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  1. Twelve-Month Effects of the COPE Healthy Lifestyles TEEN Program on Overweight and Depressive Symptoms in High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie A.; Belyea, Michael J.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith A.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the 12-month effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) program versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on overweight/obesity and depressive symptoms in high school adolescents. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled…

  2. Twelve tips for getting started using mixed methods in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Ellen; Vuk, Jasna; Barber, Carolyn

    2013-04-01

    Mixed methods research, which is gaining popularity in medical education, provides a new and comprehensive approach for addressing teaching, learning, and evaluation issues in the field. The aim of this article is to provide medical education researchers with 12 tips, based on consideration of current literature in the health professions and in educational research, for conducting and disseminating mixed methods research. Engaging in mixed methods research requires consideration of several major components: the mixed methods paradigm, types of problems, mixed method designs, collaboration, and developing or extending theory. Mixed methods is an ideal tool for addressing a full range of problems in medical education to include development of theory and improving practice.

  3. Twelve automated thresholding methods for segmentation of PET images: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Elena; Peñuelas, Iván; Martí-Climent, Josep M; Lecumberri, Pablo; Gómez, Marisol; Pagola, Miguel; Bilbao, Izaskun; Ecay, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical 18 F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools. (paper)

  4. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. It is associated different gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. The colourful stones physical insight is to be building blocks for quarks and leptons. (Author) [pt

  5. The twelve colourful stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The gauge symmetry is extended. It is associated differents matter and gauge fields to the same group. A group of gauge invariant Lagrangians is established. A gauge invariant mass term is introduced. A massive Yang Mills is obtained. A dynamics with twelve colourful stones is created based on the concepts of gauge and colour. Structures identified as quarks and leptons are generated. A discussion about colour meaning is presented. (Author) [pt

  6. A fabric phase sorptive extraction-High performance liquid chromatography-Photo diode array detection method for the determination of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues in human plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Kabir, Abuzar; Innosa, Denise; Lopatriello, Teresa; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (FPSE-HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues that include ketoconazole, terconazole, voriconazole, bifonazole, clotrimazole, tioconazole, econazole, butoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and itraconazole in human plasma and urine samples. The selected azole antimicrobial drugs were well resolved by using a Luna C 18 column (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm particle size) in gradient elution mode within 36min. The analytical method was calibrated and validated in the range from 0.1 to 8μg/mL for all the drug compounds. Blank human plasma and urine were used as the sample matrix for the analysis; while benzyl-4-hydroxybenzoate was used as the internal standard (IS). The limit of quantification of the FPSE-HPLC-PDA method was found as 0.1μg/mL and the weighted-matrix matched standard calibration curves of the drugs showed a good linearity upto a concentration of 8μg/mL. The parallelism tests were also performed to evaluate whether overrange sample can be analyzed after dilution, without compromising the analytical performances of the validated method. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were found ≤13.1% and ≤13.9%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day trueness (bias%) values were found in the range from -12.1% to 10.5%. The performances of the validated FPSE-HPLC-PDA were further tested on real samples collected from healthy volunteers after a single dose administration of itraconazole and miconazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first FPSE extraction procedure applied on plasma and urine samples for the simultaneous determination of twelve azole drugs possessing a wide range of logK ow values (extending from 0.4 for fluconazole to 6.70 of butoconazole) and could be adopted as a rapid and robust green analytical tool for clinical and

  7. Comparison of bone densitometry methods in healthy and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Dinkel, E.; Genant, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    To compare methods of noninvasive measurement of bone mineral content, 40 healthy early postmenopausal women and 68 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were studied. The methods included mono- and dual-energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) of the lumbar spine, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) of the distal third of the radius, and combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the second metacarpal shaft. Lateral thoracolumbar radiographic studies were performed and the spinal fracture index calculated. There was good correlation between QCT and DPA methods in early postmenopausal women and moderate correlation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Correlations between spinal measurements (QCT or DPA) and appendicular cortical measurements (SPA or CCT) were moderate in healthy women and poor in osteoporotic women. Measurements resulting from one method were not predictive of measurements obtained by another method for individual patients. The strongest correlation with severity of vertebral fracture was provided by QCT and the weakest by SPA. There was good correlation between single- and dual-energy QCT results. Osteoporotic women and younger healthy women can be distinguished by the measurement of spinal trabecular bone density using QCT, and this method is more sensitive than the measurement of spinal integral bone by DPA or of appendicular cortical bone by SPA or CCT. (orig.) [de

  8. Healthy bread initiative: methods, findings, and theories--Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-03-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4 +/- 0.4 g% before study to 12 +/- 0.6 g% after the intervention (p bread decreased from 13 +/- 1.8 g% to 2 +/- 0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the longstanding problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model.

  9. Twelve years at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    As reported in our previous issue (page 27), on 28 February Volker Soergel stepped down after serving as Chairman of the Board of the DESY Laboratory in Hamburg since January 1981, when the previous chairman, Herwig Schopper, moved to become Director General of CERN. DESY is now headed by Bjorn Wiik. During the twelve years of Soergel's mandate, DESY substantially evolved and progressed. Dominating the landscape was the big HERA electron-proton collider - the world's first - proposed, approved, constructed and commissioned under Soergel's leadership. As well as pioneering electron-proton collisions, HERA also broke new ground in international collaboration. At the approval of the project by the German government, it had already been made clear that both the machine and its experiments had to be built with full international cooperation, using material contributions from foreign institutes. With the difficult task of transforming these requirements into hard reality, Volker Soergel succeeded brilliantly. The 'HERA model', with interested countries pledging contributions in equipment and/or manpower, established a new route to major project involvement. For HERA, the substantial Italian contribution, organized by Antonino Zichichi, was vital to the success of the project

  10. Healthy Bread Initiative: Methods, Findings, and Theories—Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4±0.4 g% before study to 12±0.6 g% after the intervention (p<0.001). The preparation and baking times remarkably increased. Wastage of bread decreased from 13±1.8 g% to 2±0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p<0.001). The HB Initiative managed to add new breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the long-standing problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model. PMID

  11. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  12. A novel noninvasive method for measuring fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Rose, Martin Høyer; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic) of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults. For tetanic contractions, the Fatigue Index (ratio of peak torque values) and the slope of the regression line...... of peak torque values were primary outcome measures. For twitch contractions, maximum peak torque and rise time were calculated. Relative (intraclass correlation, ICC3.1) and absolute (standard error of measurement, SEM) reliability were assessed and minimum detectable change was calculated using a 95...... fatigability of the quadriceps muscle produces reliable results in healthy subjects and may provide valuable data on quantitative changes in muscle working capacity and treatment effects in patients who are incapable of producing voluntary muscle contractions....

  13. A rational method for developing and testing stable flexible indium- and vacuum-free multilayer tandem polymer solar cells comprising up to twelve roll processed layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis; Andreasen, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    and to efficiently identify layers and interfaces that are not robust we developed a double sided illumination method and demonstrate how layer thicknesses can be optimized with respect to the roll processing in the aim of achieving functional tandem devices. The devices were prepared directly on barrier foil...

  14. Effects of Vojta method on trunk stability in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sun-Young; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2016-12-01

    Vojta reflex locomotion is important to main upright posture through stimulation of breast zone to patient with cerebral palsy. However, application in other diseases is no investigated. So, we determined the effects of stimulation of the breast zone on trunk stability in healthy individuals. Fourteen young healthy adults (7 males and 7 females) voluntarily participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group (breast zone) and control group (arbitrary point). All groups were stimulated for 5 min on the left and right sides, respectively, for a total 10 times. We used the thickness of the external oblique abdominal muscle (EO), the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the transversus abdominis muscle (TrA), and the rectus abdominis muscles, as well as the area of the diaphragm by using ultrasonography. In the experimental group, the thickness of the TrA significantly increased during stimulation ( P <0.05) while the thickness of the EO significantly decreased ( P <0.05). Also, the area of diaphragm in inspiration was significantly different ( P <0.05). Therefore, stimulation of the breast zone may be effective to improve trunk stability through activation of the TrA muscle and the diaphragm.

  15. A practical, cost-effective method for recruiting people into healthy eating behavior programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Paul W

    2007-04-01

    The population impact of programs designed to develop healthy eating behaviors is limited by the number of people who use them. Most public health providers and researchers rely on purchased mass media, which can be expensive, on public service announcements, or clinic-based recruitment, which can have limited reach. Few studies offer assistance for selecting high-outreach and low-cost strategies to promote healthy eating programs. The purpose of this study was 1) to determine whether classified newspaper advertising is an effective and efficient method of recruiting participants into a healthy eating program and 2) to determine whether segmenting messages by transtheoretical stage of change would help engage individuals at all levels of motivation to change their eating behavior. For 5 days in 1997, three advertisements corresponding to different stages of change were placed in a Canadian newspaper with a daily circulation of 75,000. There were 282 eligible people who responded to newspaper advertisements, and the cost was Can $1.11 (U.S. $0.72) per recruit. This cost compares favorably with the cost efficiency of mass media, direct mail, and other common promotional methods. Message type was correlated with respondent's stage of change, and this correlation suggested that attempts to send different messages to different audience segments were successful. Classified advertisements appear to be a highly cost-efficient method for recruiting a diverse range of participants into healthy eating programs and research about healthy eating.

  16. Evaluating the healthiness of chain-restaurant menu items using crowdsourcing: a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Wu, Leslie; Matthiessen, Timothy B; Luft, Harold S

    2017-01-01

    To develop a technology-based method for evaluating the nutritional quality of chain-restaurant menus to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of large-scale data analysis of food items. Using a Modified Nutrient Profiling Index (MNPI), we assessed chain-restaurant items from the MenuStat database with a process involving three steps: (i) testing 'extreme' scores; (ii) crowdsourcing to analyse fruit, nut and vegetable (FNV) amounts; and (iii) analysis of the ambiguous items by a registered dietitian. In applying the approach to assess 22 422 foods, only 3566 could not be scored automatically based on MenuStat data and required further evaluation to determine healthiness. Items for which there was low agreement between trusted crowd workers, or where the FNV amount was estimated to be >40 %, were sent to a registered dietitian. Crowdsourcing was able to evaluate 3199, leaving only 367 to be reviewed by the registered dietitian. Overall, 7 % of items were categorized as healthy. The healthiest category was soups (26 % healthy), while desserts were the least healthy (2 % healthy). An algorithm incorporating crowdsourcing and a dietitian can quickly and efficiently analyse restaurant menus, allowing public health researchers to analyse the healthiness of menu items.

  17. Methods and Management of the Healthy Brain Study: A Large Multisite Qualitative Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Friedman, Daniela B.; Mathews, Anna E.; Wilcox, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To describe processes used in the Healthy Brain project to manage data collection, coding, and data distribution in a large qualitative project, conducted by researchers at 9 universities in 9 states. Design and Methods: Project management protocols included: (a) managing audiotapes and surveys to ensure data confidentiality,…

  18. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean François Le

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called "flip method" (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and "clustering" (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  19. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr; Juphard, Alexandra [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Cousin, Emilie [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bas, Jean Francois Le [Unite IRM, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  20. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean Francois Le

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference

  1. Mythematics Solving the Twelve Labors of Hercules

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2009-01-01

    How might Hercules, the most famous of the Greek heroes, have used mathematics to complete his astonishing Twelve Labors? From conquering the Nemean Lion and cleaning out the Augean Stables, to capturing the Erymanthean Boar and entering the Underworld to defeat the three-headed dog Cerberus, Hercules and his legend are the inspiration for this book of fun and original math puzzles. While Hercules relied on superhuman strength to accomplish the Twelve Labors, Mythematics shows how math could have helped during his quest. How does Hercules defeat the Lernean Hydra and stop its heads from multip

  2. The Comparison of Haemophilus Influenza in the Throat of Healthy Infants with Different Feeding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kazemi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haemophilus influenza (HI is the most commonly found pathogenic bacteria in pediatric otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections. Bacterial attachment to pharyngeal cells and proliferation may be necessary for infection. In the presence of human milk, attachment of HI to pharyngeal cells and colonization may be inhibited. To evaluate the protecting role of breast milk, we investigated the incidence of HI isolated from the throat of healthy infants with different feeding methods. Methods: Between August 2002 and March 2003, 210 healthy infants (70 purely breast-fed, 70 purely formula-fed, 70 mixed-fed, aged 1-6 months were enrolled into the study and a throat culture was taken in all of them. The incidence of HI was evaluated using Haemophilus Test Agar Bose (HTAB plates. Results: The incidence of HI in purely breast-fed, mixed-fed and purely formula-fed infants was 2.9%, 42.9% and 75.7% respectively (P = 0.000. The mean age and weight of cases in the three groups were not statistically different. Conclusion: These data suggest that human milk protects the throat of healthy infants from HI colonization especially in purely breast-fed cases. Keywords: Breast milk, Haemophilus influenza, Throat culture

  3. Whole-Body Cryostimulation as an Effective Method of Reducing Oxidative Stress in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Agata; Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Romuk, Ewa; Cholewka, Armand; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Kwiatek, Sebastian; Sieroń, Aleksander; Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) is the therapeutic exposure of the total human body (without underwear) to a very low temperature (below -100°C) for 120-180 s. Currently, WBC is used more frequently not only in the treatment of patients suffering from various diseases, but also by healthy people as a wellness method. The aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of WBC procedures on oxidative stress parameters in healthy men. The study involved 32 healthy male subjects who were randomly divided into 2 groups: 16 men exposed to WBC procedures with subsequent kinesiotherapy (WBC group) and 16 men exposed only to kinesiotherapy procedures (KT group). Depending on the group, the subjects were exposed to 10 daily WBC procedures lasting 3 min, with a subsequent 60-min of kinesiotherapy, or exclusively to kinesiotherapy. In subjects from both groups, a day before the beginning of a cycle of treatment and a day after its completion, the level of selected indicators of oxidative stress and non-enzymatic antioxidants, as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes in serum, plasma and erythrocyte lysates were determined. In the WBC group subjects, we recorded a statistically significant decrease in the concentrations of most of the parameters of oxidative stress with an accompanying increase in plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (total antioxidant status and uric acid). We recorded no significant changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (plasma total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and its isoenzymes SOD-Mn and SOD-ZnCu, erythrocyte catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase). The results we obtained confirmed that WBC decreases oxidative stress in healthy men.

  4. Costing 'healthy' food baskets in Australia - a systematic review of food price and affordability monitoring tools, protocols and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Meron; Lee, Amanda

    2016-11-01

    To undertake a systematic review to determine similarities and differences in metrics and results between recently and/or currently used tools, protocols and methods for monitoring Australian healthy food prices and affordability. Electronic databases of peer-reviewed literature and online grey literature were systematically searched using the PRISMA approach for articles and reports relating to healthy food and diet price assessment tools, protocols, methods and results that utilised retail pricing. National, state, regional and local areas of Australia from 1995 to 2015. Assessment tools, protocols and methods to measure the price of 'healthy' foods and diets. The search identified fifty-nine discrete surveys of 'healthy' food pricing incorporating six major food pricing tools (those used in multiple areas and time periods) and five minor food pricing tools (those used in a single survey area or time period). Analysis demonstrated methodological differences regarding: included foods; reference households; use of availability and/or quality measures; household income sources; store sampling methods; data collection protocols; analysis methods; and results. 'Healthy' food price assessment methods used in Australia lack comparability across all metrics and most do not fully align with a 'healthy' diet as recommended by the current Australian Dietary Guidelines. None have been applied nationally. Assessment of the price, price differential and affordability of healthy (recommended) and current (unhealthy) diets would provide more robust and meaningful data to inform health and fiscal policy in Australia. The INFORMAS 'optimal' approach provides a potential framework for development of these methods.

  5. Promotion of a healthy work life at small enterprises in Thailand by participatory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krungkraiwong, Sudthida; Itani, Toru; Amornratanapaichit, Ratanaporn

    2006-01-01

    The major problems of small enterprises include unfavourable working conditions and environment that affect safety and health of workers. The WISE (Work Improvement in Small Enterprises) methodology developed by the ILO has been widely applied to improve occupational safety and health in small enterprises in Thailand. The participatory methods building on local good practices and focusing on practicable improvements have proven effective in controlling the occupational hazards in these enterprises at their sources. As a result of applying the methods in small-scale industries, the frequency of occupational accidents was reduced and the working environment actually improved in the cases studied. The results prove that the participatory approach taken by the WISE activities is a useful and effective tool to make owner/managers and workers in small enterprises voluntarily improve their own working conditions and environment. In promoting a healthy work life at small enterprises in Thailand, it is important to further develop and spread the approach.

  6. Developing a Healthy Web-Based Cookbook for Pediatric Cancer Patients and Survivors: Rationale and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has been a growing problem among children and adolescents in the United States for a number of decades. Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are more susceptible to the downstream health consequences of obesity such as cardiovascular disease, endocrine issues, and risk of cancer recurrence due to late effects of treatment and suboptimal dietary and physical activity habits. Objective The objective of this study was to document the development of a Web-based cookbook of healthy recipes and nutrition resources to help enable pediatric cancer patients and survivors to lead healthier lifestyles. Methods The Web-based cookbook, named “@TheTable”, was created by a committee of researchers, a registered dietitian, patients and family members, a hospital chef, and community advisors and donors. Recipes were collected from several sources including recipe contests and social media. We incorporated advice from current patients, parents, and CCS. Results Over 400 recipes, searchable by several categories and with accompanying nutritional information, are currently available on the website. In addition to healthy recipes, social media functionality and cooking videos are integrated into the website. The website also features nutrition information resources including nutrition and cooking tip sheets available on several subjects. Conclusions The “@TheTable” website is a unique resource for promoting healthy lifestyles spanning pediatric oncology prevention, treatment, and survivorship. Through evaluations of the website’s current and future use, as well as incorporation into interventions designed to promote energy balance, we will continue to adapt and build this unique resource to serve cancer patients, survivors, and the general public. PMID:25840596

  7. Promoting Healthy Development among Adolescent Girls: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the HERstory Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily MacFarlane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Leadership Program’s HERstory is a school-based, universal, preventative intervention designed to promote healthy youth development among adolescent girls by increasing their connections to pro-social peers and to school and community while developing social-emotional skills that serve as protective factors. In this school-year-long program, a facilitator implements three program phases: group development activities in Community Building, self-reflective Writing Workshop exercises, and a final Creative Output project, an ethnographic theater production or literary journal developed from participants’ Writing Workshop responses. The current mixed-methods study presents early evidence of program effectiveness based on focus groups and school record data review at two NYC public schools during the 2010-2011 school year. Participants reported improvements in key areas targeted by HERstory, including peer connectedness, academic achievement, and a range of protective factors including future orientation and goal setting. Results suggest this program approach may be suitable promoting healthy adolescent development for girls.

  8. [Construction of a physiological aging scale for healthy people based on a modified Delphi method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yao; Zhou, Xuan; Deng, Pengfei; Liao, Xiong; Wu, Lei; Zhou, Jianming; Huang, Helang

    2016-04-01

    To build a physiological aging scale for healthy people.
 We collected age-related physiologic items through literature screening and expert interview. Two rounds of Delphi were implemented. The importance, feasibility and the degree of authority for the physiological index system were graded. Using analytic hierarchy process, we determined the weight of dimensions and items.
 Using Delphy mothod, 17 physiological and other professional experts offered the results as follow: coefficient of expert authorities Cr was 0.86±0.03, coordination coefficients for the first and second round were 0.264(χ2=229.691, Paging scale for healthy people included 3 dimensions, namely physical form, feeling movement and functional status. Each dimension had 8 items. The weight coefficients for the 3 dimensions were 0.54, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively. The Cronbach's α coefficient of the scale was 0.893, the reliability was 0.796, and the variance of the common factor was 58.17%.
 The improved Delphi method or physiological aging scale is satisfied, which can provide reference for the evaluation of aging.

  9. Is Mc Leod's Patent Pending Naturoptic Method for Restoring Healthy Vision Easy and Verifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Paul; McLeod, David; McLeod, Roger

    2006-10-01

    RDM asserts that he and people he has trained can assign visual tasks from standard vision assessment charts, or better replacements, proceeding through incremental changes and such rapid improvements that healthy vision can be restored. Mc Leod predicts that in visual tasks with pupil diameter changes, wavelengths change proportionally. A longer, quasimonochromatic wavelength interval is coincident with foveal cones, and rods. A shorter, partially overlapping interval separately aligns with extrafoveal cones. Wavelengths follow the Airy disk radius formula. Niemi can evaluate if it is true that visual health merely requires triggering and facilitating the demands of possibly overridden feedback signals. The method and process are designed so that potential Naturopathic and other select graduate students should be able to self-fund their higher- level educations from preferential franchising arrangements of earnings while they are in certain programs.

  10. Pedagogical terms of forming of healthy method of life of modern pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odarchenko V.I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of conditioning forming of healthy method of life of pupils of general educational educational establishments are probed. In an experiment 156 pupils took part in age from 6 to 17 years. It is set that the characteristic feature of bodily condition of health of pupils is a result of the protracted unfavorable influence of socio-economic, ecological and pedagogical factors. An idea speaks out, that search of the new going near organization of an educational educate process at school it is necessary to send educations to humanizing. It will provide creation of optimum terms for spiritual growth of personality, valuable realization of psychophysical possibilities, maintainance and strengthening of health. It is well-proven that realization of the personality oriented approach taking into account basic valeological principles positively influences on the process of education of responsible attitude toward an own health as to the greatest individual and public value.

  11. Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study described here was to investigate the accuracy and precision of a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method in laminar and complex blood flow conditions in the healthy carotid artery. The approach was to study (i) the accuracy for complex flow by comparing...... of laminar flow in vivo. The precision in vivo was calculated as the mean standard deviation (SD) of estimates aligned to the heart cycle and was highest in the center of the common carotid artery (SD = 3.6% for velocity magnitudes and 4.5° for angles) and lowest in the external branch and for vortices (SD...... the velocity field from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to VFI estimates obtained from the scan of an anthropomorphic flow phantom and from an in vivo scan; (ii) the accuracy for laminar unidirectional flow in vivo by comparing peak systolic velocities from VFI with magnetic resonance...

  12. Comparison of anaerobic threshold determined by visual and mathematical methods in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, M N; Silva, E; Neves, V F C; Catai, A M; Gallo, L; Silva de Sá, M F

    2007-04-01

    Several methods are used to estimate anaerobic threshold (AT) during exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare AT obtained by a graphic visual method for the estimate of ventilatory and metabolic variables (gold standard), to a bi-segmental linear regression mathematical model of Hinkley's algorithm applied to heart rate (HR) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) data. Thirteen young (24 +/- 2.63 years old) and 16 postmenopausal (57 +/- 4.79 years old) healthy and sedentary women were submitted to a continuous ergospirometric incremental test on an electromagnetic braking cycloergometer with 10 to 20 W/min increases until physical exhaustion. The ventilatory variables were recorded breath-to-breath and HR was obtained beat-to-beat over real time. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Friedman test and Spearman correlation test with the level of significance set at 5%. Power output (W), HR (bpm), oxygen uptake (VO2; mL kg(-1) min(-1)), VO2 (mL/min), VCO2 (mL/min), and minute ventilation (VE; L/min) data observed at the AT level were similar for both methods and groups studied (P > 0.05). The VO2 (mL kg(-1) min(-1)) data showed significant correlation (P automatic, non-invasive and objective AT measurement.

  13. Comparison of anaerobic threshold determined by visual and mathematical methods in healthy women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Higa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Several methods are used to estimate anaerobic threshold (AT during exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare AT obtained by a graphic visual method for the estimate of ventilatory and metabolic variables (gold standard, to a bi-segmental linear regression mathematical model of Hinkley's algorithm applied to heart rate (HR and carbon dioxide output (VCO2 data. Thirteen young (24 ± 2.63 years old and 16 postmenopausal (57 ± 4.79 years old healthy and sedentary women were submitted to a continuous ergospirometric incremental test on an electromagnetic braking cycloergometer with 10 to 20 W/min increases until physical exhaustion. The ventilatory variables were recorded breath-to-breath and HR was obtained beat-to-beat over real time. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Friedman test and Spearman correlation test with the level of significance set at 5%. Power output (W, HR (bpm, oxygen uptake (VO2; mL kg-1 min-1, VO2 (mL/min, VCO2 (mL/min, and minute ventilation (VE; L/min data observed at the AT level were similar for both methods and groups studied (P > 0.05. The VO2 (mL kg-1 min-1 data showed significant correlation (P < 0.05 between the gold standard method and the mathematical model when applied to HR (r s = 0.75 and VCO2 (r s = 0.78 data for the subjects as a whole (N = 29. The proposed mathematical method for the detection of changes in response patterns of VCO2 and HR was adequate and promising for AT detection in young and middle-aged women, representing a semi-automatic, non-invasive and objective AT measurement.

  14. [Twelve years of liver transplantation in Lausanne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosimann, F; Bettschart, V; Gardaz, J P; Fontolliet, C; Tissot, J D; Meuwly, J Y; Chioléro, R; Gillet, M

    2001-02-01

    From 1988 to June 2000 138 transplantations were performed in 129 adult patients. Actuarial patient and graft survivals have been 80.7% and 75.4% at one year and 67.8% and 63.5% at 10 years. This compares favourably with the statistics of the European Liver Transplant Registry that collected data from more than 30,000 grafts. Over the twelve years of activity, the indications have become more liberal and the techniques have been simplified. The waiting list has therefore grown and some patients are now unfortunately dying before a graft can be found because the number of brain dead donors remains stable. In order to palliate this shortage, older donors are now being accepted even with co-morbidities and/or moderate alterations of the liver function tests. The use of live donors and the split of the best cadaveric grafts for two recipients will also reduce the gap between the demand and the offer.

  15. Twelve Girls' Band' A Modern Miracle of Traditional Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoZhanxiong

    2004-01-01

    Twelve antique traditional instruments. Twelve spirited, pretty girls. "Twelve Girls' Band" is a traditional instrument orchestra playing well-known folk music in the form of pop. Besides age-old traditional instruments peculiar to China, such as zheng (ancient 21 to 25-stringed plucked instrument), qin (seven-stringed plucked instrument) and erhu (two-stringed Chinese fiddle),

  16. Using multivariate machine learning methods and structural MRI to classify childhood onset schizophrenia and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna eGreenstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multivariate machine learning methods can be used to classify groups of schizophrenia patients and controls using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. However, machine learning methods to date have not been extended beyond classification and contemporaneously applied in a meaningful way to clinical measures. We hypothesized that brain measures would classify groups, and that increased likelihood of being classified as a patient using regional brain measures would be positively related to illness severity, developmental delays and genetic risk. Methods: Using 74 anatomic brain MRI sub regions and Random Forest, we classified 98 COS patients and 99 age, sex, and ethnicity-matched healthy controls. We also used Random Forest to determine the likelihood of being classified as a schizophrenia patient based on MRI measures. We then explored relationships between brain-based probability of illness and symptoms, premorbid development, and presence of copy number variation associated with schizophrenia. Results: Brain regions jointly classified COS and control groups with 73.7% accuracy. Greater brain-based probability of illness was associated with worse functioning (p= 0.0004 and fewer developmental delays (p=0.02. Presence of copy number variation (CNV was associated with lower probability of being classified as schizophrenia (p=0.001. The regions that were most important in classifying groups included left temporal lobes, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal regions, and left medial parietal lobes. Conclusions: Schizophrenia and control groups can be well classified using Random Forest and anatomic brain measures, and brain-based probability of illness has a positive relationship with illness severity and a negative relationship with developmental delays/problems and CNV-based risk.

  17. ISFAHAN HEALTHY HEART PROGRAM:A COMPREHENSIVE INTEGRATED COMMUNITY-BASED PROGRAM FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVENTION AND CONTROL. DESIGN, METHODS AND INITIAL EXPERIENCE 2000-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N MOHAMMADI FARD

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP is a five to six year comprehensive integrated community based program for preventing and controlling of cardiovascular diseases (CVD via reducing CVD risk factors and improvement of cardiovascular healthy behavior in target population. IHHP has been started in 1999 and will be last since 2004. Primary survey was done to collect baseline data from interventional (Isfahan and Najafabad Cities and reference (Arak communities. In a multistage sampling method, we select randomly 5 to 10 percent of households in clusters. Then individuals aged equal or higher than 19 years old were selected for entering to survey. In this way, data from 12600 individuals (6300 in interventional counties and 6300 in reference county was collected and stratified due to their living area (urban vs. rural and different age and sex groups. Cardiovascular risk factors (Hypercholesterolemia, Smoking, Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity were investigated by laboratory tests (Lipid profile, FBS, OGTT, physical exam and standard questionnaires, in all ones. Nutritional habits, socioeconomic states, physical activity profiles and other healthy behaviors regarding to cardiovascular disease were assessed by validated questionnaires via interviewing to all individuals. Twelve leads electrocardiogram was done in all persons older than 35 years old. The prevalence of CVDs and distribution of CVD risk factors were estimated in this phase. In the 2nd phase, based on primary survey findings, we arranged a series of teams (worksite, children, women, health personnel, high risk patients, nutrition for planning and implementation of program through interventional community for a 5-year period. Every team has its own target population and objectives and monitors its process during the study. At intervals (annually, some local and small surveys with a random sampling will be conducted to assess and monitor the program and its potency to cope with

  18. A Simple Predictive Method of Critical Flicker Detection for Human Healthy Precaution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Zai Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interharmonics and flickers have an interrelationship between each other. Based on International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC flicker standard, the critical flicker frequency for a human eye is located at 8.8 Hz. Additionally, eye strains, headaches, and in the worst case seizures may happen due to the critical flicker. Therefore, this paper introduces a worthwhile research gap on the investigation of interrelationship between the amplitudes of the interharmonics and the critical flicker for 50 Hz power system. Consequently, the significant findings obtained in this paper are the amplitudes of two particular interharmonics are able to detect the critical flicker. In this paper, the aforementioned amplitudes are detected by adaptive linear neuron (ADALINE. After that, the critical flicker is detected by substituting the aforesaid amplitudes to the formulas that have been generated in this paper accordingly. Simulation and experimental works are conducted and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm which utilizes ADALINE is similar, as compared to typical Fluke power analyzer. In a nutshell, this simple predictive method for critical flicker detection has strong potential to be applied in any human crowded places (such as offices, shopping complexes, and stadiums for human healthy precaution purpose due to its simplicity.

  19. A statistical method to calculate blood contamination in the measurement of salivary hormones in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Guilherme A; Patel, Jay P; Coote, Marg; Moreira, Jose C F; Gelain, Daniel P; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that salivary concentrations of certain hormones correlate with their respective serum levels. However, most of these studies did not control for potential blood contamination in saliva. In the present study we developed a statistical method to test the amount of blood contamination that needs to be avoided in saliva samples for the following hormones: cortisol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone and oxytocin. Saliva and serum samples were collected from 38 healthy, medication-free women (mean age=33.8±7.3yr.; range=19-45). Serum and salivary hormonal levels and the amount of transferrin in saliva samples were determined using enzyme immunoassays. Salivary transferrin levels did not correlate with salivary cortisol or estradiol (up to 3mg/dl), but they were positively correlated with salivary testosterone, progesterone and oxytocin (phormones in order to determine the level of blood contamination that might affect specific hormonal salivary concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jeong Rye; Lee, Young Seok; Yu, Jee Suk

    2015-01-01

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  1. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  2. Energy and greenhouse effect. Twelve short notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, Henri

    2013-12-01

    The author proposes twelve brief notes aimed at discussing the reduction of fossil energy consumption in order to reduce CO 2 emissions and to improve the French energy supply security, without any useless expense. These notes address the reason for energy savings, the cost and price of a CO 2 ton, the issue of thermal regulation for buildings (it's not in compliance with the law, and results in higher expenses and increased CO 2 emissions), the introduction of a carbon tax to incite investments for energy saving, the status and health of the CO 2 European market, the support of actions aimed at reducing fossil energy consumption, the fact that bio-heat is ten times more efficient than bio-fuel and that therefore car holders should finance bio-heat, the development of hybrid uses of energy to avoid the difficulty of energy storage, the reduction of CO 2 emissions at low cost (by consuming as much renewable energy as nuclear energy but without wind or photovoltaic energy), the cost of less CO 2 , less fossil energy and less nuclear, and the interest of France to act on its own to reduce CO 2 emissions. The author proposes a brief synthesis of these notes and some proposals regarding thermal regulation for buildings, taxes, the European CO 2 market, the forest biomass, electricity production, and the European and word dimensions of these issues

  3. Contrast sensitivity measured by two different test methods in healthy, young adults with normal visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Baste, Valborg; Roumes, Corinne; Høvding, Gunnar

    2015-03-01

    This study reports contrast sensitivity (CS) reference values obtained by two different test methods in a strictly selected population of healthy, young adults with normal uncorrected visual acuity. Based on these results, the index of contrast sensitivity (ICS) is calculated, aiming to establish ICS reference values for this population and to evaluate the possible usefulness of ICS as a tool to compare the degree of agreement between different CS test methods. Military recruits with best eye uncorrected visual acuity 0.00 LogMAR or better, normal colour vision and age 18-25 years were included in a study to record contrast sensitivity using Optec 6500 (FACT) at spatial frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic and mesopic light and CSV-1000E at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cpd in photopic light. Index of contrast sensitivity was calculated based on data from the three tests, and the Bland-Altman technique was used to analyse the agreement between ICS obtained by the different test methods. A total of 180 recruits were included. Contrast sensitivity frequency data for all tests were highly skewed with a marked ceiling effect for the photopic tests. The median ICS for Optec 6500 at 85 cd/m2 was -0.15 (95% percentile 0.45), compared with -0.00 (95% percentile 1.62) for Optec at 3 cd/m2 and 0.30 (95% percentile 1.20) FOR CSV-1000E. The mean difference between ICSFACT 85 and ICSCSV was -0.43 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.30, p<0.00) with limits of agreement (LoA) within -2.10 and 1.22. The regression line on the difference of average was near to zero (R2=0.03). The results provide reference CS and ICS values in a young, adult population with normal visual acuity. The agreement between the photopic tests indicated that they may be used interchangeably. There was little agreement between the mesopic and photopic tests. The mesopic test seemed best suited to differentiate between candidates and may therefore possibly be useful for medical selection purposes.

  4. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study: Design and methods1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Gurvich, Olga; Kubik, Martha Y.; Garwick, Ann; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Background Informed and engaged parents and healthful home environments are essential for the health of youth. Although research has shown health benefits associated with family meals, to date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been developed to examine the impact of a family meals intervention on behavioral and health outcomes. Methods/Design The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study is a two-arm (intervention versus attention-only control) RCT being conducted in Minneapolis/St. Paul. Built on previous pilot research, HOME Plus aims to increase the frequency and healthfulness of family meals and snacks and reduce children’s sedentary behavior, particularly screen time, to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity. HOME Plus is delivered to families in community settings. The program includes 10 monthly sessions focused on nutrition and activity education, meal planning and preparation skill development. In addition, five motivational goal-setting phone calls are conducted with parents. The primary outcome measure is age- and gender-adjusted child BMI-z score at post-intervention by treatment group. Secondary household-level outcomes include family meal frequency, home availability of healthful foods (fruits/vegetables) and unhealthful foods (high-fat/sugary snacks) and beverages (sugar-sweetened beverages), and the quality of foods served at meals and snacks. Secondary child outcomes include dietary intake of corresponding foods and beverages and screen time. Conclusions The HOME Plus RCT actively engages whole families of 8–12 year old children to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity through promotion of family meals and snacks and limited media use. PMID:24480729

  5. Differentiation of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin from healthy skin using noninvasive visual, colorimeter and evaporimeter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, L K; Bakhtian, S; Wright, E D; Rallis, T M

    1995-08-01

    Uninvolved skin of psoriasis may not be entirely normal. The object was to characterize healthy, uninvolved psoriatic skin and lesional skin by biophysical methods. Involved and uninvolved psoriatic and age-gender matched healthy skin was measured objectively with a colorimeter and evaporimeter and subjectively with visual assessment in 14 subjects. Visual assessment of erythema (E), scaling (S) and induration (I) as well as the target lesion score at the involved psoriatic skin sites were significantly elevated (puninvolved psoriatic skin >healthy skin (pcolorimeter L* and a* scale values at uninvolved psoriatic skin sites were lower and higher (pcolorimeter description (L*× b*)/a* significantly differentiated healthy skin from both involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. These collective data highlight that even visually appearing uninvolved psoriatic skin is compromised compared with healthy skin. These objective, noninvasive but differential capabilities of the colorimeter and evaporimeter will aid in the mechanistic quantification of new psoriatic drug therapies and in conjuction with biochemical studies, add to understanding of the multifactorial pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  6. Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Healthy Exercise, Eating, and Lifestyle Program for Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Davey, Rachel C.

    2017-01-01

    BAckground: Reversing decline in physical fitness and increase in excess body weight in school children are considered major public health challenges. We evaluated a proposed model to integrate a screening and healthy exercise, eating, and lifestyle program (HEELP) into primary schools in Canberra, Australia. Objectives were: (1) to establish body…

  7. Intraocular pressure in a cohort of healthy eastern European schoolchildren: variations in method and corneal thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Intraocular pressure (IOP) in the developing eye of a child is not always easy to measure and there is no technique that is known to be the most accurate for the young eye. Measurements are needed on many cohorts of children with different tonometers to determine how the values correlate between instruments, whether corneal parameters affect readings and whether correlations between age and IOP values can be discerned. The aim of this study was to undertake a comparative analysis of three different tonometers on a group of healthy children to see whether differences exist and whether these may be related to central corneal thickness and/or radius of curvature. In addition, the study adds to the relatively small body of literature on IOP in the growing eye which will collectively allow trends to be identified and ultimately norms to be established. Methods IOP was measured on 115 eyes in a group of Polish children, aged between 5–17 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 11.3 ± 3.0 years) using three different tonometers: non-contact (NCT), the ICare and Goldmann applanation (GAT). Readings obtained were compared between instruments and with central corneal thickness and radius of curvature. Results The ICare tonometer provided statistically higher IOP values (16.9 ± 3.4 mmHg) than the GAT (14.7 ± 2.9 mmHg) regardless of corneal thickness and whether or not a correction factor was applied. A correlation was found between central corneal thickness (CCT) and IOP values obtained with all three tonometers but only the IOP values detected with the ICare tonometer showed a statistically significant correlation with radius of curvature (p < 0.004). No correlations with age or gender were found for IOP values measured with any of the instruments. Conclusions IOP measurements on children vary significantly between instruments and correlations are affected by the corneal thickness. Further studies on children are needed to determine which

  8. Intraocular pressure in a cohort of healthy eastern European schoolchildren: variations in method and corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyżanowska-Berkowska Patrycja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraocular pressure (IOP in the developing eye of a child is not always easy to measure and there is no technique that is known to be the most accurate for the young eye. Measurements are needed on many cohorts of children with different tonometers to determine how the values correlate between instruments, whether corneal parameters affect readings and whether correlations between age and IOP values can be discerned. The aim of this study was to undertake a comparative analysis of three different tonometers on a group of healthy children to see whether differences exist and whether these may be related to central corneal thickness and/or radius of curvature. In addition, the study adds to the relatively small body of literature on IOP in the growing eye which will collectively allow trends to be identified and ultimately norms to be established. Methods IOP was measured on 115 eyes in a group of Polish children, aged between 5–17 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 11.3 ± 3.0 years using three different tonometers: non-contact (NCT, the ICare and Goldmann applanation (GAT. Readings obtained were compared between instruments and with central corneal thickness and radius of curvature. Results The ICare tonometer provided statistically higher IOP values (16.9 ± 3.4 mmHg than the GAT (14.7 ± 2.9 mmHg regardless of corneal thickness and whether or not a correction factor was applied. A correlation was found between central corneal thickness (CCT and IOP values obtained with all three tonometers but only the IOP values detected with the ICare tonometer showed a statistically significant correlation with radius of curvature (p  Conclusions IOP measurements on children vary significantly between instruments and correlations are affected by the corneal thickness. Further studies on children are needed to determine which instrument is most appropriate and to derive a normative IOP scale for the growing eye.

  9. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, B; Mobley, C; Stadler, D D; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, S L; El ghormli, L; Staten, M A; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakfast, lunch, after school snack and supper programs; a la carte venues, including snack bars and school stores; vending machines; fundraisers; and classroom parties and celebrations. Study staff implemented the intervention using core and toolbox strategies to achieve and maintain the following five intervention goals: (1) lower the average fat content of foods, (2) increase the availability and variety of fruits and vegetables, (3) limit the portion sizes and energy content of dessert and snack foods, (4) eliminate whole and 2% milk and all added sugar beverages, with the exception of low fat or nonfat flavored milk, and limit 100% fruit juice to breakfast in small portions and (5) increase the availability of higher fiber grain-based foods and legumes. Other nutrition intervention component elements were taste tests, cafeteria enhancements, cafeteria line messages and other messages about healthy eating, cafeteria learning laboratory (CLL) activities, twice-yearly training of food service staff, weekly meetings with food service managers, incentives for food service departments, and twice yearly local meetings and three national summits with district food service directors. Strengths of the intervention design were the integration of nutrition with the other HEALTHY intervention components (physical education, behavior change and communications), and the collaboration and rapport between the nutrition intervention study staff members and food service personnel at both school

  10. Developing a healthy web-based cookbook for pediatric cancer patients and survivors: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rhea; Raber, Margaret; Chandra, Joya

    2015-03-31

    Obesity has been a growing problem among children and adolescents in the United States for a number of decades. Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are more susceptible to the downstream health consequences of obesity such as cardiovascular disease, endocrine issues, and risk of cancer recurrence due to late effects of treatment and suboptimal dietary and physical activity habits. The objective of this study was to document the development of a Web-based cookbook of healthy recipes and nutrition resources to help enable pediatric cancer patients and survivors to lead healthier lifestyles. The Web-based cookbook, named "@TheTable", was created by a committee of researchers, a registered dietitian, patients and family members, a hospital chef, and community advisors and donors. Recipes were collected from several sources including recipe contests and social media. We incorporated advice from current patients, parents, and CCS. Over 400 recipes, searchable by several categories and with accompanying nutritional information, are currently available on the website. In addition to healthy recipes, social media functionality and cooking videos are integrated into the website. The website also features nutrition information resources including nutrition and cooking tip sheets available on several subjects. The "@TheTable" website is a unique resource for promoting healthy lifestyles spanning pediatric oncology prevention, treatment, and survivorship. Through evaluations of the website's current and future use, as well as incorporation into interventions designed to promote energy balance, we will continue to adapt and build this unique resource to serve cancer patients, survivors, and the general public.

  11. Establishing the Basic Concepts of a Healthy Physical Education through an Expert Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier López Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the basic knowledge needed by the sports practitioner who wishes to have a healthy physical education. To determine the necessary basic knowledge, we used a methodology of standard expertise, delving further into the subject by means of a semistructured interview. The interview was taped, transcribed and analyzed through the program Nudist NVivo. We have grouped the common responses emerging from the analysis into different categories, thus obtaining a total of 9 basic considerations which should be habitually transmitted to Physical Education students, so that they may achieve adequate self-management in the practice of physical activity.

  12. Determination of Consumers'Preferences for Conventional, Healthy and Organic Cucumbers in Isfahan City Using Choice Experiment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sandoghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuing growth in human population and consumptionmeans that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years and that the world needs 70-100% more food by 2050. Environmental issues such as climate change, depletion of naturalresources and biodiversity loss increasingly threaten the welfare ofhuman civilization. Confronting these threats requires, among otherthings, behavioral changes in citizens, governments and companies.Farmers and other producers are responding to consumer concerns about pesticides by creating new marketing opportunities for products grown with environmentally sound practices. Environmental economists are increasingly interested in better understanding of how people cognitively organize their beliefs and attitudes towards environmental change in order to identify key motives and barriers that stimulate or prevent action.The purpose of the presentinvestigation is to evaluate the consumers’ preferences and factors affecting their choice for conventional, healthy and organic cucumbers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: Data were collected on a sample of 230consumers in 2013 by using the proportionate stratification samplingmethod through face-to-face interviews based on a comprehensive structured questionnaire. Before the survey, the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were initially evaluated in a pre-test study, respectively, by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO criteria. Individual preferences were uncovered in choice experiment method (CEM by a contingent ranking experiment. In a contingent ranking experiment, respondents are required to rank a set of alternative options, characterized by a number of attributes, which are offered at different levels across the options.Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. The approach consists of modeling utility, that isto say the net benefit a consumer obtains from selecting a

  13. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BLOOD GROUPING IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONOR USING GEL CARD TECHNIQUE AND TUBE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood grouping is a vital test in pre-transfusion testing. Both tube and gel agglutination assays are used for ABO grouping. The main object of this study was to compare ABO grouping and D typing on tube and gel agglutination assay in order to assess the efficacy of each technique. A total of 100 healthy blood donors irrespective of age and sex were included in this study. Results showed that there is no significant difference between these two techniques. However, in 10 samples it was detected that the reaction strength in serum ABO grouping by gel agglutination assay is varied by only one grade when compared to tube agglutination assay. Due to numerous positive effects of gel assay it is more beneficial to implement this technique in the setups where blood banks bear heavy routine work load.

  14. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincewicz, Grzegorz; Rumiński, Jacek; Krzykowski, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). Objective: To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. Methods: The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. Results: In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Conclusions: Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients.

  15. Twelve tips for facilitating Millennials' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David H; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    The current, so-called "Millennial" generation of learners is frequently characterized as having deep understanding of, and appreciation for, technology and social connectedness. This generation of learners has also been molded by a unique set of cultural influences that are essential for medical educators to consider in all aspects of their teaching, including curriculum design, student assessment, and interactions between faculty and learners.  The following tips outline an approach to facilitating learning of our current generation of medical trainees.  The method is based on the available literature and the authors' experiences with Millennial Learners in medical training.  The 12 tips provide detailed approaches and specific strategies for understanding and engaging Millennial Learners and enhancing their learning.  With an increased understanding of the characteristics of the current generation of medical trainees, faculty will be better able to facilitate learning and optimize interactions with Millennial Learners.

  16. Bacteriological And Clinical Evaluation Of Twelve Cases Of Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological And Clinical Evaluation Of Twelve Cases Of Post-Surgical Sepsis Of Odontogenic Tumours At A ... East African Medical Journal ... Intervention: Adequate review of patient\\'s medical history, bacteriological investigations and

  17. Vegetative propagation of twelve fodder tree species indigenous to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetative propagation of twelve fodder tree species indigenous to the Sahel, West Africa. Catherine Ky-Dembele, Jules Bayala, Antoine Kalinganire, Fatoumata Tata Traoré, Bréhima Koné, Alain Olivier ...

  18. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harray, Amelia J; Boushey, Carol J; Pollard, Christina M; Delp, Edward J; Ahmad, Ziad; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mukhtar, Syed Aqif; Kerr, Deborah A

    2015-07-03

    The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP). These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR) application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality), dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  19. A Novel Dietary Assessment Method to Measure a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Using the Mobile Food Record: Protocol and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia J. Harray

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide rise in obesity parallels growing concerns of global warming and depleting natural resources. These issues are often considered separately but there may be considerable benefit to raising awareness of the impact of dietary behaviours and practices on the food supply. Australians have diets inconsistent with recommendations, typically low in fruit and vegetables and high in energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages (EDNP. These EDNP foods are often highly processed and packaged, negatively influencing both health and the environment. This paper describes a proposed dietary assessment method to measure healthy and sustainable dietary behaviours using 4-days of food and beverage images from the mobile food record (mFR application. The mFR images will be assessed for serves of fruit and vegetables (including seasonality, dairy, eggs and red meat, poultry and fish, ultra-processed EDNP foods, individually packaged foods, and plate waste. A prediction model for a Healthy and Sustainable Diet Index will be developed and tested for validity and reliability. The use of the mFR to assess adherence to a healthy and sustainable diet is a novel and innovative approach to dietary assessment and will have application in population monitoring, guiding intervention development, educating consumers, health professionals and policy makers, and influencing dietary recommendations.

  20. Application of adjusted subpixel method (ASM) in HRCT measurements of the bronchi in bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincewicz, Grzegorz; Rumiński, Jacek; Krzykowski, Grzegorz

    2012-02-01

    Recently, we described a model system which included corrections of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) bronchial measurements based on the adjusted subpixel method (ASM). To verify the clinical application of ASM by comparing bronchial measurements obtained by means of the traditional eye-driven method, subpixel method alone and ASM in a group comprised of bronchial asthma patients and healthy individuals. The study included 30 bronchial asthma patients and the control group comprised of 20 volunteers with no symptoms of asthma. The lowest internal and external diameters of the bronchial cross-sections (ID and ED) and their derivative parameters were determined in HRCT scans using: (1) traditional eye-driven method, (2) subpixel technique, and (3) ASM. In the case of the eye-driven method, lower ID values along with lower bronchial lumen area and its percentage ratio to total bronchial area were basic parameters that differed between asthma patients and healthy controls. In the case of the subpixel method and ASM, both groups were not significantly different in terms of ID. Significant differences were observed in values of ED and total bronchial area with both parameters being significantly higher in asthma patients. Compared to ASM, the eye-driven method overstated the values of ID and ED by about 30% and 10% respectively, while understating bronchial wall thickness by about 18%. Results obtained in this study suggest that the traditional eye-driven method of HRCT-based measurement of bronchial tree components probably overstates the degree of bronchial patency in asthma patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Yoga's potential for promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among young adults: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Rydell, Sarah A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-05-02

    A regular yoga practice may have benefits for young adult health, however, there is limited evidence available to guide yoga interventions targeting weight-related health. The present study explored the relationship between participation in yoga, healthy eating behaviors and physical activity among young adults. The present mixed-methods study used data collected as part of wave 4 of Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), a population-based cohort study in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Young adults (n = 1820) completed the Project EAT survey and a food frequency questionnaire, and a subset who reported practicing yoga additionally participated in semi-structured interviews (n = 46). Analyses of survey data were used to examine cross-sectional associations between the frequency of yoga practice, dietary behaviors (servings of fruits and vegetables (FV), sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and snack foods and frequency of fast food consumption), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Thematic analysis of interview discussions further explored yoga's perceived influence on eating and activity behaviors among interview participants. Regular yoga practice was associated with more servings of FV, fewer servings of SSBs and snack foods, less frequent fast food consumption, and more hours of MVPA. Interviews revealed that yoga supported healthy eating through motivation to eat healthfully, greater mindfulness, management of emotional eating, more healthy food cravings, and the influence of the yoga community. Yoga supported physical activity through activity as part of yoga practice, motivation to do other forms of activity, increased capacity to be active, and by complementing an active lifestyle. Young adult yoga practitioners reported healthier eating behaviors and higher levels of physical activity than non-practitioners. Yoga should be investigated as an intervention for young adult health promotion and healthy weight management.

  2. Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes-Pereira, A.; Matusin, D.P.; Rosa, P.; Schanaider, A.; Krüger, M.A. von; Pereira, W.C.A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans

  3. Validation of a Novel 3-Dimensional Sonographic Method for Assessing Gastric Accommodation in Healthy Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, Wijnand J; van Herwaarden-Lindeboom, MYA; Mauritz, Femke A; El Ouamari, Mourad; Hausken, Trygve; Olafsdottir, Edda J; van der Zee, David C; Gilja, Odd Helge

    OBJECTIVES: A novel automated 3-dimensional (3D) sonographic method has been developed for measuring gastric volumes. This study aimed to validate and assess the reliability of this novel 3D sonographic method compared to the reference standard in 3D gastric sonography: freehand magneto-based 3D

  4. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study: design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Gurvich, Olga; Kubik, Martha Y; Garwick, Ann; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2014-05-01

    Informed and engaged parents and healthful home environments are essential for the health of youth. Although research has shown health benefits associated with family meals, to date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been developed to examine the impact of a family meals intervention on behavioral and health outcomes. The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study is a two-arm (intervention versus attention-only control) RCT being conducted in Minneapolis/St. Paul. Built on previous pilot research, HOME Plus aims to increase the frequency and healthfulness of family meals and snacks and reduce children's sedentary behavior, particularly screen time, to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity. HOME Plus is delivered to families in community settings. The program includes 10 monthly sessions focused on nutrition and activity education, meal planning and preparation skill development. In addition, five motivational goal-setting phone calls are conducted with parents. The primary outcome measure is age- and gender-adjusted child BMI-z score at post-intervention by treatment group. Secondary household-level outcomes include family meal frequency, home availability of healthful foods (fruits/vegetables) and unhealthful foods (high-fat/sugary snacks) and beverages (sugar-sweetened beverages), and the quality of foods served at meals and snacks. Secondary child outcomes include dietary intake of corresponding foods and beverages and screen time. The HOME Plus RCT actively engages whole families of 8-12 year old children to promote healthier eating and activity behaviors and prevent obesity through promotion of family meals and snacks and limited media use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnitude of Neck-Surface Vibration as an Estimate of Subglottal Pressure during Modulations of Vocal Effort and Intensity in Healthy Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Victoria S.; Llico, Andres F.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Stepp, Cara E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between the magnitude of neck-surface vibration (NSV[subscript Mag]; transduced with an accelerometer) and intraoral estimates of subglottal pressure (P'[subscript sg]) during variations in vocal effort at 3 intensity levels. Method: Twelve vocally healthy adults produced strings of /p?/ syllables in 3…

  6. Effect of the Pilates method on physical conditioning of healthy subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Renata R; Dias, Josilainne M; Pereira, Ligia M; Obara, Karen; Barreto, Maria S; Silva, Mariana F; Mazuquin, Bruno F; Christofaro, Diego G; Fernandes, Romulo A; Iversen, Maura D; Cardoso, Jefferson R

    2016-01-01

    Physical conditioning consists of a variety of health-related attributes and Pilates exercises are described as a form of this conditioning. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of the Pilates method on health and ability outcome of the physical conditioning of healthy individuals. The search was performed in the following databases: Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, PEDro, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Library, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar. (1950-2014). Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effects of the Pilates method on healthy subjects. Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Pilates improved abdominal muscular endurance when compared with no exercises (mean difference [MD]=9.53%; 95% CI: 2.41, 16.43; P=0.009), however, there was no difference in flexibility (MD=4.97; 95% CI: -0.53, 10.47; P=0.08). Some positive effects (up to 6 months) of the Pilates practice were found in some RCTs' results as follows: Improvement of dynamic balance, quality of life and back muscle flexibility. The results indicate the Pilates exercises performed on the mat or apparatus 2 to 3 times a week, for 5 to 12 weeks, improves abdominal muscular endurance (on average, 10 more abdominals curls in 1-minute sit-up test) for both genders, when compared to no exercises.

  7. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  8. Comparative clinical evaluation of glycosylated haemoglobin level in healthy and chronic periodontitis patients: A chairside diagnostic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Background: Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c level can consequently be interpreted as an average of the blood glucose present over the past 3-4 months. Periodontitis is associated with glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of HbA1c in healthy and periodontitis patients who were previously not diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected for study and divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with a healthy periodontium, and Group 2 included patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. Finger stick blood was collected by special collection unit (A1CNOW +® Bayer Health Care, Tarrytown New York, USA, for estimating level of HbA1c. Result: Both groups showed similar HbA1c levels clinically with slight increase in levels in the test group, but was statistically significant (test - 5.66 ± 0.35%, control - 5.17 ± 0.3% P = 0.003. Conclusion: Indians are at a high-risk of developing periodontitis and diabetes. These data suggest a possible link between periodontitis and glycemic control in nondiabetic individuals, periodontal disease may be a potential contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Noninvasive assessment of extracellular and intracellular dehydration in healthy humans using the resistance-reactance-score graph method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Kristen R; Charkoudian, Nisha; O'Brien, Catherine; Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2016-03-01

    Few dehydration assessment measures provide accurate information; most are based on reference change values and very few are diagnostically accurate from a single observation or measure. Bioelectrical impedance may lack the precision to detect common forms of dehydration in healthy individuals. Limitations in bioimpedance may be addressed by a unique resistance-reactance (RXc)-score graph method, which transforms vector components into z scores for use with any impedance analyzer in any population. We tested whether the RXc-score graph method provides accurate single or serial assessments of dehydration when compared with gold-standard measures of total body water by using stable isotope dilution (deuterium oxide) combined with body-weight changes. We retrospectively analyzed data from a previous study in which 9 healthy young men participated in 3 trials: euhydration (EUH), extracellular dehydration (ED; via a diuretic), and intracellular dehydration (ID; via exercise in the heat). Participants lost 4-5% of their body weight during the dehydration trials; volume loss was similar between trials (ID compared with ED group: 3.5 ± 0.8 compared with 3.0 ± 0.6 L; P > 0.05). Despite significant losses of body water, most RXc vector scores for ED and ID groups were classified as "normal" (within the 75% population tolerance ellipse). However, directional displacement of vectors was consistent with loss of volume in both ED and ID conditions compared with the EUH condition and tended to be longer in ED than in ID conditions (P = 0.054). We conclude that, whereas individual RXc-score graph values do not provide accurate detection of dehydration from single measurements, directional changes in vector values from serial measurements are consistent with fluid loss for both ED and ID conditions. The RXc-score graph method may therefore alert clinicians to changes in hydration state, which may bolster the interpretation of other recognized change measures of hydration. © 2016

  10. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D. [and others

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  11. Comparative analysis of family poultry production in twelve African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodger, W.J.; Bennett, T.B.; Dwinger, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to conduct a survey on family poultry to obtain information on disease prevalence, feeding practices, and the management of poultry housing in twelve African countries. The survey data were collected during both the wet and dry seasons and summarised (average and standard deviation) by country, village/region, season, and survey question. The disease data results show that three (greenish/bloody diarrhoea, swollen head, and coughing) of top four reported symptoms are part of Newcastle disease's presenting signs. Chick mortality was also higher in the wet season, when there is a higher incidence of Newcastle disease. This was also supported by the individual country data in that those countries with high chick mortality data also had low hatchability in the wet season with Egypt being the only exception. The types of housing used for shelter for family poultry was quite variable and presented a challenge to determine the level of cleaning/sanitation to assist in controlling Newcastle disease. On the one hand, a large percentage of households reported never cleaning the poultry house (e.g., Cameroon, Morocco, Mauritius, and Sudan). On the other hand, 34% of the responses to housing type were either trees or other forms of housing that would be difficult to clean i.e., old car, fence, surrounding wall, etc. Obviously, these results should be closely examined when instituting control programs for Newcastle disease. The large variety of available scavenged feed without any data on intake raises the question of how to balance the ration for the flock. Family poultry scientists need to determine a method to estimate intake which could assist in determining what supplementary feed is necessary if any. This challenge may be one of the most important aspects to family poultry management because of the importance of nutrition to poultry production with the added difficulty of providing balanced nutrition in an extensive system. (author)

  12. Dental development in Down syndrome and healthy children: a comparative study using the Demirjian method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, M S; Vucic, S; van Marrewijk, D J F; Ongkosuwito, E M

    2017-05-01

    In children with Down syndrome, the timing of dental eruption is important for orthodontics treatment planning. Aim of this study was to determine whether tooth eruption and development of the dentition in children with Down syndrome are impaired. Dental development was scored on orthopantomograms (OPTs) of 95 children with Down syndrome. The dental age was determined at the left mandibular side according to the Demirjian method and by converting the assigned scores to the dental maturity score. Dental development scores of control children and DS children were compared with a mixed model linear regression analysis. The model showed statistically significant changes relating to increasing age (Pchildren and the control group after using the Nyström imputation (with and without hypodontia). The findings showed that dental development in DS children is similar to the development of control children and that a relationship exists between hypodontia and dental development. The clinically observed late eruption is probably not due to late dental development but due to the other processes that take place during eruption, such as the possible impaired processes at the apical side and the occlusal side of an erupting element. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Healthy kids out of school: using mixed methods to develop principles for promoting healthy eating and physical activity in out-of-school settings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Sharma, Shanti; Dietz, William H; Dolan, Peter R; Nelson, Miriam E; Newman, Molly B; Rockeymoore, Maya; Economos, Christina D

    2014-12-31

    Widespread practices supporting availability of healthful foods, beverages, and physical activity in out-of-school-time (OST) settings would further obesity prevention efforts. The objective of this article was to describe principles to guide policy development in support of healthy eating and physical activity practices in out-of-school settings to promote obesity prevention. The Institute of Medicine's L.E.A.D. framework (Locate Evidence, Evaluate it, Assemble it, and Inform Decisions) was used to identify practices relevant to children's healthful eating in most OST settings: 1) locate and evaluate information from a national survey of children's perceptions of healthful-food access; published research, reports, policies and guidelines; and roundtables with OST organizations' administrators; 2) assemble information to prioritize actionable practices; and 3) inform programmatic direction. Three evidence-informed guiding principles for short-duration OST resulted: 1) drink right: choose water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages; 2) move more: boost movement and physical activity in all programs; and 3) snack smart: fuel up on fruits and vegetables. Healthy Kids Out of School was launched to support the dissemination and implementation of these guiding principles in short-duration OST settings, complementing efforts in other OST settings to shift norms around eating and physical activity.

  14. A graphical method for comparing nocturnal oxygen saturation profiles in individuals and populations: Application to healthy infants and preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Dakin, Carolyn; Edwards, Bradley A; Wilson, Stephen J; MacLean, Joanna E

    2018-05-01

    Pulse-oximetry (SpO 2 ) allows the identification of important clinical physiology. However, summary statistics such as mean values and desaturation incidence do not capture the complexity of the information contained within continuous recordings. The aim of this study was to develop an objective method to quantify important SpO 2 characteristics; and assess its utility in healthy infant and preterm neonate cohorts. An algorithm was developed to calculate the desaturation incidence, depth, and duration. These variables are presented using three plots: SpO 2 cumulative-frequency relationship; desaturation-depth versus incidence; desaturation-duration versus incidence. This method was applied to two populations who underwent nocturnal pulse-oximetry: (1) thirty-four healthy term infants studied at 2-weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24-months of age and (2) thirty-seven neonates born <26 weeks and studied at discharge from NICU (37-44 weeks post-conceptual age). The maturation in healthy infants was characterized by reduced desaturation index (27.2/h vs 3.3/h at 2-weeks and 24-months, P < 0.01), and increased percentage of desaturation events ≥6-s in duration (27.8% vs 43.2% at 2-weeks and 3-months, P < 0.01). Compared with term-infants, preterm infants had a greater desaturation incidence (54.8/h vs 27.2/h, P < 0.01), and these desaturations were deeper (52.9% vs 37.6% were ≥6% below baseline, P < 0.01). The incidence of longer desaturations (≥14-s) in preterm infants was correlated with healthcare utilization over the first 24-months (r = 0.63, P < 0.01). This tool allows the objective comparison of extended oximetry recordings between groups and for individuals; and serves as a basis for the development of reference ranges for populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Comparison of Recruitment Methods for an mHealth Intervention Targeting Mothers: Lessons from the Growing Healthy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Rachel A; Litterbach, Eloise-Kate V; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth A; Russell, Catherine G; Taki, Sarah; Ong, Kok-Leong; Elliott, Rosalind M; Lymer, Sharyn J; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-09-15

    Mobile health (mHealth) programs hold great promise for increasing the reach of public health interventions. However, mHealth is a relatively new field of research, presenting unique challenges for researchers. A key challenge is understanding the relative effectiveness and cost of various methods of recruitment to mHealth programs. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the effectiveness of various methods of recruitment to an mHealth intervention targeting healthy infant feeding practices, and (2) explore factors influencing practitioner referral to the intervention. The Growing healthy study used a quasi-experimental design with an mHealth intervention group and a concurrent nonrandomized comparison group. Eligibility criteria included: expectant parents (>30 weeks of gestation) or parents with an infant mobile phone, ≥18 years old, and living in Australia. Recruitment to the mHealth program consisted of: (1) practitioner-led recruitment through Maternal and Child Health nurses, midwives, and nurses in general practice; (2) face-to-face recruitment by researchers; and (3) online recruitment. Participants' baseline surveys provided information regarding how participants heard about the study, and their sociodemographic details. Costs per participant recruited were calculated by taking into account direct advertising costs and researcher time/travel costs. Practitioner feedback relating to the recruitment process was obtained through a follow-up survey and qualitative interviews. A total of 300 participants were recruited to the mHealth intervention. The cost per participant recruited was lowest for online recruitment (AUD $14) and highest for practice nurse recruitment (AUD $586). Just over half of the intervention group (50.3%, 151/300) were recruited online over a 22-week period compared to practitioner recruitment (29.3%, 88/300 over 46 weeks) and face-to-face recruitment by researchers (7.3%, 22/300 over 18 weeks). No significant differences were

  16. Ten colour photometry of twelve Ap-stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musielok, B.; Lange, D.; Schoeneich, W.; Hildebrandt, G.; Zelwanowa, E.; Hempelmann, A.; Salmanov, G.

    1980-01-01

    Ten-colour photoelectric observations are presented for twelve Ap-stars. Improved ephemeris for seven of them is given. Phase relations between the light curves and line intensity variations are discussed. The problem of the electromagnetic flux conctancy of IOTA Cas is approached from a qualitative point of view. (author)

  17. Education and Development: Twelve Considerations for Transformative Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBalkom, W. Duffie; Eastham, Sarada

    2011-01-01

    Twelve factors that are essential to consider when embarking on the process of transformative development are examined in the context of international development programming in education and training. Each factor raises a number of questions for the deliberations of policy makers, development practitioners, scholars, international educators,…

  18. Secondary Textbook Review: English, Grades Nine through Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This book is intended as a resource for teachers and curriculum developers who select textbooks for secondary English courses. It includes a compilation of 32 factual textbook reviews obtained from the application of a review instrument, which was based on the California "Model Curriculum Standards: Grades Nine through Twelve, English…

  19. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: quench detection and energy dump, stationary normal region of conductor, current leads, electrical arcing, electrical shorts, conductor joints, forces from unequal currents, eddy current effects, cryostat rupture, vacuum failure, fringing field and instrumentation for safety. Priorities among these areas are suggested

  20. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: Quench Detection and Energy Dump, Stationary Normal Region of Conductor, Current Leads, Electrical Arcing, Electrical Shorts, Conductor Joints, Forces from Unequal Currents, Eddy Current Effects, Cryostat Rupture, Vacuum Failure, Fringing Field and Instrumentation for Safety. Priorities among these areas are suggested

  1. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: Baseline characteristics and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents’ healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79%(n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

  2. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is much we can do to promote healthy eating habits. Together we can prevent or delay onset of diabetes, obesity and other chronic conditions and diseases. Benefits Helps maintain a healthy weight A healthy weight reduces risk of chronic ...

  3. Twelve years of fireworks market surveillance in France

    OpenAIRE

    Branka , Ruddy

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the view of market surveillance, more than 4400 fireworks have been taken on the spot by sworn people or bought on the market in France since 1999 for inspection purposes. This paper presents the market surveillance sampling evolution during twelve years, carried out by the PYRO unit of the Accidental Risks Division of INERIS as testing body ; the related measures implemented : additional audits in importer plants, interlaboratory tests for guarantying the reliabili...

  4. Twelve Theses on Reactive Rules for the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Eckert, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Reactivity, the ability to detect and react to events, is an essential functionality in many information systems. In particular, Web systems such as online marketplaces, adaptive (e.g., recommender) sys- tems, and Web services, react to events such as Web page updates or data posted to a server. This article investigates issues of relevance in designing high-level programming languages dedicated to reactivity on the Web. It presents twelve theses on features desira...

  5. Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry in eleven dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional super Poincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry that governs the theory

  6. Absorption of food cobalamins assessed by the double isotope method in healthy volunteers and in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittang, B.; Hamborg, B.; Schjoensby, H.

    1985-01-01

    To make a food preparation containing radioactively labelled cobalamins, rabbits were given repeated injections with 57 Co-labelled cyanocobalamin. The liver was removed, homogenized and fried for one min. or boiled for 30 min. Of the radioactivity in the fried homogenate, 41.7% was recovered in the centrifuged supernatant compared with 50.8% in the boiled homogenate. The radioactivity in the supernatants had a molecular size close to that of free 57 Co-labelled cyanocobalamin. 42% of the radioactivity in the whole homogenate had been incorporated into 5-deoxyadenosyl-, 10% into methyl-and 16.5% into hydroxy-cobalamin. To assess the validity of a double-isotope method for measuring the intestinal absorption of doses of 57 Co-labelled liver cobalamins, 51 CrCl 3 was used as a non-absorbable marker. In 14 healthy volunteers the correlation coefficient between the absorption measured by the double-isotope technique and the faecal excretion test was highly significant (r = 0.96, p 57 Co/ 51 Cr ratio in successive stool collections. In 11 patients with chronic diarrhoea there was a significant correlation between the absorption measured by the double-isotope technique and the faecal excretion test (r = 0.92, p 57 / 51 Cr ratio in successive stool collections

  7. A pilot study of a new method of cognitive stimulation using abacus arithmetic in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J A; Pérez-Martínez, D A; Matías-Guiu, J

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the applicability of a cognitive stimulation method based on abacus arithmetic in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. This observational and prospective pilot study was performed in 2 hospitals. The study assessed the applicability of a programme of arithmetic training developed for use in the elderly population. The primary endpoint was an evaluation of the stimulation programme, in terms of usability, satisfaction, and participation, in healthy elderly controls and elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease. Secondary endpoints were family satisfaction, caregiver burden, and the behaviour and cognition of patients. Usability, satisfaction, and degree of participation were high. The Mini-Mental State Examination showed significant changes (23.1±4.8 before the intervention vs 24.9±4.2 afterwards, P=.002); there were no changes on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, Yesavage Geriatric Depression scale, and Zarit caregiver burden scale. The study suggests that cognitive stimulation with abacus arithmetic may be used in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy of this kind of programmes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio

  9. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  10. Twelve tips for creating an academic teaching portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little-Wienert, Kim; Mazziotti, Mark

    2018-01-01

    An academic teaching portfolio is not only a requirement at many academic teaching institutions, but it is also important in a medical educator's growth and development through documentation, reflection, evaluation, and change. Creating an academic portfolio may appear daunting at first but with careful advanced preparation, organized evidence collection of your educational work, proof of scholarship, and thorough documentation of self-reflection and change, you can produce a successful product that accurately represents your educational beliefs, accomplishments, and growth throughout your career. This article provides medical educators with twelve steps for creating a successful academic teaching portfolio.

  11. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: Quench Detection and Energy Dump, Stationary Normal Region of Conductor, Current Leads, Electrical Arcing, Electrical Shorts, Conductor Joints, Forces from Unequal Currents, Eddy Current Effects, Cryostat Rupture, Vacuum Failure, Fringing Field and Instrumentation for Safety. Each is described under the five categories: Identification and Definition, Possible Safety Effects, Current Practice, Adequacy of Current Practice for Fusion Magnets and Areas Requiring Further Analytical and Experimental Study. Priorities among these areas are suggested; application is made to the Large Coil Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  12. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  13. Twelve weeks of BodyBalance® training improved balance and functional task performance in middle-aged and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson VP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan P Nicholson, Mark R McKean, Brendan J Burkett School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of BodyBalance® training on balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and health-related quality of life in adults aged over 55 years.Participants and methods: A total of 28 healthy, active adults aged 66±5 years completed the randomized controlled trial. Balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and self-reported quality of life were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Participants either undertook two sessions of BodyBalance per week for 12 weeks (n=15 or continued with their normal activities (n=13.Results: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the timed up and go (P=0.038, 30-second chair stand (P=0.037, and mediolateral center-of-pressure range in narrow stance with eyes closed (P=0.017. There were no significant effects on fear of falling or self-reported quality of life.Conclusion: Twelve weeks of BodyBalance training is effective at improving certain balance and functional based tasks in healthy older adults. Keywords: postural control, yoga, tai chi, center of pressure, exercise

  14. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods: Moderating risk of type 2 diabetes in multi-ethnic middle school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and gly...

  15. Comparison of three different methods to prevent heat loss in healthy dogs undergoing 90 minutes of general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Price, Stuart C; Dossin, Olivier; Jones, Katherine R; Otto, Angela N; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-05-01

    To compare a towel under, a warm water pad under or a forced warm air blanket over dogs as techniques to reduce heat loss during a standardized anesthetic. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Eight, healthy, mixed breed dogs weighing 16.3-19.6 kg. Dogs were anesthetized four times for 90 minutes. Dogs were placed on a steel table (treatment TA), with a cotton towel (treatment TO) or a circulating warm water pad (treatment WP) between the dog and the table, or with, a towel under the dog and covered with a forced warm air blanket (treatment WAB). Rectal temperature (RT) was recorded at 5 minute intervals. Changes in temperature (ΔRT) were calculated as the RT at a given point subtracted from the RT before anesthesia (baseline) and compared over time. After 90 minutes of anesthesia, the ΔRT was 3.42 °C ± 0.29 for TA, 2.78 °C ± 0.43 for TO, 1.98 °C ± 0.29 for WP, and 0.91 °C ± 0.27 for WAB. Significant differences in ΔRT occurred between TA and WAB at 20 minutes (0.94 °C ± 0.42, p = 0.0206), between TO and WAB at 30 minutes (1.16 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0063), between WP and WAB at 50 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.98, p = 0.0249), between TA and WP at 35 minutes (1.19 °C ± 0.54, p = 0.0091), between TO and WP at 70 minutes (1.12 °C ± 0.56, p = 0.0248), and between TA and TO at 75 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0313). These differences in ΔRT between each treatment persisted from the times indicated until the end of the anesthesia. During anesthesia, forced warm air blankets were superior to other methods tested for limiting heat loss. An efficient heat loss technique should be used for anesthesia longer than 20 minutes duration in medium sized dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  16. Extended investigation of the twelve-flavor β-function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Zoltán; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Nógrádi, Dániel; Wong, Chik Him

    2018-04-01

    We report new results from high precision analysis of an important BSM gauge theory with twelve massless fermion flavors in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group. The range of the renormalized gauge coupling is extended from our earlier work [1] to probe the existence of an infrared fixed point (IRFP) in the β-function reported at two different locations, originally in [2] and at a new location in [3]. We find no evidence for the IRFP of the β-function in the extended range of the renormalized gauge coupling, in disagreement with [2,3]. New arguments to guard the existence of the IRFP remain unconvincing [4], including recent claims of an IRFP with ten massless fermion flavors [5,6] which we also rule out. Predictions of the recently completed 5-loop QCD β-function for general flavor number are discussed in this context.

  17. Twelve reasons to refuse the nuclear in the MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonduelle, A.

    2000-01-01

    The author presents twelve reasons which show that the nuclear energy has not a place in the MDP Mechanism of Clean Development: a main loophole for the developed countries, the doubtful ''additionality'' of the nuclear, the treaty ratification is more difficult with the nuclear, the domestic energy conservation is more efficient in Europe than the nuclear development, the nuclear white elephants facing the South debts, the technology transfers are doubtful, the developing countries and the sustainable development policies are evicted from the MDP, some options are more powerful in the South, the reactors and transport networks size are unsuited, the absence of democratic control, the nuclear proliferation, the nuclear safety and the wastes. (A.L.B.)

  18. The relationship between mentoring on healthy behaviors and well-being among Israeli youth in boarding schools: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Maayan; Zlotnick, Cheryl; Finkelstein, Anat

    2015-02-15

    Although 10% of Israeli youth live in boarding schools, few studies, except for those focusing on mental health, have examined the well-being of this population subgroup. Thus, the aims of this study were to explore: (1) the prevalence rates of five aspects of well-being (i.e., healthy habits, avoidance of risky behaviors, peer relationships, adult relationships, and school environment) in youth residing at Israeli boarding schools; (2) the relationships between youth well-being and youth perception of their mentor; and (3) the different subgroups of youth with higher rates of risky and healthy behaviors. This study used a mixed-methods approach including a quantitative survey of youth (n = 158) to examine the association between youth behaviors and perception of their mentor; and a qualitative study consisting of interviews (n = 15) with boarding school staff to better understand the context of these findings. Greater proportions of boarding school youth, who had positive perceptions of their mentor (the significant adult or parent surrogate), believed both that their teachers thought they were good students (p boarding school had very similar healthy habits compared to other youth living in Israel; however, youth in the general population, compared to those in the boarding schools, were eating more sweets (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.02-1.90) and engaging in higher levels of television use (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.97-3.54). Mentors, the significant adult for youth living in residential education environments, have a major influence on school performance, the major focus of their work; mentors had no impact on healthy behaviors. Overall, there were many similarities in healthy behaviors between youth at boarding schools and youth in the general population; however, the differences in healthy habits seemed related to policies governing the boarding schools as well as its structural elements.

  19. Determination of plasma albumin concentration in healthy and diseased turtles: a comparison of protein electrophoresis and the bromcresol green dye-binding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kerstin; Brunnberg, Leo

    2010-03-01

    In reptile medicine, plasma chemistry analysis is widely used for the evaluation of an individual's health status. The standard method for the determination of plasma albumin concentration is protein electrophoresis combined with the determination of total protein concentration, but the bromcresol green (BCG) dye-binding method is also used. The reliability of the BCG method for the measurement of albumin concentration in reptiles is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the plasma albumin values of turtles obtained by protein electrophoresis and the BCG method. Between March 2008 and September 2008, heparinized plasma samples from 16 clinically healthy and 10 diseased turtles of different species were collected. Plasma albumin concentrations were measured by protein electrophoresis and by the BCG method. The results of the 2 methods were compared using Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plots. Albumin concentration measured by BCG was weakly correlated with the corresponding protein electrophoretic values in all turtles (r(s)=.610, Palbumin concentration measured with the 2 different methods differed significantly in all turtles (P=.009; Wilcoxon's test) and in healthy turtles (P=.005) but not in diseased animals (P=.241). In the Bland-Altman plot a systematic error was found between the 2 methods in diseased turtles. Measurement of albumin by the BCG dye-binding method may lead to inaccurate results for plasma albumin concentration, especially in ill turtles. Therefore, for health assessment in turtles, albumin should be measured by protein electrophoresis.

  20. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  1. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods: moderating risk of type 2 diabetes in multi-ethnic middle school students

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and glycemic dysregulation: body mass index ≥85th percentile, fasting glucose ≥5.55 mmol l-1 (100 mg per 100 ml) and fasting insulin ≥180 pmol l-1 (30 μU ml-1). A series of pilot studies established the f...

  2. Commercializing Government-sponsored Innovations: Twelve Successful Buildings Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. A.; Berry, L. G.; Goel, R. K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies.

  3. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-01

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, ∼0.2 M sun ) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  4. Comparative clinical evaluation of glycosylated haemoglobin level in healthy and chronic periodontitis patients: A chairside diagnostic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, T S; Agrawal, Parul; Goyal, Pravesh; Farista, Sana; Sowmya, N K; Deonani, Sushmita

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level can consequently be interpreted as an average of the blood glucose present over the past 3-4 months. Periodontitis is associated with glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of HbA1c in healthy and periodontitis patients who were previously not diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. A total of 40 patients were selected for study and divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with a healthy periodontium, and Group 2 included patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. Finger stick blood was collected by special collection unit (A1CNOW+® Bayer Health Care, Tarrytown New York, USA), for estimating level of HbA1c. Both groups showed similar HbA1c levels clinically with slight increase in levels in the test group, but was statistically significant (test--5.66 ± 0.35%, control--5.17 ± 0.3% P = 0.003). Indians are at a high-risk of developing periodontitis and diabetes. These data suggest a possible link between periodontitis and glycemic control in nondiabetic individuals, periodontal disease may be a potential contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Comparison of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Griess reagent-spectroscopic methods for the measurement of nitrate in serum from healthy individuals in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tine Lise; Nilsen, Valentina; Andersen, Dag Olav; Francis, George; Rustad, Pål; Mansoor, Mohammad Azam

    2008-12-01

    Bioavailability of NO can be estimated by measuring the concentration of nitrate (NO(3)) in serum. However, the methods used for the measurement NO(3) in plasma or serum show a great degree of variation. Therefore, we compared two analytical methods for the measurement of NO(3) in serum. The concentration of NO(3) in 600 serum samples collected from healthy individuals was determined by the HPLC and by the Griess reagent-spectroscopic method. The concentration of NO(3) in the samples was 29.4+/-16.1 micromol/L and 26.2+/-14.0 micromol/L (mean+/-SD) measured by HPLC and Griess reagent-spectroscopic method respectively (pHPLC method.

  6. Healthy lifestyle in teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kamran, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. Materials and Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a question...

  7. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.

  8. The impact of urban gardens on adequate and healthy food: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mariana T; Ribeiro, Silvana M; Germani, Ana Claudia Camargo Gonçalves; Bógus, Cláudia M

    2018-02-01

    To examine the impacts on food and nutrition-related outcomes resulting from participation in urban gardens, especially on healthy food practices, healthy food access, and healthy food beliefs, knowledge and attitudes. The systematic review identified studies by searching the PubMed, ERIC, LILACS, Web of Science and Embase databases. An assessment of quality and bias risk of the studies was carried out and a narrative summary was produced. Studies published as original articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals in English, Spanish or Portuguese between 2005 and 2015 were included. The studies included were based on data from adult participants in urban gardens. Twenty-four studies were initially selected based on the eligibility criteria, twelve of which were included. There was important heterogeneity of settings, population and assessment methods. Assessment of quality and bias risk of the studies revealed the need for greater methodological rigour. Most studies investigated community gardens and employed a qualitative approach. The following were reported: greater fruit and vegetable consumption, better access to healthy foods, greater valuing of cooking, harvest sharing with family and friends, enhanced importance of organic production, and valuing of adequate and healthy food. Thematic patterns related to adequate and healthy food associated with participation in urban gardens were identified, revealing a positive impact on practices of adequate and healthy food and mainly on food perceptions.

  9. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Facts School Meals Smart Snacks Celebrations & Rewards Food and Beverage Marketing Water Access Healthy Eating Learning Opportunities Staff ... Services Acute & Emergency Care Care Coordination Chronic Disease Management Family Engagement Chronic ... Allergies Oral Health Local School Wellness Policy Whole ...

  10. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Rachel R; Williams, Jane E; Wells, Jonathan C K; Fewtrell, Mary S

    2013-01-01

    Clinical application of body composition (BC) measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. (1) To compare fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) standard deviation scores (SDS) generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C) model; (2) To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy), BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT); and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2)/Z)) in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients). DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement) FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62); FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72)), and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2). BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  11. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel R Atherton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical application of body composition (BC measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. OBJECTIVES: (1 To compare fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM standard deviation scores (SDS generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C model; (2 To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. DESIGN: FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy, BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT; and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2/Z in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients. RESULTS: DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62; FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72, and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2. BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  12. Commercializing government-sponsored innovations: Twelve successful buildings case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Goel, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the commercialization and use of R and D results funded by DOE's Office of Buildings and Community Systems (OBCS), an office that is dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of the nation's buildings. Three goals guided the research described in this report: to improve understanding of the factors that hinder or facilitate the transfer of OBCS R and D results, to determine which technology transfer strategies are most effective and under what circumstances each is appropriate, and to document the market penetration and energy savings achieved by successfully-commercialized innovations that have received OBCS support. Twelve successfully-commercialized innovations are discussed here. The methodology employed involved a review of the literature, interviews with innovation program managers and industry personnel, and data collection from secondary sources. Six generic technology transfer strategies are also described. Of these, contracting R and D to industrial partners is found to be the most commonly used strategy in our case studies. The market penetration achieved to date by the innovations studied ranges from less than 1% to 100%. For the three innovations with the highest predicted levels of energy savings (i.e., the flame retention head oil burner, low-E windows, and solid-state ballasts), combined cumulative savings by the year 2000 are likely to approach 2 quads. To date the energy savings for these three innovations have been about 0.2 quads. Our case studies illustrate the important role federal agencies can play in commercializing new technologies. 27 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Twelve massless flavors and three colors below the conformal window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Zoltan; Holland, Kieran; Kuti, Julius; Nogradi, Daniel; Schroeder, Chris

    2011-01-01

    We report new results for a frequently discussed gauge theory with twelve fermion flavors in the fundamental representation of the SU(3) color gauge group. The model, controversial with respect to its conformality, is important in non-perturbative studies searching for a viable composite Higgs mechanism beyond the Standard Model (BSM). In comparison with earlier work, our new simulations apply larger volumes and probe deeper in fermion and pion masses toward the chiral limit. Investigating the controversy, we subject the model to opposite hypotheses with respect to the conformal window. In the first hypothesis, below the conformal window, we test chiral symmetry breaking (χSB) with its Goldstone spectrum, F π , the χSB condensate, and several composite hadron states as analytic functions of the fermion mass when varied in a limited range with our best effort to control finite volume effects. In the second test, for the alternate hypothesis inside the conformal window, we probe conformal behavior driven by a single anomalous mass dimension under the assumption of unbroken chiral symmetry at vanishing fermion mass. Our results at fixed gauge coupling, based on the assumptions of the two hypotheses we define, show low level of confidence in the conformal scenario with leading order scaling analysis. Relaxing the important assumption of leading mass-deformed conformality with its conformal finite size scaling would require added theoretical understanding of the scaling violation terms in the conformal analysis and a comprehensive test of its effects on the confidence level of the fits. Results for the running coupling, based on the force between static sources, and preliminary indications for the finite temperature transition are also presented. Staggered lattice fermions with stout-suppressed taste breaking are used throughout the simulations.

  14. [Longitudinal genetic effects on mandibular position of female twins from six to twelve years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-feng; Peng, Jing

    2013-06-01

    To find the longitudinal genetic effects on mandibular position in mixed dentition. The sample used in this study consisted of lateral cephalograms of eighty-nine pairs of female twins in Beijing. With a mixed longitudinal method, the effective twins were 183 pairs(monozygous 110 pairs and dizygous 73 ones). The genetic and environmental effects on mandibular position were analyzed by statistical methods in female twins from six to twelve years old. Statistical comparisons revealed significant (Pchin is the most subjective to environment change, then the mandibular angle, and the condyle is the least. Using N and S as references, the environmental influence on heights showed different order from the most to least changeable: The mandibular angle, the condyle and the chin. In later stage of our observation, the mandibular morphology and growth type might be family inherited. For environmental influences plays important roles on mandibular position, these findings can be used in orthodontic treatment planning.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous melatonin in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Werner, Mads Utke; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of oral and iv melatonin in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The study was performed as a cohort crossover study. The volunteers received either 10 mg oral melatonin or 10 mg intravenous melatonin on two separate study days. Blood samples were...... collected at different time points following oral administration and short iv infusion, respectively. Plasma melatonin concentrations were determined by RIA technique. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed by "the method of residuals" and compartmental analysis. The pharmacokinetic variables: k a, t 1....../2 absorption, t max, C max, t 1/2 elimination, AUC 0-∞, and bioavailability were determined for oral melatonin. C max, t 1/2 elimination, V d, CL and AUC 0-∞ were determined for intravenous melatonin. RESULTS: Twelve male volunteers completed the study. Baseline melatonin plasma levels did not differ...

  16. ECG Changes in Young Healthy Smokers: A Simple and Cost-Effective Method to Assess Cardiovascular Risk According to Pack-Years of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nirmal Kumar; Jaiswal, Kapil Kumar; Meena, S R; Chandel, Rahul; Chittora, Saurabh; Goga, Prem Singh; Harish, H B; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-06-01

    To document the prevalence of ECG abnormalities in young healthy smokers and compare ECG changes in smokers, young healthy non-smokers and amongst smokers with different pack years. This was a prospective case-control study consisting of 200 young healthy male and female individuals, 150 smokers and 50 non-smokers between ages 25-40 years, further categorized and compared according to age, sex and pack years of smoking. The ECG recordings were analyzed for different ECG parameters like heart rate, P-wave duration, P-wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, RR-interval, ST-segment duration, QT interval and QTc interval. The results were compared using statistical tools. In present study abnormalities in ECG parameters were significantly more prevalent in smokers as compared to non-smokers (56.66 % Vs 6.00 %) (p non-invasive and cost effective it is potentially an effective and yet a simple method for cardiovascular risk evaluation in smokers. Furthermore, such ECG abnormalities may guide the clinician for risk evaluation in smokers and may be used to convince the smokers to quit smoking.

  17. Initial assessment of jaundice in otherwise healthy infants--a comparison of methods in two postnatal units.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, N M

    2012-02-01

    Transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) has the potential to reduce total serum bilirubin (TS) sampling. The principal aim of this study was to determine and compare the number of initial TSB samples (TSBs) in two postnatal units (hospitals A & B) whereby hospital A used TcB and hospital B did not. A secondary aim was to determine the clinical factors that led to initial TSBs exceeding exchange transfusion level in both hospitals. Results demonstrated both hospitals had similar populations and patient numbers following selection criteria. 1645 neonates (10.4%) had one or more TSBs performed in hospital A, versus 2373 neonates (15.1%) in hospital B (p < 0.01). Fourteen neonates in hospital A and 3 neonates in hospital B had initial TSBs above exchange transfusion level. For neonates with TSBs above exchange, preventable factors related to earlier testing and follow up. In routine clinical practice, TcB is associated with a significantly reduced number of TSB measurements. TSB levels above exchange transfusion are linked to preventable factors, in otherwise healthy neonates.

  18. Rationale, design, and methods for Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds cohort study (CAHHM) - a Pan Canadian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S; Tu, Jack V; Awadalla, Philip; Black, Sandra; Boileau, