on the sorption experiments were studied and the adsorption capacity of these adsorbents were found to be 37.84 mg/g and 17.44 mg/g for methylene blue uptake by JAC and TAC respectively. The experimental data were analysed using Langmuir, Fruendlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The data fitted best into Langmuir isotherm for Methylene blue-JAC and Methylene blue-TAC systems. The kinetic studies fitted into pseudo second order kinetics model. The process chemistry was exothermic.

  8. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C., E-mail: zuhra_kadirova@yahoo.com [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Mirzo Ulugbek Str. 77a, Tashkent 100170 (Uzbekistan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Katsumata, Ken-ichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Isobe, Toshihiro [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9–10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (S{sub BET} 50 m{sup 2}/g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (S{sub BET} 4 and 111 m{sup 2}/g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA < BAU-CL < BAU-HA sample and the adsorption followed Langmuir model. The apparent MB photodegradation rate constant (k{sub app}) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015–0.025 mM; sample content – 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration – 0.43 mM; pH 3–4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  9. Adsorption and photodegradation of methylene blue by iron oxide impregnated on granular activated carbons in an oxalate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C.; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The photocatalytic adsorbents BAU-OA, BAU-CL and BAU-HA with varying iron oxide content (9–10 mass%) were prepared by heat treatment at 250 °C from commercial activated carbon (BAU) impregnated with iron oxalate, chloride, tris-benzohydroxamate, respectively. The XRD patterns showed amorphous structure in the BAU-CL sample (S BET 50 m 2 /g) and low crystallinity (as FeOOH and Fe 2 O 3 phases) in the BAU-HA and BAU-OA samples (S BET 4 and 111 m 2 /g, respectively). The methylene blue adsorption capacities was decreased in order of BAU-OA app ) was increased in same order BAU-HA < BAU-CL < BAU-OA under the standard experimental conditions (initial MB concentrations 0.015–0.025 mM; sample content – 10 mg/l; initial oxalic acid concentration – 0.43 mM; pH 3–4; UV illumination). The process included high efficiency combination of adsorption, heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis under UV and solar lights illumination without addition of hydrogen peroxide. The detoxification of water sample containing organic dyes was confirmed after combined sorption-photocatalytic treatment.

  10. Facile preparation of hierarchically porous carbon using diatomite as both template and catalyst and methylene blue adsorption of carbon products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Yuan, Peng; Tan, Daoyong; Liu, Hongmei; Wang, Tong; Fan, Mingde; Zhu, Jianxi; He, Hongping

    2012-12-15

    Hierarchically porous carbons were prepared using a facile preparation method in which diatomite was utilized as both template and catalyst. The porous structures of the carbon products and their formation mechanisms were investigated. The macroporosity and microporosity of the diatomite-templated carbons were derived from replication of diatom shell and structure-reconfiguration of the carbon film, respectively. The macroporosity of carbons was strongly dependent on the original morphology of the diatomite template. The macroporous structure composed of carbon plates connected by the pillar- and tube-like macropores resulted from the replication of the central and edge pores of the diatom shells with disk-shaped morphology, respectively. And another macroporous carbon tubes were also replicated from canoe-shaped diatom shells. The acidity of diatomite dramatically affected the porosity of the carbons, more acid sites of diatomite template resulted in higher surface area and pore volume of the carbon products. The diatomite-templated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacity for methylene blue than the commercial activated carbon (CAC), although the specific surface area was much smaller than that of CAC, due to the hierarchical porosity of diatomite-templated carbons. And the carbons were readily reclaimed and regenerated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrochemical behavior of an anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukkitgar, Shikandar D.; Shetti, Nagaraj P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel sensor for the determination of 5-fluorouracil was constructed by electrochemical deposition of methylene blue on surface of carbon paste electrode. The electrode surface morphology was studied using Atomic force microscopy and XRD. The electrochemical activity of modified electrode was characterized using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse method. The developed sensor shows impressive enlargement in sensitivity of 5-fluorouracil determination. The peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry was linear with concentration of 5-fluorouracil in the range 4 × 10 −5 –1 × 10 −7 M and detection limit and quantification limit were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM respectively. Further, the sensor was successfully applied in pharmaceutical and biological fluid sample analysis. - Highlights: • Electrochemical oxidation of 5-fluorouracil has been investigated for first time at methylene blue modified carbon paste electrode • The electrode process was irreversible and diffusion controlled • Probable electrochemical mechanism was proposed which involved two proton and two electron transfer reaction • The LOD and LOQ values were calculated to be 2.04 nM and 6.18 nM, respectively, with good selectivity and sensitivity. • Proposed method was applied to 5-Fluorouracil determination in pharmaceutical and spiked human urine samples

  12. Removal efficiency of methylene blue using activated carbon from waste banana stem: Study on pH influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misran, E.; Bani, O.; Situmeang, E. M.; Purba, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    The effort to remove methylene blue in artificial solution had been conducted using adsorption process. The abundant banana stem waste was utilized as activated carbon precursor. This study aimed to analyse the influence of solution pH to removal efficiency of methylene blue using activated carbon from banana stem as adsorbent. Activated carbon from banana stem was obtained by chemical activation using H3PO4 solution. Proximate analysis result showed that the activated carbon has 47.22% of fixed carbon. This value exhibited that banana stem was a potential adsorbent precursor. Methylene blue solutions were prepared at initial concentration of 50 ppm. The influence of solution pH was investigated with the use of 0.2 g adsorbent for 100 mL dye solution. The adsorption was conducted using shaker with at a constant rate of 100 rpm at room temperature for 90 minutes. The results showed that solution pH influenced the adsorption. The activated carbon from banana stem demonstrated satisfying performance since removal efficiencies of methylene blue were higher than 99%.

  13. Experimental and kinetic studies on methylene blue adsorption by coir pith carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, D; Namasivayam, C

    2007-01-01

    Varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature carried out the potential feasibility of thermally activated coir pith carbon prepared from coconut husk for removal of methylene blue. Greater percentage of dye was removed with decrease in the initial concentration of dye and increase in amount of adsorbent used. Kinetic study showed that the adsorption of dye on coir pith carbon was a gradual process. Lagergren first-order, second-order, intra particle diffusion model and Bangham were used to fit the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherms were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubnin-Radushkevich, and Tempkin isotherm. The adsorption capacity was found to be 5.87 mg/g by Langmuir isotherm for the particle size 250-500 microm. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 and 60 min for 10 and 20 mg/L and 100 min for 30, 40 mg/L dye concentrations, respectively. A maximum removal of 97% was obtained at natural pH 6.9 for an adsorbent dose of 100 mg/50 mL and 100% removal was obtained for an adsorbent dose of 600 mg/50 mL of 10 mg/L dye concentration. The pH effect and desorption studies suggest that chemisorption might be the major mode of the adsorption process. The change in entropy (DeltaS0) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH0) of coir pith carbon was estimated as 117.20 J/mol/K and 30.88 kJ/mol, respectively. The high negative value of change in Gibbs free energy indicates the feasible and spontaneous adsorption of methylene blue on coir pith carbon.

  14. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  15. Covalent organic polymer functionalization of activated carbon surfaces through acyl chloride for environmental clean-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mines, Paul D.; Thirion, Damien; Uthuppu, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous networks of covalent organic polymers (COPs) are successfully grafted on the surfaces of activated carbons, through a series of surface modification techniques, including acyl chloride formation by thionyl chloride. Hybrid composites of activated carbon functionalized with COPs exhibit...

  16. Removal of methylene blue by adsorption onto activated carbon developed from Ficus carica bast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Pathania

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated carbon was developed from Ficus carica bast (FCBAC. The experiments were carried out to explore methylene blue (MB uptake by FCBAC. The influence of various experimental factors such as contact time, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, temperature and pH of dye solution was investigated. The adsorption equilibrium was represented with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir and Tempkin equations were found to have the correlation coefficient value in good agreement. Adsorption of MB onto FCBAC followed pseudo second order kinetics. The calculated values of ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° were found to be 21.55 kJ/mol, 76.24 J/mol K and −1.55 kJ/mol, respectably. Adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature.

  17. Removal of Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solution by Activated Carbon Prepared from Pea Shells (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal Geçgel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An activated carbon was prepared from pea shells and used for the removal of methylene blue (MB from aqueous solutions. The influence of various factors such as adsorbent concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature, contact time, pH, and surfactant was studied. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The adsorption isotherm was found to follow the Langmuir model. The monolayer sorption capacity of activated carbon prepared from pea shell for MB was found to be 246.91 mg g−1 at 25 ∘C. Two simplified kinetic models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equation were selected to follow the adsorption processes. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as , , and were evaluated. The results in this study indicated that activated carbon prepared from pea shell could be employed as an adsorbent for the removal of MB from aqueous solutions.

  18. High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate beads for efficient removal of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Asma; Bhat, A H; Naeem, Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Danish, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    High surface area mesoporous activated carbon-alginate (AC-alginate) beads were successfully synthesized by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from Mangosteen fruit peel into calcium-alginate beads for methylene blue (MB) removal from aqueous solution. The structure and surface characteristics of AC-alginate beads were analyzed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface area analysis (S BET ), while thermal properties were tested using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of AC-alginate dose, pH of solution, contact time, initial concentration of MB solution and temperature on MB removal was elucidated. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity of 230mg/g was achieved for 100mg/L of MB solution at pH 9.5 and temperature 25°C. Furthermore, the adsorption of MB on AC-alginate beads followed well pseudo-second order equation and equilibrium adsorption data were better fitted by the Freundlich isotherm model. The findings reveal the feasibility of AC-alginate beads composite to be used as a potential and low cost adsorbent for removal of cationic dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of microwave-assisted rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon preparation conditions for methylene blue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasri, Azduwin; Ahmad, Mohd Azmier

    2017-10-01

    Optimum preparation conditions of rubberwood sawdust based activated carbon (RSAC) for methylene blue (MB) dye removal was studied. RSAC was produced by applying physiochemical activation method by using potassium hydroxide as a chemical agent which accompanied by carbon dioxide gasification under microwave heating. The effects of microwave power, irradiation time and impregnation ratio on two types of responses namely MB removal and RSAC yield using the center composite design (CCD) were also included in this study. The preparation variables correlation for responses was developed by two quadratic models. Optimum preparation conditions of RSAC were obtained at microwave power, irradiation time and IR of 354 W, 4.5 minutes and 0.98, respectively, which resulted MB removal and yield of 83.79% and 28%, respectively. The average pore diameter, surface area and total pore volume of optimized RSAC were 4.12 nm, 796.33 m2/g and 0.4219 cm3/g, respectively. This sample was found to has well-developed pores on its surface and can be a promising adsorbent for MB removal from aqueous solution.

  20. Kinetics, Equilibrium, and Thermodynamic Studies on Adsorption of Methylene Blue by Carbonized Plant Leaf Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gunasekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon synthesized from plant leaf powder was employed for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous effluent. Effects of pH (2, 4, 6, 8, and 9, dye concentration (50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/dm3, adsorbent dosage (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/dm3, and temperature (303, 313, and 323 K were studied. The process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equilibrium data was examined with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and Langmuir model was found to be the best fitting model with high R2 and low chi2 values. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was found to be 61.22 mg/g. From the thermodynamic analysis, ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS values for the adsorption of MB onto the plant leaf carbon were found out. From the values of free energy change, the process was found out to be feasible process. From the magnitude of ΔH, the process was found to be endothermic physisorption.

  1. Kinetics and equilibrium studies on removal of methylene blue and methyl orange by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from date pits-A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Khaled; Hosni, Khaled; Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of Methylene blue and Methyl orange by date pits carbon was carried out by varying parameters such as agitation time, pH and dye concentration. Equilibrium adsorption data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption followed second-order rate kinetics. The adsorption capacity was found to be 434 and 455mg of methyl orange and methylene blue, respectively, per g of the date pits carbon. Acidic pH is favorable for the adsorption of methyl orange against a basic medium which is favorable for the adsorption of MB. An opposite result was found for the methylene blue adsorption

  2. Adsorption of Methylene Blue Malachite Green from aqueous solution on the surface of Wool Carbonizing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Tahir, H.; Fahimuddin; Waqar, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    With ever increasing environmental pollution problems, the present day study was related to the removal of colorants. Synthetic colorants represented a relatively large group of organic chemicals. Such chemicals have undesirable effects not only on the environment but also on human beings. Present study is related with the removal of basic dyes methylene blue and malachite green using wool carbonizing waste materials as adsorbent. Adsorption of dyes is carried out as a function of temperature, amount of adsorbent, pH and duration. Spectrophotomeric technique was adopted for measuring the extent of adsorption. The data are fitted in Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations and their corresponding constants are calculated. Thermodynamic study is also carried out by calculating the values of thermodynamic parameters such as, enthalpy change (delta H), free energy change (delta G) and entropy change (delta S). The values of percent removal and KD for each dye system is also calculated at the range of temperatures ranging from 293-323K with the intervals of 10C+-0.2C. (author)

  3. Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Qingsong; Zheng Tong; Li Nan [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Wang Peng, E-mail: pwang73@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Abulikemu, Gulizhaer [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-03-01

    Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon was carried out in a microwave oven under N{sub 2} atmosphere. The virgin and modified activated carbons were characterized by means of low temperature N{sub 2} adsorption, acid-base titration, point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) measurement, FTIR and XPS spectra. A gradual decrease in the surface acidic groups was observed during the modification, while the surface basicity was enhanced to some extent, which gave rise to an increase in the pH{sub pzc} value. The species of the functional groups and relative content of various elements and groups were given further analysis using FTIR and XPS spectra. An increase in the micropores was found at the start, and the micropores were then extended into larger ones, resulting in an increase in the pore volume and average pore size. Adsorption studies showed enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, caused mainly by the enlargement of the micropores. Adsorption isotherm fittings revealed that Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the virgin and modified activated carbons, respectively. Kinetic studies exhibited faster adsorption rate of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, and the pseudo-second-order model fitted well for all of the activated carbons.

  4. Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Song; Zheng, Tong; Li, Nan; Wang, Peng; Abulikemu, Gulizhaer

    2010-03-01

    Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon was carried out in a microwave oven under N 2 atmosphere. The virgin and modified activated carbons were characterized by means of low temperature N 2 adsorption, acid-base titration, point of zero charge (pH pzc) measurement, FTIR and XPS spectra. A gradual decrease in the surface acidic groups was observed during the modification, while the surface basicity was enhanced to some extent, which gave rise to an increase in the pH pzc value. The species of the functional groups and relative content of various elements and groups were given further analysis using FTIR and XPS spectra. An increase in the micropores was found at the start, and the micropores were then extended into larger ones, resulting in an increase in the pore volume and average pore size. Adsorption studies showed enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, caused mainly by the enlargement of the micropores. Adsorption isotherm fittings revealed that Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the virgin and modified activated carbons, respectively. Kinetic studies exhibited faster adsorption rate of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, and the pseudo-second-order model fitted well for all of the activated carbons.

  5. Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon using microwave radiation and its effects on the adsorption of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingsong; Zheng Tong; Li Nan; Wang Peng; Abulikemu, Gulizhaer

    2010-01-01

    Modification of bamboo-based activated carbon was carried out in a microwave oven under N 2 atmosphere. The virgin and modified activated carbons were characterized by means of low temperature N 2 adsorption, acid-base titration, point of zero charge (pH pzc ) measurement, FTIR and XPS spectra. A gradual decrease in the surface acidic groups was observed during the modification, while the surface basicity was enhanced to some extent, which gave rise to an increase in the pH pzc value. The species of the functional groups and relative content of various elements and groups were given further analysis using FTIR and XPS spectra. An increase in the micropores was found at the start, and the micropores were then extended into larger ones, resulting in an increase in the pore volume and average pore size. Adsorption studies showed enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, caused mainly by the enlargement of the micropores. Adsorption isotherm fittings revealed that Langmuir and Freundlich models were applicable for the virgin and modified activated carbons, respectively. Kinetic studies exhibited faster adsorption rate of methylene blue on the modified activated carbons, and the pseudo-second-order model fitted well for all of the activated carbons.

  6. Structure of methylene chloride addition product to zirconium tetrachloride complex with 1-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-2-thio-trimethylsilyl-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusilovets, A.I.; Rusanov, Eh.B.; Chernega, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    Complex of zirconium tetrachloride with 1-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl--2-thio-3-trimethyl-silyl-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedine interacts with methylene chloride with formation of bis[3-tert.-butyl-2,4,4-trimethyl-1--trimethylsilyl-2-chloremethylthio-1,3,2,4-diazaphosphasilatedinium] decachlorodizirconate. Specific features of crystal and molecular structure of the compound prepared have been studied by X-ray diffraction method. 21 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  8. Combined Exposure of Methylene Chloride and Carbon Monoxide in Smoking and Nonsmoking Paint Strippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    colorless volatile liquid whose solubility in water is minimal. It is completely miscible with most organic solvents (1). It is nonflammable and has a...University oi Utah will provide you, without charge, emergency and temporary medical tratament not otherwise covered by Insurance. Furthermore, if your

  9. Preparation of iron oxide-impregnated spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composite and its photocatalytic removal of methylene blue in the presence of oxalic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Katsumata, Ken-Ichi; Isobe, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Akira; Sharipov, Khasan; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The spherical granular activated carbon-carbon composites (GAC-Fe) with different iron oxide contents (Fe mass% = 0.6-10) were prepared by a pore volume impregnation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and N2-adsorption results confirm the presence of amorphous iron oxide, pyrolytic carbon, and graphitized globular carbon nanoparticles covered with amorphous carbon in the CAG-Fe. The rate of photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under UV light in the presence of oxalic acid correlates with porosity of the prepared materials. The total MB removal includes the combination of adsorption and photodegradation without the addition of H2O2. The results of total organic carbon (TOC) analysis reveal that the decolorization of MB in aqueous solution containing oxalic acid corresponds to the decomposition of organic compounds to CO2 and H2O.

  10. Use of submicron carbon filaments in place of carbon black as a porous reduction electrode in lithium batteries with a catholyte comprising bromine chloride in thionyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frysz, C.A. [Wilson Greatbatch, Ltd., Clarence, NY (United States); Shui, X.; Chung, D.D.L. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Composite Materials Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    Submicron carbon filaments used in place of carbon black as porous reduction electrodes in carbon limited lithium batteries in plate and jellyroll configurations with the BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) catholyte gave a specific capacity (at 2 V cut-off) of up to 8,700 mAh/g carbon, compared to a value of up to 2,900 mAh/g carbon for carbon black. The high specific capacity per g carbon (demonstrating superior carbon efficiency) for the filament electrode is partly due to the filaments` processability into sheets as thin as 0.2 mm with good porosity and without a binder, and partly due to the high catholyte absorptivity and high rate of catholyte absorption of the filament electrode.

  11. Facile preparation of poly(methylene blue) modified carbon paste electrode for the detection and quantification of catechin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manasa, G [Electrochemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College, Lalbagh Road, Bangalore, 560027, Karnataka (India); Mascarenhas, Ronald J, E-mail: ronaldmasc2311@yahoo.co.in [Electrochemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College, Lalbagh Road, Bangalore, 560027, Karnataka (India); Satpati, Ashis K [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Anushakthi Nagar, Trombay, Mumbai 400094, Maharashtra (India); D' Souza, Ozma J [Electrochemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College, Lalbagh Road, Bangalore, 560027, Karnataka (India); Dhason, A [Soft Condensed Matter, Raman Research Institute, Sadashivnagar, Bangalore 560080, Karnataka (India)

    2017-04-01

    Free radicals are formed as byproducts of metabolism, and are highly unstable due to the presence of unpaired electrons. They readily react with other important cellular components such as DNA causing them damage. Antioxidants such as (+)-catechin (CAT), neutralize free radicals in the blood stream. Hence there is a need for detection and quantification of catechin concentration in various food sources and beverages. Electro-oxidative properties of catechin were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A carbon paste working electrode modified by electropolymerizing methylene blue (MB) was fabricated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to study the surface morphology of the electrode. Quasi-reversible electron transfer reaction occurred at + 0.260 V through a diffusion controlled process. In comparison to the bare carbon paste electrode (CPE), there was a significant 5.3 times increment in anodic current sensitivity at the modified electrode at physiological pH. Our findings indicate that for the electro-oxidation of CAT, CPE is a better base material for electropolymerization of MB compared to glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Nyquist plot followed the theoretical shape, indicating low interfacial charge transfer resistance of 0.095 kΩ at the modified electrode. Calibration plots obtained by DPV were linear in two ranges of 1.0 × 10{sup −3} to 1.0 × 10{sup −6} and 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 0.1 × 10{sup −8} M. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 4.9 nM and 14 nM respectively. Application of the developed electrode was demonstrated by detecting catechin in green tea and spiked fruit juice with satisfactory recoveries. The sensor was stable, sensitive, selective and reproducible. - Highlights: • Remarkable electrocatalytic oxidation of Catechin at poly(methylene blue) modified CPE • Complete elimination of signal

  12. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Preconcentration of Sn (II) using the methylene blue on the activated carbon and its determination by spectrophotometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadoust, Saeid; Cham Kouri, Narges

    2014-04-05

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amounts of Sn (II) ion in soil sample was developed by using the methylene blue (MB) in the presence of activated carbon (AC) as the adsorbent Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) of Sn (II) and then determined by UV-Vis. The Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 1-80ngmL(-1) of Sn (II) with the detection limits of 0.34ngmL(-1). The influence of type and volume of eluent, concentration of MB, pH, and amount of AC on sensitivity of spectrophotometric method were optimized. The method has been successfully applied for Sn (II) ion determination in soil sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of CO2 Flow Rate on the Pinang Frond-Based Activated Carbon for Methylene Blue Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Herawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons are regularly used the treatment of dye wastewater. They can be produced from various organics materials having high level of carbon content. In this study, a novel Pinang frond activated carbon (PFAC was produced at various CO2 flow rates in the range of 150–600 mL/min at activation temperature of 800°C for 3 hours. The optimum PFAC sample is found on CO2 flow rate of 300 mL/min which gives the highest BET surface area and pore volume of 958 m2/g and 0.5469 mL/g, respectively. This sample shows well-developed pore structure with high fixed carbon content of 79.74%. The removal of methylene blue (MB by 95.8% for initial MB concentration of 50 mg/L and 72.6% for 500 mg/L is achieved via this sample. The PFAC is thus identified to be a suitable adsorbent for removing MB from aqueous solution.

  15. Optimization of microwave-assisted durian seed based activated carbon preparation conditions for methylene blue dye removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohd Azmier; Hamid, Siti Ruqayyah Ab.; Yusop, Mohamad Firdaus Mohamad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Due to easy access and relatively high fixed carbon content of 26.13% in its raw form, durian seed based activated carbon (DSAC) was produced via microwave heating. For activation stage, physiochemical approach consist of carbon dioxide (CO2) gasification and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as chemical activator were employed. Three most influential preparation variables on adsorption performance and yield of activated carbon (AC), which is radiation power, radiation time and KOH impregnation ratio (IR) were optimized with the help of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimization result revealed that 440W, 4.0 minutes and 0.55 of radiation power, radiation time and IR respectively, were needed to remove 80.23% of methylene blue (MB) dye and to obtain 25.77% of DSAC's yield. High Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume and average pore size of 852.30m2/g, 0.465cm3/g and 3.74nm respectively, were obtained on optimized DSAC.

  16. Application of carbon-coated TiO2 for decomposition of methylene blue in a photocatalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozia, Sylwia; Toyoda, Masahiro; Inagaki, Michio; Tryba, Beata; Morawski, Antoni W.

    2007-01-01

    An application of carbon-coated TiO 2 for decomposition of methylene blue (MB) in a photocatalytic membrane reactor (PMR), coupling photocatalysis and direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was investigated. Moreover, photodegradation of a model pollutant in a batch reactor without membrane distillation (MD) was also examined. Carbon-modified TiO 2 catalysts containing different amount of carbon and commercially available TiO 2 (ST-01) were used in this study. The carbon-coated catalyst prepared from a mixture of ST-01 and polyvinyl alcohol in the mass ratio of 70/30 was the most effective in degradation of MB from all of the photocatalysts applied. Photodecomposition of MB on the recovered photocatalysts was lower than on the fresh ones. The photodegradation of MB in the PMR was slower than in the batch reactor, what probably resulted from shorter time of exposure of the catalyst particles to UV irradiation. The MD process could be successfully applied for separation of photocatalyst and by-products from the feed solution

  17. Use of carbon filaments in place of carbon black as the current collector of a lithium cell with a thionyl chloride bromine chloride catholyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frysz, Christine A.; Shui, Xiaoping; Chung, D. D. L.

    Submicron carbon filaments (ADNH, Applied Sciences Inc.) used in place of carbon black as porous reduction electrodes (i.e., current collectors) in plate and jellyroll configurations in carbon limited lithium batteries with the BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) catholyte gave a specific capacity (at 2 V cut-off) of up to 8700 mAh/g of carbon, compared with a value of up to 2900 mAh/g of carbon for carbon black. The high specific capacity for the filament electrode is partly due to the filaments' processability into sheets as thin as 0.2 mm with good porosity, acceptable mechanical properties and without binder, and partly due to the high catholyte absorptivity and high rate of catholyte absorption of the filament electrode. Use of solvent-cleansed filaments in place of as-received filaments in making electrodes increased the packing density, thus decreasing capacity per g of carbon. The BCX catholyte acted as a cleanser anyway, due to the thionyl chloride in it. The specific capacity per cm 3 of carbon and that per unit density of carbon were also increased by using carbon filaments in place of carbon black, provided that the filament electrode was not pressed after forming by slurry filtration. Though no binder was needed for the filament plate electrode, it was needed for the filament jellyroll electrode. The Teflon™ binder increased the tensile strength and modulus, but decreased the catholyte absorption and rate of absorption. The filament electrode exhibited 405 less volume electrical resistivity than the carbon black electrode, both without a binder.

  18. Use of carbon filaments in place of carbon black as the current collector of a lithium cell with a thionyl chloride bromine chloride catholyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frysz, C.A. [Technology Div., Wilson Greatbatch Ltd., Clarence, NY (United States); Shui Xiaoping [Composite Materials Research Lab., State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Chung, D.D.L. [Composite Materials Research Lab., State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Submicron carbon filaments (ADNH, Applied Sciences Inc.) used in place of carbon black as porous reduction electrodes (i.e., current collectors) in plate and jellyroll configurations in carbon limited lithium batteries with the BCX (bromine chloride in thionyl chloride) catholyte gave a specific capacity (at 2 V cut-off) of up to 8700 mAh/g of carbon, compared with a value of up to 2900 mAh/g of carbon for carbon black. The high specific capacity for the filament electrode is partly due to the filaments` processability into sheets as thin as 0.2 mm with good porosity, acceptable mechanical properties and without binder, and partly due to the high catholyte absorptivity and high rate of catholyte absorption of the filament electrode. Use of solvent-cleansed filaments in place of as-received filaments in making electrodes increased the packing density, thus decreasing capacity per g of carbon. The BCX catholyte acted as a cleanser anyway, due to the thionyl chloride in it. The specific capacity per cm{sup 3} of carbon and that per unit density of carbon were also increased by using carbon filaments in place of carbon black, provided that the filament electrode was not pressed after forming by slurry filtration. Though no binder was needed for the filament plate electrode, it was needed for the filament jellyroll electrode. The Teflon{sup TM} binder increased the tensile strength and modulus, but decreased the catholyte absorption and rate of absorption. The filament electrode exhibited 40% less volume electrical resistivity than the carbon black electrode, both without a binder. (orig.)

  19. Adsorption properties of cationic rhodamine B dye onto metals chloride-activated castor bean residue carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Lee Lin; Zaini, Muhammad Abbas Ahmad

    2017-02-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the feasibility of castor bean residue based activated carbons prepared through metals chloride activation. The activated carbons were characterized for textural properties and surface chemistry, and the adsorption data of rhodamine B were established to investigate the removal performance. Zinc chloride-activated carbon with specific surface area of 395 m 2 /g displayed a higher adsorption capacity of 175 mg/g. Magnesium chloride and iron(III) chloride are less toxic and promising agents for composite chemical activation. The adsorption data obeyed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The rate-limiting step in the adsorption of rhodamine B is film diffusion. The positive values of enthalpy and entropy indicate that the adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous at high temperature.

  20. Geologic map showing springs rich in carbon dioxide or or chloride in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ivan; Irwin, William P.; Gibson, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Carbon dioxide- and chloride-rich springs occur in all geologic provinces in California, but are most abundant in the Coast Ranges and the Great Valley. The carbon-dioxide-rich springs issue mainly from Franciscan terrane; they also are rich in boron and are of the metamorphic type (White, 1957). Based on isotopic data, either the carbon dioxide or the water, or both, may be of metamorphic origin. Because of high magnesium values, the water of many of the carbon-dioxide-rich springs is thought to have passed through serpentinite. The chloride-rich waters are most common in rocks of the Great Valley sequence. Nearly all are more dilute than present-day sea water. The similarity in isotopic compositions of the metamorphic carbon-dioxide-rich water and the chloride-rich water may indicate a similar extent of water-rock interaction.

  1. Effects of chloride ions on corrosion of ductile iron and carbon steel in soil environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yarong; Jiang, Guangming; Chen, Ying; Zhao, Peng; Tian, Yimei

    2017-07-31

    Chloride is reported to play a significant role in corrosion reactions, products and kinetics of ferrous metals. To enhance the understanding of the effects of soil environments, especially the saline soils with high levels of chloride, on the corrosion of ductile iron and carbon steel, a 3-month corrosion test was carried out by exposing ferrous metals to soils of six chloride concentrations. The surface morphology, rust compositions and corrosion kinetics were comprehensively studied by visual observation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), weight loss, pit depth measurement, linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. It showed that chloride ions influenced the characteristics and compositions of rust layers by diverting and participating in corrosion reactions. α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH and iron oxides were major corrosion products, while β-Fe 8 O 8 (OH) 8 Cl 1.35 rather than β-FeOOH was formed when high chloride concentrations were provided. Chloride also suppressed the decreasing of corrosion rates, whereas increased the difficulty in the diffusion process by thickening the rust layers and transforming the rust compositions. Carbon steel is more susceptible to chloride attacks than ductile iron. The corrosion kinetics of ductile iron and carbon steel corresponded with the probabilistic and bilinear model respectively.

  2. Removal of alkaline-earth elements by a carbonate precipitation in a chloride molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung-Zun Cho; In-Tae Kim; Hee-Chui Yang; Hee-Chui Eun; Hwan-Seo Park; Eung-Ho Kim

    2007-01-01

    Separation of some alkaline-earth chlorides (Sr, Ba) was investigated by using carbonate injection method in LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. The effects of the injected molar ratio of carbonate([K 2 (or Li 2 )CO 3 /Sr(or Ba)Cl 2 ]) and the temperature(450-750 deg.) on the conversion ratio of the Sr or Ba carbonate were determined. In addition, the form of the Sr and Ba carbonate resulting from the carbonation reaction with carbonates was identified via XRD and SEM-EDS analysis. In these experiments, the carbonate injection method can remove Sr and Ba chlorides effectively over 99% in both LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salt conditions. When Sr and Ba were co-presented in the eutectic molten salt, they were carbonated in a form of Ba 0.5 Sr 0.3 CO 3 . And when Sr was present in LiCl molten salt, it was carbonated in the form of SrCO 3 . Carbonation ratio increased with a decreasing temperature and it was more favorable in the case of a K 2 CO 3 injection than that of Li 2 CO 3 . Based on this experiment, it is postulated that carbonate precipitation method has the potential for removing alkali-earth chlorides from LiCl-KCl eutectic and LiCl molten salts. (authors)

  3. A carbon tetrachloride-free synthesis of N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidoyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dylan G M; Williams, Spencer J

    2017-10-10

    N-Phenyltrifluoroacetimidoyl chloride (PTFAI-Cl) is a reagent widely used for the preparation of glycosyl N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidates. However, the most commonly applied method requires carbon tetrachloride, a hepatotoxic reagent that has been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. We report a new synthesis of N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidoyl chloride (PTFAI-Cl) using dichlorotriphenylphosphane and triethylamine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Insight into highly efficient removal of cadmium and methylene blue by eco-friendly magnesium silicate-hydrothermal carbon composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ting; Yuan, Xingzhong; Chen, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhibin; Wang, Hou; Leng, Lijian; Wang, Hui; Jiang, Longbo; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-01-01

    Water pollution is one of the forefront environmental problems. Due to the simplification, flexibility and low cost, the adsorption becomes one of the most fashionable technology and the exploitation of adsorbents has drawn greatly attention. In this study, a novel magnesium silicate-hydrothermal carbon composite (MS-C) was synthesized by facile hydrothermal carbonization and used to remove the cadmium (Cd(II)) and methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. It was shown that the porous and lump-like magnesium silicate (MS) was decorated with multiple hydrothermal carbon (HC) via the Csbnd Osbnd Si covalent bonding. Further, the adsorption behavior of Cd(II) and MB based on the MS, HC, and MS-C were systematically investigated. The equilibrium data of both Cd(II) and MB were fitted well with Langmuir model. Compared to pure MS and HC, the adsorption capacity of composite was significantly improved, accompanied by the maximum adsorption capacity of 108 mg/g for Cd(II) and 418 mg/g for MB, respectively. In the Cd(II)-MB binary system, the adsorption of Cd(II) was favored in comparison with that of MB. The removal of Cd(II) was mainly ascribed to electrostatic attraction and the ion exchange interaction. Meanwhile, the adsorption of MB onto adsorbent was driven by the electrostatic attraction, π-π interaction and hydrogen bond. In view of these empirical results and real water treatment, the environmental friendly and low-cost MS-C holds a potential for separate or simultaneous removal of Cd(II) and MB in practical applications.

  5. Reagentless D-sorbitol biosensor based on D-sorbitol dehydrogenase immobilized in a sol-gel carbon nanotubes-poly(methylene green) composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijie; Etienne, Mathieu; Urbanova, Veronika; Kohring, Gert-Wieland; Walcarius, Alain

    2013-04-01

    A reagentless D-sorbitol biosensor based on NAD-dependent D-sorbitol dehydrogenase (DSDH) immobilized in a sol-gel carbon nanotubes-poly(methylene green) composite has been developed. It was prepared by durably immobilizing the NAD(+) cofactor with DSDH in a sol-gel thin film on the surface of carbon nanotubes functionalized with poly(methylene green). This device enables selective determination of D-sorbitol at 0.2 V with a sensitivity of 8.7 μA mmol(-1) L cm(-2) and a detection limit of 0.11 mmol L(-1). Moreover, this biosensor has excellent operational stability upon continuous use in hydrodynamic conditions.

  6. Hot corrosion behaviour of austenitic steel-303 in molten chloride and carbonate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Misbahul Amin; Shamsul Baharin Jamaludin; Che Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali; Khairel Rafezi Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    The investigations are presented for the hot corrosion behaviors of Austenitic Steel-303, under influence of the molten chloride and carbonate salts viz KCl and K 2 CO 3 , oxidised at 1123 K for the period of 60 hour at atmospheric condition. The oxidation kinetic are effect of molten chloride and carbonate salts deposition on the oxidation rate were determined. The susceptibility to suffer a deleterious attack on the alloy by internal corrosion increases with increasing the time. In general, the corrosion resistance austenitic steel-303 in molten carbonate salts is much higher than chloride melt, being an active oxidizing agent providing oxygen during fluxing reaction. However, due to profuse evolution of CO/ CO 2 heavy mass losses are observed during corrosion and scales are porous. The test included mass change monitoring and surface layers were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. (author)

  7. A facile approach to prepare porous cup-stacked carbon nanotube with high performance in adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiang; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Zhiwei; Wen, Xin; Mijowska, Ewa; Tang, Tao; Chen, Xuecheng

    2015-05-01

    Novel porous cup-stacked carbon nanotube (P-CSCNT) with special stacked morphology consisting of many truncated conical graphene layers was synthesized by KOH activating CSCNT from polypropylene. The morphology, microstructure, textural property, phase structure, surface element composition and thermal stability of P-CSCNT were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution TEM, N2 sorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. A part of oblique graphitic layers were etched by KOH, and many holes with a diameter of several to a doze of nanometers connecting inner tube with outside were formed, which endowed P-CSCNT with high specific surface area (558.7 m(2)/g), large pore volume (1.993 cm(3)/g) and abundant surface functional groups. Subsequently, P-CSCNT was used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from wastewater. Langmuir model closely fitted the adsorption results, and the maximum adsorption capacity of P-CSCNT was as high as 319.1mg/g. This was ascribed to multiple adsorption mechanisms including pore filling, hydrogen bonding, π-π and electrostatic interactions. Pseudo second-order kinetic model was more valid to describe the adsorption behavior. Besides, P-CSCNT showed good recyclablity and reusability. These results demonstrated that P-CSCNT had potential application in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes/silver nanocomposite as effective SERS platform for detection of methylene blue dye in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Xuan Dinh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a functional nanocomposite consisting of silver nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-Ag was successfully synthesized using a two-step chemical process. The MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite has been studied as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS sensing platform for detection of methylene blue (MB dye in an aqueous medium. The obtained results reveal that the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite exhibits higher SERS detection activity than that of pure Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs. The calculated enhancement factors are 1.51 × 106 for pure Ag-NPs and 4.68 × 106 for the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite. MB detection has been achieved as low as 1 ppm. The SERS enhancement of the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite can be attributed to the combination of both an electromagnetic (EM effect and a chemical effect (CE. With exhibited properties, the MWCNTs-Ag nanocomposite can be effectively used for detection of various organic dyes in water solution.

  9. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution with magnetite loaded multi-wall carbon nanotube: Kinetic, isotherm and mechanism analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai, Lunhong; Zhang, Chunying; Liao, Fang; Wang, Yao; Li, Ming; Meng, Lanying; Jiang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► M-MWCNTs were synthesized by a facile one-pot solvothermal method and used as an efficient adsorbent for removing toxic dye from aqueous solution. ► The adsorption process was characterized by kinetics and isotherm analysis. ► FTIR analysis was employed to investigate the interactions between M-MWCNTs and dye. - Abstract: In this study, we have demonstrated the efficient removal of cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solution with the one-pot solvothermal synthesized magnetite-loaded multi-walled carbon nanotubes (M-MWCNTs). The as-prepared M-MWCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH on the adsorption of MB onto M-MWCNTs were systematically studied. It was shown that the MB adsorption was pH-dependent. Adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. Equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model, yielding maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 48.06 mg g −1 . FTIR analysis suggested that the adsorption mechanism was possibly attributed to the electrostatic attraction and π–π stacking interactions between MWCNTs and MB.

  10. In situ mesophase transformation by zirconium chloride in fabrication of carbon/carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Ma, Zhaokun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Xu, Zhenghui

    2012-01-01

    Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites were prepared using multiple cycle in situ mesophase densification in the presence of zirconium chloride. The mesophase transformation and the performance of C/C composites were investigated in detail. The results show that higher amount of ZrCl 4 and longer soaking time accelerate the condensation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the XRD pattern and ash contents show that the ZrCl 4 is retained in the samples and transformed to t-ZrO 2 and m-ZrO 2 after carbonization. In all the composites, the bulk density increases with cycle times, and the flexural strength increases with bulk density. However, a decrease of flexural strength for low density composites was observed when increasing ZrCl 4 concentrations. This tendency is attributed to more ZrO 2 formation in the composites using 20 wt.% ZrCl 4 . Subsequently, these ZrO 2 particles produce interface defects in the matrix which decreases its strength. Attributed to the very low content of ZrO 2 in high density composites, there is no difference between the samples using 13 wt.% and 20 wt.% ZrCl 4 .

  11. Fabrication of magnetic carbon composites from peanut shells and its application as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst in removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lincheng, E-mail: zhoulc@lzu.edu.cn; Ma, Junjun; Zhang, He; Shao, Yanming; Li, Yanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Peanut shell magnetic carbon (PMC) were fabricated by carbonized the mixture of peanut shells and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}. The obtained PMC exhibit high efficiency in catalysis oxidation methylene blue with the help of K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} and it can be easily separated from aqueous by external magnetic field. Meanwhile, the catalyst can be reused for seven times almost without decreased of activity. - Highlights: • Novel peanut shell magnetic carbon (PMC) catalysts were successfully synthesized. • PMC exhibited superior activity as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst. • A high efficient Fenton-like system was set up for removal MB. • PMC posed excellent catalysis oxidation quality, stability and good reusability. - Abstract: Magnetic carbons were prepared from agricultural waste peanut shells and Ferric ammonium oxalate via a simple impregnation and carbonization process. The obtained composites were characterized by element analysis, MÖssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area method, respectively. The magnetic carbon material was used as catalyst of heterogeneous Fenton reaction to remove methylene blue with the help of persulfate in waste water. The results indicated that both the removal rate and removal efficiency of this catalytic system are very excellent. The degradation efficiency was best (90% within 30 min) using initial concentrations of 0.5 g L{sup −1} persulfate and 40 mg L{sup −1} methylene blue. The removal mechanism was investigated by LC-MS. The catalyst retained its activity after seven reuses, indicating its good stability and reusability. It is inexpensive because it consists mainly of agricultural waste. Its porosity contributed to its high activity, which was achieved without any additional activation process. These indicating that the catalyst is

  12. Hydrothermal Synthesized and Alkaline Activated Carbons Prepared from Glucose and Fructose—Detailed Characterization and Testing in Heavy Metals and Methylene Blue Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Krstić

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, activated carbons were prepared from fructose and glucose, and activating agents (KOH, NaOH, LiOH by hydrothermal treatment (HTC treatment. After preparation, samples were characterized in details. Different techniques were used: x-ray powder diffraction analysis, Raman spectral analysis, elemental analysis, and determination of textural and morphological properties. Obtained results showed dependence of investigated properties and the nature of precursors (glucose or fructose as well as the type of hydroxides used as activating agents. After characterization, samples were tested as materials for heavy metals (Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ and methylene blue removal. Also, adsorption experiments were performed on wastewaters taken from tailings of the lead and zinc mine and kinetic of the methylene blue removal was studied. The factors which distinguished the KOH activated samples were high yield (~14%, content of organic carbon (63–74%, porosity and specific surface area (SBET ~700–1360 m2/g, a low degree of the crystal phase, indications that potassium ions may be included in heavy metals removal, good removal of the heavy metal ions (~47–59 mg/g for Pb2+, ~21–27 mg/g for Cd2+ and ~6–10 mg/g for Zn2+ and fast (~10–30 min and good methylene blue (~60–200 mg/g removal.

