WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods typical results

  1. Estimating the uncertainty of damage costs of pollution: A simple transparent method and typical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, Joseph V.; Rabl, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the uncertainty of environmental impacts and damage costs is usually estimated by means of a Monte Carlo calculation, this paper shows that most (and in many cases all) of the uncertainty calculation involves products and/or sums of products and can be accomplished with an analytic solution which is simple and transparent. We present our own assessment of the component uncertainties and calculate the total uncertainty for the impacts and damage costs of the classical air pollutants; results for a Monte Carlo calculation for the dispersion part are also shown. The distribution of the damage costs is approximately lognormal and can be characterized in terms of geometric mean μ g and geometric standard deviation σ g , implying that the confidence interval is multiplicative. We find that for the classical air pollutants σ g is approximately 3 and the 68% confidence interval is [μ g / σ g , μ g σ g ]. Because the lognormal distribution is highly skewed for large σ g , the median is significantly smaller than the mean. We also consider the case where several lognormally distributed damage costs are added, for example to obtain the total damage cost due to all the air pollutants emitted by a power plant, and we find that the relative error of the sum can be significantly smaller than the relative errors of the summands. Even though the distribution for such sums is not exactly lognormal, we present a simple lognormal approximation that is quite adequate for most applications

  2. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  3. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371

  4. Mathematics Placement Test: Typical Results with Unexpected Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of a prior case-study analysis of mathematics placement at one university, the mathematics department developed and piloted a mathematics placement test. This article describes the implementation process for a mathematics placement test and further analyzes the test results for the pilot group. As an unexpected result, the…

  5. A Hybrid Method for Generation of Typical Meteorological Years for Different Climates of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixiang Zang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since a representative dataset of the climatological features of a location is important for calculations relating to many fields, such as solar energy system, agriculture, meteorology and architecture, there is a need to investigate the methodology for generating a typical meteorological year (TMY. In this paper, a hybrid method with mixed treatment of selected results from the Danish method, the Festa-Ratto method, and the modified typical meteorological year method is proposed to determine typical meteorological years for 35 locations in six different climatic zones of China (Tropical Zone, Subtropical Zone, Warm Temperate Zone, Mid Temperate Zone, Cold Temperate Zone and Tibetan Plateau Zone. Measured weather data (air dry-bulb temperature, air relative humidity, wind speed, pressure, sunshine duration and global solar radiation, which cover the period of 1994–2015, are obtained and applied in the process of forming TMY. The TMY data and typical solar radiation data are investigated and analyzed in this study. It is found that the results of the hybrid method have better performance in terms of the long-term average measured data during the year than the other investigated methods. Moreover, the Gaussian process regression (GPR model is recommended to forecast the monthly mean solar radiation using the last 22 years (1994–2015 of measured data.

  6. Ex-plant consequence assessment for NUREG-1150: models, typical results, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The assessment of ex-plant consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms was performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). This paper briefly discusses the following elements of MACCS consequence calculations: input data, phenomena modeled, computational framework, typical results, controlling phenomena, and uncertainties. Wherever possible, NUREG-1150 results will be used to illustrate the discussion. 28 references

  7. Inverse operator method for solutions of nonlinear dynamical equations and some typical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Yao Weiguang

    1993-01-01

    The inverse operator method (IOM) is described briefly. We have realized the IOM for the solutions of nonlinear dynamical equations by the mathematics-mechanization (MM) with computers. They can then offer a new and powerful method applicable to many areas of physics. We have applied them successfully to study the chaotic behaviors of some nonlinear dynamical equations. As typical examples, the well-known Lorentz equation, generalized Duffing equation and two coupled generalized Duffing equations are investigated by using the IOM and the MM. The results are in good agreement with those given by Runge-Kutta method. So the IOM realized by the MM is of potential application valuable in nonlinear physics and many other fields

  8. A new method to predict the metadynamic recrystallization behavior in a typical nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.C.; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Ming-Song; Wen, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Ying; He, Dao-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behaviors of a typical nickel-based superalloy are investigated by two-pass hot compression tests and four conventional stress-based conventional approaches (offset stress method, back-extrapolation stress method, peak stress method, and mean stress method). It is found that the conventional stress-based methods are not suitable to evaluate the MDRX softening fractions for the studied superalloy. Therefore, a new approach, 'maximum stress method', is proposed to evaluate the MDRX softening fraction. Based on the proposed method, the effects of deformation temperature, strain rate, initial average grain size, and interpass time on MDRX behaviors are discussed in detail. Results show that MDRX softening fraction is sensitive to deformation parameters. The MDRX softening fraction rapidly increases with the increase of deformation temperature, strain rate, and interpass time. The MDRX softening fraction in the coarse-grain material is lower than that in the fine-grain material. Moreover, the observed microstructures indicate that the initial coarse grains can be effectively refined by MDRX. Based on the experimental results, the kinetics equations are established and validated to describe the MDRX behaviors of the studied superalloy. (orig.)

  9. METHODS OF THE APPROXIMATE ESTIMATIONS OF FATIGUE DURABILITY OF COMPOSITE AIRFRAME COMPONENT TYPICAL ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Strizhius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of the approximate estimations of fatigue durability of composite airframe component typical elements which can be recommended for application at the stage of outline designing of the airplane are generated and presented.

  10. LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E. [Westinghouse Nuclear Technology Division, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.

  11. Comparison of methods for generating typical meteorological year using meteorological data from a tropical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Deeyai, P. [Laboratory of Tropical Atmospheric Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents the comparison of methods for generating typical meteorological year (TMY) data set using a 10-year period of meteorological data from four stations in a tropical environment of Thailand. These methods are the Sadia National Laboratory method, the Danish method and the Festa and Ratto method. In investigating their performance, these methods were employed to generate TMYs for each station. For all parameters of the TMYs and the stations, statistical test indicates that there is no significant difference between the 10-year average values of these parameters and the corresponding average values from TMY generated from each method. The TMY obtained from each method was also used as input data to simulate two solar water heating systems and two photovoltaic systems with different sizes at the four stations by using the TRNSYS simulation program. Solar fractions and electrical output calculated using TMYs are in good agreement with those computed employing the 10-year period hourly meteorological data. It is concluded that the performance of the three methods has no significant difference for all stations under this investigation. Due to its simplicity, the method of Sandia National Laboratories is recommended for the generation of TMY for this tropical environment. The TMYs developed in this work can be used for solar energy and energy conservation applications at the four locations in Thailand. (author)

  12. Nuclear data for fusion: Validation of typical pre-processing methods for radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, T.; Sublet, J.C.; Morgan, L.; Leadbeater, T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We quantify the effect of processing nuclear data from ENDF to ACE format. • We consider the differences between fission and fusion angular distributions. • C-nat(n,el) at 2.0 MeV has a 0.6% deviation between original and processed data. • Fe-56(n,el) at 14.1 MeV has a 11.0% deviation between original and processed data. • Processed data do not accurately depict ENDF distributions for fusion energies. - Abstract: Nuclear data form the basis of the radiation transport codes used to design and simulate the behaviour of nuclear facilities, such as the ITER and DEMO fusion reactors. Typically these data and codes are biased towards fission and high-energy physics applications yet are still applied to fusion problems. With increasing interest in fusion applications, the lack of fusion specific codes and relevant data libraries is becoming increasingly apparent. Industry standard radiation transport codes require pre-processing of the evaluated data libraries prior to use in simulation. Historically these methods focus on speed of simulation at the cost of accurate data representation. For legacy applications this has not been a major concern, but current fusion needs differ significantly. Pre-processing reconstructs the differential and double differential interaction cross sections with a coarse binned structure, or more recently as a tabulated cumulative distribution function. This work looks at the validity of applying these processing methods to data used in fusion specific calculations in comparison to fission. The relative effects of applying this pre-processing mechanism, to both fission and fusion relevant reaction channels are demonstrated, and as such the poor representation of these distributions for the fusion energy regime. For the nat C(n,el) reaction at 2.0 MeV, the binned differential cross section deviates from the original data by 0.6% on average. For the 56 Fe(n,el) reaction at 14.1 MeV, the deviation increases to 11.0%. We

  13. GLOBAL MODELING OF NEBULAE WITH PARTICLE GROWTH, DRIFT, AND EVAPORATION FRONTS. I. METHODOLOGY AND TYPICAL RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Paul R. [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue # 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. [Ames Research Center, NASA, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morgan, Demitri A., E-mail: Paul.R.Estrada@nasa.gov [USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10{sup 5} years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core.

  14. GLOBAL MODELING OF NEBULAE WITH PARTICLE GROWTH, DRIFT, AND EVAPORATION FRONTS. I. METHODOLOGY AND TYPICAL RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morgan, Demitri A.

    2016-01-01

    We model particle growth in a turbulent, viscously evolving protoplanetary nebula, incorporating sticking, bouncing, fragmentation, and mass transfer at high speeds. We treat small particles using a moments method and large particles using a traditional histogram binning, including a probability distribution function of collisional velocities. The fragmentation strength of the particles depends on their composition (icy aggregates are stronger than silicate aggregates). The particle opacity, which controls the nebula thermal structure, evolves as particles grow and mass redistributes. While growing, particles drift radially due to nebula headwind drag. Particles of different compositions evaporate at “evaporation fronts” (EFs) where the midplane temperature exceeds their respective evaporation temperatures. We track the vapor and solid phases of each component, accounting for advection and radial and vertical diffusion. We present characteristic results in evolutions lasting 2 × 10 5 years. In general, (1) mass is transferred from the outer to the inner nebula in significant amounts, creating radial concentrations of solids at EFs; (2) particle sizes are limited by a combination of fragmentation, bouncing, and drift; (3) “lucky” large particles never represent a significant amount of mass; and (4) restricted radial zones just outside each EF become compositionally enriched in the associated volatiles. We point out implications for millimeter to submillimeter SEDs and the inference of nebula mass, radial banding, the role of opacity on new mechanisms for generating turbulence, the enrichment of meteorites in heavy oxygen isotopes, variable and nonsolar redox conditions, the primary accretion of silicate and icy planetesimals, and the makeup of Jupiter’s core

  15. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y.; Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek

    2012-01-01

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran

  16. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek [School of Architecture and Urbanism, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran.

  17. Comparison of typical inelastic analysis predictions with benchmark problem experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, J.A.; Corum, J.M.; Sartory, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of exemplary inelastic analyses are presented for a series of experimental benchmark problems. Consistent analytical procedures and constitutive relations were used in each of the analyses, and published material behavior data were used in all cases. Two finite-element inelastic computer programs were employed. These programs implement the analysis procedures and constitutive equations for Type 304 stainless steel that are currently used in many analyses of elevated-temperature nuclear reactor system components. The analysis procedures and constitutive relations are briefly discussed, and representative analytical results are presented and compared to the test data. The results that are presented demonstrate the feasibility of performing inelastic analyses, and they are indicative of the general level of agreement that the analyst might expect when using conventional inelastic analysis procedures. (U.S.)

  18. Comparison of typical inelastic analysis predictions with benchmark problem experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, J.A.; Corum, J.M.; Sartory, W.K.

    1975-01-01

    The results of exemplary inelastic analyses for experimental benchmark problems on reactor components are presented. Consistent analytical procedures and constitutive relations were used in each of the analyses, and the material behavior data presented in the Appendix were used in all cases. Two finite-element inelastic computer programs were employed. These programs implement the analysis procedures and constitutive equations for type 304 stainless steel that are currently used in many analyses of elevated-temperature nuclear reactor system components. The analysis procedures and constitutive relations are briefly discussed, and representative analytical results are presented and compared to the test data. The results that are presented demonstrate the feasibility of performing inelastic analyses for the types of problems discussed, and they are indicative of the general level of agreement that the analyst might expect when using conventional inelastic analysis procedures. (U.S.)

  19. Deliberation of arc plasma characteristics according to experimental results in a typical gas circuit-breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghei, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the industrial plasma applications is in the gas circuit breakers (GCB) and switching processes. During GCB operation and opening of its two contacts, current flows through of the inter-electrode medium (generally SF 6 or its mixture) and electric arc forms from the plasma that has been created between the contacts. The electric arc is a self-sustained discharge having low voltage drop and able to support great amplitudes of current. The technical basis of circuit breaker is: initiating arc plasma, flowing a large current, cooling it effectively to avoid re-ignition, and finally the transition from a well-conducting medium into insulating gas space in a very short time interval. In other words, for a successful interruption we need to know about power brought to the arc and that of removed. In this paper an attempt has been made to study, characterize and understand some arc behaviors such as arc conductance and its changes according to recorded current and voltage traces experimentally. From physical point of view, there are different phenomena that affect on arc behavior. According to methodology used here, we tried to understand some of arc behavior from experimental results and finally we extract some arc parameters. (author)

  20. Development of a segmentation method for analysis of Campos basin typical reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Eneida Arendt; Bueno, Andre Duarte [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo (LENEP)]. E-mails: eneida@lenep.uenf.br; bueno@lenep.uenf.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper represents a master thesis proposal in Exploration and Reservoir Engineering that have the objective to development a specific segmentation method for digital images of reservoir rocks, which produce better results than the global methods available in the bibliography for the determination of rocks physical properties as porosity and permeability. (author)

  1. Typical entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-05-01

    Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.

  2. Characterization of typical irradiation channels of CNESTEN'S TRIGA Mark II reactor (Rabat, Morocco) using NAA K0-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embarch, K.; Bounouira, H.; Bounakhla, M.; Amsil, H.; Jacimovic, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is the use of neutron activation analysis using k0-standardization method to characterize some typical irradiation channels of the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The two parameters of neutron flux in the selected irradiation channels used for elemental concentration calculation, f (thermal-to-epithermal ratio) and α (deviation from the 1/E distribution), have been determined as well in the pneumatic tube (PT) as in the carousel facility (CR1) using the zirconium bare triple method. Results obtained for f and α in two irradiation channels show that f parameter determined in this way is different in the carousel facility (CR1) and the PT channel. This can be explained by the fact that the CR1 channel is situated in a graphite reflector and is relatively far from the reactor core, while the PT is in the core. Parameter α in the CR1 has a positive value, as expected, indicating that the neutron spectrum is relatively well thermalized. Parameter α in the PT has a negative value, which is very small and cannot significantly influence the final results obtained by k0-method. The method in our laboratory is validated by analyzing the elemental concentrations of the IAEA Standard Reference Material (Soil-7). All calculations were performed using Kay Win Software. (author)

  3. Optimal probabilistic energy management in a typical micro-grid based-on robust optimization and point estimate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Seyed Arash; Ahmadian, Ali; Aliakbar-Golkar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy management is necessary in the active distribution network to reduce operation costs. • Uncertainty modeling is essential in energy management studies in active distribution networks. • Point estimate method is a suitable method for uncertainty modeling due to its lower computation time and acceptable accuracy. • In the absence of Probability Distribution Function (PDF) robust optimization has a good ability for uncertainty modeling. - Abstract: Uncertainty can be defined as the probability of difference between the forecasted value and the real value. As this probability is small, the operation cost of the power system will be less. This purpose necessitates modeling of system random variables (such as the output power of renewable resources and the load demand) with appropriate and practicable methods. In this paper, an adequate procedure is proposed in order to do an optimal energy management on a typical micro-grid with regard to the relevant uncertainties. The point estimate method is applied for modeling the wind power and solar power uncertainties, and robust optimization technique is utilized to model load demand uncertainty. Finally, a comparison is done between deterministic and probabilistic management in different scenarios and their results are analyzed and evaluated

  4. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S b (E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U e for several two body processes are discussed

  5. Carbon balance of the typical grain crop rotation in Moscow region assessed by eddy covariance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Vassenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Croplands could have equal or even greater net ecosystem production than several natural ecosystems (Hollinger et al., 2004), so agriculture plays a substantial role in mitigation strategies for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. In Central Russia, where agricultural soils carbon loses are 9 time higher than natural (forest's) soils ones (Stolbovoi, 2002), the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in agroecosystems must be the central focus of the scientific efforts. Although the balance of the CO2 mostly attributed to management practices, limited information exists regarding the crop rotation overall as potential of C sequestration. In this study, we present data on carbon balance of the typical grain crop rotation in Moscow region followed for 4 years by measuring CO2 fluxes by paired eddy covariance stations (EC). The study was conducted at the Precision Farming Experimental Fields of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University, Moscow, Russia. The experimental site has a temperate and continental climate and situated in south taiga zone with Arable Sod-Podzoluvisols (Albeluvisols Umbric). Two fields of the four-course rotation were studied in 2013-2016. Crop rotation included winter wheat (Triticum sativum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.) and cereal-legume mixture (Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L.). Crops sowing occurred during the period from mid-April to mid-May depending on weather conditions. Winter wheat was sown in the very beginning of September and the next year it occurred from under the snow in the phase of tillering. White mustard (Sinapis alba) was sown for green manure after harvesting winter wheat in mid of July. Barley was harvested in mid of August, potato crop was harvested in September. Cereal-legume mixture on herbage was collected depending on the weather from early July to mid-August. Carbon uptake (NEE negative values) was registered only for the fields with winter wheat and white

  6. Inverse operator theory method mathematics-mechanization for the solutions of nonlinear equations and some typical applications in nonlinear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Yao Weiguang

    1992-12-01

    Inverse operator theory method (IOTM) has developed rapidly in the last few years. It is an effective and useful procedure for quantitative solution of nonlinear or stochastic continuous dynamical systems. Solutions are obtained in series form for deterministic equations, and in the case of stochastic equation it gives statistic measures of the solution process. A very important advantage of the IOTM is to eliminate a number of restrictive and assumption on the nature of stochastic processes. Therefore, it provides more realistic solutions. The IOTM and its mathematics-mechanization (MM) are briefly introduced. They are used successfully to study the chaotic behaviors of the nonlinear dynamical systems for the first time in the world. As typical examples, the Lorentz equation, generalized Duffing equation, two coupled generalized Duffing equations are investigated by the use of the IOTM and the MM. The results are in good agreement with ones by the Runge-Kutta method (RKM). It has higher accuracy and faster convergence. So the IOTM realized by the MM is of potential application valuable in nonlinear science

  7. Studies of fuel loading pattern optimization for a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) using improved pivot particle swarm method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shichang; Cai, Jiejin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The mathematical model of loading pattern problems for PWR has been established. ► IPPSO was integrated with ‘donjon’ and ‘dragon’ into fuel arrangement optimizing code. ► The novel method showed highly efficiency for the LP problems. ► The core effective multiplication factor increases by about 10% in simulation cases. ► The power peaking factor decreases by about 0.6% in simulation cases. -- Abstract: An in-core fuel reload design tool using the improved pivot particle swarm method was developed for the loading pattern optimization problems in a typical PWR, such as Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. The discrete, multi-objective improved pivot particle swarm optimization, was integrated with the in-core physics calculation code ‘donjon’ based on finite element method, and assemblies’ group constant calculation code ‘dragon’, composing the optimization code for fuel arrangement. The codes of both ‘donjon’ and ‘dragon’ were programmed by Institute of Nuclear Engineering of Polytechnique Montréal, Canada. This optimization code was aiming to maximize the core effective multiplication factor (Keff), while keeping the local power peaking factor (Ppf) lower than a predetermined value to maintain fuel integrity. At last, the code was applied to the first cycle loading of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. The result showed that, compared with the reference loading pattern design, the core effective multiplication factor increased by 9.6%, while the power peaking factor decreased by 0.6%, meeting the safety requirement.

  8. Comparing the methods plot and point-centered quarter to describe a woody community from typical Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmino Cardoso Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the effectiveness of the methods fixed area plots (AP and point-centered quarters (PQ to describe a woody community from typical Cerrado. We used 10 APs and 140 PQs, distributed into 5 transects. We compared the density of individuals, floristic composition, richness of families, genera, and species, and vertical and horizontal vegetation structure. The AP method was more effective to sample the density of individuals. The PQ method was more effective for characterizing species richness, vertical vegetation structure, and record of species with low abundance. The composition of families, genera, and species, as well as the species with higher importance value index in the community were similarly determined by the 2 methods. The methods compared are complementary. We suggest that the use of AP, PQ, or both methods may be aimed at the vegetation parameter under study.

  9. Repertoire Analysis of Antibody CDR-H3 Loops Suggests Affinity Maturation Does Not Typically Result in Rigidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliazko R. Jeliazkov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody’s antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop for thousands of recent homology models of the human peripheral blood cell antibody repertoire using rigidity theory. We found no clear delineation in the flexibility of naïve and antigen-experienced antibodies. To account for possible sources of error, we additionally analyzed hundreds of human and mouse antibodies in the Protein Data Bank through both rigidity theory and B-factor analysis. By both metrics, we observed only a slight decrease in the CDR-H3 loop flexibility when comparing affinity matured antibodies to naïve antibodies, and the decrease was not as drastic as previously reported. Further analysis, incorporating molecular dynamics simulations, revealed a spectrum of changes in flexibility. Our results suggest that rigidification may be just one of many biophysical mechanisms for increasing affinity.

  10. Survey of the results of a two- and three-dimensional kinetics benchmark problem typical for a thermal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, W.

    1975-01-01

    In 1973, NEACRP and CSNI posed a number of kinetic benchmark problems intended to be solved by different groups. Comparison of the submitted results should lead to estimates on the accuracy and efficiency of the employed codes. This was felt to be of great value since the codes involved become more and more important in the field of reactor safety. In this paper the results of the 2d and 3d benchmark problem for a BWR are presented. The specification of the problem is included in the appendix of this survey. For the 2d benchmark problem, 5 contributions have been obtained, while for the 3d benchmark problem 2 contributions have been submitted. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Experimental Setup for Determining Ammonia-Salt Adsorption and Desorption Behavior Under Typical Heat Pump Conditions. Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Veldhuis, J.B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    For the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the performance of a salt-ammonia sorption reactor/heat exchanger a new test-rig was developed. This test-rig enables the measurement of the performance in adsorption and desorption mode of different sorption reactor designs. It measures the speed of uptake and release of ammonia gas of various salt-ammonia reactions under well-controlled and well-monitored process conditions, similar to the heat pump conditions. The test-rig measures the ammonia uptake and release under controlled pressure and temperature conditions. Temperatures of the salt reactor can be varied from ambient temperature up to 200{sup o}C and the ammonia pressure can be varied between 0.02 to 2 MPa. These conditions can be set independently and repeated at regular time-intervals. Besides NH3-mass-flow meters, pressure and temperature sensors, the setup also contains an endoscope to observe any macroscopic structural changes in the material during uptake and release of ammonia. Measurements so far have shown a liquid phase of LiCl.3NH3 at pressures of 0.5 MPa and temperatures exceeding 90{sup o}C. Voilent foaming is observed at 120{sup o}C resulting in salt losses. A correlation was determined between the reaction rate of MgCl{sub 2}(2-6)NH3 and the relative pressure gradient yielding a reaction time of about 1500 seconds for a relative pressure difference of 1. Multiple sorption cycles of the CaCl{sub 2}(2-4)NH3 reaction, showed a reduced activity from 85% of the theoretical maximum sorbed mass at the first sorption cycle, to 15% after 300+ cycles.

  12. Introduction of Behavioral Parameterization in the EPC Calculation Method and Assessment of Five Typical Urban Houses in Wallonia, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Monfils

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance Certification (EPC of existing residential buildings has been designed to introduce energy efficiency as a comparative criterion for real-estate purchase choices, which should influence real-estate market value and stimulate energy saving investments. EPCs in Belgium are asset ratings, calculated with a standardized approach, which purposefully (and understandably takes the human factor out of the equations in order to allow the comparison of buildings. As a result, they often overestimate energy consumption and present discrepancies that do not allow appropriation of the results by potential buyers. This study proposes complementary EPC results, obtained by integrating the behavior of occupants in the calculation method. This paper first analyses the pool of behavioral uncertainties that influence the results of EPCs, describes a questionnaire built to gather additional data on households’ characteristics and energy consumption habits and proposes modifications to the calculation method. The complementary results are then compared to regulatory EPC results and real consumption data. Though acknowledging the necessity of a standardized EPC for dwellings’ comparison, this study completes it with data on the energy consumption-related behaviors to (partially close the gap between real and theoretical consumptions.

  13. The WOMBAT Attack Attribution Method: Some Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacier, Marc; Pham, Van-Hau; Thonnard, Olivier

    In this paper, we present a new attack attribution method that has been developed within the WOMBAT project. We illustrate the method with some real-world results obtained when applying it to almost two years of attack traces collected by low interaction honeypots. This analytical method aims at identifying large scale attack phenomena composed of IP sources that are linked to the same root cause. All malicious sources involved in a same phenomenon constitute what we call a Misbehaving Cloud (MC). The paper offers an overview of the various steps the method goes through to identify these clouds, providing pointers to external references for more detailed information. Four instances of misbehaving clouds are then described in some more depth to demonstrate the meaningfulness of the concept.

  14. A phantom based method for deriving typical patient doses from measurements of dose-area product on populations of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapple, C.-L.; Broadhead, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the chief sources of uncertainty in the comparison of patient dosimetry data is the influence of patient size on dose. Dose has been shown to relate closely to the equivalent diameter of the patient. This concept has been used to derive a prospective, phantom based method for determining size correction factors for measurements of dose-area product. The derivation of the size correction factor has been demonstrated mathematically, and the appropriate factor determined for a number of different X-ray sets. The use of phantom measurements enables the effect of patient size to be isolated from other factors influencing patient dose. The derived factors agree well with those determined retrospectively from patient dose survey data. Size correction factors have been applied to the results of a large scale patient dose survey, and this approach has been compared with the method of selecting patients according to their weight. For large samples of data, mean dose-area product values are independent of the analysis method used. The chief advantage of using size correction factors is that it allows all patient data to be included in a survey, whereas patient selection has been shown to exclude approximately half of all patients. (author)

  15. Extension of the method of moments for population balances involving fractional moments and application to a typical agglomeration problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadis, Alessio; Vanni, Marco; Gardin, Pascal

    2004-08-01

    The method of moment (MOM) is a powerful tool for solving population balance. Nevertheless it cannot be used in every circumstance. Sometimes, in fact, it is not possible to write the governing equations in closed form. Higher moments, for instance, could appear in the evolution of the lower ones. This obstacle has often been resolved by prescribing some functional form for the particle size distribution. Another example is the occurrence of fractional moment, usually connected with the presence of fractal aggregates. For this case we propose a procedure that does not need any assumption on the form of the distribution but it is based on the "moments generating function" (that is the Laplace transform of the distribution). An important result of probability theory is that the kth derivative of the moments generating function represents the kth moment of the original distribution. This result concerns integer moments but, taking in account the Weyl fractional derivative, could be extended to fractional orders. Approximating fractional derivative makes it possible to express the fractional moments in terms of the integer ones and so to use regularly the method of moments.

  16. German precursor study: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.; Frey, W.; von Linden, J.; Reichart, G.

    1985-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the GRS by contract of the Federal Minister of Interior. The purpose of the study is to show how the application of system-analytic tools and especially of probabilistic methods on the Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and on other operating experience can support a deeper understanding of the safety-related importance of the events reported in reactor operation, the identification of possible weak points, and further conclusions to be drawn from the events. Additionally, the study aimed at a comparison of its results for the severe core damage frequency with those of the German Risk Study as far as this is possible and useful. The German Precursor Study is a plant-specific study. The reference plant is Biblis NPP with its very similar Units A and B, whereby the latter was also the reference plant for the German Risk Study

  17. Mechanics of Nanostructures: Methods and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rod

    2003-03-01

    We continue to develop and use new tools to measure the mechanics and electromechanics of nanostructures. Here we discuss: (a) methods for making nanoclamps and the resulting: nanoclamp geometry, chemical composition and type of chemical bonding, and nanoclamp strength (effectiveness as a nanoclamp for the mechanics measurements to be made); (b) mechanics of carbon nanocoils. We have received carbon nanocoils from colleagues in Japan [1], measured their spring constants, and have observed extensions exceeding 100% relative to the unloaded length, using our scanning electron microscope nanomanipulator tool; (c) several new devices that are essentially MEMS-based, that allow for improved measurements of the mechanics of psuedo-1D and planar nanostructures. [1] Zhang M., Nakayama Y., Pan L., Japanese J. Appl. Phys. 39, L1242-L1244 (2000).

  18. Multiband discrete ordinates method: formalism and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luneville, L.

    1998-06-01

    The multigroup discrete ordinates method is a classical way to solve transport equation (Boltzmann) for neutral particles. Self-shielding effects are not correctly treated due to large variations of cross sections in a group (in the resonance range). To treat the resonance domain, the multiband method is introduced. The main idea is to divide the cross section domain into bands. We obtain the multiband parameters using the moment method; the code CALENDF provides probability tables for these parameters. We present our implementation in an existing discrete ordinates code: SN1D. We study deep penetration benchmarks and show the improvement of the method in the treatment of self-shielding effects. (author)

  19. Preparation of regenerable granular carbon nanotubes by a simple heating-filtration method for efficient removal of typical pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Danna; Deng, Shubo; Zhao, Tianning; Yu, Gang; Winglee, Judith; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2017-04-01

    A simple and convenient method was used to prepare novel granular carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for enhanced adsorption of pharmaceuticals. By heating CNTs powder at 450 degree centigrade in air, followed by filtration, the obtained granular adsorbent exhibited high surface area and pore volume since the heating process produced some oxygen-containing functional groups on CNT surface, making CNTs more dispersible in the formation of granular cake. The porous granular CNTs not only had more available surfaces for adsorption but also were more easily separated from solution than pristine CNTs (p-CNTs) powder. This adsorbent exhibited relatively fast adsorption for carbamazepine (CBZ), tetracycline (TC) and diclofe- nac sodium (DS), and the maximum adsorption capacity on the granular CNTs was 369.5 μmol/g for CBZ, 284.2 μmol/g for TC and 203.1 μmol/g for DS according to the Langmuir fitting, increasing by 42.4%, 37.8% and 38.0% in comparison with the pristine CNTs powder. Moreover, the spent granular CNTs were successfully regenerated at 400 degree centigrade in air without decreasing the adsorption capacity in five regeneration cycles. The adsorbed CBZ and DS were completely degraded, while the adsorbed TC was partially oxidized and the residual was favorable for the subsequent adsorption. This research develops an easy method to prepare and regenerate granular CNT adsorbent for the enhanced removal of organic pollutants from water or wastewater.

  20. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Method for achieving hydraulic balance in typical Chinese building heating systems by managing differential pressure and flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xia, Jianjun; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2017-01-01

    to a lack of pressure and flow control. This study investigated using pre-set radiator valves combined with differential pressure (DP) controllers to achieve hydraulic balance in building distribution systems, and consequently save energy and reduce the emissions. We considered a multi-storey building......Hydraulic unbalance is a common problem in Chinese district heating (DH) systems. Hydraulic unbalance has resulted in poor flow distribution among heating branches and overheating of apartments. Studies show that nearly 30% of the total heat supply is being wasted in Chinese DH systems due...... modelled in the IDA-ICE software, along with a self-developed mathematical hydraulic model to simulate its heat performance and hydraulic performance with various control scenarios. In contrast to the situation with no pressure or flow control, this solution achieves the required flow distribution...

  2. Project Oriented Immersion Learning: Method and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Icaza, José I.; Heredia, Yolanda; Borch, Ole M.

    2005-01-01

    A pedagogical approach called “project oriented immersion learning” is presented and tested on a graduate online course. The approach combines the Project Oriented Learning method with immersion learning in a virtual enterprise. Students assumed the role of authors hired by a fictitious publishing...... house that develops digital products including e-books, tutorials, web sites and so on. The students defined the problem that their product was to solve; choose the type of product and the content; and built the product following a strict project methodology. A wiki server was used as a platform to hold...

  3. Learning phacoemulsification. Results of different teaching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennig Albrecht

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the learning curves of three eye surgeons converting from sutureless extracapsular cataract extraction to phacoemulsification using different teaching methods. Posterior capsule rupture (PCR as a per-operative complication and visual outcome of the first 100 operations were analysed. The PCR rate was 4% and 15% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively. Likewise, an uncorrected visual acuity of > or = 6/18 on the first postoperative day was seen in 62 (62% of patients and in 22 (22% in supervised and unsupervised surgery respectively.

  4. RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE: ANALYSIS METHODS

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Five-yearly review of employment conditions   Article S V 1.02 of our Staff Rules states that the CERN “Council shall periodically review and determine the financial and social conditions of the members of the personnel. These periodic reviews shall consist of a five-yearly general review of financial and social conditions;” […] “following methods […] specified in § I of Annex A 1”. Then, turning to the relevant part in Annex A 1, we read that “The purpose of the five-yearly review is to ensure that the financial and social conditions offered by the Organization allow it to recruit and retain the staff members required for the execution of its mission from all its Member States. […] these staff members must be of the highest competence and integrity.” And for the menu of such a review we have: “The five-yearly review must include basic salaries and may include any other financial or soc...

  5. Two different hematocrit detection methods: Different methods, different results?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuepbach Reto A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Less is known about the influence of hematocrit detection methodology on transfusion triggers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare two different hematocrit-assessing methods. In a total of 50 critically ill patients hematocrit was analyzed using (1 blood gas analyzer (ABLflex 800 and (2 the central laboratory method (ADVIA® 2120 and compared. Findings Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measurements showed a good correlation with a bias of +1.39% and 2 SD of ± 3.12%. The 24%-hematocrit-group showed a correlation of r2 = 0.87. With a kappa of 0.56, 22.7% of the cases would have been transfused differently. In the-28%-hematocrit group with a similar correlation (r2 = 0.8 and a kappa of 0.58, 21% of the cases would have been transfused differently. Conclusions Despite a good agreement between the two methods used to determine hematocrit in clinical routine, the calculated difference of 1.4% might substantially influence transfusion triggers depending on the employed method.

  6. Association of In Vivo [18F]AV-1451 Tau PET Imaging Results With Cortical Atrophy and Symptoms in Typical and Atypical Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chenjie; Makaretz, Sara J; Caso, Christina; McGinnis, Scott; Gomperts, Stephen N; Sepulcre, Jorge; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Hyman, Bradley T; Schultz, Aaron; Vasdev, Neil; Johnson, Keith A; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-04-01

    Previous postmortem studies have long demonstrated that neurofibrillary tangles made of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are closely associated with Alzheimer disease clinical phenotype and neurodegeneration pattern. Validating these associations in vivo will lead to new diagnostic tools for Alzheimer disease and better understanding of its neurobiology. To examine whether topographical distribution and severity of hyperphosphorylated tau pathologic findings measured by fluorine 18-labeled AV-1451 ([18F]AV-1451) positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging are linked with clinical phenotype and cortical atrophy in patients with Alzheimer disease. This observational case series, conducted from July 1, 2012, to July 30, 2015, in an outpatient referral center for patients with neurodegenerative diseases, included 6 patients: 3 with typical amnesic Alzheimer disease and 3 with atypical variants (posterior cortical atrophy, logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, and corticobasal syndrome). Patients underwent [18F]AV-1451 PET imaging to measure tau burden, carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([11C]PiB) PET imaging to measure amyloid burden, and structural magnetic resonance imaging to measure cortical thickness. Seventy-seven age-matched controls with normal cognitive function also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging but not tau or amyloid PET imaging. Tau burden, amyloid burden, and cortical thickness. In all 6 patients (3 women and 3 men; mean age 61.8 years), the underlying clinical phenotype was associated with the regional distribution of the [18F]AV-1451 signal. Furthermore, within 68 cortical regions of interest measured from each patient, the magnitude of cortical atrophy was strongly correlated with the magnitude of [18F]AV-1451 binding (3 patients with amnesic Alzheimer disease, r = -0.82; P localizing and quantifying hyperphosphorylated tau in vivo, results of tau PET imaging will likely serve as a key biomarker that links a

  7. Differences in gorilla nettle-feeding between captivity and the wild: local traditions, species typical behaviors or merely the result of nutritional deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly

    2011-11-01

    Behavioral and cognitive studies on captive apes often pay little attention to the specific environmental conditions of their study subjects. A recent report form Byrne et al. (Anim Cogn doi: 10.1007/s10071-011-0403-8, 2011), comparing nettle-feeding techniques between captive and wild gorillas, claimed to document "the strongest evidence yet to come from any great ape that observational learning of a skilled conspecific" can allow social learning and culture in gorillas. An earlier study with similar findings placed emphasis instead on the many similarities and claims for species typical behavior, thus a genetic hypothesis instead of a cultural hypothesis. This commentary aims at formulating a third environmental hypothesis based on path-dependent behavioral differences owing to different diet and availability of nutritional resources of wild and captive gorillas. Captive diet provides gorillas with a much lower concentration of fibers. Gorillas are hindgut fermenters, and this deficit of natural fermentation of fibers may impact their health and their behavior in zoos. Results of Byrne et al.'s study will be discussed comparing feeding choice and availability of nutritional resources of wild and captive gorillas, showing that in captivity gorilla, motivation to consume certain food or certain plant parts may differ drastically from that of wild gorillas. This view does not intend to deny that social learning and culture may exist in gorillas, but to guide and encourage future works investigating social learning in great apes to take more accurately into account the living conditions and, when comparing populations, the possible environmental differences. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  8. Gender differences and typical nutrition concerns of the diets of preschool children - the results of the first stage of an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel-Pawłowska, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    2017-12-19

    Nutrition in children has an important influence on health both in childhood and adulthood. Actions aimed at improving children's nutrition are essential, not only to the children and their families, but also to the whole society. The aim of the study was to present the results of nutrient intake before starting a nutrition and physical activity intervention programme, to investigate gender differences in nutrient intake and to discuss whether the preschoolers' nutrient intake is similar to the intake of their peers from other countries. Nutrient intake was estimated from seven-day weighed food records kept by parents and preschool staff individually for 122 4-6-year-old children who attended two preschools in Piła, north-western Poland. Nutrient intake was calculated using Dieta 4.0 computer programme including water intake and intake of nutrients from dietary supplements. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics computer programme, version 21.0, according to gender. The study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Poznan University of Medical Sciences (reference number 886/08). Boys, in comparison to girls, were found to have statistically significantly higher intakes of total protein, total protein per kg of body weight, saturated fatty acids, total carbohydrates, available carbohydrates, lactose, sucrose, total water, vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin B 2 , vitamin B 12 , vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Statistically significantly higher percentage of girls than boys had intakes of vitamin E below AI. Gender was a significant factor of nutrient intake in the studied preschool children. The main nutritional concerns in the studied preschoolers' diets, irrespective of gender, are typical of the diets of preschool children from various parts of Europe and indicate the need to work out common nutritional strategies to improve preschoolers' nutrition across Europe to reduce future burden of diet-related diseases to the

  9. The impact of conventional dietary intake data coding methods on foods typically consumed by low-income African-American and White urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marc A; Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2015-08-01

    Analysing dietary data to capture how individuals typically consume foods is dependent on the coding variables used. Individual foods consumed simultaneously, like coffee with milk, are given codes to identify these combinations. Our literature review revealed a lack of discussion about using combination codes in analysis. The present study identified foods consumed at mealtimes and by race when combination codes were or were not utilized. Duplicate analysis methods were performed on separate data sets. The original data set consisted of all foods reported; each food was coded as if it was consumed individually. The revised data set was derived from the original data set by first isolating coded foods consumed as individual items from those foods consumed simultaneously and assigning a code to designate a combination. Foods assigned a combination code, like pancakes with syrup, were aggregated and associated with a food group, defined by the major food component (i.e. pancakes), and then appended to the isolated coded foods. Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. African-American and White adults with two dietary recalls (n 2177). Differences existed in lists of foods most frequently consumed by mealtime and race when comparing results based on original and revised data sets. African Americans reported consumption of sausage/luncheon meat and poultry, while ready-to-eat cereals and cakes/doughnuts/pastries were reported by Whites on recalls. Use of combination codes provided more accurate representation of how foods were consumed by populations. This information is beneficial when creating interventions and exploring diet-health relationships.

  10. Typicality and reasoning fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E B; Smith, E E; Osherson, D N

    1990-05-01

    The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ... outspoken") followed by a category. Some subjects rated how typical the person was of the category, while others rated the probability that the person belonged to that category. For categories like bank teller and feminist bank teller: (1) subjects rated the person as more typical of the conjunctive category (a conjunction effect); (2) subjects rated it more probable that the person belonged to the conjunctive category (a conjunction fallacy); and (3) the magnitudes of the conjunction effect and fallacy were highly correlated. Experiment 2 documents an inclusion fallacy, wherein subjects judge, for example, "All bank tellers are conservative" to be more probable than "All feminist bank tellers are conservative." In Experiment 3, results parallel to those of Experiment 1 were obtained with respect to the inclusion fallacy.

  11. Results of the Austrian CT dose study 2010. Typical effective doses of the most frequent CT examinations; Ergebnisse der Oesterreichischen CT-Dosisstudie 2010. Effektive Dosen der haeufigsten CT-Untersuchungen und Unterschiede zwischen Anwendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homolka, Peter; Leithner, Robert; Billinger, Jochen [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Zentrum fuer Medizinische Physik und Biomedizinische Technik; Gruber, Michael [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To determine typical doses from common CT examinations of standard sized adult patients and their variability between CT operators for common CT indications. Materials and Methods: In a nationwide Austrian CT dose survey doses from approx. 10,000 common CT examinations of adults during 2009 and 2010 were collected and 'typical' radiation doses to the 'average patient', which turned out to have 75.6 kg body mass, calculated. Conversion coefficients from DLP to effective dose were determined and effective doses calculated according to ICRP 103. Variations of typically applied doses to the 'average patient' were expressed as ratios between 90{sup th} and 10{sup th} percentile (inter-percentile width, IPW90/10), 1st and 3{sup rd} quartile (IPW75/25), and Maximum/Minimum. Results: Median effective doses to the average patients for standard head and neck scans were 1.8 mSv (cervical spine), 1.9 mSv (brain: trauma/bleeding, stroke) to 2.2 mSv (brain: masses) with typical variation between facilities of a factor 2.5 (IPW90/10) and 1.7 (IPW75/25). In the thorax region doses were 6.4 to 6.8 mSv (pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and inflammation, oncologic scans), the variation between facilities was by a factor of 2.1 (IPW90/10) and 1.5 (IPW75/25), respectively. In the abdominal region median effective doses from 6.5 mSv (kidney stone search) to 22 mSv (liver lesions) were found (acute abdomen, staging/metastases, lumbar spine: 9-12 mSv; oncologic abdomen plus chest 16 mSv; renal tumor 20 mSv). Variation factors between facilities were on average for abdominal scans 2.7 (IPW90/10) and 1.8 (IPW75/25). Conclusion: Variations between CT operators are generally moderate for most operators, but in some indications the ratio between the minimum and the maximum of average dose to the typical standard patients exceeds a factor of 4 or even 5. Therefore, comparing average doses to Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) and optimizing protocols need to

  12. An improvement of estimation method of source term to the environment for interfacing system LOCA for typical PWR using MELCOR code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok Jung; Kim, Tae Woon; Ahn, Kwang Il [Risk and Environmental Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Interfacing-system loss-of-coolant-accident (ISLOCA) has been identified as the most hazardous accident scenario in the typical PWR plants. The present study as an effort to improve the knowledge of the source term to the environment during ISLOCA focuses on an improvement of the estimation method. The improvement was performed to take into account an effect of broken pipeline and auxiliary building structures relevant to ISLOCA. An estimation of the source term to the environment was for the OPR-1000 plants by MELOCR code version 1.8.6. The key features of the source term showed that the massive amount of fission products departed from the beginning of core degradation to the vessel breach. The release amount of fission products may be affected by the broken pipeline and the auxiliary building structure associated with release pathway.

  13. Chronic Widespread Pain after Motor Vehicle Collision Typically Occurs via Immediate Development and Non-Recovery: Results of an Emergency Department-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    JunMei, Hu; Andrey V, Bortsov; Lauren, Ballina; Danielle C, Orrey; Robert A, Swor; David, Peak; Jeffrey, Jones; Niels, Rathlev; David C, Lee; Robert, Domeier; Phyllis, Hendry; Blair A, Parry; Samuel A, McLean

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle collision (MVC) can trigger chronic widespread pain (CWP) development in vulnerable individuals. Whether such CWP typically develops via the evolution of pain from regional to widespread or via the early development of widespread pain with non-recovery is currently unknown. We evaluated the trajectory of CWP development (American College of Rheumatology criteria) among 948 European-American individuals who presented to the emergency department (ED) for care in the early aftermath of MVC. Pain extent was assessed in the ED and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after MVC on 100%, 91%, 89%, and 91% of participants, respectively. Individuals who reported prior CWP at the time of ED evaluation (n = 53) were excluded. Trajectory modeling identified a two-group solution as optimal, with the Bayes Factor value (138) indicating strong model selection. Linear solution plots supported a non-recovery model. While the number of body regions with pain in the non-CWP group steadily declined, the number of body regions with pain in the CWP trajectory group (192/895, 22%) remained relatively constant over time. These data support the hypothesis that individuals who develop CWP after MVC develop widespread pain in the early aftermath of MVC which does not remit. PMID:26808013

  14. Physicochemical interactions resulting from the use of a SiC/SiC composite material in typical environments of future nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, James

    2014-01-01

    The development of high purity SiC fibers during the nineties has led to their consideration as nuclear reactors components through the use of SiC/SiC composites. SiC and SiC/SiC composites are considered as core materials of future nuclear reactors (SFR, GFR) and as a potential replacement for the zirconium cladding of PWR. Therefore, the thermochemical compatibility of these materials with typical environments of those nuclear reactors has been studied. The composition and the growth kinetics of the reaction zone of SiC towards niobium and tantalum (considered as materials to ensure the leak-tightness of a SiC/SiC cladding for GFR) have been studied between 1050 and 1500 C. High temperature heat treatments in open and closed systems between SiC and UO 2 have shown a significant reactivity over 1200 C characterized by the formation of CO and uranium silicides. Moreover, a liquid phase has been detected between 1500 and 1650 C. The exposure of SiC/SiC to liquid sodium (550 C, up to 2000 h) has been studied as a function of the oxygen concentration dissolved in liquid sodium. An improvement of the mechanical properties of the composites elaborated for this study (increase of the tensile strength and strain at failure) has been highlighted after immersion in the liquid sodium independently of its oxygen concentration. It is believed that this phenomenon is due to the presence of residual sodium in the material. (author) [fr

  15. Wide Binaries in TGAS: Search Method and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeff J.; Chanamé, Julio; Agüeros, Marcel A.

    2018-04-01

    Half of all stars reside in binary systems, many of which have orbital separations in excess of 1000 AU. Such binaries are typically identified in astrometric catalogs by matching the proper motions vectors of close stellar pairs. We present a fully Bayesian method that properly takes into account positions, proper motions, parallaxes, and their correlated uncertainties to identify widely separated stellar binaries. After applying our method to the >2 × 106 stars in the Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution from Gaia DR1, we identify over 6000 candidate wide binaries. For those pairs with separations less than 40,000 AU, we determine the contamination rate to be ~5%. This sample has an orbital separation (a) distribution that is roughly flat in log space for separations less than ~5000 AU and follows a power law of a -1.6 at larger separations.

  16. Total motion generated in the unstable thoracolumbar spine during management of the typical trauma patient: a comparison of methods in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Zhou, Haitao; Dubose, Dewayne; Rossi, Gianluca Del; Conrad, Bryan P; Horodyski, Marybeth; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-05-01

    The proper prehospital and inpatient management of patients with unstable spinal injuries is critical for prevention of secondary neurological compromise. The authors sought to analyze the amount of motion generated in the unstable thoracolumbar spine during various maneuvers and transfers that a trauma patient would typically be subjected to prior to definitive fixation. Five fresh cadavers with surgically created unstable L-1 burst fractures were tested. The amount of angular motion between the T-12 and L-2 vertebral segments was measured using a 3D electromagnetic motion analysis device. A complete sequence of maneuvers and transfers was then performed that a patient would be expected to go through from the time of injury until surgical fixation. These maneuvers and transfers included spine board placement and removal, bed transfers, lateral therapy, and turning the patient prone onto the operating table. During each of these, the authors performed what they believed to be the most commonly used versus the best techniques for preventing undesirable motion at the injury level. When placing a spine board there was more motion in all 3 planes with the log-roll technique, and this difference reached statistical significance for axial rotation (p = 0.018) and lateral bending (p = 0.003). Using logrolling for spine board removal resulted in increased motion again, and this was statistically significant for flexion-extension (p = 0.014). During the bed transfer and lateral therapy, the log-roll technique resulted in more motion in all 3 planes (p ≤ 0.05). When turning the cadavers prone for surgery there was statistically more angular motion in each plane for manually turning the patient versus the Jackson table turn (p ≤ 0.01). The total motion was decreased by almost 50% in each plane when using an alternative to the log-roll techniques during the complete sequence (p ≤ 0.007). Although it is unknown how much motion in the unstable spine is necessary to cause

  17. Investigating hydrogen peroxide in rainwater of a typical midsized city in tropical Brazil using a novel application of a fluorometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramboni, C.; Crispim, C. P.; Toledo, J. C.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the effect of public policies related to vehicle emissions on the lower tropospheric concentrations of H2O2 in a typical midsized city in tropical Brazil. The concentrations of H2O2, SO42-, and NO3- in rainwater samples were determined from 2014 to 2017 in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto in São Paulo State. A fluorometric method, based on the formation of a highly fluorescent product (2‧,7‧-dichlorofluorescein, DCF), was adapted and optimized for the measurement of H2O2 in natural water samples including seawater. The method was highly specific, accurate and sensitive (LOD = 2 nmol L-1). Its main advantage compared to others, was that the fluorophore remained stable for at least 48 h, offering a longer time interval in which to perform the analysis and therefore facilitating fieldwork. Concentrations of H2O2 in rainwater ranged from 5.8 to 96 μmol L-1, with VWM of 28.6 ± 1.4 μmol L-1 (n = 77). Solar radiation appeared to have a greater impact on production than on consumption of H2O2. The annual VWM concentrations of H2O2 in rainwater were negatively correlated with sulfate (at pH important factors affecting the concentration of H2O2 in the atmosphere. This work expands the current records available for the Southern Hemisphere, where there is a considerable paucity of information regarding temporal production and loss of atmospheric H2O2.

  18. Total motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during management of the typical trauma patient: a comparison of methods in a cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasarn, Mark L; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Dubose, Dewayne; Small, John; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Zhou, Haitao; Conrad, Bryan P; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-05-15

    Biomechanical cadaveric study. We sought to analyze the amount of motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during various maneuvers and transfers that a trauma patient would typically be subjected to prior to definitive fixation, using 2 different protocols. From the time of injury until the spine is adequately stabilized in the operating room, every step in management of the spine-injured patient can result in secondary injury to the spinal cord. The amount of angular motion between C5 and C6, after a surgically created unstable injury, was measured using an electromagnetic motion analysis device (Polhemus Inc., Colchester, VT). A total sequence of maneuvers and transfers was then performed that a patient would be expected to go through from the time of injury until surgical fixation. This included spine board placement and removal, bed transfers, lateral therapy, and turning the patient prone onto the operating table. During each of these, we performed what has been shown to be the best and commonly used (log-roll) techniques. During bed transfers and the turn prone for surgery, there was statistically more angular motion in each plane for traditional transfer with the spine board and manually turning the patient prone as commonly done (P patient from the field to stabilization in the operating room using the best compared with the most commonly used techniques. As previously reported, using log-roll techniques consistently results in unwanted motion at the injured spinal segment.

  19. Estimation of Source Term Behaviors in SBO Sequence in a Typical 1000MWth PWR and Comparison with Other Source Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Woon; Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il; Fynan, Douglas; Jung, Yong Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) (1979), Chernobyl (1986), Fukushima Daiichi (2011) accidents, the assessment of radiological source term effects on the environment has been a key concern of nuclear safety. In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the long-term SBO (station blackout) accident occurs. Using the worst case assumptions like in Fukushima accident on the accident sequences and on the availability of safety systems, the thermal hydraulic behaviors, core relocation and environmental source terms behaviors are estimated for long-term SBO accident for OPR-1000 reactor. MELCOR code version 1.8.6 is used in this analysis. Source term results estimated in this study is compared with other previous studies and estimated results in Fukushima accidents in UNSCEAR-2013 report. This study estimated that 11 % of iodine can be released to environment and 2% of cesium can be released to environment. UNSCEAR-2013 report estimated that 2 - 8 % of iodine have been released to environment and 1 - 3 % of cesium have been released to the environment. They have similar results in the aspect of release fractions of iodine and cesium to environment.

  20. Non typical results of the first and second irradiation set of the surveillance programme of a boiling water reactor in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, G; Krompholz, K [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    In the surveillance programme for the pressure vessel of the Muhleberg NPP in Switzerland, tensile and impact tests on the base material (ASTM A 508 Cl 2) and two weldments (main and automatic) as well as the heat affected zone, were performed with two sets of irradiation (neutron fluence of 5.5.10{sup 17} and 1.1.10{sup 18}) leading to different shifts of the transition temperature (except for the automatic welded joints which keep the same large shift). Results and causes of the discrepancy are discussed. (authors). 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Li, Hongwei; Li, Xiaopeng; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance with the actual heat demand. This results in 15–30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance, and stabilize indoor temperatures. The feasibility and the energy consumption reduction of this approach were verified by means of simulation and a field test. By moving the system from centrally planned heat delivery to demand-driven heat delivery, excess heat loss can be significantly reduced. Results show that once the hydraulic balance is achieved and indoor temperatures are controlled with this integrated approach, 17% heat savings and 42.8% pump electricity savings can be achieved. The energy savings will also have a positive environmental effect with seasonal reductions of 11 kg CO_2, 0.1 kg SO_2, and 0.03 kg NO_x per heating square meter for a typical case in Harbin. - Highlights: • Two real cases reflect the temperature and flow control situation of heating systems in China. • Pre-set radiator valves with automatic balancing valves create dynamic hydraulic balance. • IDA-ICE simulation shows 17% heat saving and 48% pump electricity saving. • This approach can improve the comfort level of multi-storey/high-rise residential buildings. • This approach can reduce excess heat supply and bring out positive environmental impacts.

  2. Settlement mechanism of the backfilled ground around nuclear power plant buildings. Part 2. A series of centrifuge tests and a numerical simulation by using FEM about a typical test result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Tadashi; Ishimaru, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    During the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki earthquake, rather large settlements of the backfill ground around the rigid and stable buildings were observed. In this study, five cases of centrifuge tests with shaking events were conducted to reproduce the similar type of the settlements in order to examine the mechanism of the settlements. The results from those tests showed that the ground was settled by the negative dilatancy of sandy soils anywhere in the model ground and the additional settlements were suddenly caused when the backfill ground was apart from the rigid wall modeling the rigid and stable buildings, namely a sliding failure in an active state was occurred in the backfill ground near the structure. It was confirmed that these settlements were able to be estimated by a simple method proposed in this report, in which only the differences between the self-weight of the sliding block and the soil strength calculated at the initial stress conditions were considered as the driving forces of the sliding failure, and then the accelerations calculated from the forces being divided by the mass of the sliding block were simply integrated two times with respected to the time when the ground was apart from the structure. Further, a numerical simulation by using FEM about a typical test result was conducted, and these settlements were well simulated. (author)

  3. Is our Universe typical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of typicalness of the Universe - as a dynamical system possessing both regular and chaotic regions of positive measure of phase space, is raised and discussed. Two dynamical systems are considered: 1) The observed Universe as a hierarchy of systems of N graviting bodies; 2) (3+1)-manifold with matter evolving to Wheeler-DeWitt equation in superspace with Hawking boundary condition of compact metrics. It is shown that the observed Universe is typical. There is no unambiguous answer for the second system yet. If it is typical too then the same present state of the Universe could have been originated from an infinite number of different initial conditions the restoration of which is practically impossible at present. 35 refs.; 2 refs

  4. Numerical proceessing of radioimmunoassay results using logit-log transformation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textoris, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical model and algorithm are described of the numerical processing of the results of a radioimmunoassay by the logit-log transformation method and by linear regression with weight factors. The limiting value of the curve for zero concentration is optimized with regard to the residual sum by the iterative method by multiple repeats of the linear regression. Typical examples are presented of the approximation of calibration curves. The method proved suitable for all hitherto used RIA sets and is well suited for small computers with internal memory of min. 8 Kbyte. (author)

  5. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Enterprise Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Velychko, O; UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Scientific Institution UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Gordiyenko, T

    2015-01-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed

  6. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velychko, O.; Gordiyenko, T.

    2015-02-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed.

  7. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  8. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  9. A New Approach of Asymmetric Homoclinic and Heteroclinic Orbits Construction in Several Typical Systems Based on the Undetermined Padé Approximation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In dynamic systems, some nonlinearities generate special connection problems of non-Z2 symmetric homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits. Such orbits are important for analyzing problems of global bifurcation and chaos. In this paper, a general analytical method, based on the undetermined Padé approximation method, is proposed to construct non-Z2 symmetric homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits which are affected by nonlinearity factors. Geometric and symmetrical characteristics of non-Z2 heteroclinic orbits are analyzed in detail. An undetermined frequency coefficient and a corresponding new analytic expression are introduced to improve the accuracy of the orbit trajectory. The proposed method shows high precision results for the Nagumo system (one single orbit; general types of non-Z2 symmetric nonlinear quintic systems (orbit with one cusp; and Z2 symmetric system with high-order nonlinear terms (orbit with two cusps. Finally, numerical simulations are used to verify the techniques and demonstrate the enhanced efficiency and precision of the proposed method.

  10. A simple method for measuring sex-hormone binding protein (SHBP) - typical values in men and women and in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafurt, C.A.; Estrada, R. de

    1978-01-01

    Assuming that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their binding proteins are similar to those between antigens and their antibodies, the authors describe how to determine SHBP activity by a dilution method analogous to that used for titration of antisera in radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following stages: (1) plasma dilution; (2) incubation of the dilution with 20,000dis/min of 1,2- 3 H-testosterone; (3) separation of the fraction of tracer bound to the SHBP by precipitation with ammonium sulphate; (4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant; and (5) plotting of the results on a graph where the axis of ordinates represents the quotient given by bound steroid over free steroid (U/L) and the abscissa represents the plasma dilutions. The values are expressed as the 50% bound titre. An advantage of the method is the higher sensitivity of the dilution curves in the steepest part where the 50% bound is encountered; it is thus not necessary to use the saturation part of the curves where sensitivity is lost owing to the steeper slope. A further advantage of the method is that there is no need for costly processes such as dialysis. The SHBP values obtained for healthy subjects were as follows: 1/5 for men, 1/93 for women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. These physiological values showed no overlapping. (author)

  11. EQUITY SHARES EQUATING THE RESULTS OF FCFF AND FCFE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Cegłowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present the method of establishing equity shares in weight average cost of capital (WACC, in which the value of loan capital results from the fixed assumptions accepted in the financial plan (for example a schedule of loan repayment and own equity is evaluated by means of a discount method. The described method causes that, regardless of whether cash flows are calculated as FCFF or FCFE, the result of the company valuation will be identical.

  12. New method of scoliosis assessment: preliminary results using computerized photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroeira, Rozilene Maria Cota; Leal, Jefferson Soares; de Melo Pertence, Antônio Eustáquio

    2011-09-01

    A new method for nonradiographic evaluation of scoliosis was independently compared with the Cobb radiographic method, for the quantification of scoliotic curvature. To develop a protocol for computerized photogrammetry, as a nonradiographic method, for the quantification of scoliosis, and to mathematically relate this proposed method with the Cobb radiographic method. Repeated exposure to radiation of children can be harmful to their health. Nevertheless, no nonradiographic method until now proposed has gained popularity as a routine method for evaluation, mainly due to a low correspondence to the Cobb radiographic method. Patients undergoing standing posteroanterior full-length spine radiographs, who were willing to participate in this study, were submitted to dorsal digital photography in the orthostatic position with special surface markers over the spinous process, specifically the vertebrae C7 to L5. The radiographic and photographic images were sent separately for independent analysis to two examiners, trained in quantification of scoliosis for the types of images received. The scoliosis curvature angles obtained through computerized photogrammetry (the new method) were compared to those obtained through the Cobb radiographic method. Sixteen individuals were evaluated (14 female and 2 male). All presented idiopathic scoliosis, and were between 21.4 ± 6.1 years of age; 52.9 ± 5.8 kg in weight; 1.63 ± 0.05 m in height, with a body mass index of 19.8 ± 0.2. There was no statistically significant difference between the scoliosis angle measurements obtained in the comparative analysis of both methods, and a mathematical relationship was formulated between both methods. The preliminary results presented demonstrate equivalence between the two methods. More studies are needed to firmly assess the potential of this new method as a coadjuvant tool in the routine following of scoliosis treatment.

  13. Typicals/Típicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vélez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typicals is a series of 12 colour photographs digitally created from photojournalistic images from Colombia combined with "typical" craft textiles and text from guest writers. Typicals was first exhibited as photographs 50cm x 75cm in size, each with their own magnifying glass, at the Contemporary Art Space at Gorman House in Canberra, Australia, in 2000. It was then exhibited in "Feedback: Art Social Consciousness and Resistance" at Monash University Museum of Art in Melbourne, Australia, from March to May 2003. From May to June 2003 it was exhibited at the Museo de Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Santa Fé Bogotá, Colombia. In its current manifestation the artwork has been adapted from the catalogue of the museum exhibitions. It is broken up into eight pieces corresponding to the contributions of the writers. The introduction by Sylvia Vélez is the PDF file accessible via a link below this abstract. The other seven PDF files are accessible via the 'Supplementary Files' section to the left of your screen. Please note that these files are around 4 megabytes each, so it may be difficult to access them from a dial-up connection.

  14. Convergence results for a class of abstract continuous descent methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Aizicovici

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We study continuous descent methods for the minimization of Lipschitzian functions defined on a general Banach space. We establish convergence theorems for those methods which are generated by approximate solutions to evolution equations governed by regular vector fields. Since the complement of the set of regular vector fields is $sigma$-porous, we conclude that our results apply to most vector fields in the sense of Baire's categories.

  15. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  16. Life cycle analysis of electricity systems: Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Marheineke, T.

    1996-01-01

    The two methods for full energy chain analysis, process analysis and input/output analysis, are discussed. A combination of these two methods provides the most accurate results. Such a hybrid analysis of the full energy chains of six different power plants is presented and discussed. The results of such analyses depend on time, site and technique of each process step and, therefore have no general validity. For renewable energy systems the emissions form the generation of a back-up system should be added. (author). 7 figs, 1 fig

  17. Spatial-temporal Evolution of Karst Rocky Desertification and Future Trends Based on CA-Markov Methods in Typical Karst Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Fei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Karst rocky desertification(KRDhas become the most serious ecological disaster in Southwest China. It is very important and much-needed to explore the rule of spatial-temporal evolution of KRD for ecological restoration and sustainable development of the region. In this paper, the improved accurate remote sensing image interpreting method and CA-Markov prediction method were used to explore the spatial-temporal evolution rule of KRD in the study area from 1990 to 2021 based on the long time line remote sensing image of the year of 1990, 2004 and 2016. The results were as follows:the spatial -temporal evolution rule of KRD presented "first deterioration and then improvement" in the study area at nearly 30 years. The deterioration of KRD was affected by high intensity overload human activities and natural disasters in 1990-2004, which made the ecological environment deterioration. However, the KRD had gradually improved with the implementation of a series of governance projects, and a large number of rural labor forces were liberated from the land in 2004-2016, which made the natural environment restoration, and ecological system was getting better and better. At the same time, the trend of KRD evolution was showing improvement from the predicted years of 2016-2021 and the ecological environment in the region continued to become better.

  18. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  19. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  20. A Fuzzy Logic Based Method for Analysing Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xuan Vinh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Network operators must perform many tasks to ensure smooth operation of the network, such as planning, monitoring, etc. Among those tasks, regular testing of network performance, network errors and troubleshooting is very important. Meaningful test results will allow the operators to evaluate network performanceof any shortcomings and to better plan for network upgrade. Due to the diverse and mainly unquantifiable nature of network testing results, there is a needs to develop a method for systematically and rigorously analysing these results. In this paper, we present STAM (System Test-result Analysis Method which employs a bottom-up hierarchical processing approach using Fuzzy logic. STAM is capable of combining all test results into a quantitative description of the network performance in terms of network stability, the significance of various network erros, performance of each function blocks within the network. The validity of this method has been successfully demonstrated in assisting the testing of a VoIP system at the Research Instiute of Post and Telecoms in Vietnam. The paper is organized as follows. The first section gives an overview of fuzzy logic theory the concepts of which will be used in the development of STAM. The next section describes STAM. The last section, demonstrating STAM’s capability, presents a success story in which STAM is successfully applied.

  1. Evaluating rehabilitation methods - some practical results from Rum Jungle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.

    1987-01-01

    Research and analysis of the following aspects of rehabilitation have been conducted at the Rum Jungle mine site over the past three years: drainage structure stability; rock batter stability; soil fauna; tree growth in compacted soils; rehabilitation costs. The results show that, for future rehabilitation projects adopting refined methods, attention to final construction detail and biospheric influences is most important. The mine site offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the success of a variety of rehabilitation methods to the benefit of the industry in Australia overseas. It is intended that practical, economic, research will continue for some considerable time

  2. Non-Destructive Evaluation Method Based On Dynamic Invariant Stress Resultants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Junchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the vibration based damage detection methods are based on changes in frequencies, mode shapes, mode shape curvature, and flexibilities. These methods are limited and typically can only detect the presence and location of damage. Current methods seldom can identify the exact severity of damage to structures. This paper will present research in the development of a new non-destructive evaluation method to identify the existence, location, and severity of damage for structural systems. The method utilizes the concept of invariant stress resultants (ISR. The basic concept of ISR is that at any given cross section the resultant internal force distribution in a structural member is not affected by the inflicted damage. The method utilizes dynamic analysis of the structure to simulate direct measurements of acceleration, velocity and displacement simultaneously. The proposed dynamic ISR method is developed and utilized to detect the damage of corresponding changes in mass, damping and stiffness. The objectives of this research are to develop the basic theory of the dynamic ISR method, apply it to the specific types of structures, and verify the accuracy of the developed theory. Numerical results that demonstrate the application of the method will reflect the advanced sensitivity and accuracy in characterizing multiple damage locations.

  3. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Example results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described in the first part of this presentation: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. In this, the second and concluding part of the presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  4. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  5. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  6. [Adverse events management. Methods and results of a development project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Jensen, Elisabeth Brøgger; Hellebek, Annemarie H; Pedersen, Beth Lilja

    2006-11-27

    This article describes the methods and results of a project in the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (H:S) on preventing adverse events. The aim of the project was to raise awareness about patients' safety, test a reporting system for adverse events, develop and test methods of analysis of events and propagate ideas about how to prevent adverse events. H:S developed an action plan and a reporting system for adverse events, founded an organization and developed an educational program on theories and methods of learning from adverse events for both leaders and employees. During the three-year period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2004, the H:S staff reported 6011 adverse events. In the same period, the organization completed 92 root cause analyses. More than half of these dealt with events that had been optional to report, the other half events that had been mandatory to report. The number of reports and the front-line staff's attitude towards reporting shows that the H:S succeeded in founding a safety culture. Future work should be centred on developing and testing methods that will prevent adverse events from happening. The objective is to suggest and complete preventive initiatives which will help increase patient safety.

  7. How typical are 'typical' tremor characteristics? : Sensitivity and specificity of five tremor phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Elting, J. W.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; van Laar, T.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. Aj.

    Introduction: Distinguishing between different tremor disorders can be challenging. Some tremor disorders are thought to have typical tremor characteristics: the current study aims to provide sensitivity and specificity for five 'typical' tremor phenomena. Methods: Retrospectively, we examined 210

  8. Processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkovich, O.I.; Suleimanov, N.I.; Tokhtasjev, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed

  9. Method of vacuum correlation functions: Results and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalian, A. M.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2006-01-01

    Basic results obtained within the QCD method of vacuum correlation functions over the past 20 years in the context of investigations into strong-interaction physics at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) are formulated Emphasis is placed primarily on the prospects of the general theory developed within QCD by employing both nonperturbative and perturbative methods. On the basis of ab initio arguments, it is shown that the lowest two field correlation functions play a dominant role in QCD dynamics. A quantitative theory of confinement and deconfinement, as well as of the spectra of light and heavy quarkonia, glueballs, and hybrids, is given in terms of these two correlation functions. Perturbation theory in a nonperturbative vacuum (background perturbation theory) plays a significant role, not possessing drawbacks of conventional perturbation theory and leading to the infrared freezing of the coupling constant α s

  10. Application of NUREG-1150 methods and results to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Sype, T.; Camp, A.; Maloney, K.

    1991-01-01

    The use of NUREG-1150 and similar probabilistic risk assessments in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and industry risk management programs is discussed. Risk management is more comprehensive than the commonly used term accident management. Accident management includes strategies to prevent vessel breach, mitigate radionuclide releases from the reactor coolant system, and mitigate radionuclide releases to the environment. Risk management also addresses prevention of accident initiators, prevention of core damage, and implementation of effective emergency response procedures. The methods and results produced in NUREG-1150 provide a framework within which current risk management strategies can be evaluated, and future risk management programs can be developed and assessed. Examples of the use of the NUREG-1150 framework for identifying and evaluating risk management options are presented. All phases of risk management are discussed, with particular attention given to the early phases of accidents. Plans and methods for evaluating accident management strategies that have been identified in the NRC accident management program are discussed

  11. Application of NUREG-1150 methods and results to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Sype, T.; Camp, A.; Maloney, K.

    1990-01-01

    The use of NUREG-1150 and similar Probabilistic Risk Assessments in NRC and industry risk management programs is discussed. ''Risk management'' is more comprehensive than the commonly used term ''accident management.'' Accident management includes strategies to prevent vessel breach, mitigate radionuclide releases from the reactor coolant system, and mitigate radionuclide releases to the environment. Risk management also addresses prevention of accident initiators, prevention of core damage, and implementation of effective emergency response procedures. The methods and results produced in NUREG-1150 provide a framework within which current risk management strategies can be evaluated, and future risk management programs can be developed and assessed. Examples of the use of the NUREG-1150 framework for identifying and evaluating risk management options are presented. All phases of risk management are discussed, with particular attention given to the early phases of accidents. Plans and methods for evaluating accident management strategies that have been identified in the NRC accident management program are discussed. 2 refs., 3 figs

  12. PALEOEARTHQUAKES IN THE PRIBAIKALIE: METHODS AND RESULTS OF DATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg P. Smekalin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Pribaikalie and adjacent territories, seismogeological studies have been underway for almost a half of the century and resulted in discovery of more than 70 dislocations of seismic or presumably seismic origin. With commencement of paleoseismic studies, dating of paleo-earthquakes was focused on as an indicator useful for long-term prediction of strong earthquakes. V.P. Solonenko [Solonenko, 1977] distinguished five methods for dating paleoseismogenic deformations, i.e. geological, engineering geological, historico-archeological, dendrochronological and radiocarbon methods. However, ages of the majority of seismic deformations, which were subject to studies at the initial stage of development of seismogeology in Siberia, were defined by methods of relative or correlation age determination.Since the 1980s, studies of seismogenic deformation in the Pribaikalie have been widely conducted with trenching. Mass sampling, followed with radiocarbon analyses and definition of absolute ages of paleo-earthquakes, provided new data on seismic regimes of the territory and rates of and recent displacements along active faults, and enhanced validity of methods of relative dating, in particular morphometry. Capacities of the morphometry method has significantly increased with introduction of laser techniques in surveys and digital processing of 3D relief models.Comprehensive seismogeological studies conducted in the Pribaikalie revealed 43 paleo-events within 16 seismogenic structures. Absolute ages of 18 paleo-events were defined by the radiocarbon age determination method. Judging by their ages, a number of dislocations were related with historical earthquakes which occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries, yet any reliable data on epicenters of such events are not available. The absolute and relative dating methods allowed us to identify sections in some paleoseismogenic structures by differences in ages of activation and thus provided new data for

  13. Performance of various mathematical methods for calculation of radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandel, P.; Vogt, W.

    1977-01-01

    Interpolation and regression methods are available for computer aided determination of radioimmunological end results. We compared the performance of eight algorithms (weighted and unweighted linear logit-log regression, quadratic logit-log regression, Rodbards logistic model in the weighted and unweighted form, smoothing spline interpolation with a large and small smoothing factor and polygonal interpolation) on the basis of three radioimmunoassays with different reference curve characteristics (digoxin, estriol, human chorionic somatomammotropin = HCS). Great store was set by the accuracy of the approximation at the intermediate points on the curve, ie. those points that lie midway between two standard concentrations. These concentrations were obtained by weighing and inserted as unknown samples. In the case of digoxin and estriol the polygonal interpolation provided the best results while the weighted logit-log regression proved superior in the case of HCS. (orig.) [de

  14. Short overview of PSA quantification methods, pitfalls on the road from approximate to exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banov, Reni; Simic, Zdenko; Sterc, Davor

    2014-01-01

    Over time the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models have become an invaluable companion in the identification and understanding of key nuclear power plant (NPP) vulnerabilities. PSA is an effective tool for this purpose as it assists plant management to target resources where the largest benefit for plant safety can be obtained. PSA has quickly become an established technique to numerically quantify risk measures in nuclear power plants. As complexity of PSA models increases, the computational approaches become more or less feasible. The various computational approaches can be basically classified in two major groups: approximate and exact (BDD based) methods. In recent time modern commercially available PSA tools started to provide both methods for PSA model quantification. Besides availability of both methods in proven PSA tools the usage must still be taken carefully since there are many pitfalls which can drive to wrong conclusions and prevent efficient usage of PSA tool. For example, typical pitfalls involve the usage of higher precision approximation methods and getting a less precise result, or mixing minimal cuts and prime implicants in the exact computation method. The exact methods are sensitive to selected computational paths in which case a simple human assisted rearrangement may help and even switch from computationally non-feasible to feasible methods. Further improvements to exact method are possible and desirable which opens space for a new research. In this paper we will show how these pitfalls may be detected and how carefully actions must be done especially when working with large PSA models. (authors)

  15. Methodics of computing the results of monitoring the exploratory gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krúpa Víazoslav

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available At building site of motorway tunnel Višòové-Dubná skala , the priority is given to driving of exploration galley that secures in detail: geologic, engineering geology, hydrogeology and geotechnics research. This research is based on gathering information for a supposed use of the full profile driving machine that would drive the motorway tunnel. From a part of the exploration gallery which is driven by the TBM method, a fulfilling information is gathered about the parameters of the driving process , those are gathered by a computer monitoring system. The system is mounted on a driving machine. This monitoring system is based on the industrial computer PC 104. It records 4 basic values of the driving process: the electromotor performance of the driving machine Voest-Alpine ATB 35HA, the speed of driving advance, the rotation speed of the disintegrating head TBM and the total head pressure. The pressure force is evaluated from the pressure in the hydraulic cylinders of the machine. Out of these values, the strength of rock mass, the angle of inner friction, etc. are mathematically calculated. These values characterize rock mass properties as their changes. To define the effectivity of the driving process, the value of specific energy and the working ability of driving head is used. The article defines the methodics of computing the gathered monitoring information, that is prepared for the driving machine Voest – Alpine ATB 35H at the Institute of Geotechnics SAS. It describes the input forms (protocols of the developed method created by an EXCEL program and shows selected samples of the graphical elaboration of the first monitoring results obtained from exploratory gallery driving process in the Višòové – Dubná skala motorway tunnel.

  16. Excluding the typical patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Weinhandl, Eric; Mancebo, Maria C

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, clinical trials have resulted in several successful pharmacotherapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet patients in clinical settings often report inadequate response. This study compares clinical characteristics of treatment-seeking OCD patients to the inclusion...

  17. Radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone. Methods - Results - Indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonon-Estrangin, Chantal.

    1978-10-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the radioimmunological determination of plasma progesterone carried out at the hormonology Laboratory of the Grenoble University Hospital Centre (Professor E. Chambaz), to compare our results with those of the literature and to present the main clinical indications of this analysis. The measurement method has proved reproducible, specific (the steroid purification stage is unnecessary) and sensitive (detection: 10 picograms of progesterone per tube). In seven normally menstruating women our results agree with published values: (in nanograms per millilitre: ng/ml) 0.07 ng/ml to 0.9 ng/ml in the follicular phase, from the start of menstruation until ovulation, then rapid increase at ovulation with a maximum in the middle of the luteal phase (our values for this maximum range from 7.9 ng/ml to 21.7 ng/ml) and gradual drop in progesterone secretion until the next menstrual period. In gynecology the radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone is valuable for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes: - to diagnosis the absence of corpus luteum, - to judge the effectiveness of an ovulation induction treatment [fr

  18. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  19. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  20. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2016-01-01

    A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance with the a......A common problem with Chinese district heating systems is that they supply more heat than the actual heat demand. The reason for this excess heat supply is the general failure to use control devices to adjust the indoor temperature and flow in the building heating systems in accordance...... with the actual heat demand. This results in 15-30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance...... that once the hydraulic balance is achieved and indoor temperatures are controlled with this integrated approach, 17% heat savings and 42.8% pump electricity savings can be achieved. The energy savings will also have a positive environmental effect with seasonal reductions of 11 kg CO2, 0.1 kg SO2, and 0...

  1. A novel method for assessing elbow pain resulting from epicondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorn, Bradley S.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe a novel orthopedic test (Polk's test) which can assist the clinician in differentiating between me- dial and lateral epicondylitis, 2 of the most common causes of elbow pain. This test has not been previously described in the literature. Clinical Features The testing procedure described in this paper is easy to learn, simple to perform and may provide the clinician with a quick and effective method of differentiating between lateral and medial epicondylitis. The test also helps to elucidate normal activities of daily living that the patient may unknowingly be performing on a repetitive basis that are hindering recovery. The results of this simple test allow the clinician to make immediate lifestyle recommendations to the patient that should improve and hasten the response to subsequent treatment. It may be used in conjunction with other orthopedic testing procedures, as it correlates well with other clinical tests for assessing epicondylitis. Conclusion The use of Polk's Test may help the clinician to diagnostically differentiate between lateral and medial epicondylitis, as well as supply information relative to choosing proper instructions for the patient to follow as part of their treatment program. Further research, performed in an academic setting, should prove helpful in more thoroughly evaluating the merits of this test. In the meantime, clinical experience over the years suggests that the practicing physician should find a great deal of clinical utility in utilizing this simple, yet effective, diagnostic procedure. PMID:19674572

  2. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  3. The review and results of different methods for facial recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yifan

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, facial recognition draws much attention due to its wide potential applications. As a unique technology in Biometric Identification, facial recognition represents a significant improvement since it could be operated without cooperation of people under detection. Hence, facial recognition will be taken into defense system, medical detection, human behavior understanding, etc. Several theories and methods have been established to make progress in facial recognition: (1) A novel two-stage facial landmark localization method is proposed which has more accurate facial localization effect under specific database; (2) A statistical face frontalization method is proposed which outperforms state-of-the-art methods for face landmark localization; (3) It proposes a general facial landmark detection algorithm to handle images with severe occlusion and images with large head poses; (4) There are three methods proposed on Face Alignment including shape augmented regression method, pose-indexed based multi-view method and a learning based method via regressing local binary features. The aim of this paper is to analyze previous work of different aspects in facial recognition, focusing on concrete method and performance under various databases. In addition, some improvement measures and suggestions in potential applications will be put forward.

  4. Resource costing for multinational neurologic clinical trials: methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, K; Burke, J; Drummond, M; Davies, L; Carlsson, P; Gruger, J; Harris, A; Lucioni, C; Gisbert, R; Llana, T; Tom, E; Bloom, B; Willke, R; Glick, H

    1998-11-01

    We present the results of a multinational resource costing study for a prospective economic evaluation of a new medical technology for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage within a clinical trial. The study describes a framework for the collection and analysis of international resource cost data that can contribute to a consistent and accurate intercountry estimation of cost. Of the 15 countries that participated in the clinical trial, we collected cost information in the following seven: Australia, France, Germany, the UK, Italy, Spain, and Sweden. The collection of cost data in these countries was structured through the use of worksheets to provide accurate and efficient cost reporting. We converted total average costs to average variable costs and then aggregated the data to develop study unit costs. When unit costs were unavailable, we developed an index table, based on a market-basket approach, to estimate unit costs. To estimate the cost of a given procedure, the market-basket estimation process required that cost information be available for at least one country. When cost information was unavailable in all countries for a given procedure, we estimated costs using a method based on physician-work and practice-expense resource-based relative value units. Finally, we converted study unit costs to a common currency using purchasing power parity measures. Through this costing exercise we developed a set of unit costs for patient services and per diem hospital services. We conclude by discussing the implications of our costing exercise and suggest guidelines to facilitate more effective multinational costing exercises.

  5. Results and current trends of nuclear methods used in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The significance is evaluated of nuclear methods for agricultural research. The number of breeds induced by radiation mutations is increasing. The main importance of radiation mutation breeding consists in obtaining sources of the desired genetic properties for further hybridization. Radiostimulation is conducted with the aim of increasing yields. The irradiation of foods has not substantially increased worldwide. Very important is the irradiation of excrements and sludges which after such inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms may be used as humus-forming manure or as feed additives. In some countries the method is successfully being used of sexual sterilization for eradication of insect pests. The application of labelled compounds in the nutrition, physiology and protection of plants, farm animals and in food hygiene makes it possible to acquire new and accurate knowledge very quickly. Radioimmunoassay is a highly promising method in this respect. Labelling compounds with the stable 15 N isotope is used for the research of nitrogen metabolism. (M.D.)

  6. Results from the Application of Uncertainty Methods in the CSNI Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, H.

    2008-01-01

    Within licensing procedures there is the incentive to replace the conservative requirements for code application by a - best estimate - concept supplemented by an uncertainty analysis to account for predictive uncertainties of code results. Methods have been developed to quantify these uncertainties. The Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS) Group, following a mandate from CSNI, has compared five methods for calculating the uncertainty in the predictions of advanced -best estimate- thermal-hydraulic codes. Most of the methods identify and combine input uncertainties. The major differences between the predictions of the methods came from the choice of uncertain parameters and the quantification of the input uncertainties, i.e. the wideness of the uncertainty ranges. Therefore, suitable experimental and analytical information has to be selected to specify these uncertainty ranges or distributions. After the closure of the Uncertainty Method Study (UMS) and after the report was issued comparison calculations of experiment LSTF-SB-CL-18 were performed by University of Pisa using different versions of the RELAP 5 code. It turned out that the version used by two of the participants calculated a 170 K higher peak clad temperature compared with other versions using the same input deck. This may contribute to the differences of the upper limit of the uncertainty ranges.

  7. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation to assess the effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired), ceramics. Objective is to obtain useful information on defects, cracking, delaminations, agglomerates, inclusions, regions of high porosity, and anisotropy

  8. Model films of cellulose. I. Method development and initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnars, S.; Wågberg, L.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new method for the preparation of thin cellulose films. NMMO (N- methylmorpholine- N-oxide) was used to dissolve cellulose and addition of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used to control viscosity of the cellulose solution. A thin layer of the cellulose solution is spin- coated

  9. Viscous wing theory development. Volume 1: Analysis, method and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, R. R.; Melnik, R. E.; Marconi, F.; Steinhoff, J.

    1986-01-01

    Viscous transonic flows at large Reynolds numbers over 3-D wings were analyzed using a zonal viscid-inviscid interaction approach. A new numerical AFZ scheme was developed in conjunction with the finite volume formulation for the solution of the inviscid full-potential equation. A special far-field asymptotic boundary condition was developed and a second-order artificial viscosity included for an improved inviscid solution methodology. The integral method was used for the laminar/turbulent boundary layer and 3-D viscous wake calculation. The interaction calculation included the coupling conditions of the source flux due to the wing surface boundary layer, the flux jump due to the viscous wake, and the wake curvature effect. A method was also devised incorporating the 2-D trailing edge strong interaction solution for the normal pressure correction near the trailing edge region. A fully automated computer program was developed to perform the proposed method with one scalar version to be used on an IBM-3081 and two vectorized versions on Cray-1 and Cyber-205 computers.

  10. Algorithms for monitoring warfarin use: Results from Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Eunice Kazue; Borges, Jessica Bassani; Scomparini, Erika Burim; Curi, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Eliane

    2017-10-01

    Warfarin stands as the most prescribed oral anticoagulant. New oral anticoagulants have been approved recently; however, their use is limited and the reversibility techniques of the anticoagulation effect are little known. Thus, our study's purpose was to develop algorithms for therapeutic monitoring of patients taking warfarin based on the opinion of physicians who prescribe this medicine in their clinical practice. The development of the algorithm was performed in two stages, namely: (i) literature review and (ii) algorithm evaluation by physicians using a Delphi Method. Based on the articles analyzed, two algorithms were developed: "Recommendations for the use of warfarin in anticoagulation therapy" and "Recommendations for the use of warfarin in anticoagulation therapy: dose adjustment and bleeding control." Later, these algorithms were analyzed by 19 medical doctors that responded to the invitation and agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 16 responded to the first round, 11 to the second and eight to the third round. A 70% consensus or higher was reached for most issues and at least 50% for six questions. We were able to develop algorithms to monitor the use of warfarin by physicians using a Delphi Method. The proposed method is inexpensive and involves the participation of specialists, and it has proved adequate for the intended purpose. Further studies are needed to validate these algorithms, enabling them to be used in clinical practice.

  11. Further results for crack-edge mappings by ray methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, A.N.; Achenbach, J.D.; Ahlberg, L.; Tittman, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses further extensions of the local edge mapping method to the pulse-echo case and to configurations of water-immersed specimens and transducers. Crack edges are mapped by the use of arrival times of edge-diffracted signals. Topics considered include local edge mapping in a homogeneous medium, local edge mapping algorithms, local edge mapping through an interface, and edge mapping through an interface using synthetic data. Local edge mapping is iterative, with two or three iterations required for convergence

  12. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Kool, Lawrence B.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  13. The Accident Sequence Precursor program: Methods improvements and current results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minarick, J.W.; Manning, F.M.; Harris, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in the US NRC Accident Sequence Precursor program methods since the initial program evaluations of 1969-81 operational events are described, along with insights from the review of 1984-85 events. For 1984-85, the number of significant precursors was consistent with the number observed in 1980-81, dominant sequences associated with significant events were reasonably consistent with PRA estimates for BWRs, but lacked the contribution due to small-break LOCAs previously observed and predicted in PWRs, and the frequency of initiating events and non-recoverable system failures exhibited some reduction compared to 1980-81. Operational events which provide information concerning additional PRA modeling needs are also described

  14. Use of results from microscopic methods in optical model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, C.

    1985-11-01

    A concept of vectorization for coupled-channel programs based upon conventional methods is first presented. This has been implanted in our program for its use on the CRAY-1 computer. In a second part we investigate the capabilities of a semi-microscopic optical model involving fewer adjustable parameters than phenomenological ones. The two main ingredients of our calculations are, for spherical or well-deformed nuclei, the microscopic optical-model calculations of Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux and nuclear densities from Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the density-dependent force D1. For transitional nuclei deformation-dependent nuclear structure wave functions are employed to weigh the scattering potentials for different shapes and channels [fr

  15. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    phantom in terms of Hounsfield unit and high-contrast resolution. For the validation of the lesion realism, lesions of various types were successfully inserted, including well circumscribed and invasive lesions, homogeneous and heterogeneous lesions, high-contrast and low-contrast lesions, isolated and vessel-attached lesions, and small and large lesions. The two experienced radiologists who reviewed the original and inserted lesions could not identify the lesions that were inserted. The same lesion, when inserted into the projection domain and reconstructed with different parameters, demonstrated a parameter-dependent appearance. A framework has been developed for projection-domain insertion of lesions into commercial CT images, which can be potentially expanded to all geometries of CT scanners. Compared to conventional image-domain methods, the authors' method reflected the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance. Compared to prior projection-domain methods, the authors' method has the potential to achieve higher anatomical complexity by employing clinical patient projections and real patient lesions.

  16. Assessment of South African uranium resources: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.; De Klerk, W.J.; Van der Merwe, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals primarily with the methods used by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, in arriving at the assessment of the South African uranium resources. The Resource Evaluation Group is responsible for this task, which is carried out on a continuous basis. The evaluation is done on a property-by-property basis and relies upon data submitted to the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa by the various companies involved in uranium mining and prospecting in South Africa. Resources are classified into Reasonably Assured (RAR), Estimated Additional (EAR) and Speculative (SR) categories as defined by the NEA/IAEA Steering Group on Uranium Resources. Each category is divided into three categories, viz, resources exploitable at less than $80/kg uranium, at $80-130/kg uranium and at $130-260/kg uranium. Resources are reported in quantities of uranium metal that could be recovered after mining and metallurgical losses have been taken into consideration. Resources in the RAR and EAR categories exploitable at costs of less than $130/kg uranium are now estimated at 460 000 t uranium which represents some 14 per cent of WOCA's (World Outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area) resources. The evaluation of a uranium venture is carried out in various steps, of which the most important, in order of implementation, are: geological interpretation, assessment of in situ resources using techniques varying from manual contouring of values, geostatistics, feasibility studies and estimation of recoverable resources. Because the choice of an evaluation method is, to some extent, dictated by statistical consderations, frequency distribution curves of the uranium grade variable are illustrated and discussed for characteristic deposits

  17. UV spectroscopy applied to stratospheric chemistry, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, K.

    1996-03-01

    The publication from the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) deals with an investigation done on stratospheric chemistry by UV spectroscopy. The scientific goals are briefly discussed, and it gives the results from the measuring and analysing techniques used in the investigation. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Creep in rock salt with temperature. Testing methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, J.P.; Berest, P.

    1985-01-01

    The growing interest shown in the delayed behaviour of rocks at elevated temperature has led the Solid Mechanics Laboratory to develop specific equipment designed for creep tests. The design and dimensioning of these units offer the possibility of investigating a wide range of materials. The article describes the test facilities used (uni-axial and tri-axial creep units) and presents the experimental results obtained on samples of Bresse salt [fr

  19. TMI-2 core debris analytical methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Cook, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    A series of six grab samples was taken from the debris bed of the TMI-2 core in early September 1983. Five of these samples were sent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for analysis. Presented is the analysis strategy for the samples and some of the data obtained from the early stages of examination of the samples (i.e., particle size-analysis, gamma spectrometry results, and fissile/fertile material analysis)

  20. Studies of LMFBR: method of analysis and some results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do.

    1983-01-01

    Some results of recent studies of LMFBR characteristics are summarized. A two-dimensional model of the LMFBR is taken from a publication and used as the base model for the analysis. Axial structures are added to the base model and a three-dimensional (Δ - Z) calculation has been done. Two dimensional (Δ and RZ) calculations are compared with the three-dimensional and published results. The eigenvalue, flux and power distributions, breeding characteristics, control rod worth, sodium-void and Doppler reactivities are analysed. Calculations are done by CITATION using six-group cross sections collapsed regionwise by EXPANDA in one-dimensional geometries from the 70-group JFS library. Burnup calculations of a simplified thorium-cycle LMFBR have also been done in the RZ geometry. Principal results of the studies are: (1) the JFS library appears adequate for predicting overall characteristics of an LMFBR, (2) the sodium void reactivity is negative within - 25 cm from the outer boundary of the core, (3) the halflife of Pa-233 must be considered explicitly in burnup analyses, and (4) two-dimensional (RZ and Δ) calculations can be used iteratively to analyze three-dimensional reactor systems. (Author) [pt

  1. Methods and results of radiotherapy in case of medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, M.; Sauerwein, W.; Scherer, E.

    1982-01-01

    The prognosis of the medulloblastoma with its marked tendency towards early formation of metastases by way of liquor circulation can be decisively improved by post-surgical homogenous irradiation. A successful radiotherapy is only possible by means of new irradiation methods which have been developed for high-voltage units during recent years and which require great experience and skill on the part of the radiotherapeutist. At the Radiological Centre of Essen, 26 patients with medulloblastoma have been submitted to such a specially developed post-surgical radiotherapy since 1974. After a follow-up period of at most seven years, 16 patients have survived (two of them with recurrences) and 10 patients died because of a local recurrence. In dependence on the patient's state of health after surgery and before irradiation, the neurologic state and physical condition of these patients seem favorable after unique post-operative radiotherapy. New therapeutic possibilities are provided by radiosensitizing substances. The actually most effective radiosensitizer Misonidazol, however, could not respond hitherto to clinical expectances. (orig.) [de

  2. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, unclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography was assessed for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired) ceramics. The application of microradiography to ceramics is reviewed, and preliminary experiments with a commercial microradiography unit are described. Conventional ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply to flaw detection green ceramics because of the high attenuation, fragility, and couplant-absorbing properties of these materials. However, velocity, attenuation, and spectral data were obtained with pressure-coupled transducers and provided useful informaion related to density variations and the presence of agglomerates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques and neutron radiography were considered for detection of anomalies in the distribution of porosity. With NMR, areas of high porosity might be detected after the samples are doped with water. In the case of neutron radiography, although imaging the binder distribution throughout the sample may not be feasible because of the low overall concentration of binder, regions of high binder concentration (thus high porosity) should be detectable

  3. New test methods for BIPV. Results from IP performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jol, J.C.; Van Kampen, B.J.M.; De Boer, B.J.; Reil, F.; Geyer, D.

    2009-11-01

    Within the Performance project new test procedures for PV building products and the building performance as a whole when PV is applied in buildings have been drafted. It has resulted in a first draft of new test procedures for PV building products and proposals for tests for novel BIPV technology like thin film. The test proposed are a module breakage test for BIPV products, a fire safety test for BIPV products and a dynamic load test for BIPV products. Furthermore first proposals of how flexible PV modules could be tested in an appropriate way to ensure long time quality and safety of these new products are presented.

  4. A method of estimating conceptus doses resulting from multidetector CT examinations during all stages of gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damilakis, John; Tzedakis, Antonis; Perisinakis, Kostas; Papadakis, Antonios E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Current methods for the estimation of conceptus dose from multidetector CT (MDCT) examinations performed on the mother provide dose data for typical protocols with a fixed scan length. However, modified low-dose imaging protocols are frequently used during pregnancy. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for the estimation of conceptus dose from any MDCT examination of the trunk performed during all stages of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study to model the Siemens Sensation 16 and Sensation 64 MDCT scanners. Four mathematical phantoms were used, simulating women at 0, 3, 6, and 9 months of gestation. The contribution to the conceptus dose from single simulated scans was obtained at various positions across the phantoms. To investigate the effect of maternal body size and conceptus depth on conceptus dose, phantoms of different sizes were produced by adding layers of adipose tissue around the trunk of the mathematical phantoms. To verify MCNP results, conceptus dose measurements were carried out by means of three physical anthropomorphic phantoms, simulating pregnancy at 0, 3, and 6 months of gestation and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) crystals. Results: The results consist of Monte Carlo-generated normalized conceptus dose coefficients for single scans across the four mathematical phantoms. These coefficients were defined as the conceptus dose contribution from a single scan divided by the CTDI free-in-air measured with identical scanning parameters. Data have been produced to take into account the effect of maternal body size and conceptus position variations on conceptus dose. Conceptus doses measured with TLD crystals showed a difference of up to 19% compared to those estimated by mathematical simulations. Conclusions: Estimation of conceptus doses from MDCT examinations of the trunk performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be made

  5. Diamagnetic measurements on ISX-B: method and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.

    1983-10-01

    A diamagnetic loop is used on the ISX-B tokamak to measure the change in toroidal magnetic flux, sigma phi, caused by finite plasma current and perpendicular pressure. From this measurement, the perpendicular poloidal beta β/sub I perpendicular to/ is determined. The principal difficulty encountered is in identifying and making corrections for various noise components which appear in the measured flux. These result from coupling between the measuring loops and the toroidal and poloidal field windings, both directly and through currents induced in the vacuum vessel and coils themselves. An analysis of these couplings is made and techniques for correcting them developed. Results from the diamagnetic measurement, employing some of these correction techniques, are presented and compared with other data. The obtained values of β/sub I perpendicular to/ agree with those obtained from the equilibrium magnetic analysis (β/sub IΔ/) in ohmically heated plasmas, indicating no anisotropy. However, with 0.3 to 2.0 MW of tangential neutral beam injection, β/sub IΔ/ is consistently greater than β/sub I pependicular to/ and qualitatively consistent with the formation of an anisotropic ion velocity distribution and with toroidal rotation. Quantitatively, the difference between β/sub IΔ/ and β/sub I perpendicular to/ is more than can be accounted for on the basis of the usual classical fast ion calculations and spectroscopic rotation measurements

  6. [Integrated intensive treatment of tinnitus: method and initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, B; Georgiewa, P; Seydel, C; Haupt, H; Scherer, H; Klapp, B F; Reisshauer, A

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, no major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of tinnitus. Hence, the present therapeutic strategies aim at decoupling the subconscious from the perception of tinnitus. Mindful of the lessons drawn from existing tinnitus retraining and desensitisation therapies, a new integrated day hospital strategy of treatment lasting 7-14 days has been developed at the Charité Hospital and is presented in the present paper. The strategy for treating tinnitus in the proximity of patient domicile is designed for patients who feel disturbed in their world of perception and their efficiency due to tinnitus and give evidence of mental and physical strain. In view of the etiologically non-uniform and multiple events connected with tinnitus, consideration was also given to the fact that somatic and psychosocial factors are equally involved. Therefore, therapy should aim at diagnosing and therapeutically influencing those psychosocial factors that reduce the hearing impression to such an extent that the affected persons suffer from strain. The first results of therapy-dependent changes of 46 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus are presented. The data were evaluated before and after 7 days of treatment and 6 months after the end of treatment. Immediately after the treatment, the scores of both the tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller) and the subscales improved significantly. These results were maintained during the 6-month post-treatment period and even improved.

  7. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  8. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroama, Vlad C.; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices

  9. Ilmenite exploration on the Senegal continental shelf. Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, R.; Le Lann, F.; Scolari, G.; Tixeront, M.

    1975-01-01

    From the results of a study based on geomorphology, geophysics and sedimentology, it has been possible to point out, South of Dakar, the existence of a fossil lagoon (peat dated 8400 years BP) partly isolated from the open sea by a littoral sand bar at -25m and strongly eroded. To the North of Dakar, the unconsolidated sediments, with a thickness over 40m, are thinning out seawards and from North of Dakar, the unconsolidated sediments, with a thickness over 40m, are thinning out seawards and from North to South. This pattern reflect the action of the longshore current which overstates the drainage effect to the Cayar canyon. The distribution of ilmenites in the sediments is studied in terms of a possible exploitation however, the grades are too low in the present economic conditions [fr

  10. Climate Action Gaming Experiment: Methods and Example Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Singer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An exercise has been prepared and executed to simulate international interactions on policies related to greenhouse gases and global albedo management. Simulation participants are each assigned one of six regions that together contain all of the countries in the world. Participants make quinquennial policy decisions on greenhouse gas emissions, recapture of CO2 from the atmosphere, and/or modification of the global albedo. Costs of climate change and of implementing policy decisions impact each region’s gross domestic product. Participants are tasked with maximizing economic benefits to their region while nearly stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by the end of the simulation in Julian year 2195. Results are shown where regions most adversely affected by effects of greenhouse gas emissions resort to increases in the earth’s albedo to reduce net solar insolation. These actions induce temperate region countries to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. An example outcome is a trajectory to the year 2195 of atmospheric greenhouse emissions and concentrations, sea level, and global average temperature.

  11. Remote Determination of Cloud Temperature and Transmittance from Spectral Radiance Measurements: Method and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    atmospherics temperatura and humidity profiles. Validation tests performed on experimental spectra demonstrate the occuracy of the method with typical...indicated as with the title.) Passive Remota Sensing Infrared Spectra Cloud Temperatura Cloud Transmittance FTIR Spectrometer Icing Hazard Detection (DCD03E.IFO - 95.02.22) UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF FORM

  12. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H 2 gas fraction (f H 2 ), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A O = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f H 2 can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A O -D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A O is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H 2 and stellar masses and higher f H 2 . Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z

  13. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DUST IN GALAXIES: METHODS AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the redshift (z) evolution of dust mass and abundance, their dependences on initial conditions of galaxy formation, and physical correlations between dust, gas, and stellar contents at different z based on our original chemodynamical simulations of galaxy formation with dust growth and destruction. In this preliminary investigation, we first determine the reasonable ranges of the most important two parameters for dust evolution, i.e., the timescales of dust growth and destruction, by comparing the observed and simulated dust mass and abundances and molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) content of the Galaxy. We then investigate the z-evolution of dust-to-gas ratios (D), H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}}), and gas-phase chemical abundances (e.g., A {sub O} = 12 + log (O/H)) in the simulated disk and dwarf galaxies. The principal results are as follows. Both D and f{sub H{sub 2}} can rapidly increase during the early dissipative formation of galactic disks (z ∼ 2-3), and the z-evolution of these depends on initial mass densities, spin parameters, and masses of galaxies. The observed A {sub O}-D relation can be qualitatively reproduced, but the simulated dispersion of D at a given A {sub O} is smaller. The simulated galaxies with larger total dust masses show larger H{sub 2} and stellar masses and higher f{sub H{sub 2}}. Disk galaxies show negative radial gradients of D and the gradients are steeper for more massive galaxies. The observed evolution of dust masses and dust-to-stellar-mass ratios between z = 0 and 0.4 cannot be reproduced so well by the simulated disks. Very extended dusty gaseous halos can be formed during hierarchical buildup of disk galaxies. Dust-to-metal ratios (i.e., dust-depletion levels) are different within a single galaxy and between different galaxies at different z.

  14. A method for calculating Bayesian uncertainties on internal doses resulting from complex occupational exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puncher, M.; Birchall, A.; Bull, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Estimating uncertainties on doses from bioassay data is of interest in epidemiology studies that estimate cancer risk from occupational exposures to radionuclides. Bayesian methods provide a logical framework to calculate these uncertainties. However, occupational exposures often consist of many intakes, and this can make the Bayesian calculation computationally intractable. This paper describes a novel strategy for increasing the computational speed of the calculation by simplifying the intake pattern to a single composite intake, termed as complex intake regime (CIR). In order to assess whether this approximation is accurate and fast enough for practical purposes, the method is implemented by the Weighted Likelihood Monte Carlo Sampling (WeLMoS) method and evaluated by comparing its performance with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The MCMC method gives the full solution (all intakes are independent), but is very computationally intensive to apply routinely. Posterior distributions of model parameter values, intakes and doses are calculated for a representative sample of plutonium workers from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy cohort using the WeLMoS method with the CIR and the MCMC method. The distributions are in good agreement: posterior means and Q 0.025 and Q 0.975 quantiles are typically within 20 %. Furthermore, the WeLMoS method using the CIR converges quickly: a typical case history takes around 10-20 min on a fast workstation, whereas the MCMC method took around 12-hr. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. (authors)

  15. Automatically classifying sentences in full-text biomedical articles into Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2009-12-01

    Biomedical texts can be typically represented by four rhetorical categories: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRAD). Classifying sentences into these categories can benefit many other text-mining tasks. Although many studies have applied different approaches for automatically classifying sentences in MEDLINE abstracts into the IMRAD categories, few have explored the classification of sentences that appear in full-text biomedical articles. We first evaluated whether sentences in full-text biomedical articles could be reliably annotated into the IMRAD format and then explored different approaches for automatically classifying these sentences into the IMRAD categories. Our results show an overall annotation agreement of 82.14% with a Kappa score of 0.756. The best classification system is a multinomial naïve Bayes classifier trained on manually annotated data that achieved 91.95% accuracy and an average F-score of 91.55%, which is significantly higher than baseline systems. A web version of this system is available online at-http://wood.ims.uwm.edu/full_text_classifier/.

  16. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios. (paper)

  17. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  18. Multiband discrete ordinates method: formalism and results; Methode multibande aux ordonnees discretes: formalisme et resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luneville, L

    1998-06-01

    The multigroup discrete ordinates method is a classical way to solve transport equation (Boltzmann) for neutral particles. Self-shielding effects are not correctly treated due to large variations of cross sections in a group (in the resonance range). To treat the resonance domain, the multiband method is introduced. The main idea is to divide the cross section domain into bands. We obtain the multiband parameters using the moment method; the code CALENDF provides probability tables for these parameters. We present our implementation in an existing discrete ordinates code: SN1D. We study deep penetration benchmarks and show the improvement of the method in the treatment of self-shielding effects. (author) 15 refs.

  19. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  20. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  1. Interval estimation methods of the mean in small sample situation and the results' comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changli; Guo Chunying; Jiang Meng; Lin Yuangen

    2009-01-01

    The methods of the sample mean's interval estimation, namely the classical method, the Bootstrap method, the Bayesian Bootstrap method, the Jackknife method and the spread method of the Empirical Characteristic distribution function are described. Numerical calculation on the samples' mean intervals is carried out where the numbers of the samples are 4, 5, 6 respectively. The results indicate the Bootstrap method and the Bayesian Bootstrap method are much more appropriate than others in small sample situation. (authors)

  2. PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and col- leagues in the 90?s play a central role in nonmonotonic reasoning [13, 14]. This has been the case due to at least three main reasons. Firstly, they are based on semantic constructions that are elegant...) j ; 6j : ^ j PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic 3 The semantics of (propositional) rational consequence is in terms of ranked models. These are partially ordered structures in which the ordering is modular. Definition 1. Given a set S...

  3. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...

  4. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  5. Steady-state transport equation resolution by particle methods, and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-10-01

    A method to solve steady-state transport equation has been given. Principles of the method are given. The method is studied in two different cases; estimations given by the theory are compared to numerical results. Results got in 1-D (spherical geometry) and in 2-D (axisymmetric geometry) are given [fr

  6. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Niedermayer, Matthias; Sitte, Beate; Hamel, Peter Michael

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.) [de

  7. Sensitivity of Spaceborne and Ground Radar Comparison Results to Data Analysis Methods and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    With the availability of active weather radar observations from space from the Precipitation Radar (PR) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TR.MM) satellite, numerous studies have been performed comparing PR reflectivity and derived rain rates to similar observations from ground-based weather radars (GR). These studies have used a variety of algorithms to compute matching PR and GR volumes for comparison. Most studies have used a fixed 3-dimensional Cartesian grid centered on the ground radar, onto which the PR and GR data are interpolated using a proprietary approach and/or commonly available GR analysis software (e.g., SPRINT, REORDER). Other studies have focused on the intersection of the PR and GR viewing geometries either explicitly or using a hybrid of the fixed grid and PR/GR common fields of view. For the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) of the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, a prototype DPR/GR comparison algorithm based on similar TRMM PR data has been developed that defines the common volumes in terms of the geometric intersection of PR and GR rays, where smoothing of the PR and GR data are minimized and no interpolation is performed. The PR and GR volume-averaged reflectivity values of each sample volume are accompanied by descriptive metadata, for attributes including the variability and maximum of the reflectivity within the sample volume, and the fraction of range gates in the sample average having reflectivity values above an adjustable detection threshold (typically taken to be 18 dBZ for the PR). Sample volumes are further characterized by rain type (Stratiform or Convective), proximity to the melting layer, underlying surface (land/water/mixed), and the time difference between the PR and GR observations. The mean reflectivity differences between the PR and GR can differ between data sets produced by the different analysis methods; and for the GPM prototype, by the type of constraints and

  8. The Use of Data Mining Methods to Predict the Result of Infertility Treatment Using the IVF ET Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The IVF ET method is a scientifically recognized infertility treat- ment method. The problem, however, is this method’s unsatisfactory efficiency. This calls for a more thorough analysis of the information available in the treat- ment process, in order to detect the factors that have an effect on the results, as well as to effectively predict result of treatment. Classical statistical methods have proven to be inadequate in this issue. Only the use of modern methods of data mining gives hope for a more effective analysis of the collected data. This work provides an overview of the new methods used for the analysis of data on infertility treatment, and formulates a proposal for further directions for research into increasing the efficiency of the predicted result of the treatment process.

  9. Establishing a cost-per-result of laboratory-based, reflex Cryptococcal antigenaemia screening (CrAg) in HIV+ patients with CD4 counts less than 100 cells/μl using a Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) at a typical busy CD4 laboratory in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Naseem; Schnippel, Kathryn; Coetzee, Lindi Marie; Glencross, Deborah Kim

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in countries with high HIV prevalence, primarily affecting patients whose CD4 are per-result of laboratory-based reflexed CrAg screening at one pilot CD4 referral laboratory. CD4 test volumes from 2014 were extracted to estimate percentage of CD4 per/year and 21.73 working days per/month. Costing analyses were undertaken using Microsoft Excel and Stata with a provider prospective. The cost-per-result was estimated using a bottom-up method, inclusive of test kits and consumables (reagents), laboratory equipment and technical effort costs. The ZAR/$ exchange of 14.696/$1 was used, where applicable. One-way sensitivity analyses on the cost-per-result were conducted for possible error rates (3%- 8%, reductions or increases in reagent costs as well as test volumes (ranging from -60% to +60%). The pilot CD4 laboratory performed 267000 CD4 tests in 2014; ~ 9.3% (27500) reported CD4per-result of $4.28 was reported, with reagents contributing $3.11 (72.8%), while technical effort and laboratory equipment overheads contributed $1.17 (27.2%) and $0.03 (per-result range of $3.84 to $6.03. A cost-per-result of $4.28 was established in a typical CD4 service laboratory to enable local budgetary cost projections and programmatic cost-effectiveness modelling. Varying reagent costs linked to currency exchange and varying test volumes in different levels of service can lead to varying cost-per-test and technical effort to manage workload, with an inverse relationship of higher costs expected at lower volumes of tests.

  10. Comparison results on preconditioned SOR-type iterative method for Z-matrices linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Zhong; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Fu, Ying-Ding

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we present some comparison theorems on preconditioned iterative method for solving Z-matrices linear systems, Comparison results show that the rate of convergence of the Gauss-Seidel-type method is faster than the rate of convergence of the SOR-type iterative method.

  11. Aeroelastic Calculations Using CFD for a Typical Business Jet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Two time-accurate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were used to compute several flutter points for a typical business jet model. The model consisted of a rigid fuselage with a flexible semispan wing and was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center where experimental flutter data were obtained from M(sub infinity) = 0.628 to M(sub infinity) = 0.888. The computational results were computed using CFD codes based on the inviscid TSD equation (CAP-TSD) and the Euler/Navier-Stokes equations (CFL3D-AE). Comparisons are made between analytical results and with experiment where appropriate. The results presented here show that the Navier-Stokes method is required near the transonic dip due to the strong viscous effects while the TSD and Euler methods used here provide good results at the lower Mach numbers.

  12. Foods Inducing Typical Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jung Wan; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Several specific foods are known to precipitate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and GERD patients are usually advised to avoid such foods. However, foods consumed daily are quite variable according to regions, cultures, etc. This study was done to elucidate the food items which induce typical GERD symptoms in Korean patients. Methods One hundred and twenty-six Korean patients with weekly typical GERD symptoms were asked to mark all food items that induced typic...

  13. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.

  14. Comparison of multiple-criteria decision-making methods - results of simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Adamczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, both researchers and practitioners have many methods for supporting the decision-making process. Due to the conditions in which supply chains function, the most interesting are multi-criteria methods. The use of sophisticated methods for supporting decisions requires the parameterization and execution of calculations that are often complex. So is it efficient to use sophisticated methods? Methods: The authors of the publication compared two popular multi-criteria decision-making methods: the  Weighted Sum Model (WSM and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. A simulation study reflects these two decision-making methods. Input data for this study was a set of criteria weights and the value of each in terms of each criterion. Results: The iGrafx Process for Six Sigma simulation software recreated how both multiple-criteria decision-making methods (WSM and AHP function. The result of the simulation was a numerical value defining the preference of each of the alternatives according to the WSM and AHP methods. The alternative producing a result of higher numerical value  was considered preferred, according to the selected method. In the analysis of the results, the relationship between the values of the parameters and the difference in the results presented by both methods was investigated. Statistical methods, including hypothesis testing, were used for this purpose. Conclusions: The simulation study findings prove that the results obtained with the use of two multiple-criteria decision-making methods are very similar. Differences occurred more frequently in lower-value parameters from the "value of each alternative" group and higher-value parameters from the "weight of criteria" group.

  15. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  16. Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren; Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2013-09-01

    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self versus other) and degree of socializing (with people versus alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: (1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, (2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and (3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1-3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  18. Benchmark calculation programme concerning typical LMFBR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, J.; Ferrari, G.; Grossetie, J.C.; Terzaghi, A.

    1982-01-01

    This programme, which is part of a comprehensive activity aimed at resolving difficulties encountered in using design procedures based on ASME Code Case N-47, should allow to get confidence in computer codes which are supposed to provide a realistic prediction of the LMFBR component behaviour. The calculations started on static analysis of typical structures made of non linear materials stressed by cyclic loads. The fluid structure interaction analysis is also being considered. Reasons and details of the different benchmark calculations are described, results obtained are commented and future computational exercise indicated

  19. Tensile strength of concrete under static and intermediate strain rates: Correlated results from different testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shengxing; Chen Xudong; Zhou Jikai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Tensile strength of concrete increases with increase in strain rate. ► Strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength of concrete depends on test method. ► High stressed volume method can correlate results from various test methods. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparative experiment and analysis of three different methods (direct tension, splitting tension and four-point loading flexural tests) for determination of the tensile strength of concrete under low and intermediate strain rates. In addition, the objective of this investigation is to analyze the suitability of the high stressed volume approach and Weibull effective volume method to the correlation of the results of different tensile tests of concrete. The test results show that the strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength depends on the type of test, splitting tensile strength of concrete is more sensitive to an increase in the strain rate than flexural and direct tensile strength. The high stressed volume method could be used to obtain a tensile strength value of concrete, free from the influence of the characteristics of tests and specimens. However, the Weibull effective volume method is an inadequate method for describing failure of concrete specimens determined by different testing methods.

  20. Monitoring ambient ozone with a passive measurement technique method, field results and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, BA; Adema, EH

    1996-01-01

    A low-cost, accurate and sensitive passive measurement method for ozone has been developed and tested. The method is based on the reaction of ozone with indigo carmine which results in colourless reaction products which are detected spectrophotometrically after exposure. Coated glass filters are

  1. Nondestructive methods for the structural evaluation of wood floor systems in historic buildings : preliminary results : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Michael O. Hunt; Robert J. Ross; Lawrence A. Soltis

    1999-01-01

    To date, there is no standard method for evaluating the structural integrity of wood floor systems using nondestructive techniques. Current methods of examination and assessment are often subjective and therefore tend to yield imprecise or variable results. For this reason, estimates of allowable wood floor loads are often conservative. The assignment of conservatively...

  2. Comparison Of Simulation Results When Using Two Different Methods For Mold Creation In Moldflow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushikbhai C. Parmar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulation gives different results when using different methods for the same simulation. Autodesk Moldflow Simulation software provide two different facilities for creating mold for the simulation of injection molding process. Mold can be created inside the Moldflow or it can be imported as CAD file. The aim of this paper is to study the difference in the simulation results like mold temperature part temperature deflection in different direction time for the simulation and coolant temperature for this two different methods.

  3. An assessment of the validity of inelastic design analysis methods by comparisons of predictions with test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.; Clinard, J.A.; Sartory, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    The use of computer programs that employ relatively complex constitutive theories and analysis procedures to perform inelastic design calculations on fast reactor system components introduces questions of validation and acceptance of the analysis results. We may ask ourselves, ''How valid are the answers.'' These questions, in turn, involve the concepts of verification of computer programs as well as qualification of the computer programs and of the underlying constitutive theories and analysis procedures. This paper addresses the latter - the qualification of the analysis methods for inelastic design calculations. Some of the work underway in the United States to provide the necessary information to evaluate inelastic analysis methods and computer programs is described, and typical comparisons of analysis predictions with inelastic structural test results are presented. It is emphasized throughout that rather than asking ourselves how valid, or correct, are the analytical predictions, we might more properly question whether or not the combination of the predictions and the associated high-temperature design criteria leads to an acceptable level of structural integrity. It is believed that in this context the analysis predictions are generally valid, even though exact correlations between predictions and actual behavior are not obtained and cannot be expected. Final judgment, however, must be reserved for the design analyst in each specific case. (author)

  4. Experimental Results and Numerical Simulation of the Target RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanmi Helmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of Radar Cross Section (RCS of radar targets using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS method. The purpose GBS method has several advantages over ray method, mainly on the caustic problem. To evaluate the performance of the chosen method, we started the analysis of the RCS using Gaussian Beam Summation (GBS and Gaussian Beam Launching (GBL, the asymptotic models Physical Optic (PO, Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD and the rigorous Method of Moment (MoM. Then, we showed the experimental validation of the numerical results using experimental measurements which have been executed in the anechoic chamber of Lab-STICC at ENSTA Bretagne. The numerical and experimental results of the RCS are studied and given as a function of various parameters: polarization type, target size, Gaussian beams number and Gaussian beams width.

  5. SPACE CHARGE SIMULATION METHODS INCORPORATED IN SOME MULTI - PARTICLE TRACKING CODES AND THEIR RESULTS COMPARISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE - WANG, J.; LUCCIO, A.U.; D IMPERIO, N.; MACHIDA, S.

    2002-01-01

    Space charge in high intensity beams is an important issue in accelerator physics. Due to the complicity of the problems, the most effective way of investigating its effect is by computer simulations. In the resent years, many space charge simulation methods have been developed and incorporated in various 2D or 3D multi-particle-tracking codes. It has becoming necessary to benchmark these methods against each other, and against experimental results. As a part of global effort, we present our initial comparison of the space charge methods incorporated in simulation codes ORBIT++, ORBIT and SIMPSONS. In this paper, the methods included in these codes are overviewed. The simulation results are presented and compared. Finally, from this study, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed

  6. Application of the DSA preconditioned GMRES formalism to the method of characteristics - First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Hebert, A.

    2004-01-01

    The method of characteristics is well known for its slow convergence; consequently, as it is often done for SN methods, the Generalized Minimal Residual approach (GMRES) has been investigated for its practical implementation and its high reliability. GMRES is one of the most effective Krylov iterative methods to solve large linear systems. Moreover, the system has been 'left preconditioned' with the Algebraic Collapsing Acceleration (ACA) a variant of the Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) based on I. Suslov's former works. This paper presents the first numerical results of these methods in 2D geometries with material discontinuities. Indeed, previous investigations have shown a degraded effectiveness of Diffusion Synthetic Accelerations with this kind of geometries. Results are presented for 9 x 9 Cartesian assemblies in terms of the speed of convergence of the inner iterations (fixed source) of the method of characteristics. It shows a significant improvement on the convergence rate. (authors)

  7. SPACE CHARGE SIMULATION METHODS INCORPORATED IN SOME MULTI - PARTICLE TRACKING CODES AND THEIR RESULTS COMPARISON.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE - WANG,J.; LUCCIO,A.U.; D IMPERIO,N.; MACHIDA,S.

    2002-06-03

    Space charge in high intensity beams is an important issue in accelerator physics. Due to the complicity of the problems, the most effective way of investigating its effect is by computer simulations. In the resent years, many space charge simulation methods have been developed and incorporated in various 2D or 3D multi-particle-tracking codes. It has becoming necessary to benchmark these methods against each other, and against experimental results. As a part of global effort, we present our initial comparison of the space charge methods incorporated in simulation codes ORBIT++, ORBIT and SIMPSONS. In this paper, the methods included in these codes are overviewed. The simulation results are presented and compared. Finally, from this study, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  8. Lipoma arborescens: Comparison of typical and atypical disease presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.M.; Wenger, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the aetiology differed between typical cases of lipoma arborescens with unilateral knee involvement and atypical cases involving joints other than the knee, polyarticular disease, and disease outside of the knee joint. Materials and methods: Cases of lipoma arborescens involving the knee joint were evaluated for the distribution of the disease and severity of degenerative arthritis. Joints other than the knee were evaluated for the presence and severity of degenerative arthritis, and the distribution was classified as either intra-articular, extra-articular, or both. Clinical history was reviewed for patient age at presentation, a history of inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and known steroid use. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Results: Lipoma arborescens was identified in 45 joints in 39 patients. Twenty-eight patients were classified as “typical” and 11 patients had “atypical” disease. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Conclusion: Twenty-eight percent of patients in the present study had atypical presentation of lipoma arborescens with multifocal lipoma arborescens or disease in joints other than the knee. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Of the 39 patients, only three had no evidence of degenerative arthritis, which suggests that many cases of lipoma arborescens are secondary to chronic reactive change in association with degenerative arthritis

  9. A result-driven minimum blocking method for PageRank parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wan; Liu, Tao; Yu, Wei; Huang, Gan

    2017-01-01

    Matrix blocking is a common method for improving computational efficiency of PageRank, but the blocking rules are hard to be determined, and the following calculation is complicated. In tackling these problems, we propose a minimum blocking method driven by result needs to accomplish a parallel implementation of PageRank algorithm. The minimum blocking just stores the element which is necessary for the result matrix. In return, the following calculation becomes simple and the consumption of the I/O transmission is cut down. We do experiments on several matrixes of different data size and different sparsity degree. The results show that the proposed method has better computational efficiency than traditional blocking methods.

  10. A Pragmatic Smoothing Method for Improving the Quality of the Results in Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennun, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    A new smoothing method for the improvement on the identification and quantification of spectral functions based on the previous knowledge of the signals that are expected to be quantified, is presented. These signals are used as weighted coefficients in the smoothing algorithm. This smoothing method was conceived to be applied in atomic and nuclear spectroscopies preferably to these techniques where net counts are proportional to acquisition time, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and other X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic methods, etc. This algorithm, when properly applied, does not distort the form nor the intensity of the signal, so it is well suited for all kind of spectroscopic techniques. This method is extremely effective at reducing high-frequency noise in the signal much more efficient than a single rectangular smooth of the same width. As all of smoothing techniques, the proposed method improves the precision of the results, but in this case we found also a systematic improvement on the accuracy of the results. We still have to evaluate the improvement on the quality of the results when this method is applied over real experimental results. We expect better characterization of the net area quantification of the peaks, and smaller Detection and Quantification Limits. We have applied this method to signals that obey Poisson statistics, but with the same ideas and criteria, it could be applied to time series. In a general case, when this algorithm is applied over experimental results, also it would be required that the sought characteristic functions, required for this weighted smoothing method, should be obtained from a system with strong stability. If the sought signals are not perfectly clean, this method should be carefully applied

  11. Methods and results of a probabilistic risk assessment for radioactive waste transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, F.; Gruendler, D.; Schwarz, G.

    1993-01-01

    The radiological risk from accidents has been analyzed for the expected annual transport volume (3400 shipping units) of low and partially intermediate level radioactive wastes to be shipped to a final repository. In order to take account of these variable quantities and conditions a computer code was developed to simulate a wide spectrum of waste transport and accident configurations using Monte Carlo sampling techniques. Typically some 10.000 source terms were generated to represent possible releases of radionuclides from transport accidents. Accident events in which the integrity of waste packagings is retained and consequently no releases occur are included. Potential radiological consequences are then calculated for each of the release categories by using an accident consequence code which takes into account atmospheric dispersion statistics. Finally cumulative complementary frequency distributions of radiological consequences are generated by superposing the results for all release categories. Radiological consequences are primarily expressed as potential effective individual doses resulting from airborne and deposited radionuclides. The results of the risk analysis show that expected frequencies of effective doses comparable to the natural radiation exposure of one year are quite low and very low for potential radiation exposures in the range of 50 mSv. (J.P.N.)

  12. The method of producing climate change datasets impacts the resulting policy guidance and chance of mal-adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ekström

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Impact, adaptation and vulnerability (IAV research underpin strategies for adaptation to climate change and help to conceptualise what life may look like in decades to come. Research draws on information from global climate models (GCMs though typically post-processed into a secondary product with finer resolution through methods of downscaling. Through worked examples set in an Australian context we assess the influence of GCM sub-setting, geographic area sub-setting and downscaling method on the regional change signal. Examples demonstrate that choices impact on the final results differently depending on factors such as application needs, range of uncertainty of the projected variable, amplitude of natural variability, and size of study region. For heat extremes, the choice of emissions scenario is of prime importance, but for a given scenario the method of preparing data can affect the magnitude of the projection by a factor of two or more, strongly affecting the indicated adaptation decision. For catchment level runoff projections, the choice of emission scenario is less dominant. Rather the method of selecting and producing application-ready datasets is crucial as demonstrated by results with opposing sign of change, raising the real possibility of mal-adaptive decisions. This work illustrates the potential pitfalls of GCM sub-sampling or the use of a single downscaled product when conducting IAV research. Using the broad range of change from all available model sources, whilst making the application more complex, avoids the larger problem of over-confidence in climate projections and lessens the chance of mal-adaptation.

  13. Interpreting Statistical Significance Test Results: A Proposed New "What If" Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Thompson, Bruce

    As the 1994 publication manual of the American Psychological Association emphasized, "p" values are affected by sample size. As a result, it can be helpful to interpret the results of statistical significant tests in a sample size context by conducting so-called "what if" analyses. However, these methods can be inaccurate…

  14. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nd Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2nd Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania))" >Anton, Alin; th Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24th Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania))" >Muntean, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit ® [1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms

  15. A method for data handling numerical results in parallel OpenFOAM simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Alin [Faculty of Automatic Control and Computing, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2" n" d Vasile Pârvan Ave., 300223, TM Timişoara, Romania, alin.anton@cs.upt.ro (Romania); Muntean, Sebastian [Center for Advanced Research in Engineering Science, Romanian Academy – Timişoara Branch, 24" t" h Mihai Viteazu Ave., 300221, TM Timişoara (Romania)

    2015-12-31

    Parallel computational fluid dynamics simulations produce vast amount of numerical result data. This paper introduces a method for reducing the size of the data by replaying the interprocessor traffic. The results are recovered only in certain regions of interest configured by the user. A known test case is used for several mesh partitioning scenarios using the OpenFOAM toolkit{sup ®}[1]. The space savings obtained with classic algorithms remain constant for more than 60 Gb of floating point data. Our method is most efficient on large simulation meshes and is much better suited for compressing large scale simulation results than the regular algorithms.

  16. Soil Particle Size Analysis by Laser Diffractometry: Result Comparison with Pipette Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šinkovičová, Miroslava; Igaz, Dušan; Kondrlová, Elena; Jarošová, Miriam

    2017-10-01

    Soil texture as the basic soil physical property provides a basic information on the soil grain size distribution as well as grain size fraction representation. Currently, there are several methods of particle dimension measurement available that are based on different physical principles. Pipette method based on the different sedimentation velocity of particles with different diameter is considered to be one of the standard methods of individual grain size fraction distribution determination. Following the technical advancement, optical methods such as laser diffraction can be also used nowadays for grain size distribution determination in the soil. According to the literature review of domestic as well as international sources related to this topic, it is obvious that the results obtained by laser diffractometry do not correspond with the results obtained by pipette method. The main aim of this paper was to analyse 132 samples of medium fine soil, taken from the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia, from depths of 15-20 cm and 40-45 cm, respectively, using laser analysers: ANALYSETTE 22 MicroTec plus (Fritsch GmbH) and Mastersizer 2000 (Malvern Instruments Ltd). The results obtained by laser diffractometry were compared with pipette method and the regression relationships using linear, exponential, power and polynomial trend were derived. Regressions with the three highest regression coefficients (R2) were further investigated. The fit with the highest tightness was observed for the polynomial regression. In view of the results obtained, we recommend using the estimate of the representation of the clay fraction (analysis is done according to laser diffractometry. The advantages of laser diffraction method comprise the short analysis time, usage of small sample amount, application for the various grain size fraction and soil type classification systems, and a wide range of determined fractions. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on this issue further to address the

  17. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  18. Results of an interlaboratory comparison of analytical methods for contaminants of emerging concern in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderford, Brett J; Drewes, Jörg E; Eaton, Andrew; Guo, Yingbo C; Haghani, Ali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Schluesener, Michael P; Snyder, Shane A; Ternes, Thomas; Wood, Curtis J

    2014-01-07

    An evaluation of existing analytical methods used to measure contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) was performed through an interlaboratory comparison involving 25 research and commercial laboratories. In total, 52 methods were used in the single-blind study to determine method accuracy and comparability for 22 target compounds, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and steroid hormones, all at ng/L levels in surface and drinking water. Method biases ranged from caffeine, NP, OP, and triclosan had false positive rates >15%. In addition, some methods reported false positives for 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol in unspiked drinking water and deionized water, respectively, at levels higher than published predicted no-effect concentrations for these compounds in the environment. False negative rates were also generally contamination, misinterpretation of background interferences, and/or inappropriate setting of detection/quantification levels for analysis at low ng/L levels. The results of both comparisons were collectively assessed to identify parameters that resulted in the best overall method performance. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with the calibration technique of isotope dilution were able to accurately quantify most compounds with an average bias of <10% for both matrixes. These findings suggest that this method of analysis is suitable at environmentally relevant levels for most of the compounds studied. This work underscores the need for robust, standardized analytical methods for CECs to improve data quality, increase comparability between studies, and help reduce false positive and false negative rates.

  19. Application of Statistical Methods to Activation Analytical Results near the Limit of Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Wanscher, B.

    1978-01-01

    Reporting actual numbers instead of upper limits for analytical results at or below the detection limit may produce reliable data when these numbers are subjected to appropriate statistical processing. Particularly in radiometric methods, such as activation analysis, where individual standard...... deviations of analytical results may be estimated, improved discrimination may be based on the Analysis of Precision. Actual experimental results from a study of the concentrations of arsenic in human skin demonstrate the power of this principle....

  20. Numerical stability of finite difference algorithms for electrochemical kinetic simulations: Matrix stability analysis of the classic explicit, fully implicit and Crank-Nicolson methods and typical problems involving mixed boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieniasz, Leslaw K.; Østerby, Ole; Britz, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    The stepwise numerical stability of the classic explicit, fully implicit and Crank-Nicolson finite difference discretizations of example diffusional initial boundary value problems from electrochemical kinetics has been investigated using the matrix method of stability analysis. Special attention...... has been paid to the effect of the discretization of the mixed, linear boundary condition with time-dependent coefficients on stability, assuming the two-point forward-difference approximations for the gradient at the left boundary (electrode). Under accepted assumptions one obtains the usual...... stability criteria for the classic explicit and fully implicit methods. The Crank-Nicolson method turns out to be only conditionally stable in contrast to the current thought regarding this method....

  1. How the RNA isolation method can affect microRNA microarray results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Litman, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    RNA microarray analysis on porcine brain tissue. One method is a phenol-guanidine isothiocyanate-based procedure that permits isolation of total RNA. The second method, miRVana™ microRNA isolation, is column based and recovers the small RNA fraction alone. We found that microarray analyses give different results...... that depend on the RNA fraction used, in particular because some microRNAs appear very sensitive to the RNA isolation method. We conclude that precautions need to be taken when comparing microarray studies based on RNA isolated with different methods.......The quality of RNA is crucial in gene expression experiments. RNA degradation interferes in the measurement of gene expression, and in this context, microRNA quantification can lead to an incorrect estimation. In the present study, two different RNA isolation methods were used to perform micro...

  2. Three magnetic particles solid phase radioimmunoassay for T4: Comparison of their results with established methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, T.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of solid phase separation techniques is an important improvement in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. Magnetic particle solid phase method has additional advantages over others, as the separation is rapid and centrifugation is not required. Three types of magnetic particles have been studied in T 4 RIA and the results have been compared with commercial kits and other established methods. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  3. A comparison of short-term dispersion estimates resulting from various atmospheric stability classification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Four methods of classifying atmospheric stability class are applied at four sites to make short-term (1-h) dispersion estimates from a ground-level source based on a model consistent with U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission practice. The classification methods include vertical temperature gradient, standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuations (sigma theta), Pasquill-Turner, and modified sigma theta which accounts for meander. Results indicate that modified sigma theta yields reasonable dispersion estimates compared to those produced using methods of vertical temperature gradient and Pasquill-Turner, and can be considered as a potential economic alternative in establishing onsite monitoring programs. (author)

  4. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  5. Exploration of Rice Husk Compost as an Alternate Organic Manure to Enhance the Productivity of Blackgram in Typic Haplustalf and Typic Rhodustalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanium Thiyageshwari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at using cellulolytic bacterium Enhydrobacter and fungi Aspergillus sp. for preparing compost from rice husk (RH. Further, the prepared compost was tested for their effect on blackgram growth promotion along with different levels of recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF in black soil (typic Haplustalf and red soil (typic Rhodustalf soil. The results revealed that, inoculation with lignocellulolytic fungus (LCF Aspergillus sp. @ 2% was considered as the most efficient method of composting within a short period. Characterization of composted rice husk (CRH was examined through scanning electron microscope (SEM for identifying significant structural changes. At the end of composting, N, P and K content increased with decrease in CO2 evolution, C:N and C:P ratios. In comparison to inorganic fertilization, an increase in grain yield of 16% in typic Haplustalf and 17% in typic Rhodustalf soil over 100% RDF was obtained from the integrated application of CRH@ 5 t ha−1 with 50% RDF and biofertilizers. The crude protein content was maximum with the combined application of CRH, 50% RDF and biofertilizers of 20% and 21% in typic Haplustalf and typic Rhodustalf soils, respectively. Nutrient rich CRH has proved its efficiency on crop growth and soil fertility.

  6. Typicality and misinformation: Two sources of distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malen Migueles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with highand low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in the original video information or additions of completely new contents. In the subsequent recognition task the post-event misinformation produced memory impairment. The participants used the underlying schema of the event to extract high-typicality information which had become integrated with episodic information, thus giving rise to more hits and false alarms for these items. However, the effect of exposure to misinformation was greater on low-typicality items. There were no differences between changed or added information, but there were more false alarms when a low-typicality item was changed to a high-typicality item

  7. [Research on developping the spectral dataset for Dunhuang typical colors based on color constancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing

    2013-11-01

    The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest

  8. Methods uncovering usability issues in medication-related alerting functions: results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Vasseur, Francis; Ammenwerth, Elske; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at listing the methods used to evaluate the usability of medication-related alerting functions and at knowing what type of usability issues those methods allow to detect. A sub-analysis of data from this systematic review has been performed. Methods applied in the included papers were collected. Then, included papers were sorted in four types of evaluation: "expert evaluation", "user- testing/simulation", "on site observation" and "impact studies". The types of usability issues (usability flaws, usage problems and negative outcomes) uncovered by those evaluations were analyzed. Results show that a large set of methods are used. The largest proportion of papers uses "on site observation" evaluation. This is the only evaluation type for which every kind of usability flaws, usage problems and outcomes are detected. It is somehow surprising that, in a usability systematic review, most of the papers included use a method that is not often presented as a usability method. Results are discussed about the opportunity to provide usability information collected after the implementation of the technology during their design process, i.e. before their implementation.

  9. Comparative study of methods on outlying data detection in experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.S.; Munita, C.S.; Hazenfratz, R.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of experimental results through multivariate statistical methods might reveal the outliers existence, which is rarely taken into account by the analysts. However, their presence can influence the results interpretation, generating false conclusions. This paper shows the importance of the outliers determination for one data base of 89 samples of ceramic fragments, analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The results were submitted to five procedures to detect outliers: Mahalanobis distance, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and standardized residual. The results showed that although cluster analysis is one of the procedures most used to identify outliers, it can fail by not showing the samples that are easily identified as outliers by other methods. In general, the statistical procedures for the identification of the outliers are little known by the analysts. (author)

  10. A holographic method for investigating cylindrical symmetry plasmas resulting from electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, N.; Ralea, M.; Foca, M.; Iova, I.

    1992-01-01

    A new method based on holographic interferometry in real time with reference fringes for diagnosing gas electric discharges in cylindrical symmetry tubes is presented. A method for obtaining and quantitatively investigating interferograms obtained with a video camera is described. By studying the resulting images frame by frame and introducing the measurements into an adequate computer programme one gets a graphical recording of the radial distribution of the charged particle concentration in the plasma in any region of the tube at a given time, as well as their axial distribution. The real time evolution of certain phenomena occurring in the discharge tube can also be determined by this non-destructive method. The method is used for electric discharges in Ar at average pressures in a discharge tube with hollow cathode effect. (Author)

  11. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  12. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  13. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker , D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  14. [Do different interpretative methods used for evaluation of checkerboard synergy test affect the results?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozseven, Ayşe Gül; Sesli Çetin, Emel; Ozseven, Levent

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, owing to the presence of multi-drug resistant nosocomial bacteria, combination therapies are more frequently applied. Thus there is more need to investigate the in vitro activity of drug combinations against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Checkerboard synergy testing is among the most widely used standard technique to determine the activity of antibiotic combinations. It is based on microdilution susceptibility testing of antibiotic combinations. Although this test has a standardised procedure, there are many different methods for interpreting the results. In many previous studies carried out with multi-drug resistant bacteria, different rates of synergy have been reported with various antibiotic combinations using checkerboard technique. These differences might be attributed to the different features of the strains. However, different synergy rates detected by checkerboard method have also been reported in other studies using the same drug combinations and same types of bacteria. It was thought that these differences in synergy rates might be due to the different methods of interpretation of synergy test results. In recent years, multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been the most commonly encountered nosocomial pathogen especially in intensive-care units. For this reason, multidrug resistant A.baumannii has been the subject of a considerable amount of research about antimicrobial combinations. In the present study, the in vitro activities of frequently preferred combinations in A.baumannii infections like imipenem plus ampicillin/sulbactam, and meropenem plus ampicillin/sulbactam were tested by checkerboard synergy method against 34 multi-drug resistant A.baumannii isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for imipenem, meropenem and ampicillin/sulbactam were determined by the broth microdilution method. Subsequently the activity of two different combinations were tested in the dilution range of 4 x MIC and 0.03 x MIC in

  15. A semantics-based method for clustering of Chinese web search results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Deqing; Wang, Li; Bi, Zhuming; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Information explosion is a critical challenge to the development of modern information systems. In particular, when the application of an information system is over the Internet, the amount of information over the web has been increasing exponentially and rapidly. Search engines, such as Google and Baidu, are essential tools for people to find the information from the Internet. Valuable information, however, is still likely submerged in the ocean of search results from those tools. By clustering the results into different groups based on subjects automatically, a search engine with the clustering feature allows users to select most relevant results quickly. In this paper, we propose an online semantics-based method to cluster Chinese web search results. First, we employ the generalised suffix tree to extract the longest common substrings (LCSs) from search snippets. Second, we use the HowNet to calculate the similarities of the words derived from the LCSs, and extract the most representative features by constructing the vocabulary chain. Third, we construct a vector of text features and calculate snippets' semantic similarities. Finally, we improve the Chameleon algorithm to cluster snippets. Extensive experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm has outperformed over the suffix tree clustering method and other traditional clustering methods.

  16. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, Ondrej; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin--a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (E dep ) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated

  17. Comments on Brodsky's statistical methods for evaluating epidemiological results, and reply by Brodsky, A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frome, E.L.; Khare, M.

    1980-01-01

    Brodsky's paper 'A Statistical Method for Testing Epidemiological Results, as applied to the Hanford Worker Population', (Health Phys., 36, 611-628, 1979) proposed two test statistics for use in comparing the survival experience of a group of employees and controls. This letter states that both of the test statistics were computed using incorrect formulas and concludes that the results obtained using these statistics may also be incorrect. In his reply Brodsky concurs with the comments on the proper formulation of estimates of pooled standard errors in constructing test statistics but believes that the erroneous formulation does not invalidate the major points, results and discussions of his paper. (author)

  18. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  19. On Calculation Methods and Results for Straight Cylindrical Roller Bearing Deflection, Stiffness, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some calculation methods for quantifying the relationships of bearing geometry, material properties, load, deflection, stiffness, and stress. The scope of the work was limited to two-dimensional modeling of straight cylindrical roller bearings. Preparations for studies of dynamic response of bearings with damaged surfaces motivated this work. Studies were selected to exercise and build confidence in the numerical tools. Three calculation methods were used in this work. Two of the methods were numerical solutions of the Hertz contact approach. The third method used was a combined finite element surface integral method. Example calculations were done for a single roller loaded between an inner and outer raceway for code verification. Next, a bearing with 13 rollers and all-steel construction was used as an example to do additional code verification, including an assessment of the leading order of accuracy of the finite element and surface integral method. Results from that study show that the method is at least first-order accurate. Those results also show that the contact grid refinement has a more significant influence on precision as compared to the finite element grid refinement. To explore the influence of material properties, the 13-roller bearing was modeled as made from Nitinol 60, a material with very different properties from steel and showing some potential for bearing applications. The codes were exercised to compare contact areas and stress levels for steel and Nitinol 60 bearings operating at equivalent power density. As a step toward modeling the dynamic response of bearings having surface damage, static analyses were completed to simulate a bearing with a spall or similar damage.

  20. Development and application of a new deterministic method for calculating computer model result uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerker, R.E.; Worley, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Interest in research into the field of uncertainty analysis has recently been stimulated as a result of a need in high-level waste repository design assessment for uncertainty information in the form of response complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) to show compliance with regulatory requirements. The solution to this problem must obviously rely on the analysis of computer code models, which, however, employ parameters that can have large uncertainties. The motivation for the research presented in this paper is a search for a method involving a deterministic uncertainty analysis approach that could serve as an improvement over those methods that make exclusive use of statistical techniques. A deterministic uncertainty analysis (DUA) approach based on the use of first derivative information is the method studied in the present procedure. The present method has been applied to a high-level nuclear waste repository problem involving use of the codes ORIGEN2, SAS, and BRINETEMP in series, and the resulting CDF of a BRINETEMP result of interest is compared with that obtained through a completely statistical analysis

  1. Analytical method and result of radiation exposure for depressurization accident of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, K.; Shiozawa, S.; Mikami, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is now proceeding with the construction design of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since the HTTR has some characteristics different from LWRs, analytical method of radiation exposure in accidents provided for LWRs can not be applied directly. This paper describes the analytical method of radiation exposure developed by JAERI for the depressurization accident, which is the severest accident in respect to radiation exposure among the design basis accidents of the HTTR. The result is also described in this paper

  2. Methods and optical fibers that decrease pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, Michael; Gabitov, Ildar

    2004-03-02

    The present invention provides methods and optical fibers for periodically pinning an actual (random) accumulated chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber to a predicted accumulated dispersion of the fiber through relatively simple modifications of fiber-optic manufacturing methods or retrofitting of existing fibers. If the pinning occurs with sufficient frequency (at a distance less than or are equal to a correlation scale), pulse degradation resulting from random chromatic dispersion is minimized. Alternatively, pinning may occur quasi-periodically, i.e., the pinning distance is distributed between approximately zero and approximately two to three times the correlation scale.

  3. Testing the ISP method with the PARIO device: Accuracy of results and influence of homogenization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Wolfgang; Huber, Magdalena; Yangxu, Li; Steins, Andi; Pertassek, Thomas; Göttlein, Axel; Iden, Sascha C.; von Unold, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The particle-size distribution (PSD) is one of the main properties of soils. To determine the proportions of the fine fractions silt and clay, sedimentation experiments are used. Most common are the Pipette and Hydrometer method. Both need manual sampling at specific times. Both are thus time-demanding and rely on experienced operators. Durner et al. (Durner, W., S.C. Iden, and G. von Unold (2017): The integral suspension pressure method (ISP) for precise particle-size analysis by gravitational sedimentation, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/2016WR019830) recently developed the integral suspension method (ISP) method, which is implemented in the METER Group device PARIOTM. This new method estimates continuous PSD's from sedimentation experiments by recording the temporal evolution of the suspension pressure at a certain measurement depth in a sedimentation cylinder. It requires no manual interaction after start and thus no specialized training of the lab personnel. The aim of this study was to test the precision and accuracy of new method with a variety of materials, to answer the following research questions: (1) Are the results obtained by PARIO reliable and stable? (2) Are the results affected by the initial mixing technique to homogenize the suspension, or by the presence of sand in the experiment? (3) Are the results identical to the one that are obtained with the Pipette method as reference method? The experiments were performed with a pure quartz silt material and four real soil materials. PARIO measurements were done repetitively on the same samples in a temperature-controlled lab to characterize the repeatability of the measurements. Subsequently, the samples were investigated by the pipette method to validate the results. We found that the statistical error for silt fraction from replicate and repetitive measurements was in the range of 1% for the quartz material to 3% for soil materials. Since the sand fractions, as in any sedimentation method, must

  4. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-03-09

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx² (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods were applied: either dry polishing before sintering or wet polishing after sintering. Each subgroup included 40 specimens. The surface roughness was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a profilometer whereas monoclinic phase transformation was investigated with X-ray diffraction. The data were analyzed using a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with respect to the three factors: zirconia, specimen preparation, and test method. One-way ANOVA was conducted for the test method and zirconia factors within the combination of two other factors. A 2-parameter Weibull distribution assumption was applied to analyze the reliability under different testing conditions. In general, values measured using the 4-point test method presented the lowest flexural strength values. The flexural strength findings can be grouped in the following order: 4-point strength values than prepared before sintering. The Weibull moduli ranged from 5.1 to 16.5. Specimens polished before sintering showed higher surface roughness values than specimens polished after sintering. In contrast, no strong impact of the polishing procedures on the monoclinic surface layer was observed. No impact of zirconia material on flexural strength was found. The test method and the preparation method significantly influenced the flexural strength values.

  5. Advanced software tool for the creation of a typical meteorological year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeiker, Kamal; Ghani, Bashar Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The generation of a typical meteorological year is of great importance for calculations concerning many applications in the field of thermal engineering. In this context, method that has been proposed by Hall et al. is selected for generating typical data, and an improved criterion for final selection of typical meteorological month (TMM) was demonstrated. The final selection of the most representative year was done by examining a composite score S. The composite score was calculated as the weighed sum of the scores of the four meteorological parameters used. These parameters are air dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and global solar radiation intensity. Moreover, a new modern software tool using Delphi 6.0 has been developed, utilizing the Filkenstein-Schafer statistical method for the creation of a typical meteorological year for any site of concern. Whereas, an improved criterion for final selection of typical meteorological month was employed. Such tool allows the user to perform this task without an intimate knowledge of all of the computational details. The final alphanumerical and graphical results are presented on screen, and can be saved to a file or printed as a hard copy. Using this software tool, a typical meteorological year was generated for Damascus, capital of Syria, as a test run example. The data processed used were obtained from the Department of Meteorology and cover a period of 10 years (1991-2000)

  6. Computed tomography derived fractional flow reserve testing in stable patients with typical angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Jensen, Jesper; Erik Bøtker, Hans; Norling Mathiassen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To assess the use of downstream coronary angiography (ICA) and short-term safety of frontline coronary CT angiography (CTA) with selective CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT) testing in stable patients with typical angina pectoris. Methods and results: Between 1 January 2016 and 30 J...... of safe cancellation of planned ICAs....

  7. Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

    2010-05-01

    Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

  8. Improved Method of Detection Falsification Results the Digital Image in Conditions of Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobozeva A.A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern level of information technologies development has led to unheard ease embodiments hitherto unauthorized modifications of digital content. At the moment, very important question is the effective expert examination of authenticity of digital images, video, audio, development of the methods for identification and localization of violations of their integrity using these contents for purposes other than entertainment. Present paper deals with the improvement of the detection method of the cloning results in digital images - one of the most frequently used in the software tools falsification realized in all modern graphics editors. The method is intended for clone detection areas and pre-image in terms of additional disturbing influences in the image after the cloning operation for "masking" of the results, which complicates the search process. The improvement is aimed at reducing the number of "false alarms", when the area of the clone / pre-image detected in the original image or the localization of the identified areas do not correspond to the real clone and pre-image. The proposed improvement, based on analysis of different sizes per-pixel image blocks with the least difference from each other, has made it possible efficient functioning of the method, regardless of the specificity of the analyzed digital image.

  9. A statistical method for testing epidemiological results, as applied to the Hanford worker population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    Some recent reports of Mancuso, Stewart and Kneale claim findings of radiation-produced cancer in the Hanford worker population. These claims are based on statistical computations that use small differences in accumulated exposures between groups dying of cancer and groups dying of other causes; actual mortality and longevity were not reported. This paper presents a statistical method for evaluation of actual mortality and longevity longitudinally over time, as applied in a primary analysis of the mortality experience of the Hanford worker population. Although available, this method was not utilized in the Mancuso-Stewart-Kneale paper. The author's preliminary longitudinal analysis shows that the gross mortality experience of persons employed at Hanford during 1943-70 interval did not differ significantly from that of certain controls, when both employees and controls were selected from families with two or more offspring and comparison were matched by age, sex, race and year of entry into employment. This result is consistent with findings reported by Sanders (Health Phys. vol.35, 521-538, 1978). The method utilizes an approximate chi-square (1 D.F.) statistic for testing population subgroup comparisons, as well as the cumulation of chi-squares (1 D.F.) for testing the overall result of a particular type of comparison. The method is available for computer testing of the Hanford mortality data, and could also be adapted to morbidity or other population studies. (author)

  10. No Results? No Problem! Why We Are Publishing Methods of a Landmark Study With Results Still Pending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Spiegel, Brennan

    2017-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in the United States, and screening for CRC is a national health-care priority. In this issue, investigators from the CONFIRM study group report on the aims and study design of a large, multicenter, randomized prospective study of whether screening colonoscopy is superior to an annual fecal immunochemical test (FIT). CONFRIM hopes to enroll 50,000 individuals, aged 50-75 years, from 46 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers and monitor them for 10 years. This article is unique in that no results are presented as the study is not yet complete. We have taken this unusual step as we believe the topic of CRC screening is critically important for our readers and that the results of this massive study have the potential to change clinical practice throughout all fields of medicine.

  11. Development of methods to measure hemoglobin adducts by gel electrophoresis - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; McBride, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical adducts formed on blood hemoglobin may be a useful biomarker for assessing human exposures to these compounds. This paper reports preliminary results in the development of methods to measure such adducts that may be generally applicable for a wide variety of chemicals. Male F344/N rats were intraperitoneally injected with 14 C-BaP dissolved in corn oil. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected and globin was isolated. Globin protein was then cleaved into peptide fragments using cyanogen bromide and the fragments separated using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the adducted 14 C-globin fragments migrated to different areas of the gel than did unadducted fragments. Further research is being conducted to develop methods that will allow quantitation of separated adducted globin fragments from human blood samples without the use of a radiolabel. (author)

  12. Method and equipment for treating waste water resulting from the technological testing processes of NPP equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, M. C.; Valeca, S.; Iorga, C.

    2016-01-01

    Modern methods and technologies coupled together with advanced equipment for treating residual substances resulted from technological processes are mandatory measures for all industrial facilities. The correct management of the used working agents and of the all wastes resulted from the different technological process (preparation, use, collection, neutralization, discharge) is intended to reduce up to removal of their potential negative impact on the environment. The high pressure and temperature testing stands from INR intended for functional testing of nuclear components (fuel bundles, fuelling machines, etc.) were included in these measures since the use of oils, demineralized water chemically treated, greases, etc. This paper is focused on the method and equipment used at INR Pitesti in the chemical treatment of demineralized waters, as well as the equipment for collecting, neutralizing and discharging them after use. (authors)

  13. [Results of treatment of milk teeth pulp by modified formocresol method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochna-Sobańska, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of the results of treatment of molar pulp diseases by the formocresol method from the standpoint of the development of inflammatory complications in periapical tissues, disturbances of physiological resorption of roots, disturbances of mineralization of crowns of homologous permanent teeth. For the treatment milk molars were qualified with the diagnosis of grade II pulpopathy in children aged from 3 to 9 years. The treatment was done using formocresol by a modified method of pulp amputation according to Buckley after previous devitalization with parapaste. The status of 143 teeth was examined again 1 to 4 years after completion of treatment. The proportion of positive results after one year was 94%, after two years it was 90%, after three years 87% and after four years 80%. The cause of premature loss of most teeth was root resorption acceleration by 18-24 months. No harmful action of formocresol on the buds of permanent teeth was noted.

  14. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  15. Improved ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry method for the rapid analysis of the chemical constituents of a typical medical formula: Liuwei Dihuang Wan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Lv, Hai tao; Zhang, Ai hua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guang li; Han, Ying; Wu, Xiu hong; Wang, Xi jun

    2013-11-01

    Liuwei Dihuang Wan (LDW), a classic Chinese medicinal formula, has been used to improve or restore declined functions related to aging and geriatric diseases, such as impaired mobility, vision, hearing, cognition, and memory. It has attracted increasing attention as one of the most popular and valuable herbal medicines. However, the systematic analysis of the chemical constituents of LDW is difficult and thus has not been well established. In this paper, a rapid, sensitive, and reliable ultra-performance LC with ESI quadrupole TOF high-definition MS method with automated MetaboLynx analysis in positive and negative ion mode was established to characterize the chemical constituents of LDW. The analysis was performed on a Waters UPLC™ HSS T3 using a gradient elution system. MS/MS fragmentation behavior was proposed for aiding the structural identification of the components. Under the optimized conditions, a total of 50 peaks were tentatively characterized by comparing the retention time and MS data. It is concluded that a rapid and robust platform based on ultra-performance LC with ESI quadrupole TOF high-definition MS has been successfully developed for globally identifying multiple constituents of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. This is the first report on the systematic analysis of the chemical constituents of LDW. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Generation of typical meteorological year for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of building energy performance requires precise information of the local climate. Typical weather year files like typical meteorological year (TMY) are commonly used in building simulation. They are also essential for numerical analysis of sustainable and renewable energy systems. The present paper presents the generation of typical meteorological year (TMY) for eight typical cities representing the major climate zones of China. The data set, which includes global solar radiation data and other meteorological parameters referring to dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, has been analyzed. The typical meteorological year is generated from the available meteorological data recorded during the period 1995-2004, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year is compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years are selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 typical months selected from the different years are used for the formulation of a TMY.

  17. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  18. Comparison of the analysis result between two laboratories using different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Agus Taftazani

    2017-01-01

    Comparison of the analysis result of volcano ash sample between two laboratories using different analysis methods. The research aims to improve the testing laboratory quality and cooperate with the testing laboratory from other country. Samples were tested at the Center for Accelerator of Science and Technology (CAST)-NAA laboratory using NAA, while at the University of Texas (UT) USA using ICP-MS and ENAA method. From 12 elements of target, CAST-NAA able to present 11 elements of data analysis. The comparison results shows that the analysis of the K, Mn, Ti and Fe elements from both laboratories have a very good comparison and close one to other. It is known from RSD values and correlation coefficients of the both laboratories analysis results. While observed of the results difference known that the analysis results of Al, Na, K, Fe, V, Mn, Ti, Cr and As elements from both laboratories is not significantly different. From 11 elements were reported, only Zn which have significantly different values for both laboratories. (author)

  19. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ BODY COMPOSITION BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Blinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students

  20. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Hill, Patrick M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark [Division of Medical Physics, CDH Proton Center, 4455 Weaver Parkway, Warrenville, Illinois 60555 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ{sub x1},σ{sub x2},σ{sub y1},σ{sub y2}) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ{sub x},μ{sub y}). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets.

  1. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Hyer, Daniel E.; Hill, Patrick M.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σ x1 ,σ x2 ,σ y1 ,σ y2 ) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μ x ,μ y ). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets

  2. A method for modeling laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Edgar; Wang, Dongxu; Hill, Patrick M.; Flynn, Ryan T.; Gao, Mingcheng; Laub, Steve; Pankuch, Mark; Hyer, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To introduce a method to model the 3D dose distribution of laterally asymmetric proton beamlets resulting from collimation. The model enables rapid beamlet calculation for spot scanning (SS) delivery using a novel penumbra-reducing dynamic collimation system (DCS) with two pairs of trimmers oriented perpendicular to each other. Methods: Trimmed beamlet dose distributions in water were simulated with MCNPX and the collimating effects noted in the simulations were validated by experimental measurement. The simulated beamlets were modeled analytically using integral depth dose curves along with an asymmetric Gaussian function to represent fluence in the beam’s eye view (BEV). The BEV parameters consisted of Gaussian standard deviations (sigmas) along each primary axis (σx1,σx2,σy1,σy2) together with the spatial location of the maximum dose (μx,μy). Percent depth dose variation with trimmer position was accounted for with a depth-dependent correction function. Beamlet growth with depth was accounted for by combining the in-air divergence with Hong’s fit of the Highland approximation along each axis in the BEV. Results: The beamlet model showed excellent agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data used as a benchmark. The overall passing rate for a 3D gamma test with 3%/3 mm passing criteria was 96.1% between the analytical model and Monte Carlo data in an example treatment plan. Conclusions: The analytical model is capable of accurately representing individual asymmetric beamlets resulting from use of the DCS. This method enables integration of the DCS into a treatment planning system to perform dose computation in patient datasets. The method could be generalized for use with any SS collimation system in which blades, leaves, or trimmers are used to laterally sharpen beamlets. PMID:25735287

  3. Decision making with consonant belief functions: Discrepancy resulting with the probability transformation method used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinicioglu Esma Nur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dempster−Shafer belief function theory can address a wider class of uncertainty than the standard probability theory does, and this fact appeals the researchers in operations research society for potential application areas. However, the lack of a decision theory of belief functions gives rise to the need to use the probability transformation methods for decision making. For representation of statistical evidence, the class of consonant belief functions is used which is not closed under Dempster’s rule of combination but is closed under Walley’s rule of combination. In this research, it is shown that the outcomes obtained using both Dempster’s and Walley’s rules do result in different probability distributions when pignistic transformation is used. However, when plausibility transformation is used, they do result in the same probability distribution. This result shows that the choice of the combination rule and probability transformation method may have a significant effect on decision making since it may change the choice of the decision alternative selected. This result is illustrated via an example of missile type identification.

  4. Results of the determination of He in cenozoic aquifers using the GC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, Tomasz; Najman, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    Applications of the Helium (He) method known so far consisted mainly of 4He measurements using a special mass spectrometer. 4He measurements for groundwater dating purposes can be replaced by total He (3He+4He) concentration measurements because the content of 3He can be ignored. The concentrations of 3He are very low and 3He/4 He ratios do not exceed 1.0·10(-5) in most cases. In this study, the total He concentrations in groundwater were determined using the gas chromatographic (GC) method as an alternative to methods based on spectrometry measurement. He concentrations in groundwater were used for the determination of residence time and groundwater circulation. Additionally, the radiocarbon method was used to determine the value of the external He flux (JHe) in the study area. Obtained low He concentrations and their small variation within the ca. 65 km long section along which groundwater flows indicate that it is likely there is relatively short residence time and a strong hydraulic connection between the aquifers. The estimated residence time (ca. 3000 years) is heavily dependent on the great uncertainty of the He concentration resulting from the low concentrations of He, the external 4He flux value adopted for calculation purposes and the 14C ages used to estimate the external 4He flux. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  5. CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods. State of the art and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.; Richter, G.M.; Roeren, T.; Kauffmann, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    We used 21G or 22G fine needles. All CT-guided percutaneous neurolysis methods require a proper blood coagulation. Most common CT scanners are suitable for neurolysis if there is enough room for maintaining sterile conditions. All neurolysis methods involve sterile puncture of the ganglia under local anesthesia, a test block with anesthetic and contrast agent to assess the clinical effect and the definitive block with a mixture of 96% ethanol and local anesthetic. This allows us to correct the position of the needle if we see improper distribution of the test block or unwanted side effects. Though inflammatory complications of the peritoneum due to puncture are rarely seen, we prefer the dorsal approach whenever possible. Results: Seven of 20 legs showed at least transient clinical improvement after CT-guided lumbar sympathectomies; 13 legs had to be amputated. Results of the methods in the literature differ. For lumbar sympathectomy, improved perfusion is reported in 39-89%, depending on the pre-selection of the patient group. Discussion: It was recently proved that sympathectomy not only improves perfusion of the skin but also of the muscle. The hypothesis of a steal effect after sympathectomy towards skin perfusion was disproved. Modern aggressive surgical and interventional treatment often leaves patients to sympathectomy whose reservers of collateralization are nearly exhausted. We presume this is the reason for the different results we found in our patient group. For thoracic sympathectomy the clinical treatment depends very much on the indications. Whereas palmar hyperhidrosis offers nearly 100% success, only 60-70% of patients with disturbance of perfusion have benefited. Results in celiac ganglia block also differ. Patients with carcinoma of the pancreas and other organs of the upper abdomen benefit in 80-100% of all cases, patients with chronic pancreatitis in 60-80%. (orig./VHE) [de

  6. A method for purifying air containing radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, C.W.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the extraction of radioactive isotopes from air. It refers to a method for withdrawing the radioactive substances resulting from the disintegration of radon from air, said method of the type comprising filtrating the air contaminated by the radon daughter products in a filter wetted with water in order to trap said substances in water. It is characterized in that it comprises the steps of causing the water contaminated by the radon daughter products to flow through a filtrating substance containing a non hydrosoluble granular substrate, the outer surface of which has been dried then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning then wetted by a normally-liquid hydrocarbon, and of returning the thus filtrated water so that it wets again the air filter and entraps further radon daughter products. This can be applied to the purification of the air in uranium mines [fr

  7. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally

  8. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Enna Kore, Enna (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally.

  9. Methods used by Elsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinnerskov Jensen, J [Soenderjyllands Hoejspaendingsvaerk, Faelleskemikerne, Aabenraa (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    Performing round robins at regular intervals is the primary method used by ELsam for monitoring precision and accuracy of analytical results. The firs round robin was started in 1974, and today 5 round robins are running. These are focused on: boiler water and steam, lubricating oils, coal, ion chromatography and dissolved gases in transformer oils. Besides the power plant laboratories in Elsam, the participants are power plant laboratories from the rest of Denmark, industrial and commercial laboratories in Denmark, and finally foreign laboratories. The calculated standard deviations or reproducibilities are compared with acceptable values. These values originate from ISO, ASTM and the like, or from own experiences. Besides providing the laboratories with a tool to check their momentary performance, the round robins are vary suitable for evaluating systematic developments on a long term basis. By splitting up the uncertainty according to methods, sample preparation/analysis, etc., knowledge can be extracted from the round robins for use in many other situations. (au)

  10. Effective methods of protection of the intellectual activity results in infosphere of global telematics networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lovtsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is perfection of using metodology of technological and organization and legal protect of intellectual activity results and related intellectual rights in information sphere of Global Telematics Networks (such as of «Internet», «Relkom», «Sitek», «Sedab», «Remart», and others. On the conduct analysis base of the peculiarities and possibilities of using of different technological, organization and legal methods and ways protection of information objects the offers of perfection of corresponding organization and legal safeguarding are formulated. The effectiveness of the protection is provided on the basis of rational aggregation technological, organization and legal methods and ways possible in a particular situation.

  11. Raw material consumption of the European Union--concept, calculation method, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoer, Karl; Weinzettel, Jan; Kovanda, Jan; Giegrich, Jürgen; Lauwigi, Christoph

    2012-08-21

    This article presents the concept, calculation method, and first results of the "Raw Material Consumption" (RMC) economy-wide material flow indicator for the European Union (EU). The RMC measures the final domestic consumption of products in terms of raw material equivalents (RME), i.e. raw materials used in the complete production chain of consumed products. We employed the hybrid input-output life cycle assessment method to calculate RMC. We first developed a highly disaggregated environmentally extended mixed unit input output table and then applied life cycle inventory data for imported products without appropriate representation of production within the domestic economy. Lastly, we treated capital formation as intermediate consumption. Our results show that services, often considered as a solution for dematerialization, account for a significant part of EU raw material consumption, which emphasizes the need to focus on the full production chains and dematerialization of services. Comparison of the EU's RMC with its domestic extraction shows that the EU is nearly self-sufficient in biomass and nonmetallic minerals but extremely dependent on direct and indirect imports of fossil energy carriers and metal ores. This implies an export of environmental burden related to extraction and primary processing of these materials to the rest of the world. Our results demonstrate that internalizing capital formation has significant influence on the calculated RMC.

  12. Some results about the dating of pre hispanic mexican ceramics by the thermoluminescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, P.; Mendoza A, D.; Ramirez L, A.; Schaaf, P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most frequently recurring questions in Archaeometry concerns the age of the studied objects. The some first dating methods were based in historical narrations, style of buildings manufacture techniques. However, has been observed that as consequence the continuous irradiation from naturally occurring radioisotopes and from cosmic rays some materials, such as archaeological ceramic, accumulate certain quantity of energy. These types of material can, in principle, be dated through the analysis of these accumulate energy. In that case, ceramic dating can be realized by thermoluminescence (TL) dating. In this work, results obtained by our research group about TL dating of ceramic belonging to several archaeological zones like to Edzna (Campeche), Calixtlahuaca and Teotenango (Mexico State) and Hervideros (Durango) are presented. The analysis was realized using the fine grained mode in a Daybreak model 1100 reader TL system. The radioisotopes that contribute in the accumulate annual dose in ceramic samples ( 40 K, 238 U, 232 Th) were determined by means of techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (AAN). Our results are agree with results obtained through other methods. (Author) 7 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Influence of Meibomian Gland Expression Methods on Human Lipid Analysis Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, Carolina M E; Brown, Simon H J; Lazon de la Jara, Percy; Holden, Brien A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Mitchell, Todd W; Papas, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    To compare the lipid composition of human meibum across three different meibum expression techniques. Meibum was collected from five healthy non-contact lens wearers (aged 20-35 years) after cleaning the eyelid margin using three meibum expression methods: cotton buds (CB), meibomian gland evaluator (MGE) and meibomian gland forceps (MGF). Meibum was also collected using cotton buds without cleaning the eyelid margin (CBn). Lipids were analyzed by chip-based, nano-electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Comparisons were made using linear mixed models. Tandem MS enabled identification and quantification of over 200 lipid species across ten lipid classes. There were significant differences between collection techniques in the relative quantities of polar lipids obtained (P<.05). The MGE method returned smaller polar lipid quantities than the CB approaches. No significant differences were found between techniques for nonpolar lipids. No significant differences were found between cleaned and non-cleaned eyelids for polar or nonpolar lipids. Meibum expression technique influences the relative amount of phospholipids in the resulting sample. The highest amounts of phospholipids were detected with the CB approaches and the lowest with the MGE technique. Cleaning the eyelid margin prior to expression was not found to affect the lipid composition of the sample. This may be a consequence of the more forceful expression resulting in cell membrane contamination or higher risk of tear lipid contamination as a result of reflex tearing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Daily radiotoxicological supervision of personnel at the Pierrelatte industrial complex. Methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, Jacques.

    1978-05-01

    A 13 year experience gained from daily radiotoxicological supervision of personnel at the PIERRELATTE industrial complex is presented. This study is divided into two parts: part one is theoretical: bibliographical synthesis of all scattered documents and publications; a homogeneous survey of all literature on the subject is thus available. Part two reviews the experience gained in professional surroundings: laboratory measurements and analyses (development of methods and daily applications); mathematical formulae to answer the first questions which arise before an individual liable to be contaminated; results obtained at PIERRELATTE [fr

  15. Frequency of celiac disease in adult patients with typical or atypical malabsorption symptoms in isfahan, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Mohammad Hassan; Kouhestani, Soheila; Karimi, Somayeh; Baghaei, Abdolmahdi; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Jamali, Nahid; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Atypical presentations of celiac disease (CD) have now been shown to be much more common than classical (typical) form. We evaluated the frequency of CD among adult patients with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. Materials and Methods. Patients referred to two outpatient gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan (IRAN) were categorized into those with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody was assessed and followed by duodenal biopsy. In patients for whom endoscopy was indicated (independent of the serology), duodenal biopsy was taken. Histopathological changes were assessed according to the Marsh classification. Results. During the study period, 151 and 173 patients with typical and atypical symptoms were evaluated (mean age = 32.8 ± 12.6 and 35.8 ± 14.8 years, 47.0% and 56.0% female, resp.). Frequency of CD in patients with typical and atypical symptoms was calculated, respectively, as 5.9% (9/151) and 1.25% (3/173) based on positive serology and pathology. The overall frequency was estimated as at least 9.2% (14/151) and 4.0% (7/173) when data of seronegative patients were also considered. Conclusions. CD is more frequent among patients with typical symptoms of malabsorption and these patients should undergo duodenal biopsy, irrespective of the serology. In patients with atypical symptoms, serological tests should be performed followed by endoscopic biopsy, and routine duodenal biopsy is recommended when endoscopic evaluation is indicated because of symptoms.

  16. Frequency of Celiac Disease in Adult Patients with Typical or Atypical Malabsorption Symptoms in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Emami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Atypical presentations of celiac disease (CD have now been shown to be much more common than classical (typical form. We evaluated the frequency of CD among adult patients with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. Materials and Methods. Patients referred to two outpatient gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan (IRAN were categorized into those with typical or atypical symptoms of CD. IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody was assessed and followed by duodenal biopsy. In patients for whom endoscopy was indicated (independent of the serology, duodenal biopsy was taken. Histopathological changes were assessed according to the Marsh classification. Results. During the study period, 151 and 173 patients with typical and atypical symptoms were evaluated (mean age = 32.8±12.6 and 35.8±14.8 years, 47.0% and 56.0% female, resp.. Frequency of CD in patients with typical and atypical symptoms was calculated, respectively, as 5.9% (9/151 and 1.25% (3/173 based on positive serology and pathology. The overall frequency was estimated as at least 9.2% (14/151 and 4.0% (7/173 when data of seronegative patients were also considered. Conclusions. CD is more frequent among patients with typical symptoms of malabsorption and these patients should undergo duodenal biopsy, irrespective of the serology. In patients with atypical symptoms, serological tests should be performed followed by endoscopic biopsy, and routine duodenal biopsy is recommended when endoscopic evaluation is indicated because of symptoms.

  17. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  18. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 μg/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 μg per person (< 0.1 μg/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population

  19. Application of Semiempirical Methods to Transition Metal Complexes: Fast Results but Hard-to-Predict Accuracy.

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury

    2018-05-22

    A series of semiempirical PM6* and PM7 methods has been tested in reproducing of relative conformational energies of 27 realistic-size complexes of 16 different transition metals (TMs). An analysis of relative energies derived from single-point energy evaluations on density functional theory (DFT) optimized conformers revealed pronounced deviations between semiempirical and DFT methods indicating fundamental difference in potential energy surfaces (PES). To identify the origin of the deviation, we compared fully optimized PM7 and respective DFT conformers. For many complexes, differences in PM7 and DFT conformational energies have been confirmed often manifesting themselves in false coordination of some atoms (H, O) to TMs and chemical transformations/distortion of coordination center geometry in PM7 structures. Despite geometry optimization with fixed coordination center geometry leads to some improvements in conformational energies, the resulting accuracy is still too low to recommend explored semiempirical methods for out-of-the-box conformational search/sampling: careful testing is always needed.

  20. Application of X-ray methods to assess grain vulnerability to damage resulting from multiple loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobecki, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the work is to describe wheat grain behavior under multiple dynamic loads with various multipliers. The experiments were conducted on Almari variety grain. Grain moisture was 11, 16, 21 and 28%. A special ram stand was used for loading the grain. The experiments were carried out using an 8 g weight, equivalent to impact energy of 4,6 x 10 -3 [J]. The X-ray method was used to assess damage. The exposure time was 8 minutes with X-ray lamp voltage equal to 15 kV. The position index was used as the measure of the damage. The investigation results were elaborated statistically. Based on the results of analysis of variance, regression analysis, the d-Duncan test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the damage number was shown to depend greatly on the number of impacts for the whole range of moisture of the grain loaded. (author)

  1. (Re)interpreting LHC New Physics Search Results : Tools and Methods, 3rd Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    The quest for new physics beyond the SM is arguably the driving topic for LHC Run2. LHC collaborations are pursuing searches for new physics in a vast variety of channels. Although collaborations provide various interpretations for their search results, the full understanding of these results requires a much wider interpretation scope involving all kinds of theoretical models. This is a very active field, with close theory-experiment interaction. In particular, development of dedicated methodologies and tools is crucial for such scale of interpretation. Recently, a Forum was initiated to host discussions among LHC experimentalists and theorists on topics related to the BSM (re)interpretation of LHC data, and especially on the development of relevant interpretation tools and infrastructure: https://twiki.cern.ch/twiki/bin/view/LHCPhysics/InterpretingLHCresults Two meetings were held at CERN, where active discussions and concrete work on (re)interpretation methods and tools took place, with valuable cont...

  2. GRS Method for Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation of Code Results and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, H.

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years, an increasing interest in computational reactor safety analysis is to replace the conservative evaluation model calculations by best estimate calculations supplemented by uncertainty analysis of the code results. The evaluation of the margin to acceptance criteria, for example, the maximum fuel rod clad temperature, should be based on the upper limit of the calculated uncertainty range. Uncertainty analysis is needed if useful conclusions are to be obtained from best estimate thermal-hydraulic code calculations, otherwise single values of unknown accuracy would be presented for comparison with regulatory acceptance limits. Methods have been developed and presented to quantify the uncertainty of computer code results. The basic techniques proposed by GRS are presented together with applications to a large break loss of coolant accident on a reference reactor as well as on an experiment simulating containment behaviour

  3. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  4. Effect of a typical rural processing method on the proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... among other natural boundaries in West Africa supply a massive amount of ... For instance Itugha known to be highly prized and delicious indigenous food is ... are facing extinction due to urbanization and increased patronage of fast foods, ...

  5. Long-term results of forearm lengthening and deformity correction by the Ilizarov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowski, Wiktor; Morasiewicz, Leszek; Krawczyk, Artur; Dragan, Szymon; Czapiński, Jacek

    2002-06-30

    Background. Shortening and deformity of the forearm is most frequently caused by congenital disorders or posttraumatic injury. Given its complex anatomy and biomechanics, the forearm is clearly the most difficult segment for lengthening and deformity correction. Material and methods. We analyzed 16 patients with shortening and deformity of the forearm, treated surgically, using the Ilizarov method in our Department from 1989 to 2001. in 9 cases 1-stage surgery was sufficient, while the remaining 7 patients underwent 2-5 stages of treatment. At total of 31 surgical operations were performed. The extent of forearm shortening ranged from 1,5 to 14,5 cm (5-70%). We development a new fixator based on Schanz half-pins. Results. The length of forearm lengthening per operative stage averaged 2,35 cm. the proportion of lengthening ranged from 6% to 48% with an average of 18,3%. The mean lengthening index was 48,15 days/cm. the per-patient rate of complications was 88% compared 45% per stage of treatment, mostly limited rotational mobility and abnormal consolidation of regenerated bone. Conclusions. Despite the high complication rate, the Ilizarov method is the method of choice for patients with forearm shortenings and deformities. Treatment is particularly indicated in patients with shortening caused by disproportionate length of the ulnar and forearm bones. Treatment should be managed so as cause the least possible damage to arm function, even at the cost of limited lengthening. Our new stabilizer based on Schanz half-pins makes it possible to preserve forearm rotation.

  6. Ultrasonic Digital Communication System for a Steel Wall Multipath Channel: Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Timothy L. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2005-12-01

    As of the development of this thesis, no commercially available products have been identified for the digital communication of instrumented data across a thick ({approx} 6 n.) steel wall using ultrasound. The specific goal of the current research is to investigate the application of methods for digital communication of instrumented data (i.e., temperature, voltage, etc.) across the wall of a steel pressure vessel. The acoustic transmission of data using ultrasonic transducers prevents the need to breach the wall of such a pressure vessel which could ultimately affect its safety or lifespan, or void the homogeneity of an experiment under test. Actual digital communication paradigms are introduced and implemented for the successful dissemination of data across such a wall utilizing solely an acoustic ultrasonic link. The first, dubbed the ''single-hop'' configuration, can communicate bursts of digital data one-way across the wall using the Differential Binary Phase-Shift Keying (DBPSK) modulation technique as fast as 500 bps. The second, dubbed the ''double-hop'' configuration, transmits a carrier into the vessel, modulates it, and retransmits it externally. Using a pulsed carrier with Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), this technique can communicate digital data as fast as 500 bps. Using a CW carrier, Least Mean-Squared (LMS) adaptive interference suppression, and DBPSK, this method can communicate data as fast as 5 kbps. A third technique, dubbed the ''reflected-power'' configuration, communicates digital data by modulating a pulsed carrier by varying the acoustic impedance at the internal transducer-wall interface. The paradigms of the latter two configurations are believed to be unique. All modulation methods are based on the premise that the wall cannot be breached in any way and can therefore be viably implemented with power delivered wirelessly through the acoustic channel using ultrasound. Methods

  7. Chaos of several typical asymmetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jingjing; Zhang Qichang; Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    The threshold for the onset of chaos in asymmetric nonlinear dynamic systems can be determined using an extended Padé method. In this paper, a double-well asymmetric potential system with damping under external periodic excitation is investigated, as well as an asymmetric triple-well potential system under external and parametric excitation. The integrals of Melnikov functions are established to demonstrate that the motion is chaotic. Threshold values are acquired when homoclinic and heteroclinic bifurcations occur. The results of analytical and numerical integration are compared to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the analytical method.

  8. Improving the accuracy of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy results by machine learning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groselj, C.; Kukar, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Machine learning (ML) as rapidly growing artificial intelligence subfield has already proven in last decade to be a useful tool in many fields of decision making, also in some fields of medicine. Its decision accuracy usually exceeds the human one. To assess applicability of ML in interpretation the results of stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for CAD diagnosis. The 327 patient's data of planar stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were reevaluated in usual way. Comparing them with the results of coronary angiography the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the investigation was computed. The data were digitized and the decision procedure repeated by ML program 'Naive Bayesian classifier'. As the ML is able to simultaneously manipulate of whatever number of data, all reachable disease connected data (regarding history, habitus, risk factors, stress results) were added. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for scintigraphy were expressed in this way. The results of both decision procedures were compared. With ML method 19 patients more out of 327 (5.8 %) were correctly diagnosed by stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. ML could be an important tool for decision making in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (author)

  9. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  10. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods influence reports of cognitive decline. The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded to results from the other scale. Scales were not used for diagnostic classification. Cognitive performances and depressive symptoms were also rated. We studied the association between the two measures and investigated the scales' relation to depressive symptoms, age, and cognitive status. SMC and MAC-Q were significantly associated (r = 0.44, N = 121, p = 0.015) and both scales had a wide range of scores. In this mixed cohort of patients, younger age was associated with higher SMC scores. There were no significant correlations between cognitive test performances and scales measuring subjective decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. Measures for subjective cognitive decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration should be taken as to which questions are relevant and have validity when operationalizing subjective cognitive decline.

  11. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: Hardware setup, reconstruction methods and first clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmeke, Hartmut; Hopp, Torsten; Zapf, Michael; Kaiser, Clemens; Ruiter, Nicole V.

    2017-11-01

    A promising candidate for improved imaging of breast cancer is ultrasound computer tomography (USCT). Current experimental USCT systems are still focused in elevation dimension resulting in a large slice thickness, limited depth of field, loss of out-of-plane reflections, and a large number of movement steps to acquire a stack of images. 3D USCT emitting and receiving spherical wave fronts overcomes these limitations. We built an optimized 3D USCT, realizing for the first time the full benefits of a 3D system. The point spread function could be shown to be nearly isotropic in 3D, to have very low spatial variability and fit the predicted values. The contrast of the phantom images is very satisfactory in spite of imaging with a sparse aperture. The resolution and imaged details of the reflectivity reconstruction are comparable to a 3 T MRI volume. Important for the obtained resolution are the simultaneously obtained results of the transmission tomography. The KIT 3D USCT was then tested in a pilot study on ten patients. The primary goals of the pilot study were to test the USCT device, the data acquisition protocols, the image reconstruction methods and the image fusion techniques in a clinical environment. The study was conducted successfully; the data acquisition could be carried out for all patients with an average imaging time of six minutes per breast. The reconstructions provide promising images. Overlaid volumes of the modalities show qualitative and quantitative information at a glance. This paper gives a summary of the involved techniques, methods, and first results.

  12. Impact of Costing and Cost Analysis Methods on the Result of the Period: Methods Based on Full Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Maria

    2017-01-01

    In light of the above, in the present paper we have proposed that objectives, to approach the methods of calculating full costs (economic or traditional, and comparing them to determine the effect they have on the outcome of the period.

  13. A quantitative evaluation of seismic margin of typical sodium piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki

    1999-05-01

    It is widely recognized that the current seismic design methods for piping involve a large amount of safety margin. From this viewpoint, a series of seismic analyses and evaluations with various design codes were made on typical LMFBR main sodium piping systems. Actual capability against seismic loads were also estimated on the piping systems. Margins contained in the current codes were quantified based on these results, and potential benefits and impacts to the piping seismic design were assessed on possible mitigation of the current code allowables. From the study, the following points were clarified; 1) A combination of inelastic time history analysis and true (without margin)strength capability allows several to twenty times as large seismic load compared with the allowable load with the current methods. 2) The new rule of the ASME is relatively compatible with the results of inelastic analysis evaluation. Hence, this new rule might be a goal for the mitigation of seismic design rule. 3) With this mitigation, seismic design accommodation such as equipping with a large number of seismic supports may become unnecessary. (author)

  14. Feasibility to implement the radioisotopic method of nasal mucociliary transport measurement getting reliable results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, M.; Opazo, C.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to implement the radioisotopic method to measure the nasal mucociliary velocity of transport (NMVT) in a feasible way in order to make it easily available as well as to validate the accuracy of the results. Such a method is needed when primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is suspected, a disorder characterized for low NMVT, non-specific chronic respiratory symptoms that needs to be confirmed by electronic microscopic cilia biopsy. Methods: We performed one hundred studies from February 2000 until February 2002. Patients aged 2 months to 39 years, mean 9 years. All of them were referred from the Respiratory Disease Department. Ninety had upper or lower respiratory symptoms, ten were healthy controls. The procedure, done be the Nuclear Medicine Technologist, consists to put a 20 μl drop of 99mTc-MAA (0,1 mCi, 4 MBq) behind the head of the inferior turbinate in one nostril using a frontal light, a nasal speculum and a teflon catheter attached to a tuberculin syringe. The drop movement was acquired in a gamma camera-computer system and the velocity was expressed in mm/min. As there is need for the patient not to move during the procedure, sedation has to be used in non-cooperative children. Abnormal NMVT values cases were referred for nasal biopsy. Patients were classified in three groups. Normal controls (NC), PCD confirmed by biopsy (PCDB) and cases with respiratory symptoms without biopsy (RSNB). In all patients with NMVT less than 2.4 mm/min PCD was confirmed by biopsy. There was a clear-cut separation between normal and abnormal values and interestingly even the highest NMVT in PCDB cases was lower than the lowest NMVT in NC. The procedure is not as easy as is generally described in the literature because the operator has to get some skill as well as for the need of sedation in some cases. Conclusion: The procedure gives reliable, reproducible and objective results. It is safe, not expensive and quick in cooperative patients. Although, sometimes

  15. Time to discontinuation of atypical versus typical antipsychotics in the naturalistic treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Marvin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an ongoing debate over whether atypical antipsychotics are more effective than typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. This naturalistic study compares atypical and typical antipsychotics on time to all-cause medication discontinuation, a recognized index of medication effectiveness in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods We used data from a large, 3-year, observational, non-randomized, multisite study of schizophrenia, conducted in the U.S. between 7/1997 and 9/2003. Patients who were initiated on oral atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, or ziprasidone or oral typical antipsychotics (low, medium, or high potency were compared on time to all-cause medication discontinuation for 1 year following initiation. Treatment group comparisons were based on treatment episodes using 3 statistical approaches (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox Proportional Hazards regression model, and propensity score-adjusted bootstrap resampling methods. To further assess the robustness of the findings, sensitivity analyses were performed, including the use of (a only 1 medication episode for each patient, the one with which the patient was treated first, and (b all medication episodes, including those simultaneously initiated on more than 1 antipsychotic. Results Mean time to all-cause medication discontinuation was longer on atypical (N = 1132, 256.3 days compared to typical antipsychotics (N = 534, 197.2 days; p Conclusion In the usual care of schizophrenia patients, time to medication discontinuation for any cause appears significantly longer for atypical than typical antipsychotics regardless of the typical antipsychotic potency level. Findings were primarily driven by clozapine and olanzapine, and to a lesser extent by risperidone. Furthermore, only clozapine and olanzapine therapy showed consistently and significantly longer treatment duration compared to perphenazine, a medium

  16. Rainfall assimilation in RAMS by means of the Kuo parameterisation inversion: method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, A.; Ortolani, A.; Meneguzzo, F.; Levizzani, V.; Torricella, F.; Turk, F. J.

    2004-03-01

    In order to improve high-resolution forecasts, a specific method for assimilating rainfall rates into the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System model has been developed. It is based on the inversion of the Kuo convective parameterisation scheme. A nudging technique is applied to 'gently' increase with time the weight of the estimated precipitation in the assimilation process. A rough but manageable technique is explained to estimate the partition of convective precipitation from stratiform one, without requiring any ancillary measurement. The method is general purpose, but it is tuned for geostationary satellite rainfall estimation assimilation. Preliminary results are presented and discussed, both through totally simulated experiments and through experiments assimilating real satellite-based precipitation observations. For every case study, Rainfall data are computed with a rapid update satellite precipitation estimation algorithm based on IR and MW satellite observations. This research was carried out in the framework of the EURAINSAT project (an EC research project co-funded by the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development Programme within the topic 'Development of generic Earth observation technologies', Contract number EVG1-2000-00030).

  17. Implantable central venous chemoport: camparision of results according to approach routes and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byung Suck; Ahn, Moon Sang

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the results and complications of placement of implantable port according to approach routes and methods. Between April 2001 and October 2002, a total of 103 implantable chemoport was placed in 95 patients for chemotherapy using preconnected type (n=39) and attachable type (n=64). Puncture sites were left subclavian vein (n=35), right subclavian vein (n=5), left internal jugular vein (n=9), right internal jugular vein (n=54). We evaluated duration of catheterization days, complications according to approach routes and methods. Implantable chemoport was placed successfully in all cases. Duration of catheterization ranged from 8 to 554 days(mean 159, total 17,872 catheter days). Procedure related complications occurred transient pulmonary air embolism (n=1), small hematoma (n=1) and malposition in using preconnected type (n=2). Late complications occurred catheter migration (n=5), catheter malfunction (n=3), occlusion (n=1) and infection (n=11). Among them 15 chemoport was removed (14.5%). Catheter migration was occured via subclavian vein in all cases (13%, p=.008). Infection developed in 10.7% of patients(0.61 per 1000 catheter days). There were no catheter-related central vein thrombosis. Implantation of chemoport is a safe procedure. Choice of right internal jugular vein than subclavian vain vein for puncture site has less complications. And selection of attachable type of chemoport is convenient than preconnected type. Adequate care of chemoport is essential for long patency

  18. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Gulino, M.; Tumino, A. [Kore University, Enna, Italy and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  19. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Gulino, M.; Tumino, A.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance

  20. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  1. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...... decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive...... decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration...

  2. Results of a survey on accident and safety analysis codes, benchmarks, verification and validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1996-03-01

    During the 'Workshop on R and D needs' at the 3rd Meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR-III), the participants agreed that it would be useful to compile a survey of the computer codes and nuclear data libraries used in accident and safety analyses for research reactors and the methods various organizations use to verify and validate their codes and libraries. Five organizations, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL, Canada), China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE, People's Republic of China), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI, Japan), Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL, USA), and Siemens (Germany) responded to the survey. The results of the survey are compiled in this report. (author) 36 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Radioactive indium labelling of the figured elements of blood. Method, results, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Nouel, J.P.

    Following the work of Thakur et al. the authors became interested in red corpuscle, leucocyte and platelet labelling with indium 111 or 113m (8 hydroxyquinolein-indium). For easier labelling of the figured elements of blood the technique described was modified. The chelate is prepared by simple contact at room temperature of indium 111 or 113m chloride and water-soluble 8 hydroxyquinolein sulphate, in the presence of 0.2M TRIS buffer. The figured element chosen suspended in physiological serum is added directly to the solution obtained, the platelets and leucocytes being separated out beforehand by differential centrifugation. While it gives results similar to those of Thabur et al. the method proposed avoids the chloroform extraction of the radioactive chelate and the use of alcohol, liable to impair the platelet regation capacity [fr

  4. Hydrogen storage in single-walled carbon nanotubes: methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, E.; Chahine, R.; Tessier, A.; Cossement, D.; Lafi, L.; Bose, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    We present high sensitivity gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen sorption measurement systems adapted for in situ conditioning under high temperature and high vacuum. These systems, which allow for precise measurements on small samples and thorough degassing, are used for sorption measurements on carbon nanostructures. We developed one volumetric system for the pressure range 0-1 bar, and two gravimetric systems for 0-1 bar and 0-100 bars. The use of both gravimetric and volumetric methods allows for the cross-checking of the results. The accuracy of the systems has been determined from hydrogen absorption measurements on palladium. The accuracies of the 0-1 bar volumetric and gravimetric systems are about 10 μg and 20 μg respectively. The accuracy of the 0-100 bars gravimetric system is about 20 μg. Hydrogen sorption measurements on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal-incorporated- SWNTs are presented. (author)

  5. Method validation in plasma source optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) - From samples to results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilon, Fabien; Vielle, Karine; Birolleau, Jean-Claude; Vigneau, Olivier; Labet, Alexandre; Arnal, Nadege; Adam, Christelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Amiel, Jeanine; Granier, Guy; Faure, Joel; Arnaud, Regine; Beres, Andre; Blanchard, Jean-Marc; Boyer-Deslys, Valerie; Broudic, Veronique; Marques, Caroline; Augeray, Celine; Bellefleur, Alexandre; Bienvenu, Philippe; Delteil, Nicole; Boulet, Beatrice; Bourgarit, David; Brennetot, Rene; Fichet, Pascal; Celier, Magali; Chevillotte, Rene; Klelifa, Aline; Fuchs, Gilbert; Le Coq, Gilles; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2017-01-01

    Even though ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy) is now a routine analysis technique, requirements for measuring processes impose a complete control and mastering of the operating process and of the associated quality management system. The aim of this (collective) book is to guide the analyst during all the measurement validation procedure and to help him to guarantee the mastering of its different steps: administrative and physical management of samples in the laboratory, preparation and treatment of the samples before measuring, qualification and monitoring of the apparatus, instrument setting and calibration strategy, exploitation of results in terms of accuracy, reliability, data covariance (with the practical determination of the accuracy profile). The most recent terminology is used in the book, and numerous examples and illustrations are given in order to a better understanding and to help the elaboration of method validation documents

  6. Labelling of blood cells with radioactive indium-201: method, results, indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducassou, D.; Brendel, A.; Nouel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A modification of the method of Thakur et al. for labelling polynuclear cells with 8-hydroxyquinolein-indium-complexe utilising the water soluble sulfate of the substance was applied. The labelling procedure gave a yield over 98% with erthrocytes and over 80% with platelets and polynuclear cells using at least 1 x 10 8 plasma free cells. Functional capacity of the labelled cells remained unaltered. Injection double labelled ( 111 In, 51 Cr) red cells correlation of values for the red cell volume amounted to r = 0,98 (n=20); red cell life-spane measurements gave comparable results in 5 patients. After injecting labelled platelets a life-spane between 6,5 and 11 days was measured. Scintigraphic visualisation of pulmonary embolism was obtained 30 minutes after injecting labelled platelets. Injection of labelled polynuclear cells allows life-spane measurements as well as detection of abscesses. (author)

  7. Pion emission from the T2K replica target: method, results and application

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Baatar, B.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bravar, A.; Brooks, W.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Feofilov, G.A.; Fodor, Z.; Ferrero, A.; Fulop, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grabez, B.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hakobyan, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Idczak, R.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikola, D.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kiss, T.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kochebina, O.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalski, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Larsen, D.; Laszlo, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Majka, Z.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A.I.; Maletic, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Marin, V.; Marton, K.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Messina, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Paul, T.; Peryt, W.; Petukhov, O.; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Pulawski, S.; Puzovic, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Robert, A.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Savic, M.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sipos, M.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tolyhi, T.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberic, D.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszynski, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zipper, W.; Hartz, M.; Ichikawa, A.K.; Kubo, H.; Marino, A.D.; Matsuoka, K.; Murakami, A.; Nakaya, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yuan, T.; Zimmerman, E.D.

    2013-01-01

    The T2K long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan needs precise predictions of the initial neutrino flux. The highest precision can be reached based on detailed measurements of hadron emission from the same target as used by T2K exposed to a proton beam of the same kinetic energy of 30 GeV. The corresponding data were recorded in 2007-2010 by the NA61/SHINE experiment at the CERN SPS using a replica of the T2K graphite target. In this paper details of the experiment, data taking, data analysis method and results from the 2007 pilot run are presented. Furthermore, the application of the NA61/SHINE measurements to the predictions of the T2K initial neutrino flux is described and discussed.

  8. MLFMA-accelerated Nyström method for ultrasonic scattering - Numerical results and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrala, Praveen; Downs, Andrew; Chen, Kun; Song, Jiming; Roberts, Ron

    2018-04-01

    Full wave scattering models for ultrasonic waves are necessary for the accurate prediction of voltage signals received from complex defects/flaws in practical nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurements. We propose the high-order Nyström method accelerated by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) as an improvement to the state-of-the-art full-wave scattering models that are based on boundary integral equations. We present numerical results demonstrating improvements in simulation time and memory requirement. Particularly, we demonstrate the need for higher order geom-etry and field approximation in modeling NDE measurements. Also, we illustrate the importance of full-wave scattering models using experimental pulse-echo data from a spherical inclusion in a solid, which cannot be modeled accurately by approximation-based scattering models such as the Kirchhoff approximation.

  9. Lagrangian methods for blood damage estimation in cardiovascular devices--How numerical implementation affects the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Gil; Bluestein, Danny

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluated the influence of various numerical implementation assumptions on predicting blood damage in cardiovascular devices using Lagrangian methods with Eulerian computational fluid dynamics. The implementation assumptions that were tested included various seeding patterns, stochastic walk model, and simplified trajectory calculations with pathlines. Post processing implementation options that were evaluated included single passage and repeated passages stress accumulation and time averaging. This study demonstrated that the implementation assumptions can significantly affect the resulting stress accumulation, i.e., the blood damage model predictions. Careful considerations should be taken in the use of Lagrangian models. Ultimately, the appropriate assumptions should be considered based the physics of the specific case and sensitivity analysis, similar to the ones presented here, should be employed.

  10. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  11. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  12. Comparison of Results according to the treatment Method in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Jo, Jae Sik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nam, Taek Keun; Nah, Byung Sik [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Jin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-15

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the proper management of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Materials and Methods : Authors analysed 33 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus treated at Chonnam University Hospital from January 1986 to December 1992. There were 24 men and 9 women with median age of 55 years. According to AJCC TNM system of 1988, a patient of T2, 10 patients of T3 and 22 patients of T4 were available, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastases was observed in 5 patients(N1;4/33, N2b;1/33). Patients were classified as 3 groups according to management method. The first group, named as 'FAR' (16 patients), was consisted of preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU;mean of total dosage;3078mg) through the superficial temporal artery with concurrent radiation(mean dose delivered;3433cGy, daily 180-200cGy) and vitamin A(50,000 IU daily), and followed by total maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose;2351cGy). The second group, named as 'SR'(7 patients), was consisted of total maxillectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose 5920 cGy). Her third group, named as 'R'(6 patients), was treated with radiation alone(mean dose;7164cGy). Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used for survival analysis and Mantel-Cox test was performed for significance of survival difference between two groups. Results : Local recurrence free survival rate in the end of 2 year was 100%, 5-% and 0% in FAR, SR and R group, respectively. Disease free survival rate in 2 years was 88.9%, 40% and 50% in Far, SR and R group, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between FAR and SR or FAR and R group in their local recurrence free, disease free and overall survival rates. But difference of each survival rate between SR and R group was not significant. Conclusion : In this study FAR group revealed better results that SR or R group. In the

  13. INTERDISCIPLINARITY IN PUBLIC SPACE PARTICIPATIVE PROJECTS: METHODS AND RESULTS IN PRACTICE AND TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brandão

    2015-06-01

    • In the development of design practice and studio teaching methods We shall see in this paper how interdisciplinary approaches correspond to new and complex urban transformations, focusing on the importance of actors’ interaction processes, combining professional and non-professional knowledge and theory-practice relations. Therefore, we aim at a deepening in public space area of knowledge under the growing complexity of urban life. We see it as a base for further development of collaborative projects and their implications on community empowerment and urban governance at local level. Motivations of this line of work are persistent in several ongoing research projects, aiming to: - Understand public space as a cohesion factor both in urban life and urban form - Manage processes and strategies as elements of urban transformation, - Stimulate the understanding of actors’ roles in urban design practices. - Favoring the questioning of emerging aspects of urban space production… The paper presents and analyses processes, methods and results from civic participation projects developed in the neighbourhood of Barò de Viver (Barcelona and in the District of Marvila (Lisbon. In the first case, a long process initiated in 2004 and partially completed in 2011, neighbours developed the projects "Memory Wall" and Ciutat d'Asuncion Promenade as part of identity construction in public space, in collaboration  with a team of facilitators from CrPolis group. In the second case, different participatory processes dated from 2001 and 2003 have resulted in the implementation of a specific identity urban brand and communication system with an ongoing project of "maps" construction according to the neighbours perception and representation systems. We may conclude that processes of urban governance require more active participation of citizens in projects regarding the improvement of quality of life. At the same time, the implementation of these processes requires a clear

  14. Comparison of Results according to the treatment Method in Maxillary Sinus Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Woong Ki; Jo, Jae Sik; Ahn, Sung Ja; Nam, Taek Keun; Nah, Byung Sik; Park, Seung Jin

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the proper management of maxillary sinus carcinoma. Materials and Methods : Authors analysed 33 patients of squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus treated at Chonnam University Hospital from January 1986 to December 1992. There were 24 men and 9 women with median age of 55 years. According to AJCC TNM system of 1988, a patient of T2, 10 patients of T3 and 22 patients of T4 were available, respectively. Cervical lymph node metastases was observed in 5 patients(N1;4/33, N2b;1/33). Patients were classified as 3 groups according to management method. The first group, named as 'FAR' (16 patients), was consisted of preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil(5-FU;mean of total dosage;3078mg) through the superficial temporal artery with concurrent radiation(mean dose delivered;3433cGy, daily 180-200cGy) and vitamin A(50,000 IU daily), and followed by total maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose;2351cGy). The second group, named as 'SR'(7 patients), was consisted of total maxillectomy followed by postoperative radiation therapy(mean dose 5920 cGy). Her third group, named as 'R'(6 patients), was treated with radiation alone(mean dose;7164cGy). Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used for survival analysis and Mantel-Cox test was performed for significance of survival difference between two groups. Results : Local recurrence free survival rate in the end of 2 year was 100%, 5-% and 0% in FAR, SR and R group, respectively. Disease free survival rate in 2 years was 88.9%, 40% and 50% in Far, SR and R group, respectively. There were statistically significant difference between FAR and SR or FAR and R group in their local recurrence free, disease free and overall survival rates. But difference of each survival rate between SR and R group was not significant. Conclusion : In this study FAR group revealed better results that SR or R group. In the future prospective randomized

  15. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  16. Impact of Costing and Cost Analysis Methods on the Result of the Period: Methods Based on Partial Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Maria

    2017-01-01

    Looking from this perspective, in the present paper we have proposed that objectives, to approach the full cost calculation methods based on partial costs (direct-costing on the product or direct-costing evolved, and comparing them to determine the effect they have on the outcome of the period.

  17. Study on the three-station typical network deployments of workspace Measurement and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-10-01

    As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.

  18. A New Method for a Virtue-Based Responsible Conduct of Research Curriculum: Pilot Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berling, Eric; McLeskey, Chet; O'Rourke, Michael; Pennock, Robert T

    2018-02-03

    Drawing on Pennock's theory of scientific virtues, we are developing an alternative curriculum for training scientists in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) that emphasizes internal values rather than externally imposed rules. This approach focuses on the virtuous characteristics of scientists that lead to responsible and exemplary behavior. We have been pilot-testing one element of such a virtue-based approach to RCR training by conducting dialogue sessions, modeled upon the approach developed by Toolbox Dialogue Initiative, that focus on a specific virtue, e.g., curiosity and objectivity. During these structured discussions, small groups of scientists explore the roles they think the focus virtue plays and should play in the practice of science. Preliminary results have shown that participants strongly prefer this virtue-based model over traditional methods of RCR training. While we cannot yet definitively say that participation in these RCR sessions contributes to responsible conduct, these pilot results are encouraging and warrant continued development of this virtue-based approach to RCR training.

  19. First characterization of the expiratory flow increase technique: method development and results analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maréchal, L; Barthod, C; Jeulin, J C

    2009-01-01

    This study provides an important contribution to the definition of the expiratory flow increase technique (EFIT). So far, no measuring means were suited to assess the manual EFIT performed on infants. The proposed method aims at objectively defining the EFIT based on the quantification of pertinent cognitive parameters used by physiotherapists when practicing. We designed and realized customized instrumented gloves endowed with pressure and displacement sensors, and the associated electronics and software. This new system is specific to the manoeuvre, to the user and innocuous for the patient. Data were collected and analysed on infants with bronchiolitis managed by an expert physiotherapist. The analysis presented is realized on a group of seven subjects (mean age: 6.1 months, SD: 1.1; mean chest circumference: 44.8 cm, SD: 1.9). The results are consistent with the physiotherapist's tactility. In spite of inevitable variability due to measurements on infants, repeatable quantitative data could be reported regarding the manoeuvre characteristics: the magnitudes of displacements do not exceed 10 mm on both hands; the movement of the thoracic hand is more vertical than the movement of the abdominal hand; the maximum applied pressure with the thoracic hand is about twice higher than with the abdominal hand; the thrust of the manual compression lasts (590 ± 62) ms. Inter-operators measurements are in progress in order to generalize these results

  20. Enhancing activated-peroxide formulations for porous materials: Test methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Paula [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tucker, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tezak, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boucher, Raymond [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-12-01

    During an urban wide-area incident involving the release of a biological warfare agent, the recovery/restoration effort will require extensive resources and will tax the current capabilities of the government and private contractors. In fact, resources may be so limited that decontamination by facility owners/occupants may become necessary and a simple decontamination process and material should be available for this use. One potential process for use by facility owners/occupants would be a liquid sporicidal decontaminant, such as pHamended bleach or activated-peroxide, and simple application devices. While pH-amended bleach is currently the recommended low-tech decontamination solution, a less corrosive and toxic decontaminant is desirable. The objective of this project is to provide an operational assessment of an alternative to chlorine bleach for low-tech decontamination applications activated hydrogen peroxide. This report provides the methods and results for activatedperoxide evaluation experiments. The results suggest that the efficacy of an activated-peroxide decontaminant is similar to pH-amended bleach on many common materials.

  1. Energy Conservation Program Evaluation : Practical Methods, Useful Results : Proceedings of the 1987 Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argonne National Laboratory; International Conference on Energy Conservation Program Evaluation (3rd : 1987 : Chicago, ILL.)

    1987-01-01

    The success of cutting-edge evaluation methodologies depends on our ability to merge, manage, and maintain huge amounts of data. Equally important is presenting results of the subsequent analysis in a meaningful way. These topics are addressed at this session. The considerable amounts of data that have been collected about energy conservation programs are rarely used by other researchers, either because they are not available in computerized form or, if they are, because of the difficulties of interpreting someone else's data, format inconsistencies, incompatibility of computers, lack of documentation, data entry errors, and obtaining data use agreements. Even census, RECS, and AHS data can be best used only by a researcher who is intimately familiar with them. Once the data have been accessed and analyzed, the results need to be put in a format that can be readily understood by others. This is a particularly difficult task when submetered data is the basis of the analysis. Stoops and Gilbride will demonstrate their methods of using off-the-shelf graphics software to illustrate complex hourly data from nonresidential buildings.

  2. Dosimetry methods and results for the former residents of Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    The US Government utilized Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands of Micronesia for atomspheric tests of nuclear explosives in the 1940's and 1950's. The original inhabitants of these atolls were relocated prior to the tests. During the early 1970's, a small but growing population of Marshallese people reinhabited Bikini. Environmental and personnel radiological monitoring programs were begun in 1974 to ensure that doses and dose commitments received by Bikini residents remained within US Federal Radiation Council guidelines. Dramatic increases in 137 Cs body burdens among the inhabitants between April 1977 and 1978 may have played a significant role in the government decision to move the 140 Bikinians in residence off of the atoll in August 1978. The average 137 Cs body burden for the population was 2.3 μCi in April 1978. Several individuals, however, exceeded the maximum permissible body burden of 3 μCi, and some approached 6 μCi. The resultant total dose commitment was less than 200 mrem for the average resident. The average total dose for the mean residence interval of approx. 4.5 years was about 1 rem. The sources of exposure, the probable cause of the unexpected increase in 137 Cs body burdens, and the methods for calculating radionuclide intake and resultant doses are discussed. Suggestions are offered as to the implications of the most significant exposure pathways for the future inhabitation of Bikini and Enewetak

  3. Major Results of the OECD BEMUSE (Best Estimate Methods; Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reventos, F.

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of computer code models of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) is to demonstrate that these are designed to respond safely at postulated accidents. Models and codes are an approximation of the real physical behaviour occurring during a hypothetical transient and the data used to build these models are also known with certain accuracy. Therefore code predictions are uncertain. The BEMUSE programme is focussed on the application of uncertainty methodologies to large break LOCAs. The programme intends to evaluate the practicability, quality and reliability of best-estimate methods including uncertainty evaluations in applications relevant to nuclear reactor safety, to develop common understanding and to promote/facilitate their use by the regulator bodies and the industry. In order to fulfil its objectives BEMUSE is organized in to steps and six phases. The first step is devoted to the complete analysis of a LB-LOCA (L2-5) in an experimental facility (LOFT) while the second step refers to an actual Nuclear Power Plant. Both steps provide results on thermalhydraulic Best Estimate simulation as well as Uncertainty and sensitivity evaluation. At the time this paper is prepared, phases I, II and III are fully completed and the corresponding reports have been issued. Phase IV draft report is by now being reviewed while participants are working on Phase V developments. Phase VI consists in preparing the final status report which will summarizes the most relevant results of the whole programme.

  4. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  5. The Vermont oxford neonatal encephalopathy registry: rationale, methods, and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2006, the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) established the Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry (NER) to characterize infants born with neonatal encephalopathy, describe evaluations and medical treatments, monitor hypothermic therapy (HT) dissemination, define clinical research questions, and identify opportunities for improved care. Methods Eligible infants were ≥ 36 weeks with seizures, altered consciousness (stupor, coma) during the first 72 hours of life, a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, or receiving HT. Infants with central nervous system birth defects were excluded. Results From 2006–2010, 95 centers registered 4232 infants. Of those, 59% suffered a seizure, 50% had a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, 38% received HT, and 18% had stupor/coma documented on neurologic exam. Some infants experienced more than one eligibility criterion. Only 53% had a cord gas obtained and only 63% had a blood gas obtained within 24 hours of birth, important components for determining HT eligibility. Sixty-four percent received ventilator support, 65% received anticonvulsants, 66% had a head MRI, 23% had a cranial CT, 67% had a full channel encephalogram (EEG) and 33% amplitude integrated EEG. Of all infants, 87% survived. Conclusions The VON NER describes the heterogeneous population of infants with NE, the subset that received HT, their patterns of care, and outcomes. The optimal routine care of infants with neonatal encephalopathy is unknown. The registry method is well suited to identify opportunities for improvement in the care of infants affected by NE and study interventions such as HT as they are implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22726296

  6. Chemical abundances of fast-rotating massive stars. I. Description of the methods and individual results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Constantin; Morel, Thierry; Nazé, Yaël; Rauw, Gregor; Semaan, Thierry; Daflon, Simone; Oey, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: Recent observations have challenged our understanding of rotational mixing in massive stars by revealing a population of fast-rotating objects with apparently normal surface nitrogen abundances. However, several questions have arisen because of a number of issues, which have rendered a reinvestigation necessary; these issues include the presence of numerous upper limits for the nitrogen abundance, unknown multiplicity status, and a mix of stars with different physical properties, such as their mass and evolutionary state, which are known to control the amount of rotational mixing. Methods: We have carefully selected a large sample of bright, fast-rotating early-type stars of our Galaxy (40 objects with spectral types between B0.5 and O4). Their high-quality, high-resolution optical spectra were then analysed with the stellar atmosphere modelling codes DETAIL/SURFACE or CMFGEN, depending on the temperature of the target. Several internal and external checks were performed to validate our methods; notably, we compared our results with literature data for some well-known objects, studied the effect of gravity darkening, or confronted the results provided by the two codes for stars amenable to both analyses. Furthermore, we studied the radial velocities of the stars to assess their binarity. Results: This first part of our study presents our methods and provides the derived stellar parameters, He, CNO abundances, and the multiplicity status of every star of the sample. It is the first time that He and CNO abundances of such a large number of Galactic massive fast rotators are determined in a homogeneous way. Based on observations obtained with the Heidelberg Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (HEROS) at the Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato (TIGRE) with the SOPHIE échelle spectrograph at the Haute-Provence Observatory (OHP; Institut Pytheas; CNRS, France), and with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph at the Magellan II Clay telescope

  7. Learning Method and Its Influence on Nutrition Study Results Throwing the Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin; Nugraha, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to know the difference between playing and learning methods of exploratory learning methods to learning outcomes throwing the ball. In addition, this study also aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status of these two learning methods mentioned above. This research was conducted at SDN Cipinang Besar Selatan 16 Pagi East…

  8. Generation of a typical meteorological year for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Apple L.S.; Chow, T.T.; Fong, Square K.F.; Lin, John Z.

    2006-01-01

    Weather data can vary significantly from year to year. There is a need to derive typical meteorological year (TMY) data to represent the long-term typical weather condition over a year, which is one of the crucial factors for successful building energy simulation. In this paper, various types of typical weather data sets including the TMY, TMY2, WYEC, WYEC2, WYEC2W, WYEC2T and IWEC were reviewed. The Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze the hourly measured weather data of a 25-year period (1979-2003) in Hong Kong and select representative typical meteorological months (TMMs). The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year was compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period for four major weather indices including dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 TMMs selected from the different years were used for formulation of a TMY for Hong Kong

  9. Finite elements volumes methods: applications to the Navier-Stokes equations and convergence results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emonot, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the first chapter are described the equations modeling incompressible fluid flow and a quick presentation of finite volumes method. The second chapter is an introduction to the finite elements volumes method. The box model is described and a method adapted to Navier-Stokes problems is proposed. The third chapter shows a fault analysis of the finite elements volumes method for the Laplacian problem and some examples in one, two, three dimensional calculations. The fourth chapter is an extension of the error analysis of the method for the Navier-Stokes problem

  10. Measuring adult mortality using sibling survival: a new analytical method and new results for 44 countries, 1974-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Obermeyer

    2010-04-01

    probability of a 15-y old dying before his or her 60th birthday-for 44 countries with DHS sibling survival data. Our findings suggest that levels of adult mortality prevailing in many developing countries are substantially higher than previously suggested by other analyses of sibling history data. Generally, our estimates show the risk of adult death between ages 15 and 60 y to be about 20%-35% for females and 25%-45% for males in sub-Saharan African populations largely unaffected by HIV. In countries of Southern Africa, where the HIV epidemic has been most pronounced, as many as eight out of ten men alive at age 15 y will be dead by age 60, as will six out of ten women. Adult mortality levels in populations of Asia and Latin America are generally lower than in Africa, particularly for women. The exceptions are Haiti and Cambodia, where mortality risks are comparable to many countries in Africa. In all other countries with data, the probability of dying between ages 15 and 60 y was typically around 10% for women and 20% for men, not much higher than the levels prevailing in several more developed countries.Our results represent an expansion of direct knowledge of levels and trends in adult mortality in the developing world. The CSS method provides grounds for renewed optimism in collecting sibling survival data. We suggest that all nationally representative survey programs with adequate sample size ought to implement this critical module for tracking adult mortality in order to more reliably understand the levels and patterns of adult mortality, and how they are changing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  11. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  12. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D.; Truppa, W.; Aravena, M.; Tamayo, B.

    2015-09-01

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  13. Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF 6 in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF 6 is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF 6 may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF 6 cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail

  14. Methods and introductory results of the Greek national health and nutrition survey - HYDRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Martimianaki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  According to a large prospective cohort study (with baseline examination in the 1990s and smaller studies that followed, the population in Greece has been gradually deprived of the favorable morbidity and mortality indices recorded in the 1960s. The HYDRIA survey conducted in 2013-14 is the first nationally representative survey, which collected data related to the health and nutrition of the population in Greece. Methods: The survey sample consists of 4011 males (47% and females aged 18 years and over. Data collection included interviewer-administered questionnaires on personal characteristics, lifestyle choices, dietary habits and medical history; measurements of somatometry and blood pressure; and, blood drawing. Weighting factors were applied to ensure national representativeness of results. Results: Three out of five adults in Greece reported suffering of a chronic disease, with diabetes mellitus and chronic depression being the more frequent ones among older individuals. The population is also experiencing an overweight/obesity epidemic, since seven out of 10 adults are either overweight or obese. In addition, 40% of the population bears indications of hypertension. Smoking is still common and among women the prevalence was higher in younger age groups. Social disparities were observed in the prevalence of chronic diseases and mortality risk factors (hypertension, obesity, impaired lipid profile and high blood glucose levels. Conclusion: Excess body weight, hypertension, the smoking habit and the population’s limited physical activity are the predominant challenges that public health officials have to deal with in formulating policies and designing actions for the population in Greece.

  15. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  16. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Methods used by accredited dental specialty programs to advertise faculty positions: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R

    2011-01-01

    The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update.

  18. Methods for improving mechanical properties of partially stabilized zirconia and the resulting product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for improving mechanical surface properties of a rigid body comprising partially stabilized zirconia as a constituent is described comprising the following steps: (i) providing a rigid body having an exposed surface and an interior volume; (ii) subjecting the exposed surface region of partially stabilized zirconia to external heating to heat the exposed surface region to 1100 0 C-1600 0 C without heating the interior volume above 500 0 C-800 0 C; and (iii) cooling the rigid body to a temperature of less than 500 0 C to cause a portion of the exposed surface region to transform from the tetragonal lattice modification to the monoclinic lattice modification, thereby creating a compressive stress field in the exposed surface region and improving the mechanical surface properties of the exposed surface region. In a ceramic body comprising a first exposed region of a partially stabilized zirconia, and a second region of a partially stabilized zirconia at an interior portion of the ceramic body, the improvement is described comprising the ceramic body having in the first, exposed region a greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification than in the second region; having in the first, exposed region 5 percent to 100 percent in the monoclinic lattice modification; and having a molded surface finish in the first, exposed region; the first, exposed region being subjected to a compressive field resulting from the greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification

  19. New results to BDD truncation method for efficient top event probability calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yuchang; Zhong, Farong; Zhao, Xiangfu; Yang, Quansheng; Cui, Gang

    2012-01-01

    A Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) is a graph-based data structure that calculates an exact top event probability (TEP). It has been a very difficult task to develop an efficient BDD algorithm that can solve a large problem since its memory consumption is very high. Recently, in order to solve a large reliability problem within limited computational resources, Jung presented an efficient method to maintain a small BDD size by a BDD truncation during a BDD calculation. In this paper, it is first identified that Jung's BDD truncation algorithm can be improved for a more practical use. Then, a more efficient truncation algorithm is proposed in this paper, which can generate truncated BDD with smaller size and approximate TEP with smaller truncation error. Empirical results showed this new algorithm uses slightly less running time and slightly more storage usage than Jung's algorithm. It was also found, that designing a truncation algorithm with ideal features for every possible fault tree is very difficult, if not impossible. The so-called ideal features of this paper would be that with the decrease of truncation limits, the size of truncated BDD converges to the size of exact BDD, but should never be larger than exact BDD.

  20. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  1. The relationship between team climate and interprofessional collaboration: Preliminary results of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreli, Heloise F; Peduzzi, Marina; Bailey, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Relational and organisational factors are key elements of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team climate. Few studies have explored the relationship between IPC and team climate. This article presents a study that aimed to explore IPC in primary healthcare teams and understand how the assessment of team climate may provide insights into IPC. A mixed methods study design was adopted. In Stage 1 of the study, team climate was assessed using the Team Climate Inventory with 159 professionals in 18 interprofessional teams based in São Paulo, Brazil. In Stage 2, data were collected through in-depth interviews with a sample of team members who participated in the first stage of the study. Results from Stage 1 provided an overview of factors relevant to teamwork, which in turn informed our exploration of the relationship between team climate and IPC. Preliminary findings from Stage 2 indicated that teams with a more positive team climate (in particular, greater participative safety) also reported more effective communication and mutual support. In conclusion, team climate provided insights into IPC, especially regarding aspects of communication and interaction in teams. Further research will provide a better understanding of differences and areas of overlap between team climate and IPC. It will potentially contribute for an innovative theoretical approach to explore interprofessional work in primary care settings.

  2. Methods for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George C. Y. [Bloomington, IN; Hieftje, Gary M [Bloomington, IN

    2010-08-03

    A method for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES analysis is performed across a plurality of selected locations in the plasma on an unknown sample, collecting the light intensity at one or more selected wavelengths of one or more sought-for analytes, creating a first dataset. The first dataset is then calibrated with a calibration dataset creating a calibrated first dataset curve. If the calibrated first dataset curve has a variability along the location within the plasma for a selected wavelength, errors are present. Plasma-related errors are then corrected by diluting the unknown sample and performing the same ICP-AES analysis on the diluted unknown sample creating a calibrated second dataset curve (accounting for the dilution) for the one or more sought-for analytes. The cross-over point of the calibrated dataset curves yields the corrected value (free from plasma related errors) for each sought-for analyte.

  3. 3D MRI of the colon: methods and first results of 5 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Pelkonen, P.; Steiner, P.; Krestin, G.P.; Debatin, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: 'Exoscopic' and endoscopic identification of colorectal pathologies via MRI. Methods: 5 patients (36-88 years), two normal and three with different colorectal pathologies (diverticular disease, polyps and carcinoma of the colon), were examined by MRI after colonoscopy. Subsequent to filling of the colon with a gadolinium-water mixture under MRI-monitoring, 3D-data sets of the colon were acquired in prone and supine positions over a 28 sec breathold interval. Subsequently multiplanar T 1 -weighted 2D-sequences were acquired before and following i.v. administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg BW). All imaging was performed in the coronal orientation. The 3D-data were interactively analysed based on various displays: Maximum intensity projection (MIP), surface shadowed display (SSD), multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), virtual colonoscopy (VC). Results: All of the colorectal pathologies could be interactively diagnosed by MPR. On MIP images some pathologies were missed. VC presented the morphology of colon haustra as well as of all endoluminally growing lesions in a manner similar to endoscopy. The colon masses showed uptake of contrast media and could thus be differentiated from air or faeces. (orig./AJ) [de

  4. Integrate life-cycle assessment and risk analysis results, not methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Trump, Benjamin D; Wender, Ben A; Seager, Thomas P; Kennedy, Alan J; Keisler, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-04

    Two analytic perspectives on environmental assessment dominate environmental policy and decision-making: risk analysis (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). RA focuses on management of a toxicological hazard in a specific exposure scenario, while LCA seeks a holistic estimation of impacts of thousands of substances across multiple media, including non-toxicological and non-chemically deleterious effects. While recommendations to integrate the two approaches have remained a consistent feature of environmental scholarship for at least 15 years, the current perception is that progress is slow largely because of practical obstacles, such as a lack of data, rather than insurmountable theoretical difficulties. Nonetheless, the emergence of nanotechnology presents a serious challenge to both perspectives. Because the pace of nanomaterial innovation far outstrips acquisition of environmentally relevant data, it is now clear that a further integration of RA and LCA based on dataset completion will remain futile. In fact, the two approaches are suited for different purposes and answer different questions. A more pragmatic approach to providing better guidance to decision-makers is to apply the two methods in parallel, integrating only after obtaining separate results.

  5. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  6. Method for Developing Descriptions of Hard-to-Price Products: Results of the Telecommunications Product Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, F.; Tonn, B.

    1999-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study to test a new method for developing descriptions of hard-to-price products. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (BLS) is responsible for collecting data to estimate price indices such as the Consumers Price Index (CPI). BLS accomplishes this task by sending field staff to places of business to price actual products. The field staff are given product checklists to help them determine whether products found today are comparable to products priced the previous month. Prices for non-comparable products are not included in the current month's price index calculations. A serious problem facing BLS is developing product checklists for dynamic product areas, new industries, and the service sector. It is difficult to keep checklists up-to-date and quite often simply to develop checklists for service industry products. Some people estimates that upwards of 50 % of US economic activity is not accounted for in the CPI

  7. Risperidone versus typical antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R H; Joy, C B; Kennedy, E; Gilbody, S M; Song, F

    2003-01-01

    found in long-term studies (n=859, 2RCTs RR not 20% improved 0.51 CI 0.38 to 0.67 NNT 4;n=675 1RCT, RR not improved 40% 0.75 CI 0.66 to 0.84 NNT 5; n=675, 1 RCT, RR not 60% improved 0.90 CI 0.84 to 0.96, NNT 11). Risperidone was also more likely to reduce relapse at one year follow up, compared with haloperidol (n=367, 1 RCT, RR 0.64 CI 0.41 to 0.99, NNT 7). Less people allocated risperidone left studies before completion, both for short-term (n=3066, 16 RCTs, RR 0.76 CI 0.63 to 0.92, NNT 6) and long-term trials (n=1270, 4RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.42 to 0.73 NNT 4). For general movement disorders results favoured risperidone. People given risperidone had significantly fewer general movement disorders (including extrapyramidal side effects) than those receiving older typical antipsychotics (n=2702, 10 RCTs, RR 0.63 CI 0.56 to 0.71, NNT 3). Significantly fewer people given risperidone used antiparkinsonian drugs (n=2524, 11 RCTs, RR 0.66 CI 0.58 to 0.74, NNT 4). As regards body weight, however, four studies (n=1708) found people were more likely to gain weight if allocated risperidone compared to typical antipsychotics (RR 1.55 CI 1.25 to 1.93, NNH 3). Risperidone was no more or less likely than haloperidol to cause sexual problems such as erectile dysfunction (n=106, 2 RCTs, RR 1.55 CI 0.58 to 4.20). Finally, some results found risperidone was more likely to cause rhinitis than conventional antipsychotics (n=656, 3 RCTs, RR1.99 CI 1.24 to 3.19, NNH 3). Risperidone may be more acceptable to those with schizophrenia than older antipsychotics and have marginal benefits in terms of limited clinical improvement. Its adverse effect profile may be better than haloperidol. With the addition of more studies to this review, the publication bias evident in previous versions is no longer a significant issue. Any marginal benefits this drug may have have to be balanced against its greater cost and increased tendency to cause side effects such as weight gain. Recent important longer term

  8. [Typical atrial flutter: Diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dierk; Eckardt, Lars; Estner, Heidi L; Kuniss, Malte; Meyer, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Sommer, Philipp; Steven, Daniel; Voss, Frederik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    Typical, cavotricuspid-dependent atrial flutter is the most common atrial macroreentry tachycardia. The incidence of atrial flutter (typical and atypical forms) is age-dependent with 5/100,000 in patients less than 50 years and approximately 600/100,000 in subjects > 80 years of age. Concomitant heart failure or pulmonary disease further increases the risk of typical atrial flutter.Patients with atrial flutter may present with symptoms of palpitations, reduced exercise capacity, chest pain, or dyspnea. The risk of thromboembolism is probably similar to atrial fibrillation; therefore, the same antithrombotic prophylaxis is required in atrial flutter patients. Acutely symptomatic cases may be subjected to cardioversion or pharmacologic rate control to relieve symptoms. Catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus represents the primary choice in long-term therapy, associated with high procedural success (> 97 %) and low complication rates (0.5 %).This article represents the third part of a manuscript series designed to improve professional education in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. Mechanistic and clinical characteristics as well as management of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter are described in detail. Electrophysiological findings and catheter ablation of the arrhythmia are highlighted.

  9. The Method for Assessing and Forecasting Value of Knowledge in SMEs – Research Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions by SMEs regarding knowledge development are made at a strategic level (Haas-Edersheim, 2007. Related to knowledge management are approaches to "measure" knowledge, where literature distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative methods of valuating intellectual capital. Although there is a quite range of such methods to build an intellectual capital reporting system, none of them is really widely recognized. This work presents a method enabling assessing the effectiveness of investing in human resources, taking into consideration existing methods. The method presented is focusing on SMEs (taking into consideration their importance for, especially, regional development. It consists of four parts: an SME reference model, an indicator matrix to assess investments into knowledge, innovation indicators, and the GMDH algorithm for decision making. The method presented is exemplified by a case study including 10 companies.

  10. A Review of Spectral Methods for Variable Amplitude Fatigue Prediction and New Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Irvine, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the available methods for estimating fatigue damage from variable amplitude loading is presented. The dependence of fatigue damage accumulation on power spectral density (psd) is investigated for random processes relevant to real structures such as in offshore or aerospace applications. Beginning with the Rayleigh (or narrow band) approximation, attempts at improved approximations or corrections to the Rayleigh approximation are examined by comparison to rainflow analysis of time histories simulated from psd functions representative of simple theoretical and real world applications. Spectral methods investigated include corrections by Wirsching and Light, Ortiz and Chen, the Dirlik formula, and the Single-Moment method, among other more recent proposed methods. Good agreement is obtained between the spectral methods and the time-domain rainflow identification for most cases, with some limitations. Guidelines are given for using the several spectral methods to increase confidence in the damage estimate.

  11. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  12. Evaluation of the effects of green taxes in the Nordic countries. Results and method question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Dengsoee, N.; Branth Pedersen, A.

    2000-01-01

    Green taxes have over the past 10 years become a significant part of environmental regulation in the Nordic countries. The present report is a literature study of the effects of green taxes with regard to CO 2 and pesticides. The authors have identified 68 studies of CO 2 -taxes and 20 studies of the pesticide taxes. The report presents a summary of the results from these studies and assesses the methodologies employed for examining the effects of the green taxes. The majority of the reviewed studies are ex-ante studies, which have been carried out in advance of the implementation of the taxes, and which are often based on simplified economic models. Ex-post studies, which are based on the actual historical data for the adjustment to the taxes, are relatively few. 20 ex-post studies of the CO 2 -taxes have been identified, while there are not any ex-post studies of the pesticide taxes. With regard to the environmental effects of green taxes, the ex-post studies can be relied on for the procurement of the most reliable data. The completed ex-post studies of the CO 2 -taxes do not present unambiguous results, because focus and methodology differ. Most studies are partial in their focus and relate to one or more sectors of the economy. Some studies have been carried out few tears after the introduction of the taxes, and do not present an updated assessment of the effects of the taxes. To the extent that it is possible to summarise the present knowledge about the effects of the CO 2 -taxes, there seems to be indications for relatively marked effects in Denmark as compared to the other Nordic countries, since Denmark is the only country whose taxed CO 2 -emissions have been reduced in absolute figures. With regard to Norway and Sweden, effects of the CO 2 -taxes can be identified in particular sectors in relation to business-as-usual scenarios. Finland's CO 2 -tax has not been comprehensively evaluated ex-post, but has reached a tax level which gives expectations of

  13. Establishing Upper Limits for Item Ratings for the Angoff Method: Are Resulting Standards More 'Realistic'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jerry B.

    This report investigates an area of uncertainty in using the Angoff method for setting standards, namely whether or not a judge's conceptualizations of borderline group performance are realistic. Ratings are usually made with reference to the performance of this hypothetical group, therefore the Angoff method's success is dependent on this point.…

  14. Some new results on correlation-preserving factor scores prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Krijnen, W.P.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Shapiro, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson and Rubin and McDonald have proposed a correlation-preserving method of factor scores prediction which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for variables. Green has proposed a correlation-preserving method which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for factors.

  15. Communicating patient-reported outcome scores using graphic formats: results from a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Michael D; Smith, Katherine C; Little, Emily A; Bantug, Elissa T; Snyder, Claire F

    2015-10-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) promote patient-centered care by using PRO research results ("group-level data") to inform decision making and by monitoring individual patient's PROs ("individual-level data") to inform care. We investigated the interpretability of current PRO data presentation formats. This cross-sectional mixed-methods study randomized purposively sampled cancer patients and clinicians to evaluate six group-data or four individual-data formats. A self-directed exercise assessed participants' interpretation accuracy and ratings of ease-of-understanding and usefulness (0 = least to 10 = most) of each format. Semi-structured qualitative interviews explored helpful and confusing format attributes. We reached thematic saturation with 50 patients (44 % < college graduate) and 20 clinicians. For group-level data, patients rated simple line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding and usefulness (median 8.0; 33 % selected for easiest to understand/most useful) and clinicians rated simple line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding and usefulness (median 9.0, 8.5) but most often selected line graphs with confidence limits or norms (30 % for each format for easiest to understand/most useful). Qualitative results support that clinicians value confidence intervals, norms, and p values, but patients find them confusing. For individual-level data, both patients and clinicians rated line graphs highest for ease-of-understanding (median 8.0 patients, 8.5 clinicians) and usefulness (median 8.0, 9.0) and selected them as easiest to understand (50, 70 %) and most useful (62, 80 %). The qualitative interviews supported highlighting scores requiring clinical attention and providing reference values. This study has identified preferences and opportunities for improving on current formats for PRO presentation and will inform development of best practices for PRO presentation. Both patients and clinicians prefer line graphs across group-level data and individual

  16. Survey of sterile admixture practices in canadian hospital pharmacies: part 1. Methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-03-01

    The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its "General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations", which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results relating to policies, personnel, raw materials, storage and handling

  17. Could Daylight Glare Be Defined Mathematically?Results of Testing the DGIN Method in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Ali; Oki, Masato

    Discomfort glare from daylight is a common problem without valid prediction methods so far. A new mathematical DGIN (New Daylight Glare Index) method tries to respond the challenge. This paper reports on experiments carried out in daylit office environment in Japan to test applicability of the method. Slight positive correlation was found between the DGIN and the subjective evaluation. Additionally, a high Ladaptation value together with the small ratio of Lwindow to Ladaptation was obviously experienced sufficient to neutralize the effect of glare discomfort. However, subjective assessments are poor glare indicators and not reliable in testing glare prediction methods. DGIN is a good indicator of daylight glare, and when the DGIN value is analyzed together with the measured illuminance ratios, discomfort glare from daylight can be analyzed in a quantitative manner. The DGIN method could serve architects and lighting designers in testing daylighting systems, and also guide the action of daylight responsive lighting controls.

  18. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, L.

    2001-04-01

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, φ76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. The investigation approach for borehole KLX02 followed, in general outline, the SKB model for site investigations, where a number of key issues for site characterization are studied. For each of those, a number of geoscientific parameters are investigated and determined. One important aim is to erect a lithological-structural model of the site, which constitutes the basic requirement for modelling mechanical stability, thermal properties, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes. The investigations in borehole KLX02 resulted in a thorough lithological-structural characterization of the rock volume near the borehole. In order to

  19. Project Deep Drilling KLX02 - Phase 2. Methods, scope of activities and results. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, L. [GEOSIGMA AB/LE Geokonsult AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-04-01

    Geoscientific investigations performed by SKB, including those at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, have so far comprised the bedrock horizon down to about 1000 m. The primary purposes with the c. 1700 m deep, {phi}76 mm, sub vertical core borehole KLX02, drilled during the autumn 1992 at Laxemar, Oskarshamn, was to test core drilling technique at large depths and with a relatively large diameter and to enable geoscientific investigations beyond 1000 m. Drilling of borehole KLX02 was fulfilled very successfully. Results of the drilling commission and the borehole investigations conducted in conjunction with drilling have been reported earlier. The present report provides a summary of the investigations made during a five year period after completion of drilling. Results as well as methods applied are described. A variety of geoscientific investigations to depths exceeding 1600 m were successfully performed. However, the investigations were not entirely problem-free. For example, borehole equipment got stuck in the borehole at several occasions. Special investigations, among them a fracture study, were initiated in order to reveal the mechanisms behind this problem. Different explanations seem possible, e.g. breakouts from the borehole wall, which may be a specific problem related to the stress situation in deep boreholes. The investigation approach for borehole KLX02 followed, in general outline, the SKB model for site investigations, where a number of key issues for site characterization are studied. For each of those, a number of geoscientific parameters are investigated and determined. One important aim is to erect a lithological-structural model of the site, which constitutes the basic requirement for modelling mechanical stability, thermal properties, groundwater flow, groundwater chemistry and transport of solutes. The investigations in borehole KLX02 resulted in a thorough lithological-structural characterization of the rock volume near the borehole. In order

  20. INTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY IN THE LEAN MANUFACTURING CONDITIONS ACCORDING TO THE LOT FOR LOT METHOD LOGIC - RESULTS OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Domański

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The review of literature and observations of business practice indicate that integration of production and supply is not a well-developed area of science. The author notes that the publications on the integration most often focus on selected detailed aspects and are rather postulative in character. This is accompanied by absence of specific utilitarian solutions (tools which could be used in business practice. Methods: The research was conducted between 2009 and 2010 in a company in Wielkopolska which operates in the machining sector. The solution of the research problem is based on the author's own concept - the integration model. The cost concept of the solution was built and verified (case study on the basis of conditions of a given enterprise (industrial data. Results: Partial verifiability of results was proved in the entire set of selected material indexes (although in two cases out of three the costs differences to the disadvantage of the lot-for-lot method were small. In case of structure of studied product range, a significant conformity of results in the order of 67% was achieved for items typically characteristic for the LfL method (group AX. Conclusions: The formulated research problem and the result of its solution (only 6 material items demand a lot (orthodoxy in terms of implementation conditions. The concept of the solution has a narrow field of application in the selected organizational conditions (studied enterprise. It should be verified by independent studies of this kind at other enterprises.

  1. Investigation of error estimation method of observational data and comparison method between numerical and observational results toward V and V of seismic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Norihiro

    2017-01-01

    The method to estimate errors included in observational data and the method to compare numerical results with observational results are investigated toward the verification and validation (V and V) of a seismic simulation. For the method to estimate errors, 144 literatures for the past 5 years (from the year 2010 to 2014) in the structure engineering field and earthquake engineering field where the description about acceleration data is frequent are surveyed. As a result, it is found that some processes to remove components regarded as errors from observational data are used in about 30% of those literatures. Errors are caused by the resolution, the linearity, the temperature coefficient for sensitivity, the temperature coefficient for zero shift, the transverse sensitivity, the seismometer property, the aliasing, and so on. Those processes can be exploited to estimate errors individually. For the method to compare numerical results with observational results, public materials of ASME V and V Symposium 2012-2015, their references, and above 144 literatures are surveyed. As a result, it is found that six methods have been mainly proposed in existing researches. Evaluating those methods using nine items, advantages and disadvantages for those methods are arranged. The method is not well established so that it is necessary to employ those methods by compensating disadvantages and/or to search for a solution to a novel method. (author)

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY FOR TRAFFIC ACCIDENT FORECASTING AT VARIOUS TYPICAL URBAN AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    D. V. Kapsky

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides investigation results pertaining to development of methodology for forecasting traffic accidents using a “conflict zone” method that considers potential danger for two typical urban areas, namely: signaled crossings and bumps that are made in the areas of zebra crossings and it also considers various types and kinds of conflicts. The investigations have made it possible to obtain various indices of threshold sensitivity in respect of  potential risks  and in relation to tra...

  3. Results of a study assessing teaching methods of faculty after measuring student learning style preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Bridget V

    2017-08-01

    Learning style preference impacts how well groups of students respond to their curricula. Faculty have many choices in the methods for delivering nursing content, as well as assessing students. The purpose was to develop knowledge around how faculty delivered curricula content, and then considering these findings in the context of the students learning style preference. Following an in-service on teaching and learning styles, faculty completed surveys on their methods of teaching and the proportion of time teaching, using each learning style (visual, aural, read/write and kinesthetic). This study took place at the College of Nursing a large all-female university in Saudi Arabia. 24 female nursing faculty volunteered to participate in the project. A cross-sectional design was used. Faculty reported teaching using mostly methods that were kinesthetic and visual, although lecture was also popular (aural). Students preferred kinesthetic and aural learning methods. Read/write was the least preferred by students and the least used method of teaching by faculty. Faculty used visual methods about one third of the time, although they were not preferred by the students. Students' preferred learning style (kinesthetic) was the method most used by faculty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On a new iterative method for solving linear systems and comparison results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan-Fei; Huang, Ting-Zhu

    2008-10-01

    In Ujevic [A new iterative method for solving linear systems, Appl. Math. Comput. 179 (2006) 725-730], the author obtained a new iterative method for solving linear systems, which can be considered as a modification of the Gauss-Seidel method. In this paper, we show that this is a special case from a point of view of projection techniques. And a different approach is established, which is both theoretically and numerically proven to be better than (at least the same as) Ujevic's. As the presented numerical examples show, in most cases, the convergence rate is more than one and a half that of Ujevic.

  5. Monitoring intakes of radionuclides by nuclear power plants workers in France: materials, methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonin, M.; Le Guen, B.; Bailloeuil, C.; Gerondal, M. [Electricite De France (France)

    2000-05-01

    for 72 hours of counting, 4. Beta and alpha total counts (ZnS scintillators) on nose blows used for monitoring alpha risks. 5. Quality assurance programs are applied for measurements and also for dose assessments. For the measurements, especially for low activities of alpha emmiters, yearly comparison exercises are organized by PROCORAD association (CEA and COGEMA laboratories). More than 50 European and American laboratories have participated in recent years. By another way, OPRI, the radiation protection office of the Ministry of Health, organises intercomparison measurements of laboratories. For the quality control on dose assessment, the EDF laboratory participates in the comparison exercises planned by EURADOS-CENDOS Working Group 6. Routine, operational and special monitoring programs are carried out. The results are given with the dominant radionuclides indicated. These results shows that the collective effective dose is extremely low: 257 man-mSv for 90 cases over 16 years. The protection methods used appear to be effective. Nethertheless, in some special cases, adding effective dose to external exposure doses could lead to a total dose higher than the regulatory limits. (author)

  6. Monitoring intakes of radionuclides by nuclear power plants workers in France: materials, methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonin, M.; Le Guen, B.; Bailloeuil, C.; Gerondal, M.

    2000-01-01

    hours of counting, 4. Beta and alpha total counts (ZnS scintillators) on nose blows used for monitoring alpha risks. 5. Quality assurance programs are applied for measurements and also for dose assessments. For the measurements, especially for low activities of alpha emmiters, yearly comparison exercises are organized by PROCORAD association (CEA and COGEMA laboratories). More than 50 European and American laboratories have participated in recent years. By another way, OPRI, the radiation protection office of the Ministry of Health, organises intercomparison measurements of laboratories. For the quality control on dose assessment, the EDF laboratory participates in the comparison exercises planned by EURADOS-CENDOS Working Group 6. Routine, operational and special monitoring programs are carried out. The results are given with the dominant radionuclides indicated. These results shows that the collective effective dose is extremely low: 257 man-mSv for 90 cases over 16 years. The protection methods used appear to be effective. Nethertheless, in some special cases, adding effective dose to external exposure doses could lead to a total dose higher than the regulatory limits. (author)

  7. Finding ultracool brown dwarfs with MegaCam on CFHT: method and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, P.; Willott, C. J.; Forveille, T.; Delfosse, X.; Reylé, C.; Bertin, E.; Albert, L.; Artigau, E.; Robin, A. C.; Allard, F.; Doyon, R.; Hill, G. J.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: We present the first results of a wide field survey for cool brown dwarfs with the MegaCam camera on the CFHT telescope, the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey, hereafter CFBDS. Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field-brown dwarf mass function thanks to a larger sample of L and T dwarfs. Methods: We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images using optimised psf-fitting within Source Extractor, and follow them up with pointed near-infrared imaging on several telescopes. Results: We have so far analysed over 350 square degrees and found 770 brown dwarf candidates brighter than z'_AB=22.5. We currently have J-band photometry for 220 of these candidates, which confirms 37% as potential L or T dwarfs. Some are among the reddest and farthest brown dwarfs currently known, including an independent identification of the recently published ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 and the discovery of a second brown dwarf later than T8, CFBDS J005910.83-011401.3. Infrared spectra of three T dwarf candidates confirm their nature, and validate the selection process. Conclusions: The completed survey will discover ~100 T dwarfs and ~500 L dwarfs or M dwarfs later than M8, approximately doubling the number of currently known brown dwarfs. The resulting sample will have a very well-defined selection function, and will therefore produce a very clean luminosity function. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations made

  8. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in the context under consideration, than those lower down. For any given class C, we assume that all objects in the appli- cation domain that are in (the interpretation of) C are more typical of C than those not in C. This is a technical construction which... to be modular partial orders, i.e. reflexive, transitive, anti- symmetric relations such that, for all a, b, c in ∆I , if a and b are incomparable and a is strictly below c, then b is also strictly below c. Modular partial orders have the effect...

  10. Typical skeletal changes due to metastasising neuroblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerath, A.; Persigehl, M.; Mertens, R.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1983-01-01

    Compared with other solid tumours in childhood, neuroblastomas show a marked tendency to metastasise to the skeleton. The differentiation of these lesions from inflammatory and other malignant bone lesions in this age group is often difficult. The radiological findings in ten patients with metastasing and histologically confirmed neuroblastomas have been reviewed and the typical appearances in the skeleton are described. The most important features in the differential diagnosies are discussed and the significance of bone changes in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma have been evaluated. (orig.) [de

  11. Characteristics of typical Pierce guns for PPM focused TWTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, R.; Puri, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of typical moderate perveance Pierce type electron guns which are used in periodic permanent magnet focused traveling wave tubes are described with regard to adaptation for use in electron beam ion sources. The results of detailed electron trajectory computations for one particular gun design are presented

  12. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part II. Results and discussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work rheological studies of the gelling process were carried out. We have developed a measuring system for studying the rheology of the gelation process. It consisted of several measuring cells of the Weiler-Rebinder type, system for automatic regulation of the composition of the medium and thermostabilization system. This complex is designed to measure the dependence of the value of the ultimate shear stress as a function of time, from the start of the sol-gel transition to the complete conversion of the sol to the gel. The developed device has a wide range of measured values of critical shear stresses τ0 = (0,05÷50000 Dyne/cm2. Using the developed instrument, it was possible to establish the shape of the initial section of the curve τ0 = f(t and develop a methodology for more accurate determination of gelation time. The developed method proved that the classical method for determining the start time of the sol-gel transition using the point of intersection of the tangent to the linear part of the rheological curve τ0 = f(t, gives significantly distorted results. A new phenomenon has been discovered: the kinetic curves in the coordinates of the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation have an inflection point which separates the kinetic curve into two parts, the initial and the final. It was found that the constant k in the Avrami–Erofeev–Bogolyubov equation does not depend on the temperature and is the same for both the initial and final parts of the kinetic curve. It depends only on the chemical nature of the reacting system. It was found that for the initial section of the kinetic curves, the value of the parameter n in the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation was n = 23,4±2,8 and, unlike the final section of the rheological curve, does not depend on temperature. A large value of this parameter can be interpreted as the average number of directions of growth of a fractal aggregate during its growth. The value of this parameter

  13. Pyrolysis characteristics of typical biomass thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongzhen; Ba, Ziyu; Yang, Keyan; Zhang, Qingfa; Zhao, Kunpeng; Gu, Shiyan

    The biomass thermoplastic composites were prepared by extrusion molding method with poplar flour, rice husk, cotton stalk and corn stalk. The thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) has also been used for evaluating the pyrolysis process of the composites. The results showed that the pyrolysis process mainly consists of two stages: biomass pyrolysis and the plastic pyrolysis. The increase of biomass content in the composite raised the first stage pyrolysis peak temperature. However, the carbon residue was reduced and the pyrolysis efficiency was better because of synergistic effect of biomass and plastic. The composite with different kinds of biomass have similar pyrolysis process, and the pyrolysis efficiency of the composite with corn stalk was best. The calcium carbonate could inhibit pyrolysis process and increase the first stage pyrolysis peak temperature and carbon residue as a filling material of the composite.

  14. Pyrolysis characteristics of typical biomass thermoplastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhen Cai

    Full Text Available The biomass thermoplastic composites were prepared by extrusion molding method with poplar flour, rice husk, cotton stalk and corn stalk. The thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA has also been used for evaluating the pyrolysis process of the composites. The results showed that the pyrolysis process mainly consists of two stages: biomass pyrolysis and the plastic pyrolysis. The increase of biomass content in the composite raised the first stage pyrolysis peak temperature. However, the carbon residue was reduced and the pyrolysis efficiency was better because of synergistic effect of biomass and plastic. The composite with different kinds of biomass have similar pyrolysis process, and the pyrolysis efficiency of the composite with corn stalk was best. The calcium carbonate could inhibit pyrolysis process and increase the first stage pyrolysis peak temperature and carbon residue as a filling material of the composite. Keywords: Biomass thermoplastic composite, Calcium carbonate, Pyrolysis characteristic

  15. Application of Semiempirical Methods to Transition Metal Complexes: Fast Results but Hard-to-Predict Accuracy.

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury; Sharapa, Dmitry I.; Cavallo, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    -point energy evaluations on density functional theory (DFT) optimized conformers revealed pronounced deviations between semiempirical and DFT methods indicating fundamental difference in potential energy surfaces (PES). To identify the origin of the deviation

  16. Biological dosimetry intercomparison exercise: an evaluation of Triage and routine mode results by robust methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Radl, A.; Taja, M.R.; Barquinero, J.F.; Seoane, A.; De Luca, J.; Guerrero Carvajal, Y.C.; Stuck Oliveira, M.S.; Valdivia, P.; García Lima, O.; Lamadrid, A.; González Mesa, J.; Romero Aguilera, I.; Mandina Cardoso, T.; Arceo Maldonado, C.; Espinoza, M.E.; Martínez López, W.; Lloyd, D.C.; Méndez Acuña, L.; Di Tomaso, M.V.; Roy, L.; Lindholm, C.; Romm, H.; Güçlü, I.

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined protocols and quality management standards are indispensable for biological dosimetry laboratories. Participation in periodic proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparisons is also required. This harmonization is essential if a cooperative network is used to respond to a mass casualty event. Here we present an international intercomparison based on dicentric chromosome analysis for dose assessment performed in the framework of the IAEA Regional Latin American RLA/9/054 Project. The exercise involved 14 laboratories, 8 from Latin America and 6 from Europe. The performance of each laboratory and the reproducibility of the exercise were evaluated using robust methods described in ISO standards. The study was based on the analysis of slides from samples irradiated with 0.75 (DI) and 2.5 Gy (DII). Laboratories were required to score the frequency of dicentrics and convert them to estimated doses, using their own dose-effect curves, after the analysis of 50 or 100 cells (triage mode) and after conventional scoring of 500 cells or 100 dicentrics. In the conventional scoring, at both doses, all reported frequencies were considered as satisfactory, and two reported doses were considered as questionable. The analysis of the data dispersion among the dicentric frequencies and among doses indicated a better reproducibility for estimated doses (15.6% for DI and 8.8% for DII) than for frequencies (24.4% for DI and 11.4% for DII), expressed by the coefficient of variation. In the two triage modes, although robust analysis classified some reported frequencies or doses as unsatisfactory or questionable, all estimated doses were in agreement with the accepted error of ±0.5 Gy. However, at the DI dose and for 50 scored cells, 5 out of the 14 reported confidence intervals that included zero dose and could be interpreted as false negatives. This improved with 100 cells, where only one confidence interval included zero dose. At the DII dose, all estimations fell within

  17. Observations of Fabric Development in Polycrystalline Ice at Basal Pressures: Methods and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, D. J.; Baker, I.; Cole, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and predicting the flow of polycrystalline ice is crucial to ice sheet modeling and paleoclimate reconstruction from ice cores. Ice flow rates depend strongly on the fabric (i.e. the distribution of grain sizes and crystallographic orientations) which evolves over time and enhances the flow rate in the direction of applied stress. The mechanisms for fabric evolution in ice have been extensively studied at atmospheric pressures, but little work has been done to observe these processes at the high pressures experienced deep within ice sheets where long-term changes in ice rheology are expected to have significance. We conducted compressive creep tests on a 917 kg m-3 polycrystalline ice specimen at 20 MPa hydrostatic pressure, thus simulating ~2,000 m depth. Initial specimen grain orientations were random, typical grain diameters were 1.2 mm, and the applied creep stress was 0.3 MPa. Subsequent microstructural analyses on the deformed specimen and a similarly prepared, undeformed specimen allowed characterization of crystal fabric evolution under pressure. Our microstructural analysis technique simultaneously collected grain shape and size data from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs and obtained crystallographic orientation data via Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). Combining these measurements allows rapid analysis of the ice fabric over large numbers of grains, yielding statistically useful numbers of grain size and full c- and a-axis grain orientation data. The combined creep and microstructural data demonstrate pressure-dependent effects on the mechanical and microstructural evolution of polycrystalline ice. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed phenomena, and future directions for hydrostatic creep testing.

  18. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  19. COMPARISON OF CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS RESULTS FROM TWO METHODS OF PROCESSING SITE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , D

    2007-01-01

    Consequence analysis to support documented safety analysis requires the use of one or more years of representative meteorological data for atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations. At minimum, the needed meteorological data for most atmospheric transport and dispersion models consist of hourly samples of wind speed and atmospheric stability class. Atmospheric stability is inferred from measured and/or observed meteorological data. Several methods exist to convert measured and observed meteorological data into atmospheric stability class data. In this paper, one year of meteorological data from a western Department of Energy (DOE) site is processed to determine atmospheric stability class using two methods. The method that is prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for supporting licensing of nuclear power plants makes use of measurements of vertical temperature difference to determine atmospheric stability. Another method that is preferred by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relies upon measurements of incoming solar radiation, vertical temperature gradient, and wind speed. Consequences are calculated and compared using the two sets of processed meteorological data from these two methods as input data into the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) code

  20. Using Google Earth to Assess Shade for Sun Protection in Urban Recreation Spaces: Methods and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, R; Wilson, N; Signal, L; Barr, M; Mackay, C; Reeder, A; Thomson, G

    2018-05-16

    Shade in public spaces can lower the risk of and sun burning and skin cancer. However, existing methods of auditing shade require travel between sites, and sunny weather conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of free computer software-Google Earth-for assessing shade in urban open spaces. A shade projection method was developed that uses Google Earth street view and aerial images to estimate shade at solar noon on the summer solstice, irrespective of the date of image capture. Three researchers used the method to separately estimate shade cover over pre-defined activity areas in a sample of 45 New Zealand urban open spaces, including 24 playgrounds, 12 beaches and 9 outdoor pools. Outcome measures included method accuracy (assessed by comparison with a subsample of field observations of 10 of the settings) and inter-rater reliability. Of the 164 activity areas identified in the 45 settings, most (83%) had no shade cover. The method identified most activity areas in playgrounds (85%) and beaches (93%) and was accurate for assessing shade over these areas (predictive values of 100%). Only 8% of activity areas at outdoor pools were identified, due to a lack of street view images. Reliability for shade cover estimates was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). Google Earth appears to be a reasonably accurate and reliable and shade audit tool for playgrounds and beaches. The findings are relevant for programmes focused on supporting the development of healthy urban open spaces.

  1. Automatic Tree Data Removal Method for Topography Measurement Result Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, H.; Chikatsu, H.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, laser scanning has been receiving greater attention as a useful tool for real-time 3D data acquisition, and various applications such as city modelling, DTM generation and 3D modelling of cultural heritage sites have been proposed. And, former digital data processing were demanded in the past digital archive techniques for cultural heritage sites. However, robust filtering method for distinguishing on- and off-terrain points by terrestrial laser scanner still have many issues. In the past investigation, former digital data processing using air-bone laser scanner were reported. Though, efficient tree removal methods from terrain points for the cultural heritage are not considered. In this paper, authors describe a new robust filtering method for cultural heritage using terrestrial laser scanner with "the echo digital processing technology" as latest data processing techniques of terrestrial laser scanner.

  2. Review of solution approach, methods, and recent results of the TRAC-PF1 system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffy, J.H.; Liles, D.R.; Knight, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The current version of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1) was created to improve on the capabilities of its predecessor (TRAC-PD2) for analyzing slow reactor transients such as small-break loss-of-coolant accidents. TRAC-PF1 continues to use a semi-implicit finite-difference method for modeling three-dimensional flows in the reactor vessel. However, it contains a new stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) finite-difference tecnique for one-dimensional flow calculations. This method is not restricted by a material Courant stability condition, allowing much larger time-step sizes during slow transients than would a semi-implicit method. These have been successfully applied to the analysis of a variety of experiments and hypothetical plant transients covering a full range of two-phase flow regimes

  3. Characterization of the Darwin direct implicit particle-in-cell method and resulting guidelines for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, M.R.; Hewett, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the linear dispersion and other properties of the Darwin Direct Implicit Particle-in-cell (DADIPIC) method in order to deduce guidelines for its use in the simulation of long time-scale, kinetic phenomena in plasmas. The Darwin part of this algorithm eliminates the Courant constraint for light propagation across a grid cell in a time step and divides the field solution into several elliptic equations. The direct implicit method is only applied to the electrostatic field relieving the need to resolve plasma oscillations. Linear theory and simulations verifying the theory are used to generate the desired guidelines as well as show the utility of DADIPIC for a wide range of low frequency, electromagnetic phenomena. We find that separation of the fields has made the task of predicting algorithm behavior easier and produced a robust method without restrictive constraints. 20 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Comparison of evaluation results of piping thermal fatigue evaluation method based on equivalent stress amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Kasahara, Naoto

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, reports have increased about failure cases caused by high cycle thermal fatigue both at light water reactors and fast breeder reactors. One of the reasons of the cases is a turbulent mixing at a Tee-junction, where hot and cold temperature fluids are mixed, in a coolant system. In order to prevent thermal fatigue failures at Tee-junctions. The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers published the guideline which is an evaluation method of high cycle thermal fatigue damage at nuclear pipes. In order to justify safety margin and make the procedure of the guideline concise, this paper proposes a new evaluation method of thermal fatigue damage with use of the 'equivalent stress amplitude.' Because this new method makes procedure of evaluation clear and concise, it will contribute to improving the guideline for thermal fatigue evaluation. (author)

  5. Semiautomatic volume of interest drawing for 18F-FDG image analysis - method and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.J.; Baig, S.; Begent, R.H.J.; Francis, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Functional imaging of cancer adds important information to the conventional measurements in monitoring response. Serial 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), which indicates changes in glucose metabolism in tumours, shows great promise for this. However, there is a need for a method to quantitate alterations in uptake of FDG, which accounts for changes in tumour volume and intensity of FDG uptake. Selection of regions or volumes [ROI or volumes of interest (VOI)] by hand drawing, or simple thresholding, suffers from operator-dependent drawbacks. We present a simple, robust VOI growing method for this application. The method requires a single seed point within the visualised tumour and another in relevant normal tissue. The drawn tumour VOI is insensitive to the operator inconsistency and is, thus, a suitable basis for comparative measurements. The method is validated using a software phantom. We demonstrate the use of the method in the assessment of tumour response in 31 patients receiving chemotherapy for various carcinomas. Valid assessment of tumour response could be made 2-4 weeks after starting chemotherapy, giving information for clinical decision making which would otherwise have taken 9-12 weeks. Survival was predicted from FDG-PET 2-4 weeks after starting chemotherapy (p = 0.04) and after 9-12 weeks FDG-PET gave a better prediction of survival (p = 0.002) than CT or MRI (p = 0.015). FDG-PET using this method of analysis has potential as a routine tool for optimising use of chemotherapy and improving its cost effectiveness. It also has potential for increasing the accuracy of response assessment in clinical trials of novel therapies. (orig.)

  6. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  7. Noninvasive MRI thermometry with the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method: in vivo results in human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Poorter, J; De Wagter, C; De Deene, Y

    1995-01-01

    The noninvasive thermometry method is based on the temperature dependence of the proton resonance frequency (PRF). High-quality temperature images can be obtained from phase information of standard gradient-echo sequences with an accuracy of 0.2 degrees C in phantoms. This work was focused on the...

  8. Review of quantum Monte Carlo methods and results for Coulombic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceperley, D.

    1983-01-01

    The various Monte Carlo methods for calculating ground state energies are briefly reviewed. Then a summary of the charged systems that have been studied with Monte Carlo is given. These include the electron gas, small molecules, a metal slab and many-body hydrogen

  9. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha Gezim; Shala Ahmet; Likaj Rame

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Cr...

  10. A new method for processing INAA results without the necessity of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemon, G.; Philippot, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    When neutron activation analysis is used for elemental determinations in samples taken from environment, and quite different in origin, certain questions arise: is the method absolute or relative, precise or accurate? How should objects be chosen to represent the subject studied? How should the conclusions of the measurement be used? How are the quality and intensity of the flux to be controlled? What corrections are needed for the effects of perturbing elements, uranium and boron? How sensitive is the method or - which amounts to the same thing - what is the best time to analyse an element in a given matrix? The authors attempt to answer these questions and illustrate the subject by way of a few specific examples: mineral and river water, sea and river sediments, aerosols, quartz tools, hair, nodules and Mn deposits, diamonds, wines, PWR effluents. (author)

  11. Health effects estimation: Methods and results for uranium mill tailings contaminated properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Cross, F.T.; Soldat, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes methods for estimating potential health effects from exposure to uranium mill tailings and presents a summary of risk projections for 50 contaminated properties (residences, schools, churches, and businesses) in the US. The methods provide realistic estimates of cancer risk to exposed individuals based on property-specific occupancy and contamination patterns. External exposure to gamma radiation, inhalation of radon daughters, and consumption of food products grown in radium-contaminated soil are considered. Most of the projected risk was from indoor exposure to radon daughters; however, for some properties the risk from consumption of locally grown food products is similar to that from radon daughters. In all cases, the projected number of lifetime cancer deaths for specific properties is less than one, but for some properties the increase in risk over that normally expected is greater than 100%

  12. Method of eliminating undesirable gaseous products resulting in underground uranium ore leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, J.; Dedic, K.; Johann, J.; Haas, F.; Sokola, K.

    1980-01-01

    The method described is characteristic of the fact that gases being formed or dissolved are oxidized using a combined oxidation-reduction system consisting of airborne oxygen, oxygen carriers and a strong irreversible oxidant. The oxygen carrier system consists of a mixture of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ cations or of Cu + and Cu 2+ cations introduced in solutions in form of iron salts at a concentration of 0.0001 to 0.003 M, or copper salts maximally of 0.0003 M. The irreversible oxidant shows a standard redox potential of at least +1.0 V. In addition to undesirable product elimination, the method allows increasing the leaching process yield. (J.B.)

  13. Strengthening of limestone by the impregnation - gamma irradiation method. Results of tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramiere, R.; Tassigny, C. de

    1975-04-01

    The method developed by the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France) strengthens the stones by impregnation with a styrene resin/liquid polystyrene mixture followed by polymerization under gamma irradiation. This method is applicable to stones which can be taken into the laboratory for treatment. The increase in strength of 6 different species of French limestone has been quantitatively recorded. The following parameters were studied: possibility of water migration inside the stones, improvements of the mechanical properties of the impregnated stone, standing up to freeze-thaw conditions and artificial ageing of the stones which causes only minor changes in the appearance of the stone and a negligible decrease in weight [fr

  14. The Ramsey method in high-precision mass spectrometry with Penning traps Experimental results

    CERN Document Server

    George, S; Herfurth, F; Herlert, A; Kretzschmar, M; Nagy, S; Schwarz, S; Schweikhard, L; Yazidjian, C

    2007-01-01

    The highest precision in direct mass measurements is obtained with Penning trap mass spectrometry. Most experiments use the interconversion of the magnetron and cyclotron motional modes of the stored ion due to excitation by external radiofrequency-quadrupole fields. In this work a new excitation scheme, Ramsey's method of time-separated oscillatory fields, has been successfully tested. It has been shown to reduce significantly the uncertainty in the determination of the cyclotron frequency and thus of the ion mass of interest. The theoretical description of the ion motion excited with Ramsey's method in a Penning trap and subsequently the calculation of the resonance line shapes for different excitation times, pulse structures, and detunings of the quadrupole field has been carried out in a quantum mechanical framework and is discussed in detail in the preceding article in this journal by M. Kretzschmar. Here, the new excitation technique has been applied with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN fo...

  15. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents the radiation shielding model of a typical PWR (CNPP-II) at Chashma, Pakistan. The model was developed using Monte Carlo N Particle code [2], equipped with ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross section libraries. This model was applied to calculate the neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in the radial direction at core mid plane. The simulated results were compared with the reference results of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI).

  16. Method for covering a spme fibre with carbon nanotubes and resulting spme fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrán, Enric; Jover Comas, Eric; García Céspedes, Jordi; Bayona Termens, Josep María

    2010-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for covering solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibres with carbon nanotubes (CNT), comprising the following operations: (i) depositing a layer of a metal material on the SPME fibre; (ii) applying a heat treatment in order to form catalytic metal nanoparticles in a reducing atmosphere; and (iii) applying carbon using chemical deposition techniques, thereby forming CNT on top ofthe metal nanoparticles. The invention also relates to a fibre obtain...

  17. A Simple Method for Closure of Urethrocutaneous Fistula after Tubularized Incised Plate Repair: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mehdi; Ariafar, Ali; Babaei, Amir Hossein; Ashrafzadeh, Abdosamad; Adib, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Urethrocutaneous fistula (UCF) is the most prevalent complication after hypospadias repair surgery. Many methods have been developed for UCF correction, and the best technique for UCF repair is determined based on the size, location, and number of fistulas, as well as the status of the surrounding skin. In this study, we introduced and evaluated a simple method for UCF correction after tubularized incised plate (TIP) repair. This clinical study was conducted on children with UCFs ≤ 4 mm that developed after TIP surgery for hypospadias repair. The skin was incised around the fistula and the tract was released from the surrounding tissues and the dartos fascia, then ligated with 5 - 0 polydioxanone (PDS) sutures. The dartos fascia, as the second layer, was covered on the fistula tract with PDS thread (gauge 5 - 0) by the continuous suture method. The skin was closed with 6 - 0 Vicryl sutures. After six months of follow-up, surgical outcomes were evaluated based on fistula relapse and other complications. After six months, relapse occurred in only one patient, a six-year-old boy with a single 4-mm distal opening, who had undergone no previous fistula repairs. Therefore, in 97.5% of the cases, relapse was non-existent. Other complications, such as urethral stenosis, intraurethral obstruction, and epidermal inclusion cysts, were not seen in the other patients during the six-month follow-up period. This repair method, which is simple, rapid, and easily learned, is highly applicable, with a high success rate for the closure of UCFs measuring up to 4 mm in any location.

  18. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

    OpenAIRE

    Rigo, Manuel D; Grivas, Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods ar...

  19. The relationship between team climate and interprofessional collaboration: preliminary results of a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Christopher; Agreli, Heloise F.; Peduzzi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Relational and organisational factors are key elements of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team climate. Few studies have explored the relationship between IPC and team climate. This article presents a study that 10 aimed to explore IPC in primary healthcare teams and understand how the assessment of team climate may provide insights into IPC. A mixed methods study design was adopted. In Stage 1 of the study, team climate was assessed using the Team Climate Inventory with 159 profess...

  20. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: cross-correlation redshifts - methods and systematics characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M.; Vielzeuf, P.; Davis, C.; Cawthon, R.; Rau, M. M.; DeRose, J.; De Vicente, J.; Alarcon, A.; Rozo, E.; Gaztanaga, E.; Hoyle, B.; Miquel, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Gruen, D.; Gschwend, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Roodman, A.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R. H.; Asorey, J.; Davis, T. M.; Glazebrook, K.; Hinton, S. R.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Möller, A.; O'Neill, C. R.; Sommer, N. E.; Uddin, S. A.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carollo, D.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Hoormann, J. K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, B. E.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wolf, R. C.

    2018-06-01

    We use numerical simulations to characterize the performance of a clustering-based method to calibrate photometric redshift biases. In particular, we cross-correlate the weak lensing source galaxies from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample with redMaGiC galaxies (luminous red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts) to estimate the redshift distribution of the former sample. The recovered redshift distributions are used to calibrate the photometric redshift bias of standard photo-z methods applied to the same source galaxy sample. We apply the method to two photo-z codes run in our simulated data: Bayesian Photometric Redshift and Directional Neighbourhood Fitting. We characterize the systematic uncertainties of our calibration procedure, and find that these systematic uncertainties dominate our error budget. The dominant systematics are due to our assumption of unevolving bias and clustering across each redshift bin, and to differences between the shapes of the redshift distributions derived by clustering versus photo-zs. The systematic uncertainty in the mean redshift bias of the source galaxy sample is Δz ≲ 0.02, though the precise value depends on the redshift bin under consideration. We discuss possible ways to mitigate the impact of our dominant systematics in future analyses.

  1. Experimental results and validation of a method to reconstruct forces on the ITER test blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, Christian; Maione, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An in operation force measurement system for the ITER EU HCPB TBM has been developed. • The force reconstruction methods are based on strain measurements on the attachment system. • An experimental setup and a corresponding mock-up have been built. • A set of test cases representing ITER relevant excitations has been used for validation. • The influence of modeling errors on the force reconstruction has been investigated. - Abstract: In order to reconstruct forces on the test blanket modules in ITER, two force reconstruction methods, the augmented Kalman filter and a model predictive controller, have been selected and developed to estimate the forces based on strain measurements on the attachment system. A dedicated experimental setup with a corresponding mock-up has been designed and built to validate these methods. A set of test cases has been defined to represent possible excitation of the system. It has been shown that the errors in the estimated forces mainly depend on the accuracy of the identified model used by the algorithms. Furthermore, it has been found that a minimum of 10 strain gauges is necessary to allow for a low error in the reconstructed forces.

  2. Different methods to define utility functions yield similar results but engage different neural processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Heldmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of utility is fundamental to many economic theories, up to now a generally accepted method determining a subject’s utility function is not available. We investigated two methods that are used in economic sciences for describing utility functions by using response-locked event-related potentials in order to assess their neural underpinnings. For defining the certainty equivalent (CE, we used a lottery game with probabilities to win p=0.5, for identifying the subjects’ utility functions directly a standard bisection task was applied. Although the lottery tasks’ payoffs were only hypothetical, a pronounced negativity was observed resembling the error related negativity (ERN previously described in action monitoring research, but this occurred only for choices far away from the indifference point between money and lottery. By contrast, the bisection task failed to evoke an ERN irrespective of the responses’ correctness. Based on these findings we are reasoning that only decisions made in the lottery task achieved a level of subjective relevance that activates cognitive-emotional monitoring. In terms of economic sciences, our findings support the view that the bisection method is unaffected by any kind of probability valuation or other parameters related to risk and in combination with the lottery task can, therefore, be used to differentiate between payoff and probability valuation.

  3. Comparison of mammographic and sonographic findings in typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Lebe, B.; Balci, P.; Sal, S.; Canda, T.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the contribution of mammographic and sonographic findings to the discrimination of typical and atypical histopathologic groups of medullary carcinomas of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging findings were retrospectively assessed in 33 women with medullary carcinomas (15 typical medullary carcinomas and 18 atypical medullary carcinomas) identified during pre-operative mammography. Twenty-nine of these women also had ultrasound and these findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Mammography showed a well circumscribed mass in 10 of the 15 (67%) typical medullary carcinomas and in four of the 17 (24%) atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.02). One small tumour in a woman with atypical medullary carcinoma was missed on mammography and was shown only on sonography. Sonographically, an irregular margin surrounding the whole mass or part of it was seen in three out of 14 (21%) patients with typical medullary carcinoma and in nine out of 15 (60%) patients with atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.05). Posterior acoustic shadowing was more often observed in the typical medullary carcinoma group than in atypical medullary carcinoma and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). None of the other mammographic and sonographic findings were sufficiently characteristic to allow for a differentiation between two groups. CONCLUSION: When typical medullary carcinomas were compared with atypical medullary carcinomas according to imaging features, they tended to be well circumscribed masses on both mammography and sonography, and a posterior acoustic shadow was not found on sonography. However, the imaging findings in these two subgroups often resembled each other and histopathology will always be required to confirm the diagnosis. Yilmaz, E. et al. (2002)

  4. Comparison of mammographic and sonographic findings in typical and atypical medullary carcinomas of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, E.; Lebe, B.; Balci, P.; Sal, S.; Canda, T

    2002-07-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the contribution of mammographic and sonographic findings to the discrimination of typical and atypical histopathologic groups of medullary carcinomas of the breast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging findings were retrospectively assessed in 33 women with medullary carcinomas (15 typical medullary carcinomas and 18 atypical medullary carcinomas) identified during pre-operative mammography. Twenty-nine of these women also had ultrasound and these findings were reviewed. RESULTS: Mammography showed a well circumscribed mass in 10 of the 15 (67%) typical medullary carcinomas and in four of the 17 (24%) atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.02). One small tumour in a woman with atypical medullary carcinoma was missed on mammography and was shown only on sonography. Sonographically, an irregular margin surrounding the whole mass or part of it was seen in three out of 14 (21%) patients with typical medullary carcinoma and in nine out of 15 (60%) patients with atypical medullary carcinomas (P < 0.05). Posterior acoustic shadowing was more often observed in the typical medullary carcinoma group than in atypical medullary carcinoma and the difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). None of the other mammographic and sonographic findings were sufficiently characteristic to allow for a differentiation between two groups. CONCLUSION: When typical medullary carcinomas were compared with atypical medullary carcinomas according to imaging features, they tended to be well circumscribed masses on both mammography and sonography, and a posterior acoustic shadow was not found on sonography. However, the imaging findings in these two subgroups often resembled each other and histopathology will always be required to confirm the diagnosis. Yilmaz, E. et al. (2002)

  5. An improved method for interpreting API filter press hydraulic conductivity test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslin, G.M.; Baxter, D.Y.; Filz, G.M.; Davidson, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) filter press is frequently used to measure the hydraulic conductivity of soil-bentonite backfill during the mix design process and as part of construction quality controls. However, interpretation of the test results is complicated by the fact that the seepage-induced consolidation pressure varies from zero at the top of the specimen to a maximum value at the bottom of the specimen. An analytical solution is available which relates the stress, compressibility, and hydraulic conductivity in soil consolidated by seepage forces. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation undertaken to support application of this theory to API hydraulic conductivity tests. When the API test results are interpreted using seepage consolidation theory, they are in good agreement with the results of consolidometer permeameter tests. Limitations of the API test are also discussed

  6. Quantitative functional scintigraphy of the salivary glands: A new method of interpreting and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Trauring, G.; Haas, J.P.; Noodt, A.; Draf, W.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m pertechnetate is injected i.v. and the kinetics of the tracer in the salivary glands is analyzed using a gamma camera and a computer system. To visualize regional gland function, phase images as well as socalled gradient images are generated, which reflect the rate of tracer inflow and outflow. The time activity curves for the individual glands which are obtained with the ROI technique show an initial rise which reflects the pertechnetate uptake potential of the gland and is superimposed by background activity. After a standardized lemon juice dose the curve drops steeply, with the slope depending on the outflow potential of the gland and the background activity. In the past, attempts at quantifying the uptake and elimination functions have failed because of problems in allowing for the variable background component of the time activity curves, which normally amounts of about 60%. In 25 patients in whom one gland had been removed surgically the background activity was examined in terms of the time course and the regional pattern and a patient and gland-specific subtraction method was developed for visualizing the time activity curves of isolated glands devoid of any background activity and describing the uptake and elimination potentials in quantitative terms. Using this new method we evaluated 305 salivary gland scans. Normal ranges for the quantitative parameters were established and their reproducibility was examined. Unlike qualitative functional images of the salivary glands the new quantitative method offers accurate evidence of the extent of gland function and thus helps to decide wether a gland should be salvaged or not (conservative versus surgical treatment). However, quantitation does not furnish any clues on the benign or malignant nature of a tumor. (Author)

  7. Some elaborating methods of gamma scanning results on irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternini, E.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma scanning, as a post-irradiation examination, is a technique which provides a large number of informations on irradiated nuclear fuels. Power profile, fission products distribution, average and local burn-up of single elements structural and nuclear behaviour of fuel materials are examples of the obtained informations. In the present work experimental methods and theoretical calculations used at the CNEN hot cell laboratory for the mentioned purposes are described. Errors arising from the application of the gamma scanning technique are also discussed

  8. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    A description of the most frequently used approaches for human reliability assesment is given. The relation between different human factor causes for human induced events in Kozloduy NPP during the period 2000 - 2003 is discussed. A comparison between the contribution of the casual factors for events occurrences in Kozloduy NPP and an Japanese NPP is presented. It can be concluded that for both NPPs the most important casual factors are: 1) written procedures and documents; 2) man-machine interface; 3) environmental working conditions; 4) working practice; 5) training and qualification; 6) supervising methods

  9. Results of a survey on accident and safety analysis codes, benchmarks, verification and validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the information submitted by AECL, CIAE, JAERI, ORNL and Siemens in response to a need identified at the 'Workshop on R and D Needs' at the IGORR-3 meeting. The survey compiled information on the national standards applied to the Safety Quality Assurance (SQA) programs undertaken by the participants. Information was assembled for the computer codes and nuclear data libraries used in accident and safety analyses for research reactors and the methods used to verify and validate the codes and libraries. Although the survey was not comprehensive, it provides a basis for exchanging information of common interest to the research reactor community

  10. Vehicle Speed Determination in Case of Road Accident by Software Method and Comparing of Results with the Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoxha Gezim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem to vehicle speed calculation at road accidents. To determine the speed are used the PC Crash software and Virtual Crash. With both methods are analysed concrete cases of road accidents. Calculation methods and comparing results are present for analyse. These methods consider several factors such are: the front part of the vehicle, the technical feature of the vehicle, car angle, remote relocation after the crash, road conditions etc. Expected results with PC Crash software and Virtual Crash are shown in tabular graphics and compared in mathematical methods.

  11. Evolution of different reaction methods resulting in the formation of AgI125 for use in brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, C.D.; Peleias Jr, F.S.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M.; Zeituni, C.A.; Benega, M.A.G.; Tiezzi, R.; Mattos, F.R.; Rodrigues, B.T.; Oliveira, T.B.; Feher, A.; Moura, J.A.; Costa, O.L.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer represents about 10% of all cases of cancer in the world. Brachytherapy has been extensively used in the early and intermediate stages of the illness. The radiotherapy method reduces the damage probability to surrounding healthy tissues. The present study compares several deposition methods of iodine-125 on silver substrate (seed core), in order to choose the most suitable one to be implemented at IPEN. Four methods were selected: method 1 (assay based on electrodeposition) which presented efficiency of 65.16%; method 2 (assay based on chemical reactions, developed by David Kubiatowicz) which presented efficiency of 70.80%; method 3 (chemical reaction based on the methodology developed by Dr. Maria Elisa Rostelato) which presented efficiency of 55.80%; new method developed by IPEN with 90.5% efficiency. Based on the results, the new method is the suggested one to be implemented. (authors)

  12. A method to derive fixed budget results from expected optimisation times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Jansen, Thomas; Witt, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    At last year's GECCO a novel perspective for theoretical performance analysis of evolutionary algorithms and other randomised search heuristics was introduced that concentrates on the expected function value after a pre-defined number of steps, called budget. This is significantly different from...... the common perspective where the expected optimisation time is analysed. While there is a huge body of work and a large collection of tools for the analysis of the expected optimisation time the new fixed budget perspective introduces new analytical challenges. Here it is shown how results on the expected...... optimisation time that are strengthened by deviation bounds can be systematically turned into fixed budget results. We demonstrate our approach by considering the (1+1) EA on LeadingOnes and significantly improving previous results. We prove that deviating from the expected time by an additive term of ω(n3...

  13. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  14. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Suk Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  15. First in-flight results of Pleiades 1A innovative methods for optical calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Philippe; Lebègue, Laurent; Fourest, Sébastien; Delvit, Jean-Marc; de Lussy, Françoise; Greslou, Daniel; Blanchet, Gwendoline

    2017-11-01

    The PLEIADES program is a space Earth Observation system led by France, under the leadership of the French Space Agency (CNES). Since it was successfully launched on December 17th, 2011, Pleiades 1A high resolution optical satellite has been thoroughly tested and validated during the commissioning phase led by CNES. The whole system has been designed to deliver submetric optical images to users whose needs were taken into account very early in the design process. This satellite opens a new era in Europe since its off-nadir viewing capability delivers a worldwide 2- days access, and its great agility will make possible to image numerous targets, strips and stereo coverage from the same orbit. Its imaging capability of more than 450 images of 20 km x 20 km per day can fulfill a broad spectrum of applications for both civilian and defence users. For an earth observing satellite with no on-board calibration source, the commissioning phase is a critical quest of wellcharacterized earth landscapes and ground patterns that have to be imaged by the camera in order to compute or fit the parameters of the viewing models. It may take a long time to get the required scenes with no cloud, whilst atmosphere corrections need simultaneous measurements that are not always possible. The paper focuses on new in-flight calibration methods that were prepared before the launch in the framework of the PLEIADES program : they take advantage of the satellite agility that can deeply relax the operational constraints and may improve calibration accuracy. Many performances of the camera were assessed thanks to a dedicated innovative method that was successfully validated during the commissioning period : Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), refocusing, absolute calibration, line of sight stability were estimated on stars and on the Moon. Detectors normalization and radiometric noise were computed on specific pictures on Earth with a dedicated guidance profile. Geometric viewing frame was

  16. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods are not known by most of the scientific community. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of the different physiotherapy methodologies (specific exercises, integrated into the whole rehabilitation program, is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about it. This is what the SCOLIOSIS Journal is going to do through the "Rehabilitation Schools for Scoliosis" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  17. Dosimetric methods and results of measurement for total body electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Ningyuan; Yu Geng; Yu Zihao

    1987-01-01

    A modified 'STANFORD TSEI TECHNIQUE' e.g. dual angled gantry, 6 turntable angles and 12 fields was developed on PHILIPS SL 75-20 linear accelerator to treat mycosis fungoides. A plastic scatter screen, 5 mm in thickness was used to reduce the primary electron energy to 4 MeV in order to control treatment depth (d 80 approx.= 1.2 cm) and skin dose up to 89%. The X-ray contamination was at an acceptable level of 2%. This measurement which involved multiple dosimetric methods, showed that the distance between the scattor screen and the patient, within 10-30 cm, had no influence on PDD and the dose distribution on the body surface was reasonably homogeneous, but strongly dependent on the anatomic positions. For those sites which were located in the electron beam shadows, boosting irradiation might be necessary. The preliminary clinical trials indicated that this technique is valid and feasible

  18. A new method for deriving rigorous results on ππ scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprini, I.; Dita, P.

    1979-06-01

    We develop a new approach to the problem of constraining the ππ scattering amplitudes by means of the axiomatically proved properties of unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The method is based on the solution of an extremal problem on a convex set of analytic functions and provides a global description of the domain of values taken by any finite number of partial waves at an arbitrary set of unphysical energies, compatible with unitarity, the bounds at complex energies derived from generalized dispersion relations and the crossing integral relations. From this doma domain we obtain new absolute bounds for the amplitudes as well as rigorous correlations between the values of various partial waves. (author)

  19. Radioimmunoassay for human myoglobin: methods and results in patients with skeletal muscle or myocardial disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Saito, S.; Kawai, H.; Kondo, A.; Iwasa, M.; Hayashi, T.; Yagita, M.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay has been developed for the measurement of serum Mb. Immunization of rabbit with human Mb yielded anti-Mb antibody which was purified by affinity chromatography. Human hemoglobin, CK, and the component of serum per se did not appear to cross-react with the antibody. Mb was radiolabeled by the chloramine T method. The radioimmunoassay method could detect as little as 0.3 ng of Mb and was not affected by hemolysis. Information is also given on precision, recovery, and specimen preservation. Mb levels could be detected in all of 120 normal adults, and the values ranged between 1 and 28 ng/ml (mean, 13.1 +- 6.1). No sex difference was observed. Levels were markedly elevated in all the patients with progressive muscular dystrophy, especially in the Duchenne type at the level of 40 to 1700 ng/ml. It was also noticed that about 70% of female gene carriers of Duchenne type had a slightly increased Mb level. An elevated serum Mb was also noted in polymyositis. In every case of acute myocardial infarction, serum Mb levels were increased, peak values ranging from 175 to 4400 ng/ml and averaging 1162 +- 287.9 Mb levels were elevated faster and peaked earlier (within 6 to 12 hr after the attack) than serum CK activity and returned to nearly normal range within 3 to 4 days. The increase in serum Mb was also noticed in shock and surgery. These data indicate that radioimmunoassay of Mb is a useful test for judging the myolytic state of myogenic myopathies and for early detection of myocardial infarction

  20. Indications and organisational methods for autologous blood transfusion procedures in Italy: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Liviana; Campolongo, Alessandra; Caponera, Maurizio; Berzuini, Alessandra; Bontadini, Andrea; Furlò, Giuseppe; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M

    2014-10-01

    Pre-operative donation of autologous blood is a practice that is now being abandoned. Alternative methods of transfusing autologous blood, other than predeposited blood, do however play a role in limiting the need for transfusion of allogeneic blood. This survey of autologous blood transfusion practices, promoted by the Italian Society of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology more than 2 years after the publication of national recommendations on the subject, was intended to acquire information on the indications for predeposit in Italy and on some organisational aspects of the alternative techniques of autotransfusion. A structured questionnaire consisting of 22 questions on the indications and organisational methods of autologous blood transfusion was made available on a web platform from 15 January to 15 March, 2013. The 232 Transfusion Services in Italy were invited by e-mail to complete the online survey. Of the 232 transfusion structures contacted, 160 (69%) responded to the survey, with the response rate decreasing from the North towards the South and the Islands. The use of predeposit has decreased considerably in Italy and about 50% of the units collected are discarded because of lack of use. Alternative techniques (acute isovolaemic haemodilution and peri-operative blood salvage) are used at different frequencies across the country. The data collected in this survey can be considered representative of national practice; they show that the already very limited indications for predeposit autologous blood transfusion must be adhered to even more scrupulously, also to avoid the notable waste of resources due to unused units.Users of alternative autotransfusion techniques must be involved in order to gain a full picture of the degree of use of such techniques; multidisciplinary agreement on the indications for their use is essential in order for these indications to have an effective role in "patient blood management" programmes.

  1. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.; van Zadelhoff, E.; van Loo, G.; Widdershoven, G.A.; Molewijk, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. Research questions: How did

  2. Does It Matter? Analyzing the Results of Three Different Learning Delivery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernish, William N.; DeFranco, Agnes L.; Lindner, James R.; Dooley, Kim E.

    2005-01-01

    The increasing diversity of learners and their preferences coupled with increasing usage of the computer and Internet prompted the need for testing and verifying the ways that knowledge can be delivered and learned effectively. This research addresses these concerns by comparing the results of a college course, hospitality human resource…

  3. Typical and atypical presentations of aspergilloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villajos, M.; Darnell, A.; Gallardo, X.; Castaner, E.; Mata, J. M.; Paedavila, E.

    1999-01-01

    To show the different forms of radiological presentations of aspergilloma, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the atypical forms. The explorations of 11 patients with aspergilloma were examined retrospectively between 1993 and 1997. These patients were studied using conventional X-rays and computed tomography (CT): Typical and atypical radiological findings were observed. In two patients, who presented recurrent hemoptysis, a percutaneous installation of amphotericin B was carried out with tomographic control. Out of the 11 patients, two were female and nine male. In eight of the cases the radiological findings showed an intercavity injury with different evolutionary forms, while in three of the cases there was a progressive pleural swelling. In the two patients treated pertinaciously, no significant radiological changes were observed, however, neither of them showed hemoptysis again. The pleural swelling adjacent to the cavity and/or the swelling of the cavity wall are atypical radiological presentations of the aspergilloma, that can accompany or precede the appearance of this illness. (Author) 7 refs

  4. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algahtani, Hussein A.; Obeid, Tahir H.; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  5. Measuring age differences among globular clusters having similar metallicities - A new method and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, D.A.; Bolte, M.; Stetson, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    A color-difference technique for estimating the relative ages of globular clusters with similar chemical compositions on the basis of their CM diagrams is described and demonstrated. The theoretical basis and implementation of the procedure are explained, and results for groups of globular clusters with m/H = about -2, -1.6, and -1.3, and for two special cases (Palomar 12 and NGC 5139) are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail. It is found that the more metal-deficient globular clusters are nearly coeval (differences less than 0.5 Gyr), whereas the most metal-rich globular clusters exhibit significant age differences (about 2 Gyr). This result is shown to contradict Galactic evolution models postulating halo collapse in less than a few times 100 Myr. 77 refs

  6. Review of solution approach, methods, and recent results of the RELAP5 system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapp, J.A.; Ransom, V.H.

    1983-01-01

    The present RELAP5 code is based on a semi-implicit numerical scheme for the hydrodynamic model. The basic guidelines employed in the development of the semi-implicit numerical scheme are discussed and the numerical features of the scheme are illustrated by analysis for a simple, but analogous, single-equation model. The basic numerical scheme is recorded and results from several simulations are presented. The experimental results and code simulations are used in a complementary fashion to develop insights into nuclear-plant response that would not be obtained if either tool were used alone. Further analysis using the simple single-equation model is carried out to yield insights that are presently being used to implement a more-implicit multi-step scheme in the experimental version of RELAP5. The multi-step implicit scheme is also described

  7. Performance of various mathematical methods for computer-aided processing of radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, W.; Sandel, P.; Langfelder, Ch.; Knedel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of 6 algorithms were compared for computer aided determination of radioimmunological end results. These were weighted and unweighted linear logit log regression; quadratic logit log regression, smoothing spline interpolation with a large and small smoothing factor, respectively, and polygonal interpolation and the manual curve fitting on the basis of three radioimmunoassays with different reference curve characteristics (digoxin, estriol, human chorionic somatomammotrophin (HCS)). Great store was set by the accuracy of the approximation at the intermediate points on the curve, i.e. those points that lie midway between two standard concentrations. These concentrations were obtained by weighing and inserted as unknown samples. In the case of digoxin and estriol the polygonal interpolation provided the best results, while the weighted logit log regression proved superior in the case of HCS. (Auth.)

  8. Conversion Method of the Balance Test Results in Open Jet Tunnel on the Free Flow Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of sizing a model and converting the balance test results in the low speed open-jet wind tunnel to free-flow conditions. The ANSYS Fluent commercial code performs flow model calculations in the test section and in the free flow, and the ANSYS ICEM CFD module is used to provide grid generation. A structured grid is generated in the free flow and an unstructured one is provided in the test section. The changes of aerodynamic coefficients are determined at the different values of the blockage factor for the segmental-conical and hemisphere cylinder-cone shapes of the model. The blockage factor values are found at which the interference of the test section – model is neglected. The paper presents a technique to convert the wind tunnel test results to the free flow conditions.

  9. Probabilistic Harmonic Analysis on Distributed Photovoltaic Integration Considering Typical Weather Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Che; Ruoying, Yu; Dongsheng, Dang; Xiangyan, Wang

    2017-05-01

    Distributed Generation (DG) integrating to the network would cause the harmonic pollution which would cause damages on electrical devices and affect the normal operation of power system. On the other hand, due to the randomness of the wind and solar irradiation, the output of DG is random, too, which leads to an uncertainty of the harmonic generated by the DG. Thus, probabilistic methods are needed to analyse the impacts of the DG integration. In this work we studied the harmonic voltage probabilistic distribution and the harmonic distortion in distributed network after the distributed photovoltaic (DPV) system integrating in different weather conditions, mainly the sunny day, cloudy day, rainy day and the snowy day. The probabilistic distribution function of the DPV output power in different typical weather conditions could be acquired via the parameter identification method of maximum likelihood estimation. The Monte-Carlo simulation method was adopted to calculate the probabilistic distribution of harmonic voltage content at different frequency orders as well as the harmonic distortion (THD) in typical weather conditions. The case study was based on the IEEE33 system and the results of harmonic voltage content probabilistic distribution as well as THD in typical weather conditions were compared.

  10. Comparison of Different Methods for Transverse Emittance Measurement and Recent Results from LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Bovet, Claude; Jung, R

    1997-01-01

    The knowledge of its position and angular transverse distributions is of utmost interest to assess the good behaviour of a beam within an accelerator. After a short reminder of beam "emittance" definitions, a review is made of various measurement techniques used so far both in single pass machines and colliders. Results of measurements made at CERN in the future LHC injection complex and in LEP are presented and discussed.

  11. USA/FBR program fast flux test facility startup physics and reactor characterization methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.A.; Harris, R.A.; Daughtry, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Final confirmation of much of the engineering mockup work has been achieved in FTR zero-power experiments in February, 1980, and in power demonstration performed in December, 1980, and March, 1981. Final in-core low-power and high-power irradiation of spatially distributed radioactivants will be completed late in 1981. This paper describes physics experiments and present summaries of the extensive results accumulated to date. 53 figures

  12. Method for purification of environmental objects, contaminated with radioactive substancesas a result of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, Kh.; Shiraliyeva, Kh.; Mirzayev, N.; Garibov, R.; Allahverdiyev, G.; Aliyeva, U.; Farajova, A.

    2017-01-01

    , centrifugation and evaporation/ and vegetation /firing, treatment with nitric acid and distilled water/ taken from all regions of the republic were carried out. Mineral compositions have been studied by X-ray fluorescence, γ, α, β spectroscopy, electron microscopy and chemical methods. Four times washing /stirring and extraction/ by distilled water were used to clean the soil samples. It is possible to re-wash the soil for achieve complete cleaning of deeply contaminated soils. Methods sedimentation, centrifugation, mass spectroscopy and adsorption on activated carbon or on organic porous adsorbents /copolymers of maleic anhydride with styrene hardened by polyethylene polyamines/ were used for purification (separation of heavy elements, radioactive isotopes) of water samples and water extracts of soil.

  13. Pharmaceutical companies' policies on access to trial data, results, and methods: audit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldacre, Ben; Lane, Síle; Mahtani, Kamal R; Heneghan, Carl; Onakpoya, Igho; Bushfield, Ian; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-07-26

    Objectives  To identify the policies of major pharmaceutical companies on transparency of trials, to extract structured data detailing each companies' commitments, and to assess concordance with ethical and professional guidance. Design  Structured audit. Setting  Pharmaceutical companies, worldwide. Participants  42 pharmaceutical companies. Main outcome measures  Companies' commitments on sharing summary results, clinical study reports (CSRs), individual patient data (IPD), and trial registration, for prospective and retrospective trials. Results  Policies were highly variable. Of 23 companies eligible from the top 25 companies by revenue, 21 (91%) committed to register all trials and 22 (96%) committed to share summary results; however, policies commonly lacked timelines for disclosure, and trials on unlicensed medicines and off-label uses were only included in six (26%). 17 companies (74%) committed to share the summary results of past trials. The median start date for this commitment was 2005. 22 companies (96%) had a policy on sharing CSRs, mostly on request: two committed to share only synopses and only two policies included unlicensed treatments. 22 companies (96%) had a policy to share IPD; 14 included phase IV trials (one included trials on unlicensed medicines and off-label uses). Policies in the exploratory group of smaller companies made fewer transparency commitments. Two companies fell short of industry body commitments on registration, three on summary results. Examples of contradictory and ambiguous language were documented and summarised by theme. 23/42 companies (55%) responded to feedback; 7/1806 scored policy elements were revised in light of feedback from companies (0.4%). Several companies committed to changing policy; some made changes immediately. Conclusions  The commitments made by companies to transparency of trials were highly variable. Other than journal submission for all trials within 12 months, all elements of best practice

  14. False positive results using calcitonin as a screening method for medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Loch Batista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of serum calcitonin as part of the evaluation of thyroid nodules has been widely discussed in literature. However there still is no consensus of measurement of calcitonin in the initial evaluation of a patient with thyroid nodule. Problems concerning cost-benefit, lab methods, false positive and low prevalence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC are factors that limit this approach. We have illustrated two cases where serum calcitonin was used in the evaluation of thyroid nodule and rates proved to be high. A stimulation test was performed, using calcium as secretagogue, and calcitonin hyper-stimulation was confirmed, but anatomopathologic examination did not evidence medullar neoplasia. Anatomopathologic diagnosis detected Hashimoto thyroiditis in one case and adenomatous goiter plus an occult papillary thyroid carcinoma in the other one. Recommendation for routine use of serum calcitonin in the initial diagnostic evaluation of a thyroid nodule, followed by a confirming stimulation test if basal serum calcitonin is showed to be high, is the most currently recommended approach, but questions concerning cost-benefit and possibility of diagnosis error make the validity of this recommendation discussible.

  15. Accelerated life-test methods and results for implantable electronic devices with adhesive encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuechen; Denprasert, Petcharat May; Zhou, Li; Vest, Adriana Nicholson; Kohan, Sam; Loeb, Gerald E

    2017-09-01

    We have developed and applied new methods to estimate the functional life of miniature, implantable, wireless electronic devices that rely on non-hermetic, adhesive encapsulants such as epoxy. A comb pattern board with a high density of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) could be used to detect incipient failure from water vapor condensation. Inductive coupling of an RF magnetic field was used to provide DC bias and to detect deterioration of an encapsulated comb pattern. Diodes in the implant converted part of the received energy into DC bias on the comb pattern. The capacitance of the comb pattern forms a resonant circuit with the inductor by which the implant receives power. Any moisture affects both the resonant frequency and the Q-factor of the resonance of the circuitry, which was detected wirelessly by its effects on the coupling between two orthogonal RF coils placed around the device. Various defects were introduced into the comb pattern devices to demonstrate sensitivity to failures and to correlate these signals with visual inspection of failures. Optimized encapsulation procedures were validated in accelerated life tests of both comb patterns and a functional neuromuscular stimulator under development. Strong adhesive bonding between epoxy and electronic circuitry proved to be necessary and sufficient to predict 1 year packaging reliability of 99.97% for the neuromuscular stimulator.

  16. Generalist palliative care in hospital - Cultural and organisational interactions. Results of a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Jarlbaek, Lene; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-06-01

    It can be challenging to provide generalist palliative care in hospitals, owing to difficulties in integrating disease-oriented treatment with palliative care and the influences of cultural and organisational conditions. However, knowledge on the interactions that occur is sparse. To investigate the interactions between organisation and culture as conditions for integrated palliative care in hospital and, if possible, to suggest workable solutions for the provision of generalist palliative care. A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was chosen using two independent studies: a quantitative study, in which three independent datasets were triangulated to study the organisation and evaluation of generalist palliative care, and a qualitative, ethnographic study exploring the culture of generalist palliative nursing care in medical departments. A Danish regional hospital with 29 department managements and one hospital management. Two overall themes emerged: (1) 'generalist palliative care as a priority at the hospital', suggesting contrasting issues regarding prioritisation of palliative care at different organisational levels, and (2) 'knowledge and use of generalist palliative care clinical guideline', suggesting that the guideline had not reached all levels of the organisation. Contrasting issues in the hospital's provision of generalist palliative care at different organisational levels seem to hamper the interactions between organisation and culture - interactions that appear to be necessary for the provision of integrated palliative care in the hospital. The implementation of palliative care is also hindered by the main focus being on disease-oriented treatment, which is reflected at all the organisational levels. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Accelerated stress testing of thin film solar cells: Development of test methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    If thin film cells are to be considered a viable option for terrestrial power generation their reliability attributes will need to be explored and confidence in their stability obtained through accelerated testing. Development of a thin film accelerated test program will be more difficult than was the case for crystalline cells because of the monolithic construction nature of the cells. Specially constructed test samples will need to be fabricated, requiring committment to the concept of accelerated testing by the manufacturers. A new test schedule appropriate to thin film cells will need to be developed which will be different from that used in connection with crystalline cells. Preliminary work has been started to seek thin film schedule variations to two of the simplest tests: unbiased temperature and unbiased temperature humidity. Still to be examined are tests which involve the passage of current during temperature and/or humidity stress, either by biasing in the forward (or reverse) directions or by the application of light during stress. Investigation of these current (voltage) accelerated tests will involve development of methods of reliably contacting the thin conductive films during stress.

  18. Joint hyperlaxity prevents relapses in clubfeet treated by Ponseti method-preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Dan Ionuţ; Corbu, Andrei; Nistor, Dan Viorel; Todor, Adrian; Valeanu, Madalina; Morcuende, Jose; Man, Sorin

    2018-05-07

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of joint hyperlaxity (by Beighton score) as a protective factor for clubfoot relapse. Patients with idiopathic clubfoot treated with the Ponseti method between January 2004 and December 2012, without other congenital foot deformity, and not previously treated by open surgery were included in either the Relapse group (n = 23) if it was a clubfoot relapse or the Control group (n = 19) if no relapse was noted. Joint laxity was evaluated using the Beighton score at the latest follow-up against the Normal group (n = 22, children matched by sex and age without clubfoot deformity). We found a significantly higher joint laxity in the Control group (4.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-7.06) as compared to the Relapse (3.17, 95% CI: 1.53-4.81, p = 0.032) and Normal (3.14, 95% CI: 1.78-4.5, p = 0.03) groups. The univariate logistic regression showed a 5.28-times increase in the risk of relapse for a Beighton score lower than 4/9 points (odds ratio = 5.28; 95% CI = 1.29-21.5; p = 0.018). Joint hyperlaxity could be a protective factor for clubfoot relapse.

  19. Preliminary results of oxygen isotope ratio measurement with a particle-gamma coincidence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysiuk, Maciek, E-mail: maciek.borysiuk@pixe.lth.se; Kristiansson, Per; Ros, Linus; Abdel, Nassem S.; Elfman, Mikael; Nilsson, Charlotta; Pallon, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to study variations in the oxygen isotopic ratio with photon tagged nuclear reaction analysis (pNRA) is evaluated in the current work. The experiment described in the article was performed at Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF) with a 2 MeV deuteron beam. Isotopic fractionation of light elements such as carbon, oxygen and nitrogen is the basis of many analytical tools in hydrology, geology, paleobiology and paleogeology. IBA methods provide one possible tool for measurement of isotopic content. During this experimental run we focused on measurement of the oxygen isotopic ratio. The measurement of stable isotopes of oxygen has a number of applications; the particular one driving the current investigation belongs to the field of astrogeology and specifically evaluation of fossil extraterrestrial material. There are three stable isotopes of oxygen: {sup 16}O, {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O. We procured samples highly enriched with all three isotopes. Isotopes {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O were easily detected in the enriched samples, but no significant signal from {sup 17}O was detected in the same samples. The measured yield was too low to detect {sup 18}O in a sample with natural abundances of oxygen isotopes, at least in the current experimental setup, but the spectral line from the reaction with {sup 16}O was clearly visible.

  20. Typical NRC inspection procedures for model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, J.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of NRC inspection procedures for a model LEU fuel fabrication plant is presented. Procedures and methods for combining inventory data, seals, measurement techniques, and statistical analysis are emphasized

  1. Variation in Results of Volume Measurements of Stumps of Lower-Limb Amputees : A Comparison of 4 Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer-Wilzing, Vera G.; Bolt, Arjen; Geertzen, Jan H.; Emmelot, Cornelis H.; Baars, Erwin C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    de Boer-Wilzing VG, Bolt A, Geertzen JH, Emmelot CH, Baars EC, Dijkstra PU. Variation in results of volume measurements of stumps of lower-limb amputees: a comparison of 4 methods. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:941-6. Objective: To analyze the reliability of 4 methods (water immersion,

  2. Studies on the comparability of the results from different methods for the radioimmunological determination of digoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwenger, A.; Trautschold, I.

    1978-01-01

    Three iodine-125-digoxin radioimmunoassay kits (A Amersham Buchler; B Boehringer Mannheim; C Schwarz Mann/Becton Dickinson) were evaluated with respect to assay quality and comparability of the results. Intra- and interassay variances were calculated for the following types of samples: Three media (a pool serum; b artificial human serum; c buffer solution with albumin and globulin) containing pure digoxin, sera from a pharmacokinetic study, sera with different concentrations of proteins, a hemolytic serum and sera with digitoxin and metabolites of spironolactone. The intra-assay precision depended on the medium of the sample and was higher for samples with identical digoxin concentrations in an identical medium (e.g. CV for 2 μg/l in medium a for kit A: 4.3% for kit B: 7.0%; for kit C: 2.2%) than for samples with identical antigen concentrations in different media (CV for 2 μg/l in media a, b and c for kit A: 6.4%; for kit B: 9.1%; for kit C: 4.3%). The mean recovery in the range 0.5-4 μg/l depended on the kind of medium (a, b or c) and varied for kit A from 84.4% to 100.8%, for kit B from 112.0% to 119.6%, and for kit C from 98.0% to 104.5%. Decreasing serum protein concentrations to less than one half of the physiological concentration gave false negative results for kit A and fals positive results for kit C; for kit B this dependency was not be observed, but there was a decrease of reproducibility. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. Assessing incentive contracts for reducing residential electricity consumption: new experimental methods for new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachet, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Facing economic, political and environmental stakes, electricity providers are nowadays developing incentive tools, in order to reduce consumer's demand, particularly during peak demand periods. For residential customers, these tools can be tariffs (dynamic pricing of time-of-use tariffs), or informative devices or services (feedbacks on historical or real-time consumption, given on various media). They might go along with automation systems that can help cutting of some electric devices when needed. In order to evaluate the capacity of these settings among their customers, electricity utilities are developing quite a few studies, which are mainly field experiment often called pilots. During these pilots, demand response tools are implemented on a population sample. These long and expensive studies lid to quantitative and qualitative analysis. We have compiled about 40 of them and extract from this survey some generalizable teachings. We have shown what these results were and highlighted pilot programs' methodological limits. In order to propose a substitute to these heavy experimentations, we assessed the capacity or experimental economics. This relatively new discipline's objective is to evaluation the efficiency of institutions, like markets, but also to study what animate economic agents' behaviour, e.g. preferences, beliefs, cognitive biases, willingness to pay... We were also able to elaborate an experimental protocol dedicated to the evaluation of some demand response contracts' acceptability. The results collected during 14 experimental sessions gave us some innovative clues and insight on these contracts acceptability. But, beyond these results, we have demonstrated that even if experimental economics can't obviously be a substitute for field experiments, it can represent an interesting exploratory methodology. To sum up the experimental economics can take part of residential customers' behaviour understanding, performing

  4. A Survey for hot Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae I. Methods and First Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kanarek, Graham C.; Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of initial spectrographic followup with the Very Large Telescope (UT3, Melipal) for $K_s \\ge 14$ Galactic plane CIV emission-line candidates in the near-infrared (NIR). These 7 faint stars all display prominent HeI and CIV emission lines characteristic of a carbon-rich Wolf-Rayet star. They have NIR colours which are much too blue to be those of distant, classical WR stars. The magnitudes and colours are compatible with those expected for central stars of planetary nebu...

  5. Study on some factors affecting the results in the use of MIP method in concrete research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhattacharjee, B.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of rate of pressure application and forms and type of sample on porosity and pore size distribution of concrete estimated through mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) are presented in this experimental work. Two different forms of concrete sample, namely, crushed chunks of concrete and small core drilled out from the concrete beam specimens, were used for this study. The results exhibit that the rate of pressure application in mercury porosimetry has little effect on porosity and pore size distribution of concrete. It is also demonstrated that small cores drilled out from large concrete specimens are preferable as samples for performing porosimetry test on concrete

  6. Longitudinal bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation spectroscopy. Physical principles, multichannel spectrometer, experimental results, mathematical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Wesch, Stephan; Behrens, Christopher; Koevener, Toke; Hass, Eugen; Casalbuoni, Sara

    2018-03-01

    The generation and properties of transition radiation (TR) are thoroughly treated. The spectral energy density, as described by the Ginzburg-Frank formula, is computed analytically, and the modifications caused by the finite size of the TR screen and by near-field diffraction effects are carefully analyzed. The principles of electron bunch shape reconstruction using coherent transition radiation are outlined. Spectroscopic measurements yield only the magnitude of the longitudinal form factor but not its phase. Two phase retrieval methods are investigated and illustrated with model calculations: analytic phase computation by means of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, and iterative phase retrieval. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguities which are unavoidable in the reconstruction of longitudinal charge density profiles from spectroscopic data. The origin of these ambiguities has been identified and a thorough mathematical analysis is presented. The experimental part of the paper comprises a description of our multichannel infrared and THz spectrometer and a selection of measurements at FLASH, comparing the bunch profiles derived from spectroscopic data with those determined with a transversely deflecting microwave structure. A rigorous derivation of the Kramers-Kronig phase formula is presented in Appendix A. Numerous analytic model calculations can be found in Appendix B. The differences between normal and truncated Gaussians are discussed in Appendix C. Finally, Appendix D contains a short description of the propagation of an electromagnetic wave front by two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation. This is the basis of a powerful numerical Mathematica trademark code THzTransport, which permits the propagation of electromagnetic wave fronts through a beam line consisting of drift spaces, lenses, mirrors and apertures.

  7. Postgraduate Education in Quality Improvement Methods: Initial Results of the Fellows' Applied Quality Training (FAQT) Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Burkart, Thomas A; Choi, Calvin Y; McKillop, Matthew S; Beyth, Rebecca J; Dahm, Phillipp

    2016-06-01

    Training in quality improvement (QI) is a pillar of the next accreditation system of the Accreditation Committee on Graduate Medical Education and a growing expectation of physicians for maintenance of certification. Despite this, many postgraduate medical trainees are not receiving training in QI methods. We created the Fellows Applied Quality Training (FAQT) curriculum for cardiology fellows using both didactic and applied components with the goal of increasing confidence to participate in future QI projects. Fellows completed didactic training from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Open School and then designed and completed a project to improve quality of care or patient safety. Self-assessments were completed by the fellows before, during, and after the first year of the curriculum. The primary outcome for our curriculum was the median score reported by the fellows regarding their self-confidence to complete QI activities. Self-assessments were completed by 23 fellows. The majority of fellows (15 of 23, 65.2%) reported no prior formal QI training. Median score on baseline self-assessment was 3.0 (range, 1.85-4), which was significantly increased to 3.27 (range, 2.23-4; P = 0.004) on the final assessment. The distribution of scores reported by the fellows indicates that 30% were slightly confident at conducting QI activities on their own, which was reduced to 5% after completing the FAQT curriculum. An interim assessment was conducted after the fellows completed didactic training only; median scores were not different from the baseline (mean, 3.0; P = 0.51). After completion of the FAQT, cardiology fellows reported higher self-confidence to complete QI activities. The increase in self-confidence seemed to be limited to the applied component of the curriculum, with no significant change after the didactic component.

  8. Machine learning methods for the classification of gliomas: Initial results using features extracted from MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, G; Parvathy, R; Vikas, V; Chandrasekharan, Kesavadas; Nair, Suresh

    2015-04-01

    With the advent of new imaging modalities, radiologists are faced with handling increasing volumes of data for diagnosis and treatment planning. The use of automated and intelligent systems is becoming essential in such a scenario. Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, is increasingly being used in medical image analysis applications such as image segmentation, registration and computer-aided diagnosis and detection. Histopathological analysis is currently the gold standard for classification of brain tumors. The use of machine learning algorithms along with extraction of relevant features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) holds promise of replacing conventional invasive methods of tumor classification. The aim of the study is to classify gliomas into benign and malignant types using MRI data. Retrospective data from 28 patients who were diagnosed with glioma were used for the analysis. WHO Grade II (low-grade astrocytoma) was classified as benign while Grade III (anaplastic astrocytoma) and Grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) were classified as malignant. Features were extracted from MR spectroscopy. The classification was done using four machine learning algorithms: multilayer perceptrons, support vector machine, random forest and locally weighted learning. Three of the four machine learning algorithms gave an area under ROC curve in excess of 0.80. Random forest gave the best performance in terms of AUC (0.911) while sensitivity was best for locally weighted learning (86.1%). The performance of different machine learning algorithms in the classification of gliomas is promising. An even better performance may be expected by integrating features extracted from other MR sequences. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Longitudinal bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation spectroscopy. Physical principles, multichannel spectrometer, experimental results, mathematical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Wesch, Stephan; Behrens, Christopher [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Koevener, Toke [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hass, Eugen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Casalbuoni, Sara [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Beam Physics and Technology; Schmueser, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    The generation and properties of transition radiation (TR) are thoroughly treated. The spectral energy density, as described by the Ginzburg-Frank formula, is computed analytically, and the modifications caused by the finite size of the TR screen and by near-field diffraction effects are carefully analyzed. The principles of electron bunch shape reconstruction using coherent transition radiation are outlined. Spectroscopic measurements yield only the magnitude of the longitudinal form factor but not its phase. Two phase retrieval methods are investigated and illustrated with model calculations: analytic phase computation by means of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, and iterative phase retrieval. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguities which are unavoidable in the reconstruction of longitudinal charge density profiles from spectroscopic data. The origin of these ambiguities has been identified and a thorough mathematical analysis is presented. The experimental part of the paper comprises a description of our multichannel infrared and THz spectrometer and a selection of measurements at FLASH, comparing the bunch profiles derived from spectroscopic data with those determined with a transversely deflecting microwave structure. A rigorous derivation of the Kramers-Kronig phase formula is presented in Appendix A. Numerous analytic model calculations can be found in Appendix B. The differences between normal and truncated Gaussians are discussed in Appendix C. Finally, Appendix D contains a short description of the propagation of an electromagnetic wave front by two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation. This is the basis of a powerful numerical Mathematica trademark code THzTransport, which permits the propagation of electromagnetic wave fronts through a beam line consisting of drift spaces, lenses, mirrors and apertures.

  10. Evaluation of the results of treatment of morbid obesity by the endoscopic intragastric balloon implantation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żurawiński, Wojciech; Sokołowski, Dariusz; Krupa-Kotara, Karolina; Czech, Elżbieta; Sosada, Krystyn

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are ranked in the fifth place among the risk factors responsible for the greatest number of deaths in the world. To assess the effects of treatment of patients with morbid obesity using endoscopic intragastric balloon (IGB) implantation. Two hundred and seventy-two patients with obesity were treated using endoscopic intragastric balloon implantation. Upon analysis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the study covered a group of 63 patients with morbid obesity. The patients were implanted with the LexBal balloon. Reduction of excess body mass, changes to BMI values and ailments and complications divided into mild and severe were assessed. Before intragastric balloon treatment, the average body mass index (BMI) value was 58.3 ±10.5 kg/m 2 , whereas after 6 months of treatment it decreased to 49.5 ±8.7 kg/m 2 . The patients with postoperative BMI equal to or greater than 50.0 kg/m 2 reported nausea (69.7%), vomiting (51.5%), flatulence (45.5%), upper abdominal pain (36.4%) and general discomfort (424%) more frequently. Dehydration (9.1%) was also more frequent in this group, whereas frequency of occurrence of such ailments and complications as heartburn (23.3%) and oesophageal candidiasis (10.0%) was higher in the patients with postoperative BMI below 50.0 kg/m 2 . Endoscopic intragastric balloon implantation is an effective and safe method of excess body mass reduction in patients with morbid obesity before a planned bariatric surgical procedure. Pre-operative excess body mass and BMI value and post-operative excess weight loss in patients with morbid obesity have no impact on frequency of occurrence of ailments and complications in IGB treatment.

  11. Application of a PCR method for the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Agnoletti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative enteritis or “quail disease” is an acute clostridial infection of young birds reported in many avian species, chicken and turkey included. Clostridium colinum is the causative agent of ulcerative enteritis and because of the difficulties bound to the isolation and identification of this bacterium by means of classic bacteriological techniques, its detection appears very hard and the prevalence of this disease could be underestimated. To investigate the diffusion of C. colinum in enteric disease of birds, a recently developed PCR protocol was applied to 42 cultural broths previously inoculated with organs and intestinal samples collected from diseased subjects. PCR-positive broths were cultivated to attempt the isolation of C. colinum. Samples collected from positive birds were subjected to histological examinations. 4 birds (3 broilers chickens and 1 pigeon resulted PCR-positive and, in one case, C. colinum was isolated. Gross and histological lesions of positive birds were compatible with those described in other ulcerative enteritis outbreaks. These preliminary results demonstrates that C. colinum is sporadically implicated in enteric diseases of broiler chickens (14.2%. In addition, the PCR assay proved to be an useful and reliable instrument to support the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis and to facilitate the isolation of C. colinum.

  12. UV-VIS Spectroscopy Applied to Stratospheric Chemistry, Methods and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsen, K.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Numerous observations and modeling have shown with a very high degree of certainty that the man-made emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and halons are responsible for the Antarctica ozone hole. It is also evident that the ozone layer of the Northern Hemisphere has suffered a certain decline over the last 10-15 years, possibly because of CFC and halons. 20-30% of the observed reduction is ascribed to coupled chlorine and bromine chemistry via a catalytic cycle resulting in the net conversion of 2O{sub 3} to 3O{sub 2}. But the details are not fully understood. The author plans to assemble a UV-VIS spectrometer for measuring the species OClO and BrO and to compare and discuss measured diurnal variations of OClO and BrO with model calculations. The use of Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is discussed and some results from late 1995 presented. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Challenges of E-learning in medicine: methods and results of a systematical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreckelsen, Cord

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available E-learning in medicine traditionally concentrates on case oriented or problem oriented learning scenarios, the development of multimedia courseware or the implementation of simulators. This paper aims at a systematic exploration of actual and new challenges for E-learning in the medical domain. The exploration is based on the analysis of the scientific discourse in the field of Medical Education. The analysis starts from text based sources: the concept hierarchy of the Medical Subject Headings, the profiles of the relevant scientific associations, and the scientific program of scientific conferences or annual meetings. These sources are subjected to conceptual analysis, supported by network visualization tools and supplemented by network theoretic indices (Betweeness Centrality. As a result, the main concerns of the Medical Education community and their modifications during the last six years can be identified. The analysis discovers new challenges, which result from central issues of Medical Education, namely from e.g. curricular and faculty development or the sustainable integration of postgraduate education and continuing medial education. The main challenges are: 1 the implementation of integrative conceptions of the application of learning management systems (LMS and 2 the necessity of combining aspects of organizational development, knowledge management and learning management within the scope of a comprehensive learning life cycle management.

  14. Polarimetry at 1.3 mm using MILLIPOL - methods and preliminary results for Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvainis, R.; Clemens, D.P.; Leach, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a polarimeter for use at wavelengths near 1 mm, designed to be self-contained and portable. Only minor modifications should be required to adapt this instrument for use on any of several millimeter and submillimeter telescopes. The polarimeter system and data-taking techniques are described, and a preliminary measurement is reported of the polarized dust emission from the Orion KL region at 1.3 mm using the NRAO 12 m telescope. The results are similar to previous polarization measurements of Orion at far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The magnetic field direction implied by the polarization position angle is parallel to that found in the surrounding Orion region using optical and near- to midinfrared polarimetric techniques. 17 references

  15. Preliminary results for the detection method of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs residues in pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-kuo Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs residues, which come from environmental pollution, tend to accumulate in the food chain (EFSA, 2008; Guerranti et al., 2013. 17 chemicals of PFASs family were selected for this study. Fresh pork samples were extracted by Waters® WAX SPE (solid phase extraction cartridges. All extracted samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The results of calibration curves of each PFAS were good, the R2 values ranging from 0.9901 to 0.9993. The Recoveries were in the range 80%-119%. The protocol of extraction by Waters® WAX SPE cartridge will be applied in future studies.

  16. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups.

  17. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  18. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Rien M J P A; van Zadelhoff, Ezra; van Loo, Ger; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Molewijk, Bert A C

    2015-12-01

    Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. How did participants evaluate moral case deliberation? What has moral case deliberation brought to them? What has moral case deliberation contributed to care practice? Should moral case deliberation be further implemented and, if so, how? Quantitative analysis of a questionnaire study among participants of moral case deliberation, both caregivers and team leaders. Qualitative analysis of written answers to open questions, interview study and focus group meetings among caregivers and team leaders. Caregivers and team leaders in a large organization for aged care in the Netherlands. A total of 61 moral case deliberation sessions, carried out on 16 care locations belonging to the organization, were evaluated and perceived results were assessed. Participants gave informed consent and anonymity was guaranteed. In the Netherlands, the law does not prescribe independent ethical review by an Institutional Review Board for this kind of research among healthcare professionals. Moral case deliberation was evaluated positively by the participants. Content and atmosphere of moral case deliberation received high scores, while organizational issues regarding the moral case deliberation sessions scored lower and merit further attention. Respondents indicated that moral case deliberation has the potential to contribute to care practice as relationships among team members improve, more openness is experienced and more understanding for different perspectives is fostered. If moral case deliberation is to be successfully implemented, top-down approaches should go hand in hand with bottom-up approaches. The relevance of moral case deliberation for care practice received wide acknowledgement from the respondents. It can contribute

  19. Detection of leaks in underground storage tanks using electrical resistance methods: 1996 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Daily, W.

    1996-10-01

    This document provides a summary of a field experiment performed under a 15m diameter steel tank mockup located at the Hanford Reservation, Washington. The purpose of this test was to image a contaminant plume as it develops in soil under a tank already contaminated by previous leakage and to determine whether contaminant plumes can be detected without the benefit of background data. Measurements of electrical resistance were made before and during a salt water release. These measurements were made in soil which contained the remnants of salt water plumes released during previous tests in 1994 and in 1995. About 11,150 liters of saline solution were released along a portion of the tank's edge in 1996. Changes in electrical resistivity due to release of salt water conducted in 1996 were determined in two ways: (1) changes relative to the 1996 pre-spill data, and (2) changes relative to data collected near the middle of the 1996 spill after the release flow rate was increased. In both cases, the observed resistivity changes show clearly defined anomalies caused by the salt water release. These results indicate that when a plume develops over an existing plume and in a geologic environment similar to the test site environment, the resulting resistivity changes are easily detectable. Three dimensional tomographs of the resistivity of the soil under the tank show that the salt water release caused a region of low soil resistivity which can be observed directly without the benefit of comparing the tomograph to tomographs or data collected before the spill started. This means that it may be possible to infer the presence of pre-existing plumes if there is other data showing that the regions of low resistivity are correlated with the presence of contaminated soil. However, this approach does not appear reliable in defining the total extent of the plume due to the confounding effect that natural heterogeneity has on our ability to define the margins of the anomaly

  20. Changes in School Food Preparation Methods Result in Healthier Cafeteria Lunches in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K; Liebert, Mina L; Peterson, Hannah J; Howard Smith, Jennifer; Sutliffe, Jay T; Day, Aubrey; Mack, Jodi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a districtwide food best practices and preparation changes in elementary schools lunches, implemented as part of the LiveWell@School childhood obesity program, funded by LiveWell Colorado/Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative. Longitudinal study examining how school changes in best practices for food preparation impacted the types of side items offered from 2009 to 2015 in elementary school cafeterias in a high-need school district in southern Colorado. Specifically, this study examined changes in side items (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, breads, and desserts). In Phase 1 (2009-2010), baseline data were collected. During Phase 2 (2010-2011), breaded and processed foods (e.g., frozen nuggets, pre-packaged pizza) were removed and school chefs were trained on scratch cooking methods. Phase 3 (2011-2012) saw an increased use of fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables after a new commodity order. During Phase 4 (2013-2015), chef consulting and training took place. The frequency of side offerings was tracked across phases. Analyses were completed in Fall 2016. Because of limited sample sizes, data from Phases 2 to 4 (intervention phases) were combined for potatoes and desserts. Descriptive statistics were calculated. After adjusting for length of time for each phase, Pearson chi-square tests were conducted to examine changes in offerings of side items by phase. Fresh fruit offerings increased and canned fruit decreased in Phases 1-4 (p=0.001). A significant difference was observed for vegetables (p=0.001), with raw and steamed vegetables increasing and canned vegetables decreasing from Phase 1 to 4. Fresh potatoes (low in sodium) increased and fried potatoes (high in sodium) decreased from Phase 1 to Phases 2-4 (p=0.001). Breads were eliminated entirely in Phase 2, and dessert changes were not significant (p=0.927). This approach to promoting healthier lunch sides is a promising paradigm for improving elementary

  1. New archeointensity results from the reconstructed ancient kiln by the Tsunakawa-Shaw method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Hatakeyama, T.; Kitahara, Y.; Saito, T.

    2017-12-01

    Yamamoto et al. (2015) reported that baked clay samples from the floor of a reconstructed ancient kiln provided a reliable Tsunakawa-Shaw (LTD-DHT Shaw) archeointensity (AI) estimate of 47.3 +/- 2.2 microT which is fairly consistent with the in situ geomagnetic field of 46.4 microT at the time of the reconstruction. The reconstruction was conducted to reproduce an excavated kiln of the seventh century in Japan and Sue-type potteries of contemporary style were also fired (Nakajima et al., 1974). Two of the potteries with reddish color were recently subjected to the Tsunakawa-Shaw archeointensity determinations, resulting in reliable AI estimates of 45.4 +/- 2.3 (N=6) and 48.2 +/- 2.7 microT (N=15) when specimens were heated in air in laboratory (Yamamoto et al., 2017 JpGU-AGU Joint Meeting). We have had another opportunity to take samples from a new reconstructed ancient kiln in Japan which was fired in autumn 2016. The samples were two Sue-type potteries with grayish color (bowl-type and plate-type) and some blocks collected from inner wall of the kiln body. They were cut into mini specimens and then subjected to the Tsunakawa-Shaw experiment. Heating in laboratory was done either in air or vacuum.For the bowl-type pottery, AIs of 46.9 +/- 2.8 (N=6, air) and 45.3 +/- 2.3 microT (N=6, vacuum) are obtained. They are indistinguishable each other and consistent with the IGRF field of 47.4 microT at the reconstructed location in 2016. For the plate-type pottery, AIs result in 41.8 +/- 1.3 (N=4, air) and 43.9 +/- 3.9 microT (N=4, vacuum). They are also indistinguishable each other but the former AI is slightly lower than the IGRF field.For the inner wall, AIs of 45.0 (N=1, air) and 46.8 microT (N=1, vacuum) are obtained from a right-side wall, and those of 45.5 +/- 2.5 (N=2, air) and 47.7 +/- 3.0 microT (N=2, vacuum) are observed from a left-side wall. They are all indistinguishable and consistent with the IGRF field.

  2. TREC 2010 legal track: method and results of the ELK collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spearing, Shelly [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Kay, Bain [KAYVIUM; Lindquist, Eric [EWA-IIT

    2010-10-25

    The ELK team ([E]WA-IIT, [L]os Alamos National laboratory (LANL), and [K]ayvium Corporation (ELK)) used the legal Track task 302 as an opportunity to compare and integrate advanced semantic-automation strategies. The team members believe that enabling parties to discover, consume, analyze, and make decisions in a noisy and information-overloaded environment requires new tools. Together, as well as independently, they are actively developing these tools and view the TREC exercise as an opportunity to test, compare, and complement tools and approaches. Our collaboration is new to TREC, brought together by a shared interest in document relevance, concept-in-context identification and annotation, and the recognition that words out-of-context do not a match make. The team's intent was to lay the foundation for automating the mining and analysis of large volumes of electronic information by litigants and their lawyers, not only in the context of document discovery, but also to support litigation strategy, motion practice, deposition, trial tactics, etc. The premise was that a Subject Matter Expert- (SME-) built model can be automatically mapped onto various search engines for document retrieval, organization, relevance scoring, analysis and decision support. In the end, we ran nearly a dozen models, mostly, but not exclusively, with Kayvium Corporation's knowledge automation technology. The Sal Database Search Engine we used had a bug in its proximity feature, requiring that we develop a workaround. While the work-around was successful, it left us with insufficient time to converge the models to achieve expected quality. However, with optimized proximity processing in place, we would be able to run the model many more times, and believe repeatable quality would be a matter of working through a few requests to get the approach right. We believe that with more time, the results we would achieve might point towards a new way of processing documents for litigation

  3. Test results for cables used in nuclear power plants by a new environmental testing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Katsue; Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Toshiyasu; Takano, Keiji; Oya, Shingo

    1982-12-01

    In the nuclear power plants using PWRs or BWRs in Japan, environmental tests are provided, in which simulated LOCA conditions are considered so as to conform with Japanese conditions, and many cables which passed these tests are presently employed. Lately, the new environmental testing, in which a credible accident called MSLB (main steam line breakage) is taken into account, is investigated in PWR nuclear power plants, besides LOCA. This paper reports on the results of evaluating some PWR cables for this new environmental testing conditions. The several cables tested were selected out of PH cables (fire-retardant, ethylene propylene rubber insulated, chlorosulfonated polyethylene sheathed cables) as the cables for safety protecting circuits and to be used in containment vessels where the cables are to be exposed to severe environmental test conditions of 2 x 10/sup 8/ Rad ..gamma..-irradiation and simulated LOCA. All these cables have been accepted after the vertical tray burning test provided in the IEEE Standard 383. The new testing was carried out by sequentially applying thermal deterioration, ..gamma..-irradiation, and the exposure to steam (twice 300 s exposures to 190 deg C superheated steam). After completing each step, tensile strength, elongation, insulation resistance and breakdown voltage were measured, respectively. Every cable tested showed satisfactory breakdown voltage after the exposure to steam, thus it was decided to be acceptable. In future, it is required to investigate the influence of the rate of temperature rise on the cable to be tested in MSLB simulation.

  4. Test results for cables used in nuclear power plants by a new environmental testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Katsue; Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Hayashi, Toshiyasu; Takano, Keiji; Oya, Shingo

    1982-01-01

    In the nuclear power plants using PWRs or BWRs in Japan, environmental tests are provided, in which simulated LOCA conditions are considered so as to conform with Japanese conditions, and many cables which passed these tests are presently employed. Lately, the new environmental testing, in which a credible accident called MSLB (main steam line breakage) is taken into account, is investigated in PWR nuclear power plants, besides LOCA. This paper reports on the results of evaluating some PWR cables for this new environmental testing conditions. The several cables tested were selected out of PH cables (fire-retardant, ethylene propylene rubber insulated, chlorosulfonated polyethylene sheathed cables) as the cables for safety protecting circuits and to be used in containment vessels where the cables are to be exposed to severe environmental test conditions of 2 x 10 8 Rad γ-irradiation and simulated LOCA. All these cables have been accepted after the vertical tray burning test provided in the IEEE Standard 383. The new testing was carried out by sequentially applying thermal deterioration, γ-irradiation, and the exposure to steam (twice 300 s exposures to 190 deg C superheated steam). After completing each step, tensile strength, elongation, insulation resistance and breakdown voltage were measured, respectively. Every cable tested showed satisfactory breakdown voltage after the exposure to steam, thus it was decided to be acceptable. In future, it is required to investigate the influence of the rate of temperature rise on the cable to be tested in MSLB simulation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Mean Blood Pressure Assessment during Post-Exercise: Result from Two Different Methods of Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Sainas, Raffaele Milia, Girolamo Palazzolo, Gianfranco Ibba, Elisabetta Marongiu, Silvana Roberto, Virginia Pinna, Giovanna Ghiani, Filippo Tocco, Antonio Crisafulli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At rest the proportion between systolic and diastolic periods of the cardiac cycle is about 1/3 and 2/3 respectively. Therefore, mean blood pressure (MBP is usually calculated with a standard formula (SF as follows: MBP = diastolic blood pressure (DBP + 1/3 [systolic blood pressure (SBP – DBP]. However, during exercise this proportion is lost because of tachycardia, which shortens diastole more than systole. We analysed the difference in MBP calculation between the SF and a corrected formula (CF which takes into account changes in the diastolic and systolic periods caused by exercise-induced tachycardia. Our hypothesis was that the SF potentially induce a systematic error in MBP assessment during recovery after exercise. Ten healthy males underwent two exercise-recovery tests on a cycle-ergometer at mild-moderate and moderate-heavy workloads. Hemodynamics and MBP were monitored for 30 minutes after exercise bouts. The main result was that the SF on average underestimated MBP by –4.1 mmHg with respect to the CF. Moreover, in the period immediately after exercise, when sustained tachycardia occurred, the difference between SF and CF was large (in the order of -20-30 mmHg. Likewise, a systematic error in systemic vascular resistance assessment was present. It was concluded that the SF introduces a substantial error in MBP estimation in the period immediately following effort. This equation should not be used in this situation.

  6. Estimation of the Radon-induced Dose for Russia's Population: Methods and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marenny, A.M.; Savkin, M.N.; Shinkarev, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    A model is proposed for inferring the radon-induced annual average collective and personal doses, as well as the dose distribution of the population, all over Russia from selective radon monitoring in some regions of Russia. The model assumptions and the selective radon monitoring results that underlie the numerical estimates obtained for different population groups are presented. The current estimate of the collective radon-induced dose received by the population of Russia (148,100,000 as of 1996) is about 130,000 man Sv, of which 55,000 man Sv is for the rural population (27% of the total population) and 75,000 man Sv for the urban population (73% of the total). The average radon-induced personal dose in Russia is estimated to be about 0.87 mSv. About 1,000,000 people receive annual doses above 10 mSv, including some 200,000 people who receive doses above 20 mSv annually. The ways of making the current estimates more accurate are outlined. (author)

  7. A Literature Study of Matrix Element Influenced to the Result of Analysis Using Absorption Atomic Spectroscopy Method (AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyas-Djuhariningrum

    2004-01-01

    The gold sample analysis can be deviated more than >10% to those thrue value caused by the matrix element. So that the matrix element character need to be study in order to reduce the deviation. In rock samples, the matrix elements can cause self quenching, self absorption and ionization process, so there is a result analysis error. In the rock geochemical process, the elements of the same group at the periodic system have the tendency to be together because of their same characteristic. In absorption Atomic Spectroscopy analysis, the elements associate can absorb primer energy with similar wave length so that it can cause deviation in the result interpretation. The aim of study is to predict matrix element influences from rock sample with application standard method for reducing deviation. In quantitative way, assessment of primer light intensity that will be absorbed is proportional to the concentration atom in the sample that relationship between photon intensity with concentration in part per million is linier (ppm). These methods for eliminating matrix elements influence consist of three methods : external standard method, internal standard method, and addition standard method. External standard method for all matrix element, internal standard method for elimination matrix element that have similar characteristics, addition standard methods for elimination matrix elements in Au, Pt samples. The third of standard posess here accuracy are about 95-97%. (author)

  8. Effect of Chemistry Triangle Oriented Learning Media on Cooperative, Individual and Conventional Method on Chemistry Learning Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latisma D, L.; Kurniawan, W.; Seprima, S.; Nirbayani, E. S.; Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to see which method are well used with the Chemistry Triangle-oriented learning media. This quasi experimental research involves first grade of senior high school students in six schools namely each two SMA N in Solok city, in Pasaman and two SMKN in Pariaman. The sampling technique was done by Cluster Random Sampling. Data were collected by test and analyzed by one-way anova and Kruskall Wallish test. The results showed that the high school students in Solok learning taught by cooperative method is better than the results of student learning taught by conventional and Individual methods, both for students who have high initial ability and low-ability. Research in SMK showed that the overall student learning outcomes taught by conventional method is better than the student learning outcomes taught by cooperative and individual methods. Student learning outcomes that have high initial ability taught by individual method is better than student learning outcomes that are taught by cooperative method and for students who have low initial ability, there is no difference in student learning outcomes taught by cooperative, individual and conventional methods. Learning in high school in Pasaman showed no significant difference in learning outcomes of the three methods undertaken.

  9. [Methods in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS): results of a nationwide survey in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchinger, S; Sapetschnig, I; Danda, M; Sommer, C; Resch, B; Urlesberger, B; Raith, W

    2015-08-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) occurs in neonates whose mothers have taken addictive drugs or were under substitution therapy during pregnancy. Incidence numbers of NAS are on the rise globally, even in Austria NAS is not rare anymore. The aim of our survey was to reveal the status quo of dealing with NAS in Austria. A questionnaire was sent to 20 neonatology departments all over Austria, items included questions on scoring, therapy, breast-feeding and follow-up procedures. The response rate was 95%, of which 94.7% had written guidelines concerning NAS. The median number of children being treated per year for NAS was 4. Finnegan scoring system is used in 100% of the responding departments. Morphine is being used most often, in opiate abuse (100%) as well as in multiple substance abuse (44.4%). The most frequent forms of morphine preparation are morphine and diluted tincture of opium. Frequency as well as dosage of medication vary broadly. 61.1% of the departments supported breast-feeding, regulations concerned participation in a substitution programme and general contraindications (HIV, HCV, HBV). Our results revealed that there is a big west-east gradient in patients being treated per year. NAS is not a rare entity anymore in Austria (up to 50 cases per year in Vienna). Our survey showed that most neonatology departments in Austria treat their patients following written guidelines. Although all of them base these guidelines on international recommendations there is no national consensus. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The new Inventory of Italian Glaciers: Present knowledge, applied methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiraglia, Claudio; Diolaiuti, Guglielmina; D'Agata, Carlo; Maragno, Davide; Baroni, Carlo; Mortara, Gianni; Perotti, Luigi; Bondesan, Aldino; Salvatore, Cristina; Vagliasindi, Marco; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    A new Glacier Inventory is an indispensable requirement in Italy due to the importance of evaluating the present glacier coverage and the recent changes driven by climate. Furthermore Alpine glaciers represent a not negligible water and touristic resource then to manage and promote them is needed to know their distribution, size and features. The first Italian Glacier Inventory dates back to 1959-1962. It was compiled by the Italian Glaciological Committee (CGI) in cooperation with the National Research Council (CNR); this first inventory was mainly based on field data coupled with photographs (acquired on the field) and high resolution maps. The Italian glaciation resulted to be spread into 754 ice bodies which altogether were covering 525 km2. Moreover in the Eighties a new inventory was compiled to insert Italian data into the World Glacier Inventory (WGI); aerial photos taken at the end of the Seventies (and in some cases affected by a high and not negligible snow coverage) were used as the main source of data. No other national inventory were compiled after that period. Nevertheless during the last decade the largest part of the Italian Alpine regions have produced regional and local glacier inventories which in several cases are also available and queried through web sites and web GIS application. The actual need is now to obtain a complete, homogeneous and contemporary picture of the Italian Glaciation which encompasses the already available regional and local data and all the new updated information coming from new sources of data (e.g.: orthophotos, satellite imagines, etc..). The challenge was accepted by the University of Milan, the EvK2CNR Committee and the Italian Glaciological Committee who, with the sponsorship of Levissima Spa, are presently working to compile the new updated Italian Glacier Inventory. The first project step is to produce a unique homogeneous glacier database including glacier boundary and surface area and the main fundamental

  11. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  12. A new garnet-orthopyroxene thermometer developed: method, results and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivotos, Spyros-Christos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The Fe-Mg exchange reaction between garnet and orthopyroxene is a robust geothermometer that has extensively been used to retrieve metamorphic temperatures from granulitic and peridotitic/pyroxenitic lithologies with important implications on the thermal state of the continental lithosphere. More than 800 experimental mineral pairs from both simple and complex systems were gleaned from the literature covering the P-T range 0.5-15 GPa / 800-1800°C. Grt was treated as a senary (Py, Alm, Grs, Sps, Kno and Uv), whereas Opx as a septenary (En, Fs, Di, Hd, FeTs, MgTs and MgCrTs) solid solution. For Opx, Al in the M1 site was calculated following Carswell (1991) and Fe/Mg equipartitioning between sites was assumed. A mixing on sites model was employed to calculate mole fractions of components for both minerals. With regard to the excess free energy of solution and activity coefficients the formalism of Mukhopadhyay et al. (1993) was adopted treating both minerals as symmetric regular solutions. Calibration was achieved in multiple steps; in each step ΔS was allowed to vary until the standard deviation of the differences between experimental and calculated temperature for all experiments was minimised. The experiment with the largest absolute relative deviation in temperature was then eliminated and the process was repeated. The new thermometer reproduces the experimental data to within 50°C and is independent of P-T-X variations within the bounds of the calibrant data set. Application of our new calibration to metamorphosed crustal and mantle rocks that occur both as massifs and xenoliths in volcanics suggested the following results. Granulite terranes have recorded differences in temperature between peak and re-equilibration conditions in the range 100-340°C, primarily depending on the mechanism and rate of exhumation. Several provinces retain memory of discrete cooling pulses (e.g. Palni Hills, South Harris, Adirondacks, E. Antarctic Belt, Aldan Shield) whereas

  13. Generation of typical solar radiation data for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Haixiang; Xu, Qingshan; Bian, Haihong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, typical solar radiation data are generated from both measured data and synthetic generation for 35 stations in six different climatic zones of China. (1) By applying the measured weather data during at least 10 years from 1994 to 2009, typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 35 cities are generated using the Finkelstein–Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) of daily global solar radiation (DGSR) for each year is compared with the CDF of DGSR for the long-term years in six different climatic stations (Sanya, Shanghai, Zhengzhou, Harbin, Mohe and Lhasa). The daily global solar radiation as typical data obtained from the TMYs are presented in the Table. (2) Based on the recorded global radiation data from at least 10 years, a new daily global solar radiation model is developed with a sine and cosine wave (SCW) equation. The results of the proposed model and other empirical regression models are compared with measured data using different statistical indicators. It is found that solar radiation data, calculated by the new model, are superior to these from other empirical models at six typical climatic zones. In addition, the novel SCW model is tested and applied for 35 stations in China. -- Highlights: ► Both TMY method and synthetic generation are used to generate solar radiation data. ► The latest and accurate long term weather data in six different climates are applied. ► TMYs using new weighting factors of 8 weather indices for 35 regions are obtained. ► A new sine and cosine wave model is proposed and utilized for 35 major stations. ► Both TMY method and the proposed regression model perform well on monthly bases.

  14. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables

  15. Typical IAEA operations at a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA operations performed at a typical Fuel Fabrication Plant are explained. To make the analysis less general the case of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel Fabrication Plants is considered. Many of the conclusions drawn from this analysis could be extended to other types of fabrication plants. The safeguards objectives and goals at LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants are defined followed by a brief description of the fabrication process. The basic philosophy behind nuclear material stratification and the concept of Material Balance Areas (MBA's) and Key Measurement Points (KMP's) is explained. The Agency operations and verification methods used during physical inventory verifications are illustrated

  16. Effects of circumferential rigid wrist orthoses in rehabilitation of patients with radius fracture at typical site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of orthoses is a questionable rehabilitation method for patients with the distal radius fracture at typical site. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the rehabilitation on patients with radius fracture at the typical site, who wore circumferential static wrist orthoses, with those who did not wear them. Methods. Thirty patients were divided into 3 equal groups, 2 experimental groups, and 1 control group. The patients in the experimental groups were given the rehabilitation program of wearing serially manufactured (off-the-shelf, as well as custom-fit orthoses. Those in the control group did not wear wrist orthoses. Evaluation parameters were pain, edema, the range of the wrist motion, the quality of cylindrical, spherical, and pinch-spherical grasp, the strength of pinch and hand grasp, and patient's assessment of the effects of rehabilitation. Results. No significant difference in the effects of rehabilitation on the patients in experimental groups as opposed to control group was found. Patients in the first experimental group, and in control group were more satisfied with the effects of rehabilitation, as opposed to the patients in the second experimental group (p<0,05. Conclusion. The effects of circumferential static wrist orthoses in the rehabilitation of patients with distal radius fracture at the typical site were not clinically significant. There was no significant difference between the custom and off-the-shelf orthoses.

  17. Research on release rate of volatile organic compounds in typical vessel cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jinlan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC should be efficiently controlled in vessel cabins to ensure the crew's health and navigation safety. As an important parameter, research on release rate of VOCs in cabins is required. [Methods] This paper develops a method to investigate this parameter of a ship's cabin based on methods used in other closed indoor environments. A typical vessel cabin is sampled with Tenax TA tubes and analyzed by Automated Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS. The lumped mode is used and the release rate of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene (BTEX, the typical representatives of VOCs, is obtained both in closed and ventilated conditions. [Results] The results show that the content of xylene and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC exceed the indoor environment standards in ventilated conditions. The BTEX release rate is similar in both conditions except for the benzene. [Conclusions] This research builds a method to measure the release rate of VOCs, providing references for pollution character evaluation and ventilation and purification system design.

  18. Qualitative Analysis Results for Applications of a New Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment Method to Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Daeil; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seungcheol

    2013-01-01

    The fire PRA Implementation Guide has been used for performing a fire PSA for NPPs in Korea. Recently, US NRC and EPRI developed a new fire PSA method, NUREG/CR-6850, to provide state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire PSA for a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP). Due to the limited budget and man powers for the development of KSRP, hybrid PSA approaches, using NUREG/CR-6850 and Fire PRA Implementation Guide, will be employed for conducting a fire PSA of Ulchin Unit 3. In this paper, the qualitative analysis results for applications of a new fire PSA method to Ulchin Unit 3 are presented. This paper introduces the qualitative analysis results for applications of a new fire PSA method to Ulchin Unit 3. Compared with the previous industry, the number of fire areas for quantification identified and the number of equipment selected has increased

  19. The numerical method of inverse Laplace transform for calculation of overvoltages in power transformers and test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulović Jovan Č.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for calculation of overvoltages in transformer windings, based on a numerical method of inverse Laplace transform, is presented. Mathematical model of transformer windings is described by partial differential equations corresponding to distributed parameters electrical circuits. The procedure of calculating overvoltages is applied to windings having either isolated neutral point, or grounded neutral point, or neutral point grounded through impedance. A comparative analysis of the calculation results obtained by the proposed numerical method and by analytical method of calculation of overvoltages in transformer windings is presented. The results computed by the proposed method and measured voltage distributions, when a voltage surge is applied to a three-phase 30 kVA power transformer, are compared. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33037 i br. TR-33020

  20. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2016-11-15

    Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

  1. First results of Minimum Fisher Regularisation as unfolding method for JET NE213 liquid scintillator neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, Jan; Adams, John M.; Bertalot, Luciano; Conroy, Sean

    2005-01-01

    At JET, the NE213 liquid scintillator is being validated as a diagnostic tool for spectral measurements of neutrons emitted from the plasma. Neutron spectra have to be unfolded from the measured pulse-height spectra, which is an ill-conditioned problem. Therefore, use of two independent unfolding methods allows for less ambiguity on the interpretation of the data. In parallel to the routine algorithm MAXED based on the Maximum Entropy method, the Minimum Fisher Regularisation (MFR) method has been introduced at JET. The MFR method, known from two-dimensional tomography applications, has proved to provide a new transparent tool to validate the JET neutron spectra measured with the NE213 liquid scintillators. In this article, the MFR method applicable to spectra unfolding is briefly explained. After a mention of MFR tests on phantom spectra experimental neutron spectra are presented that were obtained by applying MFR to NE213 data in selected JET experiments. The results tend to confirm MAXED observations

  2. Method, equipment and results of determination of element composition of the Venus rock by the Vega-2 space probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Moskaleva, L.P.; Shcheglov, O.P.

    1985-01-01

    Venus rock composition was determined by X-ray radiometric method in the northeast site of the Aphrodita terra. The experiment was performed on the Vega-2 spacecraft. Composition of Venus rock proved to be close to the composition of the anorthosite-norite-troctolite rocks widespread in the lunar highland crust. The descriptions of the method, instrumentation and results of determining the composition of rocks in landing site of Vega-2 spacecraft are given

  3. A pattern recognition methodology for evaluation of load profiles and typical days of large electricity customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekouras, G.J.; Kotoulas, P.B.; Tsirekis, C.D.; Dialynas, E.N.; Hatziargyriou, N.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a pattern recognition methodology for the classification of the daily chronological load curves of each large electricity customer, in order to estimate his typical days and his respective representative daily load profiles. It is based on pattern recognition methods, such as k-means, self-organized maps (SOM), fuzzy k-means and hierarchical clustering, which are theoretically described and properly adapted. The parameters of each clustering method are properly selected by an optimization process, which is separately applied for each one of six adequacy measures. The results can be used for the short-term and mid-term load forecasting of each consumer, for the choice of the proper tariffs and the feasibility studies of demand side management programs. This methodology is analytically applied for one medium voltage industrial customer and synoptically for a set of medium voltage customers of the Greek power system. The results of the clustering methods are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Uranium City radiation reduction program: further efforts at remedial measures for houses with block walls, concrete porosity test results, and intercomparison of Kuznetz method and Tsivoglau method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubrich, E.; Leung, M.K.; Mackie, R.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt was made to reduce the levels of radon in a house in Uranium City by mechanically venting the plenums in the concrete block basement walls, with little success. A table compares the results obtained by measuring the radon WL using the Tsivoglau and the Kuznetz methods

  5. Air sampling methods to evaluate microbial contamination in operating theatres: results of a comparative study in an orthopaedics department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, C; Tafuri, S; Montenegro, L; Cassano, M; Notarnicola, A; Lattarulo, S; Montagna, M T; Moretti, B

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the level of microbial contamination of air in operating theatres using active [i.e. surface air system (SAS)] and passive [i.e. index of microbial air contamination (IMA) and nitrocellulose membranes positioned near the wound] sampling systems. Sampling was performed between January 2010 and January 2011 in the operating theatre of the orthopaedics department in a university hospital in Southern Italy. During surgery, the mean bacterial loads recorded were 2232.9 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(2)/h with the IMA method, 123.2 cfu/m(3) with the SAS method and 2768.2 cfu/m(2)/h with the nitrocellulose membranes. Correlation was found between the results of the three methods. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 12 of 60 operations (20%) with the membranes, five (8.3%) operations with the SAS method, and three operations (5%) with the IMA method. Use of nitrocellulose membranes placed near a wound is a valid method for measuring the microbial contamination of air. This method was more sensitive than the IMA method and was not subject to any calibration bias, unlike active air monitoring systems. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dosimetry of typical transcranial magnetic stimulation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mai; Ueno, Shoogo

    2010-05-01

    The therapeutic staff using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) devices could be exposed to magnetic pulses. In this paper, dependence of induced currents in real human man model on different coil shapes, distance between the coil and man model as well as the rotation of the coil in space have been investigated by employing impedance method. It was found that the figure-of-eight coil has less leakage magnetic field and low current density induced in the body compared with the round coil. The TMS power supply cables play an important role in the induced current density in human body. The induced current density in TMS operator decreased as the coil rotates from parallel position to perpendicular position. Our present study shows that TMS operator should stand at least 110 cm apart from the coil.

  7. Characterization of typical Tunisian fermented milk, rayeb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... count agar (PCA, Oxoid) after incubation at 30° C for 48 h (ICMSF,. 1978). De Man, Rogosa ... The chemical analysis of rayeb (Table 1) showed simi- larities in nitrogen and .... the protein matrix, which is shown in rayeb (Figure 1d). This could be a result of physicochemical interactions between bacterial ...

  8. Typical Features of Amelogenesis Imperfecta in Two Patients with Bartter’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercílio Martelli-Júnior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI is due to many inherited defects of enamel formation that affect the quantity and quality of enamel, leading to delay in tooth eruption and cosmetic consequences. AI has been described in association with nephrocalcinosis, which is called the enamel-renal syndrome. The aim of this case report is to describe typical features of AI in 2 patients with Bartter’s syndrome (BS for the first time. Methods: -Eight patients with confirmed BS were systematically screened for dental abnormalities as part of protocol. Those with suggestive clinical features of AI were submitted to panoramic X-ray and decayed teeth were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Typical features of AI were detected in 2 girls with BS. These 2 patients showed nephrocalcinosis, and diagnosis and adequate clinical control were delayed. Genetic analysis detected the mutation responsible for BS in 1 of these patients. In this case, BS was due to a homozygous mutation of exon 5 of the KCNJ1 gene resulting in a substitution of valine for alanine at the codon 214 (A214V. Conclusions: The finding of typical features of AI in BS might constitute preliminary evidence that abnormalities of the biomineralization process found in patients with renal tubular disorders might also affect calcium deposition in dental tissues.

  9. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  10. New method of classifying human errors at nuclear power plants and the analysis results of applying this method to maintenance errors at domestic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagawa, Kenichi; Miyazaki, Takamasa; Gofuku, Akio; Iida, Hiroyasu

    2007-01-01

    Since many of the adverse events that have occurred in nuclear power plants in Japan and abroad have been related to maintenance or operation, it is necessary to plan preventive measures based on detailed analyses of human errors made by maintenance workers or operators. Therefore, before planning preventive measures, we developed a new method of analyzing human errors. Since each human error is an unsafe action caused by some misjudgement made by a person, we decided to classify them into six categories according to the stage in the judgment process in which the error was made. By further classifying each error into either an omission-type or commission-type, we produced 12 categories of errors. Then, we divided them into the two categories of basic error tendencies and individual error tendencies, and categorized background factors into four categories: imperfect planning; imperfect facilities or tools; imperfect environment; and imperfect instructions or communication. We thus defined the factors in each category to make it easy to identify factors that caused the error. Then using this method, we studied the characteristics of human errors that involved maintenance workers and planners since many maintenance errors have occurred. Among the human errors made by workers (worker errors) during the implementation stage, the following three types were prevalent with approximately 80%: commission-type 'projection errors', omission-type comprehension errors' and commission type 'action errors'. The most common among the individual factors of worker errors was 'repetition or habit' (schema), based on the assumption of a typical situation, and the half number of the 'repetition or habit' cases (schema) were not influenced by any background factors. The most common background factor that contributed to the individual factor was 'imperfect work environment', followed by 'insufficient knowledge'. Approximately 80% of the individual factors were 'repetition or habit' or

  11. Comparison result of inversion of gravity data of a fault by particle swarm optimization and Levenberg-Marquardt methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toushmalani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of two methods for gravity inversion of a fault. First method [Particle swarm optimization (PSO)] is a heuristic global optimization method and also an optimization algorithm, which is based on swarm intelligence. It comes from the research on the bird and fish flock movement behavior. Second method [The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LM)] is an approximation to the Newton method used also for training ANNs. In this paper first we discussed the gravity field of a fault, then describes the algorithms of PSO and LM And presents application of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, and a particle swarm algorithm in solving inverse problem of a fault. Most importantly the parameters for the algorithms are given for the individual tests. Inverse solution reveals that fault model parameters are agree quite well with the known results. A more agreement has been found between the predicted model anomaly and the observed gravity anomaly in PSO method rather than LM method.

  12. Exploring inertia in a typical state organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Louw

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Those organisations which do not change according to environmental pressures, suffer from organisational inertia. The purpose of this study is to explore the manifestation of organisational inertia in the target organisation. The target population for this study was a group of trainees, representing the geographic and demographic levels of a particular state department. In South Africa, surveys of this nature were only executed in the corporate sector. The results indicate that organisational inertia is a phenomenon that affects both corporate and governmental organisations. Opsomming Organisasies wat nie ooreenkomstig omgewingsdruk verander nie, ly aan organisasietraagheid. Die doel van die studie is om organisasietraagheid te konseptualiseer en die manifestasie daarvan in die teikenorganisasie te ondersoek. Die teikenpopulasie bestaan uit ’n groep kursusgangers wat die demografiese en geografiese samestelling van ‘n tipiese staatsdepartement verteenwoordig. In Suid -Afrika is navorsing van hierdie aard nog net in die korporatiewe sektor uitgevoer. Die resultate toon aan dat organisasietraagheid ‘n faktor is wat beide die korporatiewe omgewing en staatsorganisasies beïnvloed.

  13. Locating previously unknown patterns in data-mining results: a dual data- and knowledge-mining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knaus William A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data mining can be utilized to automate analysis of substantial amounts of data produced in many organizations. However, data mining produces large numbers of rules and patterns, many of which are not useful. Existing methods for pruning uninteresting patterns have only begun to automate the knowledge acquisition step (which is required for subjective measures of interestingness, hence leaving a serious bottleneck. In this paper we propose a method for automatically acquiring knowledge to shorten the pattern list by locating the novel and interesting ones. Methods The dual-mining method is based on automatically comparing the strength of patterns mined from a database with the strength of equivalent patterns mined from a relevant knowledgebase. When these two estimates of pattern strength do not match, a high "surprise score" is assigned to the pattern, identifying the pattern as potentially interesting. The surprise score captures the degree of novelty or interestingness of the mined pattern. In addition, we show how to compute p values for each surprise score, thus filtering out noise and attaching statistical significance. Results We have implemented the dual-mining method using scripts written in Perl and R. We applied the method to a large patient database and a biomedical literature citation knowledgebase. The system estimated association scores for 50,000 patterns, composed of disease entities and lab results, by querying the database and the knowledgebase. It then computed the surprise scores by comparing the pairs of association scores. Finally, the system estimated statistical significance of the scores. Conclusion The dual-mining method eliminates more than 90% of patterns with strong associations, thus identifying them as uninteresting. We found that the pruning of patterns using the surprise score matched the biomedical evidence in the 100 cases that were examined by hand. The method automates the acquisition of

  14. Comparison of objective methods for assessment of annoyance of low frequency noise with the results of a laboratory listening test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Subjective assessments made by test persons were compared to results from a number of objective measurement and calculation methods for the assessment of low frequency noise. Eighteen young persons with normal hearing listened to eight environmental low frequency noises and evaluated the annoyance...

  15. A method for carrying out radiolysis and chemical reactions by means of the radiations resulting from a thermonuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomberg, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the use of the radiations resulting from thermonuclear reactions. It deals with a method comprising a combination of thermo-chemical and radiolytic reactions for treating a molecule having a high absorption rate, by the radiations of a thermonuclear reaction. This is applicable to the dissociation of water into oxygen and hydrogen [fr

  16. Chapter 5: Exponential experiments on natural uranium graphite moderated systems. II: Correlation of results with the method of Syrett (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Moore, P.G.F.; Richmond, R.

    1963-01-01

    The results are given of exponential experiments on graphite moderated systems with fuel elements consisting of single rods and tubes of natural uranium metal. A correlation is given with the method of calculation proposed by Syrett (1961) and new consistent values of neutron yield and effective resonance integral are derived. (author)

  17. STANDARDIZATION OF GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN RESULTS AND REFERENCE VALUES IN WHOLE-BLOOD STUDIED IN 103 LABORATORIES USING 20 METHODS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEYKAMP, CW; PENDERS, TJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    We investigated the effect of calibration with lyophilized calibrators on whole-blood glycohemoglobin (glyHb) results. One hundred three laboratories, using 20 different methods, determined glyHb in two lyophilized calibrators and two whole-blood samples. For whole-blood samples with low (5%) and

  18. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  19. Examining the Language Phenotype in Children with Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra; Hoover, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One aspect of morphosyntax, finiteness marking, was compared in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development matched on mean length of utterance (MLU). Method: Nineteen children with typical development (mean age = 3.3 years), 20 children with SLI (mean age = 4.9 years), and 17 boys…

  20. Effects of Biofeedback on Control and Generalization of Nasalization in Typical Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth S. Heller; Mendoza, Joseph O.; Gill, Simone V.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of biofeedback on control of nasalization in individuals with typical speech. Method: Forty-eight individuals with typical speech attempted to increase and decrease vowel nasalization. During training, stimuli consisted of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) tokens with the center vowels…

  1. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  2. Evaluation of two typical distributed energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaomiao; Tan, Xiu

    2018-03-01

    According to the two-natural gas distributed energy system driven by gas engine driven and gas turbine, in this paper, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to measure the distributed energy system from the two parties of “quantity” and “quality”. The calculation results show that the internal combustion engine driven distributed energy station has a higher energy efficiency, but the energy efficiency is low; the gas turbine driven distributed energy station energy efficiency is high, but the primary energy utilization rate is relatively low. When configuring the system, we should determine the applicable natural gas distributed energy system technology plan and unit configuration plan according to the actual load factors of the project and the actual factors such as the location, background and environmental requirements of the project. “quality” measure, the utilization of waste heat energy efficiency index is proposed.

  3. Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Buschkuehl, Martin; Perrig, Walter J; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether a brief cognitive training intervention results in a specific performance increase in the trained task, and whether there are transfer effects to other nontrained measures. A computerized, adaptive working memory intervention was conducted with 9- to 11-year-old typically developing children. The children considerably improved their performance in the trained working memory task. Additionally, compared to a matched control group, the experimental group significantly enhanced their reading performance after training, providing further evidence for shared processes between working memory and reading.

  4. Assessment of the quality seen in a restaurant typical theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pinheiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the satisfaction of external customers it is necessary to know their needs. In this perspective, these work objectives assess the perception of quality by the customer outside of a restaurant located in the a restaurant typical theme located in the square of food “Bodódromo” the city of Petrolina/Pe. For both this was a case study, using the model servqual, Parasuraman et al (1985, for removal of information. The results indicated a need for improvement in the services provided by the restaurant.

  5. A Comparison of Result Reliability for Investigation of Milk Composition by Alternative Analytical Methods in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The milk analyse result reliability is important for assurance of foodstuff chain quality. There are more direct and indirect methods for milk composition measurement (fat (F, protein (P, lactose (L and solids non fat (SNF content. The goal was to evaluate some reference and routine milk analytical procedures on result basis. The direct reference analyses were: F, fat content (Röse–Gottlieb method; P, crude protein content (Kjeldahl method; L, lactose (monohydrate, polarimetric method; SNF, solids non fat (gravimetric method. F, P, L and SNF were determined also by various indirect methods: – MIR (infrared (IR technology with optical filters, 7 instruments in 4 labs; – MIR–FT (IR spectroscopy with Fourier’s transformations, 10 in 6; – ultrasonic method (UM, 3 in 1; – analysis by the blue and red box (BRB, 1 v 1. There were used 10 reference milk samples. Coefficient of determination (R2, correlation coefficient (r and standard deviation of the mean of individual differences (MDsd, for n were evaluated. All correlations (r; for all indirect and alternative methods and all milk components were significant (P ≤ 0.001. MIR and MIR–FT (conventional methods explained considerably higher proportion of the variability in reference results than the UM and BRB methods (alternative. All r average values (x minus 1.64 × sd for 95% confidence interval can be used as standards for calibration quality evaluation (MIR, MIR–FT, UM and BRB: – for F 0.997, 0.997, 0.99 and 0.995; – for P 0.986, 0.981, 0.828 and 0.864; – for L 0.968, 0.871, 0.705 and 0.761; – for SNF 0.992, 0.993, 0.911 and 0.872. Similarly ​MDsd (x plus 1.64 × sd: – for F 0.071, 0.068, 0.132 and 0.101%; – for P 0.051, 0.054, 0.202 and 0.14%; – for L 0.037, 0.074, 0.113 and 0.11%; – for SNF 0.052, 0.068, 0.141 and 0.204.

  6. Tattoo removal in the typical adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzoleni Francesco F

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although popular tattoos are often regretted later on for different reasons. Nevertheless, tattoo removal is a complicated and costly procedure seldom providing satisfactory results. The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of the implications of tattoo removal among a substantial sample of Italian secondary school adolescents. Findings Students were recruited by a stratified convenience sample and surveyed by a self administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed, reporting adjusted Odds Ratios (OR, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI. 4,277 pupils returned a usable questionnaire. Piercings were more frequently undertaken than tattoos. Only 40% of the respondents were aware of the issues related to tattoo removal. Males and pupils with younger fathers were less likely to be aware, whereas students satisfied with their physical appearance and those with a positive attitude towards body art were more likely to be aware. Conclusions Male adolescents with younger fathers can be regarded as the ideal target of corporate health education programs driven by school counsellors and primary care physicians.

  7. Tattoo removal in the typical adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although popular tattoos are often regretted later on for different reasons. Nevertheless, tattoo removal is a complicated and costly procedure seldom providing satisfactory results. The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of the implications of tattoo removal among a substantial sample of Italian secondary school adolescents. Findings Students were recruited by a stratified convenience sample and surveyed by a self administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed, reporting adjusted Odds Ratios (OR), with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). 4,277 pupils returned a usable questionnaire. Piercings were more frequently undertaken than tattoos. Only 40% of the respondents were aware of the issues related to tattoo removal. Males and pupils with younger fathers were less likely to be aware, whereas students satisfied with their physical appearance and those with a positive attitude towards body art were more likely to be aware. Conclusions Male adolescents with younger fathers can be regarded as the ideal target of corporate health education programs driven by school counsellors and primary care physicians. PMID:21693015

  8. A normalization method for combination of laboratory test results from different electronic healthcare databases in a distributed research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dukyong; Schuemie, Martijn J; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Dong Ki; Park, Man Young; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Jung, Eun-Young; Park, Dong Kyun; Cho, Soo Yeon; Shin, Dahye; Hwang, Yeonsoo; Park, Rae Woong

    2016-03-01

    Distributed research networks (DRNs) afford statistical power by integrating observational data from multiple partners for retrospective studies. However, laboratory test results across care sites are derived using different assays from varying patient populations, making it difficult to simply combine data for analysis. Additionally, existing normalization methods are not suitable for retrospective studies. We normalized laboratory results from different data sources by adjusting for heterogeneous clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of the data and called this the subgroup-adjusted normalization (SAN) method. Subgroup-adjusted normalization renders the means and standard deviations of distributions identical under population structure-adjusted conditions. To evaluate its performance, we compared SAN with existing methods for simulated and real datasets consisting of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum potassium, and total bilirubin. Various clinico-epidemiologic characteristics can be applied together in SAN. For simplicity of comparison, age and gender were used to adjust population heterogeneity in this study. In simulations, SAN had the lowest standardized difference in means (SDM) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov values for all tests (p normalization performed better than normalization using other methods. The SAN method is applicable in a DRN environment and should facilitate analysis of data integrated across DRN partners for retrospective observational studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Examining Sexual Dysfunction in Non‐Muscle‐Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of Cross‐Sectional Mixed‐Methods Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Kowalkowski, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Survivors' sexual symptoms may result from NMIBC, comorbidities, or both. These results inform literature and practice by raising awareness about the frequency of symptoms and the impact on NMIBC survivors' intimate relationships. Further work is needed to design symptom management education programs to dispel misinformation about contamination post‐treatment and improve quality of life. Kowalkowski MA, Chandrashekar A, Amiel GE, Lerner SP, Wittmann DA, Latini DM, and Goltz HH. Examining sexual dysfunction in non‐muscle‐invasive bladder cancer: Results of cross‐sectional mixed‐methods research. Sex Med 2014;2:141–151.

  10. Typical effects of laser dazzling CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianmin; Shao, Bibo; Cheng, Deyan; Ye, Xisheng; Feng, Guobin

    2015-05-01

    In this article, an overview of laser dazzling effect to buried channel CCD camera is given. The CCDs are sorted into staring and scanning types. The former includes the frame transfer and interline transfer types. The latter includes linear and time delay integration types. All CCDs must perform four primary tasks in generating an image, which are called charge generation, charge collection, charge transfer and charge measurement. In camera, the lenses are needed to input the optical signal to the CCD sensors, in which the techniques for erasing stray light are used. And the electron circuits are needed to process the output signal of CCD, in which many electronic techniques are used. The dazzling effects are the conjunct result of light distribution distortion and charge distribution distortion, which respectively derive from the lens and the sensor. Strictly speaking, in lens, the light distribution is not distorted. In general, the lens are so well designed and fabricated that its stray light can be neglected. But the laser is of much enough intensity to make its stray light obvious. In CCD image sensors, laser can induce a so large electrons generation. Charges transfer inefficiency and charges blooming will cause the distortion of the charge distribution. Commonly, the largest signal outputted from CCD sensor is restricted by capability of the collection well of CCD, and can't go beyond the dynamic range for the subsequent electron circuits maintaining normal work. So the signal is not distorted in the post-processing circuits. But some techniques in the circuit can make some dazzling effects present different phenomenon in final image.

  11. Standardization of glycohemoglobin results and reference values in whole blood studied in 103 laboratories using 20 methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weykamp, C W; Penders, T J; Miedema, K; Muskiet, F A; van der Slik, W

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of calibration with lyophilized calibrators on whole-blood glycohemoglobin (glyHb) results. One hundred three laboratories, using 20 different methods, determined glyHb in two lyophilized calibrators and two whole-blood samples. For whole-blood samples with low (5%) and high (9%) glyHb percentages, respectively, calibration decreased overall interlaboratory variation (CV) from 16% to 9% and from 11% to 6% and decreased intermethod variation from 14% to 6% and from 12% to 5%. Forty-seven laboratories, using 14 different methods, determined mean glyHb percentages in self-selected groups of 10 nondiabetic volunteers each. With calibration their overall mean (2SD) was 5.0% (0.5%), very close to the 5.0% (0.3%) derived from the reference method used in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. In both experiments the Abbott IMx and Vision showed deviating results. We conclude that, irrespective of the analytical method used, calibration enables standardization of glyHb results, reference values, and interpretation criteria.

  12. A validation of direct grey Dancoff factors results for cylindrical cells in cluster geometry by the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Leticia Jenisch; Bogado, Sergio; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2008-01-01

    The WIMS code is a well known and one of the most used codes to handle nuclear core physics calculations. Recently, the PIJM module of the WIMS code was modified in order to allow the calculation of Grey Dancoff factors, for partially absorbing materials, using the alternative definition in terms of escape and collision probabilities. Grey Dancoff factors for the Canadian CANDU-37 and CANFLEX assemblies were calculated with PIJM at five symmetrically distinct fuel pin positions. The results, obtained via Direct Method, i.e., by direct calculation of escape and collision probabilities, were satisfactory when compared with the ones of literature. On the other hand, the PIJMC module was developed to calculate escape and collision probabilities using Monte Carlo method. Modifications in this module were performed to determine Black Dancoff factors, considering perfectly absorbing fuel rods. In this work, we proceed further in the task of validating the Direct Method by the Monte Carlo approach. To this end, the PIJMC routine is modified to compute Grey Dancoff factors using the cited alternative definition. Results are reported for the mentioned CANDU-37 and CANFLEX assemblies obtained with PIJMC, at the same fuel pin positions as with PIJM. A good agreement is observed between the results from the Monte Carlo and Direct methods

  13. Doppler method leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 1. Experimental results of bubble detection using small models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi

    1999-01-01

    To prevent the expansion of the tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately the leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, an active acoustic method was developed. Previous studies have revealed that in practical steam generators the active acoustic method can detect bubbles of 10 l/s within 10 seconds. To prevent the expansion of damage to neighboring tubes, it is necessary to detect smaller leakages of water from the heat transfer tubes. The Doppler method is designed to detect small leakages and to find the source of the leak before damage spreads to neighboring tubes. To evaluate the relationship between the detection sensitivity of the Doppler method and the bubble volume and bubble size, the structural shapes and bubble flow conditions were investigated experimentally, using a small structural model. The results show that the Doppler method can detect the bubbles under bubble flow conditions, and it is sensitive enough to detect small leakages within a short time. The doppler method thus has strong potential for the detection of water leakage in SGs. (author)

  14. METHODS OF MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF LIGHTNING BY SIMULATING ITS STRIKES WITH THE INTERVAL ASSESSMENT OF THE RESULTS OF MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Kriksin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the development of new methods aimed at more accurate interval estimate of the experimental values of voltages on grounding devices of substations and circuits in the control cables, that occur when lightning strikes to lightning rods; the abovementioned estimate made it possible to increase the accuracy of the results of the study of lightning noise by 28 %. A more accurate value of interval estimation were achieved by developing a measurement model that takes into account, along with the measured values, different measurement errors and includes the special processing of the measurement results. As a result, the interval of finding the true value of the sought voltage is determined with an accuracy of 95 %. The methods can be applied to the IK-1 and IKP-1 measurement complexes, consisting in the aperiodic pulse generator, the generator of high-frequency pulses and selective voltmeters, respectively. To evaluate the effectiveness of the developed methods series of experimental voltage assessments of grounding devices of ten active high-voltage substation have been fulfilled in accordance with the developed methods and traditional techniques. The evaluation results confirmed the possibility of finding the true values of voltage over a wide range, that ought to be considered in the process of technical diagnostics of lightning protection of substations when the analysis of the measurement results and the development of measures to reduce the effects of lightning are being fulfilled. Also, a comparative analysis of the results of measurements made in accordance with the developed methods and traditional techniques has demonstrated that the true value of the sought voltage may exceed the measured value at an average of 28 %, that ought to be considered in the further analysis of the parameters of lightning protection at the facility and in the development of corrective actions. The developed methods have been

  15. Summary of EPA's risk assessment results from the analysis of alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrowski, M.S.; Hung, C.Y.; Meyer, G.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential health risk and individual exposure from a broad number of disposal alternatives is an important part of EPA's program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The Agency has completed an analysis of the potential population health risks and maximum individual exposures from ten disposal methods under three different hydrogeological and climatic settings. This paper briefly describes the general input and analysis procedures used in the risk assessment for LLW disposal and presents their preliminary results. Some important lessons learned from simulating LLW disposal under a large variety of methods and conditions are identified

  16. The non-typical MRI findings of the branchial cleft cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chunhong; Wu Qingde; Yao Xuanjun; Chen Jie; Zhu Wei; Chen Jianhua; Xing Jianming; Ding Yi; Ge Zili

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the non-typical MRI findings of the branchial cleft cysts in order to improve their diagnoses. Methods: 10 cases with branchial cleft cysts proven by surgery and pathology were collected and their MRI features were analyzed. There were 6 male and 4 female, aged 15 to 70, with an averaged age of 37. All patients underwent plain MR scan, 6 patients underwent enhanced scan, and 4 patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography. Results: All 10 cases were second branchial cleft cysts, including 4 of Bailey type I and 6 of type II. The non-typical MRI findings were composed of haematocele (2 cases), extraordinarily thick cyst wall (4 cases), solidified cystic fluid (2 cases), and concomitant canceration (2 cases), which made the diagnoses more difficult. Conclusion: The diagnoses of the branchial cleft cysts with non-typical MRI features should combined with its characteristic of position that located at the lateral portion of the neck adjacent to the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle at the mandibular angle. The findings, such as thickened wall, ill-defined margin, and vascular involvement or jugular lymphadenectasis, strongly suggest cancerous tendency. (authors)

  17. The effect of different methods and image analyzers on the results of the in vivo comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoya, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Rika; Shimanura, Yuko; Terada, Megumi; Masuda, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    The in vivo comet assay is a widely used genotoxicity test that can detect DNA damage in a range of organs. It is included in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals. However, various protocols are still used for this assay, and several different image analyzers are used routinely to evaluate the results. Here, we verified a protocol that largely contributes to the equivalence of results, and we assessed the effect on the results when slides made from the same sample were analyzed using two different image analyzers (Comet Assay IV vs Comet Analyzer). Standardizing the agarose concentrations and DNA unwinding and electrophoresis times had a large impact on the equivalence of the results between the different methods used for the in vivo comet assay. In addition, there was some variation in the sensitivity of the two different image analyzers tested; however this variation was considered to be minor and became negligible when the test conditions were standardized between the two different methods. By standardizing the concentrations of low melting agarose and DNA unwinding and electrophoresis times between both methods used in the current study, the sensitivity to detect the genotoxicity of a positive control substance in the in vivo comet assay became generally comparable, independently of the image analyzer used. However, there may still be the possibility that other conditions, except for the three described here, could affect the reproducibility of the in vivo comet assay.

  18. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  19. Failure mode and effects analysis on typical reactor trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisawy, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    An updated failure mode and effects analysis, FMEA , has been performed on a typical reactor trip system. This upgrade helps to avoid system damage and ,as a result, extends the system service life. It also provides for simplified maintenance and surveillance testing. The operating conditions under which the system is to carry out its function and the operational profile expected for the system have been determined. The results of the FMEA have been given in terms of operating states of the subsystem.The results are given in form of table which is set up such that for a given failure one can read across it and determine which items remain operating in the system. From this data one can identify the number of components operating in the system for monitors pressure exceeds the setpoint pressure.

  20. Numerical Simulations for a Typical Train Fire in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Chow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway is the key transport means in China including the Mainland, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Consequent to so many big arson and accidental fires in the public transport systems including trains and buses, fire safety in passenger trains is a concern. Numerical simulations with Computational Fluid Dynamics on identified fire scenarios with typical train compartments in China will be reported in this paper. The heat release rate of the first ignited item was taken as the input parameter. The mass lost rate of fuel vapor of other combustibles was estimated to predict the resultant heat release rates by the combustion models in the software. Results on air flow, velocity vectors, temperature distribution, smoke layer height, and smoke spread patterns inside the train compartment were analyzed. The results are useful for working out appropriate fire safety measures for train vehicles and determining the design fire for subway stations and railway tunnels.

  1. Hydrogen deflagration simulations under typical containment conditions for nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, J., E-mail: jorge.yanez@kit.edu [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kotchourko, A.; Lelyakin, A. [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lean H{sub 2}-air combustion experiments highly relevant to typical NPP simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed effect of temperature, concentration of H{sub 2}, and steam concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar conditions and H{sub 2} concentration yielded different combustion regimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flame instabilities (FIs) were the effect driving divergences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model developed for acoustic FI in simulations. Agreement experiments obtained. - Abstract: This paper presents the modeling of low-concentration hydrogen deflagrations performed with the recently developed KYLCOM model specially created to perform calculations in large scale domains. Three experiments carried out in THAI facility (performed in the frames of international OECD THAI experimental program) were selected to be analyzed. The tests allow studying lean mixture hydrogen combustion at normal ambient, elevated temperature and superheated and saturated conditions. The experimental conditions considered together with the facility size and shape grant a high relevance degree to the typical NPP containment conditions. The results of the simulations were thoroughly compared with the experimental data, and the comparison was supplemented by the analysis of the combustion regimes taking place in the considered tests. Results of the analysis demonstrated that despite the comparatively small difference in mixture properties, three different combustion regimes can be definitely identified. The simulations of one of the cases required of the modeling of the acoustic-parametric instability which was carefully undertaken.

  2. Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bertini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP’s broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.

  3. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF BENCHMARKING METHODS OF INNOVATION SYSTEMS ASSESSMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vylegzhanina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce results of comparative analysis of international ratings indexes of innovation systems for their compliance with purposes of sustainable development. Purpose of this research is defining requirements to benchmarking methods of assessing national or regional innovation systems and compare them basing on assumption, that innovation system is aligned with sustainable development concept. Analysis of goal sets and concepts, which underlie observed international composite innovation indexes, comparison of their metrics and calculation techniques, allowed us to reveal opportunities and limitations of using these methods in frames of sustainable development concept. We formulated targets of innovation development on the base of innovation priorities of sustainable socio-economic development. Using comparative analysis of indexes with these targets, we revealed two methods of assessing innovation systems, maximally connected with goals of sustainable development. Nevertheless, today no any benchmarking method, which meets need of innovation systems assessing in compliance with sustainable development concept to a sufficient extent. We suggested practical directions of developing methods, assessing innovation systems in compliance with goals of societal sustainable development.

  4. Molecular Weights of Bovine and Porcine Heparin Samples: Comparison of Chromatographic Methods and Results of a Collaborative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Sabrina; Risi, Giulia; Guerrini, Marco; Carrick, Kevin; Szajek, Anita Y; Mulloy, Barbara

    2017-07-19

    In a collaborative study involving six laboratories in the USA, Europe, and India the molecular weight distributions of a panel of heparin sodium samples were determined, in order to compare heparin sodium of bovine intestinal origin with that of bovine lung and porcine intestinal origin. Porcine samples met the current criteria as laid out in the USP Heparin Sodium monograph. Bovine lung heparin samples had consistently lower average molecular weights. Bovine intestinal heparin was variable in molecular weight; some samples fell below the USP limits, some fell within these limits and others fell above the upper limits. These data will inform the establishment of pharmacopeial acceptance criteria for heparin sodium derived from bovine intestinal mucosa. The method for MW determination as described in the USP monograph uses a single, broad standard calibrant to characterize the chromatographic profile of heparin sodium on high-resolution silica-based GPC columns. These columns may be short-lived in some laboratories. Using the panel of samples described above, methods based on the use of robust polymer-based columns have been developed. In addition to the use of the USP's broad standard calibrant for heparin sodium with these columns, a set of conditions have been devised that allow light-scattering detected molecular weight characterization of heparin sodium, giving results that agree well with the monograph method. These findings may facilitate the validation of variant chromatographic methods with some practical advantages over the USP monograph method.

  5. EIT Imaging of admittivities with a D-bar method and spatial prior: experimental results for absolute and difference imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S J

    2017-05-22

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an emerging imaging modality that uses harmless electrical measurements taken on electrodes at a body's surface to recover information about the internal electrical conductivity and or permittivity. The image reconstruction task of EIT is a highly nonlinear inverse problem that is sensitive to noise and modeling errors making the image reconstruction task challenging. D-bar methods solve the nonlinear problem directly, bypassing the need for detailed and time-intensive forward models, to provide absolute (static) as well as time-difference EIT images. Coupling the D-bar methodology with the inclusion of high confidence a priori data results in a noise-robust regularized image reconstruction method. In this work, the a priori D-bar method for complex admittivities is demonstrated effective on experimental tank data for absolute imaging for the first time. Additionally, the method is adjusted for, and tested on, time-difference imaging scenarios. The ability of the method to be used for conductivity, permittivity, absolute as well as time-difference imaging provides the user with great flexibility without a high computational cost.

  6. Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity (ACE-Obesity: an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from Conclusion The use of consistent methods enables valid comparison of potential intervention costs and cost-offsets for each of the interventions. ACE-Obesity informs policy-makers about cost-effectiveness, health impact, affordability and 2nd stage filters for important options for preventing unhealthy weight gain in children. In related articles cost-effectiveness results and

  7. Gradient Correlation Method for the Stabilization of Inversion Results of Aerosol Microphysical Properties Retrieved from Profiles of Optical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolgotin Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation relationships between aerosol microphysical parameters and optical data are investigated. The results show that surface-area concentrations and extinction coefficients are linearly correlated with a correlation coefficient above 0.99 for arbitrary particle size distribution. The correlation relationships that we obtained can be used as constraints in our inversion of optical lidar data. Simulation studies demonstrate a significant stabilization of aerosol microphysical data products if we apply the gradient correlation method in our traditional regularization technique.

  8. Channels Coordination Game Model Based on Result Fairness Preference and Reciprocal Fairness Preference: A Behavior Game Forecasting and Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Chuan; Wang, Kaihong; Huang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    In a distribution channel, channel members are not always self-interested, but altruistic in some conditions. Based on this assumption, this paper adopts a behavior game method to analyze and forecast channel members’ decision behavior based on result fairness preference and reciprocal fairness preference by embedding a fair preference theory in channel research of coordination. The behavior game forecasts that a channel can achieve coordination if channel members consider behavior elemen...

  9. GENERATION OF A TYPICAL METEOROLOGICAL YEAR FOR PORT HARCOURT ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OGOLOMA O.B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the typical meteorological year (TMY for the Port Harcourt climatic zone based on the hourly meteorological data recorded during the period 1983–2002, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The data are the global solar radiation, wind velocity, dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, and others. The HVAC outside design conditions for the Port Harcourt climatic zone (latitude 4.44oN, longitude 7.1oE, elevation 20 m were found to be 26.7oC, 78.6% and 3.5 m/s for the dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and wind speed, respectively, and 13.5 MJ/m2/day for the global solar radiation. The TMY data for the zone are shown to be sufficiently reliable for engineering practice.

  10. Rapid method of calculating the fluence and spectrum of neutrons from a critical assembly and the resulting dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessis, J.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed calculation method is unsophisticated but rapid. The first part (computer code CRITIC), which is based on the Fermi age equation, evaluates the number of neutrons per fission emitted from a moderated critical assembly and their energy spectrum. The second part (computer code NARCISSE), which uses the current albedo for concrete, evaluates the product of neutron reflection on the walls and calculates the fluence resulting at any point in the room and its energy distribution by 21 groups. The results obtained are shown to compare satisfactorily with those obtained through the use of a Monte Carlo program

  11. Study on the knowledge base system for the identification of typical target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Kai; Zhao Yingjun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the research on target knowledge base, target database, texture analysis, shape analysis, this paper proposed a new knowledge based method for typical target identification from remote sensing image. By extracting the texture characters and shape characters, joining with spatial analysis in GIS, reasoning according to the prior knowledge in the knowledge base, this method can identify and ex- tract typical target from remote sensing images. (authors)

  12. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  13. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  14. Four-spacecraft determination of magnetopause orientation, motion and thickness: comparison with results from single-spacecraft methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Haaland

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use Cluster data from one magnetopause event on 5 July 2001 to compare predictions from various methods for determination of the velocity, orientation, and thickness of the magnetopause current layer. We employ established as well as new multi-spacecraft techniques, in which time differences between the crossings by the four spacecraft, along with the duration of each crossing, are used to calculate magnetopause speed, normal vector, and width. The timing is based on data from either the Cluster Magnetic Field Experiment (FGM or the Electric Field Experiment (EFW instruments. The multi-spacecraft results are compared with those derived from various single-spacecraft techniques, including minimum-variance analysis of the magnetic field and deHoffmann-Teller, as well as Minimum-Faraday-Residue analysis of plasma velocities and magnetic fields measured during the crossings. In order to improve the overall consistency between multi- and single-spacecraft results, we have also explored the use of hybrid techniques, in which timing information from the four spacecraft is combined with certain limited results from single-spacecraft methods, the remaining results being left for consistency checks. The results show good agreement between magnetopause orientations derived from appropriately chosen single-spacecraft techniques and those obtained from multi-spacecraft timing. The agreement between magnetopause speeds derived from single- and multi-spacecraft methods is quantitatively somewhat less good but it is evident that the speed can change substantially from one crossing to the next within an event. The magnetopause thickness varied substantially from one crossing to the next, within an event. It ranged from 5 to 10 ion gyroradii. The density profile was sharper than the magnetic profile: most of the density change occured in the earthward half of the magnetopause.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and

  15. Acoustical conditions of typical classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Ming; Lam, Coriolanus C. L.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of the acoustical environments of local schools in Hong Kong. In the measurements, several acoustical aspects that affect verbal communication in classrooms have been studied. These conditions include outdoor and indoor ambient noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios, reverberation time and the speech transmission index. Typical classrooms in many different schools and other higher-education institutions have been selected in the present study. Experimental results are compared with such national standards as USA (ANSI S 12.60 V 2002), Australian/New Zealand (AS/NZS 2107:2000), China (GB/T 15508 V 1995) and other national and industrial standards. This study will form the basis of devising acceptable standards for use in Hong Kong. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council of the SAR Government, the Research Committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Architectural Services Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

  16. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile 239 Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m 2 ) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate 239 Pu production rate. Produced 239 Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, 239 Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type

  17. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile {sup 239}Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m{sup 2}) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate {sup 239}Pu production rate. Produced {sup 239}Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, {sup 239}Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type.

  18. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  19. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  20. Validation of a near infrared microscopy method for the detection of animal products in feedingstuffs: results of a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, A; Fernández Pierna, J A; von Holst, C; Baeten, V

    2012-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a near infrared microscopy (NIRM) method, when applied to the detection of animal products in feedingstuffs, were determined via a collaborative study. The method delivers qualitative results in terms of the presence or absence of animal particles in feed and differentiates animal from vegetable feed ingredients on the basis of the evaluation of near infrared spectra obtained from individual particles present in the sample. The specificity ranged from 86% to 100%. The limit of detection obtained on the analysis of the sediment fraction, prepared as for the European official method, was 0.1% processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed, since all laboratories correctly identified the positive samples. This limit has to be increased up to 2% for the analysis of samples which are not sedimented. The required sensitivity for the official control is therefore achieved in the analysis of the sediment fraction of the samples where the method can be applied for the detection of the presence of animal meal. Criteria for the classification of samples, when fewer than five spectra are found, as being of animal origin needs to be set up in order to harmonise the approach taken by the laboratories when applying NIRM for the detection of the presence of animal meal in feed.