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Sample records for methods twenty-four women

  1. Twenty-four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor Heart Rate: A Potential Marker for Gestational Hypertension in at-Risk Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Corenthian J.; Dodson, William C.; Kunselman, Allen R.; Repke, John T.; Legro, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively correlated the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) to conventional sphygmomanometer blood pressure measurements (CSM) in women at risk for gestational hypertensive disorders (GHTNDs) and identified predictive factors from ABPM for GHTND. We analyzed 73 women with ≥1 risk factor for developing a GHTND. Using both the CSM and ABPM, the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured for 24 hours during three periods (14 to 24 weeks; 24 to 32 weeks; and 33 weeks to delivery). Correlation between the CSM and ABPM lessened as pregnancy progressed. Seventeen (25%) of women developed a GHTND. MAP variability increased in the GHTND group versus those without a GHTND. The odds of developing a GHTND increased 1.5 times for every 1 beat per minute increase in the ABPM 24-hour HR at visit 1 and reversed by visit 3. In women at risk for a GHTND, CSM and ABPM correlate less well as pregnancy advances. HR changes in at-risk women may be a marker for the development of a GHTND and may reflect increased sympathetic activity and/or decreased baroreceptor sensitivity. PMID:22147639

  2. Twenty-four hour care for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Rob; Edwards, Thomas Rhys; Chilvers, Rupatharshini; David, Chris; Elliott, Helen J

    2009-04-15

    Despite modern treatment approaches and a focus on community care, there remains a group of people who cannot easily be discharged from psychiatric hospital directly into the community. Twenty-four hour residential rehabilitation (a 'ward-in-a-house') is one model of care that has evolved in association with psychiatric hospital closure programmes. To determine the effects of 24 hour residential rehabilitation compared with standard treatment within a hospital setting. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (May 2002 and February 2004). We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials that compared 24 hour residential rehabilitation with standard care for people with severe mental illness. Studies were reliably selected, quality assessed and data extracted. Data were excluded where more than 50% of participants in any group were lost to follow-up. For binary outcomes we calculated the relative risk and its 95% confidence interval. We identified and included one study with 22 participants with important methodological shortcomings and limitations of reporting. The two-year controlled study evaluated "new long stay patients" in a hostel ward in the UK. One outcome 'unable to manage in the placement' provided usable data (n=22, RR 7.0 CI 0.4 to 121.4). The trial reported that hostel ward residents developed superior domestic skills, used more facilities in the community and were more likely to engage in constructive activities than those in hospital - although usable numerical data were not reported. These potential advantages were not purchased at a price. The limited economic data was not good but the cost of providing 24 hour care did not seem clearly different from the standard care provided by the hospital - and it may have been less. From the single, small and ill-reported, included study, the hostel ward type of facility appeared cheaper and positively effective. Currently, the value of this way of supporting people - which could be

  3. Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology assessment was to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for hypertension. Clinical Need: Condition and Target Population Hypertension occurs when either systolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart contracts, or diastolic blood pressure, the pressure in the artery when the heart relaxes between beats, are consistently high. Blood pressure (BP) that is consistently more than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic) is considered high. A lower threshold, greater than 130/80 mmHg (systolic/diastolic), is set for individuals with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. In 2006 and 2007, the age-standardized incidence rate of diagnosed hypertension in Canada was 25.8 per 1,000 (450,000 individuals were newly diagnosed). During the same time period, 22.7% of adult Canadians were living with diagnosed hypertension. A smaller proportion of Canadians are unaware they have hypertension; therefore, the estimated number of Canadians affected by this disease may be higher. Diagnosis and management of hypertension are important, since elevated BP levels are related to the risk of cardiovascular disease, including stroke. In Canada in 2003, the costs to the health care system related to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of hypertension were over $2.3 billion (Cdn). Technology The 24-hour ABPM device consists of a standard inflatable cuff attached to a small computer weighing about 500 grams, which is worn over the shoulder or on a belt. The technology is noninvasive and fully automated. The device takes BP measurements every 15 to 30 minutes over a 24-to 28-hour time period, thus providing extended, continuous BP recordings even during a patient’s normal daily activities. Information on the multiple BP measurements can be downloaded to a computer. The main detection methods used by the device are auscultation and

  4. Isolated total RNA and protein are preserved after thawing for more than twenty-four hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ivone Braga; Ramos, Débora Rothstein; Lopes, Karen Lucasechi; de Souza, Regiane Machado; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The preservation of biological samples at a low temperature is important for later biochemical and/or histological analyses. However, the molecular viability of thawed samples has not been studied sufficiently in depth. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of intact tissues, tissue homogenates, and isolated total RNA after defrosting for more than twenty-four hours. METHODS: The molecular viability of the thawed samples (n = 82) was assessed using the A260/A280 ratio, the RNA concentration, the RNA integrity, the level of intact mRNA determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, the protein level determined by Western blotting, and an examination of the histological structure. RESULTS: The integrity of the total RNA was not preserved in the thawed intact tissue, but the RNA integrity and level of mRNA were perfectly preserved in isolated defrosted samples of total RNA. Additionally, the level of β-actin protein was preserved in both thawed intact tissue and homogenates. CONCLUSION: Isolated total RNA does not undergo degradation due to thawing for at least 24 hours, and it is recommended to isolate the total RNA as soon as possible after tissue collection. Moreover, the protein level is preserved in defrosted tissues. PMID:22473407

  5. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in very elderly patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelleri, Claudia; Janoschka, Alin; Berli, Reto; Kohler, Sibylle; Braun-Dullaeus, Ruediger C.; Heuss, Ludwig T.; Wolfrum, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Elevated blood pressure (BP) is frequently diagnosed in very elderly hospitalized patients. Accurate diagnosis of hypertension is challenging in the hospital environment, due to the “white coat effect,” and both overtreatment and undertreatment can adversely affect clinical outcome. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has the potential to avoid the “white coat effect” and accurately guide the management of hypertension. However, effects of the hospital environment on ABPM are unknown in the very elderly. We set out to enroll 45 patients, age ≥70 years, with elevated conventional BP during hospitalization in this observational study. It was prespecified by protocol to assess initially the difference between 24-hour BP during hospital-admission and home follow-up. Subsequent analysis should investigate the change in anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A [HADS-A]) after discharge, the correlation with change in 24-hour BP after discharge, and the prevalence of orthostatic hypertension. Thirty-one patients were included in the final analysis (age 83.5 ± 4.4 years; 71% female). Twenty-four-hour BP decreased significantly after hospital discharge (systolic from 133.5 ± 15.6 to 126.2 ± 14.4 mm Hg [millimeter of mercury], P = .008; diastolic from 71.0 ± 9.0 to 68.3 ± 8.6 mm Hg, P = .046). Anxiety level (HADS-A) decreased significantly after discharge, from 7.5 (interquartile range [IQR]: 4.0–13.8) to 5.0 (IQR: 4.0–8.0, P = .012). The change in anxiety was a predictor of change in systolic BP after discharge (F[1,20] = 5.9, P = .025). Sixty-one percent of the patients had significant orthostatic hypotension during hospital stay. In conclusion, 24-hour BP in very elderly patients is lower in the home environment than during hospitalization. This phenomenon seems to be directly linked to a lower anxiety-level at home. Reassessing hypertension at home may decrease the

  7. Role of Twenty-Four-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Children on Dialysis

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    Sutherland, Scott M.; Begin, Brandy; Salsbery, Kari; McCabe, Lonisa; Potter, Donald; Alexander, Steven R.; Wong, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Pre- or postdialysis BP recordings are imprecise, can be biased, and have poor test–retest reliability in children on dialysis. We aimed to examine the possible differences between pre- and postdialysis BP levels and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in diagnosis of hypertension (HTN). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twenty-four children on dialysis had 24-hour ABPM in the interdialytic period, and values were compared with average pre- and postdialysis systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) recordings that week. Each patient had an echocardiogram to determine presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Results By ABPM, 8% of patients had white coat HTN and 12% had masked HTN. There was no significant difference in diagnosis of systolic HTN based on ABPM daytime SBP mean or load and postdialysis SBP. However, only 15% of patients had diastolic HTN based on postdialysis measures, whereas 46% of patients had significantly elevated daytime DBP loads and 71% had high nighttime DBP loads on ABPM. Forty-eight percent of patients were SBP nondippers. Children with LVH had higher daytime and nighttime SBP loads, significantly higher daytime and nighttime DBP loads, and lesser degree of nocturnal dipping of SBP compared with those who did not. Conclusion ABPM is more informative than pre- and postdialysis BPs and improves the predictability of BP as a risk factor for target organ damage. Diagnosis and treatment monitoring of HTN among pediatric dialysis patients is enhanced with addition of ABPM. PMID:21273374

  8. [Study on medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in The Twenty-four Histories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Wen

    2012-03-01

    Through the combination of manual retrieval and computerized retrieval, medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in The Twenty-Four Histories were collected. Acupuncture cases from the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.) to the end of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)were retrieved. From the medical records of acupuncture-moxibustion in Chinese official history books, it can be found that systematic diseases or emergent and severe diseases were already treated by physicians with the combination of acupuncture and medicine as early as in the Spring and Autumn Period as well as the Warring States Period(475-221 B.C.). CANG Gong, a famous physician of the Western Han Dynasty (206 B. C.-A. D. 24), cured diseases by selecting points along the running courses of meridians where the illness inhabited, which indicates that the theory of meridians and collaterals was served as a guide for clinical practice as early as in the Western Han Dynasty. Blood letting therapy, which has surprising effect, was often adopted by physicians of various historical periods to treat diseases. And treatment of diseases with single point was approved to be easy and effective.

  9. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchang Liang

    Full Text Available Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g, cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts.The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.

  10. Remission and rheumatoid arthritis: Data on patients receiving usual care in twenty-four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Hetland, Merete Lund; Mäkinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    and lowest remission rates was >/=15% in 10 countries, 5-14% in 7 countries, and definition of remission, male sex, higher education, shorter disease duration, smaller number of comorbidities, and regular......OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of different definitions of remission in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) database, which (as of January 2008) included 5......,848 patients receiving usual care at 67 sites in 24 countries, was used for this study. Patients were clinically assessed by rheumatologists and completed a 4-page self-report questionnaire. The database was analyzed according to the following definitions of remission: American College of Rheumatology (ACR...

  11. Remission and rheumatoid arthritis: Data on patients receiving usual care in twenty-four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Hetland, Merete Lund; Mäkinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    and lowest remission rates was >/=15% in 10 countries, 5-14% in 7 countries, and generally low remission rates [definition of remission, male sex, higher education, shorter disease duration, smaller number of comorbidities, and regular......OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of different definitions of remission in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Questionnaires in Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA) database, which (as of January 2008) included 5......,848 patients receiving usual care at 67 sites in 24 countries, was used for this study. Patients were clinically assessed by rheumatologists and completed a 4-page self-report questionnaire. The database was analyzed according to the following definitions of remission: American College of Rheumatology (ACR...

  12. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

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    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  13. Assessment of myocardial viability in patients with myocardial infarction using twenty-four hour thallium-201 late redistribution imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiangjun; He Yongming; Zhang Bin; Wu Yiwei; Hui Jie; Jiang Tingbo; Song Jianping; Liu Zhihua; Jiang Wenping

    2006-01-01

    Rest thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging has been widely used for evaluation of myocardial ischemia/viability after myocardial infarction, but the ideal timing for imaging after injection to maximally estimate viability is not well established. Thirty-six patients with myocardial infarction underwent the initial, 3 h, and 24 h redistribution imaging after intravenous injection of 148-185 MBq 201 Tl. The initial and 3 h images, the initial and 24 h images, and the 3 and 24 h images were compared double-blinded. Out of the 184 abnormal segments based on the initial imaging, 56 (30%) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 3 h imaging while 78 (42%) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 24 h imaging. The 24 h late imaging detected more viable myocardium than the 3 h imaging did, with a significant difference (χ 2 =5.680, p=0.017). There were 158 abnormal segments on the 3 h imaging, with average 28% (44) segments improved by at least 1 grade on the 24 h imaging. There were 128 initial abnormal segments with no improvement on the 3 h imaging. Out of these segments, the 24 h late redistribution imaging detected additional redistribution in 26 segments, taking up 20%. Twenty-four hour late 201 Tl imaging will demonstrated additional redistribution in patients who have incompletely reversible defects on early redistribution imaging at 3 h. (author)

  14. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis

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    V.R.S.G. Monteiro

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER disorder was studied in children and adolescents with chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma. Ten children with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of chronic and/or recurrent rhinosinusitis, consecutively attended at the Pediatric Otolaryngology Outpatient Clinic, Federal University of São Paulo, were evaluated. Prolonged esophageal pH monitoring was used to investigate GER disorder. The mean age of the ten patients evaluated (eight males was 7.4 ± 2.4 years. Two patients presented vomiting as a clinical manifestation and one patient presented retrosternal pain with a burning sensation. Twenty-four-hour esophageal pH monitoring was performed using the Sandhill apparatus. An antimony probe electrode was placed in the lower third of the esophagus, confirmed by fluoroscopy and later by a chest X-ray. The parameters analyzed by esophageal pH monitoring included: total percent time of the presence of acid esophageal pH, i.e., pH below 4 (<4.2%; total number of acid episodes (<50 episodes; number of reflux episodes longer than 5 min (3 or less, and duration of the longest reflux episode (<9.2 min. One patient (1/10, 10% presented a 24-h esophageal pH profile compatible with GER disorder. This data suggest that an association between chronic rhinosinusitis not associated with bronchial asthma and GER disorder may exist in children and adolescents, especially in those with compatible GER disorder symptoms. In these cases, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring should be performed before indicating surgery, since the present data suggest that 10% of chronic rhinosinusitis surgeries can be eliminated.

  15. Exploring Contraceptive Knowledge and Use among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a qualitative research methodology, twenty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with women with induced abortion experiences at Korle Bu and Tema Hospitals in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. Results suggest that these women tended not to have knowledge of contraceptive methods prior to the ...

  16. 'Where of is mad al mankynde' : an edition of and introduction to the twenty-four poems in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 102

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, Louis Johan Philip

    2009-01-01

    'Where of is Mad al Mankynde' represents a new critical edition of the collection of twenty-four late-medieval anonymous poems contained, among other pieces, in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Digby 102. Each poem is introduced with a brief summary and closes with line-for-line explanatory comments.

  17. The usefulness of twenty-four molecular markers in predicting treatment outcome with combination therapy of amodiaquine plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against falciparum malaria in Papua New Guinea

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    Reeder John C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Papua New Guinea (PNG, combination therapy with amodiaquine (AQ or chloroquine (CQ plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP was introduced as first-line treatment against uncomplicated malaria in 2000. Methods We assessed in vivo treatment failure rates with AQ+SP in two different areas in PNG and twenty-four molecular drug resistance markers of Plasmodium falciparum were characterized in pre-treatment samples. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between infecting genotype and treatment response in order to identify useful predictors of treatment failure with AQ+SP. Results In 2004, Day-28 treatment failure rates for AQ+SP were 29% in the Karimui and 19% in the South Wosera area, respectively. The strongest independent predictors for treatment failure with AQ+SP were pfmdr1 N86Y (OR = 7.87, p pfdhps A437G (OR = 3.44, p pfcrt K76T, A220S, N326D, and I356L did not help to increase the predictive value, the most likely reason being that these mutations reached almost fixed levels. Though mutations in SP related markers pfdhfr S108N and C59R were not associated with treatment failure, they increased the predictive value of pfdhps A437G. The difference in treatment failure rate in the two sites was reflected in the corresponding genetic profile of the parasite populations, with significant differences seen in the allele frequencies of mutant pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 Y184F, pfcrt A220S, and pfdhps A437G. Conclusion The study provides evidence for high levels of resistance to the combination regimen of AQ+SP in PNG and indicates which of the many molecular markers analysed are useful for the monitoring of parasite resistance to combinations with AQ+SP.

  18. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for clinical evaluation of hypertensive patients in primary care: which groups would most benefit?

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    Grezzana, Guilherme B; Stein, Airton T; Pellanda, Lucia C

    2017-04-01

    Arterial hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure (BP) control levels remain largely out of target among primary healthcare (PHC) patients. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) may contribute toward the identification of cardiovascular risk groups. To assess concordance between conventional office BP measurements and 24-h ABPM of hypertension control in cardiovascular risk groups of PHC hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional study with 569 hypertensive patients was carried out. The evaluation of BP was performed by a PHC doctor, and the 24-h ABPM was performed by a different and blinded provider. The therapeutic targets for BP followed the guidance of The Eighth Joint National Committee, the Brazilian guideline, and the 2013 European Society of Hypertension. Considering the hypertension control therapeutic targets, the guidelines were not similar and were used to evaluate differences in BP value concordances compared with BP standard measurements. After a multivariate logistic regression analysis, a conventional BP was used in comparison with ABPM in different cardiovascular risk groups of hypertensive patients. According to the ABPM by European Society of Hypertension guideline, the subgroup of inactive patients (P=0.006), with altered glycemia (P=0.015) and over 30 mg/dl albuminuria (P=0.001), presented discordance among methods. When a conventional BP measurement in comparison with the ABPM results according to the Brazilian ABPM guideline was used, the discordance occurred significantly in inactive (P=0.001) and microalbuminuria more than 30 mg/dl (P=0.022) subgroups. However, in this comparison, a concordance between high-density lipoprotein more than 60 mg/dl (P=0.015) and obesity (P=0.035) subgroups occurred. Uncontrolled glucose levels, a sedentary lifestyle, and the presence of microalbuminuria correspond to some cardiovascular risk groups that would particularly benefit from 24-h

  19. Twenty-four-year trends in the incidence of ischemic stroke in Sweden from 1987 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Annika; Giang, Kok Wai; Lappas, Georgios; Jern, Christina; Torén, Kjell; Björck, Lena

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of stroke in Sweden increased between 1989 and 2000 among people aged ≤65 years, but more recent data on those aged >65 years are lacking. Through the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death registries, we identified all cases of nonfatal and fatal ischemic stroke (IS) among people aged 18 to 84 years during 1987-2010 in Sweden. Of the 391 081 stroke cases identified, 1.6% were 18 to 44 years, 16.7% were 45 to 64 years, and 81.7% were 65 to 84 years. Among people aged 18 to 44 years, there was a continuous increase in the incidence of stroke of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.8%-1.8%) per year for men and 1.6% (1.0%-2.3%) per year for women. Among men and women aged 45 to 64 years, slightly declining rates were observed from the late 1990s, with a mean annual decrease of 0.4% (0.1%-0.7%) among men and 0.6% (0.2%-1.0%) among women. Among men aged 65 to 84 years, a decrease of 3.7% in IS (3.4%-4.0%) per year was observed from the late 1990s. This was more marked in women, where an initial decrease of 2.5% (2.1%-2.9%) per year was followed by an accelerated decrease of 5.1% (4.4%-5.8%) after 2005. Mortality from IS decreased markedly in all age groups. The incidence of IS in elderly people in Sweden is now decreasing, whereas the decline in IS incidence in the middle-aged people is much less steep. The increasing incidence of stroke in the young, particularly if carried forward to an older age, is concerning.

  20. Phosphorus loss to runoff water twenty-four hours after application of liquid swine manure or fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Hadi

    2003-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) added to soil from fertilizer or manure application could pose a threat to water quality due to its role in eutrophication of fresh water resources. Incorporating such amendments into the soil is an established best management practice (BMP) for reducing soluble P losses in runoff water, but could also lead to higher erosion. The objective of this study was to test whether incorporation of manure or fertilizer 24 h before an intense rain could also reduce sediment-bound and total phosphorus (TP) losses in runoff. A rainfall simulation study was conducted on field plots (sandy loam with 6-7% slope, little surface residue, recently cultivated) that received two application rates of liquid swine manure or liquid ammonium polyphosphate fertilizer, using either surface-broadcast or incorporated methods of application. Incorporation increased the total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in runoff but mass losses were not affected. Incorporation also reduced flow-weighted concentrations and losses of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and TP by as much as 30 to 60% depending on source (fertilizer vs. manure) and application rate. Phosphorus is moved below the mixing zone of interaction on incorporation, and thus the effect of the amount and availability of P in this zone is more important than cultivation on subsequent P losses in runoff. Incorporating manure or fertilizer in areas of intense erosive rain, recent extensive tillage, and with little or no surface residue is therefore a best management practice that should be adhered to in order to minimize contamination of surface water. Results also show comparatively lower P losses from manure than fertilizer.

  1. Effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing Combined with psychosomatic relaxation on Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingying; Zhou, Yiyi; Lai, Qiujia

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to observe the effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing combined with psychosomatic relaxation on depression and anxiety in patients with Type-2 Diabetes. One hundred and twenty (120) patients with Type-2 Diabetes and depressive/anxious symptoms were divided into intervention group (60 cases) and control group (60 cases) according to the minimum distribution principle of unbalanced indicators. Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing group used this intervention combined with psychosomatic relaxation. Control group underwent conventional treatment. All the patients in the two groups completed the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before and after treatment. Among the 52 people included in the statistical analysis, the recovery rate was 13.3%. The differences between depression and anxiety scores in the intervention group before and after treatment were statistically significant (PBoxing and psychosomatic relaxation has a beneficial auxiliary therapeutic effect on depression and anxiety accompanying Type-2 Diabetes.

  2. Preferred communication methods of abused women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Heidi; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Maddoux, John

    2013-01-01

    To determine preferred communication methods of abused women. A naturalistic study utilizing principles of Community Based Participatory Research. A total of 300 first time users of criminal justice or safe shelter for abused women were interviewed in person. The Preferred Communication Questionnaire was used to determine preference. Given the choice of phone voice, face to face, phone text, e-mail, or Facebook, traditional methods of communication (face-to-face communication and phone voice) were the primary (80% combined) and secondary (58.6% combined) preferred sources among abused women. A total of 292 women (97.3%) gave at least two preferred methods of communication, 255 (85%) gave three preferred methods, 190 (63%) gave four, and 132 (44%) used all five methods. Public health nurses and other professionals who serve abused women should be aware of their preferred method of communication for contact. The women in the sample preferred face-to-face and phone-voice communication; however, many were open to newer forms of communication such as texting and Facebook. Caution should be used to protect the safety of abused women when using any kind of communication. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms

  4. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Kai [School of Science, Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin, 300222 (China); Lee, Soo-Y., E-mail: sooying@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics & Applied Physics, and Division of Chemistry & Biological Chemistry, School of Physical & Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-12-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  5. [Changes of twenty-four-hour profile blood pressure and its correction of patients with arterial hypertension on the background of combined antihypertensive therapy application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomennchuk, T M; Slaba, N A; Prots'ko, V V; Bedzaĭ, A O

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was the study of efficiency and endurance antihypertensive therapy on the basis of fixed combination of enalapril and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and enalapril and HCTZ in combination with amlodipine according to the twenty-four-hour (? day-and-night) monitoring of blood pressure (? 24H BPM) of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) 2-3 severity. The study included 33 patients with 2-3 grade of hypertension (average age--54,40 ± 3.45 years). All patients performed ? 24H BPM before treatment and after 12 weeks of therapy. The combination of enalapril and HCTZ allowed to achieve target levels of blood pressure in 79% of patients, amlodipine additional purpose--in 86% of patients. We found that this therapy has a corrective effect on daily blood pressure profile, significantly reducing the load pressure and blood pressure variability. During treatment with the combination of enalapril and HCTZ combination of enalapril, HCTZ with amlodipine optimal daily profile of blood pressure after 12 weeks of reaching respectively 63.1% and 71.4% of patients. The treatment with combination of enalapril and HCTZ and adding of amlodipine is characterized by good endurance and high adherence to treatment.

  6. What are the intensities and line-shapes of the twenty four polarization terms in coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2015-12-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is conventionally described by just one diagram/term where the three electric field interactions act on the ket side in a Feynman dual time-line diagram in a specific time order of pump, Stokes and probe pulses. In theory, however, any third-order nonlinear spectroscopy with three different electric fields interacting with a molecule can be described by forty eight diagrams/terms. They reduce to just 24 diagrams/terms if we treat the time ordering of the electric field interactions on the ket independently of those on the bra, i.e. the ket and bra wave packets evolve independently. The twenty four polarization terms can be calculated in the multidimensional, separable harmonic oscillator model to obtain the intensities and line-shapes. It is shown that in fs/ps CARS, for the two cases of off-resonance CARS in toluene and resonance CARS in rhodamine 6G, where we use a fs pump pulse, a fs Stokes pulse and a ps probe pulse, we obtain sharp vibrational lines in four of the polarization terms where the pump and Stokes pulses can create a vibrational coherence on the ground electronic state, while the spectral line-shapes of the other twenty terms are broad and featureless. The conventional CARS term with sharp vibrational lines is the dominant term, with intensity at least one order of magnitude larger than the other terms.

  7. A Neglected Population: Drug-Using Women and Women's Methods of HIV/STI Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L.

    2008-01-01

    Women drug users are at extremely high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from sexual transmission, but remain seriously neglected in intervention research promoting women-initiated methods of HIV/STI prevention. Sparse available data indicate a high interest and enthusiasm for women-initiated methods among these women.…

  8. Twenty-four-hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high-fructose corn syrup-, sucrose-, fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kimber L; Griffen, Steven C; Bair, Brandi R; Swarbrick, Michael M; Keim, Nancy L; Havel, Peter J

    2008-05-01

    We have reported that, compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. We compared the metabolic/endocrine effects of HFCS with sucrose and, in a subset of subjects, with pure fructose and glucose. Thirty-four men and women consumed 3 isocaloric meals with either sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, and blood samples were collected over 24 h. Eight of the male subjects were also studied when fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages were consumed. In 34 subjects, 24-h glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and TG profiles were similar between days that sucrose or HFCS was consumed. Postprandial TG excursions after HFCS or sucrose were larger in men than in women. In the men in whom the effects of 4 sweeteners were compared, the 24-h glucose and insulin responses induced by HFCS and sucrose were intermediate between the lower responses during consumption of fructose and the higher responses during glucose. Unexpectedly, postprandial TG profiles after HFCS or sucrose were not intermediate but comparably high as after pure fructose. Sucrose and HFCS do not have substantially different short-term endocrine/metabolic effects. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose.

  9. High-Dose Statin Pretreatment Decreases Periprocedural Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Meta-Analysis of Twenty-Four Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Peng, Pingan; Zhang, Ou; Xu, Xiaohan; Yang, Shiwei; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-dose statin pretreatment may reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) for certain patients; however, previous analyses have not considered patients with a history of statin maintenance treatment. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we reevaluated the efficacy of short-term high-dose statin pretreatment to prevent PMI and MACE in an expanded set of patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods We searched the PubMed/Medline database for RCTs that compared high-dose statin pretreatment with no statin or low-dose statin pretreatment as a prevention of PMI and MACE. We evaluated the incidence of PMI and MACE, including death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at the longest follow-up for each study for subgroups stratified by disease classification and prior low-dose statin treatment. Results Twenty-four RCTs with a total of 5,526 patients were identified. High-dose statin pretreatment was associated with 59% relative reduction in PMI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–0.49; Pstatin pretreatment on MACE was significant for statin-naive patients (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.50–0.95; P = 0.02) and prior low dose statin-treated patients (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12–0.65; P = 0.003); and for patients with acute coronary syndrome (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34–0.79; P = 0.003), but not for patients with stable angina (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.45–1.10; P = 0.12). Long-term effects on survival were less obvious. Conclusions High-dose statin pretreatment can result in a significant reduction in PMI and MACE for patients undergoing elective PCI. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on PMI and MACE is significant for statin-naïve patients and patients with prior treatment. The positive effect of high-dose statin pretreatment on MACE is significant for

  10. Twenty-four-hour central blood pressure is not better associated with hypertensive target organ damage than 24-h peripheral blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Sierra, Alejandro; Pareja, Julia; Fernández-Llama, Patricia; Armario, Pedro; Yun, Sergi; Acosta, Eva; Calero, Francesca; Vázquez, Susana; Blanch, Pedro; Sierra, Cristina; Oliveras, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) is increasingly considered as a better estimator of hypertension associated risks. We aimed to evaluate the association of 24-h central BP, in comparison with 24-h peripheral BP, with the presence of target organ damage (TOD). Cross-sectional study of 208 hypertensive patients, aged 57 ± 12 years, 34% women. Office (mean of 4 measurements) and 24-h central and peripheral BP were measured by the oscillometric Mobil-O-Graph device. TOD was assessed at cardiac (left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography), renal (reduction of glomerular filtration rate and/or microalbuminuria), and arterial (increased aortic pulse wave velocity) levels. A total of 107 patients (51.4%) had TOD (77, 35% patients left ventricular hypertrophy; 54, 25.9% renal abnormalities; and 40, 19.2% arterial stiffness). All SBP and pulse BP estimates (office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time) were associated with the presence of TOD, after adjustment for age, sex, and antihypertensive treatment, with higher odds ratios for ambulatory-derived values. Odds ratios for central and peripheral BP were similar for all office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time BP. After simultaneous adjustment, peripheral, but not central, 24-h and night-time SBP and pulse pressures were associated with the presence of TOD. TOD in hypertension is associated with BP elevation, independently of the type of measurement (office or ambulatory, central or peripheral). Central BP, even monitored during 24 h, is not better associated with TOD than peripheral BP. These results do not support a routine measurement of 24-h central BP.

  11. Twenty-four hour total and dietary fat oxidation in lean, obese and reduced-obese adults with and without a bout of exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bergouignan

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that obese and reduced-obese individuals have decreased oxidative capacity, which contributes to weight gain and regain. Recent data have challenged this concept.To determine (1 whether total and dietary fat oxidation are decreased in obese and reduced-obese adults compared to lean but increase in response to an acute exercise bout and (2 whether regular physical activity attenuates these metabolic alterations.We measured 24-hr total (whole-room calorimetry and dietary fat (14C-oleate oxidation in Sedentary Lean (BMI = 21.5±1.6; n = 10, Sedentary Obese (BMI = 33.6±2.5; n = 9, Sedentary Reduced-Obese (RED-SED; BMI = 26.9±3.7; n = 7 and in Physically Active Reduced-Obese (RED-EX; BMI = 27.3±2.8; n = 12 men and women with or without an acute exercise bout where energy expended during exercise was not replaced.Although Red-SED and Red-EX had a similar level of fatness, aerobic capacity and metabolic profiles were better in Red-EX only compared to Obese subjects. No significant between-group differences were seen in 24-hr respiratory quotient (RQ, Lean: 0.831±0.044, Obese: 0.852±0.023, Red-SED: 0.864±0.037, Red-EX: 0.842±0.039, total and dietary fat oxidation. A single bout of exercise increased total (+27.8%, p<0.0001 and dietary (+6.6%, p = 0.048 fat oxidation across groups. Although exercise did not impact RQ during the day, it decreased RQ during sleep (p = 0.01 in all groups. Red-EX oxidized more fat overnight than Red-SED subjects under both resting (p = 0.036 and negative energy balance (p = 0.003 conditions, even after adjustment for fat-free mass.Obese and reduced-obese individuals oxidize as much fat as lean both under eucaloric and negative energy balance conditions, which does not support the hypothesis of reduced oxidative capacity in these groups. Reduced-obese individuals who exercise regularly have markers of metabolic health similar to those seen in lean

  12. Treatment and outcomes of an Australian cohort of outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder over twenty-four months: implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jayashri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS is a 2-year, prospective, non-interventional, observational study designed to explore the clinical and functional outcomes associated with ‘real-world’ treatment of participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder. All participants received treatment as usual. There was no study medication. Methods Participants prescribed either conventional mood stabilizers (CMS; n = 155 alone, or olanzapine with, or without, CMS (olanzapine ± CMS; n = 84 were assessed every 3 months using several measures, including the Young Mania Rating Scale, 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale – Bipolar Version, and the EuroQol Instrument. This paper reports 24-month longitudinal clinical, pharmacological, functional, and socioeconomic data. Results On average, participants were 42 (range 18 to 79 years of age, 58%; were female, and 73%; had a diagnosis of bipolar I. Polypharmacy was the usual approach to pharmacological treatment; participants took a median of 5 different psychotropic medications over the course of the study, and spent a median proportion of time of 100%; of the study on mood stabilizers, 90%; on antipsychotics, 9%; on antidepressants, and 5%; on benzodiazepines/hypnotics. By 24 months, the majority of participants had achieved both symptomatic and syndromal remission of both mania and depression. Symptomatic relapse rates were similar for both the CMS alone (65%; and the olanzapine ± CMS (61%; cohorts. Conclusions Participants with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder in this study were receiving complex medication treatments that were often discordant with recommendations made in contemporary major treatment guidelines. The majority of study participants demonstrated some clinical and functional improvements, but not all achieved remission of symptoms or syndrome.

  13. Moderate to severe injuries in football: a one-year prospective study of twenty-four female and male amateur teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Alexis; Theisen, Daniel; Windal, Thierry; Malisoux, Laurent; Nührenbörger, Christian; Huberty, Robert; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to realize a prospective follow-up of the injuries occurring in female and male football players involved in the highest league in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Data concerning anthropometric characteristics and football activities were gathered in 125 female and 243 male football players via questionnaires at the beginning of the study. Then, a follow-up of moderate to severe injuries (> 15 days of interruption in football practice) was performed throughout the season 2013-2014. Sixteen injuries (injury incidence = 0.7 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 13 female football players (10.4%). These injuries concerned mainly the knee (n = 7; 43.7%), with capsules and ligaments being the most often concerned tissues (n = 7; 43.7%). In male football players, 41 severe injuries (injury incidence = 0.6 injuries/1000 h of exposure) were observed in 36 players (14.8%). These injuries concerned mainly the thighs (n = 12; 29.3%) and the muscles and tendons were the most often concerned tissues (n = 18; 43.9%). Injuries in football are predominantly located at the lower limbs, particularly the knees in female football players. The predominant muscle and tendon lesions of the thighs occurring in males could reveal that physical preparation is insufficient or inadequate for a number of players. Regarding these results, it is necessary to implement an injury prevention strategy. The "FIFA 11+" programme could be used as the basic method, but should be personalized according to sex. The injury collection methodology could be optimized with the use of an electronic database, such as the Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports (TIPPS). Beside the systematic recording of injury data (as well as the training load) by the players or the medical staff, this system allows to share of important information between stakeholders, follow-up the players, provide risk factor warnings and increase the awareness of the injury problem.

  14. [Twenty-four hour time and frequency domain variability of systolic blood pressure and heart rate in an experimental model of arterial hypertension plus obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelat, M; Verwaerde, P; Lazartiques, E; Cabrol, P; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L; Senard, J M

    1998-08-01

    Modifications of heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) variabilities (V) have been reported in the human syndrome arterial hypertension plus insulin-resistance. The aim of this study was to characterize the 24 h SBPV and HRV in both time and frequency domains during weight increase in dogs fed ad libitum with a high fat diet. Implantable transmitter units for measurement of blood pressure and heart rate were surgically implanted in five beagle male dogs. BP and HR were continuously recorded using telemetric measurements during 24 hours, before and after 6 and 9 weeks of hypercaloric diet in quiet animals submitted to a 12h light-dark cycle. To study nychtemeral cycle of SBP and HR, two periods were chosen: day (from 6.00 h to 19.00 h) and night (from 23.00 h to 6.00 h). Spontaneous baroreflex efficiency was measured using the sequence method. Spectral variability of HR and SBP was analyzed using a fast Fourier transformation on 512 consecutive values and normalized units of low (LF: 50-150 mHz, reflecting sympathetic activity) and high (HF: respiratory rate +/- 50 mHz, reflecting parasympathetic activity) frequency bands were calculated. The energy of total spectrum (from 0.004 to 1 Hz) was also studied. Body weight (12.4 +/- 0.9 vs 14.9 +/- 0.9 kg, p vs 147 +/- 1 mmHg, p vs night: 71 +/- 1 bpm) but not after 9 weeks (day: 91 +/- 4 bpm ; night: 86 +/- 2 bpm). Concomitantly, the efficiency of spontaneous baroreflex decreased at 6 weeks (36 +/- 1 vs 42 +/- 2 mmHg/ms, p energy of HRV was found after 6 but not after 9 weeks. LF energy of SBPV was increased at 6 but not at 9 weeks (table). [table: see text] In conclusion, this study shows that an hyperlipidic and hypercaloric diet induces transient variations in autonomic nervous system activity which could be the physiopathological link between obesity, insulin-resistance and arterial hypertension.

  15. Twenty-four-week effects of liraglutide on body composition, adherence to appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondanelli M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mariangela Rondanelli,1 Simone Perna,1 Paolo Astrone,2 Annalisa Grugnetti,2 Sebastiano Bruno Solerte,2 Davide Guido3,4 1Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Section of Human Nutrition, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Section of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Department of Internal Medicine, Agency for Elderly People Services, Santa Margherita Hospital, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 3Medical and Genomics Statistics Unit, Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 4Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: Liraglutide has well-known effects on glucose patterns. However, its several other metabolic properties are still controversial. Given this background, the aims of the present study are to evaluate the effects of 24-week liraglutide treatment on body composition, appetite, and lipid profile in overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients. Methods: A cohort study was carried out on overweight and obese T2DM patients with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c equal to 6% (42 mmol/mol-10% (86 mmol/mol, under a 3-month treatment (at least with maximal dose of metformin as stable regime, by adding liraglutide at doses up to 3 mg/d. Body composition markers were measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was monitored by glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and homeostasis model assessment. Finally, the appetite sensation and plasma lipids were also evaluated. Results: Twenty-eight subjects (male/female: 16/12, mean age: 58.75±9.33 years, body mass index: 34.13±5.46 kg/m2 were evaluated. Accounting for the adjustment for age, sex, and duration of diabetes, we noted significant

  16. Dual Protection and Contraceptive Method Use among Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    communication about condom use may be specifically helpful in promoting dual method use. ... women, Mafikeng, condom, non-barrier method, sexually transmitted infections. Résumé .... concluded that higher education, being unmarried and.

  17. Comparison of bone densitometry methods in healthy and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Dinkel, E.; Genant, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    To compare methods of noninvasive measurement of bone mineral content, 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were studied. The methods included mono- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiographic studies were performed and the spinal fracture index calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and moderate correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were moderate in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method were not predictive of measurements obtained by another method for individual patients. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture was provided by QCT and the weakest by SPA. There was good correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results. Osteoporotic women and younger healthy women can be distinguished by the measurement of spinal trabecular bone density using QCT, and this method is more sensitive than the measurement of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT. (orig.) [de

  18. Optimum survey methods when interviewing employed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Kari; LeMasters, Grace K

    2009-02-01

    While survey studies have examined bias much is unknown regarding specific subpopulations, especially women workers. A population based phone, Internet, and mail survey of workplace falls during pregnancy was undertaken. Participation by industry and occupation and survey approach and bias, reliability, and incomplete data were examined. Of the 3,997 women surveyed, 71% were employed during their pregnancy. Internet responders were most likely to be employed while pregnant and to report a workplace fall at 8.8% compared to 5.8% and 6.1% for mail and phone respondents. Internet responders had the most missing employment data with company name missing for 17.9% compared to 1.3% for phone responders. Mail surveys were best for recruiting those employed in eight of nine industries, and this was especially true for service occupations. To decrease bias and increase participation, mixed approaches may be useful with particular attention for collecting occupational data. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:105-112, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Contraceptive methods awareness and use among women of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contraceptive methods awareness and use among women of reproductive age in an urban ... aged 15-49 years in a Local Council Development Area (LCDA) of Lagos, Nigeria. ... Data analysis was done using Epi InfoTM statistical software.

  20. Methods of milk expression for lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Genevieve E; Smith, Hazel A; Cooney, Fionnuala

    2016-09-29

    Breastfeeding is important, however not all infants can feed at the breast and methods of expressing milk need evaluation. To assess acceptability, effectiveness, safety, effect on milk composition, contamination and costs of methods of milk expression. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (21 March 2016), handsearched relevant journals and conference proceedings, and contacted experts in the field to seek additional published or unpublished studies. We also examined reference lists of all relevant retrieved papers. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing methods at any time after birth. Three review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. This updated review includes 41 trials involving 2293 participants, with 22 trials involving 1339 participants contributing data for analysis. Twenty-six of the trials referred to mothers of infants in neonatal units (n = 1547) and 14 to mothers of healthy infants at home (n = 730), with one trial containing mothers of both neonatal and healthy older infants (n = 16). Eleven trials compared one or more types of pump versus hand expression and 14 studies compared one type of pump versus another type of pump, with three of these studies comparing both hand expression and pump types. Twenty studies compared a specific protocol or adjunct behaviour including sequential versus simultaneous pumping protocols, pumping frequency, provision of an education and support intervention, relaxation, breast massage, combining hand expression with pumping and a breast cleansing protocol.Due to heterogeneity in participants, interventions, and outcomes measured or reported, we were unable to pool findings for most of the specified outcomes. It was not possible therefore to produce a 'Summary of findings' table in this update. Most of the included results were derived from single studies. Trials took place in 14 countries under

  1. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.

  2. Teaching About Women in Hispanic Literature: Current Methods and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Carol

    Awareness of a new and altered method of teaching literature, similar to that described by Adrienne Rich, grew from the experience of teaching a small introductory course in twentieth century Hispanic women writers to students with diverse language, cultural, and economic backgrounds. Although about half the students were native Spanish speakers,…

  3. Diurnal changes of blood pressure values (24 h blood pressures in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocińska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More attention is being paid lately to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS not only in the aspect of fertility but also according to long-term metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observations of women with PCOS show that the occurrence of blood hypertension is more frequent after the menopause. There are few articles concerning the predictable symptoms of blood hypertension. It seems that twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and assessment of changes of diurnal rhythm could be useful in this group of patients.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess diurnal changes of blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and methods: 26 women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus criteria and Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria were included in our study. The mean age of the examined women was 29.5 years and the mean BMI (body mass index was 24.7 kg/m2. The control group consisted of 12 age-matched women, without PCOS. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure was performed during normal daily activity in all patients. Halberg’s cosinor method was used to analyse daily biorhythm.Results: Results show the diurnal changes of systolic blood pressure in the preclinical phase in 30% and diastolic in 15% of PCOS women. In this group no physiological decrease of blood pressure at night time was observed.

  4. Alternative methods for measuring obesity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ashley E; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A

    2013-03-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women.

  5. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women using contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Hamadiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The world health organization defines sexual health as a coordination and integration between mind, body and feelings which leads an individual towards personality improvement, relationship and love. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women referring health centers of Bandar Abbas in 2013 who used contraceptive methods. Method: In this descriptive study, 385 women aged between 16-45 years were included. A questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire consisted of two sections; demographic data and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. The questionnaire was equally distributed among all health centers. Data were entered SPSS v. 19 and were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation and ANOVA. Results: There was no significant difference between contraceptive methods and questionnaire aspects. Significant associations were found between level of education and sexual function such as libido, orgasm, sexual satisfaction and age groups with libido, orgasm and vaginal lubrication. Conclusion: The participants of this study might have referred their sexual dysfunctions to other reasons other than contraception which needs further research. According to the results, it is suggested to increase couple knowledge using consultation and sex education and guide them into finding treatments for their sexual dysfunction.

  6. Access to Money and Relation to Women's Use of Family Planning Methods Among Young Married Women in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-06-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women's access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women's access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women's status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women's social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n = 855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women's access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59 %) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged 1.5-1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women's FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women's ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women's power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted.

  7. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities), calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value learning disabilities. Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities. PMID:18218106

  8. THE METHOD OF MANAGEMENT WOMEN WITH ISTHMIC-CERVICAL INSUFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Сергеевна Воронцова

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Isthmic-cervical insufficiency (ICI is one of the most common causes of spontaneous premature births. In II trimester of pregnancy in the structure of miscarriages, the share of ICI accounts for about 40 % of cases. The purpose – evaluate the effectiveness of the complex method of correction of isthmic-cervical insufficiency. Materials and methods. A simple, open, prospective, randomized study was performed on the basis of the City Clinical Perinatal Center in Omsk. Under observation, there were 60 patients aged 18-40 years in gestation period of 13-33 weeks 6 days with a proven diagnosis of «isthmic-cervical insufficiency». The main group included 30 patients who received treatment with a new combined method: the obstetric pessary «CVK», which differs from the analogues by a more anatomical ellipsoidal form and an increased number of perforations to improve the outflow of vaginal secretions in combination with intravaginal injection of micronized progesterone in a dosage of 100 mg 2 times a day and a drug normalizing the biocenosis of the vagina, as a lyophilized culture of lactobacilli L. casei rhamnosus Doderleini in a dosage of 340 mg, 1 capsule intravaginally at night 2 times a week. The comparison group consisted of 30 patients who received treatment: obstetric silicone pessary + micronized progesterone at a dosage of 200 mg per day intravaginally. The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth were evaluated. Results. The total number of premature births in the main group was 4 (13.3 % compared to 12 (40 % in the comparison group (p = 0,023. Based on the results of the study, a statistically significant reduction in patients with recurrent vaginal flora (p = 0,0001 was obtained and, due to a decrease in this indicator, a general decrease in the number of women with complications of pregnancy was registered (p = 0,019. The conclusion. The proposed method of correction of isthmic-cervical insufficiency is more effective

  9. Catheter-based renal denervation for resistant hypertension: Twenty-four month results of the EnligHTN I first-in-human study using a multi-electrode ablation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsioufis, Costas P; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos S; Kasiakogias, Alexandros; Tsiachris, Dimitrios; Worthley, Matthew I; Sinhal, Ajay R; Chew, Derek P; Meredith, Ian T; Malaiapan, Yuvi; Thomopoulos, Costas; Kallikazaros, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Worthley, Stephen G

    2015-12-15

    Long term safety and efficacy data of multi-electrode ablation system for renal denervation (RDN) in patients with drug resistant hypertension (dRHT) are limited. We studied 46 patients (age: 60 ± 10 years, 4.7 ± 1.0 antihypertensive drugs) with drug resistant hypertension (dRHT). Reduction in office BP at 24 months from baseline was -29/-13 mmHg, while the reduction in 24-hour ambulatory BP and in home BP at 24 months were -13/-7 mmHg and -11/-6 mmHg respectively (p<0.05 for all). A correlation analysis revealed that baseline office and ambulatory BP were related to the extent of office and ambulatory BP drop. Apart from higher body mass index (33.3 ± 4.7 vs 29.5 ± 6.2 kg/m(2), p<0.05), there were no differences in patients that were RDN responders defined as ≥10 mmHg decrease (74%, n=34) compared to non-responders. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed no prognosticators of RDN response (p=NS for all). At 24 months there were no new serious device or procedure related adverse events. The EnligHTN I study shows that the multi-electrode ablation system provides a safe method of RDN in dRHT accompanied by a clinically relevant and sustained BP reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efeitos agudos do exercício físico prolongado: avaliação após ultramaratona de 24 horas Acute effects of prolonged physical exercise: evaluation after a twenty-four-hour ultramarathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guinther Passaglia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As consequências e os riscos do exercício físico contínuo por períodos prolongados não estão esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício prolongado em participantes de uma ultramaratona de 24 horas. MÉTODOS: Vinte corredores foram selecionados para avaliação, um dia antes e imediatamente após a prova em que os corredores devem percorrer a maior distância em 24 horas. Foram obtidos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos. RESULTADOS: A distância média percorrida foi de 140,3 ± 18,7 km. Os corredores apresentaram redução do peso corpóreo (p BACKGROUND: The consequences and risks of prolonged physical exercise are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prolonged physical exercise on the participants of a 24-hour ultramarathon race. METHODS: Twenty male runners were selected for evaluation a day before and immediately after the race, where the athletes had to cover the most distance in 24 hours. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data were obtained at both evaluations. RESULTS: Mean distance covered was 140.3 ± 18.7 km. Runners showed weight loss (p < 0.001 and decrease in systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p = 0.004 blood pressure. Hematological changes were compatible with the physiological stress. Plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase strikingly increased post-race (163.4 ± 56.8 vs. 2978.4 ± 1921.9 U/L; p < 0.001 and was inversely correlated with distance covered: those who covered the longest distances showed the lowest CPK levels (Pearson r = 0.69, p = 0.02. After the race, 2 runners showed a slight increase in Troponin levels. One of them also had simultaneous decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (coronary artery disease was subsequently ruled out. Basal echocardiography assessment had shown LV hypertrophy in one and increased left atrial volume in five runners. After the race, there was a decrease in E/A ratio (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: Prolonged

  11. Efeitos agudos do exercício físico prolongado: avaliação após ultramaratona de 24 horas Acute effects of prolonged physical exercise: evaluation after a twenty-four-hour ultramarathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guinther Passaglia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As consequências e os riscos do exercício físico contínuo por períodos prolongados não estão esclarecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do exercício prolongado em participantes de uma ultramaratona de 24 horas. MÉTODOS: Vinte corredores foram selecionados para avaliação, um dia antes e imediatamente após a prova em que os corredores devem percorrer a maior distância em 24 horas. Foram obtidos dados clínicos, laboratoriais e ecocardiográficos. RESULTADOS: A distância média percorrida foi de 140,3 ± 18,7 km. Os corredores apresentaram redução do peso corpóreo (p BACKGROUND: The consequences and risks of prolonged physical exercise are not well established. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of prolonged physical exercise on the participants of a 24-hour ultramarathon race. METHODS: Twenty male runners were selected for evaluation a day before and immediately after the race, where the athletes had to cover the most distance in 24 hours. Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic data were obtained at both evaluations. RESULTS: Mean distance covered was 140.3 ± 18.7 km. Runners showed weight loss (p < 0.001 and decrease in systolic (p < 0.001 and diastolic (p = 0.004 blood pressure. Hematological changes were compatible with the physiological stress. Plasma levels of creatine phosphokinase strikingly increased post-race (163.4 ± 56.8 vs. 2978.4 ± 1921.9 U/L; p < 0.001 and was inversely correlated with distance covered: those who covered the longest distances showed the lowest CPK levels (Pearson r = 0.69, p = 0.02. After the race, 2 runners showed a slight increase in Troponin levels. One of them also had simultaneous decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (coronary artery disease was subsequently ruled out. Basal echocardiography assessment had shown LV hypertrophy in one and increased left atrial volume in five runners. After the race, there was a decrease in E/A ratio (p < 0.01. CONCLUSION: Prolonged

  12. Contraceptive method and pregnancy incidence among African women in HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    NGURE, Kenneth; HEFFRON, Renee; MUGO, Nelly R.; CELUM, Connie; COHEN, Craig R.; ODOYO, Josephine; REES, Helen; KIARIE, James N.; WERE, Edwin; BAETEN, Jared M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective contraception reduces unintended pregnancies and is a central strategy to reduce vertical HIV-1 transmission for HIV-1 infected women. Methods Among 2269 HIV-1 seropositive and 1085 seronegative women from 7 African countries who were members of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships and who were participating in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial, we assessed pregnancy incidence for women using various contraceptive methods using multivariate Andersen-Gill analysis. Results Compared with women using no contraceptive method, pregnancy incidence was significantly reduced among HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative women using injectable contraception (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.24, p=0.001 and aHR 0.25, ppregnancy risk only among HIV-1 seropositive women (aHR 0.51, p=0.004) but not seronegative women (aHR 0.64, p=0.3), and, for both seropositive and seronegative women, oral contraceptive pill users were more likely to become pregnant than injectable contraceptive users (aHR 2.22, p=0.01 for HIV-1 seropositive women and aHR 2.65, p=0.09 for HIV-1 seronegative women). Condoms, when reported as being used as the primary contraceptive method, marginally reduced pregnancy incidence (aHR 0.85, p=0.1 for seropositive women and aHR 0.67, p=0.02 for seronegative women). There were no pregnancies among women using intrauterine devices, implantable methods or who had undergone surgical sterilization, although these methods were used relatively infrequently. Conclusions Family planning programs and HIV-1 prevention trials need innovative ways to motivate uptake and sustained use of longer acting, less user-dependent contraception for women who do not desire pregnancy. PMID:22156966

  13. Bone mineral content in early-postmenopausal and postmenopausal osteoporotic women: comparison of measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Genant, H.K.; Reiser, U.J.; Harris, S.T.; Ettinger, B.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate associations among methods for noninvasive measurement of skeletal bone mass, we studied 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 older postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods included single- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiography was performed, and a spinal fracture index was calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and modest correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were modest in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method are not predictive of those by another method for the individual patient. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture is provided by QCT; the weakest, by SPA. There was a high correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results, indicating that errors due to vertebral fat are not substantial in these postmenopausal women. Single-energy QCT may be adequate and perhaps preferable for assessing postmenopausal women. The measurement of spinal trabecular bone density by QCT discriminates between osteoporotic women and younger healthy women with more sensitivity than measurements of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT

  14. Do women's attitudes towards abortion and contraceptive methods influence their option for sterilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the attitudes of low-income women towards abortion and contraception. A survey was conducted in 1992 with a total of 3,149 childbearing-age women living on the outskirts of the Greater Metropolitan São Paulo Area. The study focuses on a sub-sample of 583 women. Attitudes of sterilized and non-sterilized women are compared. Women, especially those sterilized, found the most important attribute of a contraceptive method to be its effectiveness. Women currently taking the pill were less likely than those sterilized to agree that sterilization was the best method because of its effectiveness. Sterilized women were less likely than non-sterilized women to trust the pill. Sterilized women were more likely than non-sterilized to have reported adverse effects from the pill. Most women found abortion unacceptable except in the case of risk to the woman's life. Women using more effective methods showed stronger negative attitudes towards abortion. The tendency to be sterilized while still young was associated with more negative attitudes towards abortion. Family planning activities in basic health care services should include individual counseling for contraceptive use.

  15. Do women's attitudes towards abortion and contraceptive methods influence their option for sterilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Elisabeth Meloni

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the attitudes of low-income women towards abortion and contraception. A survey was conducted in 1992 with a total of 3,149 childbearing-age women living on the outskirts of the Greater Metropolitan São Paulo Area. The study focuses on a sub-sample of 583 women. Attitudes of sterilized and non-sterilized women are compared. Women, especially those sterilized, found the most important attribute of a contraceptive method to be its effectiveness. Women currently taking the pill were less likely than those sterilized to agree that sterilization was the best method because of its effectiveness. Sterilized women were less likely than non-sterilized women to trust the pill. Sterilized women were more likely than non-sterilized to have reported adverse effects from the pill. Most women found abortion unacceptable except in the case of risk to the woman's life. Women using more effective methods showed stronger negative attitudes towards abortion. The tendency to be sterilized while still young was associated with more negative attitudes towards abortion. Family planning activities in basic health care services should include individual counseling for contraceptive use.

  16. Mortality Pattern within Twenty-Four Hours of Emergency Paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mortality within the first 24 hours of admission was recorded among patients with malaria (89.0%) followed by protein energy malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Majority of deaths among emergency paediatric admission occur within the first 24 hours of admission and are associated with clinical conditions such as ...

  17. Twenty-Four Tuba Harmonics Using a Single Pipe Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bud; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Harmonics arise naturally from the resonances in strings and pipes. A video demonstration (Ruiz 2016 "YouTube: Tuba Harmonics" (https://youtu.be/souhEzOP9c4)) is provided where a tubist (coauthor Holmes) produces a phenomenal 24 harmonics using a single tuba pipe length by controlling the buzz of his lips. The frequencies of the…

  18. Contraceptive method and pregnancy incidence among women in HIV-1-serodiscordant partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Kenneth; Heffron, Renee; Mugo, Nelly R; Celum, Connie; Cohen, Craig R; Odoyo, Josephine; Rees, Helen; Kiarie, James N; Were, Edwin; Baeten, Jared M

    2012-02-20

    Effective contraception reduces unintended pregnancies and is a central strategy to reduce vertical HIV-1 transmission for HIV-1-infected women. Among 2269 HIV-1-seropositive and 1085-seronegative women from seven African countries who were members of HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual partnerships and who were participating in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial, we assessed pregnancy incidence according to contraceptive method using multivariate Andersen-Gill analysis. Compared with women using no contraceptive method, pregnancy incidence was significantly reduced among HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative women using injectable contraception [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.24, P = 0.001 and aHR 0.25, P pregnancy risk only among HIV-1-seropositive women (aHR 0.51, P = 0.004) but not seronegative women (aHR 0.64, P = 0.3), and, for both seropositive and seronegative women, oral contraceptive pill users were more likely to become pregnant than injectable contraceptive users (aHR 2.22, P = 0.01 for HIV-1-seropositive women and aHR 2.65, P = 0.09 for HIV-1-seronegative women). Condoms, when reported as being used as the primary contraceptive method, marginally reduced pregnancy incidence (aHR 0.85, P = 0.1 for seropositive women and aHR 0.67, P = 0.02 for seronegative women). There were no pregnancies among women using intrauterine devices, implantable methods or who had undergone surgical sterilization, although these methods were used relatively infrequently. Family planning programs and HIV-1 prevention trials need innovative ways to motivate uptake and sustained use of longer acting, less user-dependent contraception for women who do not desire pregnancy.

  19. Contraceptive method choice among women in slum and non-slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochako, Rhoune; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Okal, Jerry; Askew, Ian; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-07-12

    Understanding women's contraceptive method choices is key to enhancing family planning services provision and programming. Currently however, very little research has addressed inter and intra-regional disparities in women's contraceptive method choice. Using data from slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi, Kenya, the current study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with contraceptive method choice among women. Data were from a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among a random sample of 1,873 women (aged 15-49 years) in two non-slum and two slum settlement areas in Nairobi, Kenya. The study locations were purposively sampled by virtue of being part of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the association between the outcome variable, contraceptive method choice, and explanatory variables. The prevalence of contraceptive method choice was relatively similar across slum and non-slum settlements. 34.3 % of women in slum communities and 28.1 % of women in non-slum communities reported using short-term methods. Slightly more women living in the non-slum settlements reported use of long-term methods, 9.2 %, compared to 3.6 % in slum communities. Older women were less likely to use short-term methods than their younger counterparts but more likely to use long-term methods. Currently married women were more likely than never married women to use short-term and long-term methods. Compared to those with no children, women with three or more children were more likely to report using long term methods. Women working outside the home or those in formal employment also used modern methods of contraception more than those in self-employment or unemployed. Use of short-term and long-term methods is generally low among women living in slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi. Investments in increasing women's access to various contraceptive options are urgently

  20. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    its convenience for providers and women, cost effectiveness, and high acceptability ... Using data from the 2012 SA National HIV Prevalence, Incidence ... Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. ... 7 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, UK.

  1. Bangladesh Midlife Women's Health Study (BMWHS): methods, challenges and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rakibul M; Bell, Robin J; Hossain, Mohammad B; Davis, Susan R

    2015-01-01

    To understand the challenges and experiences encountered during data collection for Bangladesh Midlife Women's Health Study (BMWHS) that investigated the low uptake of cervical cancer (CCa) screening barriers, understanding of breast cancer (BCa) knowledge and practices, the prevalence of urinary and fecal incontinence and menopausal symptoms. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to recruit women from the 32 districts of Bangladesh that had offered CCa screening. Female interviewers were trained to undertake structured face-to-face interviews that incorporated both non-validated and several validated questionnaires, such as Question for Urinary Incontinence Diagnosis, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory, Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory and Menopause-Specific Quality of Life. We completed surveys of 1590 women, estimated age 30-59 years, between September 2013 and March 2014. We implemented several strategies to deal with low literacy and used the temporal relationship between marriage and childbirth, and the average age of onset of menarche, to estimate age. Cultural and religious sensitivities and personal security were managed by engaging community leaders, limiting activities to daylight hours, adopting local codes of dress, such as the wearing of head scarves. Our major challenges and experiences included difficulties in age determination, selection of and access to households, interview privacy, lack of basic and health literacy, transportation, political unrest and security of the interviewers. By anticipating challenges, we have been able to comprehensively survey a representative sample of Bangladeshi women. Disseminating information about the field challenges and experiences from the BMWHS should assist other researchers planning to conduct surveys about women's health issues in similar context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanistreet Debbi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning disabilities. It was carried out in Bury, Heywood-and-Middleton and Rochdale. Methods Carried out using retrospective cohort study methods, women with learning disabilities were identified by Read code; and their cervical screening records were compared with the Call-and-Recall records of women without learning disabilities in order to examine their screening histories. Analysis was carried out using case-control methods – 1:2 (women with learning disabilities: women without learning disabilities, calculating odds ratios. Results 267 women's records were compared with the records of 534 women without learning disabilities. Women with learning disabilities had an odds ratio (OR of 0.48 (Confidence Interval (CI 0.38 – 0.58; X2: 72.227; p.value X2: 24.236; p.value X2: 286.341; p.value Conclusion The reasons given for ceasing and/or not screening suggest that merely being coded as having a learning disability is not the sole reason for these actions. There are training needs among smear takers regarding appropriate reasons not to screen and providing screening for women with learning disabilities.

  3. Women's access needs in maternity care in rural Tasmania, Australia: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ha; Le, Quynh; Terry, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates (i) maternity care access issues in rural Tasmania, (ii) rural women's challenges in accessing maternity services and (iii) rural women's access needs in maternity services. A mixed-method approach using a survey and semi-structured interviews was conducted. The survey explored women's views of rural maternity services from antenatal to postnatal care, while interviews reinforced the survey results and provided insights into the access issues and needs of women in maternity care. The survey was completed by n=210 women, with a response rate of 35%, with n=22 follow-up interviews being conducted. The survey indicated the majority of rural women believed antenatal education and check-ups and postnatal check-ups should be provided locally. The majority of women surveyed also believed in the importance of having a maternity unit in the local hospital, which was further iterated and clarified within the interviews. Three main themes emerged from the interview data, namely (i) lack of access to maternity services, (ii) difficulties in accessing maternity services, and (iii) rural women's access needs. The study suggested that women's access needs are not fully met in some rural areas of Tasmania. Rural women face many challenges when accessing maternity services, including financial burden and risk of labouring en route. The study supports the claim that the closure of rural maternity units shifts cost and risk from the health care system to rural women and their families. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray Bozkurt; Aydan Biri; Ümit Korucuoglu; Nur Aksakal; Tuncay Nas; Onur Karabacak; Özdemir Himmetoglu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. METHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS: Mean age of the ...

  5. Studying Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Breast Cancer Screening Methods among Behshahr Dwelling Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhasan Naghibi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer among all widespread cancers worldwide. After lung cancer, breast cancer is the main cause of death among women. One of the best ways to detect this disease early is to do screening. This study has been done to analyze the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of women regarding the breast cancer screening methods. Materials & Methods: The study is of cross-sectional descriptive type. The participants were 500 Behshahr dwelling women above 20 years old selected based on cluster sampling. The instrument used was a 34-item questionnaire to investigate the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the women. The data has been analyzed through inferential statistical methods. Results: The participants' age mean was 35.16. The average knowledge score of the disease and screening methods was 1.3 and 54.6. The average attitude score of was 82.5. Regarding behavior, 13.1 percent do regular self-examination, and 15.2 percent do regular clinical examination. 16.7 percent of women have one experience of doing mammography. In the present study, there was a significant relation among knowledge, attitude and behavior. Conclusion: Since the knowledge of women was at average level and the behavior of using the screening methods was weak, planning to enable and motivate women to use the screening methods is highly emphasized.

  6. Protecting against both pregnancy and disease: predictors of dual method use among a sample of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S Marie; Henderson, Jillian T; Branch, Meredith Roberts

    2004-01-01

    Although male condoms are the best form of protection against HIV/STDs, they are not the most effective method for preventing unintended pregnancy. Consequently, use of condoms and a highly effective contraceptive-referred to as dual use-is recommended as the optimal protection against both disease and pregnancy. However, little is known about the factors that promote dual use. This study examined associations of dual method use with women's background characteristics, intrapersonal factors, and relationship characteristics. Data are from a random sample of women selected from a large managed care organization in the Pacific Northwest. The analytic sample contained 371 women who completed a telephone survey and reported use of contraceptives in the past 3 months. Three mutually exclusive method use groups were constructed: effective contraceptive only (hormonal methods, intrauterine device, surgical sterilization) (59%), condom only (24%), and dual use (18%). Variables hypothesized to influence dual use were compared across the three groups in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Findings indicate that women who were younger, reported more than one sexual partner in the past year, and were highly motivated to avoid HIV/STDs--were more likely to use dual methods rather than condoms only or an effective contraceptive method. Women confident about using condoms without feeling embarrassed or breaking the sexual mood were more likely to use dual methods rather than a single effective method. Finally, women with confidence in their ability to use condoms correctly are more likely to rely solely on condoms. Policy and practice implications are discussed.

  7. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  8. Community-based educational intervention on necklace method as a natural family planning amongst reproductive age group women in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Ramesh

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Nurses play a vital role in educating women and creating awareness regarding modern and safe family planning methods. These methods are effective and essential to avoid unwanted pregnancy and thus greatly impact the health of women.

  9. Justification of methodical procedures for the optimization of radiation protection in reproductive women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, A.N.; Zynova, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific information on the influence of low-dose ionizing radiation on human embryos and fetuses is analyzed and the risk of irradiation in the different weeks of pregnancy is estimated quantitatively. Program and methods of follow-up in occupationally exposed reproductive women are justified. Emphasis is laid on methods estimating the condition of reproductiveness. Measures concerning prophylaxis and radiation protection of occupationally exposed women are investigated

  10. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgari, Evgenia; Spanakis, Elias; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Women with PCOS have additional risk factors for the development of glucose intolerance such as family history of diabetes, use of oral contraceptives, anovulation, and age. The Androgen Society in 2007 and the Endocrine Society in 2013 recommended using oral glucose tolerance test as a screening tool for abnormal glucose tolerance in all women with PCOS. The approach to detection of glucose intolerance among women with PCOS varies among health care providers. Large prospective studies are still needed for the development of guidelines with strong evidence. When assessing risk of future diabetes in women with PCOS, it is important to take into account the method used for screening as well as other risk factors that these women might have.

  11. Bacteremia and immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from antiphospholipid- and thyroid- autoantibodies which were reported as underlying causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, specific IgG to patermal MHC and Rh was proposed. This raises the possibility of other classes of immunoglobulin in recurrent abortion. Twenty-four pregnant women with recurrent abortion ...

  12. [Contraception in immigrant women: influence of sociocultural aspects on the choice of contraceptive method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíso Torras, B; Maldonado Del Valle, M D; López Muñoz, A; Cañete Palomo, M L

    2013-01-01

    There are currently 6 million immigrants living in Spain. Half of them are women, the majority of whom are of childbearing age. These women, who suffer high rates of induced abortion, form a special group who require a special approach to their reproductive health. In order to study the use of contraceptive methods in this population, a review was made of 1100 clinical histories from our Sexual Health and Reproduction Clinic. Latin American women were the most prevalent group who came to seek information about contraception, followed by Eastern Europeans and Moroccans. Fewer Asian and Sub-Saharan women sought these services. The contraceptives most frequently used were the intrauterine device (used mostly by Latin American and Eastern European women), and combined oral contraception, most used by Moroccan women. It is important to advise the immigrant women about contraceptive methods, taking into account their preferences, in order to improve adherence to the method. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available HIV-infected women are at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Women living in resource-limited countries are especially at risk due to poor access to cervical cancer screening and treatment. We evaluated three cervical cancer screening methods to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and above (CIN 2+ in HIV-infected women in South Africa; Pap smear, visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA and human papillomavirus detection (HPV.HIV-infected women aged 18-65 were recruited in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study evaluating three screening methods for the detection of the histologically-defined gold standard CIN-2 + was performed. Women were screened for cervical abnormalities with the Digene HC2 assay (HPV, Pap smear and VIA. VIA was performed by clinic nurses, digital photographs taken and then later reviewed by specialist physicians. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive valves for CIN-2 + were calculated using maximum likelihood estimators.1,202 HIV-infected women participated, with a median age of 38 years and CD4 counts of 394 cells/mm(3. One third of women had a high grade lesion on cytology. VIA and HPV were positive in 45% and 61% of women respectively. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for HPV, Pap smear and VIA for CIN 2+ was 92%/51.4%, 75.8%/83.4% and 65.4/68.5% (nurse reading, respectively. Sensitivities were similar, and specificities appeared significantly lower for the HPV test, cytology and VIA among women with CD4 counts ≤200 cells/mm(3 as compared to CD4 counts >350 cells/mm(3.Although HPV was the most sensitive screening method for detecting CIN 2+, it was less specific than conventional cytology and VIA with digital imaging review. Screening programs may need to be individualized in context of the resources and capacity in each area.

  14. Danish method study on cervical screening in women offered HPV vaccination as girls (Trial23)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Andersen, Berit; Larsen, Lise Grupe

    2018-01-01

    arm) or present screening plus an HPV test (HPV arm). The study started 1 February 2017 and will run over three screening rounds corresponding to 7-8 years. ANALYSES: The primary endpoint is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or above. The trial is undertaken as a non-inferiority study......INTRODUCTION: The first birth cohorts of women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination as girls are now entering cervical screening. However, there is no international consensus on how to screen HPV vaccinated women. These women are better protected against cervical cancer and could...... vaccination as girls. METHODS: Trial23 is a method study embedded in the existing cervical screening programme in four out of five Danish regions. Without affecting the screening programme, women born in 1994 are randomised to present screening with liquid-based cytology every third year (present programme...

  15. Rural and urban women entrepreneurs: A comparison of service needs and delivery methods priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurs face a wide variety of barriers and challenges throughout the life and growth of their entrepreneurial venture. This study expands the knowledge base on women entrepreneurs’ needs, specifically their needs in terms of service areas and service delivery method preferences. Twenty three “needed” service areas were identified by 95 Manitoba based women entrepreneurs. The first five included: finding new customers, growth benefits and tools, market expansion, general marketing, and networking skills. This study also examined the differences between urban and rural based entrepreneurs. Two service need areas “how to find mentors and role models” and “legal issues” exhibited statistically significant priority differences. Service delivery methods did not produce any statistically significant differences. Overall, this study concludes that regardless of location, women entrepreneurs’ training and support needs are not significantly that different. The effects of entrepreneurial stage and years in business on entrepreneurial support needs are also examined.

  16. Women's empowerment and choice of contraceptive methods in selected African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Mai; Kurimoto, Nami

    2012-03-01

    It is generally believed that women's lack of decision-making power may restrict their use of modern contraceptives. However, few studies have examined the different dimensions of women's empowerment and contraceptive use in African countries. Data came from the latest round of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2006 and 2008 in Namibia, Zambia, Ghana and Uganda. Responses from married or cohabiting women aged 15-49 were analyzed for six dimensions of empowerment and the current use of female-only methods or couple methods. Bivariate and multivariate multinomial regressions were used to identify associations between the empowerment dimensions and method use. Positive associations were found between the overall empowerment score and method use in all countries (relative risk ratios, 1.1-1.3). In multivariate analysis, household economic decision making was associated with the use of either female-only or couple methods (1.1 for all), as was agreement on fertility preferences (1.3-1.6) and the ability to negotiate sexual activity (1.1-1.2). In Namibia, women's negative attitudes toward domestic violence were correlated with the use of couple methods (1.1). Intervention programs aimed at increasing contraceptive use may need to involve different approaches, including promoting couples' discussion of fertility preferences and family planning, improving women's self-efficacy in negotiating sexual activity and increasing their economic independence.

  17. Safety and Efficacy of Contraceptive Methods for Obese and Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotke, Pamela S; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity have become a major public health challenge. Given the added health risks that obese women have during pregnancy, preventing unwanted pregnancy is imperative. Clinicians who provide contraception must understand the efficacy, risks, and the weight changes associated with various contraceptive methods. Despite differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of hormonal contraceptives in overweight and obese women, efficacy does not appear to be severely impacted. Both estrogen-containing contraceptives and obesity increase the risk of venous thromboembolism, but the absolute risk remains acceptably low in reproductive age women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Current methods and attitudes of women towards contraception in Europe and America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Pion, Christine; Jennings, Victoria

    2013-02-05

    The choice of available contraceptive methods has increased in recent years; however, recent data on women's awareness of methods and reasons for their method choice, or reasons for changing methods, is limited. The aim of this study was to examine the use and awareness of contraceptive methods in the USA, UK, Germany, Italy and Spain. Quantitative survey of heterosexual women aged 25-44 years (n=2544), with no known infertility. Questions related to knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, reasons for choice and for changing methods, and sources of advice. There was generally good awareness of most forms of contraception in all five countries. Awareness and current usage was greatest for the contraceptive pill (awareness >98%, usage varied from 35% [Spain] to 63% [Germany]); and male condom (awareness >95%, usage varied from 20% [Germany] to 47% [Spain]); awareness of other methods varied between countries. Doctors have the greatest influence on women's choice of contraceptive method (>50% for all countries), and are most likely to suggest the contraceptive pill or male condom.Women's contraceptive needs change; 4-36% of contraceptive pill users were likely to change their method within 12 months. For previous contraceptive pill users (n=377), most common reason for change was concern about side effects (from 26% [Italy] to 10% [UK]); however, awareness of many non-hormonal contraceptive methods was low. Women aged 25-44 are aware of a wide variety of contraceptive methods, but knowledge and usage of the contraceptive pill and condoms predominates. Changing contraception method is frequent, occurring for a variety of reasons, including change in life circumstances and, for pill users, concerns about side effects.

  19. Non-enzymatic antioxidant status of women using four different methods of contraception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinloye, O.; Oyabiyi, S.A.; Oguntibeju, O.O.; Arowojolu, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antioxidant status of women on four different methods of contraception. Methodology: Sixty non-pregnant women aged 16-45 years on oral contraceptive pills, injectables, Norplant and intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUD) attending the Family Planning Clinics of the University College Hospital (UCH) and Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan were recruited for the study. Fifty-eight apparently healthy women aged 16-45 years who were not on any contraceptive served as a control group. The body mass index (BMI) of all participants (subjects and controls) was determined following standard protocol. Serum levels of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, malondialdehyde, bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, total protein and albumin were determined using standard spectrophotometric methods. Progesterone was estimated by the chemilumiscence method while selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: The BMI was significant in women on oral contraceptive pills (OCP) when compared to the control group (P 0.05) in intra-uterine device (IUD), injectables and Norplant users. The mean serum ascorbic acid (P 0.05) in users of other contraceptive methods. Serum levels of malondialdehyde was significantly elevated in women on OCP (P 0.05) in users of other contraceptive methods. There was no significant association between progesterone and antioxidants in women on OCP, IUD, injectables and Norplant. Conclusion: Oral contraceptive pills showed a significant decreasing effect on the antioxidant status of its users while IUD, injectables and Norplant did not indicate any significant effect. Routine monitoring of the antioxidant status of women on different methods of contraceptive particularly those on OCP is recommended. (author)

  20. Characteristics of Women with Unwanted Pregnancies and Reasons for Contraceptive Methods Discontination: Sample of Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Ay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and characteristics of women with unwanted pregnancy in rural area and to examine pregnant women’s contraceptive method preferences, satisfaction with the methods and reason the methods discontinuation. METHOD: This study was carried out in Manisa city rural area between the dates of January and June 2011 in women who agreed to participate in the study. The sample of the research is composed of 239 pregnant women. The research was a descriptive, cross-sectional and field study and the data was collected by using questionnaire which was prepared by researcher. Data was gathered through the face to face interview with the women at their home. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS version 11.5. Descriptive analysis, Pearson’s Chi-square (χ² test, fisher exact test, and t-test were used statistical evaluation. RESULTS: Of the 239 pregnancies, 64 (26.8% were unwanted pregnancies. The mean age of women was respectively 25.0±5.0, and 29.0±5.4 years, for wanted, and unwanted pregnancies. Women with unwanted pregnancies were older, less educated, they had less educated husbands, had low income level, had more pregnancies, deliveries, had less than two years interval between their births. Unwanted pregnancies were observed in women using the coitus interrupts method (%53.1, effective contraceptive methods (%54.3 and not using any method (%16.3 (p<0.05. The most reasons for discontinuation were reported pregnant women as follows: side effects of methods, disapproval for husband, pregnancy occurs using the method, believe for ineffective contraceptive methods. CONCLUSION: In order to reduce the number of unwanted pregnancies and wanted abortions which reversely affect the women healthy; an appropriate contraception method must be employed. Health care providers should identify women with unwanted pregnancy to understand women's concerns and experiences using contraception. This

  1. Examining the association between motivations for induced abortion and method safety among women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biney, Adriana A E; Atiglo, D Yaw

    2017-10-01

    This article draws on data from 552 women interviewed in the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey to examine the association between motivations for women's pregnancy terminations and the safety of methods used. Women's reasons for induced abortions represented their vulnerability types at the critical time of decision making. Different motivations can result in taking various forms of action with the most vulnerable potentially resorting to the most harmful behaviors. Analysis of survey data pointed to spacing/delaying births as the main reason for abortion. Furthermore, women were more likely to terminate pregnancies unsafely if their main motivation for abortion was financial constraints. Especially among rural women, abortions for any reason were more likely associated with safe methods than if for financial reasons. These findings suggest a theme of vulnerability, resulting from poverty, as the motivations for women to resort to harmful abortion methods. Therefore, interventions formulated to reduce instances of unsafe pregnancy terminations should target reducing poverty and capacity building with the aim of economic advancement, in addition to curbing the root of the problem: unintended pregnancy.

  2. Contraceptive methods and use by women aged 35 and over: A qualitative study of perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiscella Kevin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 30% of the pregnancies in women aged 35 and over are unintended. This paper compares perceptions about contraceptive methods and use among women with and without an unintended pregnancy after turning age 35. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women. They were all 35 to 49 years old, regularly menstruating, sexually active, not sterilized, not desiring a pregnancy in the near future, and at least 3 months postpartum. We purposely sampled for women who had had at least one unintended pregnancy after age 35 (n = 9 and women who did not (n = 8. We assessed partnership, views of pregnancy and motherhood, desired lifestyle, perceived advantages and disadvantages of using and obtaining currently available well-known reversible contraceptives in the U.S. ''We also assessed contraceptive methods used at any time during their reproductive years, including current method use and, if appropriate, circumstances surrounding an unintended pregnancy after age 35.'' Each interview was taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Analysis focused on partnership, views of pregnancy, motherhood, desired lifestyle and perceived advantages and disadvantages of various reversible contraceptive methods. Results The women without an unintended pregnancy after age 35 were more likely to (1 use contraceptive methods that helped treat a medical condition, (2 consider pregnancy as dangerous, or (3 express concerns about the responsibilities of motherhood. The women who experienced an unintended pregnancy after age 35 were more likely to (1 report unstable partnerships, (2 perceive themselves at lower risk of pregnancy, or (3 report past experiences with unwanted contraceptive side effects. There was a greater likelihood a woman would choose a contraceptive method if it was perceived as easy to use, accessible, affordable and had minimal side effects. Conclusions Women's perspective

  3. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Prause

    Full Text Available Women's preferences for penis size may affect men's comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women's penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women's size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75 selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.

  4. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prause, Nicole; Park, Jaymie; Leung, Shannon; Miller, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Women's preferences for penis size may affect men's comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women's penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women's size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.

  5. Microscopy outperformed in a comparison of five methods for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, B; Appiah, J; Saunders, P; Heron, D; Nichols, T; Brum, R; Alexander, S; Baraitser, P; Ison, C

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM ®Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (sensitivity 88%); 22 patients were detected by the Aptima T. vaginalis kit (sensitivity 92%); 22 patients were detected by OSOM (sensitivity 92%); nine were detected by wet mount microscopy (sensitivity 38%); and 21 were detected by culture (sensitivity 88%). Two patients were positive by just one method and were not considered true positives. All the other detection methods had a sensitivity to detect T. vaginalis that was significantly greater than wet mount microscopy, highlighting the number of cases that are routinely missed even in symptomatic women if microscopy is the only diagnostic method available. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Contraceptive methods and use by women aged 35 and over: A qualitative study of perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Emily M; Chin, Nancy P; Fielding, Stephen L; Fiscella, Kevin; Dozier, Ann

    2011-02-16

    More than 30% of the pregnancies in women aged 35 and over are unintended. This paper compares perceptions about contraceptive methods and use among women with and without an unintended pregnancy after turning age 35. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women. They were all 35 to 49 years old, regularly menstruating, sexually active, not sterilized, not desiring a pregnancy in the near future, and at least 3 months postpartum. We purposely sampled for women who had had at least one unintended pregnancy after age 35 (n = 9) and women who did not (n = 8). We assessed partnership, views of pregnancy and motherhood, desired lifestyle, perceived advantages and disadvantages of using and obtaining currently available well-known reversible contraceptives in the U.S. ''We also assessed contraceptive methods used at any time during their reproductive years, including current method use and, if appropriate, circumstances surrounding an unintended pregnancy after age 35.'' Each interview was taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. Analysis focused on partnership, views of pregnancy, motherhood, desired lifestyle and perceived advantages and disadvantages of various reversible contraceptive methods. The women without an unintended pregnancy after age 35 were more likely to (1) use contraceptive methods that helped treat a medical condition, (2) consider pregnancy as dangerous, or (3) express concerns about the responsibilities of motherhood. The women who experienced an unintended pregnancy after age 35 were more likely to (1) report unstable partnerships, (2) perceive themselves at lower risk of pregnancy, or (3) report past experiences with unwanted contraceptive side effects. There was a greater likelihood a woman would choose a contraceptive method if it was perceived as easy to use, accessible, affordable and had minimal side effects. Women's perspective on contraceptive use after age 35 varies. Public health

  7. Women

    OpenAIRE

    Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...

  8. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgari E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Evgenia Gourgari,1 Elias Spanakis,2 Adrian Sandra Dobs3 1Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, 2Division of Endocrinology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Endocrinology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR, obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Women with PCOS have additional risk factors for the development of glucose intolerance such as family history of diabetes, use of oral contraceptives, anovulation, and age. The Androgen Society in 2007 and the Endocrine Society in 2013 recommended using oral glucose tolerance test as a screening tool for abnormal glucose tolerance in all women with PCOS. The approach to detection of glucose intolerance among women with PCOS varies among health care providers. Large prospective studies are still needed for the development of guidelines with strong evidence. When assessing risk of future diabetes in women with PCOS, it is important to take into account the method used for screening as well as other risk factors that these women might have. Keywords: IR, OGTT, obesity, hyperandrogenism, anovulation, BMI, insulin resistance, PCOS

  9. Validation of a Smartphone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Ashman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Image-based dietary records could lower participant burden associated with traditional prospective methods of dietary assessment. They have been used in children, adolescents and adults, but have not been evaluated in pregnant women. The current study evaluated relative validity of the DietBytes image-based dietary assessment method for assessing energy and nutrient intakes. Pregnant women collected image-based dietary records (via a smartphone application of all food, drinks and supplements consumed over three non-consecutive days. Intakes from the image-based method were compared to intakes collected from three 24-h recalls, taken on random days; once per week, in the weeks following the image-based record. Data were analyzed using nutrient analysis software. Agreement between methods was ascertained using Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Twenty-five women (27 recruited, one withdrew, one incomplete, median age 29 years, 15 primiparas, eight Aboriginal Australians, completed image-based records for analysis. Significant correlations between the two methods were observed for energy, macronutrients and fiber (r = 0.58–0.84, all p < 0.05, and for micronutrients both including (r = 0.47–0.94, all p < 0.05 and excluding (r = 0.40–0.85, all p < 0.05 supplements in the analysis. Bland-Altman plots confirmed acceptable agreement with no systematic bias. The DietBytes method demonstrated acceptable relative validity for assessment of nutrient intakes of pregnant women.

  10. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review

    OpenAIRE

    Babakus, Whitney S; Thompson, Janice L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative an...

  11. A STUDY ON FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICES AND METHODS AMONG WOMEN OF URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjit Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Utilization of family planning methods, their side effects and the factors influencing their uses. Aims: To study the family planning practices/methods among the married women of reproductive age (15- 45yrs. Study Design: Community-based study. Study Subjects: The Women of reproductive age groups (15-45yrs adopting family planning methods & those residing in urban slums of, Lucknow. Sample size: 540, Study Period : July 2009 to July 2011. Sampling Technique: thirty cluster sampling. Result: The acceptance of family planning methods both temporary and permanent methods increased with level of literacy of women. About 53.40 % adopted I.U.C.D, 38.83% O.C pills & only 7.77% of their partners used condoms. 66.6% have undergone laparoscopic & 33.4% mini-lap sterilization. Vasectomy was not done for even a single partner. More number of illiterate and primary educated accepted permanent method after 3 or more children than higher educated who accepted it after 1 or 2 children. Among acceptors of permanent methods, total 70.27 % were experiencing side effects and among temporary method users, it accounted 23.30%. Conclusions: Acceptance in family planning is associated with increasing age, nuclear family & level of literacy. IUCD is the most accepted one among all the temporary methods. Vasectomy and newer contraceptives were not at all used.

  12. A mixed methods comparison of perceived benefits and barriers to exercise between obese and nonobese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Lucia Andrea; Ward, Dianne S

    2013-05-01

    Obese women have lower levels of physical activity than nonobese women, but it is unclear what drives these differences. Mixed methods were used to understand why obese women have lower physical activity levels. Findings from focus groups with obese white women age 50 and older (N = 19) were used to develop psychosocial items for an online survey of white women (N = 195). After examining the relationship between weight group (obese vs. nonobese) and exercise attitudes, associated items (P exercise (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8) and were more likely to agree their weight makes exercise difficult (OR = 10.6, 95% CI 4.2-27.1), and they only exercise when trying to lose weight (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-8.9). Enjoyment and exercise for weight loss were statistically significant mediators of the relationship between weight and physical activity. Exercise interventions for obese women may be improved by focusing on exercise enjoyment and the benefits of exercise that are independent of weight loss.

  13. Filipino women's diet and health study (FiLWHEL): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abris, Grace P; Hong, Sangmo; Provido, Sherlyn Mae P; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Chang Beom

    2017-02-01

    Immigration to South Korea from neighboring Asian countries has risen dramatically, primarily due to marriage between Korean men and foreign women. Although Filipino women rank fourth among married immigrant women, little is known about the health condition of this population. This manuscript focuses on the design and methods of Filipino women's diet and health study (FiLWHEL). FiLWHEL is a cohort of Filipino women married to Korean men, aged 19 years old or over. The data collection comprised three parts: questionnaire, physical examination, and biospecimen collection. Questionnaires focused on demographic factors, diet, other health-related behaviors, acculturation and immigration-related factors, medical history, quality of life, and children's health information. Participants visited the recruitment site and answered the structured questionnaires through a face-to-face interview. We also measured their anthropometric features and collected fasting blood samples, toenails, and DNA samples. Recruitment started in 2014. Collection of data is ongoing, and we plan to prospectively follow our cohort participants. We expect that our study, which is focused on married Filipino women immigrants, can elucidate nutritional/health status and the effects of transitional experiences from several lifestyle factors.

  14. Does discussing sexually transmissible infections or HIV with a parent increase condom use among young women using other contraceptive methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Heather; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L

    2013-03-01

    Young people may be more likely to use condoms if they discuss sexual risks with their parents. However, no previous study has examined whether discussing sexual risks with a parent is differently associated with condom use among women using and not using other contraceptive methods. Using weighted data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, we examined condom use at last sex among 1206 sexually active unmarried women aged 15-24 years. Using logistic regression, we examined the association between condom use and discussing sexually transmissible infections (STIs) with parents before the age of 18 years, adjusted for women's characteristics (age, ethnicity, income and condom use at first sex). We estimated the predicted probability of condom use by whether women discussed STIs with parents, stratified by use of other contraceptive methods. Overall, 53% of women used condoms at last sex. Among 564 women using other contraceptives, 42% used condoms, versus 64% of 642 women not using other contraceptive methods (P<0.01). After adjustment for covariates, the predicted probability of condom use among women using other contraceptives was 47% among women who discussed STIs with their parents (v. 31% of those not discussing STIs; P<0.01). Among women not using other contraceptives, the predicted probability of condom use remained 64% regardless of whether they discussed STIs with their parents. Young women who use other contraceptive methods are less likely to use condoms, but discussing STIs with parents is associated with increased condom use among these women.

  15. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babakus Whitney S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA and sedentary time (ST and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. Twenty-six quantitative and twelve qualitative studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Results Studies quantifying PA and ST among South Asian women showed low levels of PA compared with South Asian men and with white European comparison populations. However making valid comparisons between studies was challenging due to a lack of standardized PA measurement. The majority of studies indicated that South Asian women did not meet recommended amounts of PA for health benefits. Few studies assessed ST. Themes emerging from qualitative studies included cultural and structural barriers to PA, faith and education as facilitators, and a lack of understanding of the recommended amounts of PA and its benefits among South Asian women. Conclusions Quantitative and qualitative evidence indicate that South Asian women do not perform the recommended level of PA for health benefits. Both types of studies suffer from limitations due to methods of data collection. More research should be dedicated to standardizing objective PA measurement and to understanding how to utilize the resources of the individuals and communities to increase PA levels and overall health of South Asian women.

  16. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Bozkurt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tMETHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tRESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 27.5±4.08. When they were asked about contraceptive methods, 61.2 % had knowledge about oral contraceptives, 78.7 % about preservatives, and 38 % had knowledge about tube ligation. 96.1 % of patients cited AIDS, 39.2 % hepatitis B and C, 29.4 % gonorrhea, 3.9 % chlamydia, 9.8 % herpes virus, 11.8 % HPV (genital wart and 27.5 % syphilisis as sexually transmitted diseases.\tCONCLUSION: The reason why this study is performed with pregnant women is that they have a sexual life, they are under the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and they need contraception. Finding out that pregnant women don’t have enough knowledge is important in regard to education of the population and preventive medicine.

  17. Comparison of screening methods for anaemia in pregnant women in Awassa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gies, S.; Brabin, B. J.; Yassin, M. A.; Cuevas, L. E.

    2003-01-01

    Screening for anaemia in pregnancy is essential for implementing and monitoring effective antenatal programmes. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of invasive and non-invasive screening methods in a cross-sectional survey of 403 pregnant women attending an urban health centre in Awassa, southern

  18. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakus, Whitney S; Thompson, Janice L

    2012-12-20

    The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. Twenty-six quantitative and twelve qualitative studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies quantifying PA and ST among South Asian women showed low levels of PA compared with South Asian men and with white European comparison populations. However making valid comparisons between studies was challenging due to a lack of standardized PA measurement. The majority of studies indicated that South Asian women did not meet recommended amounts of PA for health benefits. Few studies assessed ST. Themes emerging from qualitative studies included cultural and structural barriers to PA, faith and education as facilitators, and a lack of understanding of the recommended amounts of PA and its benefits among South Asian women. Quantitative and qualitative evidence indicate that South Asian women do not perform the recommended level of PA for health benefits. Both types of studies suffer from limitations due to methods of data collection. More research should be dedicated to standardizing objective PA measurement and to understanding how to utilize the resources of the individuals and communities to increase PA levels and overall health of South Asian women.

  19. Motivating factors for dual-method contraceptive use among adolescents and young women: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Julie; Teal, Stephanie B; Peters, Marissa; Guiahi, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    This qualitative study explores how adolescents and young women perceive the need for and describe the use of dual method contraception. We interviewed 20 sexually active women aged 16-24 who attended an adolescent-focused Title X family-planning clinic and were using a non-barrier contraceptive method. We used a semi-structured interview guide that included domains related to sexual activity, knowledge of and use of contraceptives and condoms, and relationship factors. We coded transcripts using grounded theory techniques and used an iterative process to develop overarching themes. Dual method contraceptive users primarily discussed pregnancy prevention as their motivating factor. Many expressed anxieties over an unplanned pregnancy and reported condom use as "back-up" contraception. Risk perception for pregnancy or STI acquisition did not necessarily change as relationship trust increased, but rather, their anxiety regarding the negativity of such outcomes decreased. Dual-method contraception use decreased when participants reported that condoms were not readily available, or when they self-described immaturity. Less frequently, participants reported dual method use for sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and many substituted STI testing for condom use. Contraceptive type (short-acting vs. long-acting) did not influence reported attitudes towards dual method use. Health educators and clinicians encourage condom use in young women due to the significant morbidity associated with STI acquisition. Most participants in our study view condoms as a way to improve pregnancy prevention. Acknowledging and addressing this divergence in motivation will allow caregivers to improve strategies for communicating the importance of dual method use. Young women primarily describe pregnancy prevention as the reason for dual method use, STI protection is less salient. Consideration of this viewpoint by health educators and clinicians will allow us to communicate more

  20. Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mubita-Ngoma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.

  1. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South Africa: A national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Chersich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Globally, family planning services are being strengthened and the range of contraceptive choices expanded. Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. Objective. To assess contraception coverage in South Africa (SA and identify underserved populations and aspects of programming that require strengthening. Methods. Data from a 2012 SA household survey assessed contraception coverage among 6 296 women aged 15 - 49 years and identified underserved populations. Results. Two-thirds had an unintended pregnancy in the past 5 years, a quarter of which were contraceptive failures. Most knew of injectable (92.0% and oral contraception (89.9%, but fewer of intrauterine devices (56.1% and emergency contraception (47.3%. Contraceptive prevalence was 49.1%, and 41.8% women used modern non-barrier methods. About half had ever used injectable contraception. Contraception was lower in black Africans and younger women, who used a limited range of methods. Conclusion. Contraception coverage is higher than many previous estimates. Rates of unintended pregnancy, contraceptive failure and knowledge gaps, however, demonstrate high levels of unmet need, especially among black Africans and young women.

  2. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketevan Beltadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection. At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively. The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  3. Women's experiences of their violent behavior in an intimate partner relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinck, Aune; Paavilainen, Eija

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe women's perceptions of their violent behavior in a heterosexual partnership. The study followed the traditions of Husserlian descriptive phenomenology and the philosophy of existential phenomenology. Twenty-four volunteer Finnish women, aged 19 to 58 years, with a history of different manifestations of intimate partner violence (IPV) participated in open-ended interviews. The data were analyzed by the method developed by Colaizzi. The findings revealed that some of the women who opposed all violence on ethical grounds did not label their behavior as violent; some others minimized or justified their violent behavior. The findings offer professional insight into women's violent behavior and call for a readjustment in approaches to work in the area. Prevention and early identification of IPV require knowledge of the various manifestations and individual meanings of violence. Helping methods should provide women with the opportunity to talk about their abusive behavior and to confront and address their feelings of guilt, disappointment, and shame.

  4. Detection of Candida species in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yanhong; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Li; Ji, Tongzhen; Meng, Lingxin; Gao, Yang; Liu, Ran; Wang, Xiao; Li, Lin; Lu, Binghuai; Cao, Zheng

    2018-04-20

    Candida pathogens are commonly found in women and can cause vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), whose infection rate is further increased during pregnancy. We aimed to study the Candida prevalence and strain distribution in pregnant Chinese women with a molecular beacon assay. From March 2016 to February 2017, a total of 993 pregnant women attending routine antenatal visits at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled. For Candida detection and identification, a unique molecular beacon assay was presented and compared with a traditional phenotypic method. Antifungal susceptibility was tested with the following agents: 5-flucytosine, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. The prevalence of Candida was found to be 21.8 % when using the molecular method and 15.0 % when using the phenotypic method. The distribution of the Candida spp. was listed in order of decreasing prevalence: Candida albicans (79.8 %), Candida glabrata (13.5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3.7 %), Candida krusei (2.2 %) and Candida tropicalis (1.1 %). We found that 90.7 % of the Candida detection results were consistent between the molecular and the phenotypic methods. In the cases where the sequencing analyses for the Candida isolates resulted in inconsistent identification, the molecular method showed higher sensitivity than the phenotypic method (96.0 vs 64.6 %). C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis were essentially susceptible to all five antifungal agents tested, whereas C. tropicalis and C. krusei were susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B. By exhibiting good sensitivity and specificity, the molecular assay may offer a fast and accurate Candida screening platform for pregnant women.

  5. Multinomial Response Models, for Modeling and Determining Important Factors in Different Contraceptive Methods in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haji Nejad

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Difference aspects of multinomial statistical modelings and its classifications has been studied so far. In these type of problems Y is the qualitative random variable with T possible states which are considered as classifications. The goal is prediction of Y based on a random Vector X ? IR^m. Many methods for analyzing these problems were considered. One of the modern and general method of classification is Classification and Regression Trees (CART. Another method is recursive partitioning techniques which has a strange relationship with nonparametric regression. Classical discriminant analysis is a standard method for analyzing these type of data. Flexible discriminant analysis method which is a combination of nonparametric regression and discriminant analysis and classification using spline that includes least square regression and additive cubic splines. Neural network is an advanced statistical method for analyzing these types of data. In this paper properties of multinomial logistics regression were investigated and this method was used for modeling effective factors in selecting contraceptive methods in Ghom province for married women age 15-49. The response variable has a tetranomial distibution. The levels of this variable are: nothing, pills, traditional and a collection of other contraceptive methods. A collection of significant independent variables were: place, age of women, education, history of pregnancy and family size. Menstruation age and age at marriage were not statistically significant.

  6. Using mixed-methods research to study the quality of life of coeliac women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Almagro, Julián; Hernández Martínez, Antonio; Solano Ruiz, María Carmen; Siles González, José

    2017-04-01

    To research the quality of life of Spanish women with coeliac disease. Women with coeliac disease express lower quality of life than men with coeliac disease. Explanatory sequential approach using mixed methods and with a gender perspective. The research was carried out between May and July 2015. In its quantitative stage, it aimed to determine the health-related quality of life in a representative sample (n = 1097) of Spanish adult women with coeliac disease using a specific questionnaire named Coeliac Disease-Quality of Life. In its qualitative phase, it aimed to describe the life experiences of a woman with coeliac disease in a qualitative manner by means of interviews (n = 19) with a semistructured script. Quantitative data were analysed using spss version 20 and presented in descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analysed using the directed content analysis. The quantitative process gave us the values on the four aspects studied: dysphoria, disease limitations, health problems and inadequate treatment. These aspects allowed us to create a qualitative process, based on which we generated an interview, from which four larger categories emerged. These categories were feelings at diagnosis, limitations in day-to-day life, social perceptions of the disease and personal meanings of coeliac disease. Thus, both phases of our project are totally connected. There was a high level of congruence between quantitative scores and narratives. This study shows us the strong points of mixed-methods strategy in health sciences. The mixed-methods strategy gave us a wider view of the experience of women living with coeliac disease. In our case, a strength and not a limitation is having performed the quality of life study in women with coeliac disease using a mixed methodology, approaching the experience of being a woman with coeliac disease in Spain in two different but complementary ways. The quantitative and qualitative data allowed us to interpret the experiences of

  7. Pilates and mobilization methods in therapy for low back pain among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Mączka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bad body posture, insufficient physical activity, excessive body weight gain of pregnant women, with overloads due to pregnancy in their body, results in pain of fatigued muscle. The enlarged uterus with fetus cause the forward shifts of the gravity center which leads to the pelvis forward tilt. This mechanism women compensate by the body posture deflection that leads to lumbar hyperlordosis. In adaptation to the new biomechanical conditions, the iliolumbar and erector spinae muscles are contracted, while the gluteus maximus and abdominal muscles are overstretched. All of these changes are further coused by the increasing levels of relaxin and estrogen hormones in pregnancy, which relax the ligaments and muscles. Muscle weakness and presence of pathological overloads in body leads to lower back pain of the spine. OBJECTIVE: The assessment of lumbar spine pain among women in the third trimester of pregnancy in context of comprehensive therapy of Pilates exercises and lumbar mobilization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The qualifying interview identified a group of 224 pregnant women with lumbar spine complications. The study was conducted in a targeted manner and all the participants did not have any contraindications from a gynecologist to physical activity during pregnancy. Women who reported sedentary lifestyle, according to pedometer classification, were assigned to a control group (GK with only a lumbar mobilization intervention. On the other hand, women who were active, were arranged in the Pilates exercise also with lumbar mobilization (GP. Respondents received the Oswestry questionnaire to assess the low back pain. The questionnaire was twice conducted - at 26 Hbd and after the period of interventions in 39 Hbd. In addition, women subjectively assessed the severity of pain sensations in the visual analogue pain scale from 0-10. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. THE RESULTS of the evaluation of lumbar spine pain in 39 Hbd

  8. Population Pharmacokinetics of Dihydroartemisinin and Piperaquine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women with Uncomplicated Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J.; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boar...

  9. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltadze, Ketevan; Barbakadze, Ludmila

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection). At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively). The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively). Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  10. ULTRACAVITATION METHOD OF EVALUATION IN THE REDUCTION OF LOCALIZED FAT IN WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    L. Petraglia; D. R. X. O. Crege; J. L. Dullius; A. E. Bighetti

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated cosmetic fat reduction methods that cause localized lipolysis and that are not invasive. The use of a differentiated ultrasound called Ultracavitation was evaluated, it causes reduction of localized fat in the infra abdominal region. 30 women aged 30-45 years old, healthy, sedentary were evaluated; they were separated into two groups subjected to 12 treatment sessions in infra abdominal region, once a week, alone or combined with aerobic exercise. Photographic recording w...

  11. MODERN METHOD OF DETECTION OF TAXONOMIC COMPOSITION OF MICROBIALS IN URINARY WAYS OF WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Bendas, V. V.; Stefak, Ya. P.; Moysyuk, V. D.; Mihalchan, A. B.

    2018-01-01

    In case of necessity to conduct a more qualitative examination of women with inflammatory processes, which are localized in the organs of the genitourinary system and in order to obtain an objective assessment of normal and pathogenic microflora in the urogenital pathways of a woman, a polymerase chain reaction method is proposed with the use of the diagnostic test of the system "Femoflore-16". This system help identification of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., St...

  12. Comparison of the functionality of pelvic floor muscles in women who practice the Pilates method and sedentary women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferla, Lia; Paiva, Luciana Laureano; Darki, Caroline; Vieira, Adriane

    2016-01-01

    The Pilates method is a form of physical exercise that improves the control of the core muscles, improving the conditioning of all the muscle groups that comprise the core, including the pelvic floor muscles (PFM). Thus, this study had the goal of verifying the existence of differences in the functioning of the PFM in women who practice the Pilates method and sedentary women. This was an observational, cross-sectional pilot study. A sample size calculation was performed using preliminary data and it determined that the sample should have at least 24 individuals in each group. The participants were 60 women aged 20 to 40 years; 30 women practiced the Pilates method (PMG) and 30 were sedentary (SG). An anamnesis file was used to collect personal data and assess the knowledge and perception of the PFM. The Perina perineometer and vaginal palpation were used to determine the functionality of the PFM. There was no significant difference between the PMG and the SG in any of the variables analyzed. We concluded that the functionality of the PFM in younger women who practice the Pilates method is not different from that of sedentary women.

  13. Current use of contraceptive method among women in a middle-income developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Bourne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Bourne1, Christopher AD Charles2,3, Tazhmoye V Crawford4, Maureen D Kerr-Campbell5, Cynthia G Francis1, Neva South-Bourne11Department of Community Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica; 2King Graduate School, Monroe College, Bronx, New York, USA; 3Center for Victim Support, Harlem Hospital Center, New York; 4Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 5Systems Development Unit, Main Library, Faculty of Humanities and Education, The University of the West Indies, Mona, JamaicaBackground: Jamaica is a mid-range income developing country with an increasing population and public resource constraints. Therefore, reproductive health issues are of critical importance in Jamaica.Aim: We examined the use of contraceptives among women and the factors that influence these women to use contraceptives.Materials and method: In the current study we utilized the secondary dataset for the Reproductive Health Survey, conducted by the National Family Planning Board. The investigation was carried out with a stratified random sample of 7168 women aged between 15 and 49. The measures included demographic variables, method of contraception used, being in a relationship, number of partners, pregnancy status, and sexual activity status, along with other variables.Results: The majority of participants used some method of contraception (64%. The most popular method of contraception was a condom (32%. Results of a multivariate analysis suggests that the explanatory variables for the method of contraception used are age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.98–0.99, social class (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73–0.95, being in a relationship (OR = 3.35, 95% CI: 2.80–4.02, the rural–urban dichotomy (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.32, being currently pregnant (OR = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00–0.02, currently having sex (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.95–2.70, number of partners (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.57–2.17, the age at

  14. Perceived Risks Associated with Contraceptive Method Use among Men and Women in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Skinner, Joanna; Hebert, Luciana E; Saad, Abdulmumin

    2015-12-01

    Research shows that side effects are often the most common reason for contraceptive non-use in Nigeria; however, research to date has not explored the underlying factors that influence risk and benefit perceptions associated with specific contraceptive methods in Nigeria. A qualitative study design using focus group discussions was used to explore social attitudes and beliefs about family planning methods in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. A total of 26 focus group discussions were held in 2010 with men and women of reproductive age, disaggregated by city, sex, age, marital status, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and--for women only--family planning experience. A discussion guide was used that included specific questions about the perceived risks and benefits associated with the use of six different family planning methods. A thematic content analytic approach guided the analysis. Participants identified a spectrum of risks encompassing perceived threats to health (both real and fictitious) and social concerns, as well as benefits associated with each method. By exploring Nigerian perspectives on the risks and benefits associated with specific family planning methods, programs aiming to increase contraceptive use in Nigeria can be better equipped to highlight recognized benefits, address specific concerns, and work to dispel misperceptions associated with each family planning method.

  15. Adolescent and Young Women's Contraceptive Decision-Making Processes: Choosing "The Best Method for Her".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Juliana; Peters, Marissa; Teal, Stephanie; Guiahi, Maryam

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate influences on adolescent and young women's contraceptive decision-making processes. We conducted 21 individual interviews with women who presented to an adolescent-focused Title X family planning clinic seeking a new contraceptive method. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview guide, audio-taped and transcribed. Three researchers independently coded the transcripts using grounded theory; codes were organized into overarching themes and discrepancies were resolved. After identification of themes, we organized the conceptual framework of the decision-making process using the transtheoretical model of behavior change in which participants move through 4 stages: (1) contemplation, (2) preparation, (3) action, and (4) maintenance. When contemplating contraception, most of our participants were highly motivated to avoid pregnancy. During preparation, participants gathered information related to their contraceptive concerns. Participants cited peers as primary informants and healthcare providers as experts in the field. Participants integrated information received with their personal concerns about contraception initiation; the most common concerns were effectiveness, method duration, convenience, and side effects. When participants acted on choosing a contraceptive method they described how it fit their individual needs. They considered their contraceptive experiences unique and not necessarily applicable to others. During maintenance, they acted as informants for other peers, but most commonly expressed that each individual must choose "the best method for her." When adolescent and young women select a contraceptive method they balance the benefits and risks of available methods portrayed by peers and provider in the context of their personal concerns. Peer influence appeared to be greatest when participants shared contraceptive concerns and goals. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by

  16. Heterogeneity among violence-exposed women: applying person-oriented research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S; Macy, Rebecca J

    2008-03-01

    Variability of experience and outcomes among violence-exposed people pose considerable challenges toward developing effective prevention and treatment protocols. To address these needs, the authors present an approach to research and a class of methodologies referred to as person oriented. Person-oriented tools support assessment of meaningful patterns among people that distinguish one group from another, subgroups for whom different interventions are indicated. The authors review the conceptual base of person-oriented methods, outline their distinction from more familiar variable-oriented methods, present descriptions of selected methods as well as empirical applications of person-oriented methods germane to violence exposure, and conclude with discussion of implications for future research and translation between research and practice. The authors focus on violence against women as a population, drawing on stress and coping theory as a theoretical framework. However, person-oriented methods hold utility for investigating diversity among violence-exposed people's experiences and needs across populations and theoretical foundations.

  17. Pelvic floor physiotherapy for women with urogenital dysfunction: indications and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, T Y

    2011-03-01

    Pelvic floor physiotherapy (PFPT) is considered to be a salient component of the conservative management of women with urogenital dysfunction including urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). PFPT is an important adjunct to the management of female pelvic and sexual pain disorders which are often associated with bothersome bladder symptoms. Physiotherapists utilize a variety of treatment methods which include behavioral therapy, exercise instruction, manual therapy, biofeedback and electrical stimulation. This review article provides a literature-based update describing and highlighting current indications and methods for pelvic floor physiotherapy intervention.

  18. Women Progressive Educators: Their Role in The Transition Process of Educational Methods (1920-1940)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine; Haenggeli-Jenni, Beatrice; Mayer, Christine

    During the interwar years, the New Education Fellowship (NEF) assembled all those who thought that a large educational reform would be able to transform society towards peace and justice. This international association was the link between hundreds of professionals who worked as teachers......, educationalists, psychologists, biologists, medical doctors in order to better child’s education, teaching methods and school success. In order to create a common language and action, the NEF organized congresses every two years and published journals in several languages. Among its members, many women – teachers...... groups, and child welfare organizations. This panel will study some of these women who were deeply involved in promoting New Education at national and international levels. Through the analysis of their training, professional activity, social relations and editorial work, we will show their role...

  19. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  20. Simple assay method for proteins carrying sexual hormones (PTHS); values in men, women, and during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafurt, C.A.; Estrada, R. de.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from the fact that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their carrier proteins are similar to those between antigens and antibodies, the paper describes PTHS determination by a dilution method analogous to antiserum labelling for radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following steps: 1) Plasma dilution, 2) incubation of the solutions with 20,000 dpm 1,2 3 H testosterone, 3) separation of the tracer fraction bound to PTHS by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, 4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant, 5) presentation of the findings in a graphical system with the bound steroid fraction, referred to the free steroid (U/L) as the ordinate and the plasma dilutions as the abscissa. The values represent the label in 50% of the sites. The method offers the highest sensitivity, i.e. the steepest parts of the dilution curves where 50% of the binding sites are located. The method also dispenses with tedious processes such as dialysis. The following PTHS values were obtained: 1/5 in men, 1/93 in women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. There were no cross-reactions. (AJ) [de

  1. The contribution of body composition, substrates and hormones to the variability in energy expenditure and substrate utilization in premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A.; Buemann, Benjamin; Christensen, N.J.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate use were measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers on a fixed physical program and related to body composition and plasma concentrations of various substrates and thermogenic hormones. Fifty premenopausal women with a wide range of ...

  2. Role of young women's depression and stress symptoms in their weekly use and nonuse of contraceptive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James; Barber, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    We prospectively examined the influence of young women's depression and psychological stress symptoms on their weekly contraceptive method use. We examined data from 689 women ages 18-20 years participating in a longitudinal cohort study. Women completed 8,877 weekly journals over the first year, which assessed reproductive, relationship, and health information. We focused on baseline depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale) and stress (Perceived Stress Scale) symptoms and weekly contraceptive method use. Analyses used multivariate random effects and multinomial logistic regression. Approximately one quarter of women exhibited moderate/severe depression (27%) and stress (25%) symptoms at baseline. Contraception was not used in 10% of weekly journals, whereas coital and noncoital methods were used in 42% and 48% of weeks, respectively. In adjusted models, women with moderate/severe stress symptoms had more than twice the odds of contraception nonuse than women without stress (odds ratio [OR] 2.23, confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.89, p = .04). Additionally, women with moderate/severe depression (RR .52, CI .40-.68, p contraceptives (OCs; reference category). Women with stress symptoms also had higher relative risks of using condoms (RR 1.17, CI 1.00-1.34, p = .02) and withdrawal (RR 1.29, CI 1.10-1.51, p = .001) than OCs. The relative risk of dual versus single method use was also lower for women with stress symptoms. Women's psychological symptoms predicted their weekly contraceptive nonuse and use of less effective methods. Further research can determine the influence of dynamic psychological symptoms on contraceptive choices and failures over time. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative description of the use of modern methods of hormonal contraception for women with excessive body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Gridina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of reproductive health of women with excessive weight is the actual problem of nowadays and is an important direction of modern medicine. Aim. To analyze the efficiency and acceptability of oral, іntravaginal and transdermal hormonal contraceptives among women with excessive body mass. Methods and results. The tolerability and ease of use of different types of hormonal contraception have been studied in 72 women with excessive body mass to determine the reliability and acceptability of modern hormonal contraceptives. It has been investigated that the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives according to our data is 100%, none patient was registered with an unwanted pregnancy. The total subjective evaluation of all hormonal contraceptives use were positive: 78.6% of women with excessive body mass who used oral contraceptives, were satisfied with the chosen contraceptive method, 81,8% – were satisfied with intravaginal method, 59,1% – transdermal contraceptive. Conclusions. It has been found that intravaginal contraceptive is most suitable as the drug of first choice for women with overweight compared with oral and transdermal hormonal methods of contraception. This suggests that women with excessive body mass can successfully use modern methods of hormonal contraception. But it is necessary to carry out clinical supervision, during which further clarification on the use of hormonal contraception in women with excessive body mass is possible.

  4. Factors associated with sterilization use among women leaving a U.S. jail: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Megha; Kelly, Patricia J

    2014-07-31

    Despite the high rates of reported sterilization use among women who have spent time in correctional facilities, little is known about the context in which women in this population choose this option. The objective of our study was to use both quantitative and qualitative methods to understand factors associated with sterilization use among women leaving a U.S. jail. We administered a cross-sectional survey with 102 jailed women who were participating in a study about contraceptive use after release from jail, and then conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 of those women after their release from jail. We used logistic regression and analytic induction to assess factors associated with self-reported sterilization use. In our cross-sectional survey, one-third of our sample reported a history of sterilization use. Controlling for age and past pregnancies, the only factor associated with sterilization use was physical abuse history before age 16. In semi-structured interviews, we found that women's primary motivation for sterilization was the desire to limit childbearing permanently, in some cases where other contraceptive methods had failed them. The decision for sterilization was generally supported by family, partners, and providers. Many women who opted for sterilization expressed financial concern about supporting children and/or reported family histories of sterilization. The decision to use the permanent method of sterilization as a contraceptive method is a complex one. Results from this study suggest that while explicit coercion may not be a factor in women's choice for sterilization, interpersonal relationship histories, negative experiences with contraceptives, and structural constraints, such as financial concerns and ongoing criminal justice involvement, seem to influence sterilization use among the vulnerable group of women with criminal justice histories. Public health programs that connect women to reproductive health services should acknowledge

  5. Comparison of anaerobic threshold determined by visual and mathematical methods in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Higa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Several methods are used to estimate anaerobic threshold (AT during exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare AT obtained by a graphic visual method for the estimate of ventilatory and metabolic variables (gold standard, to a bi-segmental linear regression mathematical model of Hinkley's algorithm applied to heart rate (HR and carbon dioxide output (VCO2 data. Thirteen young (24 ± 2.63 years old and 16 postmenopausal (57 ± 4.79 years old healthy and sedentary women were submitted to a continuous ergospirometric incremental test on an electromagnetic braking cycloergometer with 10 to 20 W/min increases until physical exhaustion. The ventilatory variables were recorded breath-to-breath and HR was obtained beat-to-beat over real time. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Friedman test and Spearman correlation test with the level of significance set at 5%. Power output (W, HR (bpm, oxygen uptake (VO2; mL kg-1 min-1, VO2 (mL/min, VCO2 (mL/min, and minute ventilation (VE; L/min data observed at the AT level were similar for both methods and groups studied (P > 0.05. The VO2 (mL kg-1 min-1 data showed significant correlation (P < 0.05 between the gold standard method and the mathematical model when applied to HR (r s = 0.75 and VCO2 (r s = 0.78 data for the subjects as a whole (N = 29. The proposed mathematical method for the detection of changes in response patterns of VCO2 and HR was adequate and promising for AT detection in young and middle-aged women, representing a semi-automatic, non-invasive and objective AT measurement.

  6. Simplified method of clinical phenotyping for older men and women using established field-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, David H; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Kendall, Kristina L; Moon, Jordan R; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine body composition classification using field-based testing measurements in healthy elderly men and women. The use of isoperformance curves is presented as a method for this determination. Baseline values from 107 healthy Caucasian men and women, over the age of 65years old, who participated in a separate longitudinal study, were used for this investigation. Field-based measurements of age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and handgrip strength were recorded on an individual basis. Relative skeletal muscle index (RSMI) and body fat percentage (FAT%) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for each participant. Sarcopenia cut-off values for RSMI of 7.26kg·m(-2) for men and 5.45kg·m(-2) for women and elderly obesity cut-off values for FAT% of 27% for men and 38% for women were used. Individuals above the RSMI cut-off and below the FAT% cut-off were classified in the normal phenotype category, while individuals below the RSMI cut-off and above the FAT% cut-off were classified in the sarcopenic-obese phenotype category. Prediction equations for RSMI and FAT% from sex, BMI, and handgrip strength values were developed using multiple regression analysis. The prediction equations were validated using double cross-validation. The final regression equation developed to predict FAT% from sex, BMI, and handgrip strength resulted in a strong relationship (adjusted R(2)=0.741) to DXA values with a low standard error of the estimate (SEE=3.994%). The final regression equation developed to predict RSMI from the field-based testing measures also resulted in a strong relationship (adjusted R(2)=0.841) to DXA values with a low standard error of the estimate (SEE=0.544kg·m(-2)). Isoperformance curves were developed from the relationship between BMI and handgrip strength for men and women with the aforementioned clinical phenotype classification criteria. These visual representations were used to aid in the

  7. Women with learning disabilities and access to cervical screening: retrospective cohort study using case control methods

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Fiona; Stanistreet, Debbi; Elton, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Several studies in the UK have suggested that women with learning disabilities may be less likely to receive cervical screening tests and a previous local study in had found that GPs considered screening unnecessary for women with learning disabilities. This study set out to ascertain whether women with learning disabilities are more likely to be ceased from a cervical screening programme than women without; and to examine the reasons given for ceasing women with learning ...

  8. Study of Continuance Rate and Related Causes of Discontinuance of Pregnancy Prevention Methods among Women in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Fallahzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From maturity to menopause, women are worried about pregnancy. Abstinence from sex or use of pregnancy prevention methods are choices for them. As abstinence is impossible, the only remaining choice is use of pregnancy prevention methods. Effective control of pregnancy is really essential for the health of mother and infant and also control of unplanned increase in population. Regarding the importance of continuance rate of pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom &DMPA & the reasons for their disruption, this study was carried out with the aim of determining the continuance rate and reasons for discontinuance of pregnancy prevention methods in Yazd women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Six urban health care centers of Yazd were selected as study clusters and information of 15-49 year old women using the pregnancy prevention methods (OCP, IUD, Condom& injection was collected via a questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed by Coplan- Mayer statistic method and variance analysis test. Results: Pregnancy prevention methods were most prevalent in the 25-34 years old age group (57%. Mean duration of pregnancy prevention method usage was 27.98 months using Caplan-mayer method with a median of 24 months. 86.3% for 6 months, 72.8% for 12 months, 62.5% for 18 months, 47.9% for 24 months, 39.9% for 30 months and 37% for 37 months had used four certain methods of pregnancy prevention (OCP, IUD, Condom and Injection. The reasons of discontinuance were disease (15.6% for OCPS, bleeding (27% for IUD, unwanted pregnancy (21% for Condoms and also disease (75% for Injection method. Discussion: According to the results, not only education programs regarding family planning before starting each pregnancy prevention method to women is recommended, but a complete incentive consultation about these methods is essential. This educational & consultation programs should be implemented initially for women using OCP method.

  9. Pilates Method for Women's Health: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, Melissa; Kerr, Debra; Wajswelner, Henry; Morris, Meg E

    2015-12-01

    To critically analyze the benefits of Pilates on health outcomes in women. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science. Databases were searched using the terms Pilates and Pilates Method. Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they comprised female participants with a health condition and a health outcome was measured, Pilates needed to be administered, and the article was published in English in a peer-reviewed journal from 1980 to July 2014. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to potential studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. A best-evidence grading system was used to determine the strength of the evidence. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. PEDro scale values ranged from 3 to 7 (mean, 4.5; median, 4.0), indicating a relatively low quality overall. In this sample, Pilates for breast cancer was most often trialed (n=2). The most frequent health outcomes investigated were pain (n=4), quality of life (n=4), and lower extremity endurance (n=2), with mixed results. Emerging evidence was found for reducing pain and improving quality of life and lower extremity endurance. There is a paucity of evidence on Pilates for improving women's health during pregnancy or for conditions including breast cancer, obesity, or low back pain. Further high-quality RCTs are warranted to determine the effectiveness of Pilates for improving women's health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Women's status and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth in Uttar Pradesh: a mixed methods study using cultural health capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Treleaven, Emily; Melo, Jason; Singh, Kanksha; Diamond-Smith, Nadia

    2016-10-28

    Mistreatment of women in healthcare settings during childbirth has been gaining attention globally. Mistreatment during childbirth directly and indirectly affects health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and the likelihood of delivering in a facility currently or in the future. It is important that we study patients' reports of mistreatment and abuse to develop a deeper understanding of how it is perpetrated, its consequences, and to identify potential points of intervention. Patients' perception of the quality of care is dependent, not only on the content of care, but importantly, on women's expectations of care. This study uses rich, mixed-methods data to explore women's characteristics and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth among slum-resident women in Uttar Pradesh, India. To understand the ways in which women's social and cultural factors influence their expectations of care and consequently their perceptions of respectful care, we adopt a Cultural Health Capital (CHC) framework. The quantitative sample includes 392 women, and the qualitative sample includes 26 women. Quantitative results suggest high levels of mistreatment (over 57 % of women reported any form of mistreatment). Qualitative findings suggest that lack of cultural health capital disadvantages patients in their patient-provider relationships, and that women use resources to improve care they receive. Participants articulated how providers set expectations and norms regarding behaviors in facilities; patients with lower social standing may not always understand standard practices and are likely to suffer poor health outcomes as a result. Of importance, however, patients also blame themselves for their own lack of knowledge. Lack of cultural health capital disadvantages women during delivery care in India. Providers set expectations and norms around behaviors during delivery, while women are often misinformed and may have low expectations of care.

  11. Workshop on Women of Applied Mathematics: Research and Leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianne P. O' Leary; Tamara G. Kolda

    2004-09-28

    We held a two and a half day workshop on Women of Applied Mathematics: Research and Leadership at the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland, October 8--10, 2003. The workshop provided a technical and professional forum for eleven senior women and twenty-four early-career women in applied mathematics. Each participant committed to an outreach activity and publication of a report on the workshop's web site. The final session of the workshop produced recommendations for future action.

  12. Traditional Methods which are Known and Applied in order to Achieve Voluntary Abortion by Married Women Living in Elazig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza (Nazik Sevindik

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study have been performed in order to describe traditional methods which are known and applied for achieving voluntary abortion by married women living in downtown of Elazig. 426 women have been selected rely on the fifteen years old and married by the represantive 67500 living women in the downtown Elazig. It has been reached to 417 women at repetetive visits. Mean age of women is 36,39±10,26, first pregnancy years are 19,96±4,99, first birth age is 20,02±6,05. Numbers of avarage pregnancy are 3,61±0,12, numbers of voluntary abortion is 0,32±0,04. Voluntary abortion rate is %18,2. %93 of women have stated that they know at least one traditional abortion method, and %19,7 of women declared that they used traditional abortion methods. %14,9 of them stated that they lift a heavy furniture or goods, while %8,2 drink flu drug and asprin, %11,3 jump rope and jump by shaking from high where, %4,8 put a poultry quill, matchstick and knitting needle into uterus, %3,6 put a mallow or aubergine root into uterus servicks, %2,6 drink a boiled quinine henna and mallow, %3,1 sit into vapour of boiled straw or parsley by milk during stomacache, and %10,8 shake a carpet. As education level of women decrase, usage of traditional abortion methods increase (p=0,001. In order to decrease the use of these unsafe methods, public education, increasing usage of family planning services, and prevention of unwanted pregnancies should be obtained. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 321-324

  13. Traditional Methods which are Known and Applied in order to Achieve Voluntary Abortion by Married Women Living in Elazig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza (Nazik Sevindik

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study have been performed in order to describe traditional methods which are known and applied for achieving voluntary abortion by married women living in downtown of Elazig. 426 women have been selected rely on the fifteen years old and married by the represantive 67500 living women in the downtown Elazig. It has been reached to 417 women at repetetive visits. Mean age of women is 36,39±10,26, first pregnancy years are 19,96±4,99, first birth age is 20,02±6,05. Numbers of avarage pregnancy are 3,61±0,12, numbers of voluntary abortion is 0,32±0,04. Voluntary abortion rate is %18,2. %93 of women have stated that they know at least one traditional abortion method, and %19,7 of women declared that they used traditional abortion methods. %14,9 of them stated that they lift a heavy furniture or goods, while %8,2 drink flu drug and asprin, %11,3 jump rope and jump by shaking from high where, %4,8 put a poultry quill, matchstick and knitting needle into uterus, %3,6 put a mallow or aubergine root into uterus servicks, %2,6 drink a boiled quinine henna and mallow, %3,1 sit into vapour of boiled straw or parsley by milk during stomacache, and %10,8 shake a carpet. As education level of women decrase, usage of traditional abortion methods increase (p=0,001. In order to decrease the use of these unsafe methods, public education, increasing usage of family planning services, and prevention of unwanted pregnancies should be obtained. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 321-324

  14. The impact of African ethnicity and migration on pregnancy in women living with HIV in the UK: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Shema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of reported pregnancies in women with diagnosed HIV in the UK increased from 80 in 1990 to over 1400 in 2010; the majority were among women born in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a paucity of research on how social adversity impacts upon pregnancy in HIV positive women in the UK; furthermore, little is known about important outcomes such as treatment uptake and return for follow-up after pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine pregnancy in African women living with HIV in the UK. Methods and design This was a two phase mixed methods study. The first phase involved analysis of data on approximately 12,000 pregnancies occurring between 2000 and 2010 reported to the UK’s National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. The second phase was based in London and comprised: (i semi-structured interviews with 23 pregnant African women living with HIV, 4 health care professionals and 2 voluntary sector workers; (ii approximately 90 hours of ethnographic fieldwork in an HIV charity; and (iii approximately 40 hours of ethnographic fieldwork in a Pentecostal church. Discussion We have developed an innovative methodology utilising epidemiological and anthropological methods to explore pregnancy in African women living with HIV in the UK. The data collected in this mixed methods study are currently being analysed and will facilitate the development of appropriate services for this group.

  15. Nutritional evaluation of working Malay women in Kuala Lumpur as studied by total food duplicate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, S; Moon, C S; Zhang, Z W; Watanabe, T; Ismail, N H; Ali, R M; Noor, I; Nakatsuka, H; Ikeda, M

    1996-10-01

    Nutrient intake was surveyed by the total food duplicate method in 49 adult ethnically Malay women (at the ages of 18 to 47 years and mostly at 30-39 years) working in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Simultaneously, hematological examinations, serum biochemistry, anthropometry and clinical examination were conducted. Nutrient intakes were estimated in reference to the weight of each food item and the standard food composition tables. Lunch was the most substantial meal of the day with rice as a staple food. Compared with the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values, daily intakes of energy (1,917 kcal as an arithmetic mean), protein (62.2 g), vitamin B1 (0.83 mg) and vitamin B2 (1.18 mg) were sufficient, but intakes of minerals [i.e., calcium (347.8 mg) and iron (12.5 mg)] and some vitamins [i.e., vitamin A (equivalent to 627 micrograms retinol) and niacin (7.84 mg)] were less than RDA. When evaluated on an individual basis, the prevalence of those who took less than 80% RDA was highest for iron (92%), followed by niacin (80%), calcium (57%) and vitamin A (57%). The presence of 7 hypohemoglobinemia cases may be related to the insufficient iron intake. Overweight cases (14 women) were also detected, the prevalence of which increased at advanced ages. Lipid intake was rather high (28% of total food on energy basis), for which the major source was plants with limited contribution from fish/shellfish.

  16. Examining Delivery Method and Infant Feeding Intentions between Women in Traditional and Non-Traditional Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risisky, Deb; Chan, Ronna L; Zigmont, Victoria A; Asghar, Syed Masood; DeGennaro, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    Introduction The purpose of the study is to evaluate delivery method and breastfeeding initiation in women enrolled in group prenatal care (CenteringPregnancy) and in traditional prenatal care. Methods Data were obtained from medical records of a hospital-based midwifery practice in south central Connecticut that offered both types of prenatal care programs. Medical information from 307 women enrolled in this practice was included in the analysis. Out of the 307, 80 were enrolled in group prenatal care. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, and previous and current obstetrical information from medical records formed the basis of comparison. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results Women in Centering had fewer planned cesarean sections (1.3 vs. 12.8%) and had a higher breastfeeding initiation (88.7 vs. 80.0%). However, Centering women were found to have a higher portion of unplanned cesarean sections (27.5 vs. 11.0%). Both the unadjusted and the adjusted odds ratios of having a cesarean planned delivery were lower in the group care. Women in Centering had 2.44 (95% CI 1.05, 5.66) times the odds of breastfeeding initiation compared to the odds for women in traditional prenatal care after adjusting for maternal age, smoking status, gestation and race. Discussion CenteringPregnancy can have positive impact for the woman and baby. This program implementation saw lower rates of elective cesarean sections and increased breastfeeding compared to women in traditional care.

  17. ULTRACAVITATION METHOD OF EVALUATION IN THE REDUCTION OF LOCALIZED FAT IN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Petraglia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated cosmetic fat reduction methods that cause localized lipolysis and that are not invasive. The use of a differentiated ultrasound called Ultracavitation was evaluated, it causes reduction of localized fat in the infra abdominal region. 30 women aged 30-45 years old, healthy, sedentary were evaluated; they were separated into two groups subjected to 12 treatment sessions in infra abdominal region, once a week, alone or combined with aerobic exercise. Photographic recording was performed for comparison, determining the infra abdominal circumference and the amount of glycerol in urine samples of the participants, which was measured via reactions catalyzed by glycerol kinase, glycerol phosphate oxidase and peroxidase enzymes. The use of Ultracavitation associated with the treadmill or without it had a relevant result. The measurement of glycerol in the urine samples did not present statistically a significant result.

  18. Methods in Teaching Region and Diversity in U.S. Western Women's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Abernathy, Brenda K.

    2013-01-01

    History teachers may well feel challenged with the task of bringing women into their American West curriculums due to the great diversity of women in the West during the nineteenth century. At the same time, the past thirty years or so have produced a plethora of monographs, articles, and primary source collections on women in the American West.…

  19. Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  20. Women's Satisfaction in the Superintendency: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Alisha A.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of female superintendents as they relate to job satisfaction and retention. State department of education websites were consulted to obtain the number of women superintendents by state for 2015. From the list, 3,364 women superintendents were identified. The women represent 25% of U.S.…

  1. Mobile phones are a viable option for surveying young Australian women: a comparison of two telephone survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Households with fixed-line telephones have decreased while mobile (cell phone ownership has increased. We therefore sought to examine the feasibility of recruiting young women for a national health survey through random digit dialling mobile phones. Methods Two samples of women aged 18 to 39 years were surveyed by random digit dialling fixed and mobile numbers. We compared participation rates and responses to a questionnaire between women surveyed by each contact method. Results After dialling 5,390 fixed-lines and 3,697 mobile numbers, 140 and 128 women were recruited respectively. Among women contacted and found to be eligible, participation rates were 74% for fixed-lines and 88% for mobiles. Taking into account calls to numbers where eligibility was unknown (e.g. unanswered calls the estimated response rates were 54% and 45% respectively. Of women contacted by fixed-line, 97% reported having a mobile while 61% of those contacted by mobile reported having a fixed-line at home. After adjusting for age, there were no significant differences between mobile-only and fixed-line responders with respect to education, residence, and various health behaviours; however compared to those with fixed-lines, mobile-only women were more likely to identify as Indigenous (OR 4.99, 95%CI 1.52-16.34 and less likely to live at home with their parents (OR 0.09, 95%CI 0.03-0.29. Conclusions Random digit dialling mobile phones to conduct a health survey in young Australian women is feasible, gives a comparable response rate and a more representative sample than dialling fixed-lines only. Telephone surveys of young women should include mobile dialling.

  2. Optimal Methods to Screen Men and Women for Intimate Partner Violence: Results from an Internal Medicine Residency Continuity Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Nitin A.; Windish, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Contradictory data exist regarding optimal methods and instruments for intimate partner violence (IPV) screening in primary care settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal method and screening instrument for IPV among men and women in a primary-care resident clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study at an urban, academic,…

  3. Examining the influence of mental health on dual contraceptive method use among college women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melanie; Kwitowski, Melissa; Javier, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    To examine mental health influences on dual contraceptive method use (i.e., the use of a hormonal contraceptive or intrauterine device with a condom barrier) among college women. Data from N=307 sexually active women who completed the 2014 National College Health Assessment at a large mid-Atlantic university were analyzed. Following chi-square tests of associations, multivariate logistic regressions examined the relation between mental health and sociodemographic factors and dual contraceptive method use. Among all women, 27% utilized a dual contraceptive method during last vaginal intercourse. A prior depressive disorder diagnosis was significantly associated with lower odds of dual method use compared to use of other contraceptive methods combined (aOR, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.19-0.79), use of no method (aOR, 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03-0.55), or use of hormonal contraceptives only (aOR, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.85). Mental health is an important contributor to contraceptive method use. Health care providers should consider the role of mental health when counseling women about contraceptive options during routine gynecological visits. Results suggest that mental health screenings may be helpful in identifying those most at risk for not using dual contraceptive methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of anaerobic threshold determined by visual and mathematical methods in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, M N; Silva, E; Neves, V F C; Catai, A M; Gallo, L; Silva de Sá, M F

    2007-04-01

    Several methods are used to estimate anaerobic threshold (AT) during exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare AT obtained by a graphic visual method for the estimate of ventilatory and metabolic variables (gold standard), to a bi-segmental linear regression mathematical model of Hinkley's algorithm applied to heart rate (HR) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) data. Thirteen young (24 +/- 2.63 years old) and 16 postmenopausal (57 +/- 4.79 years old) healthy and sedentary women were submitted to a continuous ergospirometric incremental test on an electromagnetic braking cycloergometer with 10 to 20 W/min increases until physical exhaustion. The ventilatory variables were recorded breath-to-breath and HR was obtained beat-to-beat over real time. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Friedman test and Spearman correlation test with the level of significance set at 5%. Power output (W), HR (bpm), oxygen uptake (VO2; mL kg(-1) min(-1)), VO2 (mL/min), VCO2 (mL/min), and minute ventilation (VE; L/min) data observed at the AT level were similar for both methods and groups studied (P > 0.05). The VO2 (mL kg(-1) min(-1)) data showed significant correlation (P automatic, non-invasive and objective AT measurement.

  5. ?Look at the Whole Me?: A Mixed-Methods Examination of Black Infant Mortality in the US through Women?s Lived Experiences and Community Context

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Green, Carmen; Richardson, Lisa; Theall, Katherine; Crear-Perry, Joia

    2017-01-01

    In the US, the non-Hispanic Black infant mortality rate exceeds the rate among non-Hispanic Whites by more than two-fold. To explore factors underlying this persistent disparity, we employed a mixed methods approach with concurrent quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis. Eighteen women participated in interviews about their experience of infant loss. Several common themes emerged across interviews, grouped by domain: individual experiences (trauma, grieving and counseling; ...

  6. Dual use of condoms with other contraceptive methods among adolescents and young women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Crystal P; Whiteman, Maura K; Kraft, Joan Marie; Zapata, Lauren B; Hillis, Susan D; Curtis, Kathryn M; Anderson, John; Pazol, Karen; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2014-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with dual method use (i.e., condom with hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device) among adolescents and young women in the United States. We used 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth data from 2,093 unmarried females aged 15-24 years and at risk for unintended pregnancy. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the associations between dual method use at last sex and sociodemographic, behavioral, reproductive history, and sexual behavior factors. At last sex, 20.7% of adolescents and young women used dual methods, 34.4% used condoms alone, 29.1% used hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device alone, and 15.8% used another method or no method. Factors associated with decreased odds of dual method use versus dual method nonuse included having a previous pregnancy (aOR = .44, 95% CI .27-.69), not having health insurance coverage over the past 12 months (aOR = .41, 95% CI .19-.91), and having sex prior to age 16 (aOR = .49, 95% CI .30-.78). The prevalence of dual method use is low among adolescents and young women. Adolescents and young women who may have a higher risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (e.g., those with a previous pregnancy) were less likely to use dual methods at last sex. Interventions are needed to increase the correct and consistent use of dual methods among adolescents and young women who may be at greater risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. "Tension" in South Asian women: developing a measure of common mental disorder using participatory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasz, Alison; Patel, Viraj; Kabita, Mahbhooba; Shimu, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Although common mental disorder (CMD) is highly prevalent among South Asian immigrant women, they rarely seek mental treatment. This may be owing in part to the lack of conceptual synchrony between medical models of mental disorder and the social models of distress common in South Asian communities. Furthermore, common mental health screening and diagnostic measures may not adequately capture distress in this group. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is ideally suited to help address measurement issues in CMD as well as to develop culturally appropriate treatment models. To use participatory methods to identify an appropriate, culturally specific mental health syndrome and develop an instrument to measure this syndrome. We formed a partnership between researchers, clinicians, and community members. The partnership selected a culturally specific model of emotional distress/illness, "tension," as a focus for further study. Partners developed a scale to measure Tension and tested the new scale on 162 Bangladeshi immigrant women living in the Bronx. The 24-item "Tension Scale" had high internal consistency (α = 0.83). On bivariate analysis, the scale significantly correlated in the expected direction with depressed as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), age, education, self-rated health, having seen a physician in the past year, and other variables. Using participatory techniques, we created a new measure designed to assess CMD in an isolated immigrant group. The new measure shows excellent psychometric properties and will be helpful in the implementation of a community-based, culturally synchronous intervention for depression. We describe a useful strategy for the rapid development and field testing of culturally appropriate measures of mental distress and disorder.

  8. Use of traditional and modern contraceptives among childbearing women: findings from a mixed methods study in two southwestern Nigerian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Akpan, Wilson

    2018-05-09

    Contraceptive use has numerous health benefits such as preventing unplanned pregnancies, ensuring optimum spacing between births, reducing maternal and child mortality, and improving the lives of women and children in general. This study examines the level of contraceptive use, its determinants, reasons for non-use of contraception among women in the reproductive age group (18-49 years) in two southwestern Nigerian states. The study adopted an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data from 809 participants selected using a 3-stage cluster random sampling technique. We also conducted 46 in-depth interviews. In order to investigate the association between the socio-demographic variables and use of contraceptive methods, we estimated the binary logistic regression models. The findings indicated that knowledge of any methods of contraception was almost universal among the participants. The rates of ever use and current use of contraception was 80 and 66.6%, respectively. However, only 43.9% of the participants had ever used any modern contraceptive methods, considered to be more reliable. The fear of side effects of modern contraceptive methods drove women to rely on less effective traditional methods (withdrawal and rhythm methods). Some women employed crude and unproven contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancies. Our findings show that the rate of contraceptive use was high in the study setting. However, many women chose less effective traditional contraceptive methods over more effective modern contraceptive methods due to fear of side effects of the latter. Patient education on the various options of modern contraceptives, their side effects and management would be crucial towards expanding the family planning services in the study setting.

  9. Migration and its influence on the knowledge and usage of birth control methods among Afghan women who stay behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosen, I; Siegel, M

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the link between migration and knowledge and use of birth control methods among female household members (of migrants) who stay behind in Afghanistan. Migrants can remit birth control information received in the destination country to non-migrants staying in the origin country, who may as a consequence adjust their health behaviour accordingly. The consequences of this interaction for knowledge and use are what we aim to test. Population-based secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. This study used cross-sectional data from the Afghan Mortality Survey (2010). Using ordinary least squares regression and propensity score matching, this research studies to what extent having a migrant in the household influences the knowledge and use of birth control among non-migrant Afghan women. Women who stay behind are defined in this research as those with a migrant household member who moved between 2005 and 2010. Results indicated that non-Pashtun women with a migrant household member showed greater knowledge of contraceptive methods using injectables, birth control pill and lactational amenorrhea method compared to those women without a migrant household member. Less knowledge of male sterilisation and emergency contraception is observed for all women (both Pashtun and non-Pashtun) with a migrant in their household on male sterilisation and emergency contraception compared to the women without a migrant in the household. In addition, we show that Pashtun women with a migrant in the household had lower levels of overall knowledge and were less likely to use birth control methods than women without a migrant household member. In Afghanistan, given the proximity, religious similarity and sociocultural customs mainly men migrate either to Pakistan or Iran. The findings suggest that migrants in different destination countries transfer different information (or fail to successfully transfer information) about birth control methods

  10. Role of newer methods of diagnosing genital tuberculosis in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetika Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital tuberculosis is an important under-diagnosed factor of infertility. A vast majority of cases are asymptomatic and diagnosing them will help in treating such patients. We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi with an aim to compare different methods i.e., histopathological examination (HPE, acid-fast bacilli (AFB smears, Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ culture, BACTEC culture and polymerase chain reaction deoxyribonucleic acid (PCR-DNA for diagnosing endometrial tuberculosis in infertile women. The data from 546 samples of endometrial biopsy histopathology, AFB smears and LJ culture was collected and then analyzed. Of these, HPE for tuberculosis was positive in 13, LJ culture in 10, AFB smear was positive in one case. BACTEC and PCR-DNA were feasible for 90 patients and PCR-DNA was positive in 20 and BACTEC in eight patients. Out of 20 patients with PCR positive results, 15 were only PCR positive and were subjected to hyster-laparoscopy and five had evidence of tuberculosis. Thus, none of the available tests can pick up all cases of genital tuberculosis, but conventional methods i.e., histopathology and LJ culture still has an important role in the diagnosis of endometrial tuberculosis in government setups where BACTEC and PCR are not performed routinely due to lack of resources.

  11. Ergonomic evaluation of conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking with women workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Sharma, D K

    2012-01-01

    Conventional and improved methods of aonla pricking were evaluated ergonomically on an experiment conducted for 20 minute with women workers. The working heart rate, energy expenditure rate, total cardiac cost of work and physiological cost of work with conventional tools varied from 93-102 beats.min-1, 6-7.5 kJ.min-1, 285-470 beats, 14 -23 beats.min-1 while with machine varied from 96-105 beats.min-1, 6.5-8 kJ.min-1 , 336-540 beats, 16-27 beats.min-1 respectively. OWAS score for conventional method was 2 indicating corrective measures in near future while with machine was 1 indicating no corrective measures. Result of Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire revealed that subjects complaint of pain in back, neck, right shoulder and right hand due to unnatural body posture and repetitive movement with hand tool. Moreover pricking was carried out in improper lighting conditions (200-300 lux) resulting into finger injuries from sharp edges of hand tool, whereas with machine no such problems were observed. Output with machine increased thrice than hand pricking in a given time. Machine was found useful in terms of saving time, increased productivity, enhanced safety and comfort as involved improved posture, was easy to handle and operate, thus increasing efficiency of the worker leading to better quality of life.

  12. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Lauren E.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45) of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61) of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability. PMID:26840336

  13. Dating Violence among High-Risk Young Women: A Systematic Review Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Joly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our systematic review identified 21 quantitative articles and eight qualitative articles addressing dating violence among high risk young women. The groups of high-risk young women in this review include street-involved, justice-involved, pregnant or parenting, involved with Child Protective Services, and youth diagnosed with a mental health issue. Our meta-analysis of the quantitative articles indicated that 34% (CI = 0.24–0.45 of high-risk young women report that they have been victims of physical dating violence and 45% (CI = 0.31–0.61 of these young women report perpetrating physical dating violence. Significant moderator variables included questionnaire and timeframe. Meta-synthesis of the qualitative studies revealed that high-risk young women report perpetrating dating violence to gain power and respect, whereas women report becoming victims of dating violence due to increased vulnerability.

  14. Radioimmunoassay method for measurement of plasma androstenedione. Its validation in ovulatory women and in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova Socorro Veras, Maria do; Silva e Rosa, Alzira Amelia; Moura, Marcos Dias de; Ferriano, Rui Alberto; Sa, Marcos Felipe Silva de

    1995-01-01

    The present paper has as objective the standardization of a radioimmunoassay method for measurement of androstenedione. Ethyl ether was used for plasma extraction. The sensitivity of the method was 6,8 pg/tube; the reproducibility (inter assay error) was 15,6%; the precision (intrassay error) was 5,2%. As biological control, 20 ovulatory women showed median plasma values of 1250 pg/ml and 24 women with polycystic ovary syndrome presented median plasma values of 2.037 pg/ml. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. A combined enrichment/polymerase chain reaction based method for the routine screening of Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Munari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is the most common cause of life-threatening infection in neonates. Guidelines from CDC recommend universal screening of pregnant women for rectovaginal GBS colonization. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a combined enrichment/PCR based method targeting the atr gene in relation to culture using enrichment with selective broth medium (standard method to identify the presence of GBS in pregnant women. Rectovaginal GBS samples from women at ≥36 weeks of pregnancy were obtained with a swab and analyzed by the two methods. A total of 89 samples were evaluated. The prevalence of positive results for GBS detection was considerable higher when assessed by the combined enrichment/PCR method than with the standard method (35.9% versus 22.5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the use of selective enrichment broth followed by PCR targeting the atr gene is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate test for GBS screening in pregnant women, allowing the detection of the bacteria even in lightly colonized patients. This PCR methodology may provide a useful diagnostic tool for GBS detection and contributes for a more accurate and effective intrapartum antibiotic and lower newborn mortality and morbidity.

  16. [[Method of forming a multiple attrition life table and its application to the study of nuptiality among women in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y

    1987-01-01

    Trends in marital status among women in China for the period 1950-1970 and for 1981 are analyzed using the multiple decrement life table method. The results confirm those obtained with traditional methods of data analysis. It is found that over the past 30 years, Chinese women have experienced a high rate of marriage and a low divorce rate. The significant increase in age at marriage and the lowering of the death rate have affected marital status at all ages. The development of a marital status life table permits the author to estimate current numbers of women in the four marital statuses of unmarried, currently married, widowed, and divorced by age and their future likelihood of changing marital status.

  17. Acculturation in the adaptation of Chinese-American women to breast cancer: a mixed-method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tzu-I; Morisky, Donald E; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T

    2011-12-01

    To explore how and to what extent acculturation and immigration affect Chinese-American immigrant women's breast cancer experience. Acculturation is an important indicator for immigrant health. Less empirical research has been conducted on the association between acculturation and breast cancer experience among Chinese immigrant women in the USA. A mixed methods study. A total of 107 Chinese-American women with breast cancer completed the structured questionnaire survey, and 16 women completed face-to-face in-depth interviews. In the quantitative findings, acculturation was related to health beliefs, social support and life stress. Cultural interpretations of the qualitative information are offered to show that breast cancer experience was intertwined with cultural adaptation in a given immigrant environment. Chinese cultural beliefs persistently, even after years of immigration, guide Chinese-American immigrant women to respond to breast cancer across the meaning of health and illness, family ties and involvement and social interaction. Our findings show that acculturation is related to health beliefs, social support and life stress in the trajectory of breast cancer adaptation among Chinese-American immigrant women. Life stresses derived from immigration bring additional difficulties for immigrant women living with cancer. This study pinpoints that traditional cultural beliefs and immigration stress may influence Chinese-American women to cope with breast cancer. To promote culturally sensitive cancer care for immigrants, healthcare professionals should be aware of and learn intercultural competence. Ethnic social support or outreach healthcare programme may benefit new immigrant families or the immigrant families, who lack social connection, to cope with cancer. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. A statistical method to calculate blood contamination in the measurement of salivary hormones in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Guilherme A; Patel, Jay P; Coote, Marg; Moreira, Jose C F; Gelain, Daniel P; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that salivary concentrations of certain hormones correlate with their respective serum levels. However, most of these studies did not control for potential blood contamination in saliva. In the present study we developed a statistical method to test the amount of blood contamination that needs to be avoided in saliva samples for the following hormones: cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and oxytocin. Saliva and serum samples were collected from 38 healthy, medication-free women (mean age=33.8±7.3yr.; range=19-45). Serum and salivary hormonal levels and the amount of transferrin in saliva samples were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Salivary transferrin levels did not correlate with salivary cortisol or estradiol (up to 3mg/dl), but they were positively correlated with salivary testosterone, progesterone and oxytocin (phormones in order to determine the level of blood contamination that might affect specific hormonal salivary concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A simple method for measuring sex-hormone binding protein (SHBP) - typical values in men and women and in pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafurt, C.A.; Estrada, R. de

    1978-01-01

    Assuming that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their binding proteins are similar to those between antigens and their antibodies, the authors describe how to determine SHBP activity by a dilution method analogous to that used for titration of antisera in radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following stages: (1) plasma dilution; (2) incubation of the dilution with 20,000dis/min of 1,2- 3 H-testosterone; (3) separation of the fraction of tracer bound to the SHBP by precipitation with ammonium sulphate; (4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant; and (5) plotting of the results on a graph where the axis of ordinates represents the quotient given by bound steroid over free steroid (U/L) and the abscissa represents the plasma dilutions. The values are expressed as the 50% bound titre. An advantage of the method is the higher sensitivity of the dilution curves in the steepest part where the 50% bound is encountered; it is thus not necessary to use the saturation part of the curves where sensitivity is lost owing to the steeper slope. A further advantage of the method is that there is no need for costly processes such as dialysis. The SHBP values obtained for healthy subjects were as follows: 1/5 for men, 1/93 for women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. These physiological values showed no overlapping. (author)

  20. Danish method study on cervical screening in women offered HPV vaccination as girls (Trial23): a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Andersen, Berit; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Christensen, Jette; Johansen, Tonje; Hariri, Jalil; Christiansen, Sanne; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2018-05-26

    The first birth cohorts of women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination as girls are now entering cervical screening. However, there is no international consensus on how to screen HPV vaccinated women. These women are better protected against cervical cancer and could therefore be offered less intensive screening. Primary HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology, allowing for a longer screening interval. The aim of Trial23 is to investigate if primary HPV testing with cytology triage of HPV positive samples is a reasonable screening scheme for women offered HPV vaccination as girls. Trial23 is a method study embedded in the existing cervical screening programme in four out of five Danish regions. Without affecting the screening programme, women born in 1994 are randomised to present screening with liquid-based cytology every third year (present programme arm) or present screening plus an HPV test (HPV arm). The study started 1 February 2017 and will run over three screening rounds corresponding to 7-8 years. The primary endpoint is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or above. The trial is undertaken as a non-inferiority study including intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. The potential effect of primary HPV screening with a 6-year interval will be calculated from the observed data. The study protocol has been submitted to the ethical committee and deemed a method study. All women are screened according to routine guidelines. The study will contribute new evidence on the future screening of HPV vaccinated birth cohorts of women. All results will be published in open-access journal. NCT03049553; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Contraceptive use and method choice among women with opioid and other substance use disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terplan, Mishka; Hand, Dennis J; Hutchinson, Melissa; Salisbury-Afshar, Elizabeth; Heil, Sarah H

    2015-11-01

    To systematically review the literature on contraceptive use by women with opioid and other substance use disorders in order to estimate overall contraceptive use and to examine method choice given the alarmingly high rate of unintended pregnancy in this population. Pubmed (1948-2014) and PsycINFO (1806-2014) databases were searched for peer-reviewed journal articles using a systematic search strategy. Only articles published in English and reporting contraceptive use within samples of women with opioid and other substance use disorders were eligible for inclusion. Out of 580 abstracts reviewed, 105 articles were given a full-text review, and 24 studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority (51%) of women in these studies reported using opioids, with much smaller percentages reporting alcohol and cocaine use. Across studies, contraceptive prevalence ranged widely, from 6%-77%, with a median of 55%. Results from a small subset of studies (N=6) suggest that women with opioid and other substance use disorders used contraception less often than non-drug-using comparison populations (56% vs. 81%, respectively). Regarding method choice, condoms were the most prevalent method, accounting for a median of 62% of contraceptives used, while use of more effective methods, especially implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs), was far less prevalent 8%. Women with opioid and other substance use disorders have an unmet need for contraception, especially for the most effective methods. Offering contraception services in conjunction with substance use treatment and promoting use of more effective methods could help meet this need and reduce unintended pregnancy in this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Distress among women taking part in surgical continuity of care for breast cancer - a mixed methods study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lone

    during breast cancer trajectory. Overall, distress has been linked to suffering, and lower quality of life, increased admission rates, and greater health care costs. This thesis uses mixed methods to investigate the prevalence of distress among women taking part in surgical continuity of care at time...

  3. The importance of male partner involvement for women's acceptability and adherence to female-initiated HIV prevention methods in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Elizabeth T; van der Straten, Ariane; Chidanyika, Agnes; Chipato, Tsungai; Jaffar, Shabbar; Padian, Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Enlisting male partner involvement is perceived as an important component of women's successful uptake of female-initiated HIV prevention methods. We conducted a longitudinal study among a cohort of 955 Zimbabwean women participating in a clinical trial of the effectiveness of a female-initiated HIV prevention method (the diaphragm and lubricant gel) to: (a) describe the extent to which women involved their male partners in the decision to use the study products, and (b) measure the effect perceived male partner support had on their acceptability and consistent use of these methods. Reported levels of male partner involvement in discussions and decisions regarding: joining the study, study activities, the outcome of HIV/STI test results, and product use were very high. In multivariate analyses, regular disclosure of study product use and partner approval for the diaphragm and gel were significantly associated with women's acceptability and consistent use of the products; an essential component for determining efficacy of investigational prevention methods. These results support the need for more sophisticated measurement of how couples interact to make decisions that impact study participation and investigational product use as well as more rigorous adaptations and evaluations of existing strategies to involve male partners in female-initiated HIV prevention trials.

  4. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  5. Qualitative Research Methods to Advance Research on Health Inequities among Previously Incarcerated Women Living with HIV in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Courtenay; Scanlon, Michael L.; Pantalone, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Justice-involved HIV-positive women have poor health outcomes that constitute health inequities. Researchers have yet to embrace the range of qualitative methods to elucidate how psychosocial histories are connected to pathways of vulnerability to HIV and incarceration for this key population. We used life course narratives and…

  6. Understanding the Experiences of Women, Graduate Student Stress, and Lack of Marital/Social Support: A Mixed Method Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Tolliver, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how women attending graduate degree programs in public universities in Virginia were affected by such issues as stress and lack of marital/social support. Utilizing a mixed method approach for data collection, 23 participants completed demographic data, an essay response, and the PSS-10 Stress Scale; 8 were…

  7. Self-concept and sexuality of spinal cord injured women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, M D; Salisbury, S; Davies, N H; Mayclin, D K

    1978-03-01

    Differences in perceived self-concept and sexual response before and after spinal cord injury were examined. Twenty-four women between the ages of 20 and 40 completed a questionnaire and participated in a brief taped interview. Most of the women viewed themselves as very or somewhat attractive and had been involved in a sexual relationship since injury. The majority viewed sexual relationships as very enjoyable, although many commented that changes in bowel and bladder function had inhibited sexual expression. The need for more effective sexual counseling was highlighted. A trend was noted for an interrelationship between sexuality and self-concept in adapting to acquired disability.

  8. The Function of Vulnerable and at-risk Women in Prevention of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Kolahi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Regarding little information about sexual behavior of vulnerable women to AIDS, mentioned in the second report of Ministry of Health and Medical Education (2006, this study has been conducted to determine the function of vulnerable and at-risk women to AIDS in Tehran in 2009.

     

    Methods: This descriptive study was done on 128 vulnerable and at-risk women who participated in this study in Tehran in 2009. The samples were a combination of available visitor passed to Drop-in Centers, behavioral or triangular clinic and those who were introduced by participant women through Respondent Driven Sampling. Data were collected by trained interviewers. Quantitative and qualitative descriptive statistics was reported as numbers, percentages, and, also, Mean and Standard deviation respectively. Analytical findings and determination of differentiations and correlation were evaluated based on Chi-squared test.

     

    Results: In this study only 22 (17.2% of participants mentioned that they have always used condom. Partner unwillingness was the most common reason (64% for not using condom. Twenty-four percent of participants have received free condom from triangular, Drop-in and health centers in the last year. Only 32(25% had done HIV test.

     

    Conclusion: The study showed the function of at-risk women in prevention of HIV/AIDS is not satisfactory. If the situation continues in this way, vulnerable women and society will be at more risk.

     

  9. Improvement of the facial evenness of leave-on skincare products by a modified application method in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y; Wang, X; Fan, G

    2015-04-01

    To understand the habits of Chinese women applying leave-on skincare products (LOSCP) and to improve female facial evenness of anti-ageing cosmetics through modifying facial skincare smear ways. A questionnaire on the method of applying LOSCP was distributed to 60 women with habit of using LOSCP. Their facial images before and after applying LOSCP were taken, and their positioning and grey value were used to analyse the effects of different applying methods on the uniformity of facial LOSCP. LOSCP including anti-ageing cosmetics have been widely used among Chinese women for a long time. However, some women do not concern how to properly apply LOSCP. In our survey, the main focal points of the face are forehead, malar region, cheek, mouth corners and chin when they looking into the mirror, and mouth corners and inner canthus are often overlooked when applying cosmetic products. The image analysis found that after applying the LOSCP, the greyscale of the forehead, glabella, malar region, upper lip region and jaw changed significantly whereas that of canthus, mouth corners and lateral cheek region was not significantly different. Applying an improved smear method (11-point method)could significantly increase the grey values of various facial areas. The way of Chinese women applying LOSCP may result in facial unevenness of skin products. By improving facial skincare smear method, one can make the products even in all facial areas, thereby ensuring the efficacy of anti-ageing cosmetics. Thus, further improvement and education regarding skincare is required. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. FSH to estradiol ratio can be used as screening method for mild cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestiantoro, A; Wiwie, M; Shadrina, A; Ibrahim, N; Purba, J S

    2017-12-01

    To determine the role of anthropometric measurement, menopausal symptoms and biochemical marker changes as screening methods for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in postmenopausal women Methods: A cross-sectional study included 282 postmenopausal women in Jakarta, further classified into two groups, with and without MCI. Some related variables such as age, body mass index (BMI), duration of menopause, vasomotor symptoms, hormone levels such as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, leptin, estradiol, and cognitive status, were assessed and analyzed. The FSH levels significantly correlated with MCI incidence (p = 0.018), along with the ratio of FSH/estradiol levels (p = 0.029) and ratio of FSH/soluble leptin receptor (p = 0.011), while other variables did not. By multivariate analysis, the ratio of FSH/estradiol was known as the most significant factor with a probability of having MCI in menopausal women of 1.15. Using the ROC curve, the threshold of the ratio FSH/estradiol to predict MCI was 1.94, with sensitivity 66.5% and specificity 46.8%. The ratio of FSH to estradiol (>1.94) can be used as a screening method for the occurrence of MCI in postmenopausal women.

  11. Mixed methods study of acupuncture treatment for chronic pelvic pain in women

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Ooi Thye

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as constant or intermittent lower, cyclical or non-cyclical abdominal pain of at least six months’ duration. In the United Kingdom, over 1 million women suffer from CPP, with an estimated annual healthcare cost above £150 million. The aetiology of CPP is unknown in up to 50% of women, and in the remainder, the symptoms of CPP is associated with endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, irritable bowel syndrome or painful bladder syndrome. CPP is ofte...

  12. Methods of evaluation of flexibility of women of 30-45 years in the process of employments by physical exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Directions of determination and estimation of flexibility are considered for the women of mature age. In an experiment 40 women took part in age 35-40. The methods of estimation of flexibility are resulted and development of flexibility status is analysed at this category of population. The system of physical exercises is offered for perfection of development of flexibility for women: conditionings under musical accompaniment (50 minutes; exercises with the use of fitballs (30 minutes; respiratory exercises by system of Strel'nikova (pump, lion cub, palms, to fill shoulders - 10 minutes. Exercises were executed at frequency of heart-throbs not more than 150 shots for a minute (during respiratory exercises and in the end - no less than 60 shots for a minute. Implementation of such exercises is recommended: power, on weakening of muscles, on the stretch of muscles.

  13. Efficacy of the Group Music and Imagery method (GrpMI) for women suffering from fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Fibromyalgia (FM) affects about 2-4% of the world population. Patients, mostly women, experience chronic widespread pain, fatigue, stiffness, sleep disturbances, and psychological disorders, especially depression and anxiety. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess...... the efficacy of Group Music and Imagery (GrpMI), including relaxation, music listening and spontaneous imagery, for subjective psychological wellbeing, functional capacity and health, pain perception, anxiety and depression in women with FM. Methods: Fifty-six women aged 35 to 65 (M = 51.3) diagnosed with FM...... groups found a significant increase in psychological wellbeing and a reduction in the rest of the variables, whereas the control groups only showed decreases in trait anxiety and trait depression. No significant differences were observed in the control groups at the follow-up, while the experimental...

  14. APPLICATION OF METHODS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN THE FORECAST OF DEVELOPMENT OF ADVERSE CURRENT OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN WOMEN

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    Roman Anatolyevich Yaskevich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study. Studying the possibility of using mathematical modeling methods for predicting the clinical course of arterial hypertension in women. Materials and methods. 84 women aged 20–60 years (mean age 45,3 years were examined. The survey included clinical, instrumental and laboratory methods of investigation. As a mathematical basis, we used a technique for structuring and analyzing heterogeneous statistical data under conditions of nonparametric uncertainty. Results. In the course of the conducted research on the results of mathematical modeling, using the pattern recognition technique, an individual set of signs (risk factors was formed from the list of indicators that predetermined the risk of development of the predicted state (complicated course of hypertension, which made it possible to construct forecast nomograms, medium and high risk of adverse course of AH in women, which will not only allow us to calculate the degree of risk, but also to determine the parameters of the required change of the level of managed risk factors that determine the presence in a high-risk zone, and, by influencing them to carry out preventive measures. It was found that the clinical course of hypertension in women is influenced by an increase in insulinemia, fasting and postprandial glycemia, BMI, OXC, and blood pressure, that is, a simtomocomplex of the metabolic syndrome. The conclusion. The use of the method of restructuring and analysis of heterogeneous statistical data in conditions of non-parametric uncertainty makes it possible to predict and evaluate the severity of the clinical course of AH in women. The most significant factors affecting the severity of the clinical course of hypertension in men are the indicators of insulinemia, glycemia, BMI, OXC, blood pressure levels.

  15. Cash transfers for HIV prevention: what do young women spend it on? Mixed methods findings from HPTN 068

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    Catherine MacPhail

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social grants have been found to have an impact on health and wellbeing in multiple settings. Who receives the grant, however, has been the subject of discussion with regards to how the money is spent and who benefits from the grant. Methods Using survey data from 1214 young women who were in the intervention arm and completed at least one annual visit in the HPTN 068 trial, and qualitative interview data from a subset of 38 participants, we examined spending of a cash transfer provided to young women conditioned on school attendance. Results We found that spending was largely determined and controlled by young women themselves and that the cash transfer was predominately spent on toiletries, clothing and school supplies. In interview data, young women discussed the significant role of cash transfers for adolescent identity, specifically with regard to independence from family and status within the peer network. There were almost no negative consequences from receiving the cash transfer. Conclusions We established that providing adolescents access to cash was not reported to be associated with social harms or negative consequences. Rather, spending of the cash facilitated appropriate adolescent developmental behaviours. The findings are encouraging at a time in which there is global interest in addressing the structural drivers of HIV risk, such as poverty, for young women. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01233531 (1 Nov 2010. First participant enrolled 5 March 2011.

  16. Infertility, Psychological Distress, and Coping Strategies among Women in Mali, West Africa: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rosanna F; Ross, Ratchneewan; GilillandJr, John L

    2018-03-01

    Relatively little is known about infertility and its consequences in Mali, West Africa where the context and culture are different from those of previously studied settings. This study therefore aimed to specifically examine infertility induced psychological distress and coping strategies among women in Mali. A convergent mixed-methods design-correlational cross-sectional and qualitative descriptive-guided the study. Fifty-eight infertile Malian women participated: 52 completed the Psychological Evaluation Test specific for infertility and a question on general health status, and 26 were interviewed in-depth. Over 20% scored above the cut-off point for psychological distress, and 48% described their general health as poor. There was no significant difference between women with primary vs. secondary infertility. The study found that infertile women lived with marital tensions, criticism from relatives, and stigmatization from the community. They experienced sadness, loneliness, and social deprivation. Coping strategies included traditional and biomedical treatments, religious faith and practices, and self-isolation. Health care professionals should provide holistic care for infertile women to meet their physical, spiritual, psychological, and social needs.

  17. Safety of a silicone elastomer vaginal ring as potential microbicide delivery method in African women: A Phase 1 randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Annaléne; Martins, Janine; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ramjee, Gita; Masenga, Gileard; Rees, Helen; van Niekerk, Neliëtte

    2018-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are in urgent need of female-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventative methods. Vaginal rings are one dosage form in development for delivery of HIV microbicides. However, African women have limited experience with vaginal rings. This Phase I, randomized, crossover trial assessed and compared the safety, acceptability and adherence of a silicone elastomer placebo vaginal ring, intended as a microbicide delivery method, inserted for a 12-week period in healthy, HIV-negative, sexually active women in South Africa and Tanzania. 170 women, aged 18 to 35 years were enrolled with 88 women randomized to Group A, using a placebo vaginal ring for 12 weeks followed by a 12-week safety observation period. 82 women were randomized to Group B and observed for safety first, followed by a placebo vaginal ring for 12 weeks. Safety was assessed by clinical laboratory assessments, pelvic/colposcopy examinations and adverse events. Possible carry-over effect was addressed by ensuring no signs or symptoms of genital irritation at crossover. No safety concerns were identified for any safety variables assessed during the trial. No serious adverse events were reported considered related to the placebo vaginal ring. Vaginal candidiasis was the most common adverse event occurring in 11% of participants during each trial period. Vaginal discharge (2%), vaginal odour (2%), and bacterial vaginitis (2%) were assessed as possibly or probably related to the vaginal ring. Thirty-four percent of participants had sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at screening, compared to 12% of participants who tested positive for STIs at crossover and the final trial visit. Three participants (2%) tested HIV positive during the trial. The silicone elastomer vaginal ring had no safety concerns, demonstrating a profile favorable for further development for topical release of antiretroviral-based microbicides.

  18. Low Utilization of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Manu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malaria in pregnancy leads to low birth weight, premature birth, anaemia, and maternal and neonatal mortality. Use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs during pregnancy is one of the proven interventions to reduce the malaria burden. However, Ghana has not achieved its target for ITN use among pregnant women. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted in seven communities purposively selected from the middle belt of Ghana. Participants who had delivered in the six months prior to this study were selected. In all, seven focus group discussions and twenty-four in-depth interviews were conducted between June and August 2010. Results. Respondents knew of the importance of ITNs and other malaria-preventive strategies. Factors such as financial access and missed opportunities of free distribution denied some pregnant women the opportunity to own or use an ITN. Reasons for not using ITNs during pregnancy included discomfort resulting from heat, smell of the net, and difficulty in hanging the net. Participants maintained their ITNs by preventing holes in the nets, retreatment, and infrequent washing. Conclusion. Pregnant women know about the causes and prevention of malaria. However, this knowledge is not transformed into practice due to lack of access to ITNs and sleeping discomforts among other logistical constraints.

  19. Associations between yoga/meditation use, body satisfaction, and weight management methods: Results of a national cross-sectional survey of 8009 Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Sibbritt, David; Ostermann, Thomas; Fuller, Nicholas R; Adams, Jon; Cramer, Holger

    2017-02-01

    To analyze whether yoga or meditation use is associated with body (dis)satisfaction and weight control methods in Australian women. Women ages 34 to 39 y from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were surveyed regarding body satisfaction, weight control behaviors, and yoga and meditation practice. Associations of body satisfaction and weight control methods with yoga/meditation practice were analyzed using chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression modelling. Of the 8009 women, 49% were overweight or obese. Sixty-five percent of women with normal body mass index (BMI) and approximately 95% of women with overweight/obesity wanted to lose weight. At least one in four women with normal BMI was dissatisfied with body weight and shape, as were more than two in three women with overweight/obesity. The most common weight control methods included exercising (82.7%), cutting down meal sizes (76.8%), and cutting down sugars or fats (71.9%). Yoga/meditation was practiced frequently by 688 women (8.6%) and occasionally by 1176 women (14.7%). Yoga/meditation users with normal BMI were less likely dissatisfied with body weight and shape. All yoga/meditation users more likely exercised and followed a low glycemic diet or diet books; and women with obesity occasionally using yoga/meditation also more likely used fasting or smoking to lose weight. Yoga/meditation users with normal BMI appear to be more satisfied with their body weight and shape than non-yoga/meditation users. While women with normal BMI or overweight tend to rely on healthy weight control methods, women with obesity occasional using yoga/meditation may more likely utilize unhealthy weight control methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Contraceptive method choice and use by married women of reproductive age in two Districts of East Harerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiwak, Rahel; Seme, Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive method mix and choice is not uniform across all countries. Literatures have shown that a significant variation exists in contraceptive method mix among regions and countries. In Africa most mothers rely on short-term contraceptives such as pills and injectables or traditional methods while in Asia and Latin America permanent methods mainly male and female sterilizations are commonly used. Though long-term methods of contraception are recommended for its effectiveness and efficiencies in countries like Ethiopia where high fertility rate is a concern, its choice and utilization remains low. The main objective of the study was to assess factors influencing contraceptive method choice and use among married women of reproductive age in rural Districts of East Harerge Zone of Oromia Region. A community-based cross-sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted among 473 married women of reproductive age in two rural districts of East Harerge Zone. A systematic random sampling method was used to select the study participants from the list of all married women who have been using contraceptives in the project sites. Data was collected using structured and pretested questionnaires. Data entry and analysis was done using EPI Info version 6.04d and SPSS for Windows version 15, respectively. Frequencies and proportions were used for description while odds ratio with 95% CI was used to determine the strength and significance of association between independent and outcome variables. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to control confounding variables. A total of 473 currently married women who were using modern contraceptives were interviewed for the survey. About 6 in ten (58.8%) were in the age range of 25-34 years with the mean (+/- SD) age of 29.5 (+/- 5.7) years. About three-fourth (74%) were short-term contraceptive method users while only 26% were long-term contraceptive method users. Duration of family planning use

  1. Combining garden therapy and supported employment - a method for preparing women on long-term sick leave for working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, Eva; Alstersjö, Karin; Gurné, Frida L; Fransson, Sandra; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2016-06-01

    Women are overrepresented among the group people suffering from long-term illness. In addition to their illness, suffering long-term sick leave leads to economical restraints as well social distress. There are gaps in our understanding of the challenges these women face. There is also lack of knowledge about how these challenges can be effectively addressed in rehabilitation. This deficiency is problematic from an ethical, justice and a caring perspective. In this study, changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among women on long-term sick leave were investigated during and after participating in a rehabilitation programme combining two validated methods, Garden Therapy and Supported Employment (SE). The study also discusses difficulties in realising research related to vulnerable under-privileged people. From a population of 329 women who had reported their interest to participate, 245 were randomised to the programme. Of these 144 accepted participation in the research project and of these 123 women accepted to answer the SF-36 questionnaire. The participants were between 21 and 62 years with poor physical and mental health. They had received public financial support from 10 years. The SF-36 measurement was carried out at baseline, after completion of Garden Therapy and after completion of SE. The results are based on data of respondents who participated at all the three occasions (n = 52). When comparing HRQoL baseline with the following occasions, the participants' General Health (GH), Vitality (VT), Social Functioning (SF) and mental health had improved significantly. The Four Leaf Clover (FLC) programme could be an appropriate method for reducing socially induced suffering. However, to conduct intervention studies where vulnerable persons are involved, it is off vital importance to consider whether the participants have the strength to complete the intervention. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardon Anita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1 the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408 and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC services; 2 semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3 in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4 document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. Results The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90% report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. Conclusion To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously.

  3. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  4. Media Literacy as an Educational Method for Addressing College Women's Body Image Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Karen L.; Alexander, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of media literacy in the college classroom by comparing two modalities of learning, watching a video versus reading a text. The research questions guiding this project are: as teachers can we facilitate critical awareness among our students in order to alter the way women appropriate media images to evaluate…

  5. Health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with Jamkesmas health insurance in Indonesia: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mohamad I; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Fox, Matthew P; Wirtz, Veronika J; Feeley, Frank G; Sabin, Lora L

    2017-02-02

    The growing momentum for quality and affordable health care for all has given rise to the recent global universal health coverage (UHC) movement. As part of Indonesia's strategy to achieve the goal of UHC, large investments have been made to increase health access for the poor, resulting in the implementation of various health insurance schemes targeted towards the poor and near-poor, including the Jamkesmas program. In the backdrop of Indonesia's aspiration to reach UHC is the high rate of maternal mortality that disproportionally affects poor women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of health facility and skilled birth deliveries among poor women with and without Jamkesmas and explore perceived barriers to health insurance membership and maternal health service utilization. We used a mixed-methods design. Utilizing data from the 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (n = 45,607), secondary analysis using propensity score matching was performed on key outcomes of interest: health facility delivery (HFD) and skilled birth delivery (SBD). In-depth interviews (n = 51) were conducted in the provinces of Jakarta and Banten among poor women, midwives, and government representatives. Thematic framework analysis was performed on qualitative data to explore perceived barriers. In 2012, 63.0% of women did not have health insurance; 19.1% had Jamkesmas. Poor women with Jamkesmas were 19% (OR = 1.19 [1.03-1.37]) more likely to have HFD and 17% (OR = 1.17 [1.01-1.35]) more likely to have SBD compared to poor women without insurance. Qualitative interviews highlighted key issues, including: lack of proper documentation for health insurance registration; the preference of pregnant women to deliver in their parents' village; the use of traditional birth attendants; distance to health facilities; shortage of qualified health providers; overcrowded health facilities; and lack of health facility accreditation. Poor women with

  6. Diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae among pregnant women by culture method and PCR on cppB gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Mardaneh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a human obligate pathogen and the etiological agent of gonorrhea. Health irreparable complications resulting from gonorrhea disease occur mainly in pregnant women and neonates. Aim of this study was diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae among pregnant women with using culture and molecular method by amplification of cppB gene with PCR. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, two endocervical swab specimens were obtained from 1100 pregnant women who referred to Shiraz Hospitals. Culture on nonselective and selective media and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT were performed for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae cppB gene. Results: All endocervical swabs cultures on selective and nonselective media were negative for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Among examined endocervical swabs, 13samples (1.18% were positive by nucleic acid amplification of Neisseria gonorrgoeae cppB gene. Conclusion: Negative results of culture and positive results of PCR in this study indicate that however culture is gold standard method for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae but due to bacterial autolysis, poor sampling techniques and improper specimen storage and transport, its value decline as compared with Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT.

  7. High and Low Impact Aerobic Exercise as a Method of Early Prevention of Hypercholesterolaemia Development among Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hypercholesterolaemia is a highly prevalent condition that has major health- and cost-related implications for the society. Aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in healthy young women. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the impact of 9 weeks of low-high aerobic-type exercise on the lipid profile among young women. Methods. On the basis of the lipid profile, 64 women (median age, 21.8 years; range, 19.0-24.7 years were divided into two groups: with low (LRH and intermediate (IRH risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. The participants completed a 9-week-long low-high aerobic exercise programme. Before and after the training programme, we determined the lipid profile: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipoprotein cholesterol: HDL-C and LDL-C, and glucose levels. Selected cardiorespiratory fitness variables and body composition were also determined. Results. It was found that aerobic-type fitness exercise in the IRH group caused statistically significant decreases in TC and TG levels in comparison with baseline values. Significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake and decrease in HDL-C in the LRH group were also observed. Conclusions. Aerobic fitness exercises, a combination of two alternating styles, could influence the blood lipid profile by decreasing plasma TC and TG levels. In non-athlete women, physical activity may be a good tool to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Investigating the Relationship between Demographic Factors and Choice of Delivery Method in Pregnant Women in the City of Savojbolagh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Dadashi Eynsheykh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the increased rate of cesarean section in recent decades and natural desire of women probably due to social, economic& cultural issues in our country. While that in many cases, vaginal delivery can be replaced by unnecessary cesarean. In the absence of need the trend of cesarean section has implications for both future healthy populations and the equitable distribution of maternity resources. The aim of the present study was to investigate demographic factors associated with the choice of delivery method.In this descriptive cross- sectional study with a random sampling, 283 pregnant women who were referred for control of pregnancy to two primary health care centers two health base were interviewed by Completing the questionnaire. After gathering information data by SPSS software &via descriptive statistical indicators were analyzed.35/7% of pregnant women who were studied willing to perform cesarean section. There was a significant relationship between the having a history of cesarean section and referral place for control of pregnancy with selection of the labor type (P 0.001. The reasons for selection of cesarean section were fear of labor pain, Prevention of genital rupture & physician recommendation.The rate of selecting cesarean section is higher than acceptable World Health Organization. Therefore, careful planning should be done to raise awareness, improve attitudes and change false beliefs in pregnant women & their husbands by health service's personnel.

  9. "It is my business": A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Covert Contraceptive Use among Women in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Craig J; Grilo, Stephanie A; Song, Xiaoyu; Lutalo, Tom; Nakyanjo, Neema; Santelli, John S

    2018-03-04

    Covert contraceptive use (CCU) is the use of family planning without a partner's knowledge. This study sought to examine CCU prevalence among women living in Rakai, Uganda, predictors of CCU, and why women resort to CCU. We used data from women (15-49years) currently using contraceptives (oral contraceptives, Depo Provera, implants, intrauterine devices, and periodic abstinence) during Round 15 (2011-2013) of the Rakai Community Cohort Survey (n=2206). We utilized logistic regressions to analyze the association between self-reported CCU and current contraceptive method, sexual activity, experience of violence, and demographic data. We also used data from in-depth interviews (IDI) on HIV and reproductive health conducted in 2013-2016. CCU prevalence was 26%. In the multivariable model, being previously married (aOR=2.2 [1.7-2.9]), having no formal education (aOR=2.1 [1.1-3.9]), and experiencing physical violence (aOR=1.7 [1.3-2.2]) or having more than 1 sex partner (aOR=1.6 [1.2-2.2]) in the past 12months were CCU predictors. Advancing past primary school decreased the odds of CCU (aOR=0.7 [0.6-0.9]). HIV was positively associated with CCU in the unadjusted model, but not the adjusted. In the IDIs, women primarily resorted to CCU because of discordant fertility desires-coupled with financial insecurity, negative stereotypes towards contraceptives use, deteriorating health, and familial pressure to reproduce. One woman employed CCU because she feared being ostracized from her community. CCU is common amongst users of contraception and is used to hide family planning from partners and communities. Women that diverge from Uganda's cultural norms had higher odds of CCU. Clinicians and practitioners should be aware of CCU among their patients and should educate women on the wide variety of contraceptive methods to help them decide if their current covert method is best for their health and safety. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. First characterization of Candida albicans by random amplified polymorphic DNA method in Nicaragua and comparison of the diagnosis methods for vaginal candidiasis in Nicaraguan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello Martha Darce

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 106 women with vaginitis in Nicaragua were studied. The positive rate for the identification of Candida species was 41% (44 positive cultures out of 106 women with vaginitis. The sensitivity of microscopic examination of wet mount with the potassium hydroxide (KOH was 61% and 70% with Gram's stain when using the culture of vaginal fluid as gold standard for diagnosis of candidiasis. Among the 44 positives cultures, isolated species of yeast from vaginal swabs were C. albicans (59%, C. tropicalis (23%, C. glabrata (14% and C. krusei (4%. This study reports the first characterization of 26 C. albicans stocks from Nicaragua by the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. The genetic analysis in this small C. albicans population showed the existence of linkage disequilibrium, which is consistent with the hypothesis that C. albicans undergoes a clonal propagation.

  11. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  12. Twenty-Four Hour Structure of Vigilance under Prolonged Sleep Deprivation: Relationship with Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    MC: i I Ii atar 0V_ l - (1C)dVI IC I-o fla’.iUcr aniid S trog-tq3tZ. dummoi tsi~r acec Lio ie i stenicv Of "forbi ddern zones’’ for 51 ec.,i) inl data...1971, pp. 109-148. ""roughton, R. Fiorhythm.4c variations in consciousress and psychological functions. Canad. Psychol. Rev., 1975, 16%217-239. Campbell

  13. Twenty-four-hour shift work, depressive symptoms, and job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Ueno, Takeji; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2008-05-01

    The influence of a 24-hr shift-work burden on firefighters' mental health has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationships between specific workload items among firefighters engaged in 24-hr shift work and job stress as estimated by the generic job-stress questionnaire on depressive symptoms and job dissatisfaction from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The subjects were 1,301 firefighters. The questionnaire covered age, gender, job type, job class, marital status, smoking and drinking habits, number of attendances, turnout time, extra work hours, average nap-time, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and questions from the NIOSH generic job-stress questionnaire, including those on job satisfaction. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, a model that included all variables except the measures from the NIOSH generic job-stress questionnaire showed that shorter nap-time had significant higher odds ratios (ORs) for depressive symptoms and job dissatisfaction, but the significances disappeared in a fully adjusted model. In fully adjusted logistic regression analyses, low quantitative workload, low variance in workload, high intra- and intergroup conflict, low social support from a supervisor, high role conflict and ambiguity, and low self-esteem had significant higher ORs for depressive symptoms and/or job dissatisfaction. Amount of workload, variance in workload, intra- and intergroup conflict, social support from a supervisor, role conflict and ambiguity, and self-esteem were significantly related to depressive symptoms and/or job dissatisfaction among Japanese firefighters. Moreover, inadequate nap-time may affect their mental health. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Twenty-four-Hour Measurement of Intraocular Pressure in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Mehdi-Rajaei, Seyed; Sadjadi, Reza; Selk-Ghaffari, Masoud; Williams, David L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in intact, healthy guinea pigs (15 male, 15 female) every 2 h for a 24-h period. First, IOP was measured by using rebound tonometry (RBT). After a 1-min rest period, 0.5% proparacaine ophthalmic solution, a topical anesthetic, was applied to both eyes; 4 min after anesthetic instillation, IOP was measured by using applanation tonometry (APT). The IOP was lower during the light period (0700 to 1900) than during the dark phase (2000 to 0600). The lowest IOP by both RBT and APT (3.68 and 13.37 mm Hg, respectively) occurred at 0700, whereas maximal IOP occurred at 2300 for RBT (8.12 mm Hg) but at 2100 for APT (20.62 mm Hg). No significant differences in IOP between the left and right eyes or between RBT and APT were noted. In addition, daily variations in the IOP of guinea pigs seem to be independent of sex and body weight. The results of this study may be beneficial in the diagnosis and observation of glaucoma in guinea pigs.

  15. screening of twenty-four south african combretum species and six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Clement Adewunmi

    of finely ground plant material and extracting with 10 ml of acetone, hexane, ... chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (5:4:1): [CEF] (intermediate polarity/acidic); benzene/- ... This figure was used as the representative of all Combretum species and ... (bottom) solvent systems and sprayed with 0.2% DPPH in methanol. Yellow ...

  16. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure among Greenlanders and Danes: relationship to diet and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Pedersen, M.B.; Siggaard, Cecilie

    2002-01-01

    Greenlanders have a lower rate of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity than Danes, possibly due to lower blood pressure. However, 24-h blood pressure has never been measured in Greenlanders. The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h blood pressure of Greenlanders and Danes, and to analyse t...

  17. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelnes, R.

    1986-01-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery during day activities. During sleep, however, SBF increased by 80% (p less than 0.001). The relative changes in SBF from day to night at the postoperative examination did not differ from that of the control group, i.e., the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern had been obtained. These changes in SBF are explained by the reappearance of peripheral vasoregulatory mechanisms. Postreconstructive hyperemia was evaluated by the same technique. The changes in SBF following surgery in the positions supine, awake and supine, asleep were found to be insignificant (0.80 less than p less than 0.90). It is concluded that the long-term postreconstructive hyperemia merely is a reflection of the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern

  18. When Twenty-Four Hours Is Not Enough: Time Poverty of Working Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Andrew S.; Mukhopadhyay, Arun K.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals can be money poor, time poor or both. While income is the most used indicator of poverty, broader indexes including non-monetary aspects of deprivation have been proposed and measured. As one such measure, our study focuses on the element of deprivation arising from the time deficit of many working people. The usual poverty threshold…

  19. Immediate and Deferred Imitation in Fourteen- and Twenty-Four-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    1985-01-01

    A laboratory procedure was developed for assessing imitation in the second year of life. Results demonstrate that 14- and 24-month-olds can imitate a simple action with an unfamiliar object, both immediately and after a 24-hour delay. Implications for research design and theory of infant memory are discussed. (RH)

  20. Twenty-four year record of Northern Hemisphere snow cover derived from passive microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.; Brodzik, Mary Jo

    2003-04-01

    Snow cover is an important variable for climate and hydrologic models due to its effects on energy and moisture budgets. Seasonal snow can cover more than 50% of the Northern Hemisphere land surface during the winter resulting in snow cover being the land surface characteristic responsible for the largest annual and interannual differences in albedo. Passive microwave satellite remote sensing can augment measurements based on visible satellite data alone because of the ability to acquire data through most clouds or during darkness as well as to provide a measure of snow depth or water equivalent. It is now possible to monitor the global fluctuation of snow cover over a 24 year period using passive microwave data (Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) 1978-1987 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), 1987-present). Evaluation of snow extent derived from passive microwave algorithms is presented through comparison with the NOAA Northern Hemisphere snow extent data. For the period 1978 to 2002, both passive microwave and visible data sets show a smiliar pattern of inter-annual variability, although the maximum snow extents derived from the microwave data are consistently less than those provided by the visible statellite data and the visible data typically show higher monthly variability. During shallow snow conditions of the early winter season microwave data consistently indicate less snow-covered area than the visible data. This underestimate of snow extent results from the fact that shallow snow cover (less than about 5.0 cm) does not provide a scattering signal of sufficient strength to be detected by the algorithms. As the snow cover continues to build during the months of January through March, as well as on into the melt season, agreement between the two data types continually improves. This occurs because as the snow becomes deeper and the layered structure more complex, the negative spectral gradient driving the passive microwave algorithm is enhanced. Trends in annual averages are similar, decreasing at rates of approximately 2% per decade. The only region where the passive microwave data consistently indicate snow and the visible data do not is over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain areas. In the effort to determine the accuracy of the microwave algorithm over this region we are acquiring surface snow observations through a collaborative study with CAREERI/Lanzhou. In order to provide an optimal snow cover product in the future, we are developing a procedure that blends snow extent maps derived from MODIS data with snow water equivalent maps derived from both SSM/I and AMSR.

  1. Measured airtightness of twenty-four detached houses over periods of up to three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowskiw, G.

    1992-05-01

    A three year field study of 20 energy efficient houses and four conventional dwellings was conducted to evaluate the performance of their building envelope systems. Ten of the houses were built with polyethylene air barriers and 14 using the airtight drywall approach (ADA). All were newly built and used dry wood for framing members, i.e. with a wood moisture content (WMC) below 19%. Building envelope performace was evaluated by developing a comprehensive monitoring program which included measurements of wall, attic and floor joist WMC levels, detailed thermographic examinations and regular airtightness testing. Over 13,000 WMC measurements were performed, 1013 thermographic images recorded and 167 airtightness tests conducted. Both the energy efficient and conventional building envelope systems performed satisfactory manner although fewer problems were found in the energy efficient houses. Lower mean WMC levels were measured in the walls and attics and fewer WMC excursions above 19% were recorded. The energy efficient houses also displayed fewer thermographic anomalies, particulary those of a severe nature. The energy efficient houses were found to be more airtight. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in the energy efficient houses. Both the polyethylene air barriers and the ADA system demonstrated predominately stable WMC levels, thermographic characteristics and airtightness. The building envelopes constructed using polyethylene barriers generally performed in a superior fashion to those which used ADA, although both systems provided satisfactory performance. WMC levels were slightly lower in the polyethylene houses as were the number of thermographic faults, particularly those of a severe nature. 11 refs., 28 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Measured airtightness of twenty-four detached houses over periods of up to three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    A three year field study of 20 energy efficient houses and four conventional dwellings was conducted in Winnipeg, Manitoba to evaluate the performance of their building envelope systems. Ten of the houses were built with polyethylene air barriers and 14 using the Airtight Drywall Approach (ADA). All were newly constructed and used dry wood for the framing members with a wood moisture content (WMC) below 19 percent. Building envelope performance was evaluated by developing a comprehensive monitoring program which included measurements of wall, attic, and floor joist WMC levels, detailed thermographic examinations and regular airtightness testing. Over 13,000 WMC measurements were performed, 1,013 thermographic images recorded, and 167 airtightness tests conducted.

  3. 77 FR 47631 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Request for Comments on Twenty-Four Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... recover mercury, use mercury chlor-alkali cells to produce chlorine gas and alkali metal hydroxide, and...: NESHAP for Metal Furniture Surface Coating (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart RRRR). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number... Metals Foundries (40 CFR Part 63, Subpart ZZZZZZ). ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 2332.03, OMB Control...

  4. Conflict and the Common Good. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Twenty-Four.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robert S., Ed.; Willner, Dorothy, Ed.

    The fundamental theme of these papers is what constitutes the common good and the issues and problems related to the understanding of that common good. Several anthropologists and a political scientist explore this theme in various geographic settings and from many theoretical and methodological perspectives. Among the countries and cultures…

  5. Twenty-four hour blood flow in the forefoot after reconstructive vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, R

    1986-01-01

    Local blood flow in the forefoot (SBF) was measured continuously during 24 hours by 133xenon clearance technique in 10 patients prior to and at least 1 year after successful reconstructive vascular surgery for severe arterial insufficiency (mean: 18 months, range: 12-36). A group of 10 patients...... with normal peripheral circulation served as a control group. In spite of a considerable increase of the ankle/arm systolic blood pressure index--preoperative: 0.30 +/- 0.12, postoperative: 0.78 +/- 0.28 (mean +/- 1 SD)--the SBF decreased by 50% (p less than 0.001) following reconstructive vascular surgery...... during day activities. During sleep, however, SBF increased by 80% (p less than 0.001). The relative changes in SBF from day to night at the postoperative examination did not differ from that of the control group, i.e., the normal 24-hour blood flow pattern had been obtained. These changes in SBF...

  6. Osteochondral lesions in developing rats intoxicated with thallium twenty four hours after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Moguel, R; Villeda-Hernández, J; Méndez-Armenta, M; Ríos, C; Galván-Arzate, S

    1992-01-01

    An i.p. injection of a solution of thallium acetate in deionized water at a dose of 32 mg/kg, in 24-h-old rats, produces morphological and biochemical alterations in both cartilaginous and osseous tissues. From the beginning, there are alterations in the cartilaginous cell as well as in chrondrine, osteoblasts, osseous tissue and bone marrow. Rats were sacrificed at 24, 48, and 72 h and also at 7 days. Two animals survived for 50 days. One showed total irreversible alopecia while the other one had partial alopecia with discrete recovery. Both showed a low weight and a size of 8 cm. Microscopically, degenerative changes were produced consisting of alteration and death of many cartilaginous cells, uneven metachromasia and the chondrine and decrease of the growth cartilage, scanty bone trabeculae with few osteoblasts. The bone marrow showed few myeloblasts and megakaryocytes. Progressive cellular damage throughout the 50 days of survival represents a response of the thallium ionic accumulation and recycling in cellular mitochondria of all the body's cells. This appeared in our study as irreversible and progressive osteochondral alterations with atrophy of the skin and its adnexa, hyalinization of elastic and collagenous fibers with intense interstitial edema.

  7. Comparison between static stretching and the Pilates method on the flexibility of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Campos de; Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves de; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2016-10-01

    Flexibility decreases with advancing age and some forms of exercise, such as static stretching and Pilates, can contribute to the improvement of this physical ability. To compare the effects of static stretching and Pilates on the flexibility of healthy older women, over the age of 60 years. Thirty-two volunteers were randomized into two groups (Static stretching or Pilates) to perform exercises for 60 min, twice a week, for three months. Evaluations to analyze the movements of the trunk (flexion and extension), hip flexion and plantar and dorsiflexion of the ankle were performed before and after the intervention, using a fleximeter. The static stretching exercises improved the trunk flexion and hip flexion movements, while the Pilates improved all evaluated movements. However, over time, the groups presented differences only for the trunk extension movement. For some body segments, Pilates may be more effective for improving flexibility in older women compared to static stretching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT: a mixed-methods study in four African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardon, Anita; Vernooij, Eva; Bongololo-Mbera, Grace; Cherutich, Peter; Desclaux, Alice; Kyaddondo, David; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Neuman, Melissa; Wanyenze, Rhoda; Obermeyer, Carla

    2012-01-11

    Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1) the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study's main survey, conducted in 2008-09 among clients (N = 408) and providers at health facilities offering HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC) services; 2) semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 63 HIV-positive women on their experiences of stigma, disclosure, post-test counseling and access to follow-up psycho-social support; (3) in-depth interviews with key informants and PMTCT healthcare workers; and (4) document study of national PMTCT policies and guidelines. We quantitatively examined differences in the quality of counseling by country and by HIV status using Fisher's exact tests. The majority of pregnant women attending antenatal care (80-90%) report that they were explained the meaning of the tests, explained how HIV can be transmitted, given advice on prevention, encouraged to refer their partners for testing, and given time to ask questions. Our qualitative findings reveal that some women found testing regimes to be coercive, while disclosure remains highly problematic. 79% of HIV-positive pregnant women reported that they generally keep their status secret; only 37% had disclosed to their husband. To achieve better PMTCT outcomes, the strategy of testing women in antenatal care (perceived as an exclusively female domain) when they are already pregnant needs to be rethought. When scaling up HIV testing programs, it is particularly important that issues of partner disclosure are taken seriously.

  9. Randomized Trial of a Group Music and Imagery Method (GrpMI) for Women with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Esperanza; Pedersen, Inge N; Pérez-Fernández, José I

    2018-06-07

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects about 2-4% of the world population. Patients, mostly women, experience chronic widespread pain, fatigue, stiffness, sleep disturbances, and psychological disorders, especially depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to examine preliminary efficacy of a Group Music and Imagery (GrpMI) intervention, which included relaxation, music listening, and spontaneous imagery, to improve subjective psychological well-being, functional capacity and health, pain perception, anxiety, and depression in women with FM. Fifty-six women aged 35 to 65 years (M = 51.3) diagnosed with FM were randomly assigned to either GrpMI treatment (n = 33) or control (n = 26) condition. Experimental group participants received 12 weekly GrpMI sessions, and control group participants who did not receive any additional service completed measures at the same time points as the experimental group. Intra-group analyses showed that GrpMI participants had a significant increase in psychological well-being and significant decrease in the impact of FM on functional capacity and health, pain perception, anxiety, and depression post-treatment, with sustained benefit at three-month follow-up for all variables except psychological well-being. Control group participants showed decreases in trait anxiety and depression at post-treatment, with no significant benefit at three-month follow-up. Inter-group analyses showed that compared with control participants, GRpMI participants had significantly higher scores for psychological well-being and lower-state anxiety post-treatment; however, no differences were observed between groups at three-month follow-up. Findings offer preliminary evidence for the benefit of GrpMI to improve well-being and reduce anxiety in women with FM. Findings also suggest that GrpMI may help diminish pain intensity, state depression, and the impact of FM on functional capacity and health, but further studies are needed to establish efficacy.

  10. Pilates and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Methods Induce Similar Strength Gains but Different Neuromuscular Adaptations in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira de Carvalho, Fabiana; de Andrade Mesquita, Laiana Sepúlveda; Pereira, Rafael; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Amaro Zangaro, Renato

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: The aging process is associated with a decline in muscle mass, strength, and conditioning. Two training methods that may be useful to improve muscle function are Pilates and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Thus, the present study aimed to compare the influence of training programs using Pilates and PNF methods with elderly women. Sixty healthy elderly women were randomly divided into three groups: Pilates group, PNF group, and control group. Pilates and PNF groups underwent 1-month training programs with Pilates and PNF methods, respectively. The control group received no intervention during the 1 month. The maximal isometric force levels from knee extension and flexion, as well as the electromyography (EMG) signals from quadriceps and biceps femoris, were recorded before and after the 1-month intervention period. A two-way analysis of variance revealed that the Pilates and PNF methods induced similar strength gains from knee flexors and extensors, but Pilates exhibited greater low-gamma drive (i.e., oscillations in 30-60 Hz) in the EMG power spectrum after the training period. These results support use of both Pilates and PNF methods to enhance lower limb muscle strength in older groups, which is very important for gait, postural stability, and performance of daily life activities.

  11. Cooking Methods for Red Meats and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of U.S. Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zong, Geng; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Eisenberg, David M; Sun, Qi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined different cooking methods for red meats in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among U.S. women who consumed red meats regularly (≥2 servings/week). We monitored 59,033 women (1986-2012) aged 30-55 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline when information on frequency of different cooking methods for red meats, including broiling, barbequing, roasting, pan-frying, and stewing/boiling, was collected. During 1.24 million person-years of follow-up, we documented 6,206 incident cases of T2D. After multivariate adjustment including red meat cooking methods, total red meat and processed red meat intake were both associated with a monotonically increased T2D risk (both P trend cooking methods were further mutually adjusted. Independent of total red meat consumption, high-temperature and/or open-flame cooking methods for red meats, especially broiling and barbequing, may further increase diabetes risk among regular meat eaters. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Awareness and use of family planning methods among iTaukei women in Fiji and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammock, Radilaite; Priest, Patricia; Lovell, Sarah; Herbison, Peter

    2018-01-31

    iTaukei women's awareness and practice of family planning methods was investigated in New Zealand and Fiji to ascertain differences in behaviour within the context of changing developmental settings. The study was cross-sectional in nature and recruited women aged 18 years and over from three suburbs in Suva, Fiji, and five cities in New Zealand. Overall, 352 women participated in the study, 212 in Fiji and 140 in New Zealand. The study found that living in New Zealand was significantly associated with lower odds of being aware of family planning (OR 0.4, 95%CI 0.2-0.9, p=0.029) and using family planning methods (OR 0.5, 95%CI 0.2-0.9, p=0.027). Tertiary education was found to increase the odds of being aware (OR 2.8, 95%CI 1.3-6.2, p=0.009) and of using (OR 3.9, 95%CI 1.9-7.8, p=0.000) family planning. Despite the greater availability of services and higher standards of living experienced in New Zealand compared with Fiji, there was no improvement in awareness and use of family planning among New Zealand participants. Implications for public health: Reduced awareness and use of family planning in New Zealand indicates a need for better targeting of services among minority Pacific ethnic groups. © 2018 The Authors.

  13. Assessment of endothelium: Dependent vasodilation with a non-invasive method in patients with preeclampsia compared to normotensive pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Allameh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the endothelial function via noninvasive method, in pregnant women with preeclampsia compared to to normotensive pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Brachial artery diameter was measured via ultrasound, in 28 women with preeclampcia in case group and normotensive pregnant women in control group, at rest, after inflation of sphygmomanometer cuff up to 250-300 mmHg, immediately after deflation of the cuff, 60-90 minutes later and 5 min after administration of sublingual trinitroglycerin (TNG. Results of these measurements as well as demographic characteristics of participants in both groups were recorded in special forms. Data were analyzed via Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16, using t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA. P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD. Results: The mean of brachial artery diameter at rest in the case and control groups was 4.49 ± 0.39 and 4.08 ± 0.38 mm, respectively (P = 0.1. Also the results showed that the brachial artery diameter, immediately after deflation of the cuff, was 4.84 ± 0.4 and 4.37 ± 0.30 mm in the case and control groups (P < 0.001, respectively. The mean brachial artery diameter, 60-90 s after deflation of the cuff, was 4.82 ± 0.41 and 4.42 ± 0.38 mm in the case and control groups (P < 0.00, respectively. The brachial artery diameter, 5 min after sublingual NO administration, was 4.95 ± 0.6 and 4.40 ± 0.45 mm in case and control groups (P < 0.001, respectively. Applying of repeated measures ANOVA showed that the mean difference between case and control groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Current study concluded that there is no difference in endothelium-dependent vasodilation between women with preeclampsia and pregnant women with normal blood pressure.

  14. Using a mixed methods research design to investigate complementary alternative medicine (CAM) use among women with breast cancer in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Patricia; Butler, Michelle; Coughlan, Barbara; Murray, Mary; Boland, Noreen; Hanan, Terry; Murphy, Hilary; Forrester, Pauline; O' Brien, Marie; O' Sullivan, Nollaig

    2013-08-01

    To investigate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among women with breast cancer in Ireland using a mixed methods modified sequential explanatory design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with oncology professionals (n = 20) and CAM practitioners (n = 20) and this was followed by a survey of 406 women with breast cancer using the 'Use of Complementary and Alternative Therapies Survey' questionnaire (UCATS) (Lengacher et al., 2003). Follow up interviews were subsequently undertaken with a subset of this survey sample (n = 31). Over half of those surveyed (55.7%, n = 226) used some form of CAM since diagnosis. The most frequently used therapies were massage, herbal supplements (including herbs with oestrogenic properties), antioxidants, relaxation, counselling, health supplements, reflexology, reiki and support groups. Dietary interventions were used primarily to reduce symptoms and/or side effects while reduction of psychological stress was the primary reason for use of stress-reducing therapies. Most respondents reported that the CAM therapies they had used were helpful. The qualitative data elaborated on and provided clarification of the survey results. Similar to international studies, CAM is popular among women with breast cancer in Ireland. As such, the challenge for Irish oncology professionals is to identify low risk CAM therapies that are likely to benefit patients while educating patients and themselves on therapies which may be of concern. This study clearly illustrates the benefits of using a mixed methods approach to enhance our understanding of a complex clinical issue and thus we recommend that this method should be the method of choice when planning health services research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. "I Couldn't Wait to Leave the Toxic Environment": A Mixed Methods Study of Women Faculty Satisfaction and Departure from One Research Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods analysis of women faculty departure at one research institution was conducted using Hagedorn's model of faculty job satisfaction. Findings from an institution-wide survey and interviews with women faculty who had left the institution resulted in several themes: (a) a lack of resources to support faculty work, (b) a lack of…

  16. [Adherence to a medical nutrition therapy program in pregnant women with diabetes, measured by three methods, and its association with glycemic control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas-Nakash, Margie; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Vásquez-Peña, Paulina; Perichart-Perera, Otilia

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of adherence to nutrition therapy is essential to evaluate if the outcomes are related to given recommendations. The aim of this study was to describe adherence to a Medical Nutrition Therapy Program in Mexican pregnant women with diabetes, using three different methods; and evaluate its association with glycemic control. Adherence was measured with a questionnaire (0-100%), women's self-perception (0-100%) and energy intake adequacy by multiple pass 24 hour recall (85-115% of recommendation). Women were randomly assigned to two different dietary strategies. Glycemic control was determined by capillary glucose self-monitoring. Women analyzed in this study (n=69) had an age range of 22-42 years; 47.8% had type 2 diabetes (DM2) and 52.2% had gestational diabetes (GDM). Energy intake adequacy was higher in women with GDM (41.9% vs. 37.7%, p = 0.001). Average adherence measured with the questionnaire was 55%; no differences were found by type of diabetes. Self-perception was higher in women with DM2 (84%) when compared to women with GDM (70%) (p = 0.039). No differences were found in the three methods by study group. Optimal glycemic control was observed in 50% of women; no association was found with adherence measured with any of the three methods studied. The observed differences in adherences suggest that it may be recommendable to combine different measurement methods and include social and psychological factors that affect behavioral change.

  17. Exploration of different methods to assess dietary acrylamide exposure in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsaeter, A.L.; Haugen, M.; Mul, de A.; Bjellaas, T.; Becher, G.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Alexander, J.; Meltzer, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed dietary exposure to acrylamide in 119 pregnant Norwegian women. The aim of the study was to explore three different methods for estimation of long-term intake of acrylamide and whether it is possible by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to identify pregnant women with high exposure to

  18. Nutrient intake of working women in Bangkok, Thailand, as studied by total food duplicate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda-Inoguchi, N; Shimbo, S; Zhang, Z W; Srianujata, S; Banjong, O; Chitchumroonchokchai, C; Watanabe, T; Nakatsuka, H; Higashikawa, K; Ikeda, M

    2000-03-01

    To establish a general view of food habits in Thailand, and to make a quantitative assessment of rice dependency of Thai people. Cross-sectional study. Community. 52 non-smoking and non-habitually drinking adult women in Bangkok participated in the study. The participants offered 24 h food duplicates and peripheral blood samples, and underwent clinical examination including anthropometry. The duplicates were subjected to nutritional evaluation taking advantage of the Thai food composition tables (FCTs), and analyzed for eight nutrient elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The participants took 1630 kcal from 55 g protein (63% from animal sources), 57 g lipid (mostly from vegetable oil), and 224 g carbohydrate (60% from rice) daily. Nutrient intake at lunch was as large as that at dinner. About a half of the women had insufficient energy intake (ie 120%). Protein intake was sufficient in most cases, whereas lipid intake was in excess in more than a half of the women. Ca, Fe, Mg, Zn and possibly P intakes were below the RDA values in many participants. FCT-based estimates agreed well with the ICP-MS measures in cases of Fe and Ca but tended to be greater than the measures by 50% with regard to P. Lunch as substantial as dinner for Thai urbanites. There was a marked dependency on rice as an energy source. Whereas protein intake is generally sufficient, the intake of Ca (and to a lesser extent Fe) was insufficient in a majority of the study participants. Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance, Japan; the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the government of Japan.

  19. Core outcome sets in women's and newborn health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jmn; Rolph, R; Gale, C; Hirsch, M; Khan, K S; Ziebland, S; McManus, R J

    2017-09-01

    Variation in outcome collection and reporting is a serious hindrance to progress in our specialty; therefore, over 80 journals have come together to support the development, dissemination, and implementation of core outcome sets. This study systematically reviewed and characterised registered, progressing, or completed core outcome sets relevant to women's and newborn health. Systematic search using the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trial initiative and the Core Outcomes in Women's and Newborn Health initiative databases. Registry entries, protocols, systematic reviews, and core outcome sets. Descriptive statistics to describe characteristics and results. There were 49 core outcome sets registered in maternal and newborn health, with the majority registered in 2015 (n = 22; 48%) or 2016 (n = 16; 32%). Benign gynaecology (n = 8; 16%) and newborn health (n = 3; 6%) are currently under-represented. Twenty-four (52%) core outcome sets were funded by international (n = 1; core outcome sets were completed: reconstructive breast surgery (11 outcomes), preterm birth (13 outcomes), epilepsy in pregnancy (29 outcomes), and maternity care (48 outcomes). The quantitative, qualitative, and consensus methods used to develop core outcome sets varied considerably. Core outcome sets are currently being developed across women's and newborn health, although coverage of topics is variable. Development of further infrastructure to develop, disseminate, and implement core outcome sets is urgently required. Forty-nine women's and newborn core outcome sets registered. 50% funded. 7 protocols, 20 systematic reviews, and 4 core outcome sets published. @coreoutcomes @jamesmnduffy. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Interventions to support effective communication between maternity care staff and women in labour: A mixed-methods systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yan-Shing; Coxon, Kirstie; Portela, Anayda Gerarda; Furuta, Marie; Bick, Debra

    2018-04-01

    the objectives of this review were (1) to assess whether interventions to support effective communication between maternity care staff and healthy women in labour with a term pregnancy could improve birth outcomes and experiences of care; and (2) to synthesize information related to the feasibility of implementation and resources required. a mixed-methods systematic review. studies which reported on interventions aimed at improving communication between maternity care staff and healthy women during normal labour and birth, with no apparent medical or obstetric complications, and their family members were included. 'Maternity care staff' included medical doctors (e.g. obstetricians, anaesthetists, physicians, family doctors, paediatricians), midwives, nurses and other skilled birth attendants providing labour, birth and immediate postnatal care. Studies from all birth settings (any country, any facility including home birth, any resource level) were included. two papers met the inclusion criteria. One was a step wedge randomised controlled trial conducted in Syria, and the other a sub-analysis of a randomised controlled trial from the United Kingdom. Both studies aimed to assess effects of communication training for maternity care staff on women's experiences of labour care. The study from Syria reported that a communication skills training intervention for resident doctors was not associated with higher satisfaction reported by women. In the UK study, patient-actors' (experienced midwives) perceptions of safety and communication significantly improved for postpartum haemorrhage scenarios after training with patient-actors in local hospitals, compared with training using manikins in simulation centres, but no differences were identified for other scenarios. Both studies had methodological limitations. the review identified a lack of evidence on impact of interventions to support effective communication between maternity care staff and healthy women during labour and

  1. PROMOTION: WOMEN LEADERSHIP AND ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR RESOLVING BUSINESS CONFLICTS AND CHANGES IN THE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Milenkovska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available New technological changes significantly change the way people work, how they communicate, inside the company and outside of it, and change the relations in the sphere of competition. All changes are significant and reflect the leadership, and the management of the companies. Today it is believed that without true leadership, companies cannot achieve above average performance; on the contrary, they would stagnate at some average level or they will sink below the average. In terms of turbulent changes, every organization needs leaders who can lead the process of change. In terms of transition and democracy, women entrepreneurs appear significantly more powerful even though their overall role in business and public political areas is often difficult due to lack of understanding, legal barriers and traditional childbearing. However, the future of modern women is in entrepreneurship which will give rise to their economic independence, through the founding of their own firms for self-employment. That way, the woman entrepreneur becomes one of the generators of successful family businesses and new jobs.

  2. Comparison of body composition methods during weight loss in obese women using herbal formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Jun; Gallagher, Dympna; Song, Mi-Yeon

    2005-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), a device that analyzes the current conduction differences between the fat and water components is widely used for reasons that include convenience of use, non-invasiveness, safety, and low cost. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) allows for the assessment of total body and regional lean and fat tissues and bone mineral content (BMC). The objective of this study was to compare body composition assessments by BIA and DXA before and after a 6-week herbal diet intervention program in 50 pre-menopausal women [mean +/- SD: age 30.58 +/- 6.15, body mass index (BMI) 31.72 +/- 3.78]. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was measured by BIA and anthropometry. Lean body mass (LBM), body fat (BF), BMC and percent body fat (%BF) were measured by BIA and DXA. Highly significant correlations were observed between BIA and DXA measurements for LBM, BF, BMC and %BF (r = 0.73, 0.93, 0.53, 0.79, respectively) before the intervention. Differences between BIA and DXA measurements were observed in LBM, BF, %BF and BMC before intervention (p produce statistically comparable results in pre-menopausal Korean women and therefore should not be used interchangeably when measuring body composition.

  3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone for infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea. Toward a more-interventional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesrouani, A; Abdallah, M A; Attieh, E; Abboud, J; Atallah, D; Makhoul, C

    2001-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a protocol of pulsatile gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) in treating infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea. Retrospective analysis of 44 cycles treated at an infertility center. Twenty-four patients with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea were treated intravenously with pulsatile GnRH using 5 micrograms per bolus every 90 minutes. Ultrasound monitoring and cervical assessment by Insler's scoring system allowed timed injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and intrauterine insemination if needed. Luteal support was provided with hCG. The ovulation rate was 95% with the 5-microgram dose. A single follicle was produced in 91% of cycles. The overall pregnancy rate per ovulatory cycle was 45%, and the pregnancy rate per patient was 83%. In patients treated previously with exogenous gonadotropins, poor results were observed. Only one case of mild overstimulation was reported. Pulsatile GnRH is an effective and safe method of treating infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea, thus simulating normal ovulation; however, more-interventional management, including the qualitative estrogenic response, may lead to optimal results and increase the pregnancy rate.

  4. Kinematic effect of Nintendo Wii(TM) sports program exercise on obstacle gait in elderly women with falling risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae-In; Ko, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the changes in balance ability and obstacle gait after lumbar stabilization exercise and Nintendo Wii(TM) Sports in elderly at risk for falls. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four elderly women with at risk for falls were randomly divided into the control, lumbar stabilization exercise, and Nintendo Wii Sports groups. Static balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale and functional reach test, dynamic balance by the timed up-and-go test, and obstacle negotiation function by crossing velocity and maximum vertical heel clearance. [Results] Both the lumbar stabilization exercise and Nintendo Wii Sports groups showed significant improvements in obstacle negotiation function after the exercise compared to the control group. Berg Balance Scale and functional reach test scores were greater in the lumbar stabilization exercise group, while the timed up-and-go test time was significantly better in the Nintendo Wii Sports groups. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercises and Nintendo Wii Sports improve falling related balance and obstacle negotiation function in elderly women at risk for falls.

  5. Kinematic effect of Nintendo WiiTM sports program exercise on obstacle gait in elderly women with falling risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae-In; Ko, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Mi-Ae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the changes in balance ability and obstacle gait after lumbar stabilization exercise and Nintendo WiiTM Sports in elderly at risk for falls. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four elderly women with at risk for falls were randomly divided into the control, lumbar stabilization exercise, and Nintendo Wii Sports groups. Static balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale and functional reach test, dynamic balance by the timed up-and-go test, and obstacle negotiation function by crossing velocity and maximum vertical heel clearance. [Results] Both the lumbar stabilization exercise and Nintendo Wii Sports groups showed significant improvements in obstacle negotiation function after the exercise compared to the control group. Berg Balance Scale and functional reach test scores were greater in the lumbar stabilization exercise group, while the timed up-and-go test time was significantly better in the Nintendo Wii Sports groups. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercises and Nintendo Wii Sports improve falling related balance and obstacle negotiation function in elderly women at risk for falls. PMID:26157228

  6. Comparison of Postprandial Lipemia between Women who are on Oral Contraceptive Methods and Those who are not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Petto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postprandial Lipemia (PPL is a physiological process that reflects the ability of the body to metabolize lipids. Even though the influence of oral contraceptives (OC on PPL is not known, it is a known fact that their use increases fasting lipid values. Objective: To compare the PPL between women who are on OC and those who are not. Methods: A prospective analytical study which assessed eutrophic women, aged between 18 and 28 years old, who were irregularly active and with fasting triglycerides ≤150 mg/dL. They were divided into two groups: oral contraceptive group (COG and non-oral contraceptive group (NCOG. Volunteers were submitted to the PPL test, in which blood samples were collected in time 0 (12-hour fasting and after the intake of lipids in times 180 and 240 minutes. In order to compare the triglyceride deltas, which reflect PPL, the two-tailed Mann-Whitney test was used for independent samples between fasting collections and 180 minutes (Δ1 and between fasting and 240 minutes (Δ2. Results: Forty women were assessed and equally divided between groups. In the fasting lipid profile, it was observed that HDL did not present significant differences and that triglycerides in COG were twice as high in comparison to NCOG. Medians of Δ1 and Δ2 presented significant differences in both comparisons (p ≤0.05. Conclusion: The results point out that women who are irregularly active and use OC present more PPL in relation to those who do not use OC, which suggests that in this population, its chronic use increases the risk of heart conditions.

  7. Use of Fourier transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) for determination of breastmilk output by the deuterium dilution method among Senegalese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarr Cisse, Aita; Diaham, Babou; Dossou, Nicole; Guiro, Amadou Tidiane; Wade, Salimata; Bluck, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    Breastmilk output can be estimated from the mother's total body water and water turnover rates after oral administration of deuterium oxide. Usually the deuterium enrichments are determined using a isotope ratio mass spectrometer, which is expensive and requires a specialist for operation and maintenance. Such equipment is dfficult to set up in developing countries. A less expensive method was developed which uses a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) for deuterium enrichment analysis. This study evaluated the constraints of using FTIR to study lactating women in Senegal. The deuterium isotope method was found to be adequate for free living subjects and presented few constraints except for the duration of the saliva sampling (14 days). The method offers the opportunity to determine simultaneously breastmilk output, mother's body composition, and breastfeeding practices. Deuterium sample enrichments measured with FTIR were fast and easy, but for spectrum quality some environmental control is required to optimize the results. (Authors)

  8. [Proportion of breast cancer in women aged 50 to 69 years from Girona, Spain, according to detection method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Vives, Montse; Osca-Gelis, Gemma; Camprubí-Font, Carla; Vilardell, M Loreto; Izquierdo, Angel; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael

    2014-10-07

    The aim of this study was to determine the tumor stage, the proportion of cases and the age specific rate of breast cancer (BC) cases according to detection method. Cases of women aged 50 to 69 years diagnosed with BC in the Girona province during 1999-2006 were extracted from the population-based Girona Cancer Registry (n=1,254). BC was classified by detection method: screen-detected cancer, interval cancer and others. Proportion of cases and age-specific incidence were calculated according to detection method. During the period 2002-2006, the proportion of screen-detected cancers, interval cancers and other cancers were 42.2%, 5.8% and 52.2%, respectively. After implementation of the early detection of breast cancer program (PDPCM), the incidence of screen-detected cases raised; thereafter, interval cancers also increased and the rate of other cancers decreased. In the Girona province during the fully implemented PDPCM period (2002-2006), interval cancers represented a low proportion (5.8%) of women diagnosed with BC at 50 to 69 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Awareness and practice of family planning methods in women attending gyne OPD at Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, H; Marahatta, R

    2008-09-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study of awareness and practice of family planning methods among 200 women of reproductive age attending gynecology out patient department (GOPD) of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital from 14th May 2008 to 14th July, 2008 was carried out. Most of the respondents (93.0%) were aware of at least one of family planning methods out often methods, but only 65.0% had ever used it and contraceptive prevalence rate was 33.5% which was slightly higher than the national data as 28.5%. The best known method of temporary contraception was depo provera (78.0%) followed by oral contraceptive pills (74.0%) and condom (71.0%) and least known methods were vaginal foam tablets/jelly (34.0%) and natural methods (16.0%). Among permanent family planning methods, awareness about female sterilization (81.0%) was more than male sterilization (77.0%) which was in accordance with studies done in other countries. Knowledge about emergency coritraception was quite low (12.0%) as it was newly introduced in the country. Regarding current use of contraception depo provera (11.0%) was the most widely used followed by oral contraceptive pills (4.5%) and condom (4.5%). 5.5% had undergone female sterilization while only 2.5% of male partner had sterilization Knowledge of non contraceptive benefits of family planning methods was claimed by only 35.0% of the respondents, 27.0% reported awareness that condoms protect from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) while knowledge about various adverse effects was widespread (52.5%). The most common source of information on contraception was media (55.5%), both printed and electronic. This study also observed that with increase in level of education, awareness also increased. Although most of the women were aware about the methods, they were ignorant about the details like duration of protection, return of fertility on discontinuation and non contraceptive benefits. The most common reason for discontinuation of FP

  10. Microscopic evaluation of methods of fixation and preservation of vaginal smears taken from normal women submitted to radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, O.L.N.; Baruffi, I.; Valeri, V.; Parente, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Two methods were evaluated for fixation and conservation of vaginal smears of normal and irradiated women for periods as long as four months. An initial fixation was used with 95% alcohol for 24 hours followed by either air storage or 0,5% alcohol - ether celoidina solution coating. It is concluded that through microscopic evaluation, the smears of non-irradiated women treated by both methods in long run observation are only worthwhile for oncotic studies. On the other hand, the smears of irradiated women are not valid either for hormonal or oncotic analysis. (Author) [pt

  11. Gender-based discrimination and unprotected receptive anal intercourse among transgender women in Brazil: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Laio; Dourado, Inês; Silva, Luís Augusto V da; Brignol, Sandra; Amorim, Leila; MacCarthy, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Discrimination related to gender identity may directly influence vulnerability to HIV through increased exposure to unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI). Little is known about the relationship between gender-based discrimination (GBD) and URAI with stable partners among transgender women. This mixed-methods research began with a cross-sectional survey conducted between 2014 and 2016 with transgender women in Salvador, the capital city in one of the poorest regions in Brazil. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit the study population. GBD was defined through Latent Class Analysis. Additionally, 19 semi-structured interviews with participants were transcribed and analyzed through thematic content analysis. URAI with stable partners was commonly reported (37.3%). GDB was positively associated with URAI among stable partners (OR = 6.47; IC 95%: 1.67-25.02). The analysis of the interviews illustrated how GBD impacted transgender women in diverse ways. Experiences with GBD perpetrated by the family often initiated a trajectory of economic vulnerability that led many to engage in survival sex work. The constant experience with GBD contributed to participants feeling an immense sense of trust with their stable partners, ultimately diminished their desire to use condoms. Further, the high frequency of GBD contributed to poor mental health overall, though some participants said engagement in transgender advocacy efforts provided a vital source of resilience and support. Our mixed-method study capitalizes upon the strengths of diverse data sets to produce a holistic understanding of GBD and URAI with stable partners. Furthermore, by confirming the association between greater GBD and URAI, we have demonstrated how GBD can impact condom negotiation in diverse relationships.

  12. An individually randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of the Women for Women International Programme in reducing intimate partner violence and strengthening livelihoods amongst women in Afghanistan: trial design, methods and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Corboz, Julienne; Shafiq, Mohammed; Marofi, Frozan; Mecagni, Anna; Mann, Carron; Karim, Fazal; Chirwa, Esnat; Maxwell-Jones, Charlotte; Jewkes, Rachel

    2018-01-22

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is the most common form of violence in conflict and post-conflict settings, but there are few evaluations of interventions to prevent IPV in such settings. The Women for Women International (WfWI) intervention is a year-long combined economic and social empowerment intervention for marginalized women survivors of conflict. Primarily, it seeks to support women to achieve four key outcomes: women earn and save money; women improve their health and well-being; women influence decisions in their homes and communities; women connect to networks for support. The organization recognizes Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) as a significant barrier to women's empowerment and expects to see reduction in VAWG, and specifically IPV, as part of building women's social and economic empowerment. This program is being quantitatively evaluated through an individually randomized control trial amongst women in Afghanistan, with a 24-month follow up. A comparison of baseline characteristics of participants is also included as well as a discussion of implementation of the baseline research. There is a high demand amongst Afghan women for such interventions, and this posed challenges in completing the randomization and baseline. In addition, the complex security situation in Afghanistan also posed challenges. However, despite these issues, recruitment was successfully achieved and the arms were balanced on socio-demographic measures. The evaluation will contribute to the limited evidence base on interventions to prevent IPV in conflict-affected settings. NCT03236948 . Registered 28 July 2017, retrospectively registered.

  13. The influence of method-related partner violence on covert pill use and pill discontinuation among women living in La Paz, El Alto and Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarraher, Donna R; Martin, Sandra L; Bailey, Patricia E

    2006-03-01

    Intimate partner violence is widespread worldwide. While assumed to impact women's ability to use contraceptive methods, few data are available to support this claim. In this study, eight focus group discussions were conducted to guide questionnaire development and to provide contextual information. Participants were women who were currently using the pill and women who had used the pill previously. In addition, 300 women were interviewed who initiated oral contraceptive pill use between December 1995 and April 1996. Participants were interviewed 3-6 months later to investigate the role intimate partner violence played in covert pill use and pill discontinuation. Special study procedures for asking women questions about violence were employed. Nineteen per cent of the women interviewed were using the pill covertly. The odds of covert pill use were four times higher in El Alto and La Paz than in Santa Cruz. Women who used the pill covertly were more likely to have experienced method-related partner violence (OR = 21.27) than women whose partners knew of their pill use. One-third of the women had discontinued pill use at the time of the interview. In the final multivariate analysis, having experienced side-effects (OR = 2.37) was a significant predictor of pill discontinuation and method-related partner violence was marginally predictive (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.0-3.66). While efforts are ongoing to incorporate men into family planning programmes, some male partners oppose, and in some situations violently oppose, contraceptive use. The needs of women with these types of partners must not be overlooked.

  14. Determinants and Experiences of Repeat Pregnancy among HIV-Positive Kenyan Women--A Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Akelo

    Full Text Available To identify factors associated with repeat pregnancy subsequent to an index pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLWH in western Kenya who were enrolled in a 24-month phase-II clinical trial of triple-ART prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and to contextualize social and cultural influences on WLWH's reproductive decision making.A mixed-methods approach was used to examine repeat pregnancy within a 24 month period after birth. Counselor-administered questionnaires were collected from 500 WLWH. Forty women (22 with a repeat pregnancy; 18 with no repeat pregnancy were purposively selected for a qualitative interview (QI. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for quantitative data. Thematic coding and saliency analysis were undertaken for qualitative data.Eighty-eight (17.6% women had a repeat pregnancy. Median maternal age was 23 years (range 15-43 years and median gestational age at enrollment was 34 weeks. In multiple logistic regression analyses, living in the same compound with a husband (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.14, 4.75 was associated with increased odds of repeat pregnancy (p ≤ 0.05. Being in the 30-43 age group (AOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.87, having talked to a partner about family planning (FP use (AOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.98, and prior usage of FP (AOR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.82 were associated with a decrease in odds of repeat pregnancy. QI findings centered on concerns about modern contraception methods (side effects and views that they 'ruined the womb' and a desire to have the right number of children. Religious leaders, family, and the broader community were viewed as reinforcing cultural expectations for married women to have children. Repeat pregnancy was commonly attributed to contraception failure or to lack of knowledge about post-delivery fertility.In addition to cultural context, reproductive health programs for WLWH may need to

  15. The Effect of Group Reminiscence Therapy on Depression in Women With Type II Diabetes

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    Jooj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of psychological disorders and symptoms. Objectives This research investigated the effect of group reminiscence therapy on depression among women with type II diabetes. Patients and Methods The present study was a clinical trial study. Twenty-four patients referring to the diabetic clinic of Golestan hospital in Ahvaz, Iran were selected through simple random sampling and were divided in two groups. Data were collected through a demographic questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory. Group reminiscence therapy was held over eight biweekly sessions, each lasting 90 minutes. Finally, data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Chi-Square tests, using SPSS version 20. Results A significant difference was observed between the two groups after the intervention (P = 0.001. The rating for depression decreased significantly in the experimental group. Before the group reminiscence therapy, the highest rating for depression obtained by the experimental group was “need for consultation” (50%, whereas after the intervention, the highest rating was “no depression” (50%. One month after the intervention, the highest rating obtained for depression was “low” (50%. Conclusions Reminiscence therapy decreased depression among diabetic female patients after the intervention and one month after the intervention. It can be said that, through the reminiscence therapy, patients’ past memories were reviewed and emphasis on the positive aspects thereof in the group setting was followed by an increased sense of self-worth and a decrease in depression.

  16. Comparisons of four dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Lyu

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The combinations of 24-hour recalls for the short-term dietary changes and the CFFQ for long-term dietary patterns are suggested as appropriate dietary assessment methods during pregnancy in Taiwan.

  17. The use of a sensitive equilibrium dialysis method for the measurement of free testosterone levels in healthy, cycling women and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Hikim, I; Arver, S; Beall, G; Shen, R; Guerrero, M; Sattler, F; Shikuma, C; Nelson, J C; Landgren, B M; Mazer, N A; Bhasin, S

    1998-04-01

    Measurements of total and free testosterone levels in women have lacked precision and accuracy because of limited assay sensitivity. The paucity of normative data on total and free testosterone levels in healthy women has confounded interpretation of androgen levels in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other disease states. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop sensitive assays for the measurement of the low total and free testosterone levels in women to define the range for these hormones during the normal menstrual cycle and assess the total and free testosterone levels in HIV-infected women. By using a larger volume of serum, increasing the incubation time, and reducing the antibody concentration, the sensitivity of the total testosterone assay was increased to 0.008 nmol/L, and that of the free testosterone assay was increased to 2 pmol/L. The mean percent free testosterone was 1.0 +/- 0.1% of the total testosterone. Serum total and free testosterone levels in the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, but both demonstrated a modest preovulatory increase, 3 days before the LH peak. Serum total [0.50 +/- 0.32 (14.60 +/- 9.22) vs. 1.2 +/- 0.7 nmol/L (34.3 +/- 21.0 ng/dL); P copy number. Serum FSH, but not LH, levels were significantly higher in HIV-infected women than in controls. Using assays with sufficient sensitivity, we defined the range for total and free testosterone levels during the normal menstrual cycle. Serum total and free testosterone levels are lower in HIV-infected women and correlate inversely with plasma HIV ribonucleic acid levels. The hypothesis that androgen deficiency contributes to wasting in HIV-infected women remains to be tested.

  18. Reaching young women who sell sex: Methods and results of social mapping to describe and identify young women for DREAMS impact evaluation in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyaka, Tarisai; Mushati, Phillis; Hensen, Bernadette; Chabata, Sungai; Hargreaves, James R; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde J; Cowan, Frances M; Busza, Joanna R

    2018-01-01

    Young women (aged 15-24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews. We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics of young women who sell sex, the structure and organisation of their sexual exchanges, interactions with each other and adult sex workers, and engagement with health services. Over a two-week period, we developed a "social map" for each study site, identifying similarities and differences across contexts and their implications for programming and research. Similarities include the concentration of younger women in street-based venues in town centres, their conflict with older sex workers due to competition for clients and acceptance of lower payments, and reluctance to attend existing services. Key differences were found in the 4 university towns included in our sample, where female students participate in diverse forms of sexual exchange but do not identify themselves as selling sex. In smaller towns where illegal gold panning or trucking routes were found, young women migrated in from surrounding rural areas specifically to sell sex. Young women who sell sex are different from each other, and do not work with or attend the same services as adult sex workers. Our findings are being used to inform appropriate intervention activities targeting these vulnerable young women, and to identify effective strategies for recruiting them into the DREAMS process and impact evaluations.

  19. Reaching young women who sell sex: Methods and results of social mapping to describe and identify young women for DREAMS impact evaluation in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarisai Chiyaka

    Full Text Available Young women (aged 15-24 who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews. We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics of young women who sell sex, the structure and organisation of their sexual exchanges, interactions with each other and adult sex workers, and engagement with health services. Over a two-week period, we developed a "social map" for each study site, identifying similarities and differences across contexts and their implications for programming and research. Similarities include the concentration of younger women in street-based venues in town centres, their conflict with older sex workers due to competition for clients and acceptance of lower payments, and reluctance to attend existing services. Key differences were found in the 4 university towns included in our sample, where female students participate in diverse forms of sexual exchange but do not identify themselves as selling sex. In smaller towns where illegal gold panning or trucking routes were found, young women migrated in from surrounding rural areas specifically to sell sex. Young women who sell sex are different from each other, and do not work with or attend the same services as adult sex workers. Our findings are being used to inform appropriate intervention activities targeting these vulnerable young women, and to identify effective strategies for recruiting them into the DREAMS process and impact

  20. Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Archana; Mburu, Gitau; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma; Sharma, Pankhuri; Campbell, Fiona; Behera, Jagannath; Dargan, Ritu; Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Mehra, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. Methods: A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick® HIV antibody test, and subse...

  1. Magpie Trial in the UK: methods and additional data for women and children at 2 years following pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia

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    Armstrong Nina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Magpie Trial, a randomised trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo for women with pre-eclampsia. This paper describes methods used for follow up in the UK, and presents additional data collected. Methods In the UK 774 women and their 827 children were included; excluded were women discharged without a surviving child and families who opted out. General practitioners were sent a questionnaire when the child was around 18 months old. When the child was two years, or older, questionnaires asking about the health of the women and children were posted to families. A sample of families was offered a home visit, during which the child was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Results Of the women, 12 were lost to follow up and three died. Of the children, 12 were lost to follow up, 5 were excluded and 19 died. General practitioners returned 688/759 (91% questionnaires, as did 619/759 (82% women. Responses were largely comparable. 32 women had serious morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia. 30% of children were reported to have been admitted to hospital. There were no clear differences between the randomised groups in the child's behaviour, women's fertility or use of health service resources. Conclusion Data presented here provide further reassurance about the longer term safety of magnesium sulphate when used for women with pre-eclampsia. Postal questionnaires in the UK to assess the longer term health and wellbeing of women and children recruited to trials are feasible, and can achieve a high response rate. Responses from families and general practitioners were comparable Trial registration Trial registration number of the Magpie Trial [ISRCTN86938761

  2. Refugee and Migrant Women's Views of Antenatal Ultrasound on the Thai Burmese Border: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwin, May Myo; Ladda Kajeechewa, Honey Moon; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Lwin, Khin Maung; Jones, Caroline; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal ultrasound suits developing countries by virtue of its versatility, relatively low cost and safety, but little is known about women’s or local provider’s perspectives of this upcoming technology in such settings. This study was undertaken to better understand how routine obstetric ultrasound is experienced in a displaced Burmese population and identify barriers to its acceptance by local patients and providers. Methodology/Principal Findings Qualitative (30 observations, 19 interviews, seven focus group discussions) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey with 644 pregnant women) were used to provide a comprehensive understanding along four major themes: safety, emotions, information and communication, and unintended consequences of antenatal ultrasound in refugee and migrant clinics on the Thai Burmese border. One of the main concerns expressed by women was the danger of childbirth which they mainly attributed to fetal malposition. Both providers and patients recognized ultrasound as a technology improving the safety of pregnancy and delivery. A minority of patients experienced transitory shyness or anxiety before the ultrasound, but reported that these feelings could be ameliorated with improved patient information and staff communication. Unintended consequences of overuse and gender selective abortions in this population were not common. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are being used to improve local practice and allow development of explanatory materials for this population with low literacy. We strongly encourage facilities introducing new technology in resource poor settings to assess acceptability through similar inquiry. PMID:22514615

  3. AWARENESS AND ACCEPTANCE OF TEMPORARY METHODS OF CONTRACEPTIVE AMONG PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicija Kalloopparamban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Contraceptive advice is a component of good preventive healthcare. Socioeconomic factors, education are a few of factors that play vital role in family planning acceptance. To provide this, understanding the attitude and knowledge of patient towards contraception is very much necessary. Objective of this study is to assess the awareness and acceptance of temporary methods of contraception in postpartum primiparas during their first visit to Family Planning OPD, MCH, Kottayam. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based prospective descriptive study was conducted among the primiparas presented in Family Planning OPD for the first time in postpartum at 6 wks. in MCH during the study period. Informed written consent was obtained from the patients. The study subjects were interviewed with questionnaire to assess the awareness and acceptance of temporary contraceptive methods and the level to which each of them will keep compliance. The questionnaire was to elicit information regarding age, educational status, occupation, knowledge and source of contraceptive methods, attitude of female towards contraception. RESULTS In our study, majority include graduates (37%, but most of study population were unemployed (43.2%. Literate people are more conscious about their own health and that of their families and try to limit their families much more effectively than the illiterates do. The awareness of the group about contraception was 80.5%, mostly through health workers, 39.6%. 53.9% of the study population had accepted any of the temporary contraceptive methods; maximum opted being the barrier contraception, 19%. 60.9% had peer group support. 74.5% had antenatal counselling from a healthcare worker regarding the use of temporary contraceptive methods. Acceptance was maximum among the graduated subjects, 66.9%.The type accepted by graduates include mostly barrier. Contraceptives, 23.2%. 48% of the graduates used for the need of spacing. A maximum peer

  4. Understanding the Essential Meaning of Measured Changes in Weight and Body Composition Among Women During and After Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Groenkjaer, Mette; Falkmer, Ursula; Delmar, Charlotte

    Changes in weight and body composition among women during and after adjuvant antineoplastic treatment for breast cancer may influence long-term survival and quality of life. Research on factual weight changes is diverse and contrasting, and their influence on women's perception of body and self seems to be insufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to expand the understanding of the association between changes in weight and body composition and the women's perception of body and selves. A mixed-methods research design was used. Data consisted of weight and body composition measures from 95 women with breast cancer during 18 months past surgery. Twelve women from this cohort were interviewed individually at 12 months. Linear mixed model and logistic regression were used to estimate changes of repeated measures and odds ratio. Interviews were analyzed guided by existential phenomenology. Joint displays and integrative mixed-methods interpretation demonstrated that even small weight gains, extended waist, and weight loss were associated with fearing recurrence of breast cancer. Perceiving an ambiguous transforming body, the women moved between a unified body subject and the body as an object dissociated in "I" and "it" while fighting against or accepting the body changes. Integrating findings demonstrated that factual weight changes do not correspond with the perceived changes and may trigger existential threats. Transition to a new habitual body demand health practitioners to enter a joint narrative work to reveal how the changes impact on the women's body and self-perception independent of how they are displayed quantitatively.

  5. Reaching young women who sell sex: Methods and results of social mapping to describe and identify young women for DREAMS impact evaluation in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyaka, Tarisai; Mushati, Phillis; Hensen, Bernadette; Chabata, Sungai; Hargreaves, James R.; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde J.; Cowan, Frances M.; Busza, Joanna R.

    2018-01-01

    Young women (aged 15–24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls’ and young women’s HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a “social mapping” approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews. We collected data on socio-demographic characteristics of young women who sell sex, the structure and organisation of their sexual exchanges, interactions with each other and adult sex workers, and engagement with health services. Over a two-week period, we developed a “social map” for each study site, identifying similarities and differences across contexts and their implications for programming and research. Similarities include the concentration of younger women in street-based venues in town centres, their conflict with older sex workers due to competition for clients and acceptance of lower payments, and reluctance to attend existing services. Key differences were found in the 4 university towns included in our sample, where female students participate in diverse forms of sexual exchange but do not identify themselves as selling sex. In smaller towns where illegal gold panning or trucking routes were found, young women migrated in from surrounding rural areas specifically to sell sex. Young women who sell sex are different from each other, and do not work with or attend the same services as adult sex workers. Our findings are being used to inform appropriate intervention activities targeting these vulnerable young women, and to identify effective strategies for recruiting them into the DREAMS process and impact evaluations

  6. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, S; Turyasima, M; Acca, H; Nabbale, F; Obita, K O; Rama, M; Adong, C C; Openy, A; Beatrice, M O; Odongo-Aginya, E I; Awor, S

    Uganda's rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders' involvement in family planning programme. In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family planning and thus reduce the rapid population growth and poverty.

  7. OBSTACLES TO FAMILY PLANNING USE AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN ATIAK HEALTH CENTER IV, AMURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN UGANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, S.; Turyasima, M.; Acca, H.; Nabbale, F.; Obita, K. O.; Rama, M.; Adong, C. C.; Openy, A.; Beatrice, M. O.; Odongo-Aginya, E. I.; Awor, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Uganda’s rapid population growth (3.2%) since 1948 has placed more demands on health sector and lowered living standard of Ugandans resulting into 49% of people living in acute poverty especially in post conflict Northern Uganda. The population rise was due to low use of contraceptive methods (21% in rural areas and 43% in urban areas) and coupled with high unmet need for family planning (41%). This indicated poor access to reproductive health services. Effective use of family planning could reduce the rapid population growth. Objective To determine obstacles to family planning use among rural women in Northern Uganda. Design A descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Atiak Health Centre IV, Amuru District, rural Northern Uganda. Subjects Four hundred and twenty four females of reproductive ages were selected from both Inpatient and Outpatient Departments of Atiak Health Centre IV. Results There was high level of awareness 418 (98.6%), positive attitude 333 (78.6%) and fair level of utilisation 230 (54.2%) of family planning. However, significant obstacles to family planning usage included; long distance to Health facility, unavailability of preferred contraceptive methods, absenteeism of family planning providers, high cost of managing side effects, desire for big family size, children dying less than five years old, husbands forbidding women from using family planning and lack of community leaders’ involvement in family planning programme. Conclusions In spites of the high level of awareness, positive attitude, and free family planning services, there were obstacles that hindered family planning usage among these rural women. However, taking services close to people, reducing number of children dying before their fifth birthday, educating men about family planning, making sure family planning providers and methods are available, reducing cost of managing side effects and involving community leaders will improve utilisation of family

  8. A new method for body fat evaluation, body adiposity index, is useful in women with familial partial lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Matos, Amélio F; Moreira, Rodrigo O; Valerio, Cynthia M; Mory, Patricia B; Moises, Regina S

    2012-02-01

    BMI is a widely used method to evaluate adiposity. However, it has several limitations, particularly an inability to differentiate lean from fat mass. A new method, body adiposity index (BAI), has been recently proposed as a new measurement capable to determine fat excess better than BMI. The aim of this study was to investigate BAI as a mean to evaluate adiposity in a group of women with familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) and compare it with BMI. Thirteen women with FLPD Dunnigan type (FPLD2) and 13 healthy volunteers matched by age and BMI were studied. Body fat content and distribution were analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Plasma leptin was also measured. BAI was significantly lower in FPLD2 in comparison to control group (24.6 ± 1.5 vs. 30.4 ± 4.3; P < 0.001) and presented a more significant correlation with total fat (%) (r = 0.71; P < 0.001) and fat Mass (g) (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) than BMI (r = 0.27; P = 0.17 for total fat and r = 0.52; P = 0.006 for fat mass). There was a correlation between leptin and BAI (r = 0.57; P = 0.01), [corrected] but not between leptin and BMI. In conclusion, BAI was able to catch differences in adiposity in a sample of FPLD2 patients. It also correlated better with leptin levels than BMI. Therefore, we provide further evidence that BAI may become a more reliable indicator of fat mass content than the currently available measurements.

  9. Comparison of different sampling techniques and of different culture methods for detection of group B streptococcus carriage in pregnant women

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    Verhelst Rita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS is a significant cause of perinatal and neonatal infections worldwide. To detect GBS colonization in pregnant women, the CDC recommends isolation of the bacterium from vaginal and anorectal swab samples by growth in a selective enrichment medium, such as Lim broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics, followed by subculture on sheep blood agar. However, this procedure may require 48 h to complete. We compared different sampling and culture techniques for the detection of GBS. Methods A total of 300 swabs was taken from 100 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. For each subject, one rectovaginal, one vaginal and one rectal ESwab were collected. Plating onto Columbia CNA agar (CNA, group B streptococcus differential agar (GBSDA (Granada Medium and chromID Strepto B agar (CA, with and without Lim broth enrichment, were compared. The isolates were confirmed as S. agalactiae using the CAMP test on blood agar and by molecular identification with tDNA-PCR or by 16S rRNA gene sequence determination. Results The overall GBS colonization rate was 22%. GBS positivity for rectovaginal sampling (100% was significantly higher than detection on the basis of vaginal sampling (50%, but not significantly higher than for rectal sampling (82%. Direct plating of the rectovaginal swab on CNA, GBSDA and CA resulted in detection of 59, 91 and 95% of the carriers, respectively, whereas subculturing of Lim broth yielded 77, 95 and 100% positivity, respectively. Lim broth enrichment enabled the detection of only one additional GBS positive subject. There was no significant difference between GBSDA and CA, whereas both were more sensitive than CNA. Direct culture onto GBSDA or CA (91 and 95% detected more carriers than Lim broth enrichment and subculture onto CNA (77%. One false negative isolate was observed on GBSDA, and three false positives on CA. Conclusions In

  10. Contraceptive use and method preference among women in Soweto, South Africa: the influence of expanding access to HIV care and treatment services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kaida

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Preventing unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive women constitutes a critical and cost-effective approach to primary prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and is a global public health priority for addressing the desperate state of maternal and child health in HIV hyper-endemic settings. We sought to investigate whether the prevalence of contraceptive use and method preferences varied by HIV status and receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART among women in Soweto, South Africa.We used survey data from 563 sexually active, non-pregnant women (18-44 years recruited from the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto (May-December, 2007; 171 women were HIV-positive and receiving HAART (median duration of use = 31 months; IQR = 28, 33, 178 were HIV-positive and HAART-naïve, and 214 were HIV-negative. Medical record review was conducted to confirm HIV status and clinical variables. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted associations between HIV status, receipt of HAART, and contraceptive use.Overall, 78% of women reported using contraception, with significant variation by HIV status: 86% of HAART users, 82% of HAART-naïve women, and 69% of HIV-negative women (p<0.0001. In adjusted models, compared with HIV-negative women, women receiving HAART were significantly more likely to use contraception while HAART-naïve women were non-significantly more likely (AOR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.25, 4.62 and AOR: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.88, 2.85; respectively. Among HIV-positive women, HAART users were non-significantly more likely to use contraception compared with HAART-naïve women (AOR: 1.55; 95% CI: 0.84, 2.88. Similar patterns held for specific use of barrier (primarily male condoms, permanent, and dual protection contraceptive methods.Among HIV-positive women receiving HAART, the observed higher prevalence of contraceptive use overall and condoms in particular promises to yield fewer unintended pregnancies and reduced risks of

  11. A Study on the Effect of Self-Review Method on Women's Happiness

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    Reza Pourhosein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the effectiveness of self-review technique on women’s happiness.Methods: This experimental study was conducted with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. The Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI was used to measure the dependent variable. In order to implement the research project, 22 individuals were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups in the pre-test phase based on acquisition of the lowest happiness scores. The 8-session self-review single intervention was presented to the experimental group. Repeated measures ANOVA was used in order to analyze the data.Results: The research findings indicated that the rate of happiness of individuals in the experimental group had significantly increased in the post-test and even follow-up stages (P < 0.01.Conclusion: In conclusion, the self-review method can be considered as a positive activity-based intervention.

  12. Household Financial Management and Women's Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence in the Philippines: A Study Using Propensity Score Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco

    2016-04-27

    This study explores the causal impact of independent management of household finances upon women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the Philippines. Propensity score matching is used to generate a casual estimate of the impact of women's roles as household financial managers on their experiences of IPV. Findings demonstrate that managing household finances independently significantly increased the severity of IPV women experienced from their partners compared with women who managed finances jointly with partners. Findings reinforce the importance of explicit attention to intrahousehold power dynamics and gender norms in the implementation of microfinance interventions intended to empower women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods among married women of reproductive age in Mekelle town, Tigray region, north Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Mussie; Belachew, Tefera; Tilahun, Tizta

    2012-01-26

    Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa. Total Fertility Rate of Ethiopia is 5.4 children per women, population growth rate is estimated to be 2.7% per year and contraceptive prevalence rate is only 15% while the unmet need for family planning is 34%. Overall awareness of Family Planning methods is high, at 87%. The prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs) in Tigray region was very low which accounts for 0.1% for implants and no users for intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUCD) and female sterilization. Moreover almost all modern contraceptive use in Ethiopia is dependent on short acting contraceptive methods. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPM) among married women of reproductive age group in Mekelle town. A cross sectional community based survey was conducted from March 9-20, 2011. Multistage sample technique was used to select the participants for the quantitative methods whereas purposive sampling was used for the qualitative part of the study. Binary descriptive statistics and multiple variable regressions were done. The study consisted of quantitative and qualitative data. From the quantitative part of the study the response rate of the study was 95.6%. Of the qualitative part two FGDs were conducted for each married women and married men. 64% of the married women heard about LAPMs. More than half (53.6%) of the married women had negative attitude towards practicing of LAPMs. The overall prevalence of LAPMs use was 12.3% however; there were no users for female or male sterilization. The main reason cited by the majority of the married women for not using LAPMs was using another method of contraception 360 (93.3%). Mothers who had high knowledge were 8 times more likely to use LAPMs as compared with those who had low knowledge (AOR = 7.9, 95% CI of (3.1, 18.3). Mothers who had two or more pregnancies were

  14. Satisfaction with the use of contraceptive methods among women from primary health care services in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to assess satisfaction with the use of contraceptive methods among women attending primary health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: crosssectional study conducted with a sample of 668 women aged 1849 years, who were enrolled in 38 primary health care facilities in São Paulo city, Brazil, in 2015. Exclusion criteria were no sexual initiation, use of irreversible contraceptive methods for more than five years, pregnancy and no contraceptive method use. Data were analyzed using chisquare and multivariate logistic regression. Results: in general, women were satisfied with current contraceptive method (78.7%. The higher percentage of satisfaction was observed among IUD users (94.7%, and female and male sterilization users (93.5% and 91.7%, respectively. Withdrawal users were less satisfied (52.9%. Contraceptive method itself was the only factor associated with satisfaction. Barrier or traditional method users were less likely to be satisfied with their contraceptive methods than irreversible method users. Conclusions: long acting contraceptive method and irreversible method users were more satisfied with their contraceptive methods. Efforts should be undertaken in order to make these contraceptives available and accessible in primary health care facilities in Brazil.

  15. A new method to assess the gonadal doses in women during radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, M.S.; Pant, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    The relative inaccessibility of the ovaries renders direct measurement of the gonadal doses difficult. A relatively simple method is described to tackle this problem - using the upper margin of the public symphysis as a reference point. Measurement of Radiation doses were done in a Masonite human phantom using T.L.D. and a Co-60 teletherapy unit. The accompanying figures document the observations made. The distance between the lower edge of the treatment port and the reference point is denoted by 'd'. First figure relates observed ratios of the radiation doses at the ovary and the reference point to 'd' for various port sizes and the second figure shows the relationship between the area of the port and the dose ratio (ovary: reference-point) for various values of 'd'. The advantage of this documentation is that it serves as a 'Ready Reckoner' to assess the ovarian doses under different treatment situations-once the doses at the reference point is measured

  16. 'Men don't need to know everything': a field trial of a discreet, female-initiated, contraceptive barrier method (FemCap™) among Haitian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L; Cyrus, Elena; Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Neptune, Sandra; Pelletier, Valerie; Michel, Hulda; Sévère, Marie; Pierre, Laurinus

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, women report the need for safe, non-hormonal, woman-initiated methods of family planning. Cervical barriers provide such technology but are under-researched and under-promoted. In the USA, there are few studies of cervical barriers among women at high unmet need for contraception. A feasibility study of the FemCap™ was conducted among US women of Haitian origin. Participants were heterosexual and seeking to avoid pregnancy. At first visit, participants completed baseline assessments, underwent group counselling and were fitted with FemCap™. Women were asked to insert or use the cap at home. The second visit (2-3 weeks) included an interviewer-administered questionnaire and a focus-group discussion. Participants (n  =  20) were Haitian-born (70%), married (55%) and parous (85%). Their mean age was 32.6 years. Seventy percent reported recent unprotected sex. All women inserted the device at home and 9 women used it during intercourse, including 5 without prior partner negotiation. Of 20 women, 11 liked FemCap™ very much or somewhat; 7 considered it 'OK'; 2 disliked it. Best-liked attributes were comfort, discreet wear and reusability. Difficulties with removal abated over time. Qualitative data revealed a high value placed on lack of systemic side effects. Use of FemCap™ was feasible and acceptable, supporting expansion of research, particularly among relevant populations with unmet need.

  17. Comparison of static balance of elderly women through two methods: computerized photogrammetry and accelerometer

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    Dirciane Stieven de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction The aging process produces functional and structural deficits in the body, among these changes we highlight the changes in balance. Objective This study aims to compare the computed photogrammetry and accelerometer to assess static balance in the elderly. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study. The study included 112 female subjects participating in a mothers club, where the balance assessment was performed using computerized photogrammetry and accelerometer. Results Average age 70.3 ± 5.8 [60-79] years, with the majority of the sample (47.3% consisted of elderly widows, followed by 41.1% of married elderly. Most of the sample (73.2% reported not working, eighty-six percent of the sample reported not having suffered falls in the last year. The vast majority of elderly studied (93.8% reported not having suffered fracture episode and 6.3% reported having suffered fracture episode in the last three months, 75% of the sample owned anteriorization trunk, 63% had previous oscillation trunk and 37% had subsequent oscillation. Conclusion There were significant direct and a moderate to good between the measurements obtained in photogrammetry and triaxial accelerometer correlations.

  18. Contraceptive use and method preference among women in Soweto, South Africa: the influence of expanding access to HIV care and treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Angela; Laher, Fatima; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Money, Deborah; Janssen, Patricia A; Hogg, Robert S; Gray, Glenda

    2010-11-05

    Preventing unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive women constitutes a critical and cost-effective approach to primary prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and is a global public health priority for addressing the desperate state of maternal and child health in HIV hyper-endemic settings. We sought to investigate whether the prevalence of contraceptive use and method preferences varied by HIV status and receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among women in Soweto, South Africa. We used survey data from 563 sexually active, non-pregnant women (18-44 years) recruited from the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto (May-December, 2007); 171 women were HIV-positive and receiving HAART (median duration of use = 31 months; IQR = 28, 33), 178 were HIV-positive and HAART-naïve, and 214 were HIV-negative. Medical record review was conducted to confirm HIV status and clinical variables. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted associations between HIV status, receipt of HAART, and contraceptive use. Overall, 78% of women reported using contraception, with significant variation by HIV status: 86% of HAART users, 82% of HAART-naïve women, and 69% of HIV-negative women (pwomen, women receiving HAART were significantly more likely to use contraception while HAART-naïve women were non-significantly more likely (AOR: 2.40; 95% CI: 1.25, 4.62 and AOR: 1.59; 95% CI: 0.88, 2.85; respectively). Among HIV-positive women, HAART users were non-significantly more likely to use contraception compared with HAART-naïve women (AOR: 1.55; 95% CI: 0.84, 2.88). Similar patterns held for specific use of barrier (primarily male condoms), permanent, and dual protection contraceptive methods. Among HIV-positive women receiving HAART, the observed higher prevalence of contraceptive use overall and condoms in particular promises to yield fewer unintended pregnancies and reduced risks of vertical and sexual HIV transmission. These findings highlight the

  19. Protection of pregnant women at work in Switzerland: practices, obstacles and resources. A mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, Peggy; Zellweger, Alessia; Politis Mercier, Maria-Pia; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Zenoni, Michela; Probst, Isabelle

    2018-06-14

    Like most industrialised countries, Switzerland has introduced legislation to protect the health of pregnant workers and their unborn children from workplace exposure. This legislation provides for a risk assessment, adaptations to workplaces and, if the danger is not eliminated, preventive leave (prescribed by a gynaecologist). This study's first objective is to analyse the degree to which companies, gynaecologists and midwives implement the law. Its second objective is to understand the obstacles and resources of this implementation, with a focus on how relevant stakeholders perceive protective measures and their involvement with them. Data will be collected using mixed methods: (1) online questionnaires for gynaecologists and midwives; telephone questionnaires with company human resources (HR) managers in the healthcare and food production sectors; (2a) case studies of 6-8 companies in each sector, including interviews with stakeholders such as women workers, HR managers and occupational health physicians; (2b) two focus groups, one involving occupational physicians and hygienists, one involving labour inspectors.Quantitative data will be analysed statistically using STATA software V.15. Qualitative data will be transcribed and thematically analysed using MaxQDA software. The Human Research Ethics Committee of the Canton Vaud (CER-VD) has certified that this research study protocol falls outside of the field of application of the Swiss Federal Act on Research Involving Humans.The publications and recommendations resulting from this study will form the starting point for future improvements to the protection of pregnant women at work and their unborn children.This study started in February 2017 and will continue until January 2020. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Fertility desires among men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Nairobi slums: a mixed methods study.

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    Eliud Wekesa

    Full Text Available Fertility desires require new understanding in a context of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper studies the fertility desires and their rationales, of slum-dwelling Kenyan men and women living with HIV/AIDS who know their serostatus, but have different antiretroviral therapy treatment statuses. It addresses two research questions: How do people living with HIV/AIDS consider their future fertility? What factors contribute to an explanation of fertility desires among people living with HIV/AIDS.A mixed methods study (survey [n = 513] and in-depth interviews [n = 41] with adults living with HIV/AIDS living in Nairobi slums was conducted in 2010. Regression analyses assess independent relationships between fertility desires and socio-demographic factors. Analyses of in-depth interviews are used to interpret the statistical analyses of fertility desires.Our analyses show that fertility desires are complex and ambivalent, reflecting tensions between familial and societal pressures to have children versus pressures for HIV (re-infection prevention. More than a third (34% of men and women living with HIV expressed future fertility desires; however, this is significantly lower than in the general population. Factors independently associated with desiring a child among people living with HIV/AIDS were age, sex, number of surviving children, social support and household wealth of the respondent.Increasing access to ART is changing the context of future childbearing for people living with HIV/AIDS. Prevailing values mean that, for many people living with HIV/AIDS, having children is seen as necessary for a "normal" and healthy adult life. However, the social rewards of childbearing conflict with moral imperatives of HIV prevention, presenting dilemmas about the "proper" reproductive behaviour of people living with HIV/AIDS. The health policy and service delivery implications of

  1. Advanced Research and Data Methods in Women's Health: Big Data Analytics, Adaptive Studies, and the Road Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Christian R; Johnson, Clark T; Rajapakse, Indika

    2017-02-01

    Technical advances in science have had broad implications in reproductive and women's health care. Recent innovations in population-level data collection and storage have made available an unprecedented amount of data for analysis while computational technology has evolved to permit processing of data previously thought too dense to study. "Big data" is a term used to describe data that are a combination of dramatically greater volume, complexity, and scale. The number of variables in typical big data research can readily be in the thousands, challenging the limits of traditional research methodologies. Regardless of what it is called, advanced data methods, predictive analytics, or big data, this unprecedented revolution in scientific exploration has the potential to dramatically assist research in obstetrics and gynecology broadly across subject matter. Before implementation of big data research methodologies, however, potential researchers and reviewers should be aware of strengths, strategies, study design methods, and potential pitfalls. Examination of big data research examples contained in this article provides insight into the potential and the limitations of this data science revolution and practical pathways for its useful implementation.

  2. Workability’s recreation methodic with application of cupping massage and autogenic training of women student teams’ basketball players

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    Kozina Zh.L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.

  3. Workability’s recreation methodic with application of cupping massage and autogenic training of women student teams’ basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.

  4. Discourses on menopause--Part II: How do women talk about menopause?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte; Gannik, Dorte Effersøe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe which of the different available discourses women relate to as revealed in the way they talk about menopause. We use a discourse analytic approach, which implies that meaning is ascribed to things according to how we talk about them. Twenty-four menopausal...... women from Denmark were interviewed. They were selected to cover a broad spectrum of Danish women with different menopausal experiences and social background factors. Seven previously identified discourses could be found in the interviews, though to varying degrees from woman to woman. Nearly all women...... the menopause was talked about almost became kaleidoscopic when images speedily changed from the decrepit osteoporotic woman or a woman with lack of vitality and sex-appeal to a healthy and strong woman with control over her body and self. Since many women contact doctors in relation to menopause, and since...

  5. Women?s status and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth in Uttar Pradesh: a mixed methods study using cultural health capital theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhinaraset, May; Treleaven, Emily; Melo, Jason; Singh, Kanksha; Diamond-Smith, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Background Mistreatment of women in healthcare settings during childbirth has been gaining attention globally. Mistreatment during childbirth directly and indirectly affects health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and the likelihood of delivering in a facility currently or in the future. It is important that we study patients? reports of mistreatment and abuse to develop a deeper understanding of how it is perpetrated, its consequences, and to identify potential points of intervention. Patient...

  6. Characteristics and service needs of women and babies admitted to residential parenting units in New South Wales: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Holly; Thornton, Charlene; Fowler, Cathrine; Schmied, Virginia; Tooher, Jane; Dickinson, Marie; Dahlen, Hannah Grace

    2018-04-27

    This study aims to examine the characteristics and service needs of women and babies admitted to Residential Parenting Services (RPS) in the first year following birth in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In Australia there is a tiered system to support maternal, child and family health, which includes residential parenting services (RPS). Sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Individual patient data were obtained from a random review of 10% of all medical records (n = 300 of 3011 admissions) of women with an infant of less than 12 months of age who were admitted to RPS in 2013. Following review of the medical records, qualitative data were collected via interviews with eight women who accessed RPS. Chi square analysis and student t-testing were used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed using a descriptive interpretive approach. An integrative approach was taken in reporting the findings RESULTS: Women admitted to the RPS were on average 32 years of age, were Australian born (72%), had a university qualification (40%) and most were employed. The majority of women were primiparous (60%), and had a vaginal birth (61%). Women with male infants were much more likely to be admitted to the RPS (58%) compared to the NSW male to female ratio (51.3% versus 48.7%). Over 50% of women reported mental health issues with 27% having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score ≥13 on admission. The primary reason women sought parenting support were for sleep and settling (83%). During their stay, services used by women included social workers (44%), psychologists (52%) and psychiatrists (4.5%). Women who access RPS report psychosocial and mental health issues. Services provided by RPS support women during this challenging early parenting period by providing multidisciplinary, holistic and peer support. A high prevalence of mental health issues identified in this study indicated a need for ongoing training and support for RPS staff. Ensuring

  7. Using probabilistic record linkage methods to identify Australian Indigenous women on the Queensland Pap Smear Register: the National Indigenous Cervical Screening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whop, Lisa J; Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter; Garvey, Gail; Cunningham, Joan; Brotherton, Julia M L; Canfell, Karen; Valery, Patricia C; O'Connell, Dianne L; Taylor, Catherine; Moore, Suzanne P; Condon, John R

    2016-02-12

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of record linkage of existing population-based data sets to determine Indigenous status among women receiving Pap smears. This method may allow for the first ever population measure of Australian Indigenous women's cervical screening participation rates. A linked data set of women aged 20-69 in the Queensland Pap Smear Register (PSR; 1999-2011) and Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR; 1997-2010) formed the Initial Study Cohort. Two extracts (1995-2011) were taken from Queensland public hospitals data (Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection, QHAPDC) for women, aged 20-69, who had ever been identified as Indigenous (extract 1) and had a diagnosis or procedure code relating to cervical cancer (extract 2). The Initial Study Cohort was linked to extract 1, and women with cervical cancer in the initial cohort were linked to extract 2. The proportion of women in the Initial Cohort who linked with the extracts (true -pairs) is reported, as well as the proportion of potential pairs that required clerical review. After assigning Indigenous status from QHAPDC to the PSR, the proportion of women identified as Indigenous was calculated using 4 algorithms, and compared. There were 28,872 women (2.1%) from the Initial Study Cohort who matched to an ever Indigenous record in extract 1 (n=76,831). Women with cervical cancer in the Initial Study Cohort linked to 1385 (71%) records in extract 2. The proportion of Indigenous women ranged from 2.00% to 2.08% when using different algorithms to define Indigenous status. The Final Study Cohort included 1,372,823 women (PSR n=1,374,401; QCR n=1955), and 5,062,118 records. Indigenous status in Queensland cervical screening data was successfully ascertained through record linkage, allowing for the crucial assessment of the current cervical screening programme for Indigenous women. Our study highlights the need to include Indigenous status on Pap smear request and report forms in any

  8. Role of endocortical contouring methods on precision of HR-pQCT-derived cortical micro-architecture in postmenopausal women and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalilak, C E; Johnston, J D; Cooper, D M L; Olszynski, W P; Kontulainen, S A

    2016-02-01

    Precision errors of cortical bone micro-architecture from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) ranged from 1 to 16 % and did not differ between automatic or manually modified endocortical contour methods in postmenopausal women or young adults. In postmenopausal women, manually modified contours led to generally higher cortical bone properties when compared to the automated method. First, the objective of the study was to define in vivo precision errors (coefficient of variation root mean square (CV%RMS)) and least significant change (LSC) for cortical bone micro-architecture using two endocortical contouring methods: automatic (AUTO) and manually modified (MOD) in two groups (postmenopausal women and young adults) from high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT) scans. Second, it was to compare precision errors and bone outcomes obtained with both methods within and between groups. Using HR-pQCT, we scanned twice the distal radius and tibia of 34 postmenopausal women (mean age ± SD 74 ± 7 years) and 30 young adults (27 ± 9 years). Cortical micro-architecture was determined using AUTO and MOD contour methods. CV%RMS and LSC were calculated. Repeated measures and multivariate ANOVA were used to compare mean CV% and bone outcomes between the methods within and between the groups. Significance was accepted at P young adults, postmenopausal women had better precision for radial cortical porosity (precision difference 9.3 %) and pore volume (7.5 %) with MOD. Young adults had better precision for cortical thickness (0.8 %, MOD) and tibial cortical density (0.2 %, AUTO). In postmenopausal women, MOD resulted in 0.2-54 % higher values for most cortical outcomes, as well as 6-8 % lower radial and tibial cortical BMD and 2 % lower tibial cortical thickness. Results suggest that AUTO and MOD endocortical contour methods provide comparable repeatability. In postmenopausal women, manual modification of endocortical contours led to

  9. Losing women along the path to safe motherhood: why is there such a gap between women's use of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance? A mixed methods study in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, Erin; Borchert, Matthias; Campbell, Oona M R; Sondorp, Egbert; Kaducu, Felix; Hill, Olivia; Okeng, Dennis; Odong, Vicki Norah; Lange, Isabelle L

    2015-11-04

    Thousands of women and newborns still die preventable deaths from pregnancy and childbirth-related complications in poor settings. Delivery with a skilled birth attendant is a vital intervention for saving lives. Yet many women, particularly where maternal mortality ratios are highest, do not have a skilled birth attendant at delivery. In Uganda, only 58 % of women deliver in a health facility, despite approximately 95 % of women attending antenatal care (ANC). This study aimed to (1) identify key factors underlying the gap between high rates of antenatal care attendance and much lower rates of health-facility delivery; (2) examine the association between advice during antenatal care to deliver at a health facility and actual place of delivery; (3) investigate whether antenatal care services in a post-conflict district of Northern Uganda actively link women to skilled birth attendant services; and (4) make recommendations for policy- and program-relevant implementation research to enhance use of skilled birth attendance services. This study was carried out in Gulu District in 2009. Quantitative and qualitative methods used included: structured antenatal care client entry and exit interviews [n = 139]; semi-structured interviews with women in their homes [n = 36], with health workers [n = 10], and with policymakers [n = 10]; and focus group discussions with women [n = 20], men [n = 20], and traditional birth attendants [n = 20]. Seventy-five percent of antenatal care clients currently pregnant reported they received advice during their last pregnancy to deliver in a health facility, and 58 % of these reported having delivered in a health facility. After adjustment for confounding, women who reported they received advice at antenatal care to deliver at a health facility were significantly more likely (aOR = 2.83 [95 % CI: 1.19-6.75], p = 0.02) to report giving birth in a facility. Despite high antenatal care coverage, a number of demand and supply side

  10. Quality of life, coping strategies, social support and self-efficacy in women after acute myocardial infarction: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuochi, G; Foà, C

    2018-03-01

    Quality of life, coping strategies, social support and self-efficacy are important psychosocial variables strongly affecting the experience of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in women. To gain a more in-depth understanding of how coping strategies, self-efficacy, quality of life and social support shape women's adjustment to AMI. Mixed methods study. Quantitative data were collected through a standardised questionnaire on coping strategies, self-efficacy, quality of life and social support. Qualitative data stemmed from 57 semistructured interviews conducted with post-AMI female patients on related topics. Quantitative data were analysed with unpaired two-sample t-tests on the means, comparing women who experienced AMI (N = 77) with a control group of women who did not have AMI (N = 173), and pairwise correlations on the AMI sample. Qualitative data were grouped into coding families and analysed through thematic content analysis. Qualitative and quantitative results were then integrated, for different age groups. Quantitative results indicated statistically significant differences between women who experienced AMI and the control group: the former showed lower self-perceived health, perceived social support and social support coping, but greater self-efficacy, use of acceptance, avoidance and religious coping. Pairwise correlations showed that avoidance coping strategy was negatively correlated with quality of life, while the opposite was true for problem-oriented coping, perceived social support and self-efficacy. Qualitative results extended and confirmed quantitative results, except for coping strategies: avoidance coping seemed more present than reported in the standardised measures. Mixed methods provide understanding of the importance of social support, self-efficacy and less avoidant coping strategies to women's adjustment to AMI. Women need support from health professionals with knowledge of these topics, to facilitate their adaptation to AMI. © 2017

  11. Cultural beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding among Lebanese women: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wick Livia

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the health benefits of breastfeeding are well established, early introduction of formula remains a common practice. Cultural beliefs and practices can have an important impact on breastfeeding. This paper describes some common beliefs that may discourage breastfeeding in Lebanon. Methods Participants were healthy first-time mothers recruited from hospitals throughout Lebanon to participate in a study on usage patterns of a telephone hotline for postpartum support. The hotline was available to mothers for the first four months postpartum and patterns of usage, as well as questions asked were recorded. Thematic analysis of the content of questions which referred to cultural beliefs and practices related to breastfeeding was conducted. Results Twenty four percent of the 353 women enrolled in the study called the hotline, and 50% of the calls included questions about breastfeeding. Mothers expressed concern about having adequate amounts of breast milk or the quality of their breast milk. Concerns that the mother could potentially harm her infant though breastfeeding were rooted in a number of cultural beliefs. Having an inherited inability to produce milk, having "bad milk", and transmission of abdominal cramps to infants through breast milk were among the beliefs that were expressed. Although the researchers live and work in Lebanon, they were not aware of many of the beliefs that are reported in this study. Conclusion There are a number of cultural beliefs that could potentially discourage breastfeeding among Lebanese women. Understanding and addressing local beliefs and customs can help clinicians to provide more culturally appropriate counselling about breastfeeding.

  12. Priorities and strategies for improving disabled women's access to maternity services when they are affected by domestic abuse: a multi-method study using concept maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Devaney, John; Duncan, Fiona; Kroll, Thilo; Lazenbatt, Anne; Taylor, Julie

    2015-12-28

    Domestic abuse is a significant public health issue. It occurs more frequently among disabled women than those without a disability and evidence suggests that a great deal of domestic abuse begins or worsens during pregnancy. All women and their infants are entitled to equal access to high quality maternity care. However, research has shown that disabled women who experience domestic abuse face numerous barriers to accessing care. The aim of the study was to identify the priority areas for improving access to maternity services for this group of women; develop strategies for improved access and utilisation; and explore the feasibility of implementing the identified strategies. This multi-method study was the third and final part of a larger study conducted in the UK between 2012 and 2014. The study used a modified concept mapping approach and was theoretically underpinned by Andersen's model of healthcare use. Seven focus group interviews were conducted with a range of maternity care professionals (n = 45), incorporating quantitative and qualitative components. Participants ranked perceived barriers to women's access and utilisation of maternity services in order of priority using a 5-point Likert scale. Quantitative data exploration used descriptive and non-parametric analyses. In the qualitative component of each focus group, participants discussed the barriers and identified potential improvement strategies (and feasibility of implementing these). Qualitative data were analysed inductively using a framework analysis approach. The three most highly ranked barriers to women's access and utilisation of maternity services identified in the quantitative component were: 1) staff being unaware and not asking about domestic abuse and disability; 2) the impact of domestic abuse on women; 3) women's fear of disclosure. The top two priority strategies were: providing information about domestic abuse to all women and promoting non-judgemental staff attitude. These were

  13. Experiences with and expectations of maternity waiting homes in Luapula Province, Zambia: a mixed-methods, cross-sectional study with women, community groups and stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibuye, Peggy S; Bazant, Eva S; Wallon, Michelle; Rao, Namratha; Fruhauf, Timothee

    2018-01-25

    Luapula Province has the highest maternal mortality and one of the lowest facility-based births in Zambia. The distance to facilities limits facility-based births for women in rural areas. In 2013, the government incorporated maternity homes into the health system at the community level to increase facility-based births and reduce maternal mortality. To examine the experiences with maternity homes, formative research was undertaken in four districts of Luapula Province to assess women's and community's needs, use patterns, collaboration between maternity homes, facilities and communities, and promising practices and models in Central and Lusaka Provinces. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods design was used. In Luapula Province, qualitative data were collected through 21 focus group discussions with 210 pregnant women, mothers, elderly women, and Safe Motherhood Action Groups (SMAGs) and 79 interviews with health workers, traditional leaders, couples and partner agency staff. Health facility assessment tools, service abstraction forms and registers from 17 facilities supplied quantitative data. Additional qualitative data were collected from 26 SMAGs and 10 health workers in Central and Lusaka Provinces to contextualise findings. Qualitative transcripts were analysed thematically using Atlas-ti. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively using Stata. Women who used maternity homes recognized the advantages of facility-based births. However, women and community groups requested better infrastructure, services, food, security, privacy, and transportation. SMAGs led the construction of maternity homes and advocated the benefits to women and communities in collaboration with health workers, but management responsibilities of the homes remained unassigned to SMAGs or staff. Community norms often influenced women's decisions to use maternity homes. Successful maternity homes in Central Province also relied on SMAGs for financial support, but the sustainability of these

  14. Assessment of high-risk human papillomavirus infections using clinician- and self-collected cervical sampling methods in rural women from far western Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek C Johnson

    Full Text Available Nepal has one of the highest cervical cancer rates in South Asia. Only a few studies in populations from urban areas have investigated type specific distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV in Nepali women. Data on high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types are not currently available for rural populations in Nepal. We aimed to assess the distribution of HR- HPV among rural Nepali women while assessing self-collected and clinician-collected cervico-vaginal specimens as sample collection methods for HPV screening.Study participants were recruited during a health camp conducted by Nepal Fertility Care Center in Achham District of rural far western Nepal. Women of reproductive age completed a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, and provided two specimens; one cervical-vaginal specimen using a self-collection method and another cervical specimen collected by health camp auxiliary nurse midwives during a pelvic examination. All samples were tested for 14 different HR-HPV mRNA and also specific for HPV16/18/45 mRNA.Of 261 women with both clinician- and self-collected cervical samples, 25 tested positive for HR-HPV, resulting in an overall HR-HPV prevalence of 9.6% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 6.3-13.8. The overall Kappa value assessing agreement between clinician- and self-collected tests was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.81, indicating a "good" level of agreement. Abnormal cytology was reported for 8 women. One woman identified with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, and 7 women with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Seven of the 8 women tested positive for HR-HPV (87.5% in clinician-collected samples and 6 in self-collected samples (75.0%.This is the first study to assess HR-HPV among rural Nepali women. Self-collected sampling methods should be the subject of additional research in Nepal for screening HR-HPV, associated with pre-cancer lesions and cancer, in women in rural areas with limited access to health services.

  15. Effect of conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of phosphate monomer-based cement on zirconia ceramic in dry and aged conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Balducci, Ivan; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the durability of bond strength between a resin cement and aluminous ceramic submitted to various surface conditioning methods. Twenty-four blocks (5 X 5 X 4 mm 3) of a glass-in filtrated zirconia-alumina ceramic (inCeram Zirconia Classic) were randomly

  16. Preventing syndemic Zika virus, HIV/STIs and unintended pregnancy: dual method use and consistent condom use among Brazilian women in marital and civil unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Gipson, Jessica D; Barbosa, Regina Maria; Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E

    2017-12-12

    Syndemic Zika virus, HIV and unintended pregnancy call for an urgent understanding of dual method (condoms with another modern non-barrier contraceptive) and consistent condom use. Multinomial and logistic regression analysis using data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher (PNDS), a nationally representative household survey of reproductive-aged women in Brazil, identified the socio-demographic, fertility and relationship context correlates of exclusive non-barrier contraception, dual method use and condom use consistency. Among women in marital and civil unions, half reported dual protection (30% condoms, 20% dual methods). In adjusted models, condom use was associated with older age and living in the northern region of Brazil or in urban areas, whereas dual method use (versus condom use) was associated with younger age, living in the southern region of Brazil, living in non-urban areas and relationship age homogamy. Among condom users, consistent condom use was associated with reporting Afro-religion or other religion, not wanting (more) children and using condoms only (versus dual methods). Findings highlight that integrated STI prevention and family planning services should target young married/in union women, couples not wanting (more) children and heterogamous relationships to increase dual method use and consistent condom use.

  17. Screening methods(clinical breast examination and mammography to detect breast cancer in women aged 40–49 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Takkar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The study findings are in agreement with the recommendations of the World Health Organization, US preventive task force and UK guidelines that recommend screening mammography in women starting at 50 years.

  18. Family planning knowledge, attitudes and practices in refugee and migrant pregnant and post-partum women on the Thailand-Myanmar border - a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Patricia; Hall, Layla; Kulkus, Sibylla; Paw, Moo Kho; Tun, Nay Win; Min, Aung Myat; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Srikanok, Somjet; Ontuwong, Pranee; Sirinonthachai, Supachai; Nosten, François; Somerset, Shawn; McGready, Rose

    2016-08-19

    Lack of data in marginalized populations on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) hampers efforts to improve modern contraceptive practice. A mixed methods study to better understand family planning KAP amongst refugee and migrant women on the Thailand-Myanmar border was conducted as part of an ongoing effort to improve reproductive health, particularly maternal mortality, through Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU) antenatal and birthing services. Cross-sectional surveys and focus group discussions (FGDs) in currently pregnant women; and in-depth interviews (IDIs) in selected post-partum women with three children or more; were conducted. Quantitative data were described with medians and proportions and compared using standard statistical tests. Risk factors associated with high parity (>3) were identified using logistic regression analysis. Qualitative data were coded and grouped and discussed using identified themes. In January-March 2015, 978 women participated in cross-sectional studies, 120 in FGD and 21 in IDI. Major positive findings were: > 90 % of women knew about contraceptives for birth spacing, >60 % of women in the FGD and IDI reported use of family planning (FP) in the past and nearly all women knew where they could obtain FP supplies. Major gaps identified included: low uptake of long acting contraception (LAC), lack of awareness of emergency contraception (>90 % of women), unreliable estimates of when child bearing years end, and misconceptions surrounding female sterilization. Three was identified as the ideal number of children in the cross-sectional survey but less than half of the women with this parity or higher in the IDI actually adopted LAC leaving them at risk for unintended pregnancy. Discussing basic female anatomy using a simple diagram was well received in FGD and IDIs. LAC uptake has increased particularly the IUD from 2013-2015. Definitive contextual issues were identified during this study and a significant range of action

  19. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia – a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence

  20. A mixed-methods investigation of successful aging among older women engaged in sports-based versus exercise-based leisure time physical activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Kathryn; Kruger, Tina; Klenosky, David B

    2018-01-01

    This mixed-methods study compares active older women in different physically based leisure activities and explores the difference in subjective ratings of successful aging and quantifiable predictors of success. A survey was administered to 256 women, 60-92 years of age, engaged in a sports- or exercise-based activity. Quantitative data were analyzed through ANOVA and multiple regression. Qualitative data (n = 79) was analyzed using the approach associated with means-end theory. While participants quantitatively appeared similar in terms of successful aging, qualitative interviews revealed differences in activity motivation. Women involved in sports highlighted social/psychological benefits, while those involved in exercise-based activities stressed fitness outcomes.

  1. Influence of menstruation on the microbiota of healthy women's labia minora as analyzed using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Morotomi, Nobuo; Imamura, Yuri; Mishima, Junko; Imai, Shigeo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menstruation on the bacterial population of healthy Japanese women's vulvas, especially the labia minora. Labia minora swabs were obtained from 10 premenopausal, nonpregnant Japanese women at premenstruation and on day 2 of menstruation. Vaginal swabs were also obtained from 3 out of the 10 women. No significant difference was found in the average bacterial cell count between the menstruation and premenstruation samples. Molecular analysis using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method detected 22 genera from the labia minora swabs (total 20), with the genus Lactobacillus being predominant at both premenstruation and during menstruation in 7 out of the 10 women. Of the other 3 women, 2 showed various kinds of bacterial species, including oral and fecal bacteria, with Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis predominating in the remaining woman's vulva in both conditions. In total, 6 out of 10 cases (60%) showed significantly different microbiota of the labia minora between the two conditions. These results imply that menstruation may promote a distortion of the bacterial flora around the vulva, although it causes no significant increase of the bacterial count.

  2. Characteristics of women who frequently under report their energy intake: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliusi, F B; Ferriolli, E; Pfrimer, K; Laureano, C; Cunha, C S F; Gualano, B; Lourenço, B H; Lancha, A H

    2009-10-01

    We applied three dietary assessment methods and aimed at obtaining a set of physical, social and psychological variables that can discriminate those individuals who did not underreport ('never under-reporters'), those who underreported in one dietary assessment method ('occasional under-reporters') and those who underreported in two or three dietary assessment methods ('frequent under-reporters'). Sixty-five women aged 18-57 years were recruited for this study. Total energy expenditure was determined by doubly labelled water, and energy intake was estimated by three 24-h diet recalls, 3-day food records and a food frequency questionnaire. A multiple discriminant analysis was used to identify which of those variables better discriminated the three groups: body mass index (BMI), income, education, social desirability, nutritional knowledge, dietary restraint, physical activity practice, body dissatisfaction and binge-eating symptoms. Twenty-three participants were 'never under-reporters'. Twenty-four participants were 'occasional under-reporters' and 18 were 'frequent under-reporters'. Four variables entered the discriminant model: income, BMI, social desirability and body dissatisfaction. According to potency indices, income contributed the most to the total discriminant power, followed in decreasing order by social desirability score, BMI and body dissatisfaction. Income, social desirability and BMI were the characteristics that mainly separated the 'never under-reporters' from the under-reporters (occasional or frequent). Body dissatisfaction better discriminated the 'occasional under-reporters' from the 'frequent under-reporters'. 'Frequent under-reporters' have a greater BMI, social desirability score, body dissatisfaction score and lower income. These four variables seemed to be able to discriminate individuals who are more prone to systematic under reporting.

  3. Factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods among married women of reproductive age in Mekelle town, Tigray region, north Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemayehu Mussie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopia is the second most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa. Total Fertility Rate of Ethiopia is 5.4 children per women, population growth rate is estimated to be 2.7% per year and contraceptive prevalence rate is only 15% while the unmet need for family planning is 34%. Overall awareness of Family Planning methods is high, at 87%. The prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPMs in Tigray region was very low which accounts for 0.1% for implants and no users for intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUCD and female sterilization. Moreover almost all modern contraceptive use in Ethiopia is dependent on short acting contraceptive methods. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (LAPM among married women of reproductive age group in Mekelle town. Methods A cross sectional community based survey was conducted from March 9-20, 2011. Multistage sample technique was used to select the participants for the quantitative methods whereas purposive sampling was used for the qualitative part of the study. Binary descriptive statistics and multiple variable regressions were done. Results The study consisted of quantitative and qualitative data. From the quantitative part of the study the response rate of the study was 95.6%. Of the qualitative part two FGDs were conducted for each married women and married men. 64% of the married women heard about LAPMs. More than half (53.6% of the married women had negative attitude towards practicing of LAPMs. The overall prevalence of LAPMs use was 12.3% however; there were no users for female or male sterilization. The main reason cited by the majority of the married women for not using LAPMs was using another method of contraception 360 (93.3%. Mothers who had high knowledge were 8 times more likely to use LAPMs as compared with those who had low knowledge (AOR = 7.9, 95% CI of (3

  4. Determinants of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods utilization among married women of reproductive age groups in western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melka, Alemu Sufa; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia information on the level of utilization of the long term and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factorsis lacking. The aim of this study was to understand the determinant factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age in Western Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed. Multi stage sampling was used to select 1003 study participants. Data was collected from April 10 to April 25,2014 using a pre- tested structured questionnaire. The data were entered using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods at 95% CL. Use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in this study was found to be 20%. Survey results showed a significant positive association between utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and women's education (AOR=1.72, 95%CI=1.02-3.05), women's occupation (AOR=2.01, 95% CI=1.11-3.58), number of live children (AOR=2.42, 95% CI: 1.46-4.02), joint fertility related decision (AOR=6.11, 95% CI: 2.29-16.30), having radio/TV (AOR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.40-3.80), and discussion with health care provider about long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (AOR=13.72, 95% CI: 8.37-22.47). Efforts need to be aimed at women empowerment, health education, and encouraging open discussion of family planning by couples.

  5. Determinants of non-use of family planning methods by young married women (15-24 years living in urban slums of Uttar Pradesh

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    Kriti Yadav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate of Uttar Pradesh is 2.7 with annual growth rate of 16.5. Age specific marital fertility rate (ASMFR in Uttar Pradesh is highest in the age group of 20-24 years (383.9 followed by 15-19 years (271.0 age group. Use of contraceptives is also very low in this most productive age group. Among the Young married women in the age group of 15-24 years the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR is only 27.75% which is quite low than the target CPR of 60%. State level data presents a grim picture of contraceptive use in the slum areas in comparison to non-slum areas. This slum population is the most vulnerable section of our society. Aims & Objectives: i To assess the prevalence of non-use of contraceptives among young married women living in urban slums. ii To understand the reasons for non-use of contraceptives among young married women. iii To explore the factors influencing non-use of contraceptive among young married women. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in the urban slums of Lucknow. Out of the eight Nagar-Nigam zones in Lucknow, one Urban-Primary Health Centre was selected randomly from each zone. From each Urban- Primary Health Centre, 2 slums were selected randomly. In selected slum, all the households were visited until at least 33 young married women (15-24 years were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to obtain the desired sample size of 535. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results: Current use of contraceptives was found to be 33.8 % and almost two-thirds (66.2% of the participants were not using any form of contraceptive method. The important reasons for non-use of contraception were embarrassment / hesitancy / shyness regarding family planning, lack of knowledge about the contraceptive method or place of availability of services, opposition to contraceptive use by husband or family members and women’s desire to get pregnant. About one third of the women had no

  6. Factors impacting knowledge and use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods by postpartum HIV positive and negative women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study

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    Credé Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women is a neglected strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Women who want to avoid unintended pregnancies can do this by using a modern contraceptive method. Contraceptive choice, in particular the use of long acting and permanent methods (LAPMs, is poorly understood among HIV-positive women. This study aimed to compare factors that influence women's choice in contraception and women's knowledge and attitudes towards the IUD and female sterilization by HIV-status in a high HIV prevalence setting, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered questionnaire amongst 265 HIV positive and 273 HIV-negative postpartum women in Cape Town. Contraceptive use, reproductive history and the future fertility intentions of postpartum women were compared using chi-squared tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact tests where appropriate. Women's knowledge and attitudes towards long acting and permanent methods as well as factors that influence women's choice in contraception were examined. Results The majority of women reported that their most recent pregnancy was unplanned (61.6% HIV positive and 63.2% HIV negative. Current use of contraception was high with no difference by HIV status (89.8% HIV positive and 89% HIV negative. Most women were using short acting methods, primarily the 3-monthly injectable (Depo Provera. Method convenience and health care provider recommendations were found to most commonly influence method choice. A small percentage of women (6.44% were using long acting and permanent methods, all of whom were using sterilization; however, it was found that poor knowledge regarding LAPMs is likely to be contributing to the poor uptake of these methods. Conclusions Improving contraceptive counselling to include LAPM and strengthening services for these methods are warranted in this setting

  7. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study.

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    Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghadam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hamdieh, Mostafa; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-06-13

    Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women's health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women's sexual abstinence.

  8. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia - a mixed methods study.

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    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Sexual violence from police was common in this cohort of

  9. Fresh Start, a postpartum weight loss intervention for diverse low-income women: design and methods for a randomized clinical trial

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    Milagros C. Rosal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are prevalent among young women and are greater among minority and low-income women. The postpartum period is critical in women’s weight trajectories as many women do not lose their pregnancy weight, and others lose some and then plateau or experience weight gain. Excess weight puts women at greater risk of chronic disease and thus weight loss in the postpartum period may be key to the long-term health of young women. This paper describes the design and methods of a randomized clinical trial of Fresh Start, an innovative narrative-based group intervention aimed at promoting postpartum weight loss among low-income, diverse women. Methods/design Study participants were recruited from the five sites of the Women, Infants and Children (WIC program in central Massachusetts. Participants were English-speaking, age ≥ 18 years, 6 weeks to 6 months postpartum, with a body mass index (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2. The Fresh Start postpartum weight loss intervention, adapted from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP in collaboration with WIC staff and clients, consisted of an 8-week group-based curriculum followed by nine monthly telephone calls. It included a narrative component (i.e., storytelling, group discussions, print materials and access to exercise facilities. The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial. The control condition included print materials and access to exercise facilities. In-person assessments were conducted at baseline and at 6 and 12 months following the eight-week intervention phase. Discussion The Fresh Start intervention translated key elements of an evidence-based weight loss protocol into a format that is hypothesized to be relevant, acceptable and effective for the target audience of low-SES postpartum women. This novel intervention was developed in collaboration with WIC to be sustainable within the context of its clinics, which reach approximately 9 million individuals

  10. Preconception care for women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus: a mixed-methods study exploring uptake of preconception care.

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    Earle, Sarah; Tariq, Anisah; Komaromy, Carol; Lloyd, Cathy E; Karamat, M Ali; Webb, Jackie; Gill, Paramjit S

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem and one of the most common medical conditions in pregnancy. A wide range of modifiable risk factors are associated with diabetes mellitus in pregnancy, and it is widely acknowledged that preconception care (PCC) is beneficial for women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus. However, uptake of PCC services is low. To systematically review qualitative research on PCC for women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus of childbearing age, identify facilitators of and barriers to uptake of PCC and establish themes and gaps in knowledge. Through qualitative interviews explore views on the provision of, and facilitators of and barriers to the uptake of, PCC. Mixed methods encompassing a systematic review and qualitative interviews. Two secondary care sites and 11 primary care sites. Women of childbearing age with pre-existing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of white British or Pakistani origin. None. A narrative synthesis of the literature using thematic analysis and a thematic analysis of the qualitative interview data using the method of constant comparison. Eighteen qualitative studies were included in the systematic review and a quality appraisal was carried out using relevant criteria for qualitative research appraisal, including a narrative summary of study quality. Twelve interviews with women with pre-existing T1DM or T2DM were carried out. This fell short of the original aim of interviewing 48 women owing to challenges in recruitment, especially in primary care. A synthesis of these data shows that uptake of PCC is influenced by a range of factors, including the complexity of pregnancy planning, the skill and expertise of health professionals who provide care to women with diabetes mellitus, the role of health professionals in the delivery of PCC, and the quality of relationships between women and health professionals. Owing to significant challenges with recruitment of participants

  11. Differentials of modern contraceptive methods use by food security status among married women of reproductive age in Wolaita Zone, South Ethiopia.

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    Feyisso, Mohammed; Belachew, Tefera; Tesfay, Amanuel; Addisu, Yohannes

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the massive spending and extensive family-planning promotion, many poor people in the third world remain reluctant to use modern contraceptive method. Mostly when they use modern contraceptives, their continuation rates are often low. Reproductive health can improve women's nutrition; in return better nutrition can improve reproductive health. Thus addressing the connection between nutrition and reproductive health is critical to ensure population growth that does not overwhelm world resources. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 15-30, 2014 in Soddo Zuria Woreda, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 651 currently married women of reproductive age group were selected using multistage sampling. Probability proportional to the size allocation method was employed to determine the number of households. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between family planning use and food security status after adjusting for other covariates. Use of modern contraceptive method was significantly low among food insecure women (29.7 %) compared to those who were food secure (52.0 %), (P insecurity is negatively associated with modern contraceptive method use. Thus food insecurity should be considered as one of the barriers in designing family planning services and needs special arrangement.

  12. High coffee consumption and different brewing methods in relation to postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk in the Norwegian women and cancer study: a population-based prospective study.

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    Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Braaten, Tonje; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Lund, Eiliv

    2014-03-25

    Coffee and its compounds have been proposed to inhibit endometrial carcinogenesis. Studies in the Norwegian population can be especially interesting due to the high coffee consumption and increasing incidence of endometrial cancer in the country. A total of 97 926 postmenopausal Norwegian women from the population-based prospective Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study, were included in the present analysis. We evaluated the general association between total coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk as well as the possible impact of brewing method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate risks, and heterogeneity tests were performed to compare brewing methods. During an average of 10.9 years of follow-up, 462 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. After multivariate adjustment, significant risk reduction was found among participants who drank ≥8 cups/day of coffee with a hazard ratio of 0.52 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.34-0.79). However, we did not observe a significant dose-response relationship. No significant heterogeneity in risk was found when comparing filtered and boiled coffee brewing methods. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in subgroup analyses among participants who drank ≥8 cups/day and had a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and in current smokers. These data suggest that in this population with high coffee consumption, endometrial cancer risk decreases in women consuming ≥8 cups/day, independent of brewing method.

  13. Characteristics of HIV target CD4 T cells collected using different sampling methods from the genital tract of HIV seronegative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Smita S; Sabula, Michael J; Mehta, C Christina; Haddad, Lisa B; Brown, Nakita L; Amara, Rama R; Ofotokun, Igho; Sheth, Anandi N

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the immune profile of CD4 T cells, the primary targets for HIV, in the female genital tract (FGT) is critical for evaluating and developing effective biomedical HIV prevention strategies in women. However, longitudinal investigation of HIV susceptibility markers expressed by FGT CD4 T cells has been hindered by low cellular yield and risk of sampling-associated trauma. We investigated three minimally invasive FGT sampling methods to characterize and compare CD4 T cell yield and phenotype with the goal of establishing feasible sampling strategies for immune profiling of mucosal CD4 T cells. FGT samples were collected bimonthly from 12 healthy HIV negative women of reproductive age in the following order: 1) Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), 2) two sequential endocervical flocked swabs (FS), and 3) two sequential endocervical cytobrushes (CB1, CB2). Cells were isolated and phentoyped via flow cytometry. CD4 T cell recovery was highest from each individual CB compared to either CVL or FS (p sampling method, expressed CCR5 relative to peripheral blood (p samples. Using three different mucosal sampling methods collected longitudinally we demonstrate that CD4 T cells within the FGT express CCR5 and α4β7 and are highly activated, attributes which could act in concert to facilitate HIV acquisition. FS and CB sampling methods can allow for investigation of strategies to reduce HIV target cells in the FGT and could inform the design and interpretation microbicide and vaccine studies in women.

  14. Factors impacting knowledge and use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods by postpartum HIV positive and negative women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credé, Sarah; Hoke, Theresa; Constant, Deborah; Green, Mackenzie S; Moodley, Jennifer; Harries, Jane

    2012-03-16

    The prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women is a neglected strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Women who want to avoid unintended pregnancies can do this by using a modern contraceptive method. Contraceptive choice, in particular the use of long acting and permanent methods (LAPMs), is poorly understood among HIV-positive women. This study aimed to compare factors that influence women's choice in contraception and women's knowledge and attitudes towards the IUD and female sterilization by HIV-status in a high HIV prevalence setting, Cape Town, South Africa. A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered questionnaire amongst 265 HIV positive and 273 HIV-negative postpartum women in Cape Town. Contraceptive use, reproductive history and the future fertility intentions of postpartum women were compared using chi-squared tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact tests where appropriate. Women's knowledge and attitudes towards long acting and permanent methods as well as factors that influence women's choice in contraception were examined. The majority of women reported that their most recent pregnancy was unplanned (61.6% HIV positive and 63.2% HIV negative). Current use of contraception was high with no difference by HIV status (89.8% HIV positive and 89% HIV negative). Most women were using short acting methods, primarily the 3-monthly injectable (Depo Provera). Method convenience and health care provider recommendations were found to most commonly influence method choice. A small percentage of women (6.44%) were using long acting and permanent methods, all of whom were using sterilization; however, it was found that poor knowledge regarding LAPMs is likely to be contributing to the poor uptake of these methods. Improving contraceptive counselling to include LAPM and strengthening services for these methods are warranted in this setting for all women regardless of HIV status. These study results

  15. Why do women not return family history forms when referred to breast cancer genetics services? A mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Kirstie A; Steel, Michael; Goudie, David; McLeish, Lorna; Dunlop, Jackie; Myring, Jessica; Sullivan, Frank; Berg, Jonathan; Humphris, Gerry; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2015-10-01

    Personal and family data forms, completed by women referred to breast cancer genetics clinics, are valuable tools for verification and extension of family history, crucial steps in accurate risk evaluation. A significant minority of women do not complete and return these forms, despite reminders, even when completion is a pre-requisite for a clinic appointment. To facilitate access of women at increased familial risk of breast cancer to screening and counselling services by investigating reasons for non-return of the forms. Based on a single regional 'breast cancer family' service in the UK, Analysis of quantitative data comparing women who did not return forms (n = 55) with those who had done so (n = 59), together with qualitative evaluation of potential barriers to form-completion through semi-structured telephone interviews with a random subset of 'non-returners' (n = 23). Non-returners have higher proportions of the very young (below the age at which surveillance could be offered) and of women from lower social deprivation categories. Interviews revealed that the majority of non-returners are anxious, rather than unconcerned about their breast cancer risk and circumstances and attitudes contributed to non-compliance. Twenty-one participants confirmed that they would welcome an appointment at a 'breast cancer family' clinic, but nine did not attend for the appointment. They were significantly younger than those who attend, but were not at lower familial risk. Many women who fail to complete and return a family history form would benefit from risk assessment and genetic counselling. Several steps are suggested that might help them access the relevant services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of quality of life in women with breast cancer, with particular emphasis on sexual satisfaction, future perspectives and body image, depending on the method of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowik, Agnieszka J; Jabłoński, Marcin Jacek; Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Jach, Robert

    2017-10-29

    Both because of the large number of women undergoing surgery and a high cure rates, psychological rehabilitation of the consequences of breast cancer and side effects of their treatment is a major challenge of modern psychooncology. Aim. The study analyzed the quality of life in women with breast cancer, with particular emphasis on indicators of sexual satisfaction, future perspectives and body image, depending on the method of surgery. The study included 42 women aged 35-70 years, 3 months after surgery due to early breast cancer, treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. The following research tools were used in the study: two EORTC questionnaires: QLQ-C30, BR23, and sexual function questionnaire: PL-FSFI. There was no significant difference in the overall quality of life, depending on the type of surgery. The greatest local complaints were reported by patients after breast conserving surgery (BCT) with axillary lymphadenectomy. A higher level of cognitive functioning but a greater severity of systemic side effects was found in women undergoing mastectomy compared to BCT-patients. Women who underwent surgery of the right breast reported increased problems in sexual functioning (p = 0.034). Multiple regression analysis showed a positive correlation of the emotional functioning variable with the assessment of future perspectives (p = 0.01) and body image (p = 0.007). The type of surgical technique does not affect the overall quality of life and sexual satisfaction. Problems with memory and attention do not correlate directly with the side effects, and as such require an independent diagnostics. Women undergoing treatment of the dominant-side breast should be the candidates for sexology consultation. There is a risk of disturbances in the body image and in the assessment of future perspectives in patients with emotional disorders observed within 3 months after surgery.

  17. Validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire Assessing the Folate Intake in Women of Reproductive Age Living in a Country without Food Fortification: Application of the Method of Triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekovic, Milica; Djekic-Ivankovic, Marija; Nikolic, Marina; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Glibetic, Marija

    2017-02-13

    The study aimed to examine the external validity of the Folate Food Frequency Questionnaire (F-FFQ) designed for assessing the folate intake in Serbian women of reproductive age. The F-FFQ was tested against repeated 24 h dietary recalls and correspondent nutritional biomarkers (red blood cells (RBC) and serum folate concentrations) using the method of triads. In a cross sectional study, 503 women aged 18-49 years completed dietary questionnaires and representative validation subsample ( n = 50) provided fasting blood samples for biomarker analyses. Correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the dietary methods and three pair-wise correlations were applied for the calculation of validity coefficients. Correlation coefficients observed between F-FFQ and three 24 h recalls were r = 0.56 ( p food fortification.

  18. Feeding methods, sleep arrangement, and infant sleep patterns: a Chinese population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Jen-Jen; Wang, Lin-Hong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; An, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Findings from prior research into the effect of feeding methods on infant sleep are inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine infants' sleep patterns by feeding methods and sleep arrangement from birth to eight months old. This longitudinal cohort study enrolled 524 pregnant women at 34-41 weeks of gestation and their infants after delivery in 2006 and followed up until eight months postpartum. The study subjects were recruited from nine women and children hospitals in nine cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanning, Xiamen, Xi'an, Jinan, and Hailin). Participating infants were followed up weekly during the first month and monthly from the second to the eighth month after birth. Twenty-four hour sleep diaries recording infants' sleeping and feeding methods were administered based on caregiver's self-report. Multivariable mixed growth curve models were fitted to estimate the effects of feeding methods and sleep arrangement on infants' sleep patterns over time, controlling for maternal and paternal age, maternal and paternal education level, household income, supplementation of complementary food, and infant birth weight and length. Exclusively formula fed infants had the greatest sleep percentage/24 h, followed by exclusively breast milk fed infants and partially breast milk fed infants (Psleep percentage and night waking frequency between exclusively formula and exclusively breast milk fed infants weakened over time as infants developed. In addition, compared to infants with bed-sharing sleep arrangement, those with room sharing sleep arrangement had greater daytime and 24-hour infant sleep percentage, whereas those with sleeping alone sleep arrangement had greater nighttime sleep percentage. Our data based on caregiver's self-report suggested that partial breastfeeding and bed-sharing may be associated with less sleep in infants. Health care professionals need to work with parents of newborns to develop coping strategies that

  19. Demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods among sexually active women in low- and middle-income countries: who is lagging behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewerling, Fernanda; Victora, Cesar G; Raj, Anita; Coll, Carolina V N; Hellwig, Franciele; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2018-03-06

    Family planning is key for reducing unintended pregnancies and their health consequences and is also associated with improvements in economic outcomes. Our objective was to identify groups of sexually active women with extremely low demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods (mDFPS) in low- and middle-income countries, at national and subnational levels to inform the improvement and expansion of programmatic efforts to narrow the gaps in mDFPS coverage. Analyses were based on Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data. The most recent surveys carried out since 2000 in 77 countries were included in the analysis. We estimated mDFPS among women aged 15-49 years. Subgroups with low coverage (mDFPS below 20%) were identified according to marital status, wealth, age, education, literacy, area of residence (urban or rural), geographic region and religion. Overall, only 52.9% of the women with a demand for family planning were using a modern contraceptive method, but coverage varied greatly. West & Central Africa showed the lowest coverage (32.9% mean mDFPS), whereas South Asia and Latin America & the Caribbean had the highest coverage (approximately 70% mean mDFPS). Some countries showed high reliance on traditional contraceptive methods, markedly those from Central and Eastern Europe, and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE & CIS). Albania, Azerbaijan, Benin, Chad and Congo Democratic Republic presented low mDFPS coverage (planning method. Subgroups requiring special attention include women who are poor, uneducated/illiterate, young, and living in rural areas. Efforts to increase mDFPS must address not only the supply side but also tackle the need to change social norms that might inhibit uptake of contraception.

  20. Long-acting reversible contraceptive acceptability and unintended pregnancy among women presenting for short-acting methods: a randomized patient preference trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacher, David; Spector, Hannah; Monteith, Charles; Chen, Pai-Lien; Hart, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    Measures of contraceptive effectiveness combine technology and user-related factors. Observational studies show higher effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception compared with short-acting reversible contraception. Women who choose long-acting reversible contraception may differ in key ways from women who choose short-acting reversible contraception, and it may be these differences that are responsible for the high effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. Wider use of long-acting reversible contraception is recommended, but scientific evidence of acceptability and successful use is lacking in a population that typically opts for short-acting methods. The objective of the study was to reduce bias in measuring contraceptive effectiveness and better isolate the independent role that long-acting reversible contraception has in preventing unintended pregnancy relative to short-acting reversible contraception. We conducted a partially randomized patient preference trial and recruited women aged 18-29 years who were seeking a short-acting method (pills or injectable). Participants who agreed to randomization were assigned to 1 of 2 categories: long-acting reversible contraception or short-acting reversible contraception. Women who declined randomization but agreed to follow-up in the observational cohort chose their preferred method. Under randomization, participants chose a specific method in the category and received it for free, whereas participants in the preference cohort paid for the contraception in their usual fashion. Participants were followed up prospectively to measure primary outcomes of method continuation and unintended pregnancy at 12 months. Kaplan-Meier techniques were used to estimate method continuation probabilities. Intent-to-treat principles were applied after method initiation for comparing incidence of unintended pregnancy. We also measured acceptability in terms of level of happiness with the products. Of the 916

  1. Influence of breathing exercises using method of Body Flex by Greer Childers on to the selected somatic traits of women with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Radziejowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Overweight and obesity are without any doubts an epidemic of our times, resulting from a change in the living style of the people. Majority of the people reduces the physical activity to the minimum, because of the lack of time they have after the work. That is why we are attacked from time to time by various publications about miraculous methods how to throw away an excessive body weight. In this work is made a close investigation of the method of Greer Childers “Body Flex”, which has become very popular among other in the United States and in Russia, because of the simplicity of exercises to be done and the short time necessary to perform them. The essence of exercises of „‘Body Flex’’ type are the breathing exercises connected with isometric and stretching exercising. The main stress is applied to the lower breathing path with keeping the abdominal muscles tone as well as adding the posture muscles operations, what is as consequence to reduce the body weight, selected body circumferences and to strengthen the muscles exercised. Purpose: The aim of presented work was the comparative assessment of the selected somatic traits of the persons making regularly exercises, at least 5 times a week, using the modified „‘Body Flex’’ method as well as the assessment of effectiveness of the application of those exercises. Material and methods: The examination has covered a group of 25 persons, which was women in the age range 36 – 63, average age amounted to 58,45 +- 8,92 years, including 16 persons of them constituting the tested group and 9 persons being a control group, which has not made regular exercises. In the tested group was separated: 4 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating their obesity, 8 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating overweight and 4 persons’ group of women with BMI within the limits of the norm. Before and after 1 month’s, and for 9 persons – after 2 months’ therapy, their

  2. Treatment decision-making in ductal carcinoma in situ: A mixed methods systematic review of women's experiences and information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Claudia; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; Butow, Phyllis; Wu, Jenny Liang; King, Madeleine T

    2017-09-01

    Decision-making in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is complex due to the heterogeneity of the disease. This study aimed to understand women's experience of making treatment decisions for DCIS, their information and support needs, and factors that influenced decisions. We searched six electronic databases, conference proceedings, and key authors. Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and quality criteria, and extracted findings. Thematic analysis was used to combine and summarise findings. We identified six themes and 28 subthemes from 18 studies. Women with DCIS have knowledge deficits about DCIS, experience anxiety related to information given at diagnosis and the complexity of decision-making, and have misconceptions regarding risks and outcomes of treatment. Women's decisions are influenced by their understanding of risk, the clinical features of their DCIS, and the benefits and harms of treatment options. Women are dissatisfied with the decisional support available. Informed and shared decision-making in this complex decision setting requires clear communication of information specific to DCIS and individual's, as well as decision support for patients and clinicians. This approach would educate patients and clinicians, and assist clinicians in supporting patients to an evidence-based treatment plan that aligns with individual values and pReferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Educational Intervention on Self-efficacy for Choosing Delivery Method among Pregnant Women in 2013

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    Zahra Taheri

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings showed that training-based self-efficacy procedure has been effective in encouraging mothers to choose natural childbirth. Therefore, the design and implementation of curriculum-based strategies for increasing self-efficacy is suggested for pregnant women.

  4. Model versus Military Pilot: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Attitudes toward Women in Varied Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…

  5. A comprehensive postpartum follow-up health care program for women with history of preeclampsia: protocol for a mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamravamanesh, Mastaneh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Rezavand, Negin; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2018-05-18

    Long-term postpartum follow-up is of great importance since women with preeclampsia history are at high risk of upcoming health complications. However, postpartum follow-up rates are poor. According to evidences, preeclampsia is not just a transient health problem; rather it causes short term and long term complications, which affect women's life for years after delivery. Although it seems the problem is solved by the end of pregnancy, the follow-up of subjects should not be stopped after delivery. Postpartum is the best possible time to provide necessary care to these women who are at the risk of future complications. Due to importance of well-designed follow-up plan for women suffering preeclampsia, this study will carry out to provide a postpartum follow-up health care program for subjected women. This study is a qualitative-quantitative mixed sequencing exploratory study that consists of three consecutive phases. In this study, following a qualitative approach, the researcher will explain the needs and strategies related to promoting the health of women with preeclampsia history in the postpartum period. By entering the second phase, the researcher will design a comprehensive follow-up health care program in the postpartum period in which, in addition to using the qualitative study results, related papers and texts will be also used. The proposed program is designed by a panel of experts based on prioritization guidelines. Finally, after passing different stages of program finalizing, its effectiveness on the lifestyle of women with preeclampsia history will be investigated in a semi-experimental study in the third phase of the study. It is expected conducting a mixed method study to design and execute an interventional program to follow up women with preeclampsia history improve their health status and well-being, while reducing their health care costs through prevention in various levels within the current structure of health care services. If this program is

  6. A mixed methods study to develop and pilot a competency assessment tool to support midwifery care of women with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beake, Sarah; Clark, Louise L; Turner, Toni; Bick, Debra

    2013-08-01

    Recent reports have highlighted the poor quality of health care received by people with intellectual disabilities (otherwise known as 'learning disabilities') in the United Kingdom (UK). UK Confidential Enquiries into maternal deaths have highlighted adverse pregnancy outcomes for women with intellectual disabilities and need for timely and appropriate clinical care. To develop and test a competency assessment tool to support midwifery care of women with intellectual disabilities. A mixed methods study. Large inner city maternity unit. Midwives and key experts in intellectual disabilities, maternity policy and midwifery education. Phase one comprised a systematic narrative review of the literature. Evidence identified informed phase two which included focus groups and interviews. Emergent themes informed the development of a competency assessment tool which was piloted in phase three. Phase one: Four primary research papers and two systematic reviews met the review inclusion criteria. Support to develop parenting skills of women with intellectual disabilities was highlighted as was the need to optimise organisation of maternity services. No studies specifically considered midwifery competencies to support women with intellectual disabilities. Phase two: 23 midwives attended three focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with national leaders in intellectual disability (n=6) and midwifery policy and education (n=7). Themes identified included need for individualised care provided by a known midwife, the importance of effective communication skills and need for clear knowledge and understanding of the legislative framework relevant to intellectual disability. Phase three: A convenience sample of 60 midwives was asked to participate in a pilot study to test the tool, 46 (77%) of whom responded. Thirty midwives (65%) felt competent in their ability to recognise intellectual disability and 37 (80%) competent or expert in understanding women have the right

  7. A review of cyber security risk assessment methods for SCADA systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cherdantseva, Yulia; Burnap, Peter; Blyth, Andrew; Eden, Peter; Jones, Kevin; Soulsby, Hugh; Stoddart, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in cyber security risk assessment of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. We select and in-detail examine twenty-four risk assessment methods developed for or applied in the context of a SCADA system. We describe the essence of the methods and then analyse them in terms of aim; application domain; the stages of risk management addressed; key risk management concepts covered; impact measurement; sources of probabilistic data; evaluat...

  8. Linking women who test HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services to HIV care and treatment services in Kenya: a mixed methods prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    Full Text Available There has been insufficient attention to long-term care and treatment for pregnant women diagnosed with HIV.This prospective cohort study of 100 HIV-positive women recruited within pregnancy-related services in a district hospital in Kenya employed quantitative methods to assess attrition between women testing HIV-positive in pregnancy-related services and accessing long-term HIV care and treatment services. Qualitative methods were used to explore barriers and facilitators to navigating these services. Structured questionnaires were administered to cohort participants at enrolment and 90+ days later. Participants' medical records were monitored prospectively. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a sub-set of 19 participants.Only 53/100 (53% women registered at an HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis, of whom 27/53 (51% had a CD4 count result in their file. 11/27 (41% women were eligible for immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART; only 6/11 (55% started ART during study follow-up. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors associated with registration at the HIV clinic within 90 days of HIV diagnosis were: having cared for someone with HIV (aOR:3.67(95%CI:1.22, 11.09, not having to pay for transport to the hospital (aOR:2.73(95%CI:1.09, 6.84, and having received enough information to decide to have an HIV test (aOR:3.61(95%CI:0.83, 15.71. Qualitative data revealed multiple factors underlying high patient drop-out related to women's social support networks (e.g. partner's attitude to HIV status, interactions with health workers (e.g. being given unclear/incorrect HIV-related information and health services characteristics (e.g. restricted opening hours, long waiting times.HIV testing within pregnancy-related services is an important entry point to HIV care and treatment services, but few women successfully completed the steps needed for assessment of their treatment needs within three months of diagnosis

  9. The impact of the language barrier on the success of Hungarian minority women in the higher education system of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendák-Kabók Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is to analyze the impact of the language barrier faced by Hungarian minority female professors and students in the higher education sys­tem of Serbia. The aim of this paper is to propose measures which might allow Hungarian minority students to overcome the language barrier more easily and to raise awareness for the need of more Hungarian women in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM. The analysis is based on twenty four semi-structured interviews conducted with minority Hungarian female professors and students, who are working or studying at the University of Novi Sad, Serbia. Interviews were conducted with a pre-composed questionnaire between the end of 2014 and the beginning of 2015. Interviewees were chosen with a snowball sampling method. Results of analysis show that the majority of Hungarian women face a language barrier at the start of their studies, mostly because of their limited knowledge of the majority’s language. These barriers were more pronounced in Hungarian female students than with professor. This phenomenon can be attributed to the time in which they grew up, or to a different social environment of the twentieth century, when bilingualism was completely natural, from which, less segregation of the nations resulted and a better knowledge of the Serbian language. The professors particularly point out that being bilingual is a great advantage and that their knowledge of several languages was a key advantage in their academic careers. With the analysis of the interviews it was determined that the language barrier was mostly pronounced for students of social sciences and humanities (SSH, where language is the primary tool of communication. The language barrier was less important for the students studying in STEM sciences, where students and professors interact through formulas and written exams.

  10. Knowledge and attitude of older women towards menopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazhar, S.B.; Gul-e-Erum

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitude towards menopause among postmenopausal women seeking gynecological treatment. Results: The mean age of respondents was 54.4 years. Fifty-two (74.3%) women knew about menopause, 39 (55.7%) were aware of symptomatology while only 7(10%) knew sequelae of menopause. Fifty-three (75.5%) women were satisfied with cessation of menstruation and only 17 (24.3%) desired to continue menstruation. Twenty-four (34.3%) respondents were unhappy with their menopausal status. Thirty-two (45.7%) women were content with their present sexual relations, 18 (25.7%) were dissatisfied and 20 (28.6%) had no sexual activity. Fifty-two (74.3%) women felt a need for health education on menopause in educational institutions. Thirty-three (47.1%) considered treatment of menopause necessary. Four (5.7%) were aware of any treatment of menopause and 55 (78.6%) desired to learn more about menopause. Conclusion: Women have different views about menopause, few see it as a medical condition requiring treatment, whereas majority consider it is a natural transition. There was breath of knowledge regarding significance of menopause. (author)

  11. Impact of the S.W.E.A.T.™ Water-Exercise Method on Activities of Daily Living for Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Sanders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Older women may have chronic or age-related conditions that increase the risk of falls or that limit their ability to remain active. It is unclear if a water-based exercise program provides a safe and effective alternative to land-based exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a water-based exercise program method on land-based functional activities of daily living (ADL for women 60 years and older. This study used a quasi- experimental, nonequivalent control group design. Sixty-six women (60-89 yr of age self- selected to a water exercise (WEX group (n = 48 or control (C group (n = 18. The training consisted of a 16-week (45 min·day-1, 3 d·wk-1 supervised WEX program that included 10 min of warm-up and warm down/stretching and 35 min training using the S.W.E.A.T.™ method in shallow water 1.0-1.2 m, with water temperature approximately 28-29°C. Participants were required to attendat least 94% of the sessions. Assessments for participants included ADL functional field tests. In comparison to the C group, WEX participantsimproved (p < 0.05 flexibility (8%, sit- to-stand (31%, walking speed (16% and stride length (10%, agility (20%, stair climb (22%, arm curl (39%, and static (42-48% balance, but not dynamic balance. Results indicate that the S.W.E.A.T.™ method applied to this water exercise program provides a well-rounded, safe, and effective exercise program where older women can improve functional ADL and static balance.

  12. Predictors of modern contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age groups in Western Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Melka, Alemu Sufa; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-07-17

    In Ethiopia, the prevalence of modern contraceptive use is very low (27 %) and the percentage of those with unmet needs for family planning is 25 %. The current study identified factors associated with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods among married women in Western Ethiopia. A community based, cross-sectional study was employed from April 10 to April 25, 2014, among married women of reproductive age in Nekemte Town. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select 1003 study participants. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data, and data collectors who had completed high school were involved in the data collection process. A bivariate, multivariable logistic regression model was fit, and statistical significance was determined with a 95% confidence level. The overall utilization rate of modern contraceptives in this study was 71.9%. The most common form of modern contraceptives used was injectable (60.3%). Age (AOR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.35-2.98), women's educational level (AOR = 2.50, 95 % CI = 1.62-3.84), monthly income (AOR = 2.26, 95 % CI = 1.24-4.10), respondent's fertility (AOR = 2.60, 95 % CI = 1.48-4.56), fertility-related decision (AOR = 3.70, 95 % CI = 2.45-5.58), and having radio (AOR = 1.93, 95 % CI = 1.37-2.71) showed significant positive associations with the utilization of modern contraceptive methods. The findings showed that women's empowerment, fertility-related discussions among couples, and the availability of the media were important factors that influenced the use of modern contraceptives. Thus, policymakers and implementers should work on those factors to increase the utilization of modern contraceptive methods.

  13. Salt intake and the validity of a salt intake assessment system based on a 24-h dietary recall method in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Tanno, Yumi; Hosaka, Miki; Metoki, Hirohito; Obara, Taku; Asayama, Kei; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Masakuni; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding salt intake in pregnant women in Japan is limited. An electronic system for the assessment of salt intake using a 24-h dietary recall method has been developed in Japan. The objectives of the present study were to investigate salt intake in pregnant women and to compare the salt intake estimated by the electronic salt intake assessment system with that measured by 24-h urinary salt excretion (24-hUNaCl). Data were collected on 24-hUNaCl and salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system for 35 pregnant Japanese women at approximately 20 weeks of gestation. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl (24-hUNaCl/[the number of urinations during the examination day--the number of missing urine collections] × the number of urinations during the examination day, g/day) was used as a standard. The mean adjusted 24-hUNaCl was 7.7 ± 2.5 g/day, and mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure values were 106.1 ± 8.6/62.8 ± 6.5 mmHg. The adjusted 24-hUNaCl was significantly correlated with the salt intake estimated by the salt intake assessment system (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). Bland-Altman analysis showed no significant mean difference (adjusted 24-hUNaCl--salt intake estimated by the assessment system = -0.36 g/day, p = 0.4) and no significant proportional bias (p = 0.1). These results suggest that pregnant women in Japan restrict their salt intake, at least when they are being examined for salt intake. They also suggest that repeated use of the described system may be useful in estimating salt intake in pregnant women.

  14. Motivations of women in Uganda living with rheumatic heart disease: A mixed methods study of experiences in stigma, childbearing, anticoagulation, and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew Y; Nabbaale, Juliet; Nalubwama, Haddy; Okello, Emmy; Ssinabulya, Isaac; Longenecker, Christopher T; Webel, Allison R

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a leading cause of premature mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Women of reproductive age are a unique and vulnerable group of RHD patients, due to increased risk of cardiovascular complications and death during pregnancy. Yet, less than 5% of women of childbearing age with RHD in LMICs use contraceptives, and one in five pregnant women with RHD take warfarin despite known teratogenicity. It is unclear whether this suboptimal contraception and anticoagulant use during pregnancy is due to lack of health system resources, limited health literacy, or social pressure to bear children. We conducted a mixed methods study of 75 women living with RHD in Uganda. Questionnaires were administered to 50 patients. Transcripts from three focus groups with 25 participants were analyzed using qualitative description methodology. Several themes emerged from the focus groups, including pregnancy as a calculated risk; misconceptions about side-effects of contraceptives and anticoagulation; reproductive decision-making control by male partners, in-laws, or physicians; abandonment of patients by male partners; and considerable stigma against heart disease patients for both their reproductive and financial limitations (often worse than that directed against HIV patients). All questionnaire respondents were told by physicians that their hearts were not strong enough to support a pregnancy. Only 14% used contraception while taking warfarin. All participants felt that society would look poorly on a woman who cannot have children due to a heart condition. To our knowledge, this is the first qualitative study of female RHD patients and their attitudes toward cardiovascular disorders and reproduction. Our results suggest that health programs targeting heart disease in LMICs must pay special attention to the needs of women of childbearing age. There are opportunities for improved family/societal education programs and community engagement

  15. Access to Money and Relation to Women’s Use of Family Planning Methods among Young Married Women in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay; Jadhav, Arun; Palaye, Prajakta; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The social positioning (i.e. social status and autonomy) of women in the household facilitates women’s access to and decision-making power related to family planning (FP). Women’s access to spending money, which may be an indicator of greater social positioning in the household, may also be greater among women who engage in income generating activities for their families, regardless of women’s status in the household. However, in both scenarios, access to money may independently afford greater opportunity to obtain family planning services among women. This study seeks to assess whether access to money is associated with FP outcomes independently of women’s social positioning in their households. Methods Using survey data from married couples in rural Maharashtra, India (n=855), crude and adjusted regression was used to assess women’s access to their own spending money in relation to past 3 month use of condoms and other forms of contraceptives (pills, injectables, intrauterine device). Results Access to money (59%) was associated with condom and other contraceptive use (AORs ranged: 1.5 – 1.8). These findings remained significant after adjusting for women’s FP decision-making power in the household and mobility to seek FP services. Conclusion While preliminary, findings suggest that access to money may increase women’s ability to obtain FP methods, even in contexts where social norms to support women’s power in FP decision-making may not be readily adopted. PMID:26971270

  16. The effect of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected pregnant women in Thailand: an embedded mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ratchneewan; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan; Suwansujarid, Tatirat; Stidham, Andrea W; Drew, Barbara L; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms negatively impact the lives of HIV-infected individuals and are correlated with faster progression to AIDS. Our embedded mixed methods study examined and described the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-infected pregnant Thai women. HIV-infected pregnant Thai women (n = 40) were randomly assigned to either the control or the intervention group. A registered nurse provided telephone support to the intervention group. Depressive symptoms were measured at three points in both groups. In-depth interviews were conducted at Time 2 and Time 3. Results show that depressive symptoms in the intervention group decreased over time. Qualitative results describe how telephone support can work, but also reveal that telephone support did not work for everyone. We recommend that a larger mixed methods study be conducted to examine the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected women, including the costs and benefits of such support. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with utilization of long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods among women who have decided not to have more children in Gondar city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebe, Chernet Baye; Adefris, Mulat; Yenit, Melaku Kindie; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa

    2017-09-06

    Despite the fact that long acting family planning methods reduce population growth and improve maternal health, their utilization remains poor. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence of long acting and permanent family planning method utilization and associated factors among women in reproductive age groups who have decided not to have more children in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2015. Three hundred seventeen women who have decided not to have more children were selected consecutively into the study. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. Both bivariate and multi-variable logistic regressions analyses were used to identify factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent family planning methods. The multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with the utilization of long acting and permanent family planning methods. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used to show the strength of associations, and variables with a P-value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. In this study, the overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive (LAPCM) method utilization was 34.7% (95% CI: 29.5-39.9). According to the multi-variable logistic regression analysis, utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods was significantly associated with women who had secondary school, (AOR: 2279, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.44), college, and above education (AOR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.36, 6.24), history of previous utilization (AOR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.69, 5.38), and information about LAPCM (AOR: 8.85, 95% CI: 2.04, 38.41). In this study the prevalence of long acting and permanent family planning method utilization among women who have decided not to have more children was high compared with previous studies conducted elsewhere. Advanced educational

  18. "A Baby Was an Added Burden": Predictors and Consequences of Unintended Pregnancies for Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Luchters

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSW have high rates of unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and other adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Few services for FSWs include contraception. This mixed-methods study aimed to determine the rate, predictors and consequences of unintended pregnancy among FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya.A prospective cohort study of non-pregnant FSWs was conducted. Quantitative data were collected quarterly, including a structured questionnaire and testing for pregnancy and HIV. Predictors of unintended pregnancy were investigated using multivariate logistic regression. Qualitative data were gathered through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with FSWs who became pregnant during the study, and interviews with five key informants. These data were transcribed, translated and analysed thematically.Four hundred women were enrolled, with 92% remaining in the cohort after one year. Fifty-seven percent reported using a modern contraceptive method (including condoms when used consistently. Over one-third (36% of women were using condoms inconsistently without another method. Twenty-four percent had an unintended pregnancy during the study. Younger age, having an emotional partner and using traditional or no contraception, or condoms only, were independent predictors of unintended pregnancy. Women attributed pregnancy to forgetting to use contraception and being pressured not to by clients and emotional partners, as well as "bad luck". They described numerous negative consequences of unintended pregnancy.Modern contraceptive uptake is surprisingly low in this at-risk population, which in turn has a high rate of unintended pregnancy. The latter may result in financial hardship, social stigma, risk of abandonment, or dangerous abortion practices. FSWs face considerable barriers to the adoption of dual method contraceptive use, including low levels of control in their emotional and commercial

  19. Factors influencing use of long-acting versus short-acting contraceptive methods among reproductive-age women in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaijuka, Leevan; Odongo, Robert; Welikhe, Emma; Mukisa, Wilber; Kugonza, Lilian; Busingye, Imelda; Nabukalu, Phelomena; Ngonzi, Joseph; Asiimwe, Stephen B; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2017-04-04

    Unplanned pregnancy remains a common problem in many resource-limited settings, mostly due to limited access to modern family planning (FP) services. In particular, use of the more effective long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods (i.e., intrauterine devices and hormonal implants) remains low compared to the short-acting methods (i.e., condoms, hormonal pills, injectable hormones, and spermicides). Among reproductive-age women attending FP and antenatal care clinics in Uganda, we assessed perceptions and practices regarding the use of modern contraceptive methods. We specifically aimed to evaluate factors influencing method selection. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study, in which we administered structured interviews to 180 clients, and conducted 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 36 clients and 8 in-depth personal qualitative interviews with health service providers. We summarized quantitative data and performed latent content analysis on transcripts from the FGDs and qualitative interviews. The prevalence of ever use for LARC methods was 23%. Method characteristics (e.g., client control) appeared to drive method selection more often than structural factors (such as method availability) or individual client characteristics (such as knowledge and perceptions). The most common reasons for choosing LARC methods were: longer protection; better child-spacing; and effectiveness. The most common reasons for not choosing LARC methods included requiring a client-controlled method and desiring to conceive in the near future. The most common reasons for choosing short-acting methods were ease of access; lower cost; privacy; perceived fewer side effects; and freedom to stop using a method without involving the health provider. The personal characteristics of clients, which appeared to be important were client knowledge and number of children. The structural factor which appeared to be important was method availability. Our results suggest that

  20. Perceived causes and consequences of sexual changes after cancer for women and men: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Gilbert, Emilee

    2015-04-11

    Previous research on cancer and sexuality has focused on physical aspects of sexual dysfunction, neglecting the subjective meaning and consequences of sexual changes. This has led to calls for research on cancer and sexuality to adopt an "integrative" approach, and to examine the ways in which individuals interpret sexual changes, and the subjective consequences of sexual changes. This study examined the nature and subjective experience and consequences of changes to sexual well-being after cancer, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Six hundred and fifty seven people with cancer (535 women, 122 men), across a range of reproductive and non-reproductive cancer types completed a survey and 44 (23 women, 21 men) took part in an in-depth interview. Sexual frequency, sexual satisfaction and engagement in a range of penetrative and non-penetrative sexual activities were reported to have reduced after cancer, for both women and men, across reproductive and non-reproductive cancer types. Perceived causes of such changes were physical consequences of cancer treatment, psychological factors, body image concerns and relationship factors. Sex specific difficulties (vaginal dryness and erectile dysfunction) were the most commonly reported explanation for both women and men, followed by tiredness and feeling unattractive for women, and surgery and getting older for men. Psychological and relationship factors were also identified as consequence of changes to sexuality. This included disappointment at loss of sexual intimacy, frustration and anger, sadness, feelings of inadequacy and changes to sense of masculinity of femininity, as well as increased confidence and self-comfort; and relationship strain, relationship ending and difficulties forming a new relationship. Conversely, a number of participants reported increased confidence, re-prioritisation of sex, sexual re-negotiation, as well as a strengthened relationship, after cancer. The findings of this

  1. High rates of HIV seroconversion in pregnant women and low reported levels of HIV testing among male partners in Southern Mozambique: results from a mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline De Schacht

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevention of acute HIV infections in pregnancy is required to achieve elimination of pediatric HIV. Identification and support for HIV negative pregnant women and their partners, particularly serodiscordant couples, are critical. A mixed method study done in Southern Mozambique estimated HIV incidence during pregnancy, associated risk factors and factors influencing partner's HIV testing. METHODS: Between April 2008 and November 2011, a prospective cohort of 1230 HIV negative pregnant women was followed during pregnancy. A structured questionnaire, HIV testing, and collection of dried blood spots were done at 2-3 scheduled visits. HIV incidence rates were calculated by repeat HIV testing and risk factors assessed by Poisson regression. A qualitative study including 37 individual interviews with men, women, and nurses and 11 focus group discussions (n = 94 with men, women and grandmothers explored motivators and barriers to uptake of male HIV testing. RESULTS: HIV incidence rate was estimated at 4.28/100 women-years (95%CI: 2.33-7.16. Significant risk factors for HIV acquisition were early sexual debut (RR 3.79, 95%CI: 1.04-13.78, p = 0.04 and living in Maputo Province (RR 4.35, 95%CI: 0.97-19.45, p = 0.05. Nineteen percent of women reported that their partner had tested for HIV (93% knew the result with 8/213 indicating an HIV positive partner, 56% said their partner had not tested and 19% did not know their partner test status. Of the 14 seroconversions, only one reported being in a serodiscordant relationship. Fear of discrimination or stigma was reported as a key barrier to male HIV testing, while knowing the importance of getting tested and receiving care was the main motivator. CONCLUSIONS: HIV incidence during pregnancy is high in Southern Mozambique, but knowledge of partners' HIV status remains low. Knowledge of both partners' HIV status is critical for maximal effectiveness of prevention and treatment services to reach

  2. Policy on reintegration of women with histories of substance abuse: A mixed methods study of predictors of relapse and facilitators of recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanDeMark Nancy R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predominant U.S. policy approach toward individuals with substance abuse problems has relied on stigma and punishment by withholding access to education, cash assistance, housing, social support, and normal social roles. In contrast to this approach, the theory of reintegrative shaming asserts that providing individuals with the opportunity to reconnect with society is more effective in reducing potential to relapse to crime and drug abuse. Strategies that promote such reconnection include expanding access to basic needs and supportive relationships along with increasing opportunities to fully participate in mainstream social roles. Methods The present cross-sectional study examined the predictors of relapse and the facilitators of recovery in a sample of 325 women with histories of substance abuse. Analysis of secondary data, collected as part of a national cross-site study, employed a mixed methods approach conducting (1 logistic regression to examine the predictors of relapse and (2 an inductive qualitative analysis of responses from open-ended items to explore the women's perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of recovery. Results Results suggest that lower levels of instrumental support, affective support, and participation in normal roles (such as parent, employee, student, and citizen are significant predictors of relapse to drug use and criminal behaviors. Qualitative findings support the quantitative results, revealing that participating women perceived the variables of support and role participation as critical in facilitating their recovery. They also noted the importance of individual characteristics such as optimism and strength and emphasized the significance of their relationship with their children in motivating them to avoid relapse. Findings suggest that punitive policies toward women with substance abuse histories may be ineffective. Conclusion The author concludes that current policies designed to

  3. Twenty-four-hour exposure to altered blood flow modifies endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels in rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilgers, Rob H P; Janssen, Ger M J; Fazzi, Gregorio E

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that changes in arterial blood flow modify the function of endothelial Ca2+-activated K+ channels [calcium-activated K+ channel (K(Ca)), small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel (SK3), and intermediate calcium-activated K+ channel (IK1)] before arterial structural...... remodeling. In rats, mesenteric arteries were exposed to increased [+90%, high flow (HF)] or reduced blood flow [-90%, low flow (LF)] and analyzed 24 h later. There were no detectable changes in arterial structure or in expression level of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, SK3, or IK1. Arterial relaxing...... arteries, the balance between the NO/prostanoid versus EDHF response was unaltered. However, the contribution of IK1 to the EDHF response was enhanced, as indicated by a larger effect of TRAM-34 and a larger residual NS309-induced relaxation in the presence of UCL 1684. Reduction of blood flow selectively...

  4. Twenty-Four Hour Non-Invasive Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Monitoring in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebner, Eva; Vichayanrat, Ekawat; Low, David A.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Isenmann, Stefan; Haensch, Carl-Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Non-motor symptoms are now commonly recognized in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and can include dysautonomia. Impairment of cardiovascular autonomic function can occur at any stage of PD but is typically prevalent in advanced stages or related to (anti-Parkinsonian) drugs and can result in atypical blood pressure (BP) readings and related symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension (OH) and supine hypertension. OH is usually diagnosed with a head-up-tilt test (HUT) or an (active) standing test (also known as Schellong test) in the laboratory, but 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a home setting may have several advantages, such as providing an overview of symptoms in daily life alongside pathophysiology as well as assessment of treatment interventions. This, however, is only possible if ABPM is administrated correctly and an autonomic protocol (including a diary) is followed which will be discussed in this review. A 24-h ABPM does not only allow the detection of OH, if it is present, but also the assessment of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction during and after various daily stimuli, such as postprandial and alcohol dependent hypotension, as well as exercise and drug induced hypotension. Furthermore, information about the circadian rhythm of BP and heart rate (HR) can be obtained and establish whether or not a patient has a fall of BP at night (i.e., “dipper” vs. non-“dipper”). The information about nocturnal BP may also allow the investigation or detection of disorders such as sleep dysfunction, nocturnal movement disorders, and obstructive sleep apnea, which are common in PD. Additionally, a 24-h ABPM should be conducted to examine the effectiveness of OH therapy. This review will outline the methodology of 24 h ABPM in PD, summarize findings of such studies in PD, and briefly consider common daily stimuli that might affect 24 h ABPM. PMID:23720648

  5. Motivations for Youth Volunteer Participation: Types and Structure--An Analysis of Interviews with Twenty-Four Young Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luping, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Scholars who study volunteer activities are attaching ever greater importance to the motivations of volunteers who participate in volunteer activities. However, deficiencies are, on the whole, to be found in the empirical studies by scholars in China on the participating volunteers' motivations. To make up for the deficiencies in the research on…

  6. Acute myocardial infarction as first manifestation of primary anti phospholipid syndrome in a twenty-four years old patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, Carlos E; Cardenas, Juan M; Cabrales, Jaime; Bohorquez, Ricardo; Roa, Nubia I; Beltran, Javier; Urina, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Primary anti phospholipid syndrome is usually manifested with deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism and arterial thrombosis, including cerebrovascular accidents. We report the case of a previously healthy young patient who suffered acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of a primary anti phospholipid syndrome

  7. A Predictive Model to Classify Undifferentiated Fever Cases Based on Twenty-Four-Hour Continuous Tympanic Temperature Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepa H. Dakappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of undifferentiated fever is a major challenging task to the physician which often remains undiagnosed and delays the treatment. The aim of the study was to record and analyze a 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature and evaluate its utility in the diagnosis of undifferentiated fevers. This was an observational study conducted in the Kasturba Medical College and Hospitals, Mangaluru, India. A total of ninety-six (n=96 patients were presented with undifferentiated fever. Their tympanic temperature was recorded continuously for 24 hours. Temperature data were preprocessed and various signal characteristic features were extracted and trained in classification machine learning algorithms using MATLAB software. The quadratic support vector machine algorithm yielded an overall accuracy of 71.9% in differentiating the fevers into four major categories, namely, tuberculosis, intracellular bacterial infections, dengue fever, and noninfectious diseases. The area under ROC curve for tuberculosis, intracellular bacterial infections, dengue fever, and noninfectious diseases was found to be 0.961, 0.801, 0.815, and 0.818, respectively. Good agreement was observed [kappa = 0.618 (p<0.001, 95% CI (0.498–0.737] between the actual diagnosis of cases and the quadratic support vector machine learning algorithm. The 24-hour continuous tympanic temperature recording with supervised machine learning algorithm appears to be a promising noninvasive and reliable diagnostic tool.

  8. Twenty-four months of antipsychotic treatment in children and adolescents with first psychotic episode: discontinuation and tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, Ana; Ballesta, Patricia; Baeza, Immaculada; Arango, Celso; de la Serna, Elena; González-Pinto, Ana; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Montserrat; Moreno, Carmen; Otero, Soraya; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-08-01

    The Child and Adolescent First-Episode Psychosis Study is a longitudinal study of early-onset first psychotic episodes. This report describes the naturalistic psychopharmacological treatment administered during a 24-month follow-up period, as well as discontinuation rates, reasons for discontinuation, and adverse effects. The sample comprised 110 patients, aged 9 to 17 years, with a first psychotic episode. Pharmacological treatment, changes, reasons for discontinuation, and the UKU (Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser) Side Effect Rating Scale were registered at 6, 12, and 24 months of follow-up. Second-generation antipsychotics, especially risperidone, quetiapine, and olanzapine, were the most commonly used. The discontinuation rate was 44.5% at 6 months, 59.1% at 12 months, and 70.9% at 24 months. Discontinuation rates or reasons for discontinuation (adverse reaction, insufficient response, and other) did not differ significantly between antipsychotics. At 6 months, significant differences were found in body mass index increase and body mass index z score increase, which were higher with olanzapine, and in neurological effects, which were higher with risperidone; at 12 and 24 months, these differences were no longer significant. High maintenance rates were found in the clozapine group, although they had higher scores on the autonomic subscale of the UKU. A long follow-up period reveals high discontinuation rates similar to those observed in adults, particularly during the first year. No differences were found between antipsychotics. Differences in adverse effects were found at 6 months but not subsequently after changes in treatment. Clozapine had a high maintenance rate, and its tolerability was comparable to that of other antipsychotics.

  9. Diurnal and twenty-four hour patterning of human diseases: acute and chronic common and uncommon medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco; Manfredini, Roberto; Hermida, Ramon C; Tiseo, Ruana; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Haus, Erhard L

    2015-06-01

    The symptom intensity and mortality of human diseases, conditions, and syndromes exhibit diurnal or 24 h patterning, e.g., skin: atopic dermatitis, urticaria, psoriasis, and palmar hyperhidrosis; gastrointestinal: esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer (including perforation and hemorrhage), cyclic vomiting syndrome, biliary colic, hepatic variceal hemorrhage, and proctalgia fugax; infection: susceptibility, fever, and mortality; neural: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobe seizures, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, hereditary progressive dystonia, and pain (cancer, post-surgical, diabetic neuropathic and foot ulcer, tooth caries, burning mouth and temporomandibular syndromes, fibromyalgia, sciatica, intervertebral vacuum phenomenon, multiple sclerosis muscle spasm, and migraine, tension, cluster, hypnic, and paroxysmal hemicranial headache); renal: colic and nocturnal enuresis and polyuria; ocular: bulbar conjunctival redness, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, intraocular pressure and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, and recurrent corneal erosion syndrome; psychiatric/behavioral: major and seasonal affective depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, parasuicide and suicide, dementia-associated agitation, and addictive alcohol, tobacco, and heroin cravings and withdrawal phenomena; plus autoimmune and musculoskeletal: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, axial spondylarthritis, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Knowledge of these and other 24 h patterns of human pathophysiology informs research of their underlying circadian and other endogenous mechanisms, external temporal triggers, and more effective patient care entailing clinical chronopreventive and chronotherapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Twenty-four-hour variations in blood glucose level in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients based on continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajime, Maiko; Okada, Yosuke; Mori, Hiroko; Otsuka, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mayuko; Miyazaki, Megumi; Kuno, Fumi; Sugai, Kei; Sonoda, Satomi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kurozumi, Akira; Narisawa, Manabu; Torimoto, Keiichi; Arao, Tadashi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2018-01-01

    High fluctuations in blood glucose are associated with various complications. The correlation between glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and fluctuations in blood glucose level has not been studied in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, blood glucose profile stratified by HbA1c level was evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. Our retrospective study included 294 patients with type 2 diabetes who were divided by HbA1c level into five groups (≥6.0 to level and CGM data was analyzed. The primary end-point was the difference in blood glucose fluctuations among the HbA1c groups. The mean blood glucose level increased significantly with increasing HbA1c (P trend  levels of maximum blood glucose, minimum blood glucose, each preprandial blood glucose, each postprandial maximum blood glucose, range of increase in postprandial glucose from pre-meal to after breakfast, the area under the blood concentration-time curve >180 mg/dL and percentage of the area under the blood concentration-time curve >180 mg/dL were higher with higher HbA1c. Mean glucose level and pre-breakfast blood glucose level were significant and independent determinants of HbA1c. In Japanese patients treated for type 2 diabetes, the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions did not correlate with HbA1c, making it difficult to assess blood glucose fluctuations using HbA1c. Parameters other than HbA1c are required to evaluate fluctuations in blood glucose level in patients receiving treatment for type 2 diabetes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Twenty-four hours hypothermia has temporary efficacy in reducing brain infarction and inflammation in aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandu, Raluca Elena; Buga, Ana Maria; Balseanu, Adrian Tudor

    2016-01-01

    in aged animals. Because the duration of hypothermia in most clinical trials is between 24 and 48 hours, we questioned whether 24 hours exposure to gaseous hypothermia confers the same neuroprotective efficacy as 48 hours exposure. We found that a shorter exposure to hypothermia transiently reduced both...... inflammation and infarct size. However, after 1 week, the infarct size became even larger than in controls and after 2 weeks there was no beneficial effect on regenerative processes such as neurogenesis. Behaviorally, hypothermia also had a limited beneficial effect. Finally, after hydrogen sulfide......-induced hypothermia, the poststroke aged rats experienced a persistent sleep impairment during their active nocturnal period. Our data suggest that cellular events that are delayed by hypothermia in aged rats may, in the long term, rebound, and diminish the beneficial effects....

  12. Twenty-four-hour urinary water-soluble vitamin levels correlate with their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tomiko; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Shibata, Katsumi

    2011-02-01

    To examine the association between 24 h urinary water-soluble vitamin levels and their intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren. All foods consumed for four consecutive days were recorded accurately by a weighed food record. A single 24 h urine sample was collected on the fourth day, and the urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins were measured. An elementary school in Inazawa City, Japan. A total of 114 healthy, free-living, Japanese elementary-school children aged 10-12 years. The urinary level of each water-soluble vitamin was correlated positively to its mean intake in the past 2-4 d (vitamin B1: r = 0·42, P vitamin B2: r = 0·43, P vitamin B6: r = 0·49, P vitamin C: r = 0·39, P vitamin B12 (r = 0·10, P = NS). Estimated mean intakes of water-soluble vitamins calculated using urinary levels and recovery rates were 97-102 % of their 3 d mean intake, except for vitamin B12 (79 %). The results show that urinary levels of water-soluble vitamins, except for vitamin B12, reflected their recent intakes in free-living Japanese schoolchildren and could be used as a potential biomarker to estimate mean vitamin intake.

  13. The Twenty-four Hour Workday: Proceedings of a Symposium on Variations in Work-Sleep Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    represent, to some extent, stereotyped responses; thus we cannot be sure that they correspond to real feelings, even subjective ones. Shiftworkers...hours; - Part-time work; - Overtime and moonlighting . The present paper considers the various effects of the irregular work hours imposed by shift work...in press). Fifty nurses were shown an ’in-service’ training film on the use of Radium therapy at 2030 or at 0400. Their memory for the information

  14. Histologic investigation of root canal-treated teeth with apical periodontitis: a retrospective study from twenty-four patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Siqueira, José F; Bate, Anna L; Pitt Ford, Thomas R

    2009-04-01

    This study intended to examine histologically root canal-treated teeth evincing apical periodontitis lesions and correlate the findings with clinical observations. Specimens were obtained from 24 patients (12 asymptomatic and 12 symptomatic) by extraction or endodontic surgery and consisted of roots or root tips and the associated pathologic lesion. Specimens were processed for histologic analysis, and serial sections were evaluated. Findings were correlated with clinical observations according to the presence or absence of symptoms. The mean period elapsed from treatment to specimen retrieval in the asymptomatic group was 7.5 years, as compared with 2.2 years in the symptomatic group. All specimens exhibited periradicular inflammation. Bacteria were visualized in all cases, except for 1 specimen from the asymptomatic group in which a foreign body reaction to overfilled material was the probable reason for emergent disease in a previously vital case. Irrespective of the presence of symptoms, bacteria were always located within the root canal system, although they were also observed in the periradicular tissues in 1 asymptomatic and 4 symptomatic teeth. In general, intraradicular bacterial colonization was heavier in symptomatic failed teeth. The present findings support the role of intraradicular infections, usually in the form of biofilms, as the primary cause of endodontic treatment failure.

  15. Twenty-four-hour duration of effect of intranasal corticosteroids for seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms: clinical evidence and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBuske, Lawrence M

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) symptoms are often most severe and/or disruptive during overnight and morning hours, resulting in cognitive/performance impairments and reduced quality of life throughout the following day. Surveys of allergy patients and health care practitioners reveal a common perception that intranasal steroids (INSs), many of which are dosed q.d., fail to adequately relieve symptoms for a full 24 hours. This review assessed whether perceptions of the 24-hour duration of action of INSs correspond with duration of action documented in clinical literature. SAR clinical trial literature of the last 5 years was reviewed to identify studies of INSs incorporating morning instantaneous (A.M. NOW) or instantaneous assessments of 24-hour duration of action. In numerous placebo-controlled trials of INSs in patients with SAR, treatment was associated with significantly greater improvements in A.M. NOW symptoms from baseline versus placebo. For congestion, this is noteworthy, because patients often cite this symptom, especially in the morning, as the most bothersome symptom. Comparison of A.M. NOW and daily scores suggests minimal drop in efficacy at 24 hours postdose. In several studies, INS treatment was found superior to intranasal or oral antihistamines in A.M. NOW symptom improvement. Once-daily INSs have potential for effective 24-hour symptom relief; however, there is an apparent disconnect between these findings and patient/physician perceptions. This discrepancy may be explained, in part, by less-than-ideal treatment adherence among "real-world" patients versus subjects treated in clinical trials. Proactive counseling can encourage proper INS use and help maximize treatment benefits.

  16. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive non-human primates of twenty-four zoological gardens in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Zhao, Bo; Li, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Xuerong; Wang, Tao; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-01

    Captive primates are susceptible to gastrointestinal (GIT) parasitic infections, which are often zoonotic and can contribute to morbidity and mortality. Fecal samples were examined by the means of direct smear, fecal flotation, fecal sedimentation, and fecal cultures. Of 26.51% (317/1196) of the captive primates were diagnosed gastrointestinal parasitic infections. Trichuris spp. were the most predominant in the primates, while Entamoeba spp. were the most prevalent in Old World monkeys (P primates and the safety of animal keepers and visitors. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Primatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Twenty-four years after theYellowstone Fires: Are postfire lodgepole pine stands converging in structure and function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Monica G; Whitby, Timothy G; Tinker, Daniel B; Romme, William H

    2016-05-01

    Disturbance and succession have long been of interest in ecology, but how landscape patterns of ecosystem structure and function evolve following large disturbances is poorly understood. After nearly 25 years, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests that regenerated after the 1988 Yellowstone Fires (Wyoming, USA) offer a prime opportunity to track the fate of disturbance-created heterogeneity in stand structure and function in a wilderness setting. In 2012, we resampled 72 permanent plots to ask (1) How have postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire, and what variables explain these patterns and changes? (2) How has landscape-level (among-stand) variability in postfire stand structure and function changed between 11 and 24 yr postfire? We expected to see evidence of convergence beginning to emerge, but also that initial postfire stem density would still determine trajectories of biomass accumulation. After 24 yr, postfire lodgepole pine density remained very high (mean = 21,738 stems/ha, range = 0-344,067 stems/ha). Stem density increased in most plots between 11 and 24 yr postfire, but declined sharply where 11-yr-postfire stem density was > 72,000 stems/ha. Stems were small in high-density stands, but stand-level lodgepole pine leaf area, foliage biomass, and live aboveground biomass increased over time and with increasing stem density. After 24 yr, mean annual lodgepole pine aboveground net primary production (ANPP) was high (mean = 5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹, range = 0-16.5 Mg · ha⁻¹ · yr⁻¹). Among stands, lodgepole pine ANPP increased with stem density, which explained 69% of the variation; another 8% of the variation was explained by environmental covariates. Early patterns of postfire lodgepole pine regeneration, which were contingent on prefire serotiny and fire severity, remained the dominant driver of stand structure and function. We observed mechanisms that would lead to convergence in stem density (structure) over time, but it was landscape variation in functional variables that declined substantially. Stand structure and function have not converged across the burned landscape, but our evidence suggests function will converge sooner than structure.

  18. Pelvic floor muscle training and adjunctive therapies for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann Patricia B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress urinary incontinence (SUI is a prevalent and costly condition which may be treated surgically or by physical therapy. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the literature and present the best available evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT performed alone and together with adjunctive therapies (eg biofeedback, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones for the treatment of female SUI. Methods All major electronic sources of relevant information were systematically searched to identify peer-reviewed English language abstracts or papers published between 1995 and 2005. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs and other study designs eg non-randomised trials, cohort studies, case series, were considered for this review in order to source all the available evidence relevant to clinical practice. Studies of adult women with a urodynamic or clinical diagnosis of SUI were eligible for inclusion. Excluded were studies of women who were pregnant, immediately post-partum or with a diagnosis of mixed or urge incontinence. Studies with a PFMT protocol alone and in combination with adjunctive physical therapies were considered. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each study, its level of evidence and the methodological quality. Due to the heterogeneity of study designs, the results are presented in narrative format. Results Twenty four studies, including 17 RCTs and seven non-RCTs, met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the studies varied but lower quality scores did not necessarily indicate studies from lower levels of evidence. This review found consistent evidence from a number of high quality RCTs that PFMT alone and in combination with adjunctive therapies is effective treatment for women with SUI with rates of 'cure' and 'cure/improvement' up to 73% and 97% respectively. The contribution of adjunctive therapies is unclear and there is limited

  19. High-grade cervical lesions among women attending a reference clinic in Brazil: associated factors and comparison among screening methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide T Boldrini

    Full Text Available Although screening for cervical cancer is recommended for women in most countries, the incidence of cervical cancer is greater in developing countries. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with high-grade lesions/cervical cancer among women attending a reference clinic in Brazil and evaluate the correlation of histology with cytology, colposcopy and the high-risk HPV (HR-HPV tests.A cross-sectional study of women attending a colposcopy clinic was carried out. The patients were interviewed to collect demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. Specimens were collected for cervical cytology, Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV testing using the Hybrid Capture (HC and PCR tests. Colposcopy was performed for all patients and biopsy for histology when cell abnormalities or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were present.A total of 291 women participated in the study. The median age was 38 years (DIQ: 30-48 years. The prevalence of histologically confirmed high-grade lesions/cervical cancer was 18.2% (95%, CI: 13.8%-22.6%, with 48 (16.5% cases of CIN-2/CIN-3 and 5 (1.7% cases of invasive carcinoma. In the final logistic regression model, for ages between 30 and 49 years old [OR = 4.4 (95%: 1.01-19.04, history of smoking [OR = 2.4 (95%, CI: 1.14-5.18], practice of anal intercourse [OR = 2.4 (95%, CI: 1.10-5.03] and having positive HC test for HR-HPV [OR = 11.23 (95%, CI: 4 0.79-26, 36] remained independently associated with high-grade lesions/cervical cancer. A total of 64.7% of the cases CIN-3\\Ca in situ were related to HPV-16. Non-oncogenic HPV were only found in CIN-1 biopsy results. Compared to histology, the sensitivity of cytology was 31.8%, the specificity 95.5%; the sensitivity of colposcopy for high-grade lesions/cervical cancer was 51.0%, specificity was 91.4% and the concordance with HPV testing was high.The results confirm an association of HR-HPV with precursor lesions for cervical cancer

  20. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  1. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  2. Weight-Control Methods, 3-Year Weight Change, and Eating Behaviors: A Prospective Nationwide Study of Middle-Aged New Zealand Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sook Ling; Gray, Andrew; Haszard, Jillian; Horwath, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of women's weight-control methods and the influences of dieting on eating behaviors remain unclear. Our aim was to determine the association of various weight-control methods at baseline with weight change to 3 years, and examine the association between baseline weight-control status (trying to lose weight, trying to prevent weight gain or no weight-control attempts) and changes in intuitive eating and binge eating at 3 years. A nationally representative sample of 1,601 New Zealand women (40 to 50 years) was recruited and completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline regarding use of variety of weight-control methods. Information on demographic characteristics, weight, height, food habits, binge eating, and intuitive eating were collected at baseline and 3 years. Linear and logistic regression models examined associations between both weight status and weight-control methods at baseline and weight change to 3 years; and baseline weight-control status and change in intuitive eating from baseline to 3 years and binge eating at 3 years. χ(2) tests were used to cross-sectionally compare food habits across the weight status categories at both baseline and 3 years. Trying to lose weight and the use of weight-control methods at baseline were not associated with change in body weight to 3 years. There were a few differences in the frequency of consumption of high-energy-density foods between those trying to lose or maintain weight and those not attempting weight control. Trying to lose weight at baseline was associated with a 2.0-unit (95% CI 0.7 to 3.4, P=0.003) reduction in intuitive eating scores by 3 years (potential range=21 to 105), and 224% (odds ratio=3.24; 95% CI 1.69 to 6.20; Pfoods. Dieting may reduce women's ability to recognize hunger and satiety cues and place women at increased risk of binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An experimental magnetic moment determination method based on spatial harmonic analysis of magnetic flux density signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Getman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical aspects of an experimental determination method for residual and inductive magnetic moments of a technical object are considered. As input data, the technical object magnetic induction signatures obtained under its linear movement near a pair of three-component sensors are used. A magnetic signature integration technique based on spatial harmonic analysis of the magnetic field represented by twenty-four multipole coefficients is introduced.

  4. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  5. Listening to Communities: Mixed-Method Study of the Engagement of Disadvantaged Mothers and Pregnant Women With Digital Health Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Broderick, Andrew; Mlo, Hmellisa; Gemmill, Alison; Lindeman, David

    2017-07-05

    US health care providers are increasingly demanding patient engagement with digital health technologies to enroll in care, access personal health information, communicate with providers, and monitor their own health. Such engagement may be difficult for disadvantaged populations who may have limited health literacy, time constraints, or competing priorities. We aimed to understand the extent of adoption and use of digital health tools and to identify key perceived psychological motivators of technology use among disadvantaged first-time pregnant women and mothers of young children. We recruited women from health organizations serving low-income communities in the Midwest and on the East and West coasts. A total of 92 women participated in 14 focus groups. During each session, we administered worksheets that measured 3 utilization outcomes: the number of recent Web-based health-seeking activities, current use of digital health-management practices (eg, accessing personal health information, communicating with providers, and scheduling appointments), and potential adoption of digital health-management tools among low users or nonusers. Responses to the worksheets and to a pre-focus group survey on demographics, technology access, and motivators of use were examined to create user profiles. Separate regression models identified the motivators (eHealth literacy, internal health orientation, and trust in digital information) associated with these outcomes. Qualitative data were incorporated to illustrate the worksheet responses. Whereas 97% of the participants reported that they had searched for health information on the Internet in the past year, 42% did not engage in digital health-management practices. Among the low users and nonusers, 49% expressed interest in future adoption of digital health tools. Web-based health information-seeking activities were associated with digital health-management practices (Pdigital health-management practices (beta=.13, 95% CI 0

  6. Incongruence between Women's Survey- & Interview-Determined Decision Control Preferences: A Mixed Methods Study of Decision-Making in Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejem, Deborah; Nicholas Dionne-Odom, J; Turkman, Yasemin; Knight, Sara; Willis, Dan; Kaufman, Peter; Bakitas, Marie

    2018-04-30

    Women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) face numerous, complex treatment and advance care planning (ACP) decisions. Our aim was to develop a better understanding of women with MBC's decision-making preferences overtime and relative to specific types of decisions. Convergent, parallel mixed-methods study. Participants completed the Control Preferences Scale (CPS) and a semi-structured interview of decision-making experiences at enrollment (T1; n=22) and when facing a decision or 3 months later (T2; n=19). We categorized women's decision-making experience descriptions into one of the CPS decisional styles and compared them to their CPS response. We constructed an analytic grid that aligned the interview-determined treatment and ACP decisional preferences with the CPS categories at T1 and T2 and calculated Cohen's kappa coefficient and congruence percentages. Participants (n=22) were White (100%), averaged 62 years, married (54%), retired (45%), and had a bachelor's degree (45%). Congruence between CPS response and interview-determined treatment preferences at T1 was 32% (kappa=0.083) and 33% (kappa=0.120) at T2. Congruence between CPS survey response and interview-determined ACP preferences at T1 was 22.7% (kappa =0.092) at T1 and 11% (kappa = 0.011) at T2. Although women selected a "shared" treatment decision-making style using the CPS validated tool, when interviewed their descriptions generally reflected a passive process in which they followed the oncologists' treatment suggestions. Future research should explore whether the incongruence between stated and actual decision-making style is a function of misinterpreting the CPS choices or a true inconsistency that could lead to adverse consequences such as decisional regret. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Home birth and barriers to referring women with obstetric complications to hospitals: a mixed-methods study in Zahedan, southeastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Tabatabaie Mahmoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One factor that contributes to high maternal mortality in developing countries is the delayed use of Emergency Obstetric-Care (EmOC facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that hinder midwives and parturient women from using hospitals when complications occur during home birth in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran, where 23% of all deliveries take place in non- hospital settings. Methods In the study and data management, a mixed-methods approach was used. In the quantitative phase, we compared the existing health-sector data with World Health Organization (WHO standards for the availability and use of EmOC services. The qualitative phase included collection and analysis of interviews with midwives and traditional birth attendants and twenty-one in-depth interviews with mothers. The data collected in this phase were managed according to the principles of qualitative data analysis. Results The findings demonstrate that three distinct factors lead to indecisiveness and delay in the use of EmOC by the midwives and mothers studied. Socio-cultural and familial reasons compel some women to choose to give birth at home and to hesitate seeking professional emergency care for delivery complications. Apprehension about being insulted by physicians, the necessity of protecting their professional integrity in front of patients and an inability to persuade their patients lead to an over-insistence by midwives on completing deliveries at the mothers' homes and a reluctance to refer their patients to hospitals. The low quality and expense of EmOC and the mothers' lack of health insurance also contribute to delays in referral. Conclusions Women who choose to give birth at home accept the risk that complications may arise. Training midwives and persuading mothers and significant others who make decisions about the value of referring women to hospitals at the onset of life-threatening complications are central

  8. Home birth and barriers to referring women with obstetric complications to hospitals: a mixed-methods study in Zahedan, southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One factor that contributes to high maternal mortality in developing countries is the delayed use of Emergency Obstetric-Care (EmOC) facilities. The objective of this study was to determine the factors that hinder midwives and parturient women from using hospitals when complications occur during home birth in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran, where 23% of all deliveries take place in non- hospital settings. Methods In the study and data management, a mixed-methods approach was used. In the quantitative phase, we compared the existing health-sector data with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for the availability and use of EmOC services. The qualitative phase included collection and analysis of interviews with midwives and traditional birth attendants and twenty-one in-depth interviews with mothers. The data collected in this phase were managed according to the principles of qualitative data analysis. Results The findings demonstrate that three distinct factors lead to indecisiveness and delay in the use of EmOC by the midwives and mothers studied. Socio-cultural and familial reasons compel some women to choose to give birth at home and to hesitate seeking professional emergency care for delivery complications. Apprehension about being insulted by physicians, the necessity of protecting their professional integrity in front of patients and an inability to persuade their patients lead to an over-insistence by midwives on completing deliveries at the mothers' homes and a reluctance to refer their patients to hospitals. The low quality and expense of EmOC and the mothers' lack of health insurance also contribute to delays in referral. Conclusions Women who choose to give birth at home accept the risk that complications may arise. Training midwives and persuading mothers and significant others who make decisions about the value of referring women to hospitals at the onset of life-threatening complications are central factors to increasing the use

  9. Variation in Sexual Identification Among Behaviorally Bisexual Women in the Midwestern United States: Challenging the Established Methods for Collecting Data on Sexual Identity and Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Aleta; Schick, Vanessa R; Dodge, Brian; van Der Pol, Barbara; Herbenick, Debby; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2017-07-01

    Collecting information on sexual identity is critical to ensuring the visibility of minority populations who face stigmatization and discrimination related to sexual identities. However, it is challenging to capture the nuances of sexual identity with traditional survey research methods. Using a mixed-methods approach, we gathered data on the sexual identities of 80 behaviorally bisexual women in the Midwestern United States through an online survey. When provided different types of measures (e.g., open ended and fixed response) and different contexts in which to identify (e.g., private and public), participants varied in how they reported their sexual identities. Qualitative analysis of participant narratives around identity change finds partitioning and ranking of attraction is a key component in understanding behaviorally bisexual women's identities. We further identify a division regarding the desired outcomes of identity development processes. Given the multiple ways in which participants identified depending upon the type of measure and the context specified, and the variation in identification over time, results support reconsidering the capability of typical measures and methods used in survey research to capture sexual identity information. Additionally, findings highlight the utility of including multiple, context-specific measures of sexual identities in future research.

  10. IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives communities a better future. October 26 ... Organized into small cooperatives, the women produce and market argan oil using a mix of traditional and modern methods. At the same time ... arts and craft. Technology helps Asian women balance family and work.

  11. Meanings for Sex and Commitment Among First Semester College Men and Women: A Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Anders, Kristin M; Conrad, Kathryn A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend research on the meanings for sex and commitment using a sample of first semester college students (N = 268). We examined responses to a series of open-ended questions about participants' meanings for sex and how they described these meanings as connected with relationship commitment. Our qualitative analyses replicated those of Olmstead, Billen, Conrad, Pasley, and Fincham (2013). Our largest group was the Committers (sex is indicative of love and trust and occurs after commitment is developed in a relationship), followed by Flexibles (sex can hold deep personal meaning, but can also be purely for pleasure and isn't always connected with commitment), and then Recreationers (sex is a basic need or purely for pleasure and is not associated with commitment). Groups were then examined based on demographic characteristics and pre-college hookup experience. Groups were found to differ by gender, relationship status and type, religiosity, and pre-college hookup experience. For example, a greater proportion of women than men were in the Committers group, whereas a greater proportion of men than women were in the Flexibles and Recreationers groups. Those in the Committers group had fewer pre-college hookup partners than Flexibles and Recreationers; however, Flexibles and Recreationers did not differ in number of pre-college hookup partners. We then followed up (at the end of the semester) with a subsample (n = 73) of participants to examine whether meanings for sex and commitment remained stable or changed over a brief period of time. The majority (82.2 %) of participants' meanings remained stable. For those whose meanings shifted, meanings became more consistent with those of the Committers group than the other two groups. Implications for research and sexual and relationship education are discussed.

  12. Diabetes in pregnancy among indigenous women in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States: a method for systematic review of studies with different designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamberlain Catherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes in pregnancy, which includes gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, is associated with poor outcomes for both mother and infant during pregnancy, at birth and in the longer term. Recent international guidelines recommend changes to the current GDM screening criteria. While some controversy remains, there appears to be consensus that women at high risk of T2DM, including indigenous women, should be offered screening for GDM early in pregnancy, rather than waiting until 24-28 weeks as is current practice. A range of criteria should be considered before changing screening practice in a population sub-group, including: prevalence, current practice, acceptability and whether adequate treatment pathways and follow-up systems are available. There are also specific issues related to screening in pregnancy and indigenous populations. The evidence that these criteria are met for indigenous populations is yet to be reported. A range of study designs can be considered to generate relevant evidence for these issues, including epidemiological, observational, qualitative, and intervention studies, which are not usually included within a single systematic review. The aim of this paper is to describe the methods we used to systematically review studies of different designs and present the evidence in a pragmatic format for policy discussion. Methods/Design The inclusion criteria will be broad to ensure inclusion of the critical perspectives of indigenous women. Abstracts of the search results will be reviewed by two persons; the full texts of all potentially eligible papers will be reviewed by one person, and 10% will be checked by a second person for validation. Data extraction will be standardised, using existing tools to identify risks for bias in intervention, measurement, qualitative studies and reviews; and adapting criteria for appraising risk for bias in descriptive studies. External validity

  13. The potential impact of recruitment method on sample characteristics and treatment outcomes in a psychosocial trial for women with co-occurring substance use disorder and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Winstanley, Erin L; Somoza, Eugene; Brigham, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment method can impact the sample composition of a clinical trial and, thus, the generalizability of the results, but the importance of recruitment method in substance use disorder trials has received little attention. The present paper sought to address this research gap by evaluating the association between recruitment method and sample characteristics and treatment outcomes in a substance use disorder trial. In a multi-site trial evaluating Seeking Safety (SS), relative to Women's Health Education (WHE), for women with co-occurring PTSD (either sub-threshold or full PTSD) and substance use disorders, one site assessed the method by which each participant was recruited. Data from this site (n=106), which recruited participants from newspaper advertising and clinic intakes, were analyzed. Participants recruited through advertising, relative to those from the clinic, had significantly higher levels of baseline drug use and higher rates of meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for full PTSD. Results suggest that the effectiveness of SS in decreasing PTSD symptoms was greater for participants recruited through advertising relative to those recruited from the clinic. Conversely, the results revealed a significant treatment effect in the clinic-recruited participants, not seen in the advertising-recruited participants, with SS, relative to WHE, participants being more likely to report past week drug use during the follow-up phase. Recruitment method may impact sample composition and treatment effects. Replication of this finding would have important implications for substance use disorder efficacy trials which often utilize advertising to recruit participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Demand for long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives and factors for non-use among married women of Goba Town, Bale Zone, South East Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takele, Abulie; Degu, Getu; Yitayal, Mezgebu

    2012-10-29

    Contraceptive use including short acting, long acting and permanent methods positively influence the socio-economic development of a nation by allowing families to space and limit their family size to their economic capacity. Demand for LAPMs of contraception as detrmined by utilization and unmet need for LAPMs of contraception can provide realiable information for providers. To determine the utilization of long acting and permanent contraception and its associated factors among married women of Goba town, South East Ethiopia. A cross sectional community based study was conducted among 734 systematically selected married women of reproductive age in Goba town in September/ 2009. A structured and pretested, interview questionaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic, behavioral factors and data related to demand for LAPMs of contraception. Data were analyzed using EPI INFO and SPSS version 16. The demand for Long Acting and Permanent Methods (LAPMs) of contraception was 18.1%. Utilization of LAPMs of contraception in the town was 64 (8.7%) and the unmet need for LAPMs was 69 (9.4%). Information on LAPMs in the town was 636 (86.6%). Media (radio and television) was the major sources of information 641 (87.3%). The use of LAPMs was significatly associated with ever use AOR[17.43, 95% CI:9.19, 33.03], number of times discussions made on methods AOR[4.6, 95% CI: 1.72,12.17] and main decider of using methods AOR[ 2.2, 95% CI:1.03, 4.65]. It was not associated with socio-demographic variables. The utilization of LAPMs in the town was less although higher than the Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2005 result. Moreover, there was a considerable unmet need. Increase the method mix of LAPMs by incorporating varaies of implnats in order to increase utilization. Proper counseling of client and partners discussion were some of the recommendation forwarded.

  15. A practical guideline for examining a uterine niche using ultrasonography in non-pregnant women: a modified Delphi method amongst European experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordans, I P M; de Leeuw, R; Stegwee, S I; Amso, N N; Barri-Soldevila, P N; van den Bosch, T; Bourne, T; Brolmann, H A M; Donnez, O; Dueholm, M; Hehenkamp, W J K; Jastrow, N; Jurkovic, D; Mashiach, R; Naji, O; Streuli, I; Timmerman, D; Vd Voet, L F; Huirne, J A F

    2018-03-14

    To generate a uniform, internationally recognized guideline for detailed uterine niche evaluation by ultrasonography in non-pregnant women using a modified Delphi method amongst international experts. Fifteen international gynecological experts were recruited by their membership of the European niche taskforce group. All experts were physicians with extensive experience in niche evaluation in clinical practice and/or authors of niche studies. Relevant items for niche measurement were determined based on the results of a literature search and recommendations of a focus group. Two online questionnaires were sent to the expert panel and one group meeting was organized. Consensus was predefined as a consensus rate of at least 70%. In total 15 experts participated in this study. Consensus was reached for a total of 42 items on niche evaluation, including definitions, relevance, method of measurement and tips for visualization of the niche. All experts agreed on the proposed guideline for niche evaluation in non-pregnant women as presented in this paper. Consensus between niche experts was achieved on all items regarding ultrasonographic niche measurement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. "Missing pieces": exploring cardiac risk perceptions in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Leanne L; McSweeney, Jean C; Garner, Kimberly K

    2013-04-01

    Approximately 95% of older women have factors that put them at risk for developing cardiovascular disease, but research indicates many do not perceive themselves to be at risk. We examined older women's perceived risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and the factors influencing their perceptions. We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study using in-depth, individual interviews and quantitative measures to assess perceived risk and risk factors. Twenty-four older African American and Caucasian women had a mean 4.46 cardiac risk factors but perceived their own CHD risk as unrealistically low at 1.95 cm (SD = 1.57, on 0-to-8 cm visual analogue scale). Narrative data clustered in themes that represented a lack of fact-based information and multiple misconceptions about CHD and prevention. Major improvements in CHD health are only achievable if risk factors are prevented. This research suggests older women have substantial needs for consistent CHD information and prevention guidance. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Motivos de rejeição aos métodos contraceptivos reversíveis em mulheres esterilizadas Reasons why sterilized women refused reversive contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lucia de Oliveira Carvalho

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as representações sobre os métodos contraceptivos que poderiam ser alternativas à esterilização, para um grupo de mulheres esterilizadas, visando a entender os motivos de rejeição a esses métodos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de trabalho descritivo, qualitativo, cuja população estudada foi constituída por 31 mulheres esterilizadas, aleatoriamente selecionadas da listagem de pacientes atendidas pelo Programa de Planejamento Familiar de um ambulatório de um hospital universitário. As informações foram obtidas das mulheres estudadas por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. As transcrições foram analisadas segundo o método de Análise de Conteúdo. RESULTADOS: A rejeição aos métodos contraceptivos esteve baseada em representações resultantes de informações técnicas recebidas em serviços de saúde, de vivências anteriores com esses métodos ou de informações recebidas do meio social. A rejeição aos métodos hormonais e DIU baseou-se principalmente em representações de baixa inocuidade; os métodos comportamentais (Tabela, Billings foram rejeitados por representações de baixa eficácia; os métodos de barreira (diafragma e camisinha, por dificuldades no uso desses métodos relacionados a padrões culturais de exercício da sexualidade e representações de baixa eficácia. CONCLUSÕES: A opção pela esterilização feminina pode ser indicativa de rejeição às alternativas contraceptivas oferecidas pelos serviços de saúde. Os profissionais da área de saúde reprodutiva devem aprofundar seu conhecimento sobre os fatores pessoais, socioeconômicos e culturais que podem influenciar as mulheres na procura por um método contraceptivo que assegure maior controle de sua própria fecundidade.OBJECTIVE: To identify the representations of contraceptive methods within a group of sterilized women, aiming at understanding the reasons why they refused those methods. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study

  18. Assessment of functional capacity in women with fibromyalgia: direct and self-reported methods. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p292

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Homann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia can limit activities of daily living (ADLs performance and has a negative impact on the quality of life of these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between direct and indirect methods for the assessment of functional capacity and their relationship with some features of fibromyalgia. Thirty-eight women with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia participated in the study. Functional capacity was assessed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, distance in the six-minute walk test (6MWT, and handgrip strength (HGS. Pain was rated on a visual analog scale. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ was applied to assess the impact on quality of life. Body mass index and waist circumference were also evaluated. Pearson’s correlation test was used for parametric data and Spearman’s correlation test for nonparametric data. Multiple regressions were also performed. Pain intensity was high in the patients (median: 9.5. The 6MWT distance was correlated with HAQ score (r=-0.55, p<0.01 and HGS (r=0.34, p<0.01. Pain was correlated with HGS (r=-0.41, p<0.01, HAQ score (r=0.62, p<0.01, and FIQ (r =0.66, p<0.01. Pain intensity explained 40% of the variation in HAQ scores. This variation increased to 60% after inclusion of 6MWT distance. In conclusion, pain seems to compromise HGS, ADLs and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia. The lower performance in the 6MWT might be explained by high body mass index. Taking into account pain, the HAQ seems to be an appropriate tool for the assessment of functional capacity in women with fibromyalgia.

  19. Assessment of functional capacity in women with fibromyalgia: direct and self-reported methods. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n4p292

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Homann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia can limit activities of daily living (ADLs performance and has a negative impact on the quality of life of these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between direct and indirect methods for the assessment of functional capacity and their relationship with some features of fibromyalgia. Thirty-eight women with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia participated in the study. Functional capacity was assessed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, distance in the six-minute walk test (6MWT, and handgrip strength (HGS. Pain was rated on a visual analog scale. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ was applied to assess the impact on quality of life. Body mass index and waist circumference were also evaluated. Pearson’s correlation test was used for parametric data and Spearman’s correlation test for nonparametric data. Multiple regressions were also performed. Pain intensity was high in the patients (median: 9.5. The 6MWT distance was correlated with HAQ score (r=-0.55, p<0.01 and HGS (r=0.34, p<0.01. Pain was correlated with HGS (r=-0.41, p<0.01, HAQ score (r=0.62, p<0.01, and FIQ (r =0.66, p<0.01. Pain intensity explained 40% of the variation in HAQ scores. This variation increased to 60% after inclusion of 6MWT distance. In conclusion, pain seems to compromise HGS, ADLs and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia. The lower performance in the 6MWT might be explained by high body mass index. Taking into account pain, the HAQ seems to be an appropriate tool for the assessment of functional capacity in women with fibromyalgia.

  20. Incidence of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in premenopausal women treated with adjuvant FOLFOX for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercek, Andrea; Siegel, Cara L; Capanu, Marinela; Reidy-Lagunes, Diane; Saltz, Leonard B

    2013-09-01

    Studies indicate that the incidence of young women diagnosed with colorectal cancer is rising, thus there is an increasing number of female colorectal cancer survivors of premenopausal and child-bearing age. Adjuvant FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy is the most widely used standard treatment for stage III and high-risk stage II colon cancer. We evaluated the incidence of FOLFOX-induced amenorrhea in women age 50 and younger treated with adjuvant therapy for colorectal cancer. A search of pharmacy records identified 119 women age 50 or younger who received adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering for stage II or III colorectal cancer from January 2002 and January 2011. Eligible patients were mailed an anonymous questionnaire. The returned surveys were reviewed and the results tallied. Seventy-three patients returned the questionnaire. Twenty-four patients were excluded from analysis: 19 were treated with pelvic radiotherapy, 2 patients had undergone bilateral oophorectomy, 2 had a hysterectomy, and 1 stopped menstruating before diagnosis. Forty-nine patient responses were analyzed. In total, 41% (n = 20) experienced amenorrhea during chemotherapy. Sixteen percent had persistent amenorrhea 1 year after completion of chemotherapy. The incidence of amenorrhea during chemotherapy trended higher in patients aged older than 40 compared with patients aged 40 and younger (59% vs. 31% [P = .075]). There was no statistically significant difference in persistent amenorrhea between the 2 age groups (24% vs. 13%; P = .42). In this retrospective series, there appears to be a trend toward FOLFOX induced amenorrhea during chemotherapy increasing with age. Twenty-four percent of women older than the age of 40 were found to have persistent amenorrhea after FOLFOX therapy. Because of the small sample size, the study is underpowered to detect a statistically significant difference between older and younger patients. Prospective studies

  1. Oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Urlaub, Diana M; Massey, Katie E; Moos, Merry-K; Matheson, Matthew B; Lorenz, Carol

    2010-05-01

    Daily oral hygiene and regular dental visits are important components of oral health care. The authors' objective in this study was to examine women's oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. The authors developed a written oral health questionnaire and administered it to 599 pregnant women. They collected demographic information, as well as data on oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. They used chi2 and multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between oral hygiene practice and dental service use during pregnancy and to identify maternal predictor variables. Of the 599 participants, 83 percent (n=497) reported brushing once or twice per day. Twenty-four percent (n=141) reported flossing at least once daily; Hispanic women were more likely to floss than were white or African American women (28 percent [52 of 183] versus 22 percent [54 of 248] versus 19 percent [23 of 121], respectively, Pdental care during pregnancy. Hispanic women were significantly less likely than were black or white women to receive routine dental care during pregnancy (13 percent versus 21 percent versus 36 percent, respectively, Pdental care when not pregnant were significantly associated with lack of routine dental care during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratios, 95 percent confidence intervals: 2.56 [1.33-4.92]; 2.19 [1.11-4.29]; 2.02 [1.12-3.65]; 1.86 [1.13-3.07]; and 4.35 [2.5-7.69], respectively). A woman's lack of receiving routine dental care when not pregnant was the most significant predictor of lack of receiving dental care during pregnancy. Racial, ethnic and economic disparities related to oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization during pregnancy exist. Medical and dental care providers who treat women of reproductive age and pregnant women need to develop policy strategies to address this population's access barriers to, and use of, dental care services.

  2. Sexual Violence against Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Mongolia: A Mixed-Methods Study of Scope and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Sarah M.; Yasin, Faiza; Stephenson, Rob; Wirtz, Andrea L.; Delegchoimbol, Altanchimeg; Dorjgotov, Myagmardorj; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The role of sexual violence in health and human rights-related outcomes, including HIV, is receiving increasing attention globally, yet the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of sexual violence have been little-studied among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in low and middle income countries. A mixed-methods study with quantitative and qualitative phases was conducted among MSM and transgender women in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Methods included respondent-driven sampling (RDS) with structured socio-behavioral surveys (N = 313) as well as qualitative methods including 30 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions. Forced sex in the last three years was reported by 14.7% of respondents (RDS-weighted estimate, 95%CI: 9.4–20.1; crude estimate 16.1%, 49/307) in the quantitative phase. A descriptive typology of common scenarios was constructed based on the specific incidents of sexual violence shared by respondents in the qualitative phase (37 incidents across 28 interviews and 2 focus groups). Eight major types of sexual violence were identified, most frequent of which were bias-motivated street violence and alcohol-involved party-related violence. Many vulnerabilities to and consequences of sexual violence described during the qualitative phase were also independently associated with forced sex, including alcohol use at least once per week (AOR = 3.39, 95% CI:1.69–6.81), and having received payment for sex (AOR = 2.77, 95% CI:1.14–6.75). Building on the promising strategies used in other settings to prevent and respond to sexual violence, similar strengthening of legal and social sector responses may provide much needed support to survivors and prevent future sexual violence. PMID:26431311

  3. Evaluation of a group based cognitive behavioural therapy programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities: protocol for a mixed methods controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Menstrual pain which is severe enough to impact on daily activities is very common amongst menstruating females. Research suggests that menstrual pain which impacts on daily functioning may be even more prevalent amongst those with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, little research attention has focused on pain management programmes for those with intellectual disabilities. The aims of this pilot study were to develop and evaluate a theory-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for menstrual pain management in young women with intellectual disabilities. Methods/Design The study utilised a mixed methods controlled clinical trial to evaluate elements from a CBT programme called Feeling Better (McGuire & McManus, 2010). The Feeling Better programme is a modular, manualised intervention designed for people with an intellectual disability and their carers. The programme was delivered to 36 young women aged 12 – 30 years who have a Mild - Moderate Intellectual Disability, split between two conditions. The treatment group received the Feeling Better intervention and the control group received treatment as usual. To evaluate the effectiveness of the programme, measures were taken of key pain variables including impact, knowledge, self-efficacy and coping. Process evaluation was conducted to examine which elements of the programme were most successful in promoting change. Discussion Participants in the intervention group were expected to report the use of a greater number of coping strategies and have greater knowledge of pain management strategies following participation in the intervention and at three month follow-up, when compared to control group participants. A significant advantage of the study was the use of mixed methods and inclusion of process evaluation to determine which elements of a cognitive behavioural therapy programme work best for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  4. Women's views on consent, counseling and confidentiality in PMTCT : a mixed-methods study in four African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hardon, A.; Vernooij, E.; Bongololo-Mbera, G.; Cherutich, P.; Desclaux, Alice; Kyaddondo, D.; Ky-Zerbo, O.; Neuman, M.; Wanyenze, R.; Obermeyer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ambitious UN goals to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV have not been met in much of Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper focuses on the quality of information provision and counseling and disclosure patterns in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda to identify how services can be improved to enable better PMTCT outcomes. Methods Our mixed-methods study draws on data obtained through: (1) the MATCH (Multi-country African Testing and Counseling for HIV) study's main...

  5. A Web-Based Decision Tool to Improve Contraceptive Counseling for Women With Chronic Medical Conditions: Protocol For a Mixed Methods Implementation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschroder, Laura J; Fetters, Michael D; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Hudson, Shawna V; Ruffin IV, Mack T; Fucinari, Juliana; Kang, Minji; Taichman, L Susan; Creswell, John W

    2018-01-01

    Background Women with chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, have a higher risk of pregnancy-related complications compared with women without medical conditions and should be offered contraception if desired. Although evidence based guidelines for contraceptive selection in the presence of medical conditions are available via the United States Medical Eligibility Criteria (US MEC), these guidelines are underutilized. Research also supports the use of decision tools to promote shared decision making between patients and providers during contraceptive counseling. Objective The overall goal of the MiHealth, MiChoice project is to design and implement a theory-driven, Web-based tool that incorporates the US MEC (provider-level intervention) within the vehicle of a contraceptive decision tool for women with chronic medical conditions (patient-level intervention) in community-based primary care settings (practice-level intervention). This will be a 3-phase study that includes a predesign phase, a design phase, and a testing phase in a randomized controlled trial. This study protocol describes phase 1 and aim 1, which is to determine patient-, provider-, and practice-level factors that are relevant to the design and implementation of the contraceptive decision tool. Methods This is a mixed methods implementation study. To customize the delivery of the US MEC in the decision tool, we selected high-priority constructs from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Theoretical Domains Framework to drive data collection and analysis at the practice and provider level, respectively. A conceptual model that incorporates constructs from the transtheoretical model and the health beliefs model undergirds patient-level data collection and analysis and will inform customization of the decision tool for this population. We will recruit 6 community-based primary care practices and conduct quantitative surveys and semistructured qualitative

  6. Knowledge, non-use, use and source of information on contraceptive methods among women in various stages of reproductive age in rural Lagos, Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Bamgboye M; Ezedinachi, Emmanuel Nu; Arikpo, Iwara; Ogunwale, Abiodun; Ganiyu, Damilola Fatimah; Abu, Rashidat A; Ajibade, Adewunmi A

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptives are advocated to be used against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as unsafe abortion contributes to high maternal mortality in Nigeria while unwanted pregnancies have terminated the educational development of many females. This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the knowledge, nonuse, and use of various contraceptive methods among women in different child-bearing age groups in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Between 2012 and 2013, 816 females in rural communities within Lagos State were surveyed for their knowledge, source of information, and use of contraceptives. They were grouped into early, mid, and late reproductive age. Statistical analysis of data harvested from respondents was carried out using STATA 13 software. In all, 816 females in different stages of reproductive age were involved in the study, among whom 19% were single, 78% married, 3% divorced, and 0.5% widowed. About 6% had no formal education, while the majority (81%) were of the Yoruba ethnic group. Married respondents were approximately thrice more likely to know of contraceptives than single respondents ( χ 2 =29.9, P =0.000, odds ratio =2.9, 95% confidence interval =1.9, 4.2). Condom use was the most widely known and used method of contraceptive regardless of marital status and reproductive age status. Information about contraceptives was mainly from health facilities among married and divorced women and from school or educational institution among singles. Overall prevalence of contraceptive use was 51.9%. Nonuse of contraceptives was 43% among married women and 67% among singles. Knowledge of contraceptive method was negatively associated with marital status ( t =-2.24, P =0.025) but positively associated with source of information on contraceptives ( t =20.00, P =0.000). Use of contraceptives was positively associated with stage of reproductive age ( t =1.94, P =0.05) and source of information on contraceptives ( t =11.22, P =0.000), but negatively

  7. A method comparison study between two hemoglobinometer models (Hemocue Hb 301 and Hb 201+) to measure hemoglobin concentrations and estimate anemia prevalence among women in Preah Vihear, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, A I; Karakochuk, C D; Whitfield, K C; Kheang, K M; Green, T J

    2017-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration is often measured in global health and nutrition surveys to determine anemia prevalence using a portable hemoglobinometer such as the Hemocue® Hb 201+. More recently, a newer model was released (Hemocue Hb 301) utilizing slightly different methods to measure Hb as compared to the older model. The objective was to measure bias and concordance between Hb concentrations using the Hemocue Hb 301 and Hb 201+ models in a rural field setting. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was measured using one finger prick of blood (approximately 10 μL) from 175 Cambodian women (18-49 years) using three Hemocue Hb 201+ and three Hb 301 machines. Bias and concordance were measured and plotted. Overall, mean ± SD Hb concentration was 116 ± 13 g/L using the Hb 201+ and 118 ± 12 g/L using the Hb 301; and anemia prevalence (Hb < 120 g/L) was 58% (n = 102) and 58% (n = 101), respectively. Overall bias ± SD was 2.0 ± 10.5 g/L and concordance (95% CI) was 0.63 (0.54, 0.72). Despite the 2 g/L bias detected between models, anemia prevalence was very similar in both models. The two models measured anemia prevalence comparably in this population of women in rural Cambodia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Why do you shop there? A mixed methods study mapping household food shopping patterns onto weekly routines of black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Hillier, Amy; Holaday, Rio; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2016-01-28

    The effectiveness of initiatives to increase healthy food access may be affected by where people decide to shop. People with poor neighborhood access to large grocery stores develop shopping patterns that require traveling to other areas, and some people who do have neighborhood access also travel elsewhere for food shopping. We sought to gain an understanding of household food shopping patterns in a sample of Black women in terms of where they shopped and why. All food shopping trips of 35 low- or middle/high-income black mothers or caregivers living with at least one child were identified from grocery shopping receipts collected over four consecutive weeks. Food shopping locations were mapped along with locations of participants' homes and other places they visited during weekly routine travels (e.g. work, child's school). Semi-structured individual interviews elicited narrative information about whether and how grocery shopping trips were linked to routine travels. Inductive content analysis was utilized to identify emergent themes from interviews. Themes were considered in relation to geospatial distances and travel patterns identified through mapping of participants' shopping. Participants shopped at an average of six different stores, traveling on average a total of 35 miles (sd = 41) (Euclidian distance) over the four weeks. The most frequented store was within a mile of home (57%) or home or another place visited in the weekly routine for about 77% of participants. Interview results emphasized the concept of convenience which referred to geographical proximity to the home or routine destinations and also to potential to save time because several stores were co-located or because the store layout was easy to navigate and familiar. Store selection also related to mode of transportation, pricing, and family preference for certain foods. People have specific reasons for consistently shopping in areas outside of their neighborhood of residence. Incorporating

  9. Demand for long acting and permanent methods of contraceptives and factors for non-use among married women of Goba Town, Bale Zone, South East Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Abulie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contraceptive use including short acting, long acting and permanent methods positively influence the socio-economic development of a nation by allowing families to space and limit their family size to their economic capacity. Demand for LAPMs of contraception as detrmined by utilization and unmet need for LAPMs of contraception can provide realiable information for providers. Objective To determine the utilization of long acting and permanent contraception and its associated factors among married women of Goba town, South East Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional community based study was conducted among 734 systematically selected married women of reproductive age in Goba town in September/ 2009. A structured and pretested, interview questionaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic, behavioral factors and data related to demand for LAPMs of contraception. Data were analyzed using EPI INFO and SPSS version 16. Result The demand for Long Acting and Permanent Methods (LAPMs of contraception was 18.1%. Utilization of LAPMs of contraception in the town was 64 (8.7% and the unmet need for LAPMs was 69 (9.4%. Information on LAPMs in the town was 636 (86.6%. Media (radio and television was the major sources of information 641 (87.3%. The use of LAPMs was significatly associated with ever use AOR[17.43, 95% CI:9.19, 33.03], number of times discussions made on methods AOR[4.6, 95% CI: 1.72,12.17] and main decider of using methods AOR[ 2.2, 95% CI:1.03, 4.65]. It was not associated with socio-demographic variables. Conclusion and recommendation The utilization of LAPMs in the town was less although higher than the Ethiopian demographic and health survey 2005 result. Moreover, there was a considerable unmet need. Increase the method mix of LAPMs by incorporating varaies of implnats in order to increase utilization. Proper counseling of client and partners discussion were some of the recommendation forwarded.

  10. A Web-Based Decision Tool to Improve Contraceptive Counseling for Women With Chronic Medical Conditions: Protocol For a Mixed Methods Implementation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Justine P; Damschroder, Laura J; Fetters, Michael D; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Hudson, Shawna V; Ruffin, Mack T; Fucinari, Juliana; Kang, Minji; Taichman, L Susan; Creswell, John W

    2018-04-18

    Women with chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, have a higher risk of pregnancy-related complications compared with women without medical conditions and should be offered contraception if desired. Although evidence based guidelines for contraceptive selection in the presence of medical conditions are available via the United States Medical Eligibility Criteria (US MEC), these guidelines are underutilized. Research also supports the use of decision tools to promote shared decision making between patients and providers during contraceptive counseling. The overall goal of the MiHealth, MiChoice project is to design and implement a theory-driven, Web-based tool that incorporates the US MEC (provider-level intervention) within the vehicle of a contraceptive decision tool for women with chronic medical conditions (patient-level intervention) in community-based primary care settings (practice-level intervention). This will be a 3-phase study that includes a predesign phase, a design phase, and a testing phase in a randomized controlled trial. This study protocol describes phase 1 and aim 1, which is to determine patient-, provider-, and practice-level factors that are relevant to the design and implementation of the contraceptive decision tool. This is a mixed methods implementation study. To customize the delivery of the US MEC in the decision tool, we selected high-priority constructs from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Theoretical Domains Framework to drive data collection and analysis at the practice and provider level, respectively. A conceptual model that incorporates constructs from the transtheoretical model and the health beliefs model undergirds patient-level data collection and analysis and will inform customization of the decision tool for this population. We will recruit 6 community-based primary care practices and conduct quantitative surveys and semistructured qualitative interviews with women who

  11. Women's mental health before, during, and after pregnancy: a population-based controlled cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Johan C H; Spitz, Bernard; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2006-12-01

    Common mental health disorders like depressive and anxiety disorders are frequent in antenatal and postpartum women. However, no agreement about the prevalence of these disorders and the course of women's mental health during the transition to motherhood exists. This study compared women's mental health before, during, and after pregnancy with a control group of nonpregnant women. Three hundred and twenty-four women were assessed before, during, and after their pregnancy with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A control group of 324 women who did not deliver during 3 subsequent years was assessed with the GHQ-12 at corresponding time-points. No differences in GHQ-12 mean scores, prevalence, and incidence of common mental health disorders between the study and control groups were found. No differences in prevalence and incidence rates within each group were found. The presence of a common mental health disorder before pregnancy or in early pregnancy predicted common mental health disorders in the postpartum period. Common mental health disorders are frequent during pregnancy and the postpartum period, but pregnant or postpartum women are not more at risk than those who are not pregnant or who did not deliver.

  12. Women and AIDS caregiving: women's work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songwathana, P

    2001-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I examine personal, kinship, and social obligations and the role of women in the traditional Thai family. Under what circumstances do women take on the responsibility to care or not care, and how do they cope with the disease and care when they are also infected? Fifteen women who were afflicted or affected by HIV/AIDS participated in in-depth interviews and participant observations. Analysis employed mainly qualitative methods following Spradley. I show that women who are responsible for caring for both themselves and others, including members of their immediate families or extended family members, face a double jeopardy by virtue of their inferior role and status. When HIV-infected women experience illness, sometimes they feel split; they are incapable of functioning normally, yet they are obligated to do "What they've got to do." Women as carers feel that they have to care because they want to free someone else from suffering despite the fact that they are also suffering. Women roles as family carers seem to be both psychologically and socially constructed. AIDS care is not just a labour of love, but also is done in the spirit of work following Buddhist beliefs of karma and metta. In conclusion, traditional, persistent gender imbalances and inequalities influence women's sexuality, vulnerability, responsibility, and caregiving. When women become infected with HIV and sick with AIDS, their quality of life drops because of the physical, psychological, cultural value, and economic burdens of care they face. AIDS then necessitates rather than prevents women from fulfilling their multiple roles. Consequently, there is a need for greater support especially among Thai women who are afflicted and affected with AIDS.

  13. Popliteal Artery Aneurysm in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans; Pansell-Fawcett, Karin; Björck, Martin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Ninety-five per cent of those operated on for popliteal artery aneurysm (PA) are men. Thus, PAs in women are difficult to investigate. The aim was to study the disease in women. METHODS: Women treated for PA in 1987-2012, prospectively registered in the Swedish vascular registry......, Swedvasc, supplemented by case records, were compared with the larger male cohort. Survival was determined through cross linkage with the National Population Registry. RESULTS: 1509 patients (men and women), 1872 legs, were identified; of these 74 patients (4.9%) were women, 81 legs (4.3%). The median age...... was 70 years in women versus 69 in men. Twenty-nine centres operated on women (range 1-7 women/centre). There were no time trends in the proportion of women operated on (p=.5). Bilateral PA occurred in 9.5% of women and 27.0% of men (p=.002). For symptomatic aneurysms, there was a larger proportion...

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m -2 ) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO 2 : 150 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO 2 : 117 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O 2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O 2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min -1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min -1 (+26.1%)] and peak O 2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM ( p body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group. Conclusion: 5-wk of HIIT improved cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lipids in overweight Chinese young females, while the additive effect of the HIIT under normobaric hypoxia solely enhanced

  15. Knowledge, non-use, use and source of information on contraceptive methods among women in various stages of reproductive age in rural Lagos, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afolabi BM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bamgboye M Afolabi,1 Emmanuel NU Ezedinachi,2 Iwara Arikpo,2 Abiodun Ogunwale,3 Damilola Fatimah Ganiyu,1 Rashidat A Abu,1 Adewunmi A Ajibade1 1Health, Environment and Development Foundation, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Institute of Tropical Disease and Research, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 3Project Hope, Washington, DC, USA Background: Contraceptives are advocated to be used against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases as unsafe abortion contributes to high maternal mortality in Nigeria while unwanted pregnancies have terminated the educational development of many females. Objective: This questionnaire-based survey aimed to describe the knowledge, nonuse, and use of various contraceptive methods among women in different child-bearing age groups in rural Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: Between 2012 and 2013, 816 females in rural communities within Lagos State were surveyed for their knowledge, source of information, and use of contraceptives. They were grouped into early, mid, and late reproductive age. Statistical analysis of data harvested from respondents was carried out using STATA 13 software. Results: In all, 816 females in different stages of reproductive age were involved in the study, among whom 19% were single, 78% married, 3% divorced, and 0.5% widowed. About 6% had no formal education, while the majority (81% were of the Yoruba ethnic group. Married respondents were approximately thrice more likely to know of contraceptives than single respondents (χ2=29.9, P=0.000, odds ratio =2.9, 95% confidence interval =1.9, 4.2. Condom use was the most widely known and used method of contraceptive regardless of marital status and reproductive age status. Information about contraceptives was mainly from health facilities among married and divorced women and from school or educational institution among singles. Overall prevalence of contraceptive use was 51.9%. Nonuse of contraceptives was 43% among married women

  16. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  17. Development and evaluation of training resources to prepare health professionals for counselling pregnant women about non-invasive prenatal testing for Down syndrome: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenford, Kerry; Daley, Rebecca; Lewis, Celine; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S

    2017-04-27

    The availability of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidies is expanding rapidly throughout the world. Training health professionals to offer NIPT in a way that supports informed choice is essential for implementation. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a training package for health professionals to support the introduction of NIPT into clinical practice. Training on NIPT was offered to health professionals, primarily midwives, involved in Down syndrome screening and testing in eight hospitals located in England and Scotland as part of a research study evaluating the implementation of NIPT in the UK National Health Service. Training was evaluated using a mixed methods approach that included quantitative questionnaires at three time points and post-training qualitative interviews. The questionnaires measured confidence, self-perceived knowledge and actual knowledge about NIPT for Down syndrome. Interviews explored opinions about the training and experiences of offering NIPT. The training provided to the health professionals was found to positively impact on their confidence in discussing NIPT with women in their clinic, and both their perceived and actual knowledge and understanding of NIPT was improved. Knowledge remained weak in four areas; cell-free fetal DNA levels increase with gestation; turnaround time for NIPT results; cell-free fetal DNA is placental in origin; and NIPT false positive rate. Training materials, including a lesson plan, PowerPoint presentation and written factsheet on NIPT, have been developed and evaluated for use in educating midwives and supporting the introduction of NIPT. Implementation of training should include a greater focus on the areas where knowledge remained low. Some groups of midwives will need additional training or support to optimise their confidence in discussing NIPT with women.

  18. A method comparison of a food frequency questionnaire to measure folate, choline, betaine, vitamin C and carotenoids with 24-h dietary recalls in women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coathup, V; Wheeler, S; Smith, L

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a method comparison of a modified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), designed to estimate usual dietary intake of selected micronutrients and antioxidants including folate, choline, betaine, vitamin C and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein, lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin) with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HR) in women of reproductive age. Sixty-four British women of reproductive age (18-40 years) were recruited in Oxford, UK and provided complete dietary data for analysis. We compared micronutrient estimates from the FFQ against estimates derived from three multiple-pass, 24-HR interviews, by evaluating Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Median intakes of most nutrients were higher when measured by FFQ compared with 24-HR. Strong correlation coefficients were observed for folate (r=0.80) and choline (r=0.68), whereas moderate correlation coefficients were observed for vitamin C (0.50) and lycopene (0.43). Weak correlation coefficients were observed for betaine (0.39) and other carotenoids (r=0.26-0.38). Bland-Altman plots indicated that there was a large amount of variability in the FFQ estimates of nutrient intakes compared to those using 24-HR, particularly for carotenoids. The findings indicate that this FFQ estimated higher mean intakes for most nutrients. Pearson's correlation coefficients were comparable with previous research; however, the Bland-Altman plots suggest a high variability in mean nutrient estimates between the FFQ and 24-h. We recommend further investigation of the validity of this FFQ before use.

  19. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  20. Sexual infidelity in a national survey of American women: differences in prevalence and correlates as a function of method of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Snyder, Douglas K

    2007-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to estimate the annual prevalence of, and to identify the predictors of, sexual infidelity in a population-based sample of married women (N = 4,884); and (b) to evaluate whether the prevalence and predictors of infidelity varied as a function of whether the assessment of infidelity was based on a face-to-face interview versus a computer-assisted self-interview. Annual prevalence of infidelity was much smaller on the basis of the face-to-face interview (1.08%) than on the computer-assisted self-interview (6.13%). Although many of the predictor variables replicated results from previous studies (e.g., demographic variables, religiosity, sexual experience), findings also indicated that childhood sexual abuse (i.e., forced sex) predicted greater probability of infidelity. Finally, the magnitude of the association with infidelity for 4 of the 9 predictor variables differed between the 2 methods for assessing infidelity. This study's findings underscore the importance of assessing infidelity with methods such as computer-assisted self-interviews that minimize the influence of social desirability and impression management.

  1. Applying the WHO recommendations on health-sector response to violence against women to assess the Spanish health system. A mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Minvielle, Fauhn; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Ohman, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This methodological note describes the development and application of a mixed-methods protocol to assess the responsiveness of Spanish health systems to violence against women in Spain, based on the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Five areas for exploration were identified based on the WHO recommendations: policy environment, protocols, training, accountability/monitoring, and prevention/promotion. Two data collection instruments were developed to assess the situation of 17 Spanish regional health systems (RHS) with respect to these areas: 1) a set of indicators to guide a systematic review of secondary sources, and 2) an interview guide to be used with 26 key informants at the regional and national levels. We found differences between RHSs in the five areas assessed. The progress of RHSs on the WHO recommendations was notable at the level of policies, moderate in terms of health service delivery, and very limited in terms of preventive actions. Using a mixed-methods approach was useful for triangulation and complementarity during instrument design, data collection and interpretation. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Kim, Rosalind [Moraga, CA; Jancarik, Jamila [Walnut Creek, CA

    2012-01-31

    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  3. Radioimmunoassay method for measurement of plasma androstenedione. Its validation in ovulatory women and in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome; Metodo de radioimunoensaio para medida da androstenediona plasmatica. Validacao em mulheres ovulatorias e com sindrome dos ovarios policisticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova Socorro Veras, Maria do; Silva e Rosa, Alzira Amelia; Moura, Marcos Dias de; Ferriano, Rui Alberto; Sa, Marcos Felipe Silva de [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1995-01-01

    The present paper has as objective the standardization of a radioimmunoassay method for measurement of androstenedione. Ethyl ether was used for plasma extraction. The sensitivity of the method was 6,8 pg/tube; the reproducibility (inter assay error) was 15,6%; the precision (intrassay error) was 5,2%. As biological control, 20 ovulatory women showed median plasma values of 1250 pg/ml and 24 women with polycystic ovary syndrome presented median plasma values of 2.037 pg/ml. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  5. Prevalence and experiences of intimate partner violence against women with disabilities in Bangladesh: results of an explanatory sequential mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Tanvir; Muhaddes, Tisa; Camellia, Suborna; Selim, Nasima; Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of 226 women with disabilities living in four different districts of Bangladesh. It also explored the physical and psychological suffering of women experiencing violence and their various coping strategies. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 226 women with disabilities to measure the prevalence of IPV, and 16 in-depth interviews were conducted to document in detail the experiences of violence encountered by the abused women. Among the 226 women interviewed in the survey, about 84% reported ever having experienced at least one act of emotional abuse, physical, or sexual violence from their partner during their lifetime. Women who were older (aged above 32 years), separated, and members of economic/savings group were more likely to report ever having experienced any IPV than women with disabilities who were younger (aged 32 years and less), married, and not members of economic/savings group. Most of the women experiencing violence reported sufferings from physical and psychological problems. Of all the women who experienced violence, less than half (45%) reported seeking support to minimize or avoid violence experiences. However, seeking support from informal network such as family and relatives was commonly reported by many (81.4%) of them. Study findings suggest that women with disabilities who possess poor socio-economic status coupled with economic dependency on husbands' income and wide-spread social stigma against disability make them vulnerable to IPV. Future interventions to address IPV against women with disabilities should include building community knowledge of disability and IPV, countering the pervasive social stigma against disabilities, and improving the socio-economic conditions of women with disabilities through education and employment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participation-oriented research methods are much more likely to bring about .... Examining the specific types of relations that women have to land reveals the ways ..... information – builds capacity to acquire sound qualitative data and, thereby, ...

  7. Sexual Health (Women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events ... you can still get pregnant. Most birth control methods are safe for women with diabetes. Talk with ...

  8. Tamoxifen or letrozole versus standard methods for women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer undergoing oocyte or embryo cryopreservation in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahhan, Taghride; Balkenende, Eva; van Wely, Madelon; Linn, Sabine; Goddijn, Mariette

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of oocytes or embryos preceded by controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) can increase the chance of future pregnancy in women with breast cancer who risk therapy-induced ovarian failure. In women with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, alternative COS protocols with

  9. Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Archana; Mburu, Gitau; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma; Sharma, Pankhuri; Campbell, Fiona; Behera, Jagannath; Dargan, Ritu; Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Mehra, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick(®) HIV antibody test, and subsequently asked to self-test under supervision of a community health worker. Test results were confirmed at a government-run integrated counselling and testing centre. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on patient demographics and the ease, acceptability and difficulties of self-testing. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 35 participants to understand their experiences. In total, 202 participants performed the non-invasive, oral fluid-based, rapid test under supervision for HIV screening. Acceptance rate was 100%. Motivators for self-testing included: ease of testing (43.4%), quick results (27.3%) and non-invasive procedure (23.2%). Sensitivity and specificity were 100% for 201 tests, and one test was invalid. Concordance of test result interpretation between community health workers and participants was 98.5% with a Cohen's Kappa (k) value of k=0.566 with pwomen in rural India. Participants were supportive of making self-testing publicly available. Policy guidelines and implementation research are required to advance HIV self-testing for larger populations at scale.

  10. Determination of Molecular Genotyping of Ureaplasma SPP in Women with Genital Infections by 16S–23S rDNA PCR-RFLP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mirnejad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: So far, despite the wide range of methods such as analytic methods used for differentiation of Mycoplasma, the diagnosis of Mycoplasma species is still difficult. Generally the low-level discriminatory power of serological methods because of the rapid changes in size and phase of the dominant antigens in the immune cell surface of Mycoplasmas greatly limits their applicability to the typing of Mycoplasmas. On the contrary,molecular methods do not suffer from these drawbacks and can be used for typing of Mycoplasmas. The aim of this investigation was molecular identification and genotyping of ureaplasma SPP in women with genital infections by 16S–23S rDNA PCR-RFLP.Materials & Methods: Genital swabs were taken from 210 patients who referred to gynecology clinic of Rasool hospital in Tehran, Iran during December 2007 until June 2008. The swabs suspended in PBS, were immediately transferred to laboratory .Following DNA extraction, PCR assay was performed using a genus specific primer pair. These primer sets amplified a 559 bp fragment for Ureaplasma Spp. Samples containing bands of the expected size for Ureaplasma strains were subjected to digestion with different restriction endonuclease enzymes (AluI, Taq I, CacI8, BbsI, EcoRI. Results: Of the 210 samples, Ureaplasma Spp was isolated from 93 patients (44.3% by PCR and 69 samples by culture. In the present study only Biovar 1 (Ureaplasma parvum was isolated from clinical specimens and the results were confirmed using a cutting enzyme TaqI (enzyme specific species of ureaplasma SPP. The results of this analysis using PCR-RFLP and sequencing showed that all had the same genotype and shared identical sequence with the genome sequence of serovar 3 Ureaplasma parvum.Conclusion: Ureaplasma parvum is generally isolated from the genital samples. In this study all isolates were identical and no difference was found among the enzyme patterns of the bacteria after PCR-RFLP .So

  11. Diagnostic methods for fast-track identification of endometrial cancer in women with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness greater than 5 mm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Margit; Marinowskij, Edvard; Hansen, Estrid Stæhr

    2015-01-01

    efficiency (area under the curve) for malignancy diagnosis (ES, 0.90; TVS, 0.88; GIS, 0.92; HYpattern, 0.91). When insufficient samples were incorporated, ES was less efficient than the other techniques. ES was not more efficient in the subgroup of women without localized lesions than in the subgroup...... of women with localized lesions. MRI and HYpattern added limited efficiency, whereas hysteroscopy with biopsy was most efficient. CONCLUSIONS: As a first-line technique, pattern recognition on TVS, GIS, and HYpattern correctly identifies 9 of 10 women with malignancy and is superior to pattern recognition...... on ES when insufficient samples are included. Endometrial pattern evaluated with TVS and GIS is a fast and efficient first-line diagnostic tool that outperforms ES in women with or without localized lesions. Malignant patterns on TVS/GIS should warrant fast-track evaluation, whereas women with benign...

  12. Women's series: by women, for women?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuitert, L.; Spiers, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the striking phenomena in the 19th century publishing history is the abundant publication of publisher''s series. This contribution concerns series specifically meant for women. The focus is on Dutch literary series for women, mostly 19th century.

  13. Novel method to assessing and the impact of alpha emitter's concentration of the uterus on women fertility in Iraqi Kurdistan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, N.F.; Jaafar, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, 30 uterine tissue samples were collected from women with uterine problems from Iraqi Kurdistan. Tissue samples were analyzed and examined to measure levels of concentrated α-particle emitters and their short-lived decay products using a plastic track detector (CR-39) and the PVC long-tube technique with standard source radium ( 226 Ra). A new method and apparatus for the passive sampling of α-particles were also introduced. The maximum 0.0691 ppm and minimum 0.0180 ppm concentrations of particles were found in Sedakan and in Dukan, respectively; the average value was 0.0330 ppm, when compared the result with the result (0.12 ppm) in Asumadu-Sakyi et al. (Res J Environ Earth Sci 3(1):24-31, 2011) is lower than it and is agree with the result in Rubyie (Radioactive detection on the blood samples of cancer patients diseases by using CR-39 detector and its effect on cytogenetic. MSc. thesis, Al-Nahrain University, 2007). Also the results of fresh uterus are Significant (p 222 Rn gas varied from one woman to another depending on her age, the allergic reaction of her uterus to the radiation, and the geological formation of the area under study. The hazardous effects of α-particles are caused by increasing levels of ionizing radiation in the environment. (author)

  14. Comparison of the Screening Tests for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus between "One-Step" and "Two-Step" Methods among Thai Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luewan, Suchaya; Bootchaingam, Phenphan; Tongsong, Theera

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of GDM between those screened by the "one-step" (75 gm GTT) and "two-step" (100 gm GTT) methods. A prospective study was conducted on singleton pregnancies at low or average risk of GDM. All were screened between 24 and 28 weeks, using the one-step or two-step method based on patients' preference. The primary outcome was prevalence of GDM, and secondary outcomes included birthweight, gestational age, rates of preterm birth, small/large-for-gestational age, low Apgar scores, cesarean section, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. A total of 648 women were screened: 278 in the one-step group and 370 in the two-step group. The prevalence of GDM was significantly higher in the one-step group; 32.0% versus 10.3%. Baseline characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in both groups were comparable. However, mean birthweight was significantly higher among pregnancies with GDM diagnosed by the two-step approach (3204 ± 555 versus 3009 ± 666 g; p =0.022). Likewise, the rate of large-for-date tended to be higher in the two-step group, but was not significant. The one-step approach is associated with very high prevalence of GDM among Thai population, without clear evidence of better outcomes. Thus, this approach may not be appropriate for screening in a busy antenatal care clinic like our setting or other centers in developing countries.

  15. The development of an online intervention (Care Assist) to support male caregivers of women with breast cancer: a protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Janelle V; Gerges, Martha; Girgis, Afaf

    2018-02-17

    It is projected that 17 730 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer in Australia in 2017, with 3114 of these predicted to be fatal. Caregiving for a person with cancer can significantly impact caregivers' physical and mental health. Many caregivers feel ill-prepared for this role, especially when care involves complex medical needs accompanied by the psychological challenges experienced following a cancer diagnosis. This study employs a convergent, parallel, mixed methods design combining an online survey with an optional interview. Eligible, consenting participants will be invited to participate in a survey to examine (1) participants' unmet needs, (2) challenges experienced throughout the cancer journey, (3) perceived self-efficacy to determine participants' level of confidence in undertaking caregiver tasks, (4) views regarding suitable content to include in a caregiver training intervention, (5) preferred method of intervention delivery (ie, website, smartphone application and/or interactive video), and (6) preferences for the timing of delivery of the intervention content (ie, ability to choose a module, access to the entire content or have a set order in which they receive the information). Caregivers will be eligible to participate if they (1) are male, (2) have previously cared for or are currently caring for a woman with breast cancer, (3) are aged over 18 years, and (4) do not currently suffer from a cognitive impairment or mental health condition (ie, depression, anxiety). Data analysis will include examination of differences in psychological outcomes and needs based on demographic variables, and mediation analysis to explore whether self-efficacy mediates the relationship between challenges, unmet needs and distress. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic analysis. The study was reviewed and approved by two human research ethics committees within Australia. We anticipate two to three publications may be developed from the study.

  16. Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Heather J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors are complex and difficult to modify. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a novel psycho-educational intervention to prevent postnatal mental disorders in mothers of firstborn infants. Methods Data from a variety of sources were synthesised: a literature review summarised epidemiological evidence about neglected modifiable risk factors; clinical research evidence identified successful psychosocial treatments for postnatal mental health problems; consultations with clinicians, health professionals, policy makers and consumers informed the proposed program and psychological and health promotion theories underpinned the proposed mechanisms of effect. The intervention was pilot-tested with small groups of mothers and fathers and their first newborn infants. Results What Were We Thinking! is a psycho-educational intervention, designed for universal implementation, that addresses heightened learning needs of parents of first newborns. It re-conceptualises mental health problems in mothers of infants as reflecting unmet needs for adaptations in the intimate partner relationship after the birth of a baby, and skills to promote settled infant behaviour. It addresses these two risk factors in half-day seminars, facilitated by trained maternal and child health nurses using non-psychiatric language, in groups of up to five couples and their four-week old infants in primary care. It is designed to promote confidence and reduce mental disorders by providing skills

  17. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  18. Estado nutricional de gestantes avaliado por três diferentes métodos de classificação antropométrica Nutritional status of pregnant women according to three different anthropometric classification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Bezerra de Melo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional de gestantes por três diferentes métodos. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, realizado entre janeiro e junho de 2006, com 992 gestantes de um serviço público. O estado nutricional foi classificado por diferentes métodos de avaliação: nomograma de Rosso, método de Atalah e gestograma do Centro Latino Americano de Perinatologia. Os resultados foram comparados com o estado nutricional de mulheres não gestantes em idade reprodutiva da Região Nordeste e do Brasil. As diferenças foram analisadas pelo teste qui-quadrado de bondade de ajuste, adotando-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: O baixo peso gravídico avaliado pelo nomograma de Rosso foi a condição que mais contribuiu para a diferença encontrada (pOBJECTIVE: This study assessed the nutritional status of pregnant women by three different methods. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted between January and June 2006 with 992 pregnant women attending a public prenatal care facility. Nutritional status was classified according to different assessment methods (Rosso nomogram, Atalah method and the Latin American Center for Perinatology gestogram. The results were compared with the nutritional status of nonpregnant women in childbearing age in the Brazilian Northeast and all of Brazil. The differences were analyzed by the chi-square goodness of fit test, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Low weight of pregnant women according to the Rosso nomogram was the condition that most contributed to the difference (p<0.001. According to the Atalah method, extreme differences were also observed in the prevalences of underweight pregnant women both in the Northeast and in all of Brazil. In relation to the gestogram of the Perinatology Latin American Center, the greatest prevalence differences also occurred among the underweight: 18% versus 7.4% for the Northeast Region and 18% versus 6.7% for Brazil, although this was the

  19. Women boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing......This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...

  20. Exercise training improves autonomic function and inflammatory pattern in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; Maresca, Luigi; Vuolo, Laura; Tafuri, Domenico; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Francesco, Orio

    2008-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female reproductive-age endocrine disease predominantly characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, insulin-resistance and low-grade inflammatory status. Exercise training (ET) favourably modulates cardiopulmonary function and insulin-sensitivity markers in PCOS women. The present study investigated the effects of ET on autonomic function and inflammatory pattern in PCOS women. Prospective baseline uncontrolled clinical study. One-hundred and eighty five PCOS women referred to our department were screened for the inclusion into the study protocol from March 2004 to July 2007. One-hundred and twenty four PCOS women met the criteria for the inclusion into the study protocol and were subdivided into two groups each composed of 62 patients: PCOS-T (trained) group underwent 3-month ET program, whereas PCOS-UnT (untrained) group did not. At baseline and at 3-month follow-up, hormonal and metabolic profile, cardiopulmonary parameters, autonomic function (as expressed by heart rate recovery, HRR) and inflammatory pattern [as expressed by C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBCs) count] were evaluated. PCOS-T showed a significant (P PCOS-UnT. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 3-month HRR is linearly related to the inclusion in training group (beta = 0.316, P PCOS women.

  1. Venous thromboembolism in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed...... is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together...... therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS...

  2. Women's socioeconomic factors associated to the choice of contraceptive method in Spain Factores socioeconómicos de las mujeres asociados a la elección del método anticonceptivo en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Ruiz-Muñoz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on the choice of the contraceptive method used among women in Spain in 2006. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of women aged 15-49 who reported the contraceptive method used during the first sexual intercourse (n = 3352 and during the 4 weeks prior to the interview (n = 2672. Data were analyzed taking into account women's socioeconomic characteristics. Results: The mostly used method during the first sexual intercourse was the condom. Women from developing countries more frequently used the pill than native-born Spanish women. The condom was also the most commonly used method in the 4 weeks prior to the interview. The use of other contraceptive methods increased with age. Being older and having children were both associated with an increased use of permanent methods. Conclusions: The choice of a specific contraceptive method seems to be more strongly influenced by women's stage of life than by socioeconomic characteristics.Objetivos: Describir la influencia de las características socioeconómicas en la elección del método anticonceptivo utilizado por las mujeres en España en 2006. Métodos: Estudio transversal de las mujeres de 15-49 años de edad que declararon el método anticonceptivo utilizado en la primera relación sexual (n = 3352 y durante las cuatro últimas semanas (n = 2672, teniendo en cuenta sus características socioeconómicas. Resultados: El preservativo fue el método más utilizado durante la primera relación sexual. Las mujeres de países en vías de desarrollo usaron más frecuentemente la píldora que las autóctonas. El preservativo fue también el método más utilizado durante las cuatro últimas semanas. El uso del resto de los métodos aumenta con la edad. Tener una edad más alta e hijos se asoció con un mayor uso de métodos permanentes. Conclusiones: La elección de un método anticonceptivo concreto parece estar más influenciada por

  3. Pregnant Women Experiencing IPV: Impact of Supportive and Non-Supportive Relationships with their Mothers and Other Supportive Adults on Perinatal Depression: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Bair-Merritt, Megan; Rose, Linda; Marcantonio, Kristin; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the views of women experiencing interpersonal violence (IPV) and their relationship with their mothers or other supportive adult, and determines how this relationship affected perinatal depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 30 urban and rural pregnant women enrolled in a larger ongoing randomized controlled trial. Data from quantitative instruments that measured depressive symptoms were examined in combination with qualitative interview data collected at base...

  4. The Impact of Sex Work on Women's Personal Romantic Relationships and the Mental Separation of Their Work and Personal Lives: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellhouse, Clare; Crebbin, Susan; Fairley, Christopher K; Bilardi, Jade E

    2015-01-01

    Very limited research has been undertaken on sex workers' personal romantic relationships and the impact the nature of their work has on their relationships. This exploratory study aimed to explore the impact sex work has on women's personal romantic relationships and the use of mental separation as a coping mechanism to balance the two aspects of their lives. Fifty-five women working in the indoor sex industry in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire about various aspects of their work, including the impact of sex work on their personal relationships. Questionnaires were completed anonymously and included both closed and open-ended questions. A further six women were interviewed to 'member check' the accuracy of the questionnaire findings. Most women (78%) reported that, overall, sex work affected their personal romantic relationships in predominantly negative ways, mainly relating to issues stemming from lying, trust, guilt and jealousy. A small number of women reported positive impacts from sex work including improved sexual self-esteem and confidence. Just under half of women were in a relationship at the time of the study and, of these, 51% reported their partner was aware of the nature of their work. Seventy-seven percent of single women chose to remain single due to the nature of their work. Many women used mental separation as a coping mechanism to manage the tensions between sex work and their personal relationships. Member checking validated the accuracy of the questionnaire data. This exploratory study identified a number of ways in which sex work impacts negatively on women's personal romantic relationships. The findings of this study support the need for further studies to be undertaken to determine if the findings are reflected in a larger, more representative sample of Australian sex workers and should be considered in the context of any future intervention and support programs aimed at addressing the tensions

  5. The Impact of Sex Work on Women's Personal Romantic Relationships and the Mental Separation of Their Work and Personal Lives: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Bellhouse

    Full Text Available Very limited research has been undertaken on sex workers' personal romantic relationships and the impact the nature of their work has on their relationships. This exploratory study aimed to explore the impact sex work has on women's personal romantic relationships and the use of mental separation as a coping mechanism to balance the two aspects of their lives.Fifty-five women working in the indoor sex industry in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire about various aspects of their work, including the impact of sex work on their personal relationships. Questionnaires were completed anonymously and included both closed and open-ended questions. A further six women were interviewed to 'member check' the accuracy of the questionnaire findings.Most women (78% reported that, overall, sex work affected their personal romantic relationships in predominantly negative ways, mainly relating to issues stemming from lying, trust, guilt and jealousy. A small number of women reported positive impacts from sex work including improved sexual self-esteem and confidence. Just under half of women were in a relationship at the time of the study and, of these, 51% reported their partner was aware of the nature of their work. Seventy-seven percent of single women chose to remain single due to the nature of their work. Many women used mental separation as a coping mechanism to manage the tensions between sex work and their personal relationships. Member checking validated the accuracy of the questionnaire data.This exploratory study identified a number of ways in which sex work impacts negatively on women's personal romantic relationships. The findings of this study support the need for further studies to be undertaken to determine if the findings are reflected in a larger, more representative sample of Australian sex workers and should be considered in the context of any future intervention and support programs aimed at

  6. Gastroesophageal reflux - correlation between diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Maria das Gracas de Almeida; Penas, Maria Exposito; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa; Lemme, Eponina Maria O.; Martinho, Maria Jose Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    A group of 97 individuals with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was submitted to gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) and compared to the results obtained from endoscopy, histopathology and 24 hours pHmetry. Twenty-four healthy individuals were used as a control group and they have done only the GERS. The results obtained showed that: a) the difference int he reflux index (RI) for the control group and the sick individuals was statistically significant (p < 0.0001); b) the correlation between GERS and the other methods showed the following results: sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 95%; positive predictive value, 98%; negative predictive value, 67%; accuracy, 87%. We have concluded that the scintigraphic method should be used to confirm the diagnosis of GERD and also recommended as initial investiative procedure. (author)

  7. Effect of Balance, Strength, and Combined Training on the Balance of the Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farsi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ageing is associated with a number of physiologic and functional declines that can increase disability, frailty, and falls in the elderly. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to study and compare the effect of balance, strength, and combined trainings on the balance (overall, anterior-posterior, medial-lateral of the elderly women. Methods & Materials: Twenty-four older female adults (without history of any injuries in their lower limbs were participated voluntarily in this study and randomly assigned into 3 groups: balance (n=8, strength (n=8 and combined (n=8. A 6-week exercise program was performed at Shahid Beheshti University. The program was performed 3 days per week. Before and after implementation of exercise program, the balance status of the subjects was measured by Biodex stability system. The data were analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance (group×time ANOVA with repeated measures on time, paired–sample t-test, 1–way ANOVA, and Bonferroni post–hoc test (P≤0.005. Results: At the end of training programs, significant improvements were observed between the balance and combined groups with regard to the indexes of overall, anterior–posterior, and medial–lateral balance. Also, the strength group showed a significant growth in the indexes of anterior-posterior and medial-lateral compared to the beginning of the study. There was a significant difference between the balance (P=0.0001 and combined groups (P=0.001 with the strength group with regard to the index of overall balance. Also, there was a significant difference between balance group (P=0.0001 and the combined group (P=0.0001 regarding the anterior-posterior balance. But there were no significant differences between groups with regard to the medial-lateral balance. Conclusion: The study showed that perturbation–based balance training and combined training had the better effects compared to the strength training.

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-04-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boarder were treated with a standard fixed oral 3-day treatment, and venous plasma concentrations of both drugs were measured frequently for pharmacokinetic evaluation. Population pharmacokinetics were evaluated with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The main pharmacokinetic finding was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but reduced exposure to dihydroartemisinin in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Piperaquine was best described by a three-compartment disposition model with a 45% higher elimination clearance and a 47% increase in relative bioavailability in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but a shorter terminal elimination half-life. Dihydroartemisinin was best described by a one-compartment disposition model with a 38% lower relative bioavailability in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was a decreased total exposure to dihydroartemisinin. The shorter terminal elimination half-life of piperaquine and lower exposure to dihydroartemisinin will shorten the posttreatment prophylactic effect and might affect cure rates. The clinical impact of these pharmacokinetic findings in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria needs to be evaluated in larger series.

  9. "We will not rest." Filipino women want a fertility management program that respects women's dignity, women's bodies and women's choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R O

    1993-03-01

    The program officer for the Institute for Social Studies and Action presents 1) her views on women's fertility management under different political administrations in the Philippines, 2) the political postures of influential groups, 3) the goals of women's and health groups, and 4) the actions taken by Filipino women. Under Ferdinand Marcos, the official family planning (FP) program emphasized reduction of population growth and established a quota system and incentives for the number of new acceptors. Women, as a result, became victims; e.g. IUDs were inserted without prior knowledge, and inadequate information and follow-up were provided on oral contraceptive use. Efforts were criticized for treating women as program targets and not as individuals capable of making choices. Under Corazon Aquino, the Roman Catholic hierarchy dominated and would have banned all forms of artificial contraception had women's and health groups not blocked the effort. Only in 1989 did President Aquino finally announce that multiple methods of family planning (FP) would be promoted. There was a transition in program services during the transfer to the Department of Health. Currently the government promotes FP within the safe motherhood and child survival context, but adolescents and unmarried women and couples are excluded from FP services. Population control advocates believe FP is a health issue. The Roman Catholic Church accepts only natural methods and believes artificial methods interfere with the natural processes of procreation. Anti-FP groups promote only natural FP methods and wage campaigns to discredit contraceptive methods. Women's and FP groups contend that it is a woman's right to regulate her own fertility. Safe abortion should be made available to those who need it. Women's networks are mobilizing to talk about the issues, to hold public activities to change laws and policies and to encourage women's involvement in decision making affecting their lives, and to conduct

  10. The effect of dance therapy on the balance of women over 60 years of age: The influence of dance therapy for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filar-Mierzwa, Katarzyna; Długosz, Małgorzata; Marchewka, Anna; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Poznańska, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Dance therapy is a physical activity that can lead to balance improvement in older adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of dance therapy on balance and risk of falls in older women. Twenty-four older women (mean age 66.4 years old) attended dance sessions for three months. Pretest/posttests were completed using the Postural Stability Test, the Limits of Stability Test, and the Fall Risk Test M-CTSIB. Results showed the Limits of Stability Test was significantly higher (17.5%) after dance classes. Regular use of dance therapy shows promise in improving balance by increasing the limits of stability.

  11. Rationale, design, and method of the Diabetes & Women's Health study – a study of long-term health implications of glucose intolerance in pregnancy and their determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Frank B; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2014-01-01

    or public health interventions in relation to the transition of gestational diabetes mellitus to type 2 diabetes mellitus. To achieve the goal efficiently, we are applying a hybrid design enrolling and collecting data longitudinally from approximately 4000 women with a medical history of gestational...... in determining the transition from gestational diabetes mellitus to overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. These critical data gaps served as the impetus for this Diabetes & Women's Health study with the overall goal of investigating genetic factors and their interactions with risk factors amenable to clinical...... diabetes mellitus in two existing prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study II and the Danish National Birth Cohort. Women who had a medical history of gestational diabetes mellitus in one or more of their pregnancies are eligible for the present study. After enrollment, we follow study participants...

  12. Empowering Women

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note addresses practices for reducing gender inequalities and for empowering women to make a positive contribution to development through agricultural investments. Women make a crucial contribution to the agriculture sector and account for over 40 percent of agricultural labor in developing countries. However, they are frequently marginalized and their contributions under-acknowledged...

  13. Women's studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    On March 31, 1997, the Association for Women Geoscientists will award two Chrysalis Scholarships to women who have returned to school after an interruption in their education for a year or longer. The $750 awards will be given to geoscience master's or Ph.D. candidates to cover expenses in finishing their theses.The application deadline is February 28, 1997.

  14. There is no news like bad news: women are more remembering and stress reactive after reading real negative news than men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Marin

    Full Text Available With the advent of specialized television channels offering 24-hour coverage, Internet and smart phones, the possibility to be constantly in contact with the media has increased dramatically in the last decades. Despite this higher access to knowledge, the impact media exposure has on healthy individuals remains poorly studied. Given that most information conveyed in the media is negative and that upon perception of threat, the brain activates the stress system, which leads to cortisol secretion, we decided to determine how healthy individuals react to media information. Accordingly, we investigated whether reading real negative news (1 is physiologically stressful, (2 modulates one's propensity to be stress reactive to a subsequent stressor and (3 modulates remembrance for these news. Sixty participants (30 women, 30 men were randomly assigned to either twenty-four real neutral news excerpts or to twenty-four real negative excerpts for 10 minutes. They were then all exposed to a well-validated psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, which consists of an anticipation phase of 10 minutes and a test phase of 10 minutes. A total of eight salivary cortisol samples were collected, at 10-minutes intervals, throughout the experimental procedure. One day later, a free recall of the news was performed. Results showed that although reading negative news did not lead to change in cortisol levels (p>0.05, it led to a significant increase in cortisol to a subsequent stressor in women only (p<0.001. Also, women in the negative news condition experienced better memory for these news excerpts compared to men (p<0.01. These results suggest a potential mechanism by which media exposure could increase stress reactivity and memory for negative news in women.

  15. Improvement of aerobic energy supply processes in 37-49 yrs old women by means of complex aqua-fitness trainings’ and methodic of endogenous - hypoxic breathing’s application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.M. Furman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of purposefulness of complex aqua-fitness training and methodic of endogenous-hypoxic breathing’s application for improvement of women’s functional fitness. Material: in the research 13 women of control group and 12 women of experimental one, who had never trained aqua-fitness earlier, participated. (Their age was 37-49 years old. Results: during 24 weeks, at different stages of the research (after 8, 16 and 24 weeks from the beginning of trainings by the worked out program we determined indicators of power (maximal oxygen consumption and capacity (threshold of anaerobic metabolism, which characterize aerobic processes of energy supply. Conclusions: it was proved that complex application of aqua-fitness trainings in combination with methodic of endogenous-hypoxic breathing is effective. It is witnessed by acceleration of increment of absolute and relative indicators of workability, maximal oxygen consumption and threshold of anaerobic metabolism.

  16. Disabled women's attendance at community women's groups in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, J; Colbourn, T; Budhathoki, B; Sen, A; Adhikari, D; Bamjan, J; Pathak, S; Basnet, A; Trani, J F; Costello, A; Manandhar, D; Groce, N

    2017-06-01

    There is strong evidence that participatory approaches to health and participatory women's groups hold great potential to improve the health of women and children in resource poor settings. It is important to consider if interventions are reaching the most marginalized, and therefore we examined disabled women's participation in women's groups and other community groups in rural Nepal. People with disabilities constitute 15% of the world's population and face high levels of poverty, stigma, social marginalization and unequal access to health resources, and therefore their access to women's groups is particularly important. We used a mixed methods approach to describe attendance in groups among disabled and non-disabled women, considering different types and severities of disability. We found no significant differences in the percentage of women that had ever attended at least one of our women's groups, between non-disabled and disabled women. This was true for women with all severities and types of disability, except physically disabled women who were slightly less likely to have attended. Barriers such as poverty, lack of family support, lack of self-confidence and attendance in many groups prevented women from attending groups. Our findings are particularly significant because disabled people's participation in broader community groups, not focused on disability, has been little studied. We conclude that women's groups are an important way to reach disabled women in resource poor communities. We recommend that disabled persons organizations help to increase awareness of disability issues among organizations running community groups to further increase their effectiveness in reaching disabled women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Barriers and Facilitators to Career Advancement by Top-Level, Entry-Level and Non-Administrative Women in Public School Districts: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eman Ibrahim El-Desouki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers and facilitators to career advancement among women administrators occupying top-level positions, those occupying entry-level positions and those in non-administrative positions in both rural and urban public school districts in central Pennsylvania. The need to increase the awareness of the…

  18. Pregnancy Prevention at Her Fingertips: A Text- and Mobile Video-Based Pilot Intervention to Promote Contraceptive Methods among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Buhi, Eric R.; Helmy, Hannah; Harsch, Kristin; Rella, Natalie; Godcharles, Cheryl; Ogunrunde, Adejoke; Lopez Castillo, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper reports on a pilot study evaluating the feasibility and acceptability of a text- and mobile video-based intervention to educate women and men attending college about non-daily contraception, with a particular focus on long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). A secondary objective is to describe the process of intervention…

  19. Using Qualitative Methods to Understand Perceptions of Risk and Condom Use in African American College Women: Implications for Sexual Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda L.; Lashley, Maudry-Beverley; Marshall, Vanessa J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young African American women are disproportionately affected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintentional pregnancies. Despite adequate knowledge, assertiveness, and negotiation skills, consistent condom use remains low. Aims: We sought to assess the role of pregnancy and STI risk perception in condom decision making…

  20. An exercise trial targeting African-American women with metabolic syndrome and at high risk for breast cancer: Rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Chiranjeev; Makambi, Kepher; Wallington, Sherrie F; Sheppard, Vanessa; Taylor, Teletia R; Hicks, Jennifer S; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity are known risk factors for breast cancers. Exercise interventions can potentially modify circulating biomarkers of breast cancer risk but evidence in African-Americans and women with metabolic syndrome is lacking. The Focused Intervention on Exercise to Reduce CancEr (FIERCE) trial is a prospective, 6-month, 3-arm, randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of exercise on obesity, metabolic syndrome components, and breast cancer biomarkers among African-American women at high risk of breast cancer. Two hundred-forty inactive women with metabolic syndrome and absolute risk of breast cancer ≥ 1.40 will be randomized to one of the three trial arms: 1) a supervised, facility-based exercise arm; 2) a home-based exercise arm; and 3) a control group that maintains physical activity levels through the course of the trial. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcome variables are anthropometric indicators of obesity, metabolic syndrome components, and inflammatory, insulin-pathway, and hormonal biomarkers of breast cancer risk. The FIERCE trial will provide evidence on whether a short-term exercise intervention might be effective in reducing breast cancer risk among African-American women with comorbidities and high breast cancer risk--a group traditionally under-represented in non-therapeutic breast cancer trials. NCT02103140. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Are current case-finding methods under-diagnosing tuberculosis among women in Myanmar? An analysis of operational data from Yangon and the nationwide prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M S; Khine, T M; Hutchison, C; Coker, R J; Hane, K M; Innes, A L; Aung, S

    2016-03-03

    Although there is a large increase in investment for tuberculosis control in Myanmar, there are few operational analyses to inform policies. Only 34% of nationally reported cases are from women. In this study, we investigate sex differences in tuberculosis diagnoses in Myanmar in order to identify potential health systems barriers that may be driving lower tuberculosis case finding among women. From October 2014 to March 2015, we systematically collected data on all new adult smear positive tuberculosis cases in ten township health centres across Yangon, the largest city in Myanmar, to produce an electronic tuberculosis database. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of sex differences in tuberculosis diagnoses at the township health centres. We also analysed national prevalence survey data to calculate additional case finding in men and women by using sputum culture when smear microscopy was negative, and estimated the sex-specific impact of using a more sensitive diagnostic tool at township health centres. Overall, only 514 (30%) out of 1371 new smear positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at the township health centres were female. The proportion of female patients varied by township (from 21% to 37%, p = 0.0172), month of diagnosis (37% in February 2015 and 23% in March 2015 p = 0.0004) and age group (26% in 25-64 years and 49% in 18-25 years, p Myanmar, found that substantially fewer women than men were diagnosed in all study townships. The sex ratio of newly diagnosed cases varied by age group, month of diagnosis and township of diagnosis. Low sensitivity of tuberculosis diagnosis may lead to a potential under-diagnosis of tuberculosis among women.

  2. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2013-04-01

    Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.

  3. Women's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nurse midwives This list may not be all-inclusive. References Freund K. Approach to women's health. In: ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  4. women's entrepreneurship

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-17

    May 17, 2016 ... It describes the economic benefits to women's economic empowerment, .... Public procurement makes up a significant proportion of a ...... vides a comparison of cost effectiveness of programs), Cho and Honorati (2013),.

  5. Consultations for women's health problems: factors influencing women's choice of sex of general practitioner.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bakker, D.H. de; Bensing, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    AIM. This study set out to examine the degree to which women choose to visit a woman doctor for women's health problems and the determinants of this choice. The differences between women and men doctors with regard to treating women's health problems were also studied. METHOD. Data from the Dutch

  6. Leibniz's women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten.

  7. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Jane C.; Campbell, Karen J.; McCarthy, Elizabeth A.; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women?s GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women?s sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Methods Consecutive women (n?=?1032) received a mailed que...

  8. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  9. Just Do It: Women Superintendents Speak to Aspiring Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    A mixed method study using surveys and in-depth interviews was conducted with women school superintendents in four Midwestern states during the 1999-2000 school year to understand how they perceive their leadership skills, their uses of power in their positions, and how they generally talk about the job. Results of how the women perceived their…

  10. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  11. Women in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  12. A web-based personalized risk communication and decision-making tool for women with dense breasts: Design and methods of a randomized controlled trial within an integrated health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knerr, Sarah; Wernli, Karen J; Leppig, Kathleen; Ehrlich, Kelly; Graham, Amanda L; Farrell, David; Evans, Chalanda; Luta, George; Schwartz, Marc D; O'Neill, Suzanne C

    2017-05-01

    Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer after age and family history. Mandatory breast density disclosure policies are increasing nationally without clear guidance on how to communicate density status to women. Coupling density disclosure with personalized risk counseling and decision support through a web-based tool may be an effective way to allow women to make informed, values-consistent risk management decisions without increasing distress. This paper describes the design and methods of Engaged, a prospective, randomized controlled trial examining the effect of online personalized risk counseling and decision support on risk management decisions in women with dense breasts and increased breast cancer risk. The trial is embedded in a large integrated health care system in the Pacific Northwest. A total of 1250 female health plan members aged 40-69 with a recent negative screening mammogram who are at increased risk for interval cancer based on their 5-year breast cancer risk and BI-RADS® breast density will be randomly assigned to access either a personalized web-based counseling and decision support tool or standard educational content. Primary outcomes will be assessed using electronic health record data (i.e., chemoprevention and breast MRI utilization) and telephone surveys (i.e., distress) at baseline, six weeks, and twelve months. Engaged will provide evidence about whether a web-based personalized risk counseling and decision support tool is an effective method for communicating with women about breast density and risk management. An effective intervention could be disseminated with minimal clinical burden to align with density disclosure mandates. Clinical Trials Registration Number:NCT03029286. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Development of a questionnaire to measure family stress among married working women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Suk; Cho, Won Jung

    2006-08-01

    Even though a number of studies have suggested that appropriate measuring instruments of family stress for working women have to be developed, the validity and reliability of the instruments used have not been consistently examined. The purpose of the present study was to develop a sensitive instrument to measure family stress for married working women, and to test the validity and reliability of the instrument. The items generated for this instrument were drawn from a comprehensive literature review. Twenty four items were developed through evaluation by 10 experts and twenty one items were finally confirmed through item analysis. Psychometric testing was preformed and confirmed with a convenient sample of 240 women employed in the industrial sector. Four factors evolved by factor analysis, which explained 50.5% of the total variance. The first factor 'Cooperation' explained 28.1%, 2nd factor 'Satisfaction with relationships' 10.6%, 3rd factor 'Democratic and comfortable environment' 6.3%, and 4th factor 'Disturbance of own living' 5.5%. Cronbach's coefficient of this instrument was 0.86. The study supports the validity and reliability of the instrument.

  14. Affective (depressive) morbidity in puerperal Nigerian women: validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwakwe, Richard; Okonkwo, John E N

    2003-04-01

    To determine the rate of depression in a group of postpartum Nigerian women and to validate the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in this group. Between April and August 2000, all postpartum women who remained in the maternity ward for up to 7 days, and those who attended the postnatal clinics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital were recruited. Translated local language versions of the EPDS and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were used to screen the subjects. A structured interview schedule was adapted from the depression section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and affective module of the ICD-10 Symptom Check List to assess screened subjects. The total rejection rate was 23%, with 225 women participating in the study. Twenty-four subjects (10.7%) had depression. At the optimal cut-off score of 9, the EPDS had a sensitivity of 0.75, and specificity of 0.97. The EPDS clearly distinguished between depressed and non-depressed postpartum mothers (t = 7.63, P < 0.001, df = 222). Because of its brevity and acceptability, it is recommended that the EPDS be used in routine postnatal screening.

  15. There is no news like bad news: women are more remembering and stress reactive after reading real negative news than men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Marie-France; Morin-Major, Julie-Katia; Schramek, Tania E; Beaupré, Annick; Perna, Andrea; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of specialized television channels offering 24-hour coverage, Internet and smart phones, the possibility to be constantly in contact with the media has increased dramatically in the last decades. Despite this higher access to knowledge, the impact media exposure has on healthy individuals remains poorly studied. Given that most information conveyed in the media is negative and that upon perception of threat, the brain activates the stress system, which leads to cortisol secretion, we decided to determine how healthy individuals react to media information. Accordingly, we investigated whether reading real negative news (1) is physiologically stressful, (2) modulates one's propensity to be stress reactive to a subsequent stressor and (3) modulates remembrance for these news. Sixty participants (30 women, 30 men) were randomly assigned to either twenty-four real neutral news excerpts or to twenty-four real negative excerpts for 10 minutes. They were then all exposed to a well-validated psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which consists of an anticipation phase of 10 minutes and a test phase of 10 minutes. A total of eight salivary cortisol samples were collected, at 10-minutes intervals, throughout the experimental procedure. One day later, a free recall of the news was performed. Results showed that although reading negative news did not lead to change in cortisol levels (p>0.05), it led to a significant increase in cortisol to a subsequent stressor in women only (pnegative news condition experienced better memory for these news excerpts compared to men (pmedia exposure could increase stress reactivity and memory for negative news in women.

  16. Radiation therapy: A major factor in the five-year survival analysis of women with breast cancer in Lagos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makanjuola, Samira B.L.; Popoola, Abiodun O.; Oludara, Mobolaji A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This retrospective study was carried out to examine five-year survival from breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2005 and May 2008 in Nigerian women. Material and methods: Two hundred and twenty-four patients were entered into the study. Five-year survival was evaluated using proportional hazard model proposed by Cox to assess variables such as age of diagnosis, menopausal status, and stage of the disease in the two treatment groups: surgery/chemotherapy or surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Results: Findings revealed that the different staging of disease and treatment are independent predictors of disease outcome whereas age of diagnosis and menopausal status although associated with low hazards, are not significant. TNM Stage I (Hazard Ratio = 0.153, 95% CI 0.45–0.51, P = 0.003), II (Hazard Ratio = 0.245, 95% CI 0.12–0.46, P = 0.0001), and III (Hazard Ratio = 0.449, 95% CI 0.31–0.46, P = 0.0001) showed significantly greater survival rates compared to TNM Stage IV for patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy. Similarly, for patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy TNM Stage II (Hazard Ratio = 0.110, 95% CI 0.02–0.46, P = 0.003) and III (Hazard Ratio = 0.238, 95% CI 0.07–0.73, P = 0.012) also showed significantly greater survival rates compared to TNM Stage IV. Treatment had a significant impact on survival independent of stage, age, and menopausal status. Patients receiving surgery/chemotherapy/radiotherapy had a significant increase in survival outcome for TNM Stage (II, P = 0.045; III, P = 0.0001); age groups (40–49, P = 0.021; 50–59, P = 0.016; 60–69, P = 0.017; >70, P = 0.025); and menopausal status (premenopausal, P = 0.049; postmenopausal, P = 0.0001) compared to those receiving surgery/chemotherapy. Conclusion: The five-year breast cancer survival rate in Lagos, Nigeria 24.1% (54/224) is relatively poor compared to most countries in the world and needs to be improved. Poor survival rates are mainly attributed to late

  17. Usefulness of the group-comparison method to demonstrate sex differences in spatial orientation and spatial visualization in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D

    1976-10-01

    This paper reports an analysis of sex differences in cognitive test scores covering the dimensions of spatial orientation and spatial visualization in groups of 6 older men and 6 women matched for speed of performance on a maze test and level of performance on a spatial relations task. Older men were more proficient solving spatial problems using the body as a referent, whereas there was no significant difference between the sexes in imagining spatial displacement. Matched comparisons appear a useful adjunct to population research to understand the type(s) of cognitive processes where differential performance by the sexes is observed.

  18. Reporting Military Sexual Trauma: A Mixed-Methods Study of Women Veterans' Experiences Who Served From World War II to the War in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kristina B; Mills, Peter D

    2016-08-01

    Since 2004, there has been increased effort to reduce military sexual trauma (MST) in the U.S. military. Although MST covers a range of inappropriate behaviors, the majority of research, treatment, and outreach are focused on sexual assault and the experiences of individuals serving in Afghanistan and Iraq. During a study on veterans' involvement in a national peace organization, participants were asked about their military experiences. Veterans served from World War II to current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Emerging out of the responses were descriptions of women's experiences with MST, barriers to reporting incidents of sexual misconduct and sexual assault, and the challenges they faced when seeking care. Data were gathered using anonymous questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Out of 52 female veterans, the majority (90%) was subjected to at least one form of MST, and 15% (8) attempted to report the incident(s). Over half of the assailants were of a higher rank than the survivors. The majority of veterans remained silent due to lack of options to report, the status of perpetrators, and fear of retaliation. These data provide a glimpse into the challenges many women veterans faced when seeking assistance reporting incidents or obtaining health care for their MST. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Nutritional Status of Water-soluble Vitamins Did not Differ According to Intake Levels of Wheat and Wheat Alternatives and Rice and Rice Alternatives as a Staple Food in Pregnant Japanese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumi Shibata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether the intake level of a staple food influences the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins in pregnant Japanese women. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins was used as a biomarker for nutritional assessment. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected and vitamin intake was surveyed using a validated self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Subjects were categorized into bottom, middle, and upper tertiles according to the percentage of total energy intake from wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives. The present study showed that the nutritional status of water-soluble vitamins did not differ with intake level of wheat and wheat alternatives or rice and rice alternatives as a staple food in pregnant Japanese women.

  20. WOMEN, LIVESTOCK OWNERSHIP AND MARKETS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    3.6 Common means of livestock acquisition by women in Kenya ... 9.1 Prerequisite for a gender transformative approach in livestock research ..... of the data, describing the quantitative and qualitative methods used and the analysis employed.

  1. Is there a statistical relationship between economic crises and changes in government health expenditure growth? an analysis of twenty-four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2012-12-01

    To identify whether, by what means, and the extent to which historically, government health care expenditure growth in Europe has changed following economic crises. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Health Data 2011. Cross-country fixed effects multiple regression analysis is used to determine whether statutory health care expenditure growth in the year after economic crises differs from that which would otherwise be predicted by general economic trends. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved is achieved by distinguishing between policy responses which lead to cost-shifting and all others. In the year after an economic downturn, public health care expenditure grows more slowly than would have been expected given the longer term economic climate. Cost-shifting and other policy responses are both associated with these slowdowns. However, while changes in tax-derived expenditure are associated with both cost-shifting and other policy responses following a crisis, changes in expenditure derived from social insurance have been associated only with changes in cost-shifting. Disproportionate cuts to the health sector, as well as reliance on cost-shifting to slow growth in health care expenditure, serve as a warning in terms of potentially negative effects on equity, efficiency, and quality of health services and, potentially, health outcomes following economic crises. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Twenty-Four-Hour Central Pulse Pressure for Cardiovascular Events Prediction in a Low-Cardiovascular-Risk Population: Results From the Bordeaux Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Antoine; Boulestreau, Romain; Gaillard, Prune; Lainé, Marion; Papaioannou, Georgios; Gosse, Philippe

    2018-02-23

    Central blood pressure (BP) is a promising marker to identify subjects with higher cardiovascular risk than expected by traditional risk factors. Significant results have been obtained in populations with high cardiovascular risk, but little is known about low-cardiovascular-risk patients, although the differences between central and peripheral BP (amplification) are usually greater in this population. The study aim was to evaluate central BP over 24 hours for cardiovascular event prediction in hypertensive subjects with low cardiovascular risk. Peripheral and central BPs were recorded during clinical visits and over 24 hours in hypertensive patients with low cardiovascular risk (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation ≤5%). Our primary end point is the occurrence of a cardiovascular event during follow-up. To assess the potential interest in central pulse pressure over 24 hours, we performed Cox proportional hazard models analysis and comparison of area under the curves using the contrast test for peripheral and central BP. A cohort of 703 hypertensive subjects from Bordeaux were included. After the first 24 hours of BP measurement, the subjects were then followed up for an average of 112.5±70 months. We recorded 65 cardiovascular events during follow-up. Amplification was found to be significantly associated with cardiovascular events when added to peripheral 24-hour pulse pressure ( P =0.0259). The area under the curve of 24-hour central pulse pressure is significantly more important than area under the curve of office BP ( P =0.0296), and there is a trend of superiority with the area under the curve of peripheral 24-hour pulse pressure. Central pulse pressure over 24 hours improves the prediction of cardiovascular events for hypertensive patients with low cardiovascular risk compared to peripheral pulse pressure. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Diurnal Variation and Twenty-Four Hour Sleep Deprivation Do Not Alter Supine Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Male Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Quintana

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV has become an increasingly popular index of cardiac autonomic control in the biobehavioral sciences due to its relationship with mental illness and cognitive traits. However, the intraindividual stability of HRV in response to sleep and diurnal disturbances, which are commonly reported in mental illness, and its relationship with executive function are not well understood. Here, in 40 healthy adult males we calculated high frequency HRV-an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity-using pulse oximetry during brain imaging, and assessed attentional and executive function performance in a subsequent behavioral test session at three time points: morning, evening, and the following morning. Twenty participants were randomly selected for total sleep deprivation whereas the other 20 participants slept as normal. Sleep deprivation and morning-to-night variation did not influence high frequency HRV at either a group or individual level; however, sleep deprivation abolished the relationship between orienting attention performance and HRV. We conclude that a day of wake and a night of laboratory-induced sleep deprivation do not alter supine high frequency HRV in young healthy male adults.

  4. Is There a Statistical Relationship between Economic Crises and Changes in Government Health Expenditure Growth? An Analysis of Twenty-Four European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify whether, by what means, and the extent to which historically, government health care expenditure growth in Europe has changed following economic crises. Data Sources Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Health Data 2011. Study Design Cross-country fixed effects multiple regression analysis is used to determine whether statutory health care expenditure growth in the year after economic crises differs from that which would otherwise be predicted by general economic trends. Better understanding of the mechanisms involved is achieved by distinguishing between policy responses which lead to cost-shifting and all others. Findings In the year after an economic downturn, public health care expenditure grows more slowly than would have been expected given the longer term economic climate. Cost-shifting and other policy responses are both associated with these slowdowns. However, while changes in tax-derived expenditure are associated with both cost-shifting and other policy responses following a crisis, changes in expenditure derived from social insurance have been associated only with changes in cost-shifting. Conclusions Disproportionate cuts to the health sector, as well as reliance on cost-shifting to slow growth in health care expenditure, serve as a warning in terms of potentially negative effects on equity, efficiency, and quality of health services and, potentially, health outcomes following economic crises. PMID:22670771

  5. Twenty-four-hour simultaneous subcutaneous basal-bolus administration of insulin and amylin in adolescents with type 1 diabetes decreases postprandial hyperglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of continuous subcutaneous (sc) replacement of amylin and insulin for a 24-h period on glucose homeostasis in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Thirteen adolescents with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy participated in a randomized, controll...

  6. Determination of the Chronic Mammalian Toxicological Effects of TNT (twenty-Four Month Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Study of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) in the Fischer 344 Rat). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    and to a lesser extent at 10 mg/kg/day, was Indicated by several observations. Increased liver size was seen at these do-es, with hepatocellular...apparent for females at the 10 and 50 mg/kg/day doses and hypertriglyceridemia for male rats at the 50 mg/kg/day dose level. In addition, females at...at 50 and to a lesser extent at 10 mg/kg/day, was Indicated by several observations. Hepatomegaly was seen at these doses, with hepatocellular 31

  7. Short-Term Reproducibility of Twenty-Four-Hour Intraocular Pressure Curves in Untreated Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Xu

    Full Text Available To assess the short-term day-to-day reproducibility of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP curves in various respects in untreated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OHT patients.47 subjects with POAG and 34 subjects with OHT underwent IOP measurements every 2 hours in both eyes for consecutive 48 hours by a non-contact tonometer (NCT. IOP values at each time point were recorded. Mean IOP, peak IOP, time difference of peak IOP between two days and IOP fluctuation were also calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate reproducibility.ICCs of the entire IOP values for a complete 24-hour curve were 0.577 and 0.561 in POAG and OHT patients, respectively. ICCs of IOP values at different time points ranged from 0.384 (10am to 0.686 (4am in POAG patients and from 0.347 (6am to 0.760 (4am in OHT patients. ICCs of mean IOP, peak IOP and IOP fluctuation were respectively 0.832, 0.704, 0.367 in POAG patients and 0.867, 0.816 0.633 in OHT patients. Only 37.23% and 35.29% of the peak IOP time points appeared within the time difference of 2 hours in POAG and OHT patients, respectively, while 53.19% and 48.53% appeared within 4 hours in POAG and OHT patients, respectively.A 24-hour IOP curve in a single day is not highly reproducible in short-term and has limited use for evaluating individual IOP condition. Mean IOP and peak IOP for a 24-hour IOP curve are useful parameters in clinical follow-up, while IOP value at a certain time point, IOP fluctuation and peak IOP time point should be interpreted with caution.

  8. The twenty-four/four hour ratio (T/F ratio) of Tc-99m MDP uptake in patients with bone metastases and degenerative changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, O.; Kleinhaus, U.; Keren, R.; Frankel, A.; Front, D.

    1984-01-01

    Normal and metastatic bone differ in their histological structure. Normal bone is mainly lamellar while metastatic bone formation is made in a large part out of new woven bone. The woven bone has a much larger surface area than the more stable lamellar bone and it is lined with metabolically active osteoblasts. The crystalline structures in the woven bone are smaller and have a larger surface area available for absorption. Uptake of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals continues in new woven bone longer than in the lamellar bone. Bone scintigraphy was performed in 89 patients at four hours and 24 hours using a digital camera. The lesion to non lesion (L/N) ratio was determined using the camera computer. The T/F ratio was calculated: T/F=((L/N)-24)/((L/N)-4). Three groups were investigated. In 15 patients with metastatic bone carcinoma, T/F ratio was 1.46 +- 0.4. In 47 patients with degenerative joint disease the T/F ratio was 1.05 +- 0.06. In 27 patients with treated metastatic bone carcinoma the T/F ratio was 1.12 +- 0.13. The T/F ratio is significantly (p<0.001) different in patients with metastases compared to patients with benign degenerative disease. Chemotherapeutic and hormonal treatment cause significant (p<0.001) reduction in the T/F ratio. The T/F ratio may have a potential in differentiating degenerative from neoplastic diseases and in the evaluation of patients with bone metastases undergoing treatment

  9. Trends in C-Reactive Protein Levels Are Associated with Neurological Change Twenty-Four Hours after Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dipender; Sivakumaran, Prasanthi; Wilding, Peter; Love, Madeleine; Veltkamp, Roland; Kar, Arindam

    2016-08-01

    Elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with worse outcomes in patients thrombolysed for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). To investigate whether changes in CRP levels are associated with neurological change after thrombolysis for AIS. Retrospective analysis of a single-center database of consecutive thrombolysis cases for AIS from October 18, 2011, to June 15, 2015, inclusive. Multivariate regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between change in CRP 12-24 hours after thrombolysis and change in NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score 24 hours after thrombolysis. The other potentially confounding predictor variables included in the model were CRP on admission and NIHSS score before thrombolysis. Complete data were available for 108 out of possible 435 eligible patients. Increases in CRP levels 12-24 hours after thrombolysis were negatively associated with reduction in NIHSS score 24 hours after thrombolysis (coefficient .08, 95% confidence interval .031-.129, P = .002). Thus, on average, for every 12.5 mg/L additional increase in CRP 12-24 hours after thrombolysis, NIHSS score at 24 hours improved by 1 point less. While it was previously known that elevated CRP levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients thrombolysed for AIS, the current work demonstrates that changes in CRP levels after thrombolysis also relate to neurological change, and thus may have scope for use as prognostic markers. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  11. Twenty-Four-Hour Blood Pressure Monitoring to Predict and Assess Impact of Renal Denervation: The DENERHTN Study (Renal Denervation for Hypertension).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, Philippe; Cremer, Antoine; Pereira, Helena; Bobrie, Guillaume; Chatellier, Gilles; Chamontin, Bernard; Courand, Pierre-Yves; Delsart, Pascal; Denolle, Thierry; Dourmap, Caroline; Ferrari, Emile; Girerd, Xavier; Michel Halimi, Jean; Herpin, Daniel; Lantelme, Pierre; Monge, Matthieu; Mounier-Vehier, Claire; Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Ormezzano, Olivier; Ribstein, Jean; Rossignol, Patrick; Sapoval, Marc; Vaïsse, Bernard; Zannad, Faiez; Azizi, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The DENERHTN trial (Renal Denervation for Hypertension) confirmed the blood pressure (BP) lowering efficacy of renal denervation added to a standardized stepped-care antihypertensive treatment for resistant hypertension at 6 months. We report here the effect of denervation on 24-hour BP and its variability and look for parameters that predicted the BP response. Patients with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to denervation plus stepped-care treatment or treatment alone (control). Average and standard deviation of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP and the smoothness index were calculated on recordings performed at randomization and 6 months. Responders were defined as a 6-month 24-hour systolic BP reduction ≥20 mm Hg. Analyses were performed on the per-protocol population. The significantly greater BP reduction in the denervation group was associated with a higher smoothness index ( P =0.02). Variability of 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime BP did not change significantly from baseline to 6 months in both groups. The number of responders was greater in the denervation (20/44, 44.5%) than in the control group (11/53, 20.8%; P =0.01). In the discriminant analysis, baseline average nighttime systolic BP and standard deviation were significant predictors of the systolic BP response in the denervation group only, allowing adequate responder classification of 70% of the patients. Our results show that denervation lowers ambulatory BP homogeneously over 24 hours in patients with resistant hypertension and suggest that nighttime systolic BP and variability are predictors of the BP response to denervation. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01570777. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Twenty-Four-Hour Real-Time Continuous Monitoring of Cerebral Edema in Rabbits Based on a Noninvasive and Noncontact System of Magnetic Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema is a common disease, secondary to craniocerebral injury, and real-time continuous monitoring of cerebral edema is crucial for treating patients after traumatic brain injury. This work established a noninvasive and noncontact system by monitoring the magnetic induction phase shift (MIPS which is associated with brain tissue conductivity. Sixteen rabbits (experimental group n = 10, control group, n = 6 were used to perform a 24 h MIPS and intracranial pressure (ICP simultaneously monitored experimental study. For the experimental group, after the establishment of epidural freeze-induced cerebral edema models, the MIPS presented a downward trend within 24 h, with a change magnitude of −13.1121 ± 2.3953°; the ICP presented an upward trend within 24 h, with a change magnitude of 12–41 mmHg. The ICP was negatively correlated with the MIPS. In the control group, the MIPS change amplitude was −0.87795 ± 1.5146 without obvious changes; the ICP fluctuated only slightly at the initial value of 12 mmHg. MIPS had a more sensitive performance than ICP in the early stage of cerebral edema. These results showed that this system is basically capable of monitoring gradual increases in the cerebral edema solution volume. To some extent, the MIPS has the potential to reflect the ICP changes.

  13. The period of the day affects the twenty-four hour blood pressure response to an acute combined exercise session in Brazilian jiu jitsu athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaello Pinheiro Mazzoccante

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a combined exercise session performed at different periods of the day on the 24h blood pressure (BP response. Anaerobic threshold (AT and 12 repetition maximum (12RM tests were evaluated in nine Brazilian jiu-jitsu athletes (male (22±3.7 y; 176±5.0 cm; 73.4±9.7 kg; 6.8±2.1 % body fat. Four experimental sessions were performed: resistance exercise followed by aerobic exercise [Morning (MornS and Afternoon (AfternS] and Control (C [Morning and Afternoon]. The morning sessions were conducted at 09:00 a.m. and the afternoon sessions were conducted at 3:00 p.m. The resistance exercise consisted of three sets at 90% of a 12RM for six resistance exercises. The aerobic exercise consisted of 15min at 90% of the AT. Blood pressure (BP was measured before, during and 1h (Microlife(r BP3A1C after the performance of exercises in laboratory, and then during daily activities for the succeeding 23h by ambulatory BP monitoring (Dyna-MAPA(r. Analysis of the area under the curve (AUC indicated significant reductions in blood pressure parameters at various time points during the 24h monitoring period. For systolic BP (SBP, significantly lower values were shown following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 1756.2±100.8 vs. C: 1818.2±84.3 mmHg*15h; p < .05 and total-24h (MornS: 2695.8±143.3 vs. C: 2784.1±143.2 mmHg*24h; p < .05. The total-24h mean BP (MAP was also significantly lower following the morning session versus the control (MornS: 2015.7±121.2 vs. C: 2087.3±153.8 mmHg*24h; p < .05. There were significant differences in the sleeping AUC of SBP (AfternS: 883.6±27.0 vs. C: 965.2±67.9 mmHg*9h; p< .05, diastolic BP (DBP (AfternS: 481.4±30.9 vs. MornS: 552.9±34.2 and C: 562.1±52.3 mmHg*9h; p < .01 and MBP (AfternS: 651.9±22.4 vs. MornS: 708.7±43.1 and C: 726.9±64.7 mmHg*9h; p < .01. The combined exercise performed at different periods of the day contributed distinctly to the reduction of BP. The morning session was important in reducing SBP and MBP in the total-24h monitoring, while the afternoon session reduced SBP, DBP and MBP during sleeping in jiu-Jitsu athletes.

  14. Comparison of the “Twenty-Four Hour pH Monitoring Test” Results