  13. Electrical conductivity of molten carbonate and carbonate-chloride systems coexisting with aluminium oxide powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V. [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural State Economic Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bovet, Andrey L.; Zakiryanova, Irina D. [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2018-04-01

    The electrical properties of composite electrolytes (suspensions) composed of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and molten carbonate eutectic (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} or molten carbonate-chloride mixture 0.72(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut}-0.28NaCl have been investigated by AC impedance method. This system shows a dependence of the electrical conductivity upon the temperature and the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. The specific electrical conductivity of the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} system can be adequately described by the Maxwell equation for two-phase heterogeneous materials. The regression equation for the dependence of the specific conductivity of the α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/(Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sub eut} composite on the aluminium oxide concentration and temperature was obtained.

  14. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not

  15. Flow injection analysis of sulphide based on its photoelectrocatalytic oxidation at poly-methylene blue modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilgin, Yusuf; Canarslan, Seda; Ayyildiz, Onder; Ertek, Bensu; Nişli, Gürel

    2012-01-01

    A new approach for photoelectrocatalytic determination of sulphide in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was studied using a poly-methylene blue modified glassy carbon electrode (poly-MB/GCE). Results from electrochemical measurements have revealed that poly-MB/GCE is capable of signalling electrocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity towards sulphide oxidation. When the surface of poly-MB/GCE was irradiated with a light source (250 W Halogen lamp), the electrocatalytic current increased substantially. A homemade flow electrochemical cell with a suitable transparent window for the irradiation of the electrode surface was used to perform the photoelectrocatalytic determination of sulphide in FIA system. The currents obtained from the photoamperometric measurements in the FIA system at optimum conditions (carrier solution: pH 9.0 Britton Robinson buffer solution containing 0.1 M KCl; flow rate: 1.3 mL min −1 ; transmission tubing length: 10 cm; injection volume: 100 μL; and constant applied potential: +150 mV vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl sat ) were linearly correlated with the sulphide concentration. The calibration curves were obtained for sulphide concentrations in a range of 0.5–500 μM. The detection limits were found to be 0.27 and 0.15 μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to different wastewaters such as municipal sewage or tannery wastewater. Finally, results from the sulphide measurements by poly-MB/GCE were in good agreement with those attained using spectrophotometric method.

  16. Valorization of two waste streams into activated carbon and studying its adsorption kinetics, equilibrium isotherms and thermodynamics for methylene blue removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid Abdullah AlOthman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes must be managed properly to avoid negative impacts that may result. Open burning of waste causes air pollution which is particularly hazardous. Flies, mosquitoes and rats are major problems in poorly managed surroundings. Uncollected wastes often cause unsanitary conditions and hinder the efforts to keep streets and open spaces in a clean and attractive condition. During final disposal methane is generated, it is much more effective than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas, leading to climate change. Therefore, this study describes the possible valorization of two waste streams into activated carbon (AC with added value due to copyrolysis. High efficiency activated carbon was prepared by the copyrolysis of palm stem waste and lubricating oil waste. The effects of the lubricating oil waste to palm stem ratio and the carbonization temperature on the yield and adsorption capacity of the activated carbon were investigated. The results indicated that the carbon yield depended strongly on both the carbonization temperature and the lubricating oil to palm stem ratio. The efficiency of the adsorption of methylene blue (MB onto the prepared carbons increased when the lubricating oil to palm stem ratio increased due to synergistic effect. The effects of pH, contact time, and the initial adsorbate concentration on the adsorption of methylene blue were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity (128.89 mg/g of MB occurred at pH 8.0. The MB adsorption kinetics were analyzed using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The results indicated that the adsorption of MB onto activated carbon is best described using a second order kinetic model. Adsorption data are well fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters; ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° indicate that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite for removal of Cu (II) and methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhihang; Zhan, Yingqing; Li, Fei; Wan, Xinyi; He, Yi; Hou, Chunyan; Hu, Hai

    2017-09-01

    In this work, highly activated graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite adsorbent was prepared from a simple hydrothermal route by using ferrous sulfate as precursor. For this purpose, the graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube architectures were formed through the π-π attractions between them, followed by attaching Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto their surface. The structure and composition of as-prepared ternary nanocomposite were characterized by XRD, FTIR, XPS, SEM, TEM, Raman, TGA, and BET. It was found that the resultant porous graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite with large surface area could effectively prevent the π-π stacking interactions between graphene oxide nanosheets and greatly improve sorption sites on the surfaces. Thus, owing to the unique ternary nanocomposite architecture and synergistic effect among various components, as-prepared ternary nanocomposite exhibited high separation efficiency when they were used to remove the Cu (II) and methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherms of ternary nanocomposite structures for Cu (II) and methylene blue removal fitted the Langmuir isotherm model. This work demonstrated that the graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite was promising as an efficient adsorbent for heavy metal ions and organic dye removal from wastewater in low concentration.

  18. Corrosion of Carbon Steel and Corrosion-Resistant Rebars in Concrete Structures Under Chloride Ion Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nedal; Boulfiza, Mohamed; Evitts, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion of reinforced concrete is the most challenging durability problem that threatens reinforced concrete structures, especially structures that are subject to severe environmental conditions (i.e., highway bridges, marine structures, etc.). Corrosion of reinforcing steel leads to cracking and spalling of the concrete cover and billions of dollars are spent every year on repairing such damaged structures. New types of reinforcements have been developed to avoid these high-cost repairs. Thus, it is important to study the corrosion behavior of these new types of reinforcements and compare them to the traditional carbon steel reinforcements. This study aimed at characterizing the corrosion behavior of three competing reinforcing steels; conventional carbon steel, micro-composite steel (MMFX-2) and 316LN stainless steel, through experiments in carbonated and non-carbonated concrete exposed to chloride-laden environments. Synthetic pore water solutions have been used to simulate both cases of sound and carbonated concrete under chloride ions attack. A three-electrode corrosion cell is used for determining the corrosion characteristics and rates. Multiple electrochemical techniques were applied using a Gamry PC4™ potentiostat manufactured by Gamry Instruments (Warminster, PA). DC corrosion measurements were applied on samples subjected to fixed chloride concentration in the solution.

  19. Behavior of sodium chloride during the combustion of carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinsmead, K H; Kear, R W

    1956-01-01

    The effects of combustion time, temperature, atmosphere, and the presence of other minerals on the release of Na and Cl from carbon that contained varying amounts of NaCl were examined. Initial testing consisted of adding 0.25, 12.7 and 2.54% NaCl to carbon, and pelletizing and burning the carbon for an hour at the following temperatures: 700, 800, 900, and 1000/sup 0/C. Pellets containing 1.27% NaCl were also burned at 400, 500, and 600/sup 0/C. Additional testing involved the combustion of pellets in dry nitrogen, dry air, moist nitrogen, moist air, and adding various amounts of kaolin to the carbon prior to pelletizing. The testing program demonstrated the following: in all tests the percentage of Na and Cl released increased as the temperature and the salt content increased; generally more Cl was released than Na, particularly at temperatures between 600 to 900 degrees; the release of Na and Cl was significantly less in an atmosphere of N, particularly at lower temperatures; the water vapor present in the moist air seemed to hinder the release of Na but increased the amount of Cl released; a reduction in the amount of Na but not the amount of Cl released was noticed when kaolin was added. The following was concluded from the test results: since Na and Cl were released at different rates there seems to be more than a physical volatization involved; water vapor in the air could affect the amount of Na and Clreleased by lowering the combustion temperature of the carbon, thereby allowing the Na and Cl to react with the water present to form NaOH and HC1; and the reduction in the amount of Na released when kaolin was added was a result of Na reacting with kaolin to form an insoluble silicate.

  20. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ting; Lua, Aik Chong

    2006-01-01

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation

  1. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yang [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lua, Aik Chong [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-12-10

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation.

  2. Wetting of a Charged Surface of Glassy Carbon by Molten Alkali-Metal Chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, V. P.

    2018-03-01

    Values of the contact angle of wetting of a surface of glassy carbon by molten chlorides of lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium are measured by the meniscus weight method to determine the common factors of wettability of solid surfaces by ionic melts upon a change in the salt phase composition and a jump in electric potential. It is found that with a potential shift in the positive direction the shape of the curve of the contact angle's dependence on the potential varies upon substitution of one salt by another: the angle of wetting shrinks monotonously in lithium chloride but remains constant in molten cesium chloride. This phenomenon is explained by the hypothesis that the nature of the halide anion adsorption on the positively charged surface of an electrode is chemical and not electrostatic. It is shown that the adsorption process is accompanied by charge transfer through the interface, with covalent bonding between the adsorbent and adsorbate.

  3. Review on Carbon Dioxide Absorption by Choline Chloride/Urea Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima J. Isaifan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past few years, deep eutectic solvents (DESs were developed sharing similar characteristics to ionic liquids but with more advantageous features related to preparation cost, environmental impact, and efficiency for gas separation processes. Amongst many combinations of DES solvents that have been prepared, reline (choline chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor mixed with urea as the hydrogen bond donor was the first DES synthesized and is still the one with the lowest melting point. Choline chloride/urea DES has proven to be a promising solvent as an efficient medium for carbon dioxide capture when compared with amine alone or ionic liquids under the same conditions. This review sheds light on the preparation method, physical and chemical characteristics, and the CO2 absorption capacity of choline chloride/urea DES under different temperatures and pressures reported up to date.

  4. Adsorptive Removal of Methylene Blue onto ZnCl2 Activated Carbon from Wood Apple Outer Shell: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bhadusha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue dye removal from aqueous solution was investigated using ZnCl2 activated carbon prepared from wood apple outer shell (Limonia acidissima, biomass waste. Influence of agitation time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, pH and temperature were explored. Two theoretical adsorption isotherms namely Langmuir and Freundlich were used to describe the experimental results. The Langmuir adsorption capacity (Qo was found to be 35.1 mg/g and the equilibrium parameter (RL values indicate favourable adsorption. The experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. Desorption studies showed that ion exchange mechanism might be involved in the adsorption process.

  5. Removal of arsenic and methylene blue from water by granular activated carbon media impregnated with zirconium dioxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Robert; Cooper, Anne Marie; Aymar, Kathryn; Jain, Arti [Environmental Technology, College of Technology and Innovation, Arizona State University, 6073 S. Backus Mall, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States); Hristovski, Kiril, E-mail: Kiril.Hristovski@asu.edu [Environmental Technology, College of Technology and Innovation, Arizona State University, 6073 S. Backus Mall, Mesa, AZ 85212 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} The morphology, content and distribution of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles inside the pores of GAC are affected by the type of GAC. {yields} Lignite ZrO{sub 2}-GAC exhibited Zr content of 12%, while bituminous based ZrO{sub 2}-GAC exhibited Zr content of 9.5%. {yields} The max. adsorption capacities under equilibrium conditions in 5 mM NaHCO{sub 3} buffered water matrix were {approx}8.6 As/g Zr and {approx}12.2 mg As/g Zr at pH = 7.6. {yields} The max. adsorption capacities under equilibrium conditions in NSF 53 Challenge water matrix while {approx}1.5 mg As/g Zr and {approx}3.2 mg As/g Zr at pH = 7.6. {yields} Introduction of nanoparticles did not impact the MB adsorption capacity of the lignite ZrO{sub 2}-GAC, while the one of bituminous ZrO{sub 2}-GAC decreased. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of in situ ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticle formation on properties of granulated activated carbon (GAC) and their impacts on arsenic and organic co-contaminant removal. Bituminous and lignite based zirconium dioxide impregnated GAC (Zr-GAC) media were fabricated by hydrolysis of zirconium salt followed by annealing of the product at 400 {sup o}C in an inert environment. Media characterization suggested that GAC type does not affect the crystalline structure of the resulting ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles, but does affect zirconium content of the media, nanoparticle morphology, nanoparticle distribution, and surface area of Zr-GAC. The arsenic removal performance of both media was compared using 5 mM NaHCO{sub 3} buffered ultrapure water and model groundwater containing competing ions, both with an initial arsenic C{sub 0} {approx} 120 {mu}g/L. Experimental outcomes suggested favorable adsorption energies and higher or similar adsorption capacities than commercially available or experimental adsorbents when compared on the basis of metal content. Short bed adsorber column tests showed that arsenic adsorption capacity decreases as a result of kinetics of

  6. Removal of arsenic and methylene blue from water by granular activated carbon media impregnated with zirconium dioxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, Robert; Cooper, Anne Marie; Aymar, Kathryn; Jain, Arti; Hristovski, Kiril

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The morphology, content and distribution of ZrO 2 nanoparticles inside the pores of GAC are affected by the type of GAC. → Lignite ZrO 2 -GAC exhibited Zr content of 12%, while bituminous based ZrO 2 -GAC exhibited Zr content of 9.5%. → The max. adsorption capacities under equilibrium conditions in 5 mM NaHCO 3 buffered water matrix were ∼8.6 As/g Zr and ∼12.2 mg As/g Zr at pH = 7.6. → The max. adsorption capacities under equilibrium conditions in NSF 53 Challenge water matrix while ∼1.5 mg As/g Zr and ∼3.2 mg As/g Zr at pH = 7.6. → Introduction of nanoparticles did not impact the MB adsorption capacity of the lignite ZrO 2 -GAC, while the one of bituminous ZrO 2 -GAC decreased. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of in situ ZrO 2 nanoparticle formation on properties of granulated activated carbon (GAC) and their impacts on arsenic and organic co-contaminant removal. Bituminous and lignite based zirconium dioxide impregnated GAC (Zr-GAC) media were fabricated by hydrolysis of zirconium salt followed by annealing of the product at 400 o C in an inert environment. Media characterization suggested that GAC type does not affect the crystalline structure of the resulting ZrO 2 nanoparticles, but does affect zirconium content of the media, nanoparticle morphology, nanoparticle distribution, and surface area of Zr-GAC. The arsenic removal performance of both media was compared using 5 mM NaHCO 3 buffered ultrapure water and model groundwater containing competing ions, both with an initial arsenic C 0 ∼ 120 μg/L. Experimental outcomes suggested favorable adsorption energies and higher or similar adsorption capacities than commercially available or experimental adsorbents when compared on the basis of metal content. Short bed adsorber column tests showed that arsenic adsorption capacity decreases as a result of kinetics of competing ions. Correlation between the properties of the media and arsenic and methylene blue removal

  7. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g -1 at 0.2 C.

  8. Eliminating radium from uranium mill acid effluent with barium chloride-sodium carbonate precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jiayuan

    1998-01-01

    The eliminating radium procedure, barium chloride-sodium carbonate-sand filtering, being used, radium can be eliminated to 3.7 x 10 -2 Bq/L order of magnitude from uranium mill acid effluents which contain 3.7 Bq/L Ra and pH 6∼9 when Ba 2+ is added by 3∼5 mg per litre, Na 2 CO 3 5mg. The radium elimination rate is more than 90%

  9. Acyl chloride carbon insertion into dicarbaborane cages - new route to tricarbollide cages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štíbr, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2015), s. 135-142 ISSN 0033-4545. [IMEBORON/15./. Praha, 24.08.2014-28.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0705 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : acyl chlorides * carbon insertion * carboranes * IMEBORON-XV * metallatricarbollides * tricarbollides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2015

  10. Substitution effects of a carbonated hydroxyapatite biomaterial against intoxication chloride nickel-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, Salha; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Oudadesse, Hassane; Elfeki, Hafed

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of a synthetic apatite (carbonated hydroxyapatite) on the detoxification of a group of male "Wistar" rats exposed to nickel chloride. Toxicity was evaluated by rats' bioassay of nickel chloride. Wistar rats received this metal daily by gavage for seven days (4 mg/ml nickel chloride/200 g body weight, BW). To detoxify this organism, a subcutaneous implantation of the apatite is made. The results revealed that exposure to nickel induced oxidative stress, disorders in the balances of ferric phosphocalcic, renal failures, liver toxicity and significant increase in nickel rates in the bones of intoxicated rats. The application of the carbonated hydroxyapatite presented in this study restored those disorders back to normal. The synthetic apatite protected the rats against the toxic effects of nickel by lowering the levels of lipid peroxidation markers and improving the activities of defense enzymes. It also amended ferric and phosphocalcic equilibriums, protected liver and kidney functions and reduced the nickel rate in the bones of the rats. Overall, the results provided strong support for the protective role of carbonated hydroxyapatite in the detoxification of rats exposed to nickel. Those beneficial effects were further confirmed by physico-chemical characterization (X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy), which revealed its property of anionic and cationic substitution, thus supporting its promising candidacy for future biomedical application. The hydroxyapatite is an effective biomaterial to solve health problems, particularly detoxification against metals (nickel).

  11. Quantitative estimation of carbonation and chloride penetration in reinforced concrete by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Shuzo; Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Fujii, Takashi; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2014-11-01

    The penetration profile of chlorine in a reinforced concrete (RC) specimen was determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The concrete core was prepared from RC beams with cracking damage induced by bending load and salt water spraying. LIBS was performed using a specimen that was obtained by splitting the concrete core, and the line scan of laser pulses gave the two-dimensional emission intensity profiles of 100 × 80 mm2 within one hour. The two-dimensional profile of the emission intensity suggests that the presence of the crack had less effect on the emission intensity when the measurement interval was larger than the crack width. The chlorine emission spectrum was measured without using the buffer gas, which is usually used for chlorine measurement, by collinear double-pulse LIBS. The apparent diffusion coefficient, which is one of the most important parameters for chloride penetration in concrete, was estimated using the depth profile of chlorine emission intensity and Fick's law. The carbonation depth was estimated on the basis of the relationship between carbon and calcium emission intensities. When the carbon emission intensity was statistically higher than the calcium emission intensity at the measurement point, we determined that the point was carbonated. The estimation results were consistent with the spraying test results using phenolphthalein solution. These results suggest that the quantitative estimation by LIBS of carbonation depth and chloride penetration can be performed simultaneously.

  12. Carbons prepared from coffee grounds by H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} activation: Characterization and adsorption of methylene blue and Nylosan Red N-2RBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffas, A. [LCME, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France); Laboratoire de l' Ingenierie des Procedes, d' Environnement, Departement de Chimie Industrielle, Universite Mentouri, Constantine 25000 (Algeria); Bernardet, V.; David, B.; Reinert, L. [LCME, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France); Lehocine, M. Bencheikh [Laboratoire de l' Ingenierie des Procedes, d' Environnement, Departement de Chimie Industrielle, Universite Mentouri, Constantine 25000 (Algeria); Dubois, M.; Batisse, N. [LMI, CNRS, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 Avenue des Landais, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Duclaux, L., E-mail: laurent.duclaux@univ-savoie.fr [LCME, Polytech' Savoie, Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France)

    2010-03-15

    Activated carbons were prepared by the pyrolysis of coffee grounds impregnated by phosphoric acid at 450 deg. C for different impregnation ratios: 30, 60, 120 and 180 wt.%. Materials were characterized for their surface chemistry by elemental analysis, 'Boehm titrations', point of zero charge measurements, Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); as well as for their porous and morphological structure by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The impregnation ratio was found to govern the porous structure of the prepared activated carbons. Low impregnation ratios (<120 wt.%) led to essentially microporous and acidic activated carbons whereas high impregnation ratios (>120 wt.%) yielded to essentially mesoporous carbons with specific surface areas as high as 925 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, pore volume as large as 0.7 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}, and neutral surface. The activated carbons prepared from coffee grounds were compared to a commercial activated carbon (S{sub BET} {approx} 1400 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) for their adsorption isotherms of methylene blue and 'Nylosan Red N-2RBL', a cationic and anionic (azo) dye respectively. The mesoporous structure of the material produced at 180 wt.% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} ratio was found to be appropriate for an efficient sorption of the latter azo dye.

  13. Poly(vinyl chloride-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes via Friedel-Crafts alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach was developed for the surface modification of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with high percentage of grafting (PG% by the grafting of polymer via the Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The graft reaction conditions, such as the amount of catalyst added, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time were optimized for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the MWCNTs with poly(vinyl chloride (PVC with anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3 as catalyst in chloroform (CHCl3. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Raman, and thermogravimetric (TGA analysis showed that PVC had been successfully grafted onto MWCNTs both at the ends and on the sidewalls by the proposed Friedel-Crafts alkylation. The PVC grafted MWCNTs (PVC-MWCNTs could be dispersed well in organic solvent and the dispersion was more stable.

  14. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunquan Li

    Full Text Available Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore surface area. Keywords: Cotton stalk, Nitrogen content, Electrode, Surface area, Methylene blue

  15. Durability Evolution of RC Bridge under Coupling Action of Chloride Corrosion and Carbonization Based on DLA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloride attack and carbonization are the main factors which affect the durability of concrete structures, and the respective theoretical models are systematically established. However, the quantitative analysis and models about the coupling effect of chloride attack and carbonization are less, so the precision and level of durability analysis of reinforced concrete are restricted. Diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA model can finely simulate the process of gas diffusion and condensation with randomness and fractal characteristics, which is suitable for revealing the durability evolution process of the chloride attack, carbonization, and the coupling action in concrete. Based on the principle of DLA, considering the factors such as diffusion depth, concrete properties, and exposure conditions which influence the characteristics of chloride diffusion and carbonization, as well as the coupling effect, an integrated DLA model is established. The concentration of carbon dioxide and chloride at any time and any location can be obtained and dynamically displayed based on the DLA model. The performance predict method for concrete and steel bars considering fatigue effect is presented based on DLA, according to the demand for bridge durability analysis. Numerical examples show that the method can dynamically and intensively simulate the durability evolution process of reinforced concrete bridge.

  16. Removal of nitrate from water by adsorption onto zinc chloride treated activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatnagar, A.; Ji, M.; Choi, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Adsorption study with untreated and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) treated coconut granular activated carbon (GAC) for nitrate removal from water has been carried out. Untreated coconut GAC was treated with ZnCl2 and carbonized. The optimal conditions were selected by studying the influence of process...... variables such as chemical ratio and activation temperature. Experimental results reveal that chemical weight ratio of 200% and temperature of 500 degrees C was found to be optimum for the maximum removal of nitrate from water. Both untreated and ZnCl2 treated coconut GACs were characterized by scanning...... capacity of untreated and ZnCl2 treated coconut GACs were found 1.7 and 10.2 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption of nitrate on ZnCl2 treated coconut GAC was studied as a function of contact time, initial concentration of nitrate anion, temperature, and pH by batch mode adsorption experiments. The kinetic...

  17. Phase equilibrium conditions of semi-calthrate hydrates of (tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride + carbon dioxide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhi-Gao; Jiao, Li-Jun; Zhao, Zhi-Gui; Wang, Gong-Liang; Huang, Hai-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon dioxide hydrate stability zone was enlarged with the help of TBAC. • Carbon dioxide uptake into TBAC semi-clathrate hydrates is confirmed. • Equilibrium pressure of hydrate decreased with the increase of TBAC mass concentration. • The addition of TBAC reduces the formation pressures of carbon dioxide hydrate by 2.5 MPa. - Abstract: In the present work, hydrate equilibrium conditions for (tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) + carbon dioxide + water) mixtures were investigated. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride was reported to form a semi-clathrate hydrate. The experiments were carried out within the TBAC mass fraction range of (0.05 to 0.3). The experimental results showed that the presence of TBAC decreased the formation pressure of carbon dioxide double hydrate within the experimental temperature range. Moreover, pressure reduction was dependent on the TBAC concentration

  18. 29 CFR 1910.1052 - Methylene Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., erythema, cracked skin, or skin burns; and cardiac effects such as chest pain or shortness of breath. This... treatment and decontamination of the exposed employee; (ii) Comprehensive physical examination with special... good solvent for oils, fats, waxes, resins, bitumen, rubber and cellulose acetate and is a useful paint...

  19. Thermal Protection Performance of Carbon Aerogels Filled with Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate as a Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are comprised of a class of low density open-cell foams with large void space, nanometer pore size and composed of sparsely semi-colloidal nanometer sized particles forming an open porous structure. Phase change materials are those with high heat of fusion that could absorb and release a large amount of energy at the time of phase transition. These materials are mostly used as thermal energy storage materials but in addition they could serve as an obstacle for passage of heat during phase changes and this has led to their use in thermal protection systems. In this study, the effect of magnesium chloride hexahydrate, as a phase change material (melting point 115°C, on thermal properties of carbon aerogels is investigated. Thermal performance tests are designed and used for comparing the temperature-time behavior of the samples. DSC is applied to obtain the latent heat of melting of the phase change materials and the SEM tests are used to analyze the microstructure and morphology of carbon aerogels. The results show that the low percentage of phase change materials in carbon aerogels does not have any significant positive effect on carbon aerogels thermal properties. However, these properties are improved by increasing the percentage of phase change materials. With high percentage of phase change materials, a sample surface at 300°C would display an opposite surface with a significant drop in temperature increases, while at 115-200°C, with carbon aerogels, having no phase change materials, there is a severe reduction in the rate of temperature increase of the sample.

  20. Reactivity of liquid and semisolid secondary organic carbon with chloride and nitrate in atmospheric aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingbing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); O' Brien, Rachel E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Kelly, Stephen T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shilling, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moffet, Ryan C. [Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Gilles, Mary K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Laskin, Alexander [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Constituents of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric aerosols are often mixed with inorganic components and compose a significant mass fraction of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere. Interactions between SOC and other condensed-phase species are not well understood. Here, we investigate the reactions of liquid-like and semi-solid SOC from ozonolysis of limonene (LSOC) and α-pinene (PSOC) with NaCl using a set of complementary micro-spectroscopic analyses. These reactions result in chloride depletion in the condensed phase, release of gaseous HCl, and formation of organic salts. The reactions attributed to acid displacement by SOC acidic components are driven by the high volatility of HCl. Similar reactions can take place in SOC/NaNO₃ particles. The results show that an increase in SOC mass fraction in the internally mixed SOC/NaCl particles leads to higher chloride depletion. Glass transition temperatures and viscosity of PSOC were estimated for atmospherically relevant conditions. Data show that the reaction extent depends on SOC composition, particle phase state and viscosity, mixing state, temperature, relative humidity (RH), and reaction time. LSOC shows slightly higher potential to deplete chloride than PSOC. Higher particle viscosity at low temperatures and RH can hinder these acid displacement reactions. Formation of organic salts from these overlooked reactions can alter particle physiochemical properties and may affect their reactivity and ability to act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The release and potential recycling of HCl and HNO₃ from reacted aerosol particles may have important implications for atmospheric chemistry.

  1. An Accelerated Test Method of Simultaneous Carbonation and Chloride Ion Ingress: Durability of Silica Fume Concrete in Severe Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Ghahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack on mechanical characteristics and durability of concrete containing silica fume have been investigated through an accelerated test method. Specimens containing different amounts of silica fume were maintained in an apparatus in which carbon dioxide pressure and concentration and relative humidity were kept constant, and wetting and drying cycles in saline water were applied. Surface resistivity, sorptivity, CO2 consumption, and carbonation and chloride ion ingress depths measurements were taken. Phase change due to carbonation and chloride ion attack was monitored by XRD analysis, and microstructures and interfacial transition zones were studied by implementing SEM as well as mercury intrusion porosimetry. It was expected to have a synergistic effect in the tidal zone where simultaneous carbonation and chloride ion attack happen. However, the observed reduced surface resistivity, compared to specimens maintained in CO2 gas, could be due to the moisture that is available near the surface, hindering CO2 from penetrating into the pores of the specimens. Moreover, the porosity analysis of the specimens showed that the sample containing silica fume cured in the tidal zone had 50.1% less total porosity than the plain cement paste cured in the same condition.

  2. Kinetic Effect on the Freezing of Ammonium-Sodium-Carbonate-Chloride Brines and Implications for Origin of Ceres' Bright Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyss, R. P.; Thomas, E. C.; Vu, T. H.; Johnson, P. V.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface brines on Ceres containing natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3 have been proposed to reach the dwarf planet's surface from an internal reservoir, where the brines freeze and result in bright spots across Ceres. Kinetically frozen solutions containing the likely constituents of Ceres' subsurface brines (ammonium, sodium, carbonate, and chloride ions) were studied via infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy, where the flash-frozen mixtures were found to preferentially form ammonium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate, even in sodium-dominated solutions. Additionally, sodium chloride only formed when sodium or chloride (or both) were present in excess in the brine solutions. Raman spectroscopy was further employed to analyze the effect of vacuum exposure on these frozen brines over longer periods of time to simulate the surface conditions of Ceres.

  3. Fabrication of granular activated carbons derived from spent coffee grounds by entrapment in calcium alginate beads for adsorption of acid orange 7 and methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Choi, Brian Hyun; Hwang, Min-Jin; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biomass-based granular activated carbon was successfully prepared by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from spent coffee grounds into calcium-alginate beads (SCG-GAC) for the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous media. The dye adsorption process is highly pH-dependent and essentially independent of ionic effects. The adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by the pore diffusion model, which revealed that pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step during the adsorption process. The equilibrium isotherm and isosteric heat of adsorption indicate that SCG-GAC possesses an energetically heterogeneous surface and operates via endothermic process in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of SCG-GAC for AO7 (pH 3.0) and MB (pH 11.0) adsorption were found to be 665.9 and 986.8mg/g at 30°C, respectively. Lastly, regeneration tests further confirmed that SCG-GAC has promising potential in its reusability, showing removal efficiency of more than 80% even after seven consecutive cycles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Competitive effects of humic acid and wastewater on adsorption of Methylene Blue dye by activated carbon and non-imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Audrey; Örmeci, Banu

    2018-04-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM), present in natural waters and wastewater, decreases adsorption of micropollutants, increasing treatment costs. This research investigated mechanisms of competition for non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) and activated carbon with humic acid and wastewater. Three different types of activated carbons (Norit PAC 200, Darco KB-M, and Darco S-51) were used for comparison with the NIP. The lower surface area and micropore to mesopore ratio of the NIP led to decreased adsorption capacity in comparison to the activated carbons. In addition, experiments were conducted for single-solute adsorption of Methylene Blue (MB) dye, simultaneous adsorption with humic acid and wastewater, and pre-loading with humic acid and wastewater followed by adsorption of MB dye using NIP and Norit PAC 200. Both the NIP and PAC 200 showed significant decreases of 27% for NIP (p=0.087) and 29% for PAC 200 (p=0.096) during simultaneous exposure to humic acid and MB dye. There was no corresponding decrease for NIP or PAC 200 pre-loaded with humic acid and then exposed to MB. In fact, for PAC 200, the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon increased when it was pre-loaded with humic acid by 39% (p=0.0005). For wastewater, the NIP showed no significant increase or decrease in adsorption capacity during either simultaneous exposure or pre-loading. The adsorption capacity of PAC 200 increased by 40% (p=0.001) for simultaneous exposure to wastewater and MB. Pre-loading with wastewater had no effect on MB adsorption by PAC 200. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Results of polarization resistance and impedance of steel bars embedded in carbonated concrete contaminated with chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, C.; Alonso, C.; Gonzalez, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory results of the corrosion rate of steel embedded in carbonated concrete contaminated with chlorides determined through the Polarization Resistance method are presented here as examples of the possibilities offered by this technique in order to monitor the reinforcement corrosion process. The Rp technique has the advantages of fast response, simple and relatively accurate. Contrasts with gravimetric losses are presented. The A.C. Impedance measurements determined on the same specimens are also presented. The difficulties found in the interpretation of the results are stressed. R T values cannot easily be obtained. Several electrical circuits which may model the behaviour of the steel/concrete system are discussed. Finally, comments on the basic criteria to interpret results of both techniques are given. (author) 4 refs., 6 figs

  6. Anodic polarization of carbon graphite electrodes in chloride fluoride melts zirconium containing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyapustin, A.A.; Kanashin, Yu.P.; Nichkov, I.F.; Smyshlyaev, V.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Polarization of carbon graphite anodes in zircorium containing chloride fluoride melts of the KCl-K 2 ZrF 6 -KF composition at molar ratios [F]:[Zr] being equal to 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 has been studied. K 2 ZrF 6 concentration constitutes 25; 18.9; 15.2; 12.7; 11.8% (by mass), correspondingly. Vitreous carbon (VC-2500), high purity graphite and graphite EhG-0 have been used as anodic materials. Anodic polarization curves have been obtained under electrotype steady-state conditions at 973, 1023, 1073 K. Influence of concentration of fluorine ions in melt on polarization of carbon graphite anodes is shown. Content growth of fluorine ions in melt leads to shift of steady-state anode potentials to their negative values regardless a graphite mark. The most con siderable potential shift on 0.5 V takes plase at molar ratio [F]:[Zr] increasing from 6 to 12. Temperature increase, as measurements showed, doesn't influence greatly on polarization curve shape

  7. Thermodynamics of aqueous carbonate solutions including mixtures of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, and chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiper, J.C.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Recently the authors examined electrochemical-cell data leading to values of the activity coefficient for aqueous sodium bicarbonate. Since that preliminary analysis, new experimental measurements have been published which contribute significantly to the overall thermodynamic understanding of (sodium carbonate + sodium bicarbonate + carbonic acid). In this more extensive examination we consider a wide variety of measurements leading to activity coefficients of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ from 273 to 323 K and to relative molar enthalpies and heat capacities at 298.15 K. Tables of thermodynamic quantities at selected temperatures are included. 47 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  8. Voltammetric studies on the electrochemical determination of methylmercury in chloride medium at carbon microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, F. [Centro de Electroquimica e Cinetica da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Neto, M.M.M. [Centro de Electroquimica e Cinetica da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Departamento de Quimica Agricola e Ambiental, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mm.neto@netcabo.pt; Rocha, M.M. [Centro de Electroquimica e Cinetica da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Fonseca, I.T.E. [Centro de Electroquimica e Cinetica da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-10-10

    Electroanalytical techniques have been used to determine methylmercury at low levels in environmental matrices. The electrochemical behaviour of methylmercury at carbon microelectrodes in a hydrochloric acid medium using cyclic, square wave and fast-scan linear-sweep voltammetric techniques has been investigated. The analytical utility of the methylmercury reoxidation peak has been explored, but the recorded peak currents were found to be poorly reproducible. This is ascribed to two factors: the adsorption of insoluble chloromercury compounds on the electrode surface, which appears to be an important contribution to hinder the voltammetric signal of methylmercury; and the competition between the reoxidation of the methylmercury radical and its dimerization reaction, which limits the reproducibility of the methylmercury peak. These problems were successfully overcome by adopting the appropriate experimental conditions. Fast-scan rates were employed and an efficient electrochemical regeneration procedure of the electrode surface was achieved, under potentiostatic conditions in a mercury-free solution containing potassium thiocyanate-a strong complexing agent. The influence of chloride ion concentration was analysed. Interference by metals, such as lead and cadmium, was considered. Calibration plots were obtained in the micromolar and submicromolar concentration ranges, allowing the electrochemical determination of methylmercury in trace amounts. An estuarine water sample was analysed using the new method with a glassy carbon microelectrode.

  9. Voltammetric studies on the electrochemical determination of methylmercury in chloride medium at carbon microelectrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, F.; Neto, M.M.M.; Rocha, M.M.; Fonseca, I.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Electroanalytical techniques have been used to determine methylmercury at low levels in environmental matrices. The electrochemical behaviour of methylmercury at carbon microelectrodes in a hydrochloric acid medium using cyclic, square wave and fast-scan linear-sweep voltammetric techniques has been investigated. The analytical utility of the methylmercury reoxidation peak has been explored, but the recorded peak currents were found to be poorly reproducible. This is ascribed to two factors: the adsorption of insoluble chloromercury compounds on the electrode surface, which appears to be an important contribution to hinder the voltammetric signal of methylmercury; and the competition between the reoxidation of the methylmercury radical and its dimerization reaction, which limits the reproducibility of the methylmercury peak. These problems were successfully overcome by adopting the appropriate experimental conditions. Fast-scan rates were employed and an efficient electrochemical regeneration procedure of the electrode surface was achieved, under potentiostatic conditions in a mercury-free solution containing potassium thiocyanate-a strong complexing agent. The influence of chloride ion concentration was analysed. Interference by metals, such as lead and cadmium, was considered. Calibration plots were obtained in the micromolar and submicromolar concentration ranges, allowing the electrochemical determination of methylmercury in trace amounts. An estuarine water sample was analysed using the new method with a glassy carbon microelectrode

  10. Isotherms and thermodynamics by linear and non-linear regression analysis for the sorption of methylene blue onto activated carbon: Comparison of various error functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. Vasanth; Porkodi, K.; Rocha, F.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of linear and non-linear regression method in selecting the optimum isotherm was made to the experimental equilibrium data of methylene blue sorption by activated carbon. The r 2 was used to select the best fit linear theoretical isotherm. In the case of non-linear regression method, six error functions, namely coefficient of determination (r 2 ), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), average relative error (ARE), sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ) and sum of the absolute errors (EABS) were used to predict the parameters involved in the two and three parameter isotherms and also to predict the optimum isotherm. For two parameter isotherm, MPSD was found to be the best error function in minimizing the error distribution between the experimental equilibrium data and predicted isotherms. In the case of three parameter isotherm, r 2 was found to be the best error function to minimize the error distribution structure between experimental equilibrium data and theoretical isotherms. The present study showed that the size of the error function alone is not a deciding factor to choose the optimum isotherm. In addition to the size of error function, the theory behind the predicted isotherm should be verified with the help of experimental data while selecting the optimum isotherm. A coefficient of non-determination, K 2 was explained and was found to be very useful in identifying the best error function while selecting the optimum isotherm

  11. Amperometric aptasensor for saxitoxin using a gold electrode modified with carbon nanotubes on a self-assembled monolayer, and methylene blue as an electrochemical indicator probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Li; Jiang, Lingshan; Song, Yunping; Ding, Yunhua; Wu, Xiaoping; Tang, Dianping; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    A label-free electrochemical aptasensor was developed for selective detection of saxitoxin (STX). It is taking advantage of target-induced conformational change of an STX-specific aptamer when it binds to the toxin. A monolayer of octadecanethiol was deposited on a gold electrode, and then coated with a film of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to which the aptamer was covalently conjugated. Methylene blue (MB) was electrostatically anchored on carboxylated MWCNTs and used as the electrochemical indicator that produced a strong differential pulse voltammetric signal in the absence of target (STX). If, however, STX binds to its aptamer, this triggers a conformational change of the aptamer and results in the establishment of a barrier for heterogeneous electron transfer. The oxidation peak current of MB, acquired at −0.27 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), linearly decreases with increasing concentrations of STX in the 0.9 and 30 nM concentration range. The detection limit is 0.38 nM. Marine toxins that maybe present along with STX do not interfere even if they have a similar chemical structure. The assay was applied to the determination of STX in mussels samples and was found to be acceptably accurate. Hence, the method introduced here provides a rapid and sensitive tool for monitoring red tide pollution. (author)

  12. Voltammetric determination of total dissolved iron in coastal waters using a glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide, Methylene Blue and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Mingyue; Zhang, Haiyun; Han, Haitao; Pan, Dawei; Su, Zhencui

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite, prepared from reduced graphene oxide (rGO), Methylene Blue (MB) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode for the determination of total dissolved iron by differential pulse voltammetry. The use of rGO warrants a larger electrode surface and the presence of more active sites, while electron transfer is accelerated by incorporating AuNPs. MB acts as an electron mediator, as an anchor for the AuNPs (which were grown in situ), and also prevents the aggregation of rGO. The modified electrode displayed a remarkably improved sensitivity and selectivity for Fe(III). The kinetics of the electrode reaction is adsorption-controlled, and the reversible process involves one proton and one electron. The response to Fe(III) is linear in the 0.3 to 100 μM concentration range, and the detection limit is 15 nM. Possible interferences by other ions were studied. The electrode was successfully applied to the determination of total dissolved iron in real coastal waters. (author)

  13. Mesoporous-activated carbon prepared from chitosan flakes via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrakchi, F; Ahmed, M J; Khanday, W A; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2017-05-01

    In this work, mesoporous-activated carbon (CSAC) was prepared from chitosan flakes (CS) via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). CSAC was prepared using different impregnation ratios of NaOH:CS (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1) at 800°C for 90min. The adsorption performance of CSAC was evaluated for MB at different adsorption variables, such MB initial concentrations (25-400mg/L), solution pH (3-11), and temperature (30-50°C). The adsorption isotherm data of CSAC-MB were well fitted to Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity 143.53mg/g at 50°C. Best representation of kinetic data was obtained by the pseudo-second order model. CSAC exhibited excellent adsorption uptake for MB and can potentially be used for other cationic dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of process condition for the preparation of amine-impregnated activated carbon developed for CO2 capture and applied to methylene blue adsorption by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipa; Meikap, Bhim C

    2017-10-15

    The present research describes the optimal adsorption condition for methylene blue (MB). The adsorbent used here was monoethanol amine-impregnated activated carbon (MEA-AC) prepared from green coconut shell. Response surface methodology (RSM) is the multivariate statistical technique used for the optimization of the process variables. The central composite design is used to determine the effect of activation temperature, activation time and impregnation ratio on the MB removal. The percentage (%) MB adsorption by MEA-AC is evaluated as a response of the system. A quadratic model was developed for response. From the analysis of variance, the factor which was the most influential on the experimental design response has been identified. The optimum condition for the preparation of MEA-AC from green coconut shells is the temperature of activation 545.6°C, activation time of 41.64 min and impregnation ratio of 0.33 to achieve the maximum removal efficiency of 98.21%. At the same optimum parameter, the % MB removal from the textile-effluent industry was examined and found to be 96.44%.

  15. Production of activated carbons from waste carpets and its application in methylene blue adsorption: Kinetic and thermodynamic studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, A F.; Elhadidy, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2017), s. 955-963 ISSN 2213-3437 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Waste carpets * Activated carbons * Adsorption * Kinetic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  16. Usability of cement paste containing carbon nanofibres as an anode in electrochemical chloride extraction from concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moral, B. del

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the application of the electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE technique, traditionally, the Ti-RuO2 wire netting has been used as the external anode. This article provides the results of the research based on the use of conductive cement paste with addition of carbon nanofibers (CNF as anodes and its application in ECE. The tests were developed in concrete specimens previously contaminated with chloride. The efficiencies achieved were compared with those obtained using a traditional anode (Ti-RuO2 and cement pastes with the addition of other carbonaceous materials. The results show the feasibility of using conductive cement paste with CNF as the anode in the electrochemical extraction of chlorides in concrete, finding similar efficiencies to those obtained with traditional Ti-RuO2 wire netting but with the added advantage that it can be adapted to complex structural geometries as it can be applied as a paste.

    En la aplicación de la técnica de extracción electroquímica de cloruros (EEC, tradicionalmente se ha venido empleando como ánodo externo una malla de Ti-RuO2. En este artículo se aportan los resultados de investigaciones basadas en la utilización de ánodos formados por pasta de cemento conductora con adición de nanofibras de carbono (NFC y su aplicación en EEC. Las experiencias se desarrollaron en probetas de hormigón contaminado previamente con cloruro. Las eficiencias alcanzadas se compararon con las obtenidas empleando un ánodo tradicional (Ti-RuO2 así como pastas de cemento con adición de otros materiales carbonosos. Los resultados muestran la viabilidad en la utilización de la pasta de cemento conductora con NFC como ánodo en la aplicación en EEC en hormigón, encontrándose eficiencias similares a las obtenidas con la tradicional malla de Ti-RuO2 pero teniendo la ventaja añadida sobre ésta de que es posible adaptarla a geometrías estructurales complejas al ser aplicada en forma de pasta.

  17. Chloride test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  18. Influence of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in bicarbonate/carbonate buffer solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Tubular Goods Research Center of CNPC, Xi' an 710065 (China)], E-mail: dangguoli78@yahoo.com.cn; Feng, Y.R.; Bai, Z.Q. [Tubular Goods Research Center of CNPC, Xi' an 710065 (China); Zhu, J.W.; Zheng, M.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2007-11-01

    The influences of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in NaHCO{sub 3}/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} buffer solution are investigated by capacitance measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the passive film appears n-type semiconductive character; with increasing the solution temperature, the addition of chromium into carbon steel and increasing the concentration of chloride ions, the slopes of Mott-Schottky plots decrease, which indicates the increment of the defect density in the passive film. EIS results show that the transfer impedance R{sub 1} and the diffusion impedance W decrease with increasing the solution temperature, with the addition of chromium into carbon steel and with increasing the chloride ions concentration. It can be concluded that the corrosion protection effect of passive film on the substrate decreases with increasing the solution temperature, adding chromium into carbon steel and increasing chloride ions concentration.

  19. Allene functionalization via bicyclic methylene aziridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boralsky, Luke A; Marston, Dagmara; Grigg, R David; Hershberger, John C; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2011-04-15

    The oxidative functionalization of olefins is a common method for the formation of vicinal carbon-heteroatom bonds. However, oxidative methods to transform allenes into synthetic motifs containing three contiguous carbon-heteroatom bonds are much less developed. This paper describes the use of bicyclic methylene aziridines (MAs), prepared via intramolecular allene aziridination, as scaffolds for functionalization of all three allene carbons. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Perchlorate adsorption by granular activated carbon modified with cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin-Xian, P.; Lu, Z.; Cui-Yun, C.; Ming-Long, Z.; Yang, Z.; Chun-Du, W.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the adsorption of perchlorate (ClO/sub 4/ in contaminated water, granular activated carbon (GAC) was modified with cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC). To investigate the adsorption mechanism of perchlorate the structure of GAC-CTAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and FTIR spectroscopy. Then the GAC-CTAC was used for the adsorption of perchlorate in water. The effects of the adsorption time, pH, initial ClO/sub 4/ concentration, and co-existed anions on perchlorate adsorbed by GAC-CTAC were studied. The results show that the GAC-CTAC could absorb perchlorate better in water. The adsorption capacity of perchlorate on GAC-CTAC decreases in the alkaline solution, and increases with increasing the - initial concentration. The competitive adsorption exists between co-existed anions and ClO/sub 4/ on GAC-CTAC. In addition, adsorption of ClO/sub 4/ on GAC-CTAC fits the Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin isothermal models in the range of the experimental concentration. The adsorption process follows pseudo-second order kinetics. (author)

  1. Detoxification of rats subjected to nickel chloride by a biomaterial-based carbonated orthophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulila, S; El Feki, A; Oudadesse, H; Kallel, C; El Feki, H

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the therapeutic approaches of the detoxification against the metals (nickel) in the body are the use of biomaterials such as carbonated hydroxyapatite. The aim of this study is therefore to analyze the physiological and physicochemical parameters of strain white rats "Wistar" receiving nickel chloride and to study the protective associative of apatite against adverse effects of this metal, and this in comparison with control rats. Our results showed that the nickel induced in rats an oxidative stress objectified by elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and conjugated dienes associated with inhibition of the activity of the antioxidant defense system such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the liver, kidney, spleen and erythrocyte. Disorders balances of ferric, phosphocalcic, a renal failure and a liver toxicity were observed in rats exposed to nickel. As well as a significant increase in the rate of nickel in the bones and microcytic anemia was revealed. However, the implantation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in capsule form protects rats intoxicated by the nickel against the toxic effects of this metal by lowering the levels of markers of lipid peroxidation and improving the activities of defense enzymes. Our implantation technique is effective to correct ferric balance and phosphocalcic equilibrium, to protect liver and kidney function, to reduce the rate of bone nickel and to correct anemia. They clearly explain the beneficial and protective of our biomaterial which aims the detoxification of rats receiving nickel by substituting cationic (Ca(2+) by Ni(2+)) and anionic (OH(-) by Cl(-)) confirmed by physicochemical characterization like the IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These techniques have shown on the one hand a duplication of OH(-) bands (IR) and on the other hand the increase of the volume of the apatite cell after these substitutions (X-ray diffraction). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson

  2. Analysis of the corrosion of carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-04-01

    An analysis of literature data on the corrosion of carbon steels in anoxic brines and acid chloride solutions was performed, and the results were used to assess the expected life of high-level nuclear waste package containers in a salt repository environment. The corrosion rate of carbon steels in moderately acidic aqueous chloride environments obeys an Arrhenius dependence on temperature and a (pH 2 ) -1/2 dependence on hydrogen partial pressure. The cathodic reduction of water to produce hydrogen is the rate-controlling step in the corrosion process. An expression for the corrosion rate incorporating these two dependencies was used to estimate the corrosion life of several proposed waste package configurations. 42 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Highly microporous carbons derived from a complex of glutamic acid and zinc chloride for use in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Ling; Lu, An-Hui; He, Bin; Li, Wen-Cui

    2016-09-01

    The selection of carbon precursor is an important factor when designing carbon materials. In this study, a complex derived from L-glutamic acid and zinc chloride was used to prepare highly microporous carbons via facile pyrolysis. L-glutamic acid, a new carbon precursor with nitrogen functionality, coordinated with zinc chloride resulted in a homogeneous distribution of Zn2+ on the molecular level. During pyrolysis, the evaporation of the in situ formed zinc species creates an abundance of micropores together with the inert gases. The obtained carbons exhibit high specific surface area (SBET: 1203 m2 g-1) and a rich nitrogen content (4.52 wt%). In excess of 89% of the pore volume consists of micropores with pore size ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 nm. These carbons have been shown to be suitable for use as supercapacitor electrodes, and have been tested in 6 M KOH where a capacitance of 217 F g-1 was achieved at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. A long cycling life of 30 000 cycles was achieved at a current density of 1 A g-1, with only a 9% loss in capacity. The leakage current through a two-electrode device was measured as 2.3 μA per mg of electrode and the self-discharge characteristics were minimal.

  4. Reaction of Hydrogen Chloride Gas with Sodium Carbonate and Its Deep Removal in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal; Chen, Po-Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 49 (2014), s. 19145-19158 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC14-09692J Grant - others:NSC(TW) 102WBS0300011 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hot fuel gas purification * hydrogen chloride gas * active sodium carbonate Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.587, year: 2014

  5. Spectrophotometric Analysis of the Kinetic of Pd(II Chloride Complex Ions Sorption Process from Diluted Aqua Solutions Using Commercially Available Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojnicki M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results of adsorption kinetic studies of Pd(II chloride complex ions on activated carbon Organosrob 10 CO are presented. Spectorphotometrical method was applied to investigate the process. Kinetic model was proposed, and fundamental thermodynamic parameters were determined. Proposed kinetic model describes well observed phenomenon in the studied range of concentration of Pd(II chloride complex ions as well, as concentration of activated carbon.

  6. The use of chemical modified chitosan with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ilauro S.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.; Airoldi, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption capacity of a-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically in L class and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methylene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 ± 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 ± 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 ± 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 ± 0.4 and -21.5 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. (author)

  7. On the Rust Products Formed on Weathering and Carbon Steels Exposed to Chloride in Dry-Wet Cyclical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Barrero, C. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The rust products formed on weathering and carbon steels exposed to dry-wet cyclical processes in different chloride-rich solutions are carefully examined by means of different techniques. Special emphasis is given to the methodology of analysis of the data using 300 K and 77 K Moessbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The rust that is loosely bound to the metal surface and that it is lost during the corrosion process, for both types of steel, was found to be composed of lepidocrocite, superparamagnetic goethite, hematite, and traces of akaganeite. On the other hand, the adherent rust, which is differentiated as scraped and hit according to the way it is obtained, from both steels was found to be composed of akaganeite, spinel phase, goethite exhibiting broad distribution of particle sizes and lepidocrocite. The relative abundances of rust components for both steels were very similar, suggesting similar corrosion processes. Mass loss measurements show that the corrosion rates increases with increasing the chloride concentration. The presence of large quantities of spinel phase and akaganeite are a consequence of a corrosion process under the influence of very high chloride concentrations. Our results are useful for assessing the behavior of weathering steels where the levels of chlorides are high or in contact with sea water.

  8. Preparation and electrical-property characterization of poly(vinyl chloride)-derived carbon nanosheet by ion beam irradiation-induced carbon clustering and carbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan-Hee; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Kim, Hyo-Sub; Hwang, In-Tae; Lee, Hong-Joon; Shin, Junhwa; Choi, Jae-Hak

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrated that carbon nanosheet (CNS) can easily be produced by a room-temperature, solid-state proton irradiation-induced clustering of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films followed by carbonization. The results of the optical, chemical, and structural analyses revealed that oxidized and sp2-hybridized carbon clusters were effectively created in the PVC thin film by combined dehydrochlorination and inter-coupling reactions during proton irradiation. This was further converted to pseudo-hexagonally-structured nano-crystalline CNS with 2-D symmetry and metallic transporting character by high-temperature treatment. As a result, the CNS exhibited a very high electrical conductivity (587 S/cm) without a significant change in their thickness, a low surface roughness (0.36 nm), and a high work function (5.11 eV). These findings demonstrate that the radiation-based approach opens new avenues for the design and development of 2-D CNS as a graphene allotrope for the application of electronic devices, including field-effect transistors, electric heating devices, biosensors, supercapacitors, and fuel cells.

  9. Contribution to the study of the redox reactions and the speciation of technetium in chloride and carbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Said, K.

    1999-11-01

    Technetium is important as a long half-life multi-valent radioelement within the framework of the nuclear waste storage especially in underground geological sites. So, the safety studies require the knowledge of the redox and of the chemical properties of this element in order to model its geochemical behaviour in the environment. Our studies deal with the redox behaviour and the speciation of technetium in chloride and carbonate media. Similar natural systems possess redox potentials likely to reduce Tc(VII) into Tc(V), Tc(IV) and Tc(III). The question of the standard redox potential of the Tc(VII)Tc(IV) couple is settled in non complexing media where Tc(IV) exists as TcO 2 (s) but is still a matter of debate in complexing media. The formal potential of the Tc(VII)/Tc(IV couple has been determined by an indirect method in 1.0 M HCl media where Tc(IV) exists as chloride complexes. The species formed by dissolving K 2 TcCl 6 (s) in chloride media have been characterised by complementary techniques of speciation (UV-visible and Raman spectrometry, X-rays absorption spectroscopy and polarography). Two chemical formulae have been proposed for the chloride species of Tc(IV) in 1.0 M HCl media as hydrolyzed TcCl 6 2- : TcCl 5 (H 2 O) - or TcCl 4 (H 2 O) 2 . The chemical or electrochemical reduction of pertechnetate in carbonate media leads to amorphous oxides or carbonate complexes of Tc(IV) and/or of Tc(III). In carbonate media, the stability of the species under γ irradiation has been estimated by UV/VIS spectrophotometry: Tc(VII) is stable but reduced into Tc(IV) in the presence of formate when the carbonate complex of Tc(IV) is oxidised into Tc(VII). So the most mobile valency Tc(VII) seems to be the stable one in irradiated carbonate media. (author)

  10. Chloride pyrometallurgy of uranium ore. 1. Chlorination of phosphate ore using solid or gas chlorinating agent and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Tomihiro; Komoto, Shigetoshi; Otomura, Keiichiro; Takenaka, Toshihide; Sato, Nobuaki; Fujino, Takeo.

    1995-01-01

    A thermodynamical and pyrometallurgical study to recover uranium from the phosphate ores was undertaken using the chloride volatilization method. Iron was chlorinated with solid chlorinating agents such as NaCl and CaCl 2 in combination with activated carbon, which will be used for removing this element from the ore, but uranium was not. On the other hand, the chlorination using Cl 2 gas and activated carbon gave a good result at 1,223 K. Not only uranium but also iron, phosphorus, aluminum and silicon were found to form volatile chlorides which vaporized out of the ore, while calcium remained in the ore as non-volatile CaCl 2 . The chlorination condition was studied as functions of temperature, reaction time and carbon content. The volatilization ratio of uranium around 95% was obtained by heating the mixture of the ore and activated carbon (35 wt%) in a mixed gas flow of Cl 2 (200 ml/min) and N 2 (200 ml/min) at 1,223 K for 120 min. (author)

  11. The effect of residual chlorides on resultant properties of solid and liquid phases after carbonization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevova Eva; Sugarkova Vera; Kaloc Miroslav [Institute of Geonics ASCR, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Petrology

    2004-07-01

    The low-concentration condition was employed to model the carbonisation mode for local (Czech Republic) coals with higher concentrations of some metals. After completing the carbonisation, mass balance calculations were performed. Results show that the presence of zinc dichloride, copper dichloride and sodium chloride caused the most pronounced impediment to the formation of tar in contrast to lead dichloride and aluminium chloride that increased tar. The results demonstrated that adding of chloride agents effect both the course of the coking process and the properties of solid and liquid products of coking. Evaluation of the solid phase showed that chloride addition caused a decrease of the caking and swelling value, which corresponds with measurements of plasticity values that are of significant influence on mechanical properties closely related to coking plant processes. Evaluation of the liquid phase pointed towards an increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (especially phenanthrene, fluoranthene, acenaphthylene, pyrene) but a decrease of naphthalene and methylnaphthalene. Chloride addition increased aromaticity and caused a difference in substitution rate at aromatic nucleus. Mesophase estimation indicated extensive mosaic, domain and laminated anisotropic texture occurrence after chloride addition, mainly NaCl and CuCl{sub 2} addition. A more detailed evaluation including detailed screening, TGA, IR and RTG analysis will be subject of further investigation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Influence of Blended Cements with Calcareous Fly Ash on Chloride Ion Migration and Carbonation Resistance of Concrete for Durable Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinicki, Michał A; Jóźwiak-Niedźwiedzka, Daria; Gibas, Karolina; Dąbrowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-02

    The objective of this paper is to examine the possible use of new blended cements containing calcareous fly ash in structural concrete, potentially adequate for structural elements of nuclear power plants. The investigation included five new cements made with different contents of non-clinker constituents: calcareous fly ash, siliceous fly ash, ground granulated blastfurnace slag, and a reference cement-ordinary Portland cement. The influence of innovative cements on the resistance of concrete to chloride and carbonation exposure was studied. Additionally, an evaluation of the microstructure was performed using optical microscopy on concrete thin sections. Test results revealed a substantial improvement of the resistance to chloride ion penetration into concrete containing blended cements. The resistance was higher for increased clinker replacement levels and increased with curing time. However, concrete made with blended cements exhibited higher depth of carbonation than the Portland cement concrete, except the Portland-fly ash cement with 14.3% of calcareous fly ash. The thin sections analysis confirmed the values of the carbonation depth obtained from the phenolphthalein test. Test results indicate the possible range of application for new cements containing calcareous fly ash.

  13. Influence of Blended Cements with Calcareous Fly Ash on Chloride Ion Migration and Carbonation Resistance of Concrete for Durable Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał A. Glinicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the possible use of new blended cements containing calcareous fly ash in structural concrete, potentially adequate for structural elements of nuclear power plants. The investigation included five new cements made with different contents of non-clinker constituents: calcareous fly ash, siliceous fly ash, ground granulated blastfurnace slag, and a reference cement—ordinary Portland cement. The influence of innovative cements on the resistance of concrete to chloride and carbonation exposure was studied. Additionally, an evaluation of the microstructure was performed using optical microscopy on concrete thin sections. Test results revealed a substantial improvement of the resistance to chloride ion penetration into concrete containing blended cements. The resistance was higher for increased clinker replacement levels and increased with curing time. However, concrete made with blended cements exhibited higher depth of carbonation than the Portland cement concrete, except the Portland-fly ash cement with 14.3% of calcareous fly ash. The thin sections analysis confirmed the values of the carbonation depth obtained from the phenolphthalein test. Test results indicate the possible range of application for new cements containing calcareous fly ash.

  14. Smart carbon nanotube/fiber and PVA fiber-reinforced composites for stress sensing and chloride ion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoheneder, Joshua

    Fiber reinforced composites (FRC) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers and carbon nanofibers (CNF) had an excellent flexural strength in excess of 18.5 MPa compared to reference samples of 15.8 MPa. It was found that the developed, depending on applied stress and exposure to chloride solutions, composites exhibit some electrical conductivity, from 4.20×10 -4 (Ω-1m-1 to 4.13×10 -4 Ω-1m-1. These dependences can be characterized by piezioresistive and chemoresistive coefficients demonstrating that the material possesses self-sensing capabilities. The sensitivity to stain and chloride solutions can be enhanced by incorporating small amounts of carbon nanofibers (CNF) or carbon nanotube (CNT) into composite structure. Conducted research has demonstrated a strong dependency of electrical properties of composite on crack formation in moist environments. The developed procedure is scalable for industrial application in concrete structures that require nondestructive stress monitoring, integrity under high service loads and stability in harsh environments.

  15. Inhibitive effect of N,N'-Dimethylaminoethanol on carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution, at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassoune Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution by N,N'- Dimethylaminoethanol (DMEA, at different temperatures, was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The results obtained confirm that DMEA is a good organic corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in 0.5M of NaCl (concentration encountered in the Mediterranean seawater, over the whole range of temperatures studied. The inhibition efficiency (IE% increases with increasing DMEA concentration; it reaches highest value for a concentration around 0.125 mol.L-1. Potentiodynamic polarization data show that, the compound studied in this research predominantly act as anodic-type inhibitor. The EIS study reveals that the addition of DMEA decreases the corrosion rate of carbon steel in neutral sodium chloride solution, due to the fact that the inhibitor molecules are strongly adsorbed on the active sites following Langmuir isotherm, thus leading to the formation of a stable protective film on the steel surface which is able to keep the metal/solution interface in a passive state. Furthermore, the values of the activation parameters, i.e. ΔHa and Ea obtained in this study indicate that the adsorption process of DMEA is endothermic and could be mainly attributed to chemisorption, respectively.

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride): In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. This document presents background information and justification for the Intergrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Summary of the hazard and dose-response assessment of dichloromethane. IRIS Summaries may include oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for chronic and other exposure durations, and a carcinogencity assessment. Internet/NCEA web site

  17. Analysis of corrosion data for carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Hull, A.B.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-03-01

    Carbon steel is currently the leading candidate material for fabrication of a container for isolation of high level nuclear waste in a salt repository. Since brine entrapped in the bedded salt can migrate to the container by several transport processes, corrosion is an important consideration in the long-term performance of the waste package. A detailed literature search was performed to compile relevant corrosion data for carbon steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions, and simulated salt repository brines at temperatures between ∼ 20 and 400 0 C. The hydrolysis of Mg 2+ ions in simulated repository brines containing high magnesium concentrations causes acidification at temperatures above 25 0 C, which, in turn, influences the protective nature of the magnetite corrosion product layer on carbon steel. The corrosion data for the steels were analyzed, and an analytical model for general corrosion was developed to calculate the amount of penetration (i.e., wall thinning) as a function of time, temperature, and the pressure of corrosion product hydrogen than can build up during exposure in a closed system (e.g., a sealed capsule). Both the temperature and pressure dependence of the corrosion rate of steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions indicate that the rate-controlling partial reaction is the cathodic reduction of water to form hydrogen. Variations in the composition and microstructure of the steels or the concentration of the ionic species in the chloride solutions (provided that they do not change the pH significantly) do not appear to strongly influence the corrosion rate

  18. Study of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solehudin, Agus, E-mail: asolehudin@upi.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering Education, Indonesia University of Education (UPI), Bandung, West Java (Indonesia); Nurdin, Isdiriayani [Department of Chemical Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, West Java (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Corrosion and inhibition studies on API 5LX65 carbon steel in chloride solution containing various concentrations of benzotriazole has been conducted at temperature of 70°C using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Corroded carbon steel surface with and without inhibitor have been observed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The objectives of this research are to study the performance of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors. The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H{sub 2}S at different BTAH concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of BTAH concentrations from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The inhibition efficiency of BTAH was found to be affected by its concentration. The optimum efficiency obtained of BTAH is 93% at concentration of 5 mmol/l. The result of XRD and EDS analysis reveal the iron sulfide (FeS) formation on corroded carbon steel surface without inhibitor. The EDS spectrum show the Nitrogen (N) bond on carbon steel surface inhibited by BTAH.

  19. Removal of lead from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from Enteromorpha prolifera by zinc chloride activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yanhui, E-mail: liyanhui@tsinghua.org.cn [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Du Qiuju [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Xiaodong [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang Pan [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Dechang [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Zonghua; Xia Yanzhi [Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Activated carbon was prepared from Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) by zinc chloride activation. The physico-chemical properties of EP-activated carbon (EPAC) were characterized by thermal stability, zeta potential and Boehm titration methods. The examination showed that EPAC has a porous structure with a high surface area of 1688 m{sup 2}/g. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effect of various parameters such as initial pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on Pb(II) ions adsorption properties by EPAC. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption data followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The isotherm analysis indicated that the adsorption data can be represented by Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  20. Removal of lead from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from Enteromorpha prolifera by zinc chloride activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanhui; Du Qiuju; Wang Xiaodong; Zhang Pan; Wang Dechang; Wang Zonghua; Xia Yanzhi

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon was prepared from Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) by zinc chloride activation. The physico-chemical properties of EP-activated carbon (EPAC) were characterized by thermal stability, zeta potential and Boehm titration methods. The examination showed that EPAC has a porous structure with a high surface area of 1688 m 2 /g. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effect of various parameters such as initial pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on Pb(II) ions adsorption properties by EPAC. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption data followed a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The isotherm analysis indicated that the adsorption data can be represented by Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous and endothermic process.

  1. Calculation of carbon-14, chlorine-37, and deuterium kinetic isotope effects in the solvolysis of tert-butyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Sims, L.B.; Wilson, J.C.; Fry, A.

    1977-01-01

    In the solvolysis of tert-butyl chloride, satisfactory α-carbon-14, β-deuterium, and chlorine kinetic isotope effects (KIE) may be calculated for a productlike transition state characterized by bond orders n/sub C Cl/ = 0.2, n/sub C C/ = 1.18, and n/sub C H/ = 0.94, employing a diagonal valence force field, provided that allowance is made for hydrogen-bonded solvation of the developing chloride ion with n/sub Cl H/ approx. 0.05 (approx. 7 kcal/mole hydrogen bonds). The effect of the three solvating molecules appears to be to increase the ''effective'' mass of the incipient chloride ion and to decrease the loss of zero-point energy in going to the transition state. Reaction coordinates more complicated than a simple heterolysis of the carbon-chlorine bond appear to be unnecessary and there is no advantage in employing force fields more complex than a simple valence force field containing only diagonal elements for both the reactant and the transition state model. The structural and bonding features of the proposed transition state are in accord with earlier more qualitative conclusions concerning the polar nature and productlike character of the transition state, and provide a reasonable explanation of the kinetic and equilibrium isotope effects (EIE) for the reaction. An alternative transition state model involving weak solvent nucleophilic assistance provides reasonable calculated values for the KIE, but the EIE strongly suggest the importance of solvation of the leaving group which, together with the hyperconjugation of the β hydrogens, provides a preferred explanation of the tert-butyl solvolysis results

  2. Modification of Natural Zeolite with Fe(III) and Its Application as Adsorbent Chloride and Carbonate ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartana; Sukmasari, Emmanuella; Azmiyawati, Choiril

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the research is to natural zeolite with Fe(III) using anion exchange process to improve the anion exchange capacity. Natural zeolite was activated using HNO3 1 N and then mixed with FeCl3 solution and refluxed followed by oven and calcination at a temperature of 550°C. The influence of Fe(III) to zeolite was characterized by FTIR while presence of Fe in zeolite characterized by AAS. Zeolite and Zeolite-Fe adsorption capacity of chloride and carbonate anions were determined through adsorption test by variation of pH and contact time. In advanced, and then to determining the Fe adsorbed concentration at Zeolite using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR analysis result showed that the addition of Fe does not affect the zeolite’s structure but change the intensity of the zeolite spectra. The Fe concentration in Zeolite-Fe of 714 mg L-1, indicate that Fe was present in the zeolite. Both Zeolite and Zeolite-Fe adsorbtion results showed that optimum pH of Chloride anion is 2, with adsorption capacity 2,33 x 10-3 gg-1 and optimum contact time is 8 minutes. While Zeolite and Zeolite-Fe adsorbtion results showed that optimum pH of Carbonate anion is 5, with adsorption capacity 5,31 x 10-3 gg-1 and optimum contact time is 8 minutes.

  3. Thionyl chloride assisted functionalization of amorphous carbon nanotubes: A better field emitter and stable nanofluid with better thermal conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, S.K.; Jha, A. [School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chattopadhyay, K.K., E-mail: kalyan_chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [Thin Film & Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Thionyl chloride assisted functionalization of amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs). • Improved dispersion enhanced thermal conductivity of engine oil. • Again f-a-CNTs showed enhanced field emission property compared to pure a-CNTs. - Abstract: Amorphous carbon nanotubes (a-CNTs) were synthesized at low temperature in open atmosphere and further functionalized by treating them in thionyl chloride added stearic acid-dichloro methane solution. The as prepared functionalized a-CNTs (f-a-CNTs) were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The nanofluid was prepared by dispersing f-a-CNTs in engine oil using ultrasonic treatment. The effective thermal conductivity of as prepared nanofluid was investigated at different loading (volume fraction of f-a-CNTs). Obtained experimental data of thermal conductivity were compared with the predicted values, calculated using existing theoretical models. Stability of the nanofluid was tested by means of zeta potential measurement to optimize the loading. The as prepared f-a-CNTs sample also showed improved field emission result as compared to pristine a-CNTs. Dependence of field emission behavior on inter electrode distance was investigated too.

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  5. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded activated carbon fiber/polymer materials and their photocatalytic activity for methylene blue mineralization by combined heterogeneous-homogeneous photocatalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadirova, Zukhra C., E-mail: zuhra_kadirova@yahoo.com [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Mirzo Ulugbek Street 77a, Tashkent 100170 (Uzbekistan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos, E-mail: hmirabbos@hotmail.com [Department of Natural and Mathematic Sciences, Turin Polytechnic University in Tashkent, Kichik Halqa Yo’li 17, Tashkent 100095 (Uzbekistan); Katsumata, Ken-Ichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Isobe, Toshihiro [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Matsushita, Nobuhiro [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Okada, Kiyoshi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-activated carbon felts was prepared for adsorption-photodegradation of dyes. • Simultaneous mineralization of MB and oxalic acid occurred under UV-irradiation. • Methylene blue adsorption was better fitted to the Langmuir model. • Increasing amount of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} decreased the S{sub BET} and methylene blue adsorption capacity. • Photodegraded amount of MB was increased with increasing the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content. - Abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported activated carbon felts (Fe-ACFTs) were prepared by impregnating the felts consisted of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with either polyester fibers (PS-A20) or polyethylene pulp (PE-W15) in Fe(III) nitrate solution and calcination at 250 °C for 1 h. The prepared Fe-ACFTs with 31–35 wt% Fe were characterized by N{sub 2}-adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The Fe-ACFT(PS-A20) samples with 5–31 wt% Fe were microporous with specific surface areas (S{sub BET}) ranging from 750 to 150 m{sup 2}/g, whereas the Fe-ACFT(PE-W15) samples with 2–35 wt% Fe were mesoporous with S{sub BET} ranging from 830 to 320 m{sup 2}/g. The deposition of iron oxide resulted in a decrease in the S{sub BET} and methylene blue (MB) adsorption capacity while increasing the photodegradation of MB. The optimum MB degradation conditions included 0.98 mM oxalic acid, pH = 3, 0.02–0.05 mM MB, and 100 mg/L photocatalyst. The negative impact of MB desorption during the photodegradation reaction was more pronounced for mesoporous PE-W15 samples and can be neglected by adding oxalic acid in cyclic experiments. Almost complete and simultaneous mineralization of oxalate and MB was achieved by the combined heterogeneous-homogeneous photocatalytic processes. The leached Fe ions in aqueous solution [Fe{sup 3+}]{sub f} were measured after 60 min for every cycle and found to be about 2 ppm in all four successive cycles. The developed photocatalytic materials have shown good

  6. Chloride pyrometallurgy of uranium ore. 2. Selective extraction of uranium using the mixed gas of chlorine and oxygen in the presence of activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Tomihiro; Komoto, Shigetoshi; Otomura, Keiichiro; Takenaka, Toshihide; Sato, Nobuaki; Fujino, Takeo.

    1996-01-01

    Selective extraction of uranium from a phosphate ore was studied by using the mixed gas of Cl 2 and O 2 . On heating the ore and carbon mixture in Cl 2 , the volatilized chloride of uranium is accompanied by iron, aluminum, phosphorus and silicon chlorides. The addition of O 2 gas effectively lowered the volatilization ratios of aluminum, phosphorus and silicon. The ratio decreased with increasing oxygen flow rate up to 50 ml/min at 1,223 K (Cl 2 : 100 ml/min, O 2 +N 2 : 400 ml/min). The volatilization ratio of uranium was almost unchanged at 90% up to 50 ml/min O 2 (carbon amount: 15 wt%). The effect of the other parameters, i.e. Cl 2 flow rate, carbon amount, reaction temperature and time was examined. (author)

  7. Leaching of chloride, sulphate, heavy metals, dissolved organic carbon and phenolic organic pesticides from contaminated concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praagh, M; Modin, H

    2016-10-01

    Concrete samples from demolition waste of a former pesticide plant in Sweden were analysed for total contents and leachate concentrations of potentially hazardous inorganic substances, TOC, phenols, as well as for pesticide compounds such as phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and chlorocresols. Leachates were produced by means of modified standard column leaching tests and pH-stat batch tests. Due to elevated contents of chromium and lead, as well as due to high chloride concentrations in the first leachate from column tests at L/S 0.1, recycling of the concrete as a construction material in groundworks is likely to be restricted according to Swedish guidelines. The studied pesticide compounds appear to be relatively mobile at the materials own pH>12, 12, 9 and 7. Potential leaching of pesticide residues from recycled concrete to ground water and surface water might exceed water quality guidelines for the remediation site and the EU Water Framework Directive. Results of this study stress the necessity to systematically study the mechanism behind mobility of organic contaminants from alkaline construction and demolition wastes rather than rely on total content limit values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biotransformation of tetrachloroethylene to trichloroethylene, dichloroethylene, vinyl chloride, and carbon dioxide under methanogenic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, T.M.; McCarty, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), common industrial solvents, are among the most frequent contaminants found in groundwater supplies. Due to the potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of chlorinated ethylenes, knowledge about their transformation potential is important in evaluating their environmental fate. The results of this study confirm that PCE can be transformed by reductive dehalogenation to TCE, dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride (VC) under anaerobic conditions. In addition, [ 14 C]PCE was at least partially mineralized to CO 2 . Mineralization of 24% of the PCE occurred in a continuous-flow fixed-film methanogenic column with a liquid detention time of 4 days. TCE was the major intermediate formed, but traces of dichloroethylene isomers and VC were also found. In other column studies under a different set of methanogenic conditions, nearly quantitative conversion of PCE to VC was found. These studies clearly demonstrate that TCE and VC are major intermediates in PCE biotransformation under anaerobic conditions and suggest that the potential exists for the complete mineralization of PCE to CO 2 in soil and aquifer systems and in biological treatment processes

  9. Radioiodinated methylene blue for melanoma targeting: Chemical characterisation and tumour selectivity of labelled components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blower, Philip J.; Clark, Katherine; Link, Eva M.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodinated methylene blue contains a mixture of components showing selective uptake in human pigmented melanoma, and it has potential for imaging and therapy. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic studies show that the majority of the radioactivity (85%) is in the form of monoiodinated methylene blue, 4-iodo-3-methylamino-7-dimethylaminophenaza thionium chloride. The amino group ortho-to iodine has become demethylated to a mono-methylamino group. The remainder (15%) of the mixture is the doubly labelled 4,5-diiodo-3,7-bis(methylamino) phenazathionium chloride. The separated components show similar tumour selectivity in athymic mice bearing human pigmented melanomas

  10. A conductance study of guanidinium chloride, thiocyanate, sulfate, and carbonate in dilute aqueous solutions: ion-association and carbonate hydrolysis effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Johannes; Neueder, Roland; Buchner, Richard; Apelblat, Alexander

    2013-01-17

    We study the conductance of dilute aqueous solutions for a series of guandinium salts at 298.15 K. The experimental molar conductivities were analyzed within the framework of the Quint-Viallard theory in combination with Debye-Hückel activity coefficients. From this analysis, we find no evidence for significant ion association in aqueous solutions of guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) and guanidinium thiocyanate (GdmSCN), and the molar conductivity of these electrolytes can be modeled assuming a complete dissociation. The limiting ionic conductivity of the guanidinium ion (Gdm(+)) is accurately determined to λ(Gdm(+)) = 51.45 ± 0.10 S cm(2) mol(-1). For the bivalent salts guanidinium sulfate (Gdm(2)SO(4)) and guanidinium carbonate (Gdm(2)CO(3)), the molar conductivities show small deviations from ideal (fully dissociated electrolyte) behavior, which are related to weak ion association in solution. Furthermore, for solutions of Gdm(2)CO(3), the hydrolysis of the carbonate anion leads to distinctively increased molar conductivities at high dilutions. The observed ion association is rather weak for all studied electrolytes and cannot explain the different protein denaturing activities of the studied guanidinium salts, as has been proposed previously.

  11. Enhancement of the thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane/polyvinyl chloride blend by loading single walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Hezma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of pure blend and nanocomposites based on polyurethane (PU and polyvinyl chloride (PVC doped with low different content of single walled-carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were studied. The nanocomposites at different concentration were prepared via casting technique. The interaction between PU/PVC and CNTs were examined via FT-IR studies. The changes in the structures of the nanocomposites were examined using X- Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the results indicated that the amorphous domains of nanocomposites increased with increasing SWCNTs content. Transmission electron microscope (TEM observation indicated that SWCNTs surface was wrapped with the polymer with the thermal properties of nanocomposites improved. The mechanical behavior of the nanocomposites was evaluated as a function of SWCNTs content. The main enhancement in tensile properties was observed, e.g., the tensile strength and elastic modulus increased compared with the pure blend, which may be attributed to the interaction and adhesion between CNTs and the polymer matrices due to the hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups (C=O of polymer blend chains and carboxylic acid (COOH groups of CNTs.

  12. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Concrete Material Composed of Tin Slag Waste in Aqueous Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Andi; Cahyadi, Agung; Taruli Siallagan, Sonia; Wafa' Nawawi, Fuad; Pratesa, Yudha

    2018-01-01

    Tin slag is a byproduct of tin ore smelting process which is rarely utilized. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the use of tin slag for concrete cement material application compared to the industrial Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Tin slag composition was characterized by XRD and XRF analysis. The characterization results showed the similar chemical composition of tin slag and OPC. It also revealed the semi crystalline structure of tin slag sample. Several electrochemical tests were performed to evaluate corrosion behavior of tin slag, OPC and various mixed composition of both materials and the addition of CaO. The corrosion behavior of OPC and tin slag were evaluated by using Cyclic Polarization, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Electrochemical Frequency Modulation (EFM) methods. Aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with 3.5% w.t concentration which similar to seawater was used as the electrolyte in this work. The steel specimen used as the reinforce bar (rebar) material of the concrete was carbon steel AISI 1045. The rebar was embedded in the concrete cement which composed of OPC and the various composition of tin slag including slag without addition of CaO and slag mixed with addition of 50 % CaO. The electrochemical tests results revealed that tin slag affected its corrosion behavior which becoming more active and increasing the corrosion rate as well as decreasing the electrochemical impedance.

  13. Rust Layer Formed on Low Carbon Weathering Steels with Different Mn, Ni Contents in Environment Containing Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-qin FU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rusting evolution of low carbon weathering steels with different Mn, Ni contents under a simulated environment containing chloride ions has been investigated to clarify the correlation between Mn, Ni and the rust formed on steels. The results show that Mn contents have little impact on corrosion kinetics of experimental steels. Content increase of Ni both enhances the anti-corrosion performance of steel substrate and the rust. Increasing Ni content is beneficial to forming compact rust. Semi-quantitative XRD phase analysis shows that the quantity ratio of α/γ*(α-FeOOH/(γ-FeOOH+Fe3O4 decreases as Mn content increases but it increases as Ni content increases. Ni enhances rust layer stability but Mn content exceeding 1.06 wt.% is disadvantageous for rust layer stability. The content increase of Mn does not significantly alter the parameters of the polarization curve. However, as Ni contents increases, Ecorr has shifted to the positive along with decreased icorr values indicating smaller corrosion rate especially as Ni content increases from 0.42 wt.% to 1.50 wt.%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.12844

  14. A. C. response of lithium, stainless steel, and porous carbon electrodes in thionyl chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogensen, M.

    1985-01-15

    Impedance measurements on Li electrodes in SOCl/sub 2/ electrolytes indicate that the structure of the passivating surface layer formed in 1.8M LiAlCl/sub 4/ differs from that formed in 1.8M AlCl/sub 3/, 1.2M LiCl, 0.6M SO/sub 2/. Also, porous carbon electrodes are found to behave differently in these two electrolytes. Unpolarised stainless steel electrodes show a 67/sup 0/ constant phase angle impedance over a wide frequency range whereas polarised to 0 mV ..nu..s. Li the impedance diagram is very similar to that of Li. Finally, it is found that passivation may develop differently for Li pressed onto stainless steel from that of Li pressed onto glass.

  15. Synthetic chloride-selective carbon nanotubes examined by using molecular and stochastic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2010-09-22

    Synthetic channels, such as nanotubes, offer the possibility of ion-selective nanoscale pores which can broadly mimic the functions of various biological ion channels, and may one day be used as antimicrobial agents, or for treatment of cystic fibrosis. We have designed a carbon nanotube that is selectively permeable to anions. The virtual nanotubes are constructed from a hexagonal array of carbon atoms (graphene) rolled up to form a tubular structure, with an effective radius of 4.53 Å and length of 34 Å. The pore ends are terminated with polar carbonyl groups. The nanotube thus formed is embedded in a lipid bilayer and a reservoir containing ionic solutions is added at each end of the pore. The conductance properties of these synthetic channels are then examined with molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations. Profiles of the potential of mean force at 0 mM reveal that a cation moving across the pore encounters an insurmountable free energy barrier of ∼25 kT in height. In contrast, for anions, there are two energy wells of ∼12 kT near each end of the tube, separated by a central free energy barrier of 4 kT. The conductance of the pore, with symmetrical 500 mM solutions in the reservoirs, is 72 pS at 100 mV. The current saturates with an increasing ionic concentration, obeying a Michaelis-Menten relationship. The pore is normally occupied by two ions, and the rate-limiting step in conduction is the time taken for the resident ion near the exit gate to move out of the energy well. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Green synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride nanodots using sodium chloride template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Bo [National University of Defense Technology, College of Science (China); Zou, Xianshuai; Yan, Tingnan; Fei, Junjie [Xiangtan University, College of Chemistry (China); Chu, Zengyong, E-mail: chuzy@nudt.edu.cn [National University of Defense Technology, College of Science (China)

    2016-05-15

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) nanodots are simply prepared by a thermal treatment of dicyandiamide (DCDA) confined within NaCl templates. Cyano groups are introduced to the nanodots due to the catalytic effect of NaCl. NaCl could facilitate the polymerization of DCDA at lower temperatures, but will promote the decomposition when the temperature is above 550 °C. Thermal treatment at 600 °C for 30 min is the optimal condition for the scalable synthesis of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanodots with an average diameter of ~9 nm. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanodots have a higher band gap of 3.1 eV, which can emit bright blue light due to the decreased diameter, the introduction of cyano groups, and the incorporation of some sodium ions. The residue sodium ions and the cyano groups might lead to the local distortion of the graphitic crystals, or act as recombination centers for the enhanced photoluminescence.Graphical Abstract.

  17. Development of amorphous carbon protective coatings on poly(vinyl)chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Elidiane C.; Souza, Eduardo S. de; Moraes, Francine S. de; Marins, Nazir M.S.; Schreiner, Wido H.; Cruz, Nilson C.

    2010-01-01

    The great versatility of polymers has promoted their application in a series of ordinary situations. The development of specific devices from polymers, however, requires modifications to fit specific stipulations. In this work the surface properties of thin films grown onto polyvinylchloride (PVC) were investigated. Hydrogenated amorphous carbon films were deposited onto commercial PVC plates from acetylene and argon plasmas excited by radiofrequency (13.56 MHz, 70 W) power. The proportion of acetylene in the gas feed was varied against that of argon, keeping the total pressure constant at 2.5 Pa. Deposition time was 1800 s. Film elemental composition was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS. Water contact angle measurements were performed using the sessile drop technique. The root mean squared roughness was derived from 50 x 50 μm 2 surface topographic images, acquired by scanning probe microscopy. Nanoindentation and pin-on-disk techniques were employed on the determination of film hardness and sliding wear, respectively. Oxidation resistance was obtained through the etching rate of the samples in oxygen radiofrequency (1.3 Pa, 50 W) plasmas. From XPS analysis it was detected oxygen and nitrogen contamination in all the samples. It was also found that sp 3 /sp 2 ratio depends on the proportion of argon in the plasma. At lower argon concentrations, hardness, wear and oxidation resistances were all improved with respect to the uncoated PVC. In such conditions, the surface wettability is low indicating a moderate receptivity to water. This combination of properties, ascribed to a balance between the ion bombardment and deposition processes, is suitable for materials exposed to rigorous weathering conditions.

  18. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  19. Reductive mineralization of cellulose with vanadium, iron and tungsten chlorides and access to MxOy metal oxides and MxOy/C metal oxide/carbon composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Aurélien; Hesemann, Peter; Alauzun, Johan G; Boury, Bruno

    2017-10-15

    M x O y and M x O y /C composites (M=V, Fe and W) were obtained by mineralization of cellulose with several metal chlorides. Cellulose was used both as a templating agent and as an oxygen and a carbon source. Soluble chloride molecules (VOCl 3 and WCl 6 ) and a poorly soluble ionic chloride compound (FeCl 3 ) were chosen as metal oxide precursors. In a first time, primary metal oxide/cellulose composites were obtained via a thermal treatment by reacting urea impregnated filter paper with the corresponding metal chlorides in an autoclave at 150°C after 3days. After either pyrolysis or calcination steps of these intermediate materials, interesting metal oxides with various morphologies were obtained (V 2 O 5, V 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , WO 3, H 0.23 WO 3 ), composites (V 2 O 3 /C) as well as carbides (hexagonal W 2 C and WC, Fe 3 C) This result highlight the reductive role that can play cellulose during the pyrolysis step that allows to tune the composition of M x O y /C composites. The materials were characterized by FTIR, Raman, TGA, XRD and SEM. This study highlights that cellulose can be used for a convenient preparation of a variety of highly demanded M x O y and M x O y /C composites with original shapes and morphologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Zn–Al layered double hydroxides intercalated with carbonate, nitrate, chloride and sulphate ions: Synthesis, characterisation and dye removal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Mahjoubi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Zn–Al layered double hydroxides intercalated with carbonate, nitrate, chloride and sulphate ions were synthesised via a co-precipitation method at a constant solution pH. The as-synthesised samples were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and simultaneous thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA. The XRD patterns showed that Zn-Al-SO4 had the greatest interlayer spacing, followed by Zn-Al-Cl, Zn-Al-NO3 and Zn-Al-CO3. The FTIR spectra clearly confirmed the presence of intercalated anions in the structure of the LDHs. Batch experiments for methyl orange (MO adsorption onto synthesised samples were investigated under various conditions such as contact time, initial dye concentration and solution pH. The experimental results show that pH is the most influencing factor. The effective pH range for the MO removal was found to be 3.5–4.5. The kinetics data can be described accurately by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model instead of a pseudo-first-order model. The equilibrium data were analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich models. The results showed that the Langmuir and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models fit well to the experimental data. The Zn-Al-LDH samples exhibited exceptional Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of 2758, 2455, 2270 and 1684 mg/g for Zn-Al-SO4, Zn-Al-Cl, Zn-Al-NO3 and Zn-Al-CO3, respectively.

  1. Important role of calcium chloride in preventing carbon monoxide generation during desflurane degradation with alkali hydroxide-free carbon dioxide absorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Takahiro; Mori, Atsushi; Ito, Rie; Nishiwaki, Kimitoshi

    2017-12-01

    We investigated whether calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), a supplementary additive in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) absorbents, could affect carbon monoxide (CO) production caused by desflurane degradation, using a Japanese alkali-free CO 2 absorbent Yabashi Lime ® -f (YL-f), its CaCl 2 -free and 1% CaCl 2 -added derivatives, and other commercially available alkali-free absorbents with or without CaCl 2 . The reaction between 1 L of desflurane gas (3-10%) and 20 g of desiccated specimen was performed in an artificial closed-circuit anesthesia system for 3 min at 20 or 40 °C. The CO concentration was measured using a gas chromatograph equipped with a semiconductor sensor detector. The systems were validated by detecting dose-dependent CO production with an alkali hydroxide-containing CO 2 absorbent, Sodasorb ® . Compared with YL-f, the CaCl 2 -free derivative caused the production of significantly more CO, while the 1% CaCl 2 -added derivative caused the production of a comparable amount of CO. These phenomena were confirmed using commercially available absorbents AMSORB ® PLUS, an alkali-free absorbent with CaCl 2 , and LoFloSorb™, an alkali-free absorbent without CaCl 2 . These results suggest that CaCl 2 plays an important role in preventing CO generation caused by desflurane degradation with alkali hydroxide-free CO 2 absorbents like YL-f.

  2. Zeolite Combined with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Mixed with Agricultural Slurries Reduces Carbon Losses in Runoff from Grassed Soil Boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Fenton, O; Healy, M G

    2016-11-01

    Carbon (C) losses from agricultural soils to surface waters can migrate through water treatment plants and result in the formation of disinfection by-products, which are potentially harmful to human health. This study aimed to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic C losses in runoff after application of dairy slurry, pig slurry, or milk house wash water (MWW) to land and to mitigate these losses through coamendment of the slurries with zeolite (2.36-3.35 mm clinoptilolite) and liquid polyaluminum chloride (PAC) (10% AlO) for dairy and pig slurries or liquid aluminum sulfate (alum) (8% AlO) for MWW. Four treatments under repeated 30-min simulated rainfall events (9.6 mm h) were examined in a laboratory study using grassed soil runoff boxes (0.225 m wide, 1 m long; 10% slope): control soil, unamended slurries, PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (13.3 and 11.7 kg t, respectively), alum-amended MWW (3.2 kg t), combined zeolite and PAC-amended dairy (160 and 13.3 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively) and pig slurries (158 and 11.7 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively), and combined zeolite and alum-amended MWW (72 and 3.2 kg t zeolite and alum, respectively). The unamended and amended slurries were applied at net rates of 31, 34, and 50 t ha for pig and dairy slurries and MWW, respectively. Significant reductions of TOC in runoff compared with unamended slurries were measured for PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (52 and 56%, respectively) but not for alum-amended MWW. Dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW significantly reduced TOC in runoff compared with alum amendment only. We conclude that use of PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries and dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW, although effective, may not be economically viable to reduce TOC losses from organic slurries given the relatively low amounts of TOC measured in runoff from unamended slurries compared with the amounts applied. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of

  3. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Methods: Diabetes was induced in mice by a daily dose of STZ (45 mg kg-1 body weight i.p.) for 5 days. From one day ... alterations in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism ... overnight prior to blood sugar determination and randomly ...

  4. Niobium(v) chloride and imidazolium bromides as efficient dual catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wilhelm, Michael E.; Anthofer, Michael H.; Reich, Robert M.; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, Wolfgang A.; Cokoja, Mirza; Kü hn, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    The application of niobium(v) chloride and several imidazolium bromides as catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of propylene oxide (PO) with carbon dioxide to propylene carbonate (PC) is reported. A set of 31 different imidazolium bromides has been synthesized with varying substituents at all five imidazolium ring atoms, of which 17 have not been reported before. The impact of different substitution patterns (steric and electronic changes and solubility in PO) at the imidazolium ring on the catalytic activity was investigated. The optimisation of the catalyst structure allows for the valorisation of carbon dioxide under mild reaction conditions with high reaction rates in very good yield and selectivity for PC. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  5. Niobium(v) chloride and imidazolium bromides as efficient dual catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wilhelm, Michael E.

    2014-02-19

    The application of niobium(v) chloride and several imidazolium bromides as catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of propylene oxide (PO) with carbon dioxide to propylene carbonate (PC) is reported. A set of 31 different imidazolium bromides has been synthesized with varying substituents at all five imidazolium ring atoms, of which 17 have not been reported before. The impact of different substitution patterns (steric and electronic changes and solubility in PO) at the imidazolium ring on the catalytic activity was investigated. The optimisation of the catalyst structure allows for the valorisation of carbon dioxide under mild reaction conditions with high reaction rates in very good yield and selectivity for PC. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  6. [Adsorption and desorption of dyes by waste-polymer-derived activated carbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Liu, Chang; Li, Guo-Guang; Liu, Yi-Fu; Li, Yong; Zhu, Ling-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons with high surface area were prepared from three waste polymers, i. e., tire rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethyleneterephtalate (PET), by KOH activation. The adsorption/desorption characteristics of dyes (methylene blue and methyl orange) on the carbons were studied. The effects of pH, ionic strength and surface surfactants in the solution on the dye adsorption were also investigated. The results indicated that the carbons derived from PVC and PET exhibited high surface area of 2 666 and 2 831 m2 x g(-1). Their mesopore volume were as high as 1.06 and 1.30 cm3 g(-1), respectively. 98.5% and 97.0% of methylene blue and methyl orange were removed in 15 min by PVC carbon, and that of 99.5% and 95.0% for PET carbon. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity to these dyes was more than 2 mmol x g(-1), much higher than that of commercial activated carbon F400. Compared with Freundlich model, the adsorption data was fitted better by Langmiur model, indicating monolayer coverage on the carbons. The adsorption was highly dependent on solution pH, ionic strength and concentration of surface surfactants. The activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption to methylene blue than that of methyl orange, and it was very hard for both of the dyes to be desorbed. The observation in this study demonstrated that activated carbons derived from polymer waste could be effective adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater with dyes.

  7. A study on the initiation of pitting corrosion in carbon steel in chloride-containing media using scanning electrochemical probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bin; Hu Ronggang; Ye Chenqing; Li Yan; Lin Changjian

    2010-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical probes of corrosion potential and chloride ions were developed for the in situ monitoring of localized corrosion processes of reinforcing steel in NaCl-containing solution. The results indicated that the chloride ions (Cl - ) preferentially adsorbed and accumulated at the imperfect/defective sites, resulting in initiation and propagation of pitting corrosion on the reinforcing steel surface. An electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA) was used to examine the corrosion morphology and elemental distribution at the corroded location to investigate the origins of the preferential Cl - adsorption and pitting corrosion. By combining the in situ and ex situ images, we concluded that manganese sulfide inclusions in reinforcing steel are the most susceptible defects to pitting corrosion in chloride-containing solution.

  8. Some Elements of Equilibrium Diagrams for Systems of Iron with Water above 100 deg C and with Simple Chloride, Carbonate and Sulfate Melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Derek

    1971-05-01

    Some aspects of molten salts relevant to the nuclear power industry are discussed briefly and an approach is presented to the theoretical description of the electrochemical thermodynamics of corrosion, mass-transport and deposition processes in power-plant working on the water-cycle, and in homogenous molten-salt reactors. Diagrams are introduced, based on the parameter pe instead of the usual redox potential, that are useful for illustrating equilibrium data for aqueous systems at elevated temperatures and for molten salts. Systems including iron in water and in the eutectic mixtures of lithium and sodium chloride, carbonate and sulfate, are taken as examples

  9. Some Elements of Equilibrium Diagrams for Systems of Iron with Water above 100 deg C and with Simple Chloride, Carbonate and Sulfate Melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Derek

    1971-05-15

    Some aspects of molten salts relevant to the nuclear power industry are discussed briefly and an approach is presented to the theoretical description of the electrochemical thermodynamics of corrosion, mass-transport and deposition processes in power-plant working on the water-cycle, and in homogenous molten-salt reactors. Diagrams are introduced, based on the parameter pe instead of the usual redox potential, that are useful for illustrating equilibrium data for aqueous systems at elevated temperatures and for molten salts. Systems including iron in water and in the eutectic mixtures of lithium and sodium chloride, carbonate and sulfate, are taken as examples

  10. Methylene blue doped polymers: efficient media for optical recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, R.

    2004-05-01

    Polymer materials find application in optical storage technology, namely in the development of high information density and fast access type memories. A new polymer blend of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) in methanol is prepared and characterized and its comparison with methylene blue sensitized PVA in methanol and complexed methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride (CMBPVC) is presented. The optical absorption spectra of the thin films of these polymers showed a strong and broad absorption region at 670-650 nm, matching the wavelength of the laser used. A very slow recovery of the dye on irradiation was observed when a 7:3 blend of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid at a pH of 3.8 and a sensitizer concentration of 4.67 · 10-5 g/ml were used. A diffraction efficiency of up to 20% was observed for the MBPVA/alcohol system and an energetic sensitivity of 2000 mJ/cm2 was obtained in the photosensitive films with a spatial frequency of 588 lines/mm.

  11. Preparation and Eh-pH diagrams of Fe(II)-Fe(III) green rust compounds; hyperfine interaction characteristics and stoichiometry of hydroxy-chloride, -sulphate and -carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, J.-M.R.; Refait, Ph.; Simon, L.; Drissi, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxy-chloride, -sulphate and -carbonate were prepared by oxidation of a ferrous hydroxide precipitate in anion-containing aqueous solutions. The compounds are characterized by monitoring the redox potential E h and the pH of stochiometric suspension vs time with the appropriate concentration ratios. X-ray diffraction allows us to characterize the crystal structure by distinguishing 'green rust one' (GR1) from 'green rust two' (GR2). Since green rusts (GRs) are of a pyroaurite-sjoegrenite-like structure, i.e., consisting of intercalated foreign anions and water molecules in the interlayers between the brucite-like layers of Fe(OH) 2 , their chemical formulae can be determined from the Moessbauer spectra. Three quadrupole doublets are observed: D 1 and D 2 correspond to a ferrous state with isomershift IS of about 1.27 mm s -1 and quadrupole splittings QS of about 2.85 and 2.60 mm s -1 , respectively, whereas D 3 corresponds to a ferric state with IS and QS of about 0.4 mm s -1 . The hyperfine parameters of these doublets are similar from one green rust to another but their intensity ratios vary considerably. Finally, E h and pH equilibrium diagrams of the Fe species in the presence of chloride, sulphate and carbonate anions contained within the water solution are drawn and the thermodynamic conditions of existence and degrees of oxidation of green rusts are discussed

  12. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe 3 O 4 -GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe 3 O 4 enabled the magnetic separation of Fe 3 O 4 -GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe 3 O 4 -GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -GS. The facile regeneration of Fe 3 O 4 -GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed

  13. Batch sorption dynamics and equilibrium for the removal of lead ions from aqueous phase using activated carbon developed from coffee residue activated with zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrahem, F; Aissani-Benissad, F; Aït-Amar, H

    2009-07-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are good precursors for the production of activated carbon. In this work, coffee residue has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon by the method of chemical activation with zinc chloride for the sorption of Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solutions. The influence of impregnation ratio (ZnCl2/coffee residue) on the physical and chemical properties of the prepared carbons was studied in order to optimize this parameter. The optimum experimental condition for preparing predominantly microporous activated carbons with high pore surface area (890 m2/g) and micropore volume (0.772 cm3/g) is an impregnation ratio of 100%. The developed activated carbon shows substantial capability to sorb lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions and for relative impregnation ratios of 75 and 100%, the maximum uptake is practically the same. Thus, 75% represents the optimal impregnation ratio. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of the main parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), solution pH, ionic strength and temperature. The maximum uptake of lead(II) at 25 degrees C was about 63 mg/g of adsorbent at pH 5.8, initial Pb(II) concentration of 10 mg/L, agitation speed of 200 rpm and ionic strength of 0.005 M. The kinetic data were fitted to the models of pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order, and follow closely the pseudo-second order model. Equilibrium sorption isotherms of Pb(II) were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The Freundlich model gives a better fit than the others. Results from this study suggest that activated carbon produced from coffee residue is an effective adsorbent for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions and that ZnCl2 is a suitable activating agent for the preparation of high-porosity carbons.

  14. The use of chemical modified chitosan with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption; O emprego de quitosana quimicamente modificada com anidrido succinico na adsorcao de azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ilauro S.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.; Airoldi, Claudio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: airoldi@iqm.unicamp.br

    2006-05-15

    The adsorption capacity of a-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically iclass and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methylene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 {+-} 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 {+-} 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 {+-} 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 {+-} 0.4 and -21.5 {+-} 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. (author)

  15. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexandra; Patten, Shunmoogum A; Ciura, Sorana; Maios, Claudia; Therrien, Martine; Drapeau, Pierre; Kabashi, Edor; Parker, J Alex

    2012-01-01

    The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C) or FUS (S57Δ or R521H) that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  16. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl 2 . • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, and 1.96 cm 3 /g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m 2 /g, 1.68 cm 3 /g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl 2 as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl 2 /Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m 2 /g, 2124 m 2 /g, 1.96 cm 3 /g, and 1.68 cm 3 /g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  17. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from Fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mohan Jena, Hara, E-mail: hmjena@nitrkl.ac.in

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Activated carbons have been prepared from Fox nutshell with chemical activation using ZnCl{sub 2}. • The thermal behavior of the raw material and impregnated raw material has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. • The characterizations of the prepared activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, FTIR, XRD, and FESEM. • The BET surface area and total pore volume of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2869 m{sup 2}/g, 2124 m{sup 2}/g, and 1.96 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. • The microporous surface area, micropore volume, and microporosity percentage of prepared activated carbon has been obtained as 2124 m{sup 2}/g, 1.68 cm{sup 3}/g, and 85.71%, respectively. - Abstract: High surface area microporous activated carbon has been prepared from Fox nutshell (Euryale ferox) by chemical activation with ZnCl{sub 2} as an activator. The process has been conducted at different impregnation (ZnCl{sub 2}/Fox nutshell) ratios (1–2.5) and carbonization temperatures (500–700 °C). The thermal decomposition behavior of Fox nutshell and impregnated Fox nutshell has been carried out by thermogravimetric analysis. The pore properties including the BET surface area, micropore surface area, micropore volume, and pore size distribution of the activated carbons have been determined by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms at −196 °C using the BET, t-plot method, DR, and BJH methods. The BET surface area, the microporous surface area, total pore volume, and micropore volume have been obtained as 2869 m{sup 2}/g, 2124 m{sup 2}/g, 1.96 cm{sup 3}/g, and 1.68 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively, and the microporosity percentage of the prepared activated carbon is 85.71%. The prepared activated carbons have been also characterized with instrumental methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM).

  18. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingham, B. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Ko, M., E-mail: m.ko@questintegrity.com [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand); Laycock, N. [Quest Integrity Group, P.O. Box 38-096, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Burnell, J. [Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5045 (New Zealand); Kappen, P. [Centre for Materials and Surface Science, Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086 (Australia); Kimpton, J.A. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Williams, D.E. [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1022 (New Zealand)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated brine at 80 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protective scales were formed in all tests. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only FeCO{sub 3} formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} detected with presence of MgCl{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MgCl{sub 2} accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO{sub 2} saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}) at 80 Degree-Sign C. Siderite (FeCO{sub 3}) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was also detected when MgCl{sub 2} was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl{sub 2} addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  19. Compressive strength and resistance to chloride ion penetration and carbonation of recycled aggregate concrete with varying amount of fly ash and fine recycled aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jongsung; Park, Cheolwoo

    2011-11-01

    Construction and demolition waste has been dramatically increased in the last decade, and social and environmental concerns on the recycling have consequently been increased. Recent technology has greatly improved the recycling process for waste concrete. This study investigates the fundamental characteristics of concrete using recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for its application to structural concrete members. The specimens used 100% coarse RCA, various replacement levels of natural aggregate with fine RCA, and several levels of fly ash addition. Compressive strength of mortar and concrete which used RCA gradually decreased as the amount of the recycled materials increased. Regardless of curing conditions and fly ash addition, the 28 days strength of the recycled aggregate concrete was greater than the design strength, 40 MPa, with a complete replacement of coarse aggregate and a replacement level of natural fine aggregate by fine RCA up to 60%. The recycled aggregate concrete achieved sufficient resistance to the chloride ion penetration. The measured carbonation depth did not indicate a clear relationship to the fine RCA replacement ratio but the recycled aggregate concrete could also attain adequate carbonation resistance. Based on the results from the experimental investigations, it is believed that the recycled aggregate concrete can be successfully applied to structural concrete members. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of scale formation during CO2 corrosion of carbon steel in sodium and magnesium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingham, B.; Ko, M.; Laycock, N.; Burnell, J.; Kappen, P.; Kimpton, J.A.; Williams, D.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied the scale formation processes of carbon steel in CO 2 saturated brine at 80 °C. ► Protective scales were formed in all tests. ► Only FeCO 3 formed in saturated brine while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 detected with presence of MgCl 2 . ► MgCl 2 accelerates the onset of siderite precipitation. - Abstract: In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to follow the formation of corrosion products on carbon steel in CO 2 saturated NaCl solution and mixed NaCl/magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) at 80 °C. Siderite (FeCO 3 ) was the only phase formed in NaCl solution, while Fe(OH) 2 CO 3 was also detected when MgCl 2 was present. The proposed model is that siderite precipitation, occurring once the critical supersaturation was exceeded within a defined boundary layer, caused local acidification which accelerated the anodic dissolution of iron. The current fell once a complete surface scale was formed. It is suggested that MgCl 2 addition decreased the required critical supersaturation for precipitation.

  1. Carbon-14 kinetic isotope effects and mechanisms of addition of 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfenyl chloride to substituted styrenes-1-14C and styrenes-2-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanska, M.; Fry, A.

    1983-01-01

    As the first reported examples of carbon isotope effects in simple electrophilic addition reactions we have measured the carbon-14 kinetic isotope effects in the addition of 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfenyl chloride to a series of para-substituted α and β-labeled styrenes in acetic acid at 30.1 0 C: for para substituents Cl, H, and CH 3 the k/ 14 K values for α labeling are 1.027, 1.022, and 1.004, and the k/ 14 k values for β labeling are 1.035, 1.032, and 1.037, all +/-approx.0.004. The kinetics of the reaction were measured for the p-CH 3 O,p-CH 3 , unsubstituted, p-Cl, and m-NO 2 styrenes; electron-donating groups strongly accelerate the reaction, and electron-withdrawing groups retard it. The Hammett plot is curved with p + values ranging from about -4.6 at the electron-donating group (EDG) end to about -1.8 at the electron-withdrawing group (EWG) end. Both the isotope effect and kinetic data, and related data from the literature, are interpreted in terms of a changing mechanism, with the activated complexes of the rate-determining steps having much open carbenium ion (ion pair) character for EDG-substituted styrenes and much cyclic thiiranium io (ion par) character for EWG-substituted styrenes. 1 figure, 2 tables

  2. Kinetic of formation for single carbon dioxide and mixed carbon dioxide and tetrahydrofuran hydrates in water and sodium chloride aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabil, K.M.; Duarte, A.R.C.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Ahmad, M.M.; Yusup, S.; Omar, A.A.; Peters, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    A laboratory-scale reactor system is built and operated to measure the kinetic of formation for single and mixed carbon dioxide-tetrahydrofuran hydrates. The T-cycle method, which is used to collect the kinetic data, is briefly discussed. For single carbon dioxide hydrate, the induction time

  3. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao, E-mail: yangst@pku.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} enabled the magnetic separation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS. The facile regeneration of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed.

  4. Study of caffeine as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solehudin, Agus; Berman, Ega Taqwali; Nurdin, Isdiriayani

    2015-09-01

    The corrosion behaviour of steel surface in the absence and presence of caffeine in 3.5% NaCl solution containing dissolved H2S gas is studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H2S at different caffeine concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of caffeine concentrations from 0 to 0,1 mmol/l. Whereas, the corrosion rate increase with increasing of caffeine concentrations from 1 to 10 mmol/l. It is clear that no inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration. The optimum value of inhibition efficiency was 90% at a caffeine concentration of 0.1 mmol/l. This suggests that caffeine's performance as a corrosion inhibitor is more effective at a concentration of 0.1 mmol/l.

  5. Synergistic Inhibition of Carbon Steel Corrosion by Inhibitor-Blends in Chloride-Containing Simulated Cooling Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, Abdul; Felhosi, Ilona [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Vastag, Gyongyi [University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2017-06-15

    The objective of this work was to develop efficient synergistic inhibitor combinations comprising sodium nitrite (NaNO{sub 2}) and an inhibitor-blend code named (SN-50), keeping in view of their application in industrial cooling water systems. The electrochemical characteristics of the carbon steel working electrode in simulated cooling water (SCW), without and with the addition of different combinations of the inhibitors, were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP). The electrode surface changes were followed by visual characterization methods. It was demonstrated in this study that all the combinations of the inhibitors exhibited synergistic benefit and higher inhibition efficiencies than did either of the individual inhibitors. The addition of SN-50 inhibitor to the SCW shifted the OCP to more anodic values and increased the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) values of carbon steel at all applied concentrations. The higher the applied sodium nitrite concentration (in the protection concentration range), the higher the obtained R{sub p} values and the inhibition efficiency improved by increasing the inhibitor concentration.

  6. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae

    1976-06-01

    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  7. Process for crosslinking methylene-containing aromatic polymers with ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A process for crosslinking aromatic polymers containing radiation-sensitive methylene groups (-CH2-) by exposing the polymers to ionizing radiation thereby causing crosslinking of the polymers through the methylene groups is described. Crosslinked polymers are resistant to most organic solvents such as acetone, alcohols, hydrocarbons, methylene, chloride, chloroform, and other halogenated hydrocarbons, to common fuels and to hydraulic fluids in contrast to readily soluble uncrosslinked polymers. In addition, the degree of crosslinking of the polymers depends upon the percentage of the connecting groups which are methylene which ranges from 5 to 50 pct and preferably from 25 to 50 pct of the connecting groups, and is also controlled by the level of irradiation which ranges from 25 to 1000 Mrads and preferably from 25 to 250 Mrads. The temperature of the reaction conditions ranges from 25 to 200 C and preferably at or slightly above the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The crosslinked polymers are generally more resistant to degradation at elevated temperatures such as greater than 150 C, have a reduced tendency to creep under load, and show no significant embrittlement of parts fabricated from the polymers.

  8. Removal of copper (II) from aqueous solutions by flotation using polyaluminum chloride silicate (PAX-XL60 S) as coagulant and carbonate ion as activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, S E; Mahmoud, I A; Ragab, A H

    2006-01-01

    Flotation is a separation technology for removing toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Here a simple and rapid flotation procedure is presented for the removal of copper(II) from aqueous solutions. It is based on the use of polyaluminum chloride silicate (PAX-XL60 S) as coagulant and flocculent, carbonate ion as activator and oleic acid (HOL) as surfactant. Both ion and precipitate flotation are included depending on the solution pH. Ion and precipitate flotation in the aqueous HOL-PAX-XL60 S-Cu2+-CO3(2-) system gave powerful preferential removal of Cu2+ (F -100%) over the HOL-PAX-XL60 S-Cu2+ system containing no CO3(2+) ion (F approximately 86%). The role of CO3(2-) ion is also evident from decreasing the dose of PAX-XL60 S from 700 mg l(-1) to 200 mg l(-1). The other parameters, influencing the flotation process, namely: metal ion, surfactant and PAX-XL60 S concentrations, ionic strength, temperature and foreign ions were examined. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to recover Cu2+ ions from different volumes up to 11 and from natural water samples.

  9. Carbon-14 isotope effects in the addition of 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfenyl chloride to styrene-1-14C and styrene-2-14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanska, M.; Fry, A.

    1982-01-01

    The carbon-isotope effect reported here represents the first step in a general study of the mechanisms of simple electrophilic addition reactions by isotope effect techniques using the successive labeling approach. The addition of 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfenyl chloride to styrene was chosen as a ''calibration case'' for the cyclic mechanism. The observed isotope effects at /sup α/C and /sup #betta#/C are fully consistent with the cyclic mechanism and probably inconsistent with the open carbenium ion mechanisms. The values of 12 k/ 14 k indicated in this report are averages (and standard deviations) of values for five different fractions of reaction ranging from 20% to 70% with the calculations being made by all four of the Tong and Yankwich equations for each fraction of reaction. Results indicated that there were no trends in the 12 k/ 14 k values as the fraction of reaction varied, and as can be seen by the low standard deviations, there was good agreement among the values calculated by the four equations. These two facts to indicate that the starting materials were of high chemical and radiochemical purity and that the procedures used in the isotope effect experiments were accurate and properly controlled

  10. The a.c. response of lithium, stainless steel, and porous carbon electrodes in thionyl chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, M.

    1985-03-01

    Impedance measurements on Li electrodes in SOCl 2 electrolytes indicate that the structure of the passivating surface layer formed in 1.8M LiAlCl 4 differs from that formed in 1.8M AlCl 3, 1.2M LiCl, 0.6M SO 2. Also, porous carbon electrodes are found to behave differently in these two electrolytes. Unpolarised stainless steel electrodes show a 67° constant phase angle impedance over a wide frequency range whereas polarised to O mV vs. Li the impedance diagram is very similar to that of Li. Finally, it is found that passivation may develop differently for Li pressed onto stainless steel from that of Li pressed onto glass.

  11. The a.c. response of lithium, stainless steel, and porous carbon electrodes in thionyl chloride solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    1985-01-01

    Impedance measurements on Li electrodes in SOCl2 electrolytes indicate that the structure of the passivating surface layer formed in 1.8M LiAlCl4 differs from that formed in 1.8M AlCl3, 1.2M LiCl, 0.6M SO2. Also, porous carbon electrodes are found to behave differently in these two electrolytes....... Unpolarised stainless steel electrodes show a 67° constant phase angle impedance over a wide frequency range whereas polarised to O mV vs. Li the impedance diagram is very similar to that of Li. Finally, it is found that passivation may develop differently for Li pressed onto stainless steel from that of Li...

  12. Easy synthesis of hierarchical carbon spheres with superior capacitive performance in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinhua; Kim, Seok; Heo, Min Seon; Kim, Ji Eun; Suh, Hongsuk; Kim, Il

    2013-10-01

    An easy template-free approach to the fabrication of pure carbon microspheres has been achieved via direct pyrolysis of as-prepared polyaromatic hydrocarbons including polynaphthalene and polypyrene. The polyaromatics were synthesized from aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs) using anhydrous zinc chloride as the Friedel-Crafts catalyst and chloromethyl methyl ether as a cross-linker. The experimental results show that the methylene bridges between phenyl rings generate a hierarchical porous polyaromatic precursor to form three-dimensionally (3D) interconnected micro-, meso-, and macroporous networks during carbonization. These hierarchical porous carbon aggregates of spherical carbon spheres exhibit faster ion transport/diffusion behavior and increased surface area usage in electric double-layer capacitors. Furthermore, micropores are present in the 3D interconnected network inside the cross-linked AHC-based carbon microspheres, thus imparting an exceptionally large, electrochemically accessible surface area for charge accumulation.

  13. The protective effect of Murraya koenigii leaves against carbon tetra chloride-induced hepatic damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahma Naidu Parimi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of methanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (MMK leaves in attenuating the hepatic damage inflicted by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, a potent oxidative stress inducer and a model hepatotoxicant. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups of five each: normal control group, CCl4 group, CCl 4+silymarin group, CCl4+MMK group (200 mg/kg body weight, CCl4+MMK group (300 mg/kg body weight and CCl4+MMK group (500 mg/kg body weight. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 20% CCl4 in corn oil (1 mL/kg body weight and MMK was orally administered for 3 weeks. Levels of hepatic markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin were measured. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were assayed and malondialdehyde content was measured. For histopathological examination, liver microtome sections were prepared and observed under light microscope. Results: Oral administration of MMK had significantly reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin content in a dosedependent manner, which were elevated by CCl 4. However, CCl 4-induced rise in lipid peroxidation and drop in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reversed by MMK administration. Further, the hepatoprotective activity of MMK was supported by histopathological examination of liver microtome sections. Conclusions: Our biochemical and histological studies demonstrate the potential antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of MMK and our results scientifically validate the often use of MMK leaves in food preparation and in Ayurvedic medicine in India and neighboring countries.

  14. Nano-assemblies consisting of Pd/Pt nanodendrites and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-coated reduced graphene oxide on glassy carbon electrode for hydrogen peroxide sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Di; Ma, Min; Wang, Weizhen; Chen, Qiang, E-mail: qiangchen@nankai.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensors were fabricated on the basis of glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with palladium (Pd) core-platinum (Pt) nanodendrites (Pt-NDs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A facile wet-chemical method was developed for preparing Pd core-Pt nanodendrites. In this approach, the growth of Pt NDs was directed by Pd nanocrystal which could be regarded as seed. The PDDA-coated rGO could form uniform film on the surface of GC electrode, which provided a support for Pd core- Pt NDs adsorption by self-assembly. The morphologies of the nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (spectrum). Electrocatalytic ability of the nanocomposites was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods. The sensor fabricated by Pd core-Pt NDs/PDDA-rGO/GCE exhibited high sensitivity (672.753 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), low detection limit (0.027 μM), wider linear range (0.005–0.5 mM) and rapid response time (within 5 s). Besides, it also exhibited superior reproducibility, excellent anti-interference performance and long-term stability. The present work could afford a viable method and efficient platform for fabricating all kinds of amperometric sensors and biosensors. - Highlights: • A facial wet-chemical method was developed for preparing Pd core-Pt nanodendrites. • The morphologies of graphene and Pd core-Pt nanodendrites were characterized. • A novel H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor was fabricated by nano-assembly. • The performance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric methods.

  15. Solid binary mixtures of neopentanol with tert-Butyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride studied by thermal, X-ray and dielectric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Girish; Murthy, S.S.N., E-mail: ssnm0700@gmail.com

    2016-05-10

    Highlights: • DSC, dielectric and X-ray measurements have been done on TBC-NPOH and CTC-NPOH. • The results show the formation of solid solution for concentrations 0.7 ≤ x{sub m} ≤ 0.9. • A primary α-process and two sub-T{sub g} processes are found for TBC-NPOH. • For CTC-NPOH only one sub-T{sub g} process is found. • All the three sub-T{sub g} processes are Johari–Goldstein type. - Abstract: The binary mixtures of Neopentanol (NPOH) with tert-Butyl chloride (TBC) and Carbon tetrachloride (CTC), have been studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Dielectric spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The results indicate the formation of the solid solutions. The crystalline solid thus formed is found to be orientationally disordered and supercools easily to form glassy crystal for mole fraction of NPOH in the range of 0.7–0.9. The T{sub g} values are in the range of 140–147 K. In the dielectric study, a primary α-process and two sub-T{sub g} processes are found for TBC-NPOH, whereas for CTC-NPOH only one sub-T{sub g} process is found. The dielectric spectra of α- process follows the Havriliak–Negami equation. The sub-T{sub g} processes follow the Cole–Cole equation, and are found to be of Johari–Goldstein type, indicating intermolecular nature.

  16. EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CATION OF ALKYLDIMETHYLBENZYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE AT THE PHASE BOUNDARY WATER-MEMBRANE SOLVENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Luganska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extraction coefficients of the cation of alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride at the phase boundary water-tricresylphosphate, water-dioctylphthalate, water-dibutylphtalate have been determined by the potentiometric titration of the aqueous phase with a silver electrode. The correctness of the obtained results has been proved by the titrimetric method with visual fixation of the equivalence point using methylene blue indicator.

  17. Methylene blue protects against TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity in C. elegans and D. rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    Full Text Available The DNA/RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS are found in protein aggregates in a growing number of neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and related dementia, but little is known about the neurotoxic mechanisms. We have generated Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish animal models expressing mutant human TDP-43 (A315T or G348C or FUS (S57Δ or R521H that reflect certain aspects of ALS including motor neuron degeneration, axonal deficits, and progressive paralysis. To explore the potential of our humanized transgenic C. elegans and zebrafish in identifying chemical suppressors of mutant TDP-43 and FUS neuronal toxicity, we tested three compounds with potential neuroprotective properties: lithium chloride, methylene blue and riluzole. We identified methylene blue as a potent suppressor of TDP-43 and FUS toxicity in both our models. Our results indicate that methylene blue can rescue toxic phenotypes associated with mutant TDP-43 and FUS including neuronal dysfunction and oxidative stress.

  18. O emprego de quitosana quimicamente modificada com anidrido succínico na adsorção de azul de metileno The use of chemical modified chitosam with succinic anhydride in the methylene blue adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilauro S. Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption capacity of alpha-chitosan and its modified form with succinic anhydride was compared with the traditional adsorbent active carbon by using the dye methylene blue, employed in the textile industry. The isotherms for both biopolymers were classified as SSA systems in the Giles model, more specifically in L class and subgroup 3. The dye concentration in the supernatant in the adsorption assay was determined through electronic spectroscopy. By calorimetric titration thermodynamic data of the interaction between methyene blue and the chemically modified chitosan at the solid/liquid interface were obtained. The enthalpy of the dye/chitosan interaction gave 2.47 ± 0.02 kJ mol-1 with an equilibrium constant of 7350 ± 10 and for the carbon/dye interaction this constant gave 5951 ± 8. The spontaneity of these adsorptions are reflected by the free Gibbs energies of -22.1 ± 0.4 and -21.5 ± 0.2 kJ mol-1, respectively, found for these systems. This new adsorbent derived from a natural polysaccharide is as efficient as activated carbon. However 97% of the bonded dye can be eluted by sodium chloride solution, while this same operation elutes only 42% from carbon. Chitosan is efficient in dye removal with the additional advantage of being cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable.

  19. Organotrichlorogermane synthesis by the reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chloride via dichlorogermylene intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masaki; Asano, Takuya; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2004-08-07

    Organotrichlorogermanes were synthesized by the reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chlorides, methyl, propyl, isopropyl and allyl chlorides. Dichlorogermylene formed by the reaction of elemental germanium with tetrachlorogermane was the reaction intermediate, which was inserted into the carbon-chlorine bond of the organic chloride to give organotrichlorogermane. When isopropyl or allyl chloride was used as an organic chloride, organotrichlorogermane was formed also in the absence of tetrachlorogermane. These chlorides were converted to hydrogen chloride, which subsequently reacted with elemental germanium to give the dichlorogermylene intermediate. The reaction of elemental germanium, tetrachlorogermane and organic chlorides provides a simple and easy method for synthesizing organotrichlorogermanes, and all the raw materials are easily available.

  20. Radiolysis of methylene blue studied by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contineau, M.; Iliescu, C.; Ciureanu, M.

    1983-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra have been used to gain information on the mechanism of radiolysis of aqueous solutions of methylene blue. The identity and behaviour of the semiquinone radicals formed as intermediate reduction products were discussed for strongly acid and for alcaline solutions. In order to obtain information on the radiolytic mechanism in strongly acidic media, irradiation was performed in the presence of various types of scavengers: sodium formate, glucose, succinic acid, hydroquinone and D,L-α alanine. (author)

  1. Determination of Critical Micellar Concentration of Homologous 2-Alkoxyphenylcarbamoyloxyethyl-Morpholinium Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Stopková

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The critical micellar concentrations of selected alkyloxy homologues of local anesthetic 4-(2-{[(2-alkoxyphenylcarbamoyl]oxy}ethylmorpholin-4-ium chloride with nc = 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 carbons in alkyloxy tail were determined by absorption spectroscopy in the UV–vis spectral region with the use of a pyrene probe. Within the homologous series of the studied amphiphilic compounds, the ln(cmc was observed to be dependent linearly on the number of carbon atoms nc in the hydrophobic tail: ln(cmc = 0.705–0.966 nc. The Gibbs free energy, necessary for the transfer of the methylene group of the alkoxy chain from the water phase into the inner part of the micelle at the temperature of 25 °C and pH ≈ 4.5–5.0, was found to be −2.39 kJ/mol. The experimentally determined cmc values showed good correlations with the predicted values of the bulkiness of the alkoxy tail expressed as the molar volume of substituent R, as well as with the surface tension of the compounds.

  2. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  3. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002474.htm Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  4. Compound list: methylene dianiline [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available methylene dianiline DAPM 00155 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/methyle...es/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/methylene_dianiline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc....jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/methylene_dianiline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ... ...ne_dianiline.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggat

  5. Occupational methaemoglobinaemia. Mechanisms of production, features, diagnosis and management including the use of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradberry, Sally M

    2003-01-01

    unreliable in the presence of methaemoglobinaemia. Arterial blood gas analysis is mandatory in severe poisoning and reveals normal partial pressures of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2,), a normal 'calculated' haemoglobin oxygen saturation, an increased methaemoglobin concentration and possibly a metabolic acidosis. Following decontamination, high-flow oxygen should be given to maximise oxygen carriage by remaining ferrous haem. No controlled trial of the efficacy of methylene blue has been performed but clinical experience suggests that methylene blue can increase the rate of methaemoglobin conversion to haemoglobin some 6-fold. Patients with features and/or methaemoglobin concentrations of 30-50%, should be administered methylene blue 1-2 mg/kg/bodyweight intravenously (the dose depending on the severity of the features), whereas those with methaemoglobin concentrations exceeding 50% should be given methylene blue 2 mg/kg intravenously. Symptomatic improvement usually occurs within 30 minutes and a second dose of methylene blue will be required in only very severe cases or if there is evidence of ongoing methaemoglobin formation. Methylene blue is less effective or ineffective in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency since its antidotal action is dependent on nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). In addition, methylene blue is most effective in intact erythrocytes; efficacy is reduced in the presence of haemolysis. Moreover, in the presence of haemolysis, high dose methylene blue (20-30 mg/kg) can itself initiate methaemoglobin formation. Supplemental antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), N-acetylcysteine and tocopherol (vitamin E) have been used as adjuvants or alternatives to methylene blue with no confirmed benefit. Exchange transfusion may have a role in the management of severe haemolysis or in G-6-P-D deficiency associated with life-threatening methaemoglobinaemia where methylene blue is relatively contraindicated.

  6. Application of Spent Li-Ion Batteries Cathode in Methylene Blue Dye Discoloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the mechanism study of methylene blue (MB discoloration using spent Li-ion battery cathode tape and hydrogen peroxide. The recycled cathode used in this work is composed of 72% of LiCoO2, 18% of carbon, and 10% of Al. The value found for surface area is 8.9 m2/g and the ZCP value occurs in pH = 2.95. Different from what is proposed in the literature, the most likely mechanism of methylene blue discoloration is the oxidation/delitiation of LiCoO2 and the reduction of H2O2 forming OH∙. Thus, in this paper, an important and promising alternative for discoloration of textile industry dyes using spent Li-ion battery cathode is presented.

  7. Process for making rare earth metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruesi, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An uncombined metal or a metal compound such as a sulfide, oxide, carbonate or sulfate is converted in a liquid salt bath to the corresponding metal chloride by reacting it with chlorine gas or a chlorine donor. The process applies to metals of groups 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 5a and 8 of the periodic table and to the rare earth metals. The chlorine donor may be ferric or sulfur chloride. The liquid fused salt bath is made up of chlorides of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, ammonia, zinc and ferric iron. Because the formed metal chlorides are soluble in the liquid fused salt bath, they can be recovered by various conventional means

  8. Approach to corrosion mechanisms for a carbon steel in a solution of sodium chloride at 3 pc and its inhibition by means of organic molecules. Compared benefit of the use of stationary and transient electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, Michel

    1981-01-01

    Within the context of an increased use of seawater as coolant in various industrial installations, this research thesis had two main objectives: the search for inhibitor organic compounds with optimal efficiency, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of corrosion inhibition by the best compounds within the considered organic compounds. After having reported a bibliographical study on carbon steel corrosion in seawater or in a sodium chloride solution at 3 pc, and on the inhibition of this corrosion, the author presents the experimental conditions (materials and methods). He reports the use of stationary and un-stationary electrochemical methods for the study of the steel-solution interface without inhibitor in order to get a better knowledge of corrosion electrochemical processes and to determine more precisely the corrosion rate. The last part addresses the study of the same interface but in presence of various inhibitors

  9. The Effect of Single, Binary and Ternary Anions of Chloride, Carbonate and Phosphate on the Release of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate Intercalated into the Zn–Al-layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Zulkarnain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intercalation of beneficial anion into inorganic host has lead to an opportunity to synthesize various combinations of new organic–inorganic nanohybrids with various potential applications; especially, for the controlled release formulation and storage purposes. Investigation on the release behavior of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D intercalated into the interlayer of Zn–Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAN have been carried out using single, binary and ternary aqueous systems of chloride, carbonate and phosphate. The release behavior of the active agent 2,4-D from its double-layered hydroxide nanohybrid ZANDI was found to be of controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. It was found that carbonate medium yielded the highest accumulated release of 2,4-D, while phosphate in combination with carbonate and/or nitrate speeds up the release rate of 2,4-D. These results indicate that it is possible to design and develop new delivery system of latex stimulant compound with controlled release property based on 2,4-D that is known as a substance to increase latex production of rubber tree,Hevea brasiliensis.

  10. Application of machine/statistical learning, artificial intelligence and statistical experimental design for the modeling and optimization of methylene blue and Cd(ii) removal from a binary aqueous solution by natural walnut carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, H; Ghaedi, M; Ahmadi Azqhandi, M H; Asfaram, A

    2017-05-10

    Analytical chemists apply statistical methods for both the validation and prediction of proposed models. Methods are required that are adequate for finding the typical features of a dataset, such as nonlinearities and interactions. Boosted regression trees (BRTs), as an ensemble technique, are fundamentally different to other conventional techniques, with the aim to fit a single parsimonious model. In this work, BRT, artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) models have been used for the optimization and/or modeling of the stirring time (min), pH, adsorbent mass (mg) and concentrations of MB and Cd 2+ ions (mg L -1 ) in order to develop respective predictive equations for simulation of the efficiency of MB and Cd 2+ adsorption based on the experimental data set. Activated carbon, as an adsorbent, was synthesized from walnut wood waste which is abundant, non-toxic, cheap and locally available. This adsorbent was characterized using different techniques such as FT-IR, BET, SEM, point of zero charge (pH pzc ) and also the determination of oxygen containing functional groups. The influence of various parameters (i.e. pH, stirring time, adsorbent mass and concentrations of MB and Cd 2+ ions) on the percentage removal was calculated by investigation of sensitive function, variable importance rankings (BRT) and analysis of variance (RSM). Furthermore, a central composite design (CCD) combined with a desirability function approach (DFA) as a global optimization technique was used for the simultaneous optimization of the effective parameters. The applicability of the BRT, ANN and RSM models for the description of experimental data was examined using four statistical criteria (absolute average deviation (AAD), mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R 2 )). All three models demonstrated good predictions in this study. The BRT model was more precise compared to the other models and this showed

  11. Immobilization of CoCl2 (cobalt chloride) on PAN (polyacrylonitrile) composite nanofiber mesh filled with carbon nanotubes for hydrogen production from hydrolysis of NaBH4 (sodium borohydride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fang; Arthur, Ernest Evans; La, Dahye; Li, Qiming; Kim, Hern

    2014-01-01

    Composite nanofiber sheets containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and cobalt chloride dispersed in PAN (polyacrylonitrile) were produced by an electrospinning technique. The synthesized PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride. FT-IR characterization showed that the pretreated CNTs possess different organic functional groups which help improve the compatibility between CNTs and PAN organic polymer. SEM (scanning electron microscopy), TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray technique) were used to characterize the composite nanofiber and it was found that CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. During the hydrolysis of NaBH 4 , this PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity compared to the composite without CNTs doping. Kinetic analysis of NaBH 4 hydrolysis shows that the reaction of NaBH 4 hydrolysis based on this catalyst can be ascribed to the first-order reaction and the activation energy of the catalyst was approximately 52.857 kJ/mol. Meanwhile, the composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability in the recycling experiment. - Highlights: • Composite nanofiber sheets were prepared via electrospinning. • PAN (polyacrylonitrile)/CoCl 2 (cobalt chloride)/CNTs (carbon nanotubes) nanofiber was used as the catalyst for hydrogen production. • CNTs can be coaxially dispersed into the PAN nanofiber. • PAN/CoCl 2 /CNTs composite nanofiber exhibited higher catalytic activity. • The composite nanofiber catalyst shows excellent stability and reusability

  12. Mass concentration and ion composition of coarse and fine particles in an urban area in Beirut: effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of nitric and sulfuric acids and the depletion of chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kouyoumdjian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of coarse (PM10-2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particles were determined between February 2004 and January 2005 in the city of Beirut, Lebanon. While low PM mass concentrations were measured in the rainy season, elevated levels were detected during sand storms originating from Arabian desert and/or Africa. Using ATR-FTIR and IC, it was shown that nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and chloride were the main anionic constituents of the coarse particles, whereas sulfate was mostly predominant in the fine particles in the form of (NH42SO4. Ammonium nitrate was not expected to be important because the medium was defined as ammonium poor. In parallel, the cations Ca2+ and Na+ dominated in the coarse, and NH4+, Ca2+ and Na+ in the fine particles. Coarse nitrate and sulfate ions resulted from the respective reactions of nitric and sulfuric acid with a relatively high amount of calcium carbonate. Both CaCO3 and Ca(NO32 crystals identified by ATR-FTIR in the coarse particles were found to be resistant to soaking in water for 24 h but became water soluble when they were formed in the fine particles suggesting, thereby, different growth and adsorption phenomena. The seasonal variational study showed that nitrate and sulfate ion concentrations increased in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions which facilitated the conversion of NO2 and SO2 gases into NO3- and SO42-, respectively. While nitrate was mainly due to local heavy traffic, sulfates were due to local and long-range transport phenomena. Using the air mass trajectory HYSPLIT model, it was found that the increase in the sulfate concentration correlated with wind vectors coming from Eastern and Central Europe. Chloride levels, on the other hand, were high when wind originated from the sea and low during sand storms. In addition to sea salt, elevated levels of chloride were also attributed to waste mass burning in proximity to the site. In comparison to other neighboring Mediterranean

  13. Absorption media for irreversibly gettering thionyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffleben, George; Goods, Steven H.; Shepodd, Timothy; Wheeler, David R.; Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy

    2002-01-01

    Thionyl chloride is a hazardous and reactive chemical used as the liquid cathode in commercial primary batteries. Contrary to previous thinking, ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon (Calgon Corporation) reversibly absorbs thionyl chloride. Thus, several candidate materials were examined as irreversible getters for thionyl chloride. The capacity, rate and effect of temperature were also explored. A wide variety of likely materials were investigated through screening experiments focusing on the degree of heat generated by the reaction as well as the material absorption capacity and irreversibility, in order to help narrow the group of possible getter choices. More thorough, quantitative measurements were performed on promising materials. The best performing getter was a mixture of ZnO and ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. In this example, the ZnO reacts with thionyl chloride to form ZnCl.sub.2 and SO.sub.2. The SO.sub.2 is then irreversibly gettered by ASZM-TEDA.RTM. carbon. This combination of ZnO and carbon has a high capacity, is irreversible and functions effectively above -20.degree. C.

  14. Electrochemical studies of the corrosion behavior of a low-carbon steel in aqueous chloride solutions simulating accident conditions of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvaque-Bera, A.M.; Leistikow, S.

    1991-01-01

    The fine-grained structural steel DIN W.Nr. 1.0566 was exposed to various sulfate and chloride-containing aqueous solutions, the latter ones simulating the potential accidental environment of water intrusion into a salt mine. By electrochemical measurements in salt brines, the following results were achieved: (1) The corrosion rate is highly dependent on salt brine composition, pH and temperature. (2) Active metal dissolution led to formation of shallow pits as surface corrosion phenomenon. Thus, the application of electrochemical techniques - under non-polarized as well as under potentiodynamic conditions - proved to be suitable for fast qualitative testing of the influence of various environmental parameters on steel corrosion. (orig.)

  15. Inhibition properties of self-assembled corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline for mild steel corrosion in chloride solution saturated with carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevremović, Ivana; Singer, Marc; Nešić, Srđan; Mišković-Stanković, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Corrosion inhibitor talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline effectively protects mild steel from CO 2 corrosion. •Quartz crystal microbalance measurements were used to the investigate kinetics of corrosion inhibitor adsorption. •Adsorption of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline can be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. -- Abstract: The inhibition effect of talloil diethylenetriamine imidazoline (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) on corrosion of mild steel in chloride solutions saturated with CO 2 was investigated by weight loss measurements (WL) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Adsorption mechanism and kinetics of self-assembled (TOFA/DETA imidazoline) monolayers formation on gold were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance measurements (QCM). WL and AFM results demonstrated that TOFA/DETA imidazoline can effectively protect mild steel surface from corrosion. QCM measurements shown that the adsorption of TOFA/DETA imidazoline onto gold follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm and further investigation of the adsorption process will be carried out on a corroding metal surface

  16. Microporous-mesoporous carbons for energy storage synthesized by activation of carbonaceous material by zinc chloride, potassium hydroxide or mixture of them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härmas, M.; Thomberg, T.; Kurig, H.; Romann, T.; Jänes, A.; Lust, E.

    2016-09-01

    Various electrochemical methods have been applied to establish the electrochemical characteristics of the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) consisting of the 1 M triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate solution in acetonitrile and activated carbon based electrodes. Activated microporous carbon materials used for the preparation of electrodes have been synthesized from the hydrothermal carbonization product (HTC) prepared via hydrothermal carbonization process of D-(+)-glucose solution in H2O, followed by activation with ZnCl2, KOH or their mixture. Highest porosity and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area (SBET = 2150 m2 g-1), micropore surface area (Smicro = 2140 m2 g-1) and total pore volume (Vtot = 1.01 cm3 g-1) have been achieved for HTC activated using KOH with a mass ratio of 1:4 at 700 °C. The correlations between SBET, Smicro, Vtot and electrochemical characteristics have been studied to investigate the reasons for strong dependence of electrochemical characteristics on the synthesis conditions of carbon materials studied. Wide region of ideal polarizability (ΔV ≤ 3.0 V), very short characteristic relaxation time (0.66 s), and high specific series capacitance (134 F g-1) have been calculated for the mentioned activated carbon material, demonstrating that this system can be used for completing the EDLC with high energy- and power densities.

  17. for the removal of triphenyltin chloride (TPT) from dockyard wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-06

    Oct 6, 2014 ... The use of triphenyltin chloride (TPT), a persistent organic pollutant, as a biocide has led to serious ... Activated carbon has been widely investigated for the ..... solid-state fermentation of dye-adsorbed agricultural residues.

  18. Effect of some pre-treatments on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, S.; Guerses, A.; Bayrak, R.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments, such as HCl treatment, demineralization and pyrolysis, under a CO 2 atmosphere at different temperatures on the adsorption of methylene blue by Balkaya lignite were investigated. The adsorption capacities of the samples were determined before and after these pre-treatments. In addition, the removals of pyritic and organic sulfur and ash contents for the same coal samples were also defined. It was found that the adsorption capacities of the samples decreased after these pre-treatments. The decrease in adsorption capacity with pyrolysis can be attributed to the changes in surface morphology and/or pore size distribution of the coal samples. On the other hand, the observed decrease in adsorption capacity with removal of carbonates and silicates shows that these minerals have an important effect on methylene blue adsorption, and the adsorption considerably occurs through electrostatic interactions. In addition, the obtained results showed that the organic sulfur presence in the coal matrix have a positive effect on the methylene blue adsorption

  19. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  20. Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping Mechanism for Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    NS neutron scattering OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PALS positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy PhOH phenol PI... annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS)10, which can be used to identify microstructures and free volume properties of organic coatings and, thus...4-3 4.2.1.3 Application Methods

  1. Analgesic effects of the methylene chloride/methanol extract of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CH2Cl2/CH3OH) extract of Laportea ovalifolia (Urticaceae) were evaluated using acetic acid and formalin test. The anticonvulsant effects of the same extract were also investigated on seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and picrotoxin.

  2. Health risk assessment of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in California ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; Wright, K.; McKone, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to dichloromethane (DCM) dissolved in California drinking water, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential cancer risk that may be associated with such exposures to DCM. This assessment is being provided to the California Environmental Protection Agency for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of DCM exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with DCM. The primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate scientifically plausible dose-response relationships for observed and potential DCM-induced cancer in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that win protect members of the general public from this chronic toxicity endpoint resulting solely from groundwater-based exposures to DCM, based on information obtained from the scientific literature. The document consists of seven sections, plus one supporting appendix. Each section provides information that can be used to develop DCM drinking-water standards that will safeguard human health. Evaluation of this information in support of specific groundwater safety standards for DCM was not conducted in this report; rather, the basis for selection of alternative standards, along with a narrative description of certain key sources of underlying uncertainty, are presented for evaluation through the regulatory risk-management process

  3. Report on Scientific Basis for Paint Stripping: Mechanism of Methylene Chloride Based Paint Removers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    observing NMR of the solvent molecules themselves, 1H NMR can be useful in more highly swollen cases such as chloroform in copolymer gel beads,14 or in...Polyurethane Topcoat. Part A Raw Material Wt % Part B Raw Material Wt % Methyl N- propyl ketone 1 Polyurethane resin 43 Methyl N-amyl ketone 7 N-Butyl...2 5.5 N-Butyl acetate 2 Methyl N-amyl ketone 8.9 Methyl N- propyl ketone 1.3 Anti-oxidant 0.4 UV absorber 0.6 UV Stabilizer 1.3

  4. Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in setting acute exposure guideline levels for methylene chloride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Peter Martinus Jozef; Zeilmaker, Marco Jacob; Eijkeren, Jan Cornelis Henri van

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) are derived to protect the human population from adverse health effects in case of single exposure due to an accidental release of chemicals into the atmosphere. AEGLs are set at three different levels of increasing toxicity for exposure durations ranging from

  5. POLY[3-(METHACRYLOYLAMINO)PROPYL]TRIMETHYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE HYDROGEL. SYNTHESIS AND WATER-ABSORPTION CAPACITY.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas, Bernabé L.; Canessa, Guido S.; Martínez, Esteban

    2000-01-01

    The radical polymerization of [3-(methacryloylamino)propyl]trimethylammonium chloride by using ammonium persulfate as initiator and N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide as crosslinker reagent was carried out. The polymers were completely insoluble in water and characterized by FT IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The effect of the crosslinker reagent on the water sorption capacity was investigated. The highest water-absorption (46.6 g of water/ g of xerogel) was observed with the lowest mol% of c...

  6. Chloride flux in phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun

    2016-09-01

    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Replacing Chlorine with Hydrogen Chloride as a Possible Reactant for Synthesis of Titanium Carbide Derived Carbon Powders for High-Technology Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallo, Indrek; Thomberg, Thomas; Jänes, Alar; Lust, Enn

    2013-01-01

    Micro- and mesoporous carbide-derived carbons were synthesized from titanium carbide (TiC) powder via gas phase reaction by using different reactants (Cl 2 and HCl) within the temperature range from 700 to 1100 °C. Analysis of XRD results show that TiC-derived carbons (TiC-CDC) consist mainly of graphitic crystallites. The first-order Raman spectra showed the graphite-like absorption peaks at ∼1577 cm 1 and the disorder-induced peaks at ∼1338 cm- 1 . The energy-related properties of supercapacitors based on 1 M (C 2 H 5 ) 3 CH 3 NBF 4 in acetonitrile and carbide-derived carbons (TiC-CDC (Cl 2 ) and TiC-CDC (HCl)) as electrode materials were also investigated using cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, galvanostatic charge/discharge and constant power methods. The Ragone plots for carbide-derived carbons prepared by using different reactants (Cl 2 , HCl) are quite similar and at high power loads TiC-CDC (Cl 2 ) material synthesized at 900 °C, i.e. materials with optimal porous structure, deliver higher power at constant energy

  8. Batch Adsorption Study of Methylene Blue in Aqueous Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    of methylene blue (azo dye) from the synthetic industrial wastewater was investigated in a batch system. Rice husk and coconut shell were ... the textiles, rubber, paper, plastics, cosmetic, and .... wastewater by. Fenton's oxidation: Kinetic study.

  9. Photodynamic action of the methylene blue: mutagenesis and sinergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Two aspects of photodynamic therapy were studied: the associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents, in order to increase its biological effects. The photodynamic action with methylene blue in the mutagenesis and sinergism is studied. (L.M.J.)

  10. INTERACTION MODE BETWEEN METHYLENE BLUE-Sm(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange .... the complex was recorded as KBr pellets on Spectrum One FTIR system (PE Company, USA), ..... mechanism of drugs and drug design.

  11. DNA Electrochemistry with Tethered Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheeney, Catrina G.

    2012-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB′), covalently attached to DNA through a flexible C12 alkyl linker, provides a sensitive redox reporter in DNA electrochemistry measurements. Tethered, intercalated MB′ is reduced through DNA-mediated charge transport; the incorporation of a single base mismatch at position 3, 10, or 14 of a 17-mer causes an attenuation of the signal to 62 ± 3% of the well-matched DNA, irrespective of position in the duplex. The redox signal intensity for MB′–DNA is found to be least 3-fold larger than that of Nile blue (NB)–DNA, indicating that MB′ is even more strongly coupled to the π-stack. The signal attenuation due to an intervening mismatch does, however, depend on DNA film density and the backfilling agent used to passivate the surface. These results highlight two mechanisms for reduction of MB′ on the DNA-modified electrode: reduction mediated by the DNA base pair stack and direct surface reduction of MB′ at the electrode. These two mechanisms are distinguished by their rates of electron transfer that differ by 20-fold. The extent of direct reduction at the surface can be controlled by assembly and buffer conditions. PMID:22512327

  12. Methylene Blue for Vasoplegic Syndrome Postcardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Aly Makram; Elsherbeny, Ahmed Galal; Almehizia, Rayd Abdelaziz

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can be complicated by vasoplegia that is refractory to vasopressors. Methylene blue (MB) represents an alternative in such cases. Patients and Methods: Retrospective observational historical control-matched study. From 2010 to 2015, all patients who received MB for vasoplegia post-CPB were included in this study. Historical controls from the period of 2004 to 2009 were matched. End-points were the time till improvement of vasoplegia (Ti), 30-day mortality, cardiac surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU) morbidity, and length of stay (LOS). Results: Twenty-eight patients were matched in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in demographic, laboratory data on admission, or hemodynamic profile before use of MB. Ti and time to complete discontinuation of vasopressors were statistically significant less in MB group (8.2 ± 2.6 vs. 29.7 ± 6.4, P = 0.00 and 22.6 ± 5.2 vs. 55.3 ± 9.4, P = 0.00) respectively. Mortality at day 30 was significantly higher in controls compared to MB (1 patient [3.6%] vs. 6 patients [21.4%], long rank P = 0.04). CSICU, hospital LOS, and incidence of renal failure was significantly higher in control group (12.4 ± 3.7 vs. 7 ± 1.4, P = 0.03), (19.5 ± 2.4 vs. 10.9 ± 3.2, P = 0.05) and (9 patients [32.1%] vs. 2 patients [7.1%], P = 0.04), respectively. Duration of mechanical ventilation was less in MB patients; however, did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: the use of MB for vasoplegia postcardiac surgery was associated with rapid recovery of hemodynamics, shorter need for vasopressors, less ICU mortality, less incidence of renal failure, and shorter LOS. PMID:29657374

  13. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Kihara, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Ohuchi, Misao

    1996-06-01

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C{sub 2}HCl{sub 3} and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl{sub 2} and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} were formed. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl{sub 2}, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH{sub 3}{sup +} and CH{sub 4} were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  14. Synthesis and highly visible-induced photocatalytic activity of CNT-CdSe composite for methylene blue solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotube-cadmium selenide (CNT-CdSe composite was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method derived from multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a stating material. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer. The as-synthesized CNT-CdSe composite efficiently catalyzed the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solutions under visible-light irradiation, exhibiting higher photocatalytic activity.

  15. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  16. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  17. Liquid-liquid extraction of cadmium(II by TIOACl (tri-iso-octylammonium chloride ionic liquid and its application to a TIOACl impregnated carbon nanotubes system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, Francisco J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of cadmium(II by the ionic liquid (R3NH+Cl- (R: tri-iso-octyl in Exxsol D100 from hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated. The extraction reaction is exothermic. The numerical analysis of metal distribution data suggests the formation of R3NH+CdCl3− and (R3NH+2CdCl42− species in the organic phase. The results obtained for cadmium(II distribution have been implemented in an impregnated multi-walled carbon nanotubes system. The influence of aqueous solution stirring speed (250–2000 min−1, adsorbent dosage (0.05–0.2 g and temperature (20 °C–60 °C on cadmium adsorption have been investigated.Se ha estudiado la extracción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio HCl, por el líquido iónico (R3NH+Cl- (R: tri-iso-octyl disuelto en Exxsol D100. La reacción de extracción tiene un carácter exotérmico. El análisis numérico de la distribución del metal sugiere la formación de las especies R3NH+CdCl3− y (R3NH+2CdCl42− en la fase orgánica. Estos resultados se han implementado en un sistema que utiliza nanotubos de carbono de pared múltiple impregnados con este líquido iónico. Se han investigado diversas variables experimentales: velocidad de agitación de la disolución acuosa (250–2000 min−1, adición del adsorbente (0,05–0,2 g y temperatura (20–60 °C.

  18. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.

    1982-10-19

    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  19. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  20. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  1. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-05-24

    We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant kb, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-5) mol L(-1), with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(-8) mol L(-1) for SY and 1.43×10(-8) mol L(-1) for TT (SN(-1)=3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of SY and TT both involved a one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  3. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM. PMID:27873832

  4. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2008-09-15

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO₃, a solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO₃, solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM.

  5. Effect of halideions on the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of methylene blue for borohydride-reduced silver colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiao; Gu Huaimin; Liu Fang

    2011-01-01

    The surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of methylene blue (MB) was studied when adding a range of halideions to borohydride-reduced silver colloid. The halideions such as chloride, bromide and iodide were added as aggregating agents to study the effects of halideions on SERS spectroscopy of MB and observe which halideion gives the greatest enhancement for borohydride-reduced silver colloids. The SERS spectra of MB were also detected over a wide range of concentrations of halideions to find the optimum concentration of halideions for SERS enhancement. From the results of this study, the intensity of SERS signal of MB was enhanced significantly when adding halideions to the colloid. Among the three kinds of halideions, chloride gives the greatest enhancement on SERS signal. The enhancement factors for MB with optimal concentration of chloride, bromide and iodide are 3.44x10 4 , 2.04x10 4 , and 1.0x10 4 , respectively. The differences of the SERS spectra of MB when adding different kinds and concentrations of halideions to the colloid may be attributed to the both effects of extent of aggregation of the colloid and the modification of silver surface chemistry. The purpose of this study is to further investigate the effect of halideions on borohydride-reduced silver colloid and to make the experimental conditions suitable for detecting some analytes in high efficiency on rational principles.

  6. Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue under UV Light Irradiation on Prepared Carbonaceous TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatil Amali Che Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study involves the investigation of altering the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 using composite materials. Three different forms of modified TiO2, namely, TiO2/activated carbon (AC, TiO2/carbon (C, and TiO2/PANi, were compared. The TiO2/carbon composite was obtained by pyrolysis of TiO2/PANi prepared by in situ polymerization method, while the TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC was obtained after treating TiO2/carbon with 1.0 M KOH solution, followed by calcination at a temperature of 450°C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET, and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to characterize and evaluate the prepared samples. The specific surface area was determined to be in the following order: TiO2/AC > TiO2/C > TiO2/PANi > TiO2 (179 > 134 > 54 > 9 m2 g−1. The evaluation of photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation was also of the same order, with 98 > 84.7 > 69% conversion rate, which is likely to be attributed to the porosity and synergistic effect in the prepared samples.

  7. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the removal of textile dye methylene blue was studied by adsorption technique using adsorbents such as, alumina, Ulva lactuca and Sargassum (Maine algae). The batch technique was adopted under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, stay time, concentration, temperature and pH. By using ...

  8. Methylene blue adsorption from glycerol solution onto the acicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of methylene blue adsorption onto the surface of synthetic acicular habit of α-goethite from glycerol solution has been studied through batch experiment at 25, 30 and 35 0C in a glass cell of minimal dead volume. To describe the adsorption results, an attempt was made to fit the data to the Langmuir, ...

  9. Interaction mode between methylene blue-Sm(III) complex and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectroscopic and viscosity methods were applied to investigate the interaction between methylene blue (MB)-Sm(III) complex and herring sperm DNA by using acridine orange as a spectral probe in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.40). By means of molar ratio method, the binding ratios between MB-Sm(III)and DNA were determined ...

  10. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk. On inhalation, it can cause difficulty in breathing, while on direct contact, it may cause permanent injury of the eyes of human and animals, burning sensations, nausea, worming, profuse sweating, mental confusion and ...

  11. Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of dye methylene blue from aqueous solution on the surface of sheep wool and cotton fibers was accomplished under the optimize conditions of temperature, concentration, pH, stay time duration and quantity of adsorbent. Spectrometric technique was used for the measurements of concentration of dye before ...

  12. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  13. Sorption characteristics of methylene blue onto Nypa fruiticans lignin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sorption characteristics of soda lignin extracted from Nypa fruiticans for the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution was investigated in this study, as an ethically sound way of utilizing this unexploited abundant natural resource. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm ...

  14. Borax methylene blue: a spectroscopic and staining study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P T; Russo, A; Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-07-01

    Borax methylene blue is quite stable at room temperatures of 22-25 C. At 30 C polychroming is slow; during 50 days in a water bath at this temperature the absorption peak moves from 665 to 656 nm. At 35 C, the absorption peak reaches 660 nm in 7 days, 654 nm in 14. At 60 C polychroming is rapid, the absorption peak reaching 640-620 nm in 3 days. When the pH of the borax methylene blue solutions, normally about 9.0, is adjusted to pH 6.5, the absorption peak remains at 665 nm even when incubated at 60 C for extended periods. When used as a blood stain 0.4 ml borax methylene blue (1% methylene blue in 1% borax), 4 ml acetone, 2 ml borax-acid phosphate buffer to bring the solution to pH 6.5, and distilled water to make 40 ml, with 0.2 ml 1% eosin added just before using, an excellent Nocht-Giemsa type stain is achieved after 30 minutes staining. The material plasmodia P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei stain moderate blue with dark red chromatin and green to black pigment granules. The study confirms Malachowski's 1891 results and explains Gautier's 1896-98 failure to duplicate it.

  15. 21 CFR 558.76 - Bacitracin methylene disalicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.76 Bacitracin methylene disalicylate. (a) Approvals. Type A.... (b) Special considerations. The quantities of antibiotics are expressed in terms of the equivalent...

  16. Use of Aspergillus wentii for biosorption of methylene blue from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Aspergillus wentii was used as a biosorbent for the adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, solution pH and temperature on biosorption were investigated. The contact time required (that is, the equilibrium time) for maximum dye biosorption was ...

  17. Methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase contributes to allergic airway disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R Eyring

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures strongly influence the development and progression of asthma. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to a diet enriched with methyl donors during vulnerable periods of fetal development can enhance the heritable risk of allergic airway disease through epigenetic changes. There is conflicting evidence on the role of folate (one of the primary methyl donors in modifying allergic airway disease.We hypothesized that blocking folate metabolism through the loss of methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr activity would reduce the allergic airway disease phenotype through epigenetic mechanisms.Allergic airway disease was induced in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice through house dust mite (HDM exposure. Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR were measured between the two groups. Gene expression and methylation profiles were generated for whole lung tissue. Disease and molecular outcomes were evaluated in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice supplemented with betaine.Loss of Mthfr alters single carbon metabolite levels in the lung and serum including elevated homocysteine and cystathionine and reduced methionine. HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice demonstrated significantly less airway hyperreactivity (AHR compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice compared to HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice have reduced whole lung lavage (WLL cellularity, eosinophilia, and Il-4/Il-5 cytokine concentrations. Betaine supplementation reversed parts of the HDM-induced allergic airway disease that are modified by Mthfr loss. 737 genes are differentially expressed and 146 regions are differentially methylated in lung tissue from HDM-treated C57BL/6Mthfr-/- mice and HDM-treated C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, analysis of methylation/expression relationships identified 503 significant correlations.Collectively, these findings indicate that the loss of folate as a methyl donor is a modifier of

  18. Radiation fixation of vinyl chloride in an insecticide aerosol container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiya, V.T.; Takemoto, K.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, a large quantity of vinyl chloride has been used as spraying additive for insecticide aerosols. Since January 1974 when the Food and Drug Administration of the United States of America announced that vinyl chloride causes liver cancer, it has been forbidden in Japan and the United States of America to market insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride. In Japan, following a government order, about 20 million insecticide aerosol containers have been collected and put into storage. A report is given on the radiation fixation of vinyl chloride as polyvinylchloride powder by gamma-ray-induced polymerization in the aerosol container. Insecticide aerosol containers containing vinyl chloride were irradiated by gamma rays from 60 Co at room temperature. Vinyl chloride polymerized to form powdered polymer in the container. Polymerization conversion increased with the irradiation dose, and after 10 Mrad irradiation, vinyl chloride was not found in the sprayed gas. This establishes that vinyl chloride can be fixed by gamma-ray irradiation in the aerosol container. To accelerate the reaction rate, the effect of various additives on the reaction was investigated. It was found that halogenated hydrocarbons, such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, accelerated the initiation of the polymerization, and that a vinyl monomer such as vinyl acetate accelerated the reaction rate due to the promotion of the initiation and the high reactivity of the polyvinylacetate radical to vinyl chloride. Consequently, the required irradiation dose for the fixation of vinyl chloride was decreased to less than 5 Mrad by the addition of various kinds of additives. Following the request of the Ministry of Public Welfare, various technical problems for large-scale treatment are being studied with the co-operation of the Federation of Insecticide Aerosols. (author)

  19. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved

  20. Prediction of chloride ingress and binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Nielsen, Erik Pram; Herforth, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on an analytical model for predicting the ingress rate of chlorides in cement-based materials. An integral part of this is a thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement. The model’s ability to predict chloride binding...... in Portland cement pastes at any content of chloride, alkalis, sulfates and carbonate was verified experimentally and found to be equally valid when applied to other data in the literature. The thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement was introduced into an existing...... Finite Difference Model for the ingress of chlorides into concrete which takes into account its multi-component nature. The “composite theory” was then used to predict the diffusivity of each ion based on the phase assemblage present in the hydrated Portland cement paste. Agreement was found between...

  1. Pyrite-enhanced methylene blue degradation in non-thermal plasma water treatment reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetoli, Luis Otavio de Brito, E-mail: luskywalcker@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cadorin, Bruno Mena; Baldissarelli, Vanessa Zanon [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Geremias, Reginaldo [Departamento de Ciencias Rurais, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Curitibanos, SC (Brazil); Goncalvez de Souza, Ivan [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Debacher, Nito Angelo, E-mail: debacher@qmc.ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use O{sub 2} as the feed gas and pyrite was added to the non-thermal plasma reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The methylene blue removal by NTP increased in the presence of pyrite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The total organic carbon content decreased substantially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acute toxicity test showed that the treated solution is not toxic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dye degradation occurs via electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation. - Abstract: In this study, methylene blue (MB) removal from an aqueous phase by electrical discharge non-thermal plasma (NTP) over water was investigated using three different feed gases: N{sub 2}, Ar, and O{sub 2}. The results showed that the dye removal rate was not strongly dependent on the feed gas when the electrical current was kept the same for all gases. The hydrogen peroxide generation in the water varied according to the feed gas (N{sub 2} < Ar < O{sub 2}). Using O{sub 2} as the feed gas, pyrite was added to the reactor in acid medium resulting in an accentuated increase in the dye removal, which suggests that pyrite acts as a Fenton-like catalyst. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the dye solution decreased slightly as the plasma treatment time increased, but in the presence of the pyrite catalyst the TOC removal increased substantially. The acute toxicity test using Artemia sp. microcrustaceans showed that the treated solution is not toxic when Ar, O{sub 2} or O{sub 2}-pyrite is employed. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (ESI-MS) of the treated samples indicated that the dye degradation occurs via high energy electron impact as well as successive hydroxylation in the benzene rings of the dye molecules.

  2. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A green and facile approach for synthesis of β-CD-PDDA-Gr at room temperature. •We present the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE for simultaneous detection of SY and TT. •SY and TT's electrooxidations are both the one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. •Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of SY and TT were discussed. -- Abstract: We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant k b , were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0 × 10 −8 to 2.0 × 10 −5 mol L −1 , with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10 −8 mol L −1 for SY and 1.43 × 10 −8 mol L −1 for TT (S N −1 = 3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the

  3. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A green and facile approach for synthesis of β-CD-PDDA-Gr at room temperature. •We present the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE for simultaneous detection of SY and TT. •SY and TT's electrooxidations are both the one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. •Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of SY and TT were discussed. -- Abstract: We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant k{sub b}, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 2.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1}, with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for SY and 1.43 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for TT (S N{sup −1} = 3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant

  4. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  5. Products of the reaction between methylene iodide and tertiary arsines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigauri, R.D.; Arabuli, L.G.; Machaidze, Z.I.; Rusiya, M.Sh.

    2005-01-01

    Iodides of iodomethylenetrialkyl(aryl) arsonium were synthesized with high yields as a result of interaction between methylene iodide and tertiary arsines. Exchange reactions of the iodides prepared with lead(II) nitrate in water-alcohol solutions gave rise to formation of iodomethylenetrialkyl(aryl) arsonium nitrates. All the products prepared were characterized by data of elementary analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductometry and melting points measurements [ru

  6. Extraosseous uptake of 99sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Kun, L.; Casper, J.; Babbitt, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of 99 sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphate ( 99 sup(m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of 99 sup(m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor. (orig.) [de

  7. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud; Joseph Y. Farah; Taha E. Farrag

    2013-01-01

    The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liqui...

  8. Photodynamic action of methylene blue: mutagenesis and synergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capella, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The associated mutagenesis and the interactions with physical agents in order to potencialize its biological effects are studied. The induction of mutation in bacterias due to photodynamic action of methylene blue is presented as well as the induction of single breaks in bacterial DNA and the relationship between the repair systems, especially the SOS one. The interaction of the photodynamic therapy with low intensity electric current is discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. Methylene blue adsorption from aqueous solution by dehydrated peanut hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Dursun [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey); Dursun, Guelbeyi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: gdursun@firat.edu.tr; Ozer, Ahmet [Department of Chemical Engineering, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-06-01

    Dyes are colour organic compounds which can colorize the other substances. These substances usually presents in the effluent water of many industries, such as textiles, leather, paper, printing and cosmetics. To observe the potential feasibility of removing colour, peanut hull as an agricultural by-product was dehydrated with sulphuric acid (DPH) and used for adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters such as initial methylene blue concentrations, temperatures and particle sizes were examined and optimal experimental conditions were determined. Adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model, although they could be modelled by the Freundlich model as well. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The mass transfer model as intraparticle diffusion was applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of rate controlling step. It was found that at the higher initial MB concentration, intraparticle diffusion is becoming significant controlling step. The thermodynamic constants of the adsorption process were also evaluated by using the Langmuir constants related to the equilibrium of adsorption at different temperatures. The results in this study indicated that dehydrated peanut hull was a good adsorbent for removing methylene blue.

  10. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  11. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  12. SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Anne; Leone, Stefano; Beyer, Franziska C.; Pedersen, Henrik; Kordina, Olof; Andersson, Sven; Janzén, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is investigated with the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. High growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h can be obtained, however to obtain device quality epilayers adjustments of the process parameters should be carried out appropriately for the chemistry used. Two different chemistry approaches are compared: addition of hydrogen chloride to the standard precursors or using methyltrichlorosilane, a molecule that contains silicon, carbon and chlorine. Optical and electrical techniques are used to characterize the layers.

  13. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  14. Methylene blue biosorption by pericarp of corn, alfalfa, and agave bagasse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Castor, José M; Garza-González, María T; García-Reyes, Refugio B; Soto-Regalado, Eduardo; Cerino-Córdova, Felipe J; García-González, Alcione; Loredo-Medrano, José A

    2014-01-01

    The presence of dyes in effluent is a matter of concern due to their toxicologic and aesthetical effects. In this research, locally available agro-industrial wastes (Zea mays pericarp, ZMP; Agave tequilana bagasse, ATB; and Medicago sativa waste, MSW) were used as alternative low-cost adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The adsorbents were characterized physically and chemically by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, potentiometric titrations, and N2 physisorption. MB adsorption experiments were carried out in batch systems and experimental data were used to calculate the adsorption isotherm model parameters (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin) and the adsorption kinetic model parameters (pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models). MB-loaded biosorbents were desorbed with deionized water, ethanol (10% and 50% v/v), hydrochloric acid (0.01 and 0.05 N), and sodium hydroxide (0.1 N) at room temperature, and the best eluent was used in various adsorption-desorption cycles. The selected agricultural wastes can be considered as promising adsorbents for dye uptake from water since they exhibit considerable MB adsorption capacity (MSW 202.6 mg g(-1), ATB 156.2mg g(-1), and ZMP 110.9mg g(-1)), but it is lower than that reported for activated carbon; however, the biosorbents show higher adsorption rate than powdered activated carbon. Furthermore, the adsorbents can be economically regenerated with HCl solutions and reused for seven adsorption-desorption cycles.

  15. Prevention of overpressurization of lithium-thionyl chloride battery cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, G. R.; Salmon, D. J.

    1984-12-25

    A method of preventing overpressurization of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery cell by formation of excessive SO/sub 2/ during high rate discharge. The method comprises the step of providing PCl/sub 5/ in the cathode. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be provided in the electrolyte or in both the cathode and electrolyte as desired. The PCl/sub 5/ may be incorporated in the cathode by introduction thereof into the porous carbon structure of a preformed carbon element. Alternatively, the PCl/sub 5/ may be dry mixed with the carbon and the mixture formed into the desired cathode element.

  16. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15%) improved battery performance significantly (10% greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell peformance is illustrated. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Optimization of reserve lithium thionyl chloride battery electrochemical design parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Godshall, N. A.

    The performance of Reserve Lithium Thionyl Chloride (RLTC) batteries was optimized by conducting a parametric study of seven electrochemical parameters: electrode compression, carbon thickness, presence of catalyst, temperature, electrode limitation, discharge rate, and electrolyte acidity. Increasing electrode compression (from 0 to 15 percent) improved battery performance significantly (10 percent greater carbon capacity density). Although thinner carbon cathodes yielded less absolute capacity than did thicker cathodes, they did so with considerably higher volume efficiencies. The effect of these parameters, and their synergistic interactions, on electrochemical cell performance is illustrated.

  18. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.

    1983-01-01

    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  19. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  20. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, O L

    1921-02-25

    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  2. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  5. Redox reactions of methylene blue: a pulse radiolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Guha, S.N.; Mahadevan, J.; Moorthy, P.N.; Mittal, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    One-electron oxidation of methylene blue (MB - has been studied using specific oxidizing radicals such as Cl 2 - , Br 2 - , N 3 and Tl(II) in acidic and neutral aqueous solutions). The transient spectrum showed absorption maxima at 525 nm and 360 nm in the acidic pH region. At neutral pH also the absorption maxima were at 525 and 360 nm but the extinction coefficients were lower by 30%. A pK a of ∼4.3 was observed for the equilibrium MBH 3+ MB 2+ + H + . In the case of N 3 radical as the oxidant, the equilibrium: N 3 + MB = N 3 - + MB 2+ was observed for which an equilibrium constant of 120 was estimated from the experimental data. From this as well as from cyclic voltammetric experiments, the redox potential for the MB 2+ /MB + couple was calculated as 1.25 V vs NHE. The transient species produced by the reaction of OH radicals with methylene blue gave a very different spectrum with λ m = 400nm and a pK a of ∼ 8.6, and hence it is inferred that OH radicals do not bring about one-electron oxidation of the molecule. (author)

  6. Nuclear overhauser spectroscopy of chiral CHD methylene groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, Rafal [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Stanek, Jan [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Colaux, Henri; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France); Koźmiński, Wiktor [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Herrmann, Torsten [Université de Lyon/UMR 5280 CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB Lyon 1, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, Centre de RMN à Très Hauts Champs (France); Ferrage, Fabien, E-mail: Fabien.Ferrage@ens.fr [Ecole Normale Supérieure – PSL Research University, Département de chimie (France)

    2016-01-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) can provide a great deal of information about structure and dynamics of biomolecules. The quality of an NMR structure strongly depends on the number of experimental observables and on their accurate conversion into geometric restraints. When distance restraints are derived from nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY), stereo-specific assignments of prochiral atoms can contribute significantly to the accuracy of NMR structures of proteins and nucleic acids. Here we introduce a series of NOESY-based pulse sequences that can assist in the assignment of chiral CHD methylene protons in random fractionally deuterated proteins. Partial deuteration suppresses spin-diffusion between the two protons of CH{sub 2} groups that normally impedes the distinction of cross-relaxation networks for these two protons in NOESY spectra. Three and four-dimensional spectra allow one to distinguish cross-relaxation pathways involving either of the two methylene protons so that one can obtain stereospecific assignments. In addition, the analysis provides a large number of stereospecific distance restraints. Non-uniform sampling was used to ensure optimal signal resolution in 4D spectra and reduce ambiguities of the assignments. Automatic assignment procedures were modified for efficient and accurate stereospecific assignments during automated structure calculations based on 3D spectra. The protocol was applied to calcium-loaded calbindin D{sub 9k}. A large number of stereospecific assignments lead to a significant improvement of the accuracy of the structure.

  7. Methylene blue adsorption in clay mineral dealt with organic cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.L.; Lemos, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction among organic cations, as the methylene blue (AM) and benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA), and clay minerals of the group of the smectite they result in the formation of applied materials in the adsorption of organic pollutant presents in waters, soils and you cultivate. In this work they were prepared the adsorbents (organic-clays) smectite - AM and smectite-BTMA. The precursory sample of smectite was collected in Rio Branco-Acre. We were also used an smectite sample collected in Sena Madureira (SM)-Acre already characterized in previous work and a sample of standard smectite Swy-2-Na-Montmorillonite (SWy-2) of Wymong - USA. The organic agents selected for this study they were: Blue of Methylene, denominated AM and Benzyltrimethylammonium, denominated BTMA. They were appraised the capacities adsorptive of the treated samples with BTMA being used AM as adsorbate. The results of these evaluations detected that ran total adsorption of AM (concentrations varying from 1 to 10 ppm) for the treated samples with BTMA. The organic cation, BTMA, interacting with the surfaces of the natural clay was more efficient in the adsorption of AM than the clay without the previous treatment with this salt. (author)

  8. ELECTROCHEMICAL BEHAVIOUR OF METHYLENE BLUE IN NON-AQUEOUS SOLVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caram, J.A.; Suárez, J.F. Martínez; Gennaro, A.M.; Mirífico, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The dye is electro-reduced in two separated monoelectronic charge transfers. • Solvent/supporting electrolyte/acid/base modifies the electrochemical parameters. • A dissociation equilibrium of the dye in non-aqueous solvent is proposed. • The electro-generated and stable dye-radical is also chemically produced in EDA or KOH/DMF. • A new species is reversibly formed in KOH/EtOH or ACN. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of methylene blue in solution of non-aqueous solvents with different supporting electrolytes was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Dye electro-reduction presents two well-defined processes of monoelectronic charge transfer yielding a free radical in the first process and an anion in the second electron transfer. Free radical and anion are long living species in some of the studied media. Effects of supporting electrolyte and solvent on the peak potentials, the peak current functions and the reversibility of the charge transfer processes are reported. A dissociation equilibrium of the dye in solution of non-aqueous solvents and the acid or base added determine markedly the electrochemical responses. In the particular cases of KOH/DMF or EDA basic media the chemical formation of the stable methylene blue radical was detected and it was characterized by EPR spectroscopy. A general reaction scheme is proposed

  9. Calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids as promising effectors of biochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Komisarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study, performed with participation of research workers of Palladin Institute of Biochemistry and Institute of Organic Chemist­ry of NAS of Ukraine, is devoted to analysis of biochemical effects of some calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids (cyclic phenol oligomers on two well-known biological phenomenons – Mg2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis (myosin subfragment-1 of myometrium smooth muscle was used as an example and fibrin polymerization. Calix[4]arene С-97 (calix[4]arene methylene bisphosphonic acids is a macrocyclic substance, which contains intramolecular highly ordered lipophilic cavity formed by four aromatic rings, one of which is functionalized at the upper rim with methylene bisphosphonic group. At concentration of 100 µM, this substance was shown to effectively inhibit ATPase activity of pig myometrium myosin subfragment-1 (inhibition coefficient І0.5 = 83 ± 7 µM. At the same time, this calix[4]arene causes significant (vs. control increase of myosin subfragment-1 hydrodynamic diameter, which may indicate formation of an intermolecular complex between calixa­rene and myosin head. Computer simulation methods (docking and molecular dynamics with addition of grid technologies enabled to elucidate the grounds of intermolecular interactions between calix[4]arene С-97 and myometrium myosin subfragment-1, that involve hydrophobic, electrostatic and π-π-stacking interactions, some of which are close to the ATPase active centre. In view of the ability of calixarenes to penetrate into the cell and their low toxicity, the results obtained may be used as a basis for further development of a new generation of supramolecular effectors (starting from the above mentioned substances, in particular calix[4]arene С-97 for regulation of smooth muscle contractile activity at the level of ATP dependent actin-myosin interaction. Calix[4]arenes bearing two or four methylenebisphosphonic acid groups at the macrocyclic upper

  10. Film dosimeters based on methylene blue and methyl orange in polyvinyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, W.H.; Miller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing methylene blue and methyl orange are useful as gamma and electron radiation dosimeters. Absorbed doses should not exceed 40 kGy for methylene blue and 500 kGy for methyl orange. Because PVA is water-soluble, the films may be made without toxic solvents...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and pipe...

  12. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  13. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  14. 75 FR 24509 - Notice of Availability of the Regulatory Flexibility Act Review of the Methylene Chloride Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Register Notice and any news releases will become available at the OSHA Webpage at http://www.OSHA.gov... stripping, metal cleaning and the manufacture of plastics and adhesives. Without proper ventilation or...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1297 - Ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric chloride. 184.1297 Section 184.1297 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1297 Ferric chloride. (a) Ferric chloride (iron (III) chloride, FeC13, CAS Reg. No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride...

  16. Preparation of pure anhydrous rare earth chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kova, N.L.; Slastenova, N.M.; Batyaev, I.M.; Solov'ev, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method has been suggested for obtaining extra-pure anhydrous REE chlorides by chloridizing corresponding oxalates by chlorine in a fluid bed, the chloridizing agents being diluted by an inert gas in a ratio of 2-to-1. The method is applicable to the manufacture of quality chlorides not only of light, but also of heavy REE. Neodymium chloride has an excited life of tau=30 μs, this evidencing the absence of the damping impurities

  17. Carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebutte, H G; Goutal, E

    1921-07-04

    Materials such as coal, peat, or schist are subjected to a rising temperature in successive stages in apparatus in which the distillation products are withdrawn at each stage. For example in a three-stage process, the acid products of the first or low-temperature stage are fixed in a suitable reagent, the basic products from a second or higher-temperature stage are absorbed in an acid reagent, hydrocarbons being retained by solvents, while the third are subjected to a pyrogenation process carried out in a closed vessel. Wherein the material is subjected in stages to a rising temperature, the gasified products being withdrawn at each stage, and are prevented as far as possible from mixing with the carbonized products.

  18. Study of extraction-spectrophotometric micro-determination of boron with methylene blue and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Daohong

    1990-08-01

    A sensitive extraction-spectrophotometric method for microdetermination of boron with methylene blue was investigated. The method was based on the extraction of a BF 4 - -methylene blue complex into dichloroethane. Boron was determined directly by measuring the absorbance at 658 nm. The calibration graph was linear over the range of 2.5 x 10 -9 to 8 x 10 -8 g/mL. The blank, mechanism of the reactions, interference of other ions and some optimum conditions of the method were studied in detail. The main source of the blank resulted from methylene blue and the complex of F - -methylene blue. In order to reduce the blank, the amounts of methylene blue, H 2 SO 4 and HF were used as less as possible. Only one to one complex BF 4 - -methylene blue was formed in the medium of H 2 SO 4 . About 90% of methylene blue and F - -methylene blue complex was removre with 5 ml of water and only a little amount of BF 4 -methylene blue complex was decomposed. The extraction-spectrophotometric method with methylene blue was first applied to the microdetermination of boron in sodium metal and UF 6 . The sample of sodium metal was taken and weighed in the glovebox filled with argon. Then sodium metal was oxidized, hydrolyzed, netralized and fluorizated with H 2 O, H 2 SO 4 and HF, respectively. The 0.5 ppm of boron in sodium metal was determined with a relative error about ±4%. This method can be applied to the determination of boron in sodium metal, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide at diffeent grades. The species of boron in the hydrolysate of UF 6 is BF 4 - anion, so the sample can be directly analyzed. Boron contents in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 ppm was determined with a relative error about ±3%. Six samples could be analysed in 2h

  19. Reaction of calcium chloride with alkali metal chlorides in melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, V.D.; Mikhajlova, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thermochemical characteristics of CaCl 2 reaction with sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in melts at 890 deg C are determined. The values of formation enthalpies of infinitely diluted by CaCl 2 solutions (ΔH) in the chloride row increase from -22 in NaCl to -47 kJ/mol of CaCl 2 in CsCl. With increasing the concentration of calcium chloride in the solution the ΔH values decrease. The regularities of separation from the solution of the CaCl 2 -CsCl system at 890 deg C of the CaCl 2 x CsCl in solid are studied. Formation enthalpies under the given conditions constitutes -70+-3 kJ/mol

  20. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  1. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scanning in osteoarthritic hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Macfarlane, D.G.; Homoeopathic Hospital, Tunbridge; Fogelman, I.; Emery, P.

    1991-01-01

    In this prospective study, the radiological features characteristic of osteoarthritis of the hand were compared with the radionuclide bone scan images. A total of 32 patients was assessed at 6-monthly intervals for 18 months. Microfocal radiographs were taken at each visit. The high magnification and resolution of this technique permitted direct measurement of joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte number and area and juxta-articular radiolucency area for each joint in the hand. Four-hour technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with each X-radiographic feature at every visit and the changes between visits analysed. The scan scores did not correlate with any of the X-radiographic features other than osteophyte size. During the study the size of growing and remodelling osteophytes increased significantly at joints with raised or increased isotope uptake. (orig.)

  2. Technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scanning in osteoarthritic hands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; Lynch, J.A. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Anatomy); Macfarlane, D.G. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Anatomy Homoeopathic Hospital, Tunbridge (UK). Dept. of Rheumatology); Fogelman, I. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Emery, P. (United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy' s and Saint Thomas' , London (UK). Dept. of Rheumatology)

    1991-01-01

    In this prospective study, the radiological features characteristic of osteoarthritis of the hand were compared with the radionuclide bone scan images. A total of 32 patients was assessed at 6-monthly intervals for 18 months. Microfocal radiographs were taken at each visit. The high magnification and resolution of this technique permitted direct measurement of joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophyte number and area and juxta-articular radiolucency area for each joint in the hand. Four-hour technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with each X-radiographic feature at every visit and the changes between visits analysed. The scan scores did not correlate with any of the X-radiographic features other than osteophyte size. During the study the size of growing and remodelling osteophytes increased significantly at joints with raised or increased isotope uptake. (orig.).

  3. New diphosphonate compounds for skeletal imaging: comparison with methylene diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.; Thomas, F.D.; Feld, T.A.; Zapf-Longo, C.; Palladino, E.

    1983-01-01

    Three-hour biodistribution of Tc-99m complexes of six diphosphonates was compared in rabbits with tibial lesions to determine which was best for detection of focal bone lesions. Sr-85 was used as a standard. N,N-dimethylaminomethylene diphosphonate (DMAD) was the only agent with a higher lesion/normal bone ratio than methylene diphosphonate (MDP), attributable to lower concentration in normal bone. Hydroxymethane diphosphonate (HDP) and 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate (DPD) demonstrated higher concentration than MDP in normal bone without improving lesion contrast. They also exhibited much higher uptake in the liver and kidney, as well as muscle and red marrow in the case of DPD. None was superior to MDP as an all-purpose skeletal agent, though others may be better for specific applications

  4. Obtaining multifunctional composites using styrofoam recycling: methylene blue adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.H. da; Ferreira, B.F.; Faria, E.H. de; Ciuffi, K.J.; Calefi, P.S.

    2011-01-01

    There is high risk of environmental contamination by the textile industry if the generated waste is disposed into water streams and rivers. Another sector responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste is the styrofoam industry, since styrofoam is employed in various areas for packaging production. Therefore, today there is constant search for sustainable economic growth by means of materials recycling and reduction of residual pollutants. In this context, the present work aims to promote styrofoam recycling with its further utilization in the production of a kaolin-styrofoam composite for application as adsorbent of methylene blue originated from textile industry effluents. This adsorption is investigated in a column system, by exploiting the adsorptive properties of kaolin, such as large surface area and chemical and structural characteristics. The obtained materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  5. Wiring of heme enzymes by methylene-blue labeled dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Shahdost-fard, Faezeh; Ferapontova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Redox-modified branched 3D dendrimeric nanostructures may be considered as perspective wires for electrical connection between redox enzymes and electrodes. Here, we studied electron transfer (ET) reactions and bioelectrocatalysis of heme-containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and heme- and moli......Redox-modified branched 3D dendrimeric nanostructures may be considered as perspective wires for electrical connection between redox enzymes and electrodes. Here, we studied electron transfer (ET) reactions and bioelectrocatalysis of heme-containing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and heme......- and molibdopterin-containing sulfite oxidase (SOx), wired to gold by the methylene blue (MB)-labeled polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. The enzymes’ electrochemical transformation and bioelectrocatalytic function could be followed at both unlabeled and MB-labeled dendrimer-modified electrodes with the formal redox......, optimization of bioelectrocatalysis of complex intermembrane and, possibly, membrane enzymes....

  6. Solvent mimicry with methylene carbene to probe protein topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Gabriela Elena; Monti, José Luis E; Mundo, Mariana Rocío; Delfino, José María

    2015-10-06

    The solvent accessible surface area (SASA) of the polypeptide chain plays a key role in protein folding, conformational change, and interaction. This fundamental biophysical parameter is elusive in experimental measurement. Our approach to this problem relies on the reaction of the minimal photochemical reagent diazirine (DZN) with polypeptides. This reagent (i) exerts solvent mimicry because its size is comparable to water and (ii) shows scant chemical selectivity because it generates extremely reactive methylene carbene. Methylation gives rise to the EM (extent of modification) signal, which is useful for scrutinizing the conformational change triggered by Ca(2+) binding to calmodulin (CaM). The increased EM observed for the full protein is dominated by the enhanced exposure of hydrophobic area in Ca(2+)-CaM. Fragmentation allowed us to quantify the methylene incorporation at specific sites. Peptide 91-106 reveals a major reorganization around the calcium 151 binding site, resulting in local ordering and a greater exposure of the hydrophobic surface. Additionally, this technique shows a high sensitivity to probe recognition between CaM and melittin (Mel). The large decrease in EM indicates the occlusion of a significant hydrophobic area upon complexation. Protection from labeling reveals a larger involvement of the N-terminal and central regions of CaM in this interaction. Despite its smaller size, Mel's differential exposure can also be quantified. Moreover, MS/MS fragmentation realizes the goal of extending the resolution of labeled sites at the amino acid level. Overall, DZN labeling emerges as a useful footprinting method capable of shedding light on physiological conformational changes and interactions.

  7. Concentration determination of methyl magnesium chloride and other Grignard reagents by potentiometric titration with in-line characterization of reaction species by FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yadan; Wang, Tao; Helmy, Roy; Zhou, George X; LoBrutto, Rosario

    2002-07-01

    A potentiometric titration method for methyl magnesium chloride and other Grignard reagents based on the reaction with 2-butanol in THF has been developed and validated. The method employs a commercially available platinum electrode, using an electrolyte compatible with non-aqueous solvents. Well-defined titration curves were obtained, along with excellent method precision. The endpoint was precisely determined based on the first derivative of the titration curve. Different solvents such as THF, diethyl ether and methylene chloride provided similar results with regard to sharpness of the endpoint and method precision. The method was applied to a wide array of Grignard reagents including methyl magnesium bromide, ethyl magnesium chloride, propyl magnesium chloride, vinyl magnesium chloride, phenyl magnesium chloride, and benzyl magnesium chloride with similar precision and accuracy. Application of in-line FTIR was demonstrated for in situ monitoring of the titration reaction, allowing characterization of the reaction species. An authentic spectrum of the MeMgCl-THF complex was obtained using spectral subtraction and the vibrational absorbance bands were identified. FTIR also provided an alternative for detecting the titration endpoint, and the titration results so obtained, provided a cross-validation of the accuracy of the potentiometric titration.

  8. Removal of Congo Red and Methylene Blue from Aqueous Solutions by Vermicompost-Derived Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Wu, Lin; Xian, Qiming; Shen, Fei; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Yanzong

    2016-01-01

    Biochars, produced by pyrolyzing vermicompost at 300, 500, and 700°C were characterized and their ability to adsorb the dyes Congo red (CR) and Methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution was investigated. The physical and chemical properties of biochars varied significantly based on the pyrolysis temperatures. Analysis of the data revealed that the aromaticity, polarity, specific surface area, pH, and ash content of the biochars increased gradually with the increase in pyrolysis temperature, while the cation exchange capacity, and carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The adsorption kinetics of CR and MB were described by pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Both of Langmuir and Temkin model could be employed to describe the adsorption behaviors of CR and MB by these biochars. The biochars generated at higher pyrolysis temperature displayed higher CR adsorption capacities and lower MB adsorption capacities than those compared with the biochars generated at lower pyrolysis temperatures. The biochar generated at the higher pyrolytic temperature displayed the higher ability to adsorb CR owing to its promoted aromaticity, and the cation exchange is the key factor that positively affects adsorption of MB. PMID:27144922

  9. Characterizing the discoloration of methylene blue in Fe0/H2O systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noubactep, C

    2009-07-15

    Methylene blue (MB) was used as a model molecule to characterize the aqueous reactivity of metallic iron in Fe(0)/H(2)O systems. Likely discoloration mechanisms under used experimental conditions are: (i) adsorption onto Fe(0) and Fe(0) corrosion products (CP), (ii) co-precipitation with in situ generated iron CP, (iii) reduction to colorless leukomethylene blue (LMB). MB mineralization (oxidation to CO(2)) is not expected. The kinetics of MB discoloration by Fe(0), Fe(2)O(3), Fe(3)O(4), MnO(2), and granular activated carbon were investigated in assay tubes under mechanically non-disturbed conditions. The evolution of MB discoloration was monitored spectrophotometrically. The effect of availability of CP, Fe(0) source, shaking rate, initial pH value, and chemical properties of the solution were studied. The results present evidence supporting co-precipitation of MB with in situ generated iron CP as main discoloration mechanism. Under high shaking intensities (>150 min(-1)), increased CP generation yields a brownish solution which disturbed MB determination, showing that a too high shear stress induced the suspension of in situ generated corrosion products. The present study clearly demonstrates that comparing results from various sources is difficult even when the results are achieved under seemingly similar conditions. The appeal for an unified experimental procedure for the investigation of processes in Fe(0)/H(2)O systems is reiterated.

  10. Effect of Nanodisperse Carbon Fillers and Isocyanate Chain Extender on Structure and Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Agabekov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diisocyanate chain extender (CE on the mechanical, rheological, and relaxation properties, as well as on molecular weight and crystallizability, of starting poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET and its composites containing carbon nanomaterials (CNM such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs and commercial carbon (CC has been studied. The composites were compounded in molten PET using twin-screw extruder (screw diameter 35 mm; L/D=40. To improve the distribution of CNM in the polymeric matrix (before introduction into the melt, they were blended with PET powder and subjected to an ultrasonic treatment in methylene chloride. The salient features of the materials structure were estimated based on DSC and relaxation spectrometry (dynamic mechanical analysis data. It has been found that CNM additives partly suppress the PET-chain extension reactions which take place during interaction between macromolecular end groups and CE. Besides, both CNT and CC favour crystallizability of the modified PET owing to nucleation of the crystallization process. The influence of CNT appears to be more effective than that of CC. Enhancements in true mechanical strength and deformability of PET/CE/CNM composites, as against PET/CE materials, were found to be most clearly exhibited by the CNT-containing composites.

  11. Complications of Methylene Blue Dye in Breast Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FJ Reyes, MB Noelck, C Valentino, L Grasso-LeBeau, JE Lang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methylene blue dye has been used worldwide successfully with few complications in breast surgery. We present two different complications involving methylene blue: 1 skin and parenchymal necrosis when dye was injected in a subdermal fashion and 2 Mycoplasma infection caused by contaminated methylene blue in breast reduction surgery.Methods: We present two cases seen at the University of Arizona during 2008 and referred to a breast surgeon for management. We evaluated and managed complications of methylene blue dye injected by 2 referring surgeons for different indications. A review of the literature was performed.Results: The first case is a 67 year old female diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast for which she was treated by her initial surgeon with left segmental mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy. The operating surgeon injected methylene blue in a subareolar subdermal fashion (distant from the primary tumor; unfortunately the patient suffered skin and breast necrosis requiring multiple surgical debridements and finally achieving delayed primary closure. The second case is a 45 year old female with infiltrating lobular carcinoma with a history of Mycoplasma infection secondary to methylene blue injected for breast reduction surgery. She required multiple debridements and had granulomas masquerading as cancer on MRI that confounded her extent of disease.Conclusions: The use of methylene blue dye in breast surgery is not without risk. In both cases methylene blue was responsible for complications requiring surgical debridement for local wound problems. In each case severe necrosis and infection were present. Methylene blue may cause not only significant morbidity, but may also produce cosmetically unsatisfactory results.

  12. Methylene Blue for Vasoplegia When on Cardiopulmonary Bypass During Double-Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Michelle; Schaff, Jacob; Lai, Terrance; Poppers, Jeremy

    2015-10-15

    Vasoplegia syndrome, characterized by hypotension refractory to fluid resuscitation or high-dose vasopressors, low systemic vascular resistance, and normal-to-increased cardiac index, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after cardiothoracic surgery. Methylene blue inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase and guanylyl cyclase, and has been used to treat vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass. However, because methylene blue is associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, its use in patients undergoing lung transplantion has been limited. Herein, we report the use of methylene blue to treat refractory vasoplegia during cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient undergoing double-lung transplantation.

  13. A Stereoselective [3+1] Ring Expansion for the Synthesis of Highly Substituted Methylene Azetidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Steven C; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2017-09-25

    The reaction of rhodium-bound carbenes with strained bicyclic methylene aziridines results in a formal [3+1] ring expansion to yield highly substituted methylene azetidines with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity. The reaction appears to proceed through an ylide-type mechanism, where the unique strain and structure of the methylene aziridine promotes a ring-opening/ring-closing cascade that efficiently transfers chirality from substrate to product. The resultant products can be elaborated into new azetidine scaffolds containing vicinal tertiary-quaternary and even quaternary-quaternary stereocenters. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency plasmas in water under ultraviolet irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehara, Tsunehiro, E-mail: maehara@phys.sci.ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nishiyama, Kyohei; Onishi, Shingo; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kuramoto, Makoto [Integrated Center for Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Nomura, Shinfuku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kawashima, Ayato [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8566 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The degradation of methylene blue by radio frequency (RF) plasmas in water under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was studied experimentally. When the methylene blue solution was exposed to RF plasma, UV irradiation from a mercury vapor lamp enhanced degradation significantly. A lamp without power supply also enhanced degradation since weak UV light was emitted weakly from the lamp due to the excitation of mercury vapor by stray RF power. Such an enhancement is explained by the fact that after hydrogen peroxide is produced via the recombination process of OH radicals around the plasma, OH radicals reproduced from hydrogen peroxide via the photolysis process degrade methylene blue.

  15. Preoperative Localization of Mediastinal Parathyroid Adenoma with Intra-arterial Methylene Blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, Rida; Sebaaly, Mikhael G. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon); Wehbe, Mohammad Rachad; Sfeir, Pierre; Khalife, Mohamad [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of General Surgery (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad, E-mail: mk00@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Lebanon)

    2017-06-15

    Ectopic parathyroid is found in 16% of patients with hyperparathyroidism. 2% of ectopic parathyroid adenomas are not accessible to standard cervical excision. In such cases, video-assisted thoracoscopic resection is the recommended definitive treatment. We present a case of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma localized preoperatively by injecting methylene blue within a branch of the internal mammary artery that is supplying the adenoma. Intra-arterial methylene blue injection facilitated visualization and resection of the adenoma. The preoperative intra-arterial infusion of methylene blue appears to be an effective and safe method for localization of ectopic mediastinal parathyroid adenomas and allows rapid identification during thoracoscopic resection.

  16. P25-graphene hydrogels: room-temperature synthesis and application for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang; Wang, Hongzhi

    2012-02-29

    Herein we report a room-temperature synthesis of chemically bonded TiO2 (P25)-graphene composite hydrogels and their use as high performance visible light photocatalysts. The three-dimensional (3D) TiO2-carbon composite exhibits a significant enhancement in the reaction rate in the decontamination of methylene blue, compared to the bare P25. The 3D P25-graphene hydrogel is much easier to prepare and apply as a macroscopic device, compared to the 2D P25-graphene sheets. This work could provide new insights into the room-temperature synthesis of graphene-based materials. As a kind of the novel 3D graphene-based composite, the obtained high performance P25-graphene gel could be widely used in the environmental protection issues. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Nanoscale zero-valent iron incorporated with nanomagnetic diatomite for catalytic degradation of methylene blue in heterogeneous Fenton system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yiming; Zhou, Ziqing; He, Haibo; Wang, Tianlin; Luo, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) incorporated with nanomagnetic diatomite (DE) composite material was prepared for catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in heterogeneous Fenton system. The material was constructed by two facile steps: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were supported on DE by chemical co-precipitation method, after which nZVI was incorporated into magnetic DE by liquid-phase chemical reduction strategy. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, magnetic properties measurement and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement. The novel nZVI@Fe3O4-diatomite nanocomposites showed a distinct catalytic activity and a desirable effect for degradation of MB. MB could be completely decolorized within 8 min and the removal efficiency of total organic carbon could reach to 90% after reaction for 1 h.

  18. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  19. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    : On the basis of five included studies, the ED10 values of aqueous cobalt chloride ranged between 0.0663 and 1.95 µg cobalt/cm(2), corresponding to 30.8-259 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provides an overview of the doses of cobalt that are required to elicit allergic cobalt contactdermatitis in sensitized...

  20. Surface Chloride Levels in Colorado Structural Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This project focused on the chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in structural concrete. The primary goal of this project is to analyze the surface chloride concentration level of the concrete bridge decks throughout Colorado. The study in...

  1. Pharmacokinetics of vinyl chloride in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.M.; Laib, R.J.; Kappus, H.; Buchter, A.

    1977-01-01

    When rats are exposed to [ 14 C]vinyl chloride in a closed system, the vinyl chloride present in the atmosphere equilibrates with the animals' organism within 15 min. The course of equilibration could be determined using rats which had been given 6-nitro-1,2,3-benzothiadiazole. This compound completely blocks metabolism of vinyl chloride. The enzymes responsible for metabolism of vinyl chloride are saturated at an atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride of 250 ppm. Pharmacokinetic analysis shows that no significant cumulation of vinyl chloride or its major metabolites is to be expected on repeated administration of vinyl chlorides. This may be consistent with the theory that a reactive, shortly living metabolite which occurs in low concentration only, may be responsible for the toxic effects of vinyl chloride

  2. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium chloride. 184.1193 Section 184.1193 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Calcium chloride (CaCl2·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10035-04-8) or anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2, CAS Reg. No. 10043-52-4) may be commercially...

  3. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  4. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3845 Stannous chloride. (a) Product. Stannous chloride. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  11. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color...

  12. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging § 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must be...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5622 Potassium chloride. (a) Product. Potassium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the Food...

  17. 21 CFR 173.400 - Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. 173.400 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.400 Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride. Dimethyldialkylammonium chloride may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a...

  18. Intrauterine Methylene Blue Injection Influences the Accuracy of Pulse Oximetry Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Cheng Yeh

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: Intraoperative administration of methylene blue may induce false low readings on pulse oximetry. The patient was not hypoxemic. If there is any doubt, arterial blood gas analysis should be done to ensure that the patient is well oxygenated.

  19. Novel management of methylene blue extravasation: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Saeed Khokhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylene blue is a highly irritant drug and has been used intraoperatively. Its accidental extravasation can lead to tissue necrosis. In this report, a unique management is described, and the patient recovered without any morbidity.

  20. A nonradioactive assay for poly(a)-specific ribonuclease activity by methylene blue colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Wei-Feng; Yan, Yong-Bin; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2006-01-01

    A simple nonradioactive assay, which was based on the specific shift of the absorbance maximum of methylene blue induced by its intercalation into poly(A) molecules, was developed for poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN). A good linear relationship was found between the absorbance at 662 nm and the poly(A) concentration. The assay conditions, including the concentration of methylene blue, the incubation temperature and time, and the poly(A) concentration were evaluated and optimized.

  1. Methylene Blue to Treat Protamine-induced Anaphylaxis Reactions. An Experimental Study in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Afrodite S. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To examine if methylene blue (MB can counteract or prevent protamine (P cardiovascular effects. Methods: The protocol included five heparinized pig groups: Group Sham -without any drug; Group MB - MB 3 mg/kg infusion; Group P - protamine; Group P/MB - MB after protamine; Group MB/P - MB before protamine. Nitric oxide levels were obtained by the nitric oxide/ozone chemiluminescence method, performed using the Nitric Oxide Analizer 280i (Sievers, Boulder, CO, USA. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were estimated using the thiobarbiturate technique. Results: 1 Groups Sham and MB presented unchanged parameters; 2 Group P - a Intravenous protamine infusion caused mean arterial pressure decrease and recovery trend after 25-30 minutes, b Cardiac output decreased and remained stable until the end of protamine injection, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased until the end of protamine injection; 3 Methylene blue infusion after protamine (Group P/MB - a Marked mean arterial pressure decreased after protamine, but recovery after methylene blue injection, b Cardiac output decreased after protamine infusion, recovering after methylene blue infusion, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased after protamine infusion and methylene blue injections; 4 Methylene blue infusion before protamine (Group MB/P - a Mean arterial pressure decrease was less severe with rapid recovery, b After methylene blue, there was a progressive cardiac output increase up to protamine injection, when cardiac output decreased, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance decreased after protamine, followed by immediate Sustained systemic vascular resistance increase; 5 Plasma nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde values did not differ among the experimental groups. Conclusion: Reviewing these experimental results and our clinical experience, we suggest methylene blue safely prevents and treats hemodynamic protamine complications, from the

  2. The Blue Coma: The Role of Methylene Blue in Unexplained Coma After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Enrico Antonio; Winterton, Dario; Nardelli, Pasquale; Pasin, Laura; Calabrò, Maria Grazia; Bove, Tiziana; Fanelli, Giovanna; Zangrillo, Alberto; Landoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Methylene blue commonly is used as a dye or an antidote, but also can be used off label as a vasopressor. Serotonin toxicity is a potentially lethal and often misdiagnosed condition that can result from drug interaction. Mild serotonin toxicity previously was reported in settings in which methylene blue was used as a dye. The authors report 3 cases of life-threatening serotonin toxicity in patients undergoing chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy who also underwent cardiac surgery and received methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. An observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital. Three patients who received methylene blue after cardiac surgery, later discovered to be undergoing chronic SSRI therapy. None. All 3 patients received high doses of fentanyl during general anesthesia. They all developed vasoplegic syndrome and consequently were given methylene blue in the ICU. All 3 patients developed serotonin toxicity, including coma, after this administration and diagnostic tests were negative for acute intracranial pathology. Coma lasted between 1 and 5 days. Two patients were discharged from the ICU shortly after awakening, whereas the third patient experienced a complicated postoperative course for concomitant refractory low-cardiac-output syndrome. Patients undergoing chronic SSRI therapy should not be administered methylene blue to treat vasoplegic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modified methylene blue injection improves lymph node harvest in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianpei; Huang, Pinjie; Zheng, Zongheng; Chen, Tufeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nodal metastases in rectal cancer plays an important role in accurate staging and prognosis, which depends on adequate lymph node harvest. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the feasibility and survival benefit of improving lymph node harvest by a modified method with methylene blue injection in rectal cancer specimens. One hundred and thirty-one patients with rectal cancer were randomly assigned to the control group in which lymph nodes were harvested by palpation and sight, or to the methylene blue group using a modified method of injection into the superior rectal artery with methylene blue. Analysis of clinicopathologic records, including a long-term follow-up, was performed. In the methylene blue group, 678 lymph nodes were harvested by simple palpation and sight. Methylene blue injection added 853 lymph nodes to the total harvest as well as 32 additional metastatic lymph nodes, causing a shift to node-positive stage in four patients. The average number of lymph nodes harvested was 11.7 ± 3.4 in the control group and 23.2 ± 4.7 in the methylene blue group, respectively. The harvest of small lymph nodes (rectal cancer, especially small node and metastatic node retrieval, which provided more accurate staging. However, it was not associated with overall survival. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  4. Enhanced removal of Methylene Blue by electrocoagulation using iron electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Mahmoud

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The removal of pollutants from effluents by electrocoagulation has become an attractive method in recent years. The study deals with the enhancement of removal of Methylene Blue dye by using an electromagnetic field during the electrocoagulation process. Effects of electrolyte concentration, dye concentration, intensity and the direction of the electromagnet on the decolorization efficiency have been investigated. The formed ferric hydroxide flocs trap colloidal particles and make solid–liquid separation easier during the next stage. The electrocoagulation stages must be optimized in order to design an economically feasible process. The results showed that the optimum electrolysis was 10–20 min at a current density of 8 mA/cm2, while the optimum concentration of the electrolyte (NaOH was found to be 2 wt.% when the dye concentration was 50 mg/L. The utilization of an electromagnetic field enhanced the dye removal due to the induced motion of paramagnetic ions inside the solution. The power consumption required to remove the dye was reduced by 45% in the case of applying an electromagnetic field.

  5. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dabrzalska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer—methylene blue (MB. As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  6. Acid-base catalysis of N-[(morpholine)methylene]daunorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Anna; Jelińska, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Klawitter, Maria; Zalewski, Przemysław; Oszczapowicz, Irena; Wąsowska, Małgorzata

    2012-08-01

    The stability of N-[(morpholine)methylene]-daunorubicin hydrochloride (MMD) was investigated in the pH range 0.44-13.54, at 313, 308, 303 and 298 K. The degradation of MMD as a result of hydrolysis is a pseudo-first-order reaction described by the following equation: ln c = ln c(0) - k(obs)• t. In the solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, borate, acetate and phosphate buffers, k(obs) = k(pH) because general acid-base catalysis was not observed. Specific acid-base catalysis of MMD comprises the following reactions: hydrolysis of the protonated molecules of MMD catalyzed by hydrogen ions (k(1)) and spontaneous hydrolysis of MMD molecules other than the protonated ones (k(2)) under the influence of water. The total rate of the reaction is equal to the sum of partial reactions: k(pH) = k(1) • a(H)+ • f(1) + k(2) • f(2) where: k(1) is the second-order rate constant (mol(-1) l s(-1)) of the specific hydrogen ion-catalyzed degradation of the protonated molecules of MMD; k(2) is the pseudo-first-order rate constant (s(-1)) of the water-catalyzed degradation of MMD molecules other than the protonated ones, f(1) - f(2) are fractions of the compound. MMD is the most stable at approx. pH 2.5.

  7. Cytologic and radiosensibilizer action of the methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, P.C.N.

    1989-01-01

    This work was designed with the aim of studying the use of Methylene Blue as a possible cellular sensitizer to heat and X-rays effects. We were able to show that MB can sensitize bacteria to these two agents. This sensitization is dependent on factors that can interfere with the penetration of the dye through the cellular membrane, like temperature, concentration and permeability. On the other hand, the sensitization is dependent on repair systems. In this work, we show that damages induced by heat and MB are repaired chiefly by the excision repair system, since mutants deficient in UVR ABC endonuclease or in DNA polimerase I are very sensitive to this treatment. This was confirmed by measuring the excision of sup(3)H labeled thymidine from the DNA after treatment of bacteria with heat and MB. Repair of damage produced by X-rays depends on the DNA polimerase I enzyme. It seems that MB can interfere with this enzyme inhibiting the repair of X-rays produced lesions. It is shown too that MB alone, in alkaline conditions, can induce single-strand-breaks in DNA. This means that in the cells, MB probably induces alkali labilizations that become SSB in alkaline conditions. Since X rays are used in cancer therapy, and MB penetrates preferably in malignant cells, our aim was to determine the possibility of using these two agents to improve the discrimination of the lethal effects of X-rays between malignant and normal cells. (author)

  8. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  9. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  10. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) · 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050°C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  12. Photodynamic action of methylene blue in osteosarcoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiemin; Lai, Xiaoping; Wang, Xinna; Leung, Albert Wingnang; Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Chuanshan

    2014-03-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor which threatens the life of young people worldwide. To explore alternative strategy for combating osteosarcoma, a light-emitting diode (LED) that activates methylene blue (MB) was used in the present study to investigate cell death of osteosarcoma-derived UMR106 cells. Photocytotoxicity in UMR106 cells was investigated 24h after photodynamic activation of MB using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and light microscopy. Apoptosis induction was observed 24h after photodynamic treatment using a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with Hoechst 33342 staining. The change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was analyzed using a flow cytometry with rhodamine 123 staining. MB under red light irradiation caused a drug-concentration (0-100μM) and light-dose (0-32J/cm(2)) dependent cytotoxicity in UMR106 cells. The SRB assay and light microscopy observed a significant decrease in the number of UMR106 cells attached to the bottom of culture well after LED light-activated MB (100μM, 32J/cm(2)). Nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmentation were found in the treated cells by nuclear staining. In addition, flow cytometry showed that the MMP in UMR106 cells was rapidly reduced by photo-activated MB (100μM, 32J/cm(2)). Photodynamic action of MB under LED irradiation could remarkably kill osteosarcoma cells and induce cell apoptosis as well as MMP collapse. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Methylene blue for clinical anaphylaxis treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Moreira Rodrigues

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide has a pathophysiological role in modulating systemic changes associated with anaphylaxis. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors may exacerbate bronchospasm in anaphylaxis and worsen clinical conditions, with limited roles in anaphylactic shock treatment. The aim here was to report an anaphylaxis case (not anaphylactic shock, reversed by methylene blue (MB, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old female suddenly presented urticaria and pruritus, initially on her face and arms, then over her whole body. Oral antihistamine was administered initially, but without improvement in symptoms and signs until intravenous methylprednisolone 500 mg. Recurrence occurred after two hours, plus vomiting. Associated upper respiratory distress, pulmonary sibilance, laryngeal stridor and facial angioedema (including erythema and lip edema marked the evolution. At sites with severe pruritus, petechial lesions were observed. The clinical situation worsened, with dyspnea, tachypnea, peroral cyanosis, laryngeal edema with severe expiratory dyspnea and deepening unconsciousness. Conventional treatment was ineffective. Intubation and ventilatory support were then considered, because of severe hypoventilation. But, before doing that, based on our previous experience, 1.5 mg/kg (120 mg bolus of 4% MB was infused, followed by one hour of continuous infusion of another 120 mg diluted in dextrose 5% in water. Following the initial intravenous MB dose, the clinical situation reversed completely in less than 20 minutes, thereby avoiding tracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Although the nitric oxide hypothesis for MB effectiveness discussed here remains unproven, our intention was to share our accumulated cohort experience, which strongly suggests MB is a lifesaving treatment for anaphylactic shock and/or anaphylaxis and other vasoplegic conditions.

  14. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  15. Melting in trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; Scamehorn, C.; Tosi, M.P.

    1990-11-01

    We report a neutron diffraction study of the liquid structure of YCl 3 and combine the structural data with macroscopic melting and transport data to contrast the behaviour of this molten salt with those of SrCl 2 , ZnCl 2 and AlCl 3 as prototypes of different melting mechanisms for ionic materials. A novel melting mechanism for trivalent metal chlorides, leading to a loose disordered network of edge-sharing octahedral units in the liquid phase, is thereby established. The various melting behaviours are related to bonding character with the help of Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Renal abnormalities in congenital chloride diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamad, Nadia M.; Al-Eisa, Amal A.

    2004-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea CLD is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the chloride/ bicarbonate exchange in the ileum and colon. It is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal distension, hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with high fecal content of chloride >90 mmol/l. We report 3 patients with CLD associated with various renal abnormalities including chronic renal failure secondary to renal hypoplasia, nephrocalcinosis and congenital nephrotic syndrome. (author)

  17. Corneal edema and permanent blue discoloration of a silicone intraocular lens by methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Scott; Werner, Liliana; Mamalis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    To report a silicone intraocular lens (IOL) stained blue by inadvertent intraoperative use of methylene blue instead of trypan blue and the results of experimental staining of various lens materials with different concentrations of the same dye. A "blue dye" was used to enhance visualization during capsulorhexis in a patient undergoing phacoemulsification with implantation of a three-piece silicone lens. Postoperatively, the patient presented with corneal edema and a discolored IOL. Various IOL materials were experimentally stained using methylene blue. Sixteen lenses (4 silicone, 4 hydrophobic acrylic, 4 hydrophilic acrylic, and 4 polymethylmethacrylate) were immersed in 0.5 mL of methylene blue at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001%. These lenses were grossly and microscopically evaluated for discoloration 6 and 24 hours after immersion. The corneal edema resolved within 1 month after the initial surgical procedure. After explantation, gross and microscopic analyses of the explanted silicone lens revealed that its surface and internal substance had been permanently stained blue. In the experimental study, all of the lenses except the polymethylmethacrylate lenses were permanently stained by methylene blue. The hydrophilic acrylic lenses showed the most intense blue staining in all dye concentrations. This is the first clinicopathological report of IOL discoloration due to intraocular use of methylene blue. This and other tissue dyes may be commonly found among surgical supplies in the operating room and due diligence is necessary to avoid mistaking these dyes for those commonly used during ocular surgery.

  18. In Vitro Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Against Trichophyton mentagrophytes Using New Methylene Blue as the Photosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Chicón, P; Gulías, Ò; Nonell, S; Agut, M

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy combines the use of a photosensitizing drug with light and oxygen to eradicate pathogens. Trichophyton mentagrophytes is a dermatophytic fungus able to invade the skin and keratinized tissues. We have investigated the use of new methylene blue as the photosensitizing agent for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to produce the in vitro inactivation of T mentagrophytes. A full factorial design was employed to optimize the parameters for photoinactivation of the dermatophyte. The parameters studied were new methylene blue concentration, contact time between the photosensitizing agent and the fungus prior to light treatment, and the fluence of red light (wavelength, 620-645nm) applied. The minimum concentration of new methylene blue necessary to induce the death of all T. mentagrophytes cells in the initial suspension (approximate concentration, 10 6 colony forming units per milliliter) was 50μM for a fluence of 81J/cm 2 after a contact time of 10minutes with the photosensitizing-agent. Increasing the concentration to 100μM allowed the fluence to be decreased to 9J/cm 2 . Comparison of our data with other published data shows that the susceptibility of T. mentagrophytes to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with new methylene blue is strain-dependent. New methylene blue is a photosensitizing agent that should be considered for the treatment of fungal skin infections caused by this dermatophyte. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of NiO-Decorated ZnO Nanowhiskers for Methylene Blue Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanowhiskers were used for photodecomposition of methylene blue in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The rate of methylene blue degradation increased linearly with time of UV irradiation. 54% of degradation rate was observed when the ZnO nanowhiskers were used as photocatalysts for methylene blue degradation for 80 min under UV irradiation. The decoration of p-type NiO nanoparticles on n-type ZnO nanowhiskers significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity and reached 72% degradation rate of methylene blue by using the same method. NiO-decorated ZnO was recycled for second test and shows 66% degradation from maximal peak of methylene blue within the same period. The increment of photocatalytic activity of NiO-decorated ZnO nanowhiskers was explained by the extension of the electron depletion layer due to the formation of nanoscale p-n junctions between p-type NiO and n-type ZnO. Hence, these products provide new alternative proficient photocatalysts for wastewater treatment.

  20. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu; Tsunashima, Mikiyasu; Horie, Masaaki; Koyama, Masafumi; Sudo, Minoru; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Ogasawara, Tadashi.

    1991-01-01

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  1. Methylene-bis[(aminomethyl)phosphinic acids]: synthesis, acid-base and coordination properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Tomáš; Procházková, Soňa; Havlíčková, Jana; Kotek, Jan; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Hermann, Petr; Lukeš, Ivan

    2013-02-21

    Three symmetrical methylene-bis[(aminomethyl)phosphinic acids] bearing different substituents on the central carbon atom, (NH(2)CH(2))PO(2)H-C(R(1))(R(2))-PO(2)H(CH(2)NH(2)) where R(1) = OH, R(2) = Me (H(2)L(1)), R(1) = OH, R(2) = Ph (H(2)L(2)) and R(1),R(2) = H (H(2)L(3)), were synthesized. Acid-base and complexing properties of the ligands were studied in solution as well as in the solid state. The ligands show unusually high basicity of the nitrogen atoms (log K(1) = 9.5-10, log K(2) = 8.5-9) if compared with simple (aminomethyl)phosphinic acids and, consequently, high stability constants of the complexes with studied divalent metal ions. The study showed the important role of the hydroxo group attached to the central carbon atom of the geminal bis(phosphinate) moiety. Deprotonation of the hydroxo group yields the alcoholate anion which tends to play the role of a bridging ligand and induces formation of polynuclear complexes. Solid-state structures of complexes [H(2)N=C(NH(2))(2)][Cu(2)(H(-1)L(2))(2)]CO(3)·10H(2)O and Li(2)[Co(4)(H(-1)L(1))(3)(OH)]·17.5H(2)O were determined by X-ray diffraction. The complexes show unexpected geometries forming dinuclear and cubane-like structures, respectively. The dinuclear copper(II) complex contains a bridging μ(2)-alcoholate group with the (-)O-P(=O)-CH(2)-NH(2) fragments of each ligand molecule chelated to the different central ion. In the cubane cobalt(II) complex, one μ(3)-hydroxide and three μ(3)-alcoholate anions are located in the cube vertices and both phosphinate groups of one ligand molecule are chelating the same cobalt(II) ion while each of its amino groups are bound to different neighbouring metal ions. All such three metal ions are bridged by the alcoholate group of a given ligand.

  2. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  3. Complexation between carrageenan and methylene blue for sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yew Pei; Heng, Lee Yook

    2013-11-01

    Theoretical studies on the methylene blue (MB)-carrageenans complexation at solution and solid states have been carried out via ultraviolet spectrophotoscopy and reflectometry methods. The equilibrium constant (Ka) of the MBcarrageenans complexation follows the order of Iota > Lambda > Kappa carrageenans, which indicated Iota-carrageenan forms a stable complex. MB-carrageenan complexation reaction showed decrease in Ka value from 210.71 ppm-1 to 114.57 ppm-1 when the reaction temperature increased from 298 K to 323 K. Le Chatelier's principle and mass action law explained that the MB-carrageenan complexation was an exothermic reaction (ΔH=-18.54 kJmol-1) that release heat. Thus MB-carrageenan complex was less stable at high temperature and tend to dissociate into free MB and carrageenan molecules. It was also supported by the van't Hoff equation. The reaction is a spontaneous process (ΔG=-13.23 kJmol-1) where the randomness of the molecules reduced (ΔS=-17.83 Jmol-1K-1) due to complexation. Besides, linear regression of the concentration and absorption of the MB-carrageenan reaction obeys the Beer Lambert law, which elucidated that the complexation process was not affected by any concentration dependent factors such as aggregation and self-quenching. Moreover, linear Benesi Hilderbrend plot revealed that the interaction between MB and carrageenan was a reversible and stoichiometric reaction with 1:1 ratio. However, the molar extinction coefficient (ɛ) and molar adsorption coefficient (μa) of the MB-carrageenan complex were lower compared to free MB, described that the complex was less adsorptive. The sensor constructed based on these theoretical investigations showed response behavior that was similar with solution test as both have attraction for carrageenans in the sequence of Iota-, Lambda-, Kappa- carrageenans. Likewise, carrageenan sensor was more selective towards Iota-carrageenan than to Lambda- and Kappa-carrageenans, and no response observed when

  4. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  5. Thermochemistry of alkali chloride - lanthanoide(III) chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blachnik, R.; Selle, D.

    1979-01-01

    The phase diagrams of the mixtures KCl + GdCl 3 resp. DyCl 3 and of CsCl + PrCl 3 (DyCl 3 , ErCl 3 , and YbCl 3 ) were investigated by differential thermal analysis. In the mixtures of lanthanoide(III) chlorides with CsCl resp. KCl three different stoichiometries of the compounds were found, namely A 3 MCl 6 , A 2 MCl 5 , and AM 2 Cl 7 . Debyeograms of the compounds A 3 MCl 6 and AM 2 Cl 7 reveal, that in the case of the latter type all compounds with the same alkali halide have identical structure, whereas in the A 3 MCl 6 compounds three different types of X-ray patterns were observed. The stabilities of the congruently melting compounds can be estimated by comparing the melting point of the compound with the temperature of an extrapolated eutectic point. (author)

  6. Assessing Urinary Tract Junction Obstruction Defects by Methylene Blue Dye Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kangsun

    2017-10-12

    Urinary tract junction obstruction defects are congenital anomalies inducing hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Murine urinary tract junction obstruction defects can be assessed by tracking methylene blue dye flow within the urinary system. Methylene blue dye is injected into the renal pelvis of perinatal embryonic kidneys and dye flow is monitored from the renal pelvis of the kidney through the ureter and into the bladder lumen after applying hydrostatic pressure. Dye accumulation will be evident in the bladder lumen of the normal perinatal urinary tract, but will be constrained between the renal pelvis and the end point of an abnormal ureter, if urinary tract obstructions occur. This method facilitates the confirmation of urinary tract junction obstructions and visualization of hydronephrosis and hydroureter. This manuscript describes a protocol for methylene blue dye injection into the renal pelvis to confirm urinary tract junction obstructions.

  7. Potential adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using green macroalgaePosidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, F.-N.; Yassaa, N.

    2018-03-01

    The use of inexpensive biological materials, such as marine algae for removing dyes from contaminated industrial effluents appears as a potential alternative method. The aim of this study is to investigate the aptitude of marine macroalgae Posidonia Oceanica local biomass abundant on the coasts of Algeria for selective sorption of methylene blue (MB) from an aqueous solution in batch experiments at 20 °C. A maximum percentage removal of Posidonia oceanica occurs at pH 5. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption equilibrium of methylene blue was best describe by Langmuir model than the Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity was 357 mgg-1at pH 5. The sorption data were very well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Keywords: Posidonia oceanica, Methylene blue (MB), Biosorption, Isotherm Equilibrium, Kinetics; Modelling.

  8. Plutonium scrap waste processing based on aqueous nitrate and chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of plutonium scrap aqueous waste processing technology at Rocky Flats is given. Nitric acid unit operations include dissolution and leaching, anion exchange purification and precipitation. Chloride waste processing consists of cation exchange and carbonate precipitation. Ferrite and carrier precipitation waste treatment processes are also described. 3 figs

  9. Roentgen-phase analysis of sodium chloride of Khodja-Mumindeposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, K.M.; Pulatov, M.S.; Isupov, S.D.

    1999-01-01

    With the purpose of determination of mineral composition of sodium chloride by authors was carried out the roentgen-phase analysis till its purification, after filtration and after purification from Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 4 2 + i ons by barium-carbonate and hydrochloride-acid methods

  10. Removal of congo red and methylene blue from waste water using coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffar, S.; Nosheen, S.; Ahmad, N.

    2011-01-01

    The textile industry has been condemned as being one of the world's worst offenders in terms of pollution Because of increasing population and industrial developments, a huge amount of wastewater is discharged to the environment above the level that the nature can eliminate. Many techniques like oxidation, reduction, physical treatment and biological method are available for removal of colored dyes from wastewater. The work presented here involved the decolorisation of wastewater containing congo red and methylene blue using various coagulants such as alum, bentonite and lime. The effect of various experimental factors such as dosage of coagulants, contact time between coagulant and dye and concentration of dyes and working environment like shaking and static was studied. Under static condition alum give almost 43% removal of congo red while with 10 minutes shaking 74 % removal of 80 dye was achieved with same coagulant. The highest removal of congo red was found to be 99.5 % by using alum after 30 minutes of shaking but in case of methylene blue it intensified the color and gave negative results. Lime gave only 33 % color removal of congo red under static conditions while 57% color was removed under shaking conditions. Maximum color removal achieved by lime was 89% at 40 minutes with shaking condition. Lime gave 60% removal of methylene blue in static condition and 90% removal in shaking condition and maximum absorbance at 80 ppm was 90%. Bentonite also used for the removal of methylene blue and gave 89% removal in shaking condition. By increasing shaking time %age removal increased to 100% at 40 min. And amount of coagulant increased the removal efficiency it attained 100% in both lime and bentonite coagulant for methylene blue Overall alum was found to be better coagulant for the removal of congo red from its aqueous solution. Lime and bentonite both proved better and economical for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution at lab scale. (author)

  11. Photodynamic Therapy With Methylene Blue for Skin Ulcers Infected With Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspiroz, C; Sevil, M; Toyas, C; Gilaberte, Y

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a therapeutic modality with significant antimicrobial activity. We present 2 cases of chronic lower limb ulcers in which fungal and bacterial superinfection complicated management. PDT with methylene blue as the photosensitizer led to clinical and microbiological cure with no significant adverse effects. PDT with methylene blue is a valid option for the management of superinfected chronic ulcers, reducing the use of antibiotics and the induction of resistance. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of Methylene Blue from aqueous solution using spent bleaching earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, E.; Saputra, R.; Nugraha, M. W.; Irianty, R. S.; Utama, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    The waste from industrial textile waste is one of the environmental problems, it is required effective and efficient processing. In this study spent bleaching earth was used as absorbent. It was found that the absorbent was effective to remove methylene blue from aqueous solution with removal efficiency 99.97 % in 120 min. Several parameters such as pH, amount of absorbent loading, stirring speed are found as key factor influencing removal of methylene blue. The mechanism of adsorption was also studied, and it was found that Langmuir isotherm fitted to data of experiment with adsorption capacity 0.5 mg/g.

  13. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  14. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  15. Synthesis of 14C-dehydrocorydaline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Wang Ding

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesis of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline chloride is described. In the presence of sodium hydroxide, acetonylpalmatine is reacted with 14 C-methyl iodide in sealed glass ampoule to give 14 C-13-methylpalmatine iodide which is then converted to chloride. The radiochemical purity of 14 C-dehydrocorydaline determined by TLC is over 98% and the labelling efficiency is 54%

  16. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  17. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those...

  19. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, V.D.; Kocherov, N.P.; Novikova, N.R.; Perfilov, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.) [de

  20. Evaluation of anticancer properties of a new α-methylene-δ-lactone DL-249 on two cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomorska Dorota K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer activity of a new synthetic α-methylene-δ-lactone DL-249 was reported in leukemia HL-60 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells and compared with the activity of a natural α-methylene-γ-lactone from Tanacetum parthenium, parthenolide.

  1. Anodic and cathodic reactions in molten calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fray, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Calcium chloride is a very interesting electrolyte in that it is available, virtually free, in high purity form as a waste product from the chemical industry. It has a very large solubility for oxide ions, far greater than many alkali halides and other divalent halides and has the same toxicity as sodium chloride and also a very high solubility in water. Intuitively, on the passage of current, it is expected that calcium would be deposited at the cathode and chlorine would evolve at the anode. However, if calcium oxide is added to the melt, it is possible to deposit calcium and evolve oxygen containing gases at the anode, making the process far less polluting than when chlorine is evolved. This process is discussed in terms of the addition of calcium to molten lead. Furthermore, these reactions can be altered dramatically depending upon the electrode materials and the other ions dissolved in the calcium chloride. As calcium is only deposited at very negative cathodic potentials, there are several interesting cathodic reactions that can occur and these include the decomposition of the carbonate ion and the ionization of oxygen, sulphur, selenium and tellurium. For example, if an oxide is used as the cathode in molten calcium chloride, the favoured reaction is shown to be the ionization of oxygen O + 2e - → O 2- rather than Ca 2+ + 2 e- → Ca. The oxygen ions dissolve in the salt leaving the metal behind, and this leads to the interesting hypothesis that metal oxides can be reduced directly to the metal purely by the use of electrons. Examples are given for the reduction of titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, chromium oxide and niobium oxide and by mixing oxide powders together and reducing the mixed compact, alloys and intermetallic compounds are formed. Preliminary calculations indicate that this new process should be much cheaper than conventional metallothermic reduction for these elements. (author)

  2. Preparation of very pure active carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloot, H.A. van der; Hoede, D.; Zonderhuis, J.; Meijer, C.

    1980-02-01

    The preparation of very pure active carbon is described. Starting from polyvinylidene chloride active carbon is prepared by carbonization in a nitrogen atmosphere, grinding, sieving and activation of the powder fraction with CO 2 at 950 0 to approximately 50% burn-off. The concentrations of trace and major elements are reduced to the ppb and ppm level, respectively. In the present set-up 100 g of carbon grains and approximately 50 g of active carbon powder can be produced weekly

  3. Indium-111-chloride and three-phase bone scintigraphy: A comparison for imaging experimental osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskinson, J.J.; Daniel, G.B.; Patton, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the utility of indium-111-chloride ( 111 In-Cl) imaging in detecting osteomyelitis complicating surgical or fracture sites, the proximal tibia of 11 dogs were experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus after creation of a cortical defect. The contralateral limb served as a sham-operated control. Animals were serially imaged by radiography, three-phase technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) scintigraphy, and 111 In-Cl scintigraphy. There was a significant difference between infected (1.93) and noninfected (1.32) limb's tibia/femur count density ratios on 24-hr (p = 0.0001) and 72-hr (p = 0.0001) 111 In-Cl images. A smaller difference was found for 99mTc-MDP bone-phase tibia/femur ratios (p = 0.0199). Using receiver operator characteristic analysis of tibia/femur ratios, a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 88%, and positive (75%) and negative (79%) predictive values were determined for the 24-hr 111 In-Cl images. Indium-111-chloride was superior to 99mTc-MDP in differentiating infected and noninfected operative sites

  4. ON THE CHEMISTRY AND STAINING PROPERTIES OF CERTAIN DERIVATIVES OF THE METHYLENE BLUE GROUP WHEN COMBINED WITH EOSIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.

    1907-01-01

    1. Eosinate of thionin gives very satisfactory staining for blood smears. It is easily prepared and dissolves readily in methylated spirits. 2. In the methods heretofore employed for making mixtures of eosin and methylene blue derivatives, the eosinates of methylene violet and methylene azure are present in very small quantities or are altogether absent. 3. Thionol and thionin are probably formed in methylene blue which has been long boiled with dilute alkalies and silver oxide. 4. Good stains of eosin and methylene blue derivatives can be obtained by a variety of manipulations. 5. Methylated spirits is more economical as a solvent for this stain and better adapted for the simple technique above described than is methyl alcohol. There is some evidence that the staining act is of a chemical nature. PMID:19867116

  5. Alumina/silica aerogel with zinc chloride as an alkylation catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN U. SKALA

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The alumina/silica with zinc chloride aerogel alkylation catalyst was obtained using a one step sol-gel synthesis, and subsequent drying with supercritical carbon dioxide. The aerogel catalyst activity was found to be higher compared to the corresponding xerogel catalyst, as a result of the higher aerogel surface area, total pore volume and favourable pore size distribution. Mixed Al–O–Si bonds were present in both gel catalyst types. Activation by thermal treatment in air was needed prior to catalytic alkylation, due to the presence of residual organic groups on the aerogel surface. The optimal activation temperature was found to be in the range 185–225°C, while higher temperatures resulted in the removal of zinc chloride from the surface of the aerogel catalyst with a consequential decrease in the catalytic activity. On varying the zinc chloride content, the catalytic activity of the aerogel catalyst exhibited a maximum. High zinc chloride contents decreased the catalytic activity of the aerogel catalyst as the result of the pores of the catalyst being plugged with this compound, and the separation of the alumina/silica support into Al-rich and Si-rich phases. The surface area, total pore volume, pore size distribution and zinc chloride content had a similar influence on the activity of the aerogel catalyst as was the case of xerogel catalyst and supported zinc chloride catalysts.

  6. Chloride Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the ...

  7. Regenerable, innovative porous silicon-based polymer-derived ceramics for removal of methylene blue and rhodamine B from textile and environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Appendini, Marta; Onida, Barbara; Castiglioni, Michele; Del Bubba, Massimo; Vanzetti, Lia; Jana, Prasanta; Sorarù, Gian Domenico; Rivoira, Luca

    2018-04-01

    The presence of residual color in treated textile wastewater above the regulation limits is still a critical issue in many textile districts. Innovative, polymer-derived ceramics of the Si-C-O system were here synthesized in order to obtain porous nanocomposite materials where a free carbon phase is dispersed into a silicon carbide/silicon oxycarbide network. The sorbents were comprehensively characterized for the removal of two model water-soluble dyes (i.e., the cation methylene blue and the zwitterion rhodamine B). Adsorption is very rapid and controlled by intra-particle and/or film diffusion, depending on dye concentration. Among the nanocomposites studied, the SiOC aerogel (total capacity about 45 mg/g, is easily regenerated under mild treatment (250 °C, 2 h). Adsorption of dyes is not affected by the matrix composition: removals of 150 mg/L methylene blue from river water and simulated textile wastewater with high content of metal ions (2-50 mg/L) and chemical oxygen demand (800 mg/L) were higher than 92% and quantitative for a dye concentration of 1 mg/L.

  8. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on carbon nanotube-TiO{sub 2}-Pd composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Hye; Choi, Hyun Chul [Dept. of Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysis is recognized as a promising technique for addressing energy and environmental issues. Among various semiconductors, the use of titanium dioxide (TiO-2) as a photocatalyst in solar energy conversion and pollutant degradation has been widely investigated because of its high efficiency, photostability, and low toxicity. However, its practical application is restricted by the intrinsic wide band gap of TiO-2 and the rapid recombination of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. Therefore, several remedial methods have been proposed, such as the doping of TiO{sub 2} with metallic or non-metallic elements, increasing its surface area, sensitization with dyes, and the generation of defect structures. We have successfully prepared CNT–TiO{sub 2}–Pd composites with a simple two-step sol–gel method. We characterized the composites with TEM and XRD, and demonstrated that anatase TiO{sub 2} and metallic Pd nanoparticles were deposited onto the surfaces of the CNTs. The average particle size of these nanoparticles was approximately 3.4 nm. The prepared catalyst was found to exhibit a higher activity in MB photodegradation than the reference systems. The synergy of the combination of CNTs and Pd nanoparticles with TiO{sub 2} provides superior MB degradation. More comprehensive studies of the mechanism for this synergy between the metal nanoparticles and TiO{sub 2} that enhances the photocatalytic activity of CNT–TiO{sub 2} are underway in our laboratory.

  9. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  10. Continuous adsorption of methylene blue dye on the maize stem ground tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić Predrag S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solutions onto maize stem ground tissue in column mode was investigated. The study encompassed the effects of important parameters such as flow rate, initial concentration of methylene blue, and bed depth on methylene blue removal from model solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity of the maize stem was 45.9 mg/g at the initial methylene blue concentration of 20 mg/L, bed height of 6.5 cm and flow rate of 8 mL/min. It was found that the breakthrough time for reaching saturation increased with a decrease in the flow rate, and also occurred earlier for a higher influent concentration. The breakthrough times increased with the bed depth, thus allowing a larger volume to be treated. The Adams-Bohart, Yoon-Nelson, Clark and artificial neural network models were used to predict the breakthrough curves. These models gave excellent approximations of the experimental behavior.[Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172025

  11. Increased uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in muscles in the course of polymyositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemir, Z.; Oleksa, R.; Czepczynski, R.; Sowinski, J.

    2005-01-01

    A case of a woman aged 46 years with signs of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure is presented. Coxsackie serum test was positive. Increased uptake of Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ( 99mT c-MDP) by muscles of thighs and calves was observed. After 1 year no increased accumulation of radiotracer in the muscles was found

  12. Methylene blue adsorption by algal biomass based materials: biosorbents characterization and process behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2007-08-17

    Dead algal biomass is a natural material that serves as a basis for developing a new family of sorbent materials potentially suitable for many industrial applications. In this work an algal industrial waste from agar extraction process, algae Gelidium and a composite material obtained by immobilization of the algal waste with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were physical characterized and used as biosorbents for dyes removal using methylene blue as model. The apparent and real densities and the porosity of biosorbents particles were determined by mercury porosimetry and helium picnometry. The methylene blue adsorption in the liquid phase was the method chosen to calculate the specific surface area of biosorbent particles as it seems to reproduce better the surface area accessible to metal ions in the biosorption process than the N2 adsorption-desorption dry method. The porous texture of the biosorbents particles was also studied. Equilibrium isotherms are well described by the Langmuir equation, giving maximum uptake capacities of 171, 104 and 74 mg g(-1), respectively for algae, algal waste and composite material. Kinetic experiments at different initial methylene blue concentrations were performed to evaluate the equilibrium time and the importance of the driving force to overcome mass transfer resistances. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models adequately describe the kinetic data. The biosorbents used in this work proved to be promising materials for removing methylene blue from aqueous solutions.

  13. Synthesis of /sup 14/C-labeled felbamate from phenylacetic-(methylene-/sup 14/C) acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Y.M.; Kucharczyk, N.; Sofia, R.D.

    1986-05-01

    A synthetic procedure for the preparation of 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol-2-/sup 14/C dicarbamate, starting with phenylacetic-(methylene-/sup 14/C) acid was developed. The procedure from phenylacetic acid to 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate has four steps via phenylmalonic acid and 2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol. The overall yield of all four steps was 28%.

  14. Extended Fenske-Hall LCAO MO Calculations for Mixed Methylene Dihalides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Hartmut; Paulun, Manfred

    1988-10-01

    The electronic structure of mixed methylene dihalides CH2XY (X, Y = F, Cl, Br. I) has been studied using extended Fenske-Hall LCAO MO method. The comparison with available photoelec­tron spectra confirmes previous assignments of all bands with binding energies <100 eV. The electronic structure changes occurring upon varying the halogen substituents are discussed.

  15. Breakdown of methylene blue and methyl orange by pulsed corona discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabowski, L.R.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Rutgers, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    The recently developed corona above water technique is applied to water containing 10 mg l-1 methylene blue (MB) or methyl orange (MO). The corona discharge pulses are created with a spark gap switched capacitor followed by a transmission line transformer. The pulse amplitude is 40 kV; its duration

  16. Chemical composition effects of methylene containing polymers on gas emission under γ-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, M., E-mail: muriel.ferry@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dannoux-Papin, A. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dély, N. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, LIDYL, PCR, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legand, S.; Durand, D.; Roujou, J.L.; Lamouroux, C.; Dauvois, V. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coignet, P.; Cochin, F. [AREVA NC DOR/RDP, 1 place Jean Millier, 92084 La Défense (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, LRMO, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, LIDYL, PCR, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-09-01

    The presence of different chemical groups in methylene containing polymers can lead to very different behaviors under ionizing radiation. To better understand the effect of these groups on gas production under γ-irradiation, especially on hydrogen formation, and to study the efficiency of energy transfer between chemical groups, several methylene containing polymers with different controlled group concentrations were studied in inert atmosphere. We analyzed the influence of the nature and position of the chemical group using methylene containing copolymers with aliphatic side-chains (different lengths), ester groups in the side-chains (different concentrations) and ester groups in the polymer backbone (different concentrations). Radiation chemical yields of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were determined at room temperature by high resolution mass spectrometry. On the basis of these results, we attempt to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. It can be observed that crystallinity and aliphatic side-chain have no effect on hydrogen formation. On contrary, esters on side-chain and in the backbone have an important influence on hydrogen formation, with the most important effect when esters groups are in the backbone. In these two kind of materials, energy fraction transferred from methylene to ester groups has been quantified and only 10 wt% (or less) of ester groups are sufficient to protect effectively the aliphatic moiety.

  17. Liver metastases of breast carcinoma detected on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.; Horning, S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    The accumulation of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals has been reported in liver metastases from colon carcinoma and oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Two patients with breast carcinoma in whom hepatic metastases were visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate bone images are described. This has not been previously reported

  18. Retrograde Instillation of Methylene Blue in the Difficult Diagnosis of BPF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ravenna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases in which we were able to diagnose bronchopleural fistula through retrograde methylene blue instillation during bronchoscopy. In the first case, methylene blue was injected through an abdominal drain, followed by air instillation and detected in the left bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the lingula’s bronchus. In the second case, methylene blue was injected into a pleural drain, through a breach on a surgical suture and detected in the right bronchial tree, demonstrating the presence of a fistula in the right inferior bronchus. The retrograde instillation of methylene blue, through a drain in the abdomen or the thoracic wall, is a safe, cheap, and practical method that allows the bronchoscopist to identify the presence of a fistula and, more importantly, to identify the exact point on the bronchial tree where a fistula is located. This provides the possibility of sealing the fistula with a variety of devices. It is our opinion that this procedure should be considered a primary method of diagnosis when a bronchopleural fistula is suspected and a drain on the thoracic or abdominal wall is positioned such that effusions are able to drain.

  19. Microfluidics-based microbubbles in methylene blue solution for photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman; Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Yang, Chun; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Contrast agents which can be used for more than one bio-imaging technique has gained a lot of attention from researchers in recent years. In this work, a microfluidic device employing a flow-focusing junction, is used for the continuous generation of monodisperse nitrogen microbubbles in methylene blue, an optically absorbing organic dye, for dual-modal photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. Using an external phase of polyoxyethylene glycol 40 stearate (PEG 40), a non-ionic surfactant, and 50% glycerol solution at a flow rate of 1 ml/hr and gas pressure at 1.75 bar, monodisperse nitrogen microbubbles of diameter 7 microns were obtained. The external phase also contained methylene blue hydrate at a concentration of 1 gm/litre. The monodisperse microbubbles produced a strong ultrasound signal as expected. It was observed that the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the photoacoustic signal for the methylene blue solution in the presence of the monodisperse microbubbles was 68.6% lower than that of methylene blue solution in the absence of microbubbles. This work is of significance because using microfluidics, we can precisely control the bubbles' production rate and bubble size which increases ultrasound imaging efficiency. A uniform size distribution of the bubbles will have narrower resonance frequency bandwidth which will respond well to specific ultrasound frequencies.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C 3 N 4 /ZnO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The photocatalytic activities of prepared samples were investigated under the illumination of blacklight and fluorescent lamps as the low wattage light source. The C 3 N 4 /ZnO showed a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO to degrade a methylene blue (MB) dye solution using blacklight lamps, but there is no significant ...

  1. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  2. [Sensitive determination of Bi3+ by spectrofluorimetry based on graphene oxide-methylene blue system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qiu-ge; Guo, Peng; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yan-ming

    2014-08-01

    Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummers method and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The interaction of graphene with methylene blue was studied by UV absorption, the intensity of two main absorption peaks of methylene blue decreased significantly after the fluorescence was quenched, and the energy transfer didn't occur because the overlap of the absorption spectrum of GO and the emission spectrum of MB is too small. Therefore, the fluorescence quenching of MB and GO was static. When adding a certain amount of Bi3+ in the graphene-methylene blue system, Bi3+ replaces the methylene blue from the graphene-methylene blue complexes because Bi3+ has the smaller volume and is more positively charged. The methylene blue therefore dissociates from the GO-MB complexes, resulting in the recovery of fluorescence of the system. Furthermore, the fluorescence of the system increases with the increase in the amount of Bi3+ due to the enhanced amount of MB in the system. A novel spectrofluorimetric method was therefore developed for the sensitive determination of Bi3+. Some parameters including the concentration of methylene blue, the amount of graphene oxide, the amount of nitric acid and the sequence of reagent adding were optimized to obtain higher sensitivity. The fluorescence of the system was detected at an emission wavelength of 667 nm with excitation at 690 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the concentration of Bi3+ showed good linear relationships with the fluorescence intensity in the range of 0.5-100 micromol x L(-1), with correlation coefficients of r = 0.9955. The limits of detection for Bi3+ was 1.0 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1) (S/N=3). The selectivity of the proposed method was evaluated and the results showed that 1000-fold K+, Ca+, Na+, Mg2+, Cu2+; 100-fold Fe3+, Be2+, SiO2- Al3+, Ni2+, Sb3+, NO3-, Cl-, F-, and 20-fold Pb2+, Hg2+, Cd2+ had negligible interference with the determination of Bi3+. The method has advantages of

  3. Conductometric study of lanthanum chloride interaction with potash soaps of higher fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrylev, L.D.; Sazonova, V.F.; Kornelli, M.Eh.; Shumilina, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Interaction of lanthanum chloride with potassium salts of higher aliphatic acids, containing from 10 to 16 carbon atoms, at room temperature in weakly acid media (pH=5.5) gives rise to neutral soaps of the La[CHsub(3)(CHsub(2))sub(n)COO]sub(3) composition, while in alkaline media (pH=8.0) base soaps of the LaOH[CHsub(3)(CHsub(2))sub(n)COO]sub(2) composition are formed. In acid solutions (pH=2.0) no interaction of lanthanum chloride with potassium soaps of the above carboxylic acids is observed

  4. Study on dehydrochlorination of waste poly (vinyl chloride) resins by microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Saburo; Qian, Qingrong; Sunohara, Satoshi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    Waste poly (vinyl chloride: PVC) resins are experimentally dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation. The following unique results are obtained: (1) plasticizer in PVC resin absorbs microwave power more effectively than PVC polymer. The higher the plasticizer content in PVC resin, the higher is the dehydrochlorination reaction (2) low PVC polymer content materials such as cushion floor require high microwave irradiation power to secure a high dehydrochlorination yield, (3) calcium carbonate in PVC resin reacts with released hydrochloric acid gas and results calcium chloride during microwave irradiation, (4) additives in PVC resin strongly influence dehydrochlorination yield, (5) it is evidenced that the PVC copolymer is also dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation.

  5. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  6. Carbon film electrodes for super capacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-01-01

    A microporous carbon film for use as electrodes in energy strorage devices is disclosed, which is made by the process comprising the steps of: (1) heating a polymer film material consisting essentially of a copolymer of polyvinylidene chloride and polyvinyl chloride in an inert atmosphere to form a carbon film; and (2) activating said carbon film to form said microporous carbon film having a density between about 0.7 g/cm.sup.2 and 1 g/cm.sup.2 and a gravimetric capacitance of about between 120 F/g and 315 F/g.

  7. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D.; Bowden, W.; Hamilton, N.; Cubbison, D.; Dey, A. N.

    1981-04-01

    The main objective is to develop, fabricate, test, and deliver safe high rate lithium-thionyl chloride batteries for various U.S. Army applications such as manpack ratios and GLLD Laser Designators. We have devoted our efforts in the following major areas: (1) Optimization of the spirally wound D cell for high rate applications, (2) Development of a 3 inch diameter flat cylindrical cell for the GLLD laser designator application, and (3) Investigation of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2. The rate capability of the spirally wound D cell previously developed by us has been optimized for both the manpack radio (BA5590) battery and GLLD laser designator battery application in this program. A flat cylindrical cell has also been developed for the GLLD laser designator application. It is 3 inches in diameter and 0.9 inch in height with extremely low internal cell impedance that minimizes cell heating and polarization on the GLLD load. Typical cell capacity was found to be 18.0-19.0 Ahr with a few cells delivering up to about 21.0 Ahr on the GLLD test load. Study of the reduction mechanism of SOCl2 using electrochemical and spectroscopic techniques has also been carried out in this program which may be directly relevant to the intrinsic safety of the system.

  8. An Elegant Analysis of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using a Graphene Oxide/Methylene Blue based Electrochemical Immunosensor Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Anusha; Devi, K. S. Shalini; Raja, Sudhakaran; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai

    2017-04-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major devastating virus in aquaculture industry. A sensitive and selective diagnostic method for WSSV is a pressing need for the early detection and protection of the aquaculture farms. Herein, we first report, a simple electrochemical immunosensor based on methylene blue dye (MB) immobilized graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/GO@MB) for selective, quick (35 ± 5 mins) and raw sample analysis of WSSV. The immunosensor was prepared by sequential modification of primary antibody, blocking agent (bovine serum album), antigen (as vp28 protein), secondary antibody coupled with horseradish peroxidase (Ab2-HRP) on the GCE/GO@MB. The modified electrode showed a well-defined redox peak at an equilibrium potential (E1/2), -0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl and mediated H2O2 reduction reaction without any false positive result and dissolved oxygen interferences in pH 7 phosphate buffer solution. Under an optimal condition, constructed calibration plot was linear in a range of 1.36 × 10-3 to 1.36 × 107 copies μL-1 of vp28. It is about four orders higher sensitive than that of the values observed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot based WSSV detection techniques. Direct electrochemical immunosensing of WSSV in raw tissue samples were successfully demonstrated as a real sample system.

  9. A novel conversion of the groundwater treatment sludge to magnetic particles for the adsorption of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Suiyi; Fang, Shuai; Huo, Mingxin; Yu, Yang; Chen, Yu; Yang, Xia; Geng, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Bian, Dejun; Huo, Hongliang

    2015-07-15

    Iron sludge, produced from filtration and backwash of groundwater treatment plant, has long been considered as a waste for landfill. In this study, iron sludge was reused to synthesize Fe3O4 magnetic particles (MPs) by using a novel solvothermal process. Iron sludge contained abundant amounts of silicon, iron, and aluminum and did not exhibit magnetic properties. After treatment for 4h, the amorphous Fe in iron sludge was transformed into magnetite Fe3O4, which could be easily separated from aqueous solution with a magnet. The prepared particles demonstrated the intrinsic properties of soft magnetic materials and could aggregate into a size of 1 μm. MPs treated for 10h exhibited excellent magnetic properties and a saturation magnetization value of 9 emu/g. The obtained particles presented the optimal adsorption of methylene blue under mild conditions, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 99.4 mg/g, which was higher than that of granular active carbon. The simple solvothermal method can be used to prepare Fe3O4 MPs from iron sludge, and the products could be applied to treatment of dyeing wastewater. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Adsorption performance of silver-loaded activated carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver-loaded activated carbon fiber is prepared, and its adsorption performance is studied experimentally using five methylene blue solutions with different concentrations under three different temperature conditions. The adsorption tests show that fibers adsorption increase as the increase of temperature, and there is an optimal value for solution concentration, beyond which its adsorption will de-crease. Fibers isothermal adsorption to methylene blue is different from those by the monolayer adsorption by Langmuir model and the multilayer adsorption by Freundlich model. Through the analysis of thermodynamic parameters, Gibbs free energy, standard entropy, and standard enthalpy, it is found that the fibers adsorption to methylene blue is an exothermic process of physical adsorption.

  11. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  12. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  13. Lithium thionyl chloride high rate discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinedinst, K. A.

    1980-04-01

    Improvements in high rate lithium thionyl chloride power technology achieved by varying the electrolyte composition, operating temperature, cathode design, and cathode composition are discussed. Discharge capacities are plotted as a function of current density, cell voltage, and temperature.

  14. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent

    2011-01-01

    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  15. Inert Reassessment Document for Cerous Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rare earth chlorides have a wide variety of scientific applications. They a re used in superconductors, lasers, magnets, catalytic converters, fertilizes, supper alloys, cigarette lighters and as catalysts in the production of petroleum products.

  16. Visible light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using novel camphor sulfonic acid doped polycarbazole/g-C3N4 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, P.; Dhanavel, S.; Sangamithirai, D.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2018-04-01

    A novel polycabazole(PCz)/graphitic carbon nitride(g-C3N4) nanocomposite was synthesized via chemical oxidative polymerization method. In the present work, camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) was used as a dopantand ammonium peroxydisulphate (APS) was used as an oxidizing agent. The PCz/g-C3N4 nanocompositewas characterizedusing X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The obtained results confirm the successful formation of PCz/g-C3N4 nanocomposite. Visible light induced photocatalytic activity of the novel catalyst was demonstrated using methylene blue as a target pollutant. The results suggestthat PCz/g-C3N4 nanocomposite can be used as an effective catalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants from waste water.

  17. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  18. Effect of Chlorides on Conductivity and Dielectric Constant in Hardened Cement Mortar: NDT for Durability Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric constant and conductivity, the so-called EM properties (electromagnetic, are widely adopted for NDT (Nondestructive Technique in order to detect damage or evaluate performance of concrete without damage to existing RC (reinforced concrete. Among deteriorating agents, chloride ion is considered as one of the most critical threats due to rapid penetration and direct effect on steel corrosion. In the work, cement mortar samples with 3 w/c (water-to-cement ratios and 4 levels of chloride addition are considered. Conductivity and dielectric constant are measured in the normal frequency range. They increase with strength of mortar and more chloride ions due to denser pore formation. Furthermore, the behaviors of measured EM property are investigated with carbonation velocity and strength, which shows an attempt of application to durability evaluation through EM measurement.

  19. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  20. Zinc Electrodeposition from Chloride Solutions onto Glassy Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Huízar, Luis Humberto; Rios-Reyes, Clara Hilda; Gómez-Villegas, María Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical study of zinc deposition was carried out in baths containing 0.5 M ZnCl2 and 0.4 M H3BO3. From the voltammetric study it was found that, in our experimental conditions, zinc electrodeposition is quasi-reversible and occurs under charge transfer control. The average coefficient diffusion calculated was D = 7.14 × 10-6 cm²s-1 while the standard constant at electrode charge was 8.78 × 10-3 cms-1. The nucleation and growth parameters determined from the potentiostatic study sho...

  1. Atmospheric chloride: Its implication for foliar uptake and damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, E. L.; Sealy, R. L.

    Atmospheric chloride is inversely related to distance from the Texas coast; r2 = 0.86. Levels of atmospheric chloride are higher in the early summer than in the winter because of salt storms. Leaf chloride l'evels of Tillandsia usneoides L. (Spanish moss) reflect the atmospheric chloride levels; r2 = 0.78. The importance of considering the effect of atmospheric chloride on leaf damage to horticultural crops is discussed.

  2. Post-operative outcomes following the excision of dorsal wrist ganglions with/without the use of Methylene Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Tas

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The recurrence of cysts is rare after complete excision, particularly when rupture is prevented. Methylene blue injection is useful for ensuring complete excision and, therefore, to prevent recurrence. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(1.000: 1-6

  3. Homogeneous photosensitized degradation of pharmaceuticals by using red light LED as light source and methylene blue as photosensitizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Y.; Bruning, H.; Yntema, D.; Mayer, M.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2017-01-01

    Research on employing advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for pharmaceuticals removal is gaining interests. However, detrimental effects of background water constituents in complex water matrices are limiting their implementation. In this study, we report red light induced methylene blue

  4. Removal of methylene blue dye from wastewater by using supported liquid memberane technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Muhammad Waqar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the application of Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM technology towards the removal and recovery of a cationic dye (Methylene Blue from aqueous solutions. Natural and non-toxic vegetable oils have been impregnated on microporous polymeric films of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF to constitute a liquid membrane. Different parameters affecting the transport, like pH of feed solution, acid concentration in the strip solution, initial dye concentration, oil types and stirring speeds have been investigated. Highest value of flux (1.7 × 10−5 mg/cm2/sec1 for methylene blue dye was achieved with sunflower oil impregnated on the PVDF support, with pH maintained at 12 in the feed solution and 0.3 M hydrochloric acid concentration in the strip solution. It took 6 hours to transport maximum amount of dye under optimum conditions.

  5. Determination of chloride in MOX samples using chloride ion selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindan, R; Das, D K; Mallik, G K; Sumathi, A; Patil, Sangeeta; Raul, Seema; Bhargava, V K; Kamath, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility

    1997-09-01

    The chloride present in the MOX fuel is separated from the matrix by pyrohydrolysis at a temperature of 950 {+-} 50 degC and is then analyzed by chloride ion selective electrode (Cl-ISE). The range covered is 0.4-4 ppm with a precision of better than {+-}5% R.S.D. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Study on the chloride migration coefficient obtained following different Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Uzoegbo, H.C.; Schmidt, W.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the differences in the available Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test guidelines, and their influence on the values of the chloride migration coefficients DRCM, obtained following these guidelines. It is shown that the differences between the guidelines are significant and concern

  7. Laboratory investigation of electro-chemical chloride extraction from concrete with penetrated chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Hondel, A.W.M. van den

    2002-01-01

    Chloride extraction of concrete is a short-term electrochemical treatment against corrosion of reinforcing steel. The aim is to remove chloride ions from the concrete cover in order to reinstate passive behaviour. Physically sound concrete is left in place. To make this method more predictable and

  8. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pinakin M.

    1993-03-01

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thionyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Results of testing a complete prototype battery are described.

  9. A high power lithium thionyl chloride battery for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, P.M. (Alliant Techsystems, Inc., Power Sources Center, Horsham, PA (United States))

    1993-03-15

    A high power, 28 V, 330 A h, active lithium thinoyl chloride battery has been developed for use as main and payload power sources on an expendable launch vehicle. Nine prismatic cells, along with the required electrical components and a built-in heater system, are efficiently packaged resulting in significant weight savings (>40%) over presently used silver-zinc batteries. The high rate capability is achieved by designing the cells with a large electrochemical surface area and impregnating an electrocatalyst, polymeric phthalocyanine, (CoPC)[sub n], into the carbon cathodes. Passivation effects are reduced with the addition of sulfur dioxide into the thionyl chloride electrolyte solution. The results of conducting a detailed thermal analysis are utilized to establish the heater design parameters and the thermal insulation requirements of the battery. An analysis of cell internal pressure and vent characteristics clearly illustrates the margins of safety under different operating conditions. Performance of fresh cells is discussed using polarization scan and discharge data at different rates and temperatures. Self-discharge rate is estimated based upon test results on cells after storage. Finally, the results of testing a complete prototype battery are described in detail. (orig.)

  10. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F.; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A.; Pressly, Eric D.; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J.; Lynd, Nathaniel A.

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxi...

  11. The monoamine oxidase inhibition properties of selected structural analogues of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delport, Anzelle; Harvey, Brian H.; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P.

    2017-01-01

    The thionine dye, methylene blue (MB), is a potent inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) A, a property that may, at least in part, mediate its antidepressant effects in humans and animals. The central inhibition of MAO-A by MB has also been linked to serotonin toxicity (ST) which may arise when MB is used in combination with serotonergic drugs. Structural analogues and the principal metabolite of MB, azure B, have also been reported to inhibit the MAO enzymes, with all compounds exhibiting specificity for the MAO-A isoform. To expand on the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of MAO inhibition by MB analogues, the present study investigates the human MAO inhibition properties of five MB analogues: neutral red, Nile blue, new methylene blue, cresyl violet and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue. Similar to MB, these analogues also are specific MAO-A inhibitors with cresyl violet (IC 50 = 0.0037 μM), Nile blue (IC 50 = 0.0077 μM) and 1,9-dimethyl methylene blue (IC 50 = 0.018 μM) exhibiting higher potency inhibition compared to MB (IC 50 = 0.07 μM). Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor with an IC 50 value of 0.012 μM. From the results it may be concluded that non-thionine MB analogues (e.g. cresyl violet and Nile blue) also may exhibit potent MAO inhibition, a property which should be considered when using these compounds in pharmacological studies. Benzophenoxazines such as cresyl violet and Nile blue are, similar to phenothiazines (e.g. MB), representative of high potency MAO-A inhibitors with a potential risk of ST. - Highlights: • MB analogues, cresyl violet and Nile blue, are high potency MAO-A inhibitors. • Nile blue also represents a potent MAO-B inhibitor. • Potent MAO-A inhibition should alert to potential serotonin toxicity.

  12. A New Property of Conjugated Polymer PFP: Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new property of conjugated polymer poly(furancarbinol-co-phenol)(PFP) was studied.The target copolymer was used as a catalyst after proper heating treatment. And dye methylene blue (MB) could be fully degraded and largely mineralized on PFP, under natural light or even in dark, in a few minutes. Furthermore, the catalytic activity could be preserved after several runs and the catalyst was readily separated. The effect of calcination temperature was also observed.

  13. Effective photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue utilizing ZnO/rectorite nanocomposite under simulated solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shi-qian, E-mail: shiqianli04@tom.com [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Biomass-resource Chemical and Environment Bio-technology, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering, FuQing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Zhou, Pei-jiang; Zhang, Wan-shun [College of Resource and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Biomass-resource Chemical and Environment Bio-technology, Wuhan 430079 (China); Chen, Sheng [Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering, FuQing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Peng, Hong [State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Preparation of ZnO inserted in rectorite as photocatalyst in methylene blue photodegradation. • The ZnO/rectorite can be used as adsorbents and photocatalysts. • The ZnO/rectorite system was easy to be gathered and recycled. • Inferred ZnO/rectorite the photocatalytic degradation methylene blue of aqueous micro mechanism. - Abstract: Preparation of a nanometer zinc oxide/rectorite (ZnO/REC) composites photocatalyst based on natural rectorite was conducted using a hydrothermal intercalation method. The structure, thermal property, and surface morphology of ZnO/REC were characterized by X-ray diffractor (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO/REC was evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution as a model pollutant under simulated sunlight irradiation. The HRTEM results revealed that well-dispersed and uniform ZnO/REC nanocomposites with diameters of 10 nm were embedded in rectorite. The ZnO/REC nanocomposite exhibited high photocatalytic activity under simulated solar irradiation. After 2 h of irradiation by simulated solar light, over 99% of methylene blue solution (15 mg/L) was decolorized with 0.9 g/L of the photocatalyst. The ZnO/REC was reusable, which meant that the adsorption photocatalytic decolorization process could be operated at a relatively low cost. Since this process does not require the addition of hydrogen peroxide but uses sunlight, it can be developed as an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method to decolorize or treat dye wastewater using solar.

  14. An improved synthesis of 2,2−-((4-substituted phenyl methylene difurans by Ultrasound irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naween M. Yonis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new series of 2,2−((4-substituted phenyl methylene difuran was synthesized by one-pot cyclocondensation of aldehyde with excess furan at room temperature using trifluoro acetic acid as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation in the absence of solvent. The products were compared with the classical condensation reactions. This method consistently enjoys the advantages of mild reaction conditions, excellent yields, easy work up and short time.

  15. Extraosseous uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate: Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Kun, L.; Casper, J.; Babbitt, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor. (orig.) [de

  16. Extraosseous uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphonate. Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J R; Kun, L; Casper, J; Babbitt, D P

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)technetium methylene diphosphate (/sup 99/sup(m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor.

  17. Extraosseous uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate: Neuroblastoma or radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sty, J R; Kun, L; Casper, J; Babbitt, D P [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1980-01-01

    A child with a ganglioneuroblastoma and tumor uptake of sup(99m)technetium methylene diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-MDP) is presented. After surgical removal of an encapsulated tumor and radiation therapy, an interval bone scan demonstrated the same presurgical abnormality. Awareness of abnormal uptake of sup(99m)Tc-MDP in irradiated renal tissue prevents interpreting radiation nephritis as recurrent tumor.

  18. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  19. Temperature dependence of diffusion coefficients of trivalent uranium ions in chloride and chloride-fluoride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.E.; Borodina, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of U 3+ ions are measured by chronopotentiometric method in chloride 3LiCl-2KCl and in mixed chloride fluoride 3LiCl(LiF)-2KCl melts in the temperature range 633-1235 K. It is shown It is shown that experimental values of diffusion-coefficients are approximated in a direct line in lg D-1/T coordinate in chloride melt in the whole temperature range and in chloride-fluoride melt in the range of 644-1040 K. Experimental values of diffusion coefficients diviate from Arrhenius equation in the direction of large values in chloride-fluoride melt at further increase of temperature up to 1235 K. Possible causes of such a diviation are considered [ru

  20. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erçarıkcı, Elif; Dağcı, Kader; Topçu, Ezgi; Alanyalıoğlu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. • Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. • Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. • XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. • Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene

  1. Synthesis and properties of Co-doped titanate nanotubes and their optical sensitization with methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, V.C.; Nunes, M.R.; Silvestre, A.J.; Monteiro, O.C.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on a novel chemical route to synthesize homogenous cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes (CoTNT), using an amorphous Co-doped precursor. The influence of the synthesis temperature, autoclave dwell time and metal doping on the structural and microstructural as well as on the optical properties of the synthesized titanate nanotubes is studied and discussed. The optical band gaps of the CoTNT samples are red shifted in comparison with the values determined for the undoped samples, such red shifts bringing the absorption edge of the CoTNT samples into the visible region. CoTNT materials also demonstrate particular high adsorption ability for methylene blue, the amount of the adsorbed dye being higher than the one predictable for a monolayer formation. This suggests the possibility of intercalation of the dye molecule between the TiO 6 layers of the TNT structure. It is also shown that the methylene blue sensitized Co-doped nanostructures are highly stable under UV radiation and present a strong and broad absorption in the visible region. - Highlights: • New hydrothermal chemical route to synthesize cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes. • The Co-doping stabilizes the TNTs morphology in a temperature range of 160–200 °C. • Optical band gaps of CoTNTs are red shifted compared to the TNT samples. • Methylene blue sensitized CoTNTs are highly stable under UV–vis irradiation

  2. Intraoperative use of fibrin glue dyed with methylene blue in surgery for branchial cleft anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccioni, Michela; Bottazzoli, Marco; Nassif, Nader; Stefini, Stefania; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-09-01

    We present a new method of optimizing the results of surgery for branchial cleft anomalies based on the intraoperative injection of fibrin glue combined with methylene blue dye. Retrospective single-center cohort study. The method was applied in 17 patients suffering from branchial anomalies. Six (35.29%) had a preauricular lesion; three (17.65%) had lesions derived from the first arch/pouch/groove (type I), four (23.53%) had lesions derived from the first (type II), one (5.88%) had lesions derived from the second, one (5.88%) had lesions derived from the third, and two (11.76%) had lesions derived from the fourth. The median and mean age at surgery were 10 and 10.6 years, respectively. All patients were followed by periodic clinical and ultrasonographic examination. The combination of fibrin glue with methylene blue facilitated the correct assessment of the extension of the lesions and their intraoperative manipulation. After a mean follow-up of 47.8 months, all patients were free of disease. Intraoperative injection of branchial fistulae and cysts by a mixture of fibrin glue and methylene blue is an effective, easy, and safe tool to track lesions and achieve radical resection. The technique requires a definitive validation on a large cohort with adequate stratification of patients. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2147-2150, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Microwave atmospheric pressure plasma jets for wastewater treatment: Degradation of methylene blue as a model dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María C; Mora, Manuel; Esquivel, Dolores; Foster, John E; Rodero, Antonio; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Romero-Salguero, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    The degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution as a model dye using a non thermal microwave (2.45 GHz) plasma jet at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. Argon has been used as feed gas and aqueous solutions with different concentrations of the dye were treated using the effluent from plasma jet in a remote exposure. The removal efficiency increased as the dye concentration decreased from 250 to 5 ppm. Methylene blue degrades after different treatment times, depending on the experimental plasma conditions. Thus, kinetic constants up to 0.177 min -1 were obtained. The higher the Ar flow, the faster the degradation rate. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was used to gather information about the species present in the gas phase, specifically excited argon atoms. Argon excited species and hydrogen peroxide play an important role in the degradation of the dye. In fact, the conversion of methylene blue was directly related to the density of argon excited species in the gas phase and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the aqueous liquid phase. Values of energy yield at 50% dye conversion of 0.296 g/kWh were achieved. Also, the use of two plasma applicators in parallel has been proven to improve energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel methylene-blue-sensitized photopolymers for holographic recording: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushamani, Mythili; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, Rani

    2004-06-01

    Polymer matrices like PVC and a blend of PVA/PAA is introduced as new holographic media that cause red sensitivity with methylene blue. Unlike methylene blue sensitized polymers like PVA, PMMA, gelatin etc, the change of state occurring for methylene blue on laser irradiation on PVC matrix was found to be permanent. No recovery of dye on the irradiated spot was observed on storage. The outstanding properties of this material are its excellent optical clarity, insensitive to humidity, economical, ease of fabrication, absence of dark room storage etc. The recovery of dye in conventional MBPVA matrix can be delayed by blending PVA with PAA. Optimization of the ratio of PVA/PAA, the sensitizer concentration, pH, energy, diffraction efficiency measurements etc are done. pH is found to have a great influence on the recovery of the dye in this matrix. The effect of monomers in improving the diffraction efficiency on these dye doped polymer system is also evaluated. A comparative study is done on these polymer matrices and holographic gratings were recorded on these films from a He- Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm.

  5. Ag-ligand modified tungstovandates and their efficient catalysis degradation properties for methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ran; Zhang, Huixia; Liu, Yunping; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Han, Zhangang, E-mail: hanzg116@126.com

    2017-02-15

    Two polytungstovandates [Ag(mbpy){sub 2}][Ag{sub 2}(mbpy){sub 3}][VW{sub 5}O{sub 19}]·H{sub 2}O (1) and [Ag(mbpy)]{sub 2}[Ag(mbpy){sub 2}]{sub 4}[VW{sub 12}O{sub 40}] (2) (mbpy =4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridyl), had been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR, TG, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Single-crystal structural analysis revealed that the polyanionic clusters in two compounds are different: Lindqvist-type in 1 and α-Keggin-type in 2, respectively, while the cationic moieties in them are Ag-mbpy units. The experiments showed that this kind of hybrid crystal materials possesses more efficiently catalytic performance for the degradation of organic dye methylene blue (MB) in water solution under the UV irradiation. The significant degradation rate of MB can reach 89.9%, 94.9% by crystals 1 and 2 (40 mg) in the course of about 5 min. - Graphical abstract: Two Ag-ligand modified polytungstovandates had been synthesized and characterized, which were active in the catalytic degradation of organic dye methylene blue under the UV irradiation. - Highlights: • Two Ag-ligand modified tungstovandates were synthesized and characterized. • Weak interactions play important roles in constructing crystal frameworks. • Compounds are active to catalyze the degradation of methylene blue.

  6. Functional elastic hydrogel as recyclable membrane for the adsorption and degradation of methylene blue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Bao

    Full Text Available Developing the application of high-strength hydrogels has gained much attention in the fields of medical, pharmacy, and pollutant removal due to their versatility and stimulus-responsive properties. In this presentation, a high-strength freestanding elastic hydrogel membrane was constructed by clay nanosheets, N, N-dimethylacrylamide and 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid for adsorption of methylene blue and heavy metal ions. The maximum values of elongation and Young's modulus for 0.5% AMPSNa hydrogel were 1901% and 949.4 kPa, respectively, much higher than those of traditional hydrogels. The adsorptions were confirmed to follow pseudo-second kinetic equation and Langmuir isotherm model fits the data well. The maximum adsorption capacity of hydrogel towards methylene blue was 434.8 mg g(-1. The hydrogel also exhibited higher separation selectivity to Pb(2+ than Cu(2+. The methylene blue adsorbed onto the hydrogel membrane can be photocatalytically degraded by Fenton agent and the hydrogel membrane could be recycled at least five times without obvious loss in mechanical properties. In conclusion, this presentation demonstrates a convenient strategy to prepare tough and elastic clay nanocomposite hydrogel, which can not only be applied as recyclable membrane for the photocatalytic degradation of organic dye, but also for the recovery of valuables.

  7. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif [Applied Chemistry Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ubaid-ur-Rehman [Applied Chemistry Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ghaffar, Abdul; Ahmed, Kurshid [Electronics Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2002-08-01

    The effect of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 M{omega} resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l{sup -1} methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O{sub 2} at 10 ml min{sup -1} through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O{sub 2} containing 1500 {mu}mol O{sub 3} l{sup -1} at 10 ml min{sup -1} reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O{sub 3} was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O{sub 3} generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O{sub 3} production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in 30 min by corona discharge with O{sub 2} bubbling, and in 11 min by corona discharge with bubbling of O{sub 2} containing 1500 {mu}mol O{sub 3} l{sup -1}.

  8. Synthesis and properties of Co-doped titanate nanotubes and their optical sensitization with methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, V.C. [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CQB, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Nunes, M.R. [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CCMM, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Silvestre, A.J. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Department of Physics and ICEMS, R. Conselheiro Emídio Navarro 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Monteiro, O.C., E-mail: ocmonteiro@fc.ul.pt [University of Lisbon, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and CQB, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-01

    Here we report on a novel chemical route to synthesize homogenous cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes (CoTNT), using an amorphous Co-doped precursor. The influence of the synthesis temperature, autoclave dwell time and metal doping on the structural and microstructural as well as on the optical properties of the synthesized titanate nanotubes is studied and discussed. The optical band gaps of the CoTNT samples are red shifted in comparison with the values determined for the undoped samples, such red shifts bringing the absorption edge of the CoTNT samples into the visible region. CoTNT materials also demonstrate particular high adsorption ability for methylene blue, the amount of the adsorbed dye being higher than the one predictable for a monolayer formation. This suggests the possibility of intercalation of the dye molecule between the TiO{sub 6} layers of the TNT structure. It is also shown that the methylene blue sensitized Co-doped nanostructures are highly stable under UV radiation and present a strong and broad absorption in the visible region. - Highlights: • New hydrothermal chemical route to synthesize cobalt-doped titanate nanotubes. • The Co-doping stabilizes the TNTs morphology in a temperature range of 160–200 °C. • Optical band gaps of CoTNTs are red shifted compared to the TNT samples. • Methylene blue sensitized CoTNTs are highly stable under UV–vis irradiation.

  9. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Ubaid-ur-Rehman; Ghaffar, Abdul; Ahmed, Kurshid

    2002-01-01

    The effect of O 2 and O 3 bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 MΩ resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l -1 methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O 2 at 10 ml min -1 through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O 2 containing 1500 μmol O 3 l -1 at 10 ml min -1 reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O 3 was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O 3 generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O 3 production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in 30 min by corona discharge with O 2 bubbling, and in 11 min by corona discharge with bubbling of O 2 containing 1500 μmol O 3 l -1

  10. Synergistic effect of pulsed corona discharges and ozonation on decolourization of methylene blue in water

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, M A; Ghaffar, A; Ahmed, K

    2002-01-01

    The effect of O sub 2 and O sub 3 bubbling on decolourization of methylene blue by pulsed corona discharges in water was studied. The pulsed corona discharges were produced by charging an 80 pF capacitor with a 40 kV DC source, through a 100 M OMEGA resistor, and discharging it into a needle-plate type reactor at 60 Hz through a rotating spark gap switch. A 20 ml sample of 13.25 mg l sup - sup 1 methylene blue in distilled water was decolourized in 120 min. Bubbling O sub 2 at 10 ml min sup - sup 1 through the discharge region reduced the decolourization time to 25 min. Bubbling O sub 2 containing 1500 mu mol O sub 3 l sup - sup 1 at 10 ml min sup - sup 1 reduced the decolourization time to 8 min. The O sub 3 was produced by fractionating input energy between a water treatment reactor and a O sub 3 generator, i.e. no additional energy was consumed for O sub 3 production. Under the same experimental conditions methylene blue solution in tap water was decolourized in >210 min by corona discharge in solution, in...

  11. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  12. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl 3 liquid + H 2 O → FeOCl solid + 2 HCl gas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl solid + H 2 O → Fe 2 O 3 solid + 2 HCl gas . The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  13. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  14. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... concentrations over longer periods. The signal was seen to be stable, with regular drift in both laboratory and field test. In the field application, the sensor signal was corrected for drift, and errors were observed to be under 7% of that of conductivity measurements. The study also found that the chloride...

  15. Methylene blue improves mitochondrial respiration and decreases oxidative stress in a substrate-dependent manner in diabetic rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duicu, Oana M; Privistirescu, Andreea; Wolf, Adrian; Petruş, Alexandra; Dănilă, Maria D; Raţiu, Corina D; Muntean, Danina M; Sturza, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been systematically associated with compromised mitochondrial energetics and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that underlie its progression to heart failure. Methylene blue is a redox drug with reported protective effects mainly on brain mitochondria. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute administration of methylene blue on mitochondrial respiration, H 2 O 2 production, and calcium sensitivity in rat heart mitochondria isolated from healthy and 2 months (streptozotocin-induced) diabetic rats. Mitochondrial respiratory function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry. H 2 O 2 production and calcium retention capacity were measured spectrofluorimetrically. The addition of methylene blue (0.1 μmol·L -1 ) elicited an increase in oxygen consumption of mitochondria energized with complex I and II substrates in both normal and diseased mitochondria. Interestingly, methylene blue elicited a significant increase in H 2 O 2 release in the presence of complex I substrates (glutamate and malate), but had an opposite effect in mitochondria energized with complex II substrate (succinate). No changes in the calcium retention capacity of healthy or diabetic mitochondria were found in the presence of methylene blue. In conclusion, in cardiac mitochondria isolated from diabetic and nondiabetic rat hearts, methylene blue improved respiratory function and elicited a dichotomic, substrate-dependent effect on ROS production.

  16. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  17. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyanada S. Khanolkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM. Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2 through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites.

  18. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar, Dnyanada S.; Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM). Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2) through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites. PMID:25763027

  19. Capacity loss and faradaic efficiency of lithium thionyl chloride cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoier, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlaikjer, C.; Johnson, A.; Riley, S. [Battery Engineering, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/TC) cells, a lithium limited design was thought to be safer than a cathode limited design because the amount of lithium left in discharged cells would be minimal. However, lithium corrosion reduces the capacity faster than does cathode degradation during storage. The optimization of the ratio of lithium to carbon was studied, considering storage time and temperature. The efficiency of converting chemical energy into electrical energy has been studied for the case of D cells with surface area from 45 to 345 cm{sup 2}, under constant and various pulsed loads. Microcalorimetric monitoring of the heat output during discharge allowed the direct measurement of faradaic efficiency, and showed that self discharge is far more pervasive that previously acknowledged. Typical faradaic efficiencies for constant load varied from 30% at low current density to 90% at moderate and 75 % at high current density. Pulsed current further depresses these efficiencies, except at very low average current density.

  20. High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

  1. Determination of morphology and properties of carbon nanofibers and carbon nanofiber polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Joseph G.

    individual nanofibers was found to depend on the thickness of the nanofiber. In an effort to study the morphology and properties of polymer nanocomposites, the dispersion of the nanofibers in the polymer matrix was studied using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). A mixing approach and an in situ polymerization approach, for carbon nanofiber polyimide nanocomposites preparation were investigated using pristine, oxidized and surface functionalized nanofibers. Two different solvents, methylene chloride and dimethylacetimide (DMAc) were compared in the mixing approach. The SEM micrographs indicated that the poor dispersion of nanofibers results in aggregation and settling of nanofibers in the nanocomposite sample. The results suggest that the nanocomposite preparation method had a greater effect on the dispersion of nanofibers compared to the extent of nanofiber functionalization. In addition, a modified nanoindentation approach to measure the interface width and elastic properties at the interface of carbon nanofiber polymer nanocomposites was developed. Using the developed method the elastic property variation at narrow interface regions for two different composites made from three different nanofibers was studied. A gradual change in elastic modulus values was observed at the interface region. Based on the variation in elastic modulus values, the width of the interface region was determined.

  2. Determination of chloride content in crystalline silicotitanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) is one of three options under evaluation to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process. This Salt Disposition Alternatives team identified three options for pretreatment of High Level Waste supernate: non-elutable ion exchange, precipitation with sodium tetraphenylborate or direct disposal in grout. The ion exchange option would use crystalline silicotitanate (CST). Researchers at Texas A and M and Sandia National Laboratory developed CST. The engineered form of CST was procured from UOP LLC under the trade name IONSIVreg s ign IE-911. Review of vendor literature and discussions with UOP personnel led to speculation concerning the fate of chloride ion during the manufacture process of IE-911. Walker proposed tests to examine the chloride content of CST and removal methods. This report describes the results of tests to determine the chloride levels in as received CST and washed CST

  3. Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride after metabolic activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannug, U; Johansson, A; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1974-01-01

    Vinyl chloride has recently been shown to cause a malignant liver tumor disease in man after occupational exposure in PVC plants. This actualizes the problem of whether such hazards could be avoided or at least diminished in the future by a screening for mutagenicity of chemicals used in industries. The basis for such a screening procedure is the close correlation between carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of chemicals. Experiments with Salmonella bacteria showed that the carcinogenic hazard of vinyl chloride could have been traced by means of mutagenicity tests. The data indicate that vinyl chloride is not mutagenic per se but becomes mutagenic after a metabolic activation in the liver. 24 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  4. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient......; the higher the volume of gel solid relative to the space available for it, the lower the chloride migration coefficient, because the pore system becomes more tortuous and the porosity becomes less....

  5. Methylene Blue-Loaded Dissolving Microneedles: Potential Use in Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy of Infected Wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Caffarel-Salvador

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy involves delivery of a photosensitising drug that is activated by light of a specific wavelength, resulting in generation of highly reactive radicals. This activated species can cause destruction of targeted cells. Application of this process for treatment of microbial infections has been termed “photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy” (PACT. In the treatment of chronic wounds, the delivery of photosensitising agents is often impeded by the presence of a thick hyperkeratotic/necrotic tissue layer, reducing their therapeutic efficacy. Microneedles (MNs are an emerging drug delivery technology that have been demonstrated to successfully penetrate the outer layers of the skin, whilst minimising damage to skin barrier function. Delivering photosensitising drugs using this platform has been demonstrated to have several advantages over conventional photodynamic therapy, such as, painless application, reduced erythema, enhanced cosmetic results and improved intradermal delivery. The aim of this study was to physically characterise dissolving MNs loaded with the photosensitising agent, methylene blue and assess their photodynamic antimicrobial activity. Dissolving MNs were fabricated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® AN-139 co-polymer containing varying loadings of methylene blue. A height reduction of 29.8% was observed for MNs prepared from blends containing 0.5% w/w methylene blue following application of a total force of 70.56 N/array. A previously validated insertion test was used to assess the effect of drug loading on MN insertion into a wound model. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans biofilms were incubated with various methylene blue concentrations within the range delivered by MNs in vitro (0.1–2.5 mg/mL and either irradiated at 635 nm using a Paterson Lamp or subjected to a dark period. Microbial susceptibility to PACT was determined by assessing the total viable count. Kill rates of >96

  6. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  7. Investigation of an Aberrant Cell Voltage During the Filling of a Large Lithium Thionyl Chloride Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, Lawrence H.; Quinzio, Michael V.

    1997-01-01

    The investigation of an aberrant cell voltage during the filling of a large lithium thionyl chloride cell summary is at: an aberrant voltage trace was noted during the review of cell filling data; incident was traced to an interruption during filling; experimentation suggested oxidizable sites within the carbon electrode were responsible for the drop in voltage; the voltage anomaly could be reproduced by interrupting the filling of similar cells; and anomalous voltage dip was not due to a short.

  8. Mechanism of chlorination of some actinide and fission product phosphates and tungstates in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukova, A.I.; Chernikov, A.A.; Skiba, O.V.; Kazantsev, G.N.

    1989-01-01

    Results of kinetic studies on the chlorination of crystalline phosphates and tungstates of uranium, cerium, zirconium, and plutonium by gaseous carbon tetrachloride in melts of alkali metal chlorides at 973-1073 degree K are analyzed. A mathematical model of the process is proposed. Analysis of regression models allowed solution of the problem by statistical evaluation of the effective factors and prediction within the limits of the factors studied of the optimal conditions for the process

  9. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  10. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...... desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 k...

  11. Evaluation of the protein biomarkers and the analgesic response to systemic methylene blue in patients with refractory neuropathic pain: a double-blind, controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miclescu AA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adriana A Miclescu,1 Martin Svahn,1 Torsten E Gordh1,2 1Multidisciplinary Pain Clinic, Uppsala University Hospital, 2Pain Research, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Aim: This study was carried out in patients with neuropathic pain in order to assess the analgesic effects and changes in protein biomarkers after the administration of methylene blue (MB, a diaminophenothiazine with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide.Materials and methods: Ten patients with chronic refractory neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either MB (10 mg/mL Methylthioninium chloride 2 mg/kg (MB group or MB 0.02 mg/kg (control group infused over 60 minutes. Sensory function and pain (Numerical Rating Scale were evaluated at baseline and at 60 minutes after the start of the infusion. The patients kept a pain diary during the next 24 hours and for the following 4 days. Plasma and urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostane-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α and plasma protein biomarkers prior to and after the infusions were measured with radioimmunoassay and with proximity extension assay.Results: A decrease of the Numerical Rating Scale at 60 minutes in comparison with baseline was observed in the MB (P=0.047 group. The decrease was significant between the MB and the control group on the day of and day after MB infusion (P=0.04 and P=0.008, respectively. There was no difference in systemic protein expressions between groups except for prolactin (PRL (P=0.02. Three patients demonstrated diminished dynamic mechanical allodynia.Conclusion: MB decreased the pain levels in patients with chronic therapy-resistant neuropathic pain on the first 2 days after administration. Known as an endocrine modulator on the anterior pituitary gland, MB infusion produced a decrease of PRL. The detailed role of PRL effects in chronic neuropathic pain remains undetermined.Keywords: methylene blue, nitric oxide

  12. Formation of the self-assembled structures by the ultrasonic cavitation erosion-corrosion effect on carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayun Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cavitation erosion-corrosion effect on the metal surface always forms irregular oxide structures. In this study, we reported the formation of regular self-assembled structures of amorphous nanoparticles around the cavitation erosion pits on carbon steel upon the ultrasonic cavitation in methylene blue solution. Each self-assembled structure was composed of linearly aligned nanoparticles of about 100 nm. The formation of self-assembled structures might be due to the combined effect of corrosion, specific sonochemical reaction in methylene blue solution, and the magnetic domain structures on the carbon steel.

  13. Crystal field influence on vibration spectra: anhydrous uranyl chloride and dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Andre; Caillet, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Vibrational spectra of anhydrous uranyl chloride UO 2 Cl 2 and so called basic uranyl chloride: dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate /UO 2 (OH) 2 UO 2 /Cl 2 (H 2 O) 4 are reported. Factor group method analysis leads for the first time to complete and comprehensive interpretation of their spectra. Two extreme examples of crystal field influence on vibrational spectra are pointed out: for UO 2 Cl 2 , one is unable to explain spectra without taking into account all the elements of primitive crystalline cell, whilst for dihydroxodiuranyl dichloride tetrahydrate the crystal packing has very little effect on vibrational spectra [fr

  14. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2016-01-01

    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...

  15. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  16. Subsurface injection of dissolved ferric chloride to form a chemical barrier: Laboratory investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.J.; Spangler, R.R.; Morris, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    A chemical barrier is a permeable zone of reactive materials emplaced in the subsurface to remove ground-water contaminants while allowing clean ground water to pass through. Because dissolved ferric chloride hydrolyzes to amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide when it contacts calcite (CaCO 3 ), it may be viable to emplace a zone of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (an absorbent for U, Mo, and other inorganic contaminants) into calcite-bearing geologic units by injecting ferric chloride through wells. For a chemical barrier to be successful, it must remain permeable and must be immobile. This investigation monitored chemical compositions, hydraulic conductivity, and iron mobility in laboratory columns and in a two-dimensional tank to determine the viability of injecting ferric chloride to form an amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide chemical barrier. The authors introduced a ferric chloride solution (1,345 mg/1[0.024 m] Fe) to calcite-bearing alluvial gravel to form a chemical barrier of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide, followed by solutions contaminated with U and Mo. The simulated chemical barriers decreased U and Mo concentrations to less than 0.05 mg/l (2.1 x 10 -7 m) and 0.01 (1.0 x 10 -7 m), respectively; however, the breakthrough front is spread out with concentrations increasing to more than regulatory guideline values sooner than predicted. The hydraulic conductivity of calcite-bearing alluvial gravel decreased substantially during ferric chloride introduction because of the formation of carbon dioxide but increased to within factors of 1 to 5 of the original value as synthetic ground water flowed through the system. Amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide that formed in these experiments remained immobile at flow rates exceeding those typical of ground water. These laboratory results, in conjunction with site-specific characterization data, can be used to design chemical barriers emplaced by injection of ferric chloride

  17. Control Technology for Depainting Operations: Estimation of Life-Cycle Costs of Controlling Methylene Chloride in Aircraft-Depainting Operations Versus Alternative Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-24

    2343 Calle Del Mundo Santa Clara, CA 95054-1008 Tel.: (408)727-8282 POC: J. A. Gotterba Durr Industries Environmental Systems Division 40600...1) LESS THAN 1 IV. FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA FLASH POINT (TEST METHOD) ABOVE 200*P AUTO IGNITION ABOVE TEMPERATURE iJfJO’P...IST METHOD, ?oo.._r T,CCT CxriNOUISHINO Mt 01A WATER AUTO IGNITION ABOVB I rLAM**BLt »•’•’"’• TEMPERATURE ^QQly | IN AIR

  18. Fabrication and characterization of a novel hydrophobic CaCO{sub 3} grafted by hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Lixia [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University (China); School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Yang, Simei; Luo, Xin [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Lei, Jingxin [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University (China); Cao, Qiue [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China); Wang, Jiliang, E-mail: jlwang@ynu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Hydroxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-OH) with different molecular weight and hydroxyl value was successfully prepared by the suspension copolymerization. • PVC-OH was grafted onto the surface of CaCO{sub 3} particles by the urethane formation reaction. • The modified CaCO{sub 3} particles show excellent hydrophobicity. - Abstract: The hydroxylated PVC (PVC-OH) was successfully synthesized by a suspension polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC), butyl acrylate (BA) and hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Novel hydrophobic CaCO{sub 3} was then prepared by a urethane formation reaction between methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and the −OH groups both in the PVC-OH chains and on the surface of pristine CaCO{sub 3} particles. The effect of the PVC-OH content on the grafting ratio of treated CaCO{sub 3} particles was extensively investigated. Combining the result of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) with that of water contact angle, it can be concluded that the hydrophobicity of CaCO{sub 3} had been efficiently improved by the PVC-OH segments grafted on the surface of CaCO{sub 3} particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were also used to study crystalline behaviors, thermal stability and surface morphology of the modified CaCO{sub 3} particles, respectively. The change of specific surface area implying surface modification was investigated as well.

  19. Detection of chloride ion concentration using chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions using chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with respect to another identical Ag/AgCl electrode in the bulk electrolyte.

  20. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  1. Thermal Decomposition of Aluminium Chloride Hexahydrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar; Šolcová, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 17 (2005), s. 6591-6598 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : aluminum chloride hexahydrate * thermal decomposition * reaction kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2005

  2. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is bas...

  3. Commercial production of thallium-201 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.V.; Volkova, N.M.; Skokov, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    Thallium-201 chloride pharmaceuticals production practice at the Medradiopreparat factory under USSR Ministry of Public Health is described. The factory is carried out series-produced supplies of the compound prepared according to a new practice from September, 1985. Thallium-201 extraction from cyclotron targets irradiated is carried out by the extraction method

  4. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Sherman (202-205-3289...

  5. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... contained in USITC Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), Chemical Abstracts Service Registry No. 75014. (2) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging, repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl... this section by engineering, work practice, and personal protective controls as follows: (1) Feasible...

  7. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  8. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation is one of the fundamental and essential molecular cloning techniques. In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride ...

  9. Analysis of the Rapid Chloride Migration test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Ferreira, R. M.; Gulikers, J.; Andrade, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study the Rapid Chloride Migration test (RCM) standardized as NT Build 492 and BAW-Merkblatt is reviewed. Since the traditional natural diffusion tests are laborious, time consuming and costly, they are not always preferred from a practical point of view. To overcome these disadvantages,

  10. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect...

  11. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  12. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  13. Room temperature synthesis of protonated layered titanate sheets using peroxo titanium carbonate complex solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, Narottam; Sinhamahapatra, Apurba; Pahari, Sandip Kumar; Bajaj, Hari C; Panda, Asit Baran

    2011-07-21

    We report the synthesis of peroxo titanium carbonate complex solution as a novel water-soluble precursor for the direct synthesis of layered protonated titanate at room temperature. The synthesized titanates showed excellent removal capacity for Pb(2+) and methylene blue. Based on experimental observations, a probable mechanism for the formation of protonated layered dititanate sheets is also discussed.

  14. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  15. Improved electrolyte for lithium-thionyl chloride battery. [Patent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipman, W.H.; McCartney, J.F.

    1980-12-17

    A lithium, thionyl chloride battery is provided with an electrolyte which makes it safe under a reverse voltage condition. The electrolyte is niobium pentachloride which is dissolved in the thionyl chloride.

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride (Final Report, 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Vinyl Chloride and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  17. Thallium-201 chloride dynamic analysis using thallium-201 chloride and sodium iodide-131 thyroid subtraction scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Setsuo; Hiraki, Yoshio; Togami, Izumi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-10-01

    The mechanism of /sup 201/Tl chloride accumulation is unclear in thyroid gland and thyroid tumor. This report examines 108 patients that received thyroid scintigraphy examinations with both /sup 201/Tl chloride and sodium /sup 131/I. The patients were diagnosed clinically and histologically whenever possible. The ROI were obtained by subtraction imaging with both isotopes and by subtraction positive and negative areas of imaging. Dynamic curves were obtained for /sup 201/Tl chloride per square unit of each ROI. The dynamic curve in the radioiodide-accumulated area was examined. The data indicate that the clearance rate of /sup 201/Tl chloride (T/sub 15/) was correlated with the sodium /sup 131/I uptake rate at 24 h (r=0.70).

  18. Conformational analysis of the chemical shifts for molecules containing diastereotopic methylene protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Quantum chemistry SCF/GIAO calculations were carried out on a set of compounds containing diastereotopic protons. Five molecules, including recently synthesized 1,3-di(2,3-epoxypropoxy)benzene, containing the chiral or pro-chiral center and the neighboring methylene group, were chosen. The rotational averages (i.e. normalized averages with respect to the rotation about the torsional angle τ with the exponential energy weight at temperature T) calculated individually for each of the methylene protons in 1,3-di(2,3-epoxypropoxy)benzene differ by ca. 0.6 ppm, which is significantly less than the value calculated for the lowest energy conformer. This value turned out to be low enough to guarantee the proper ordering of theoretical chemical shifts, supporting the interpretation of the 1H NMR spectrum of this important compound. The rotational averages of chemical shifts for methylene protons for a given type of conformer are shown to be essentially equal to the Boltzmann averages (here, the population-weighted averages for the individual conformers representing minima on the E( τ) cross-section). The calculated Boltzmann averages in the representative conformational space may exhibit completely different ordering as compared to the chemical shifts calculated for the lowest-energy conformer. This is especially true in the case of molecules, for which no significant steric effects are present. In this case, only Boltzmann averages account for the experimental pattern of proton signals. In addition, better overall agreement with experiment (lower value of the root-mean-square deviation between calculated and measured chemical shifts) is typically obtained when Boltzmann averages are used.

  19. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  20. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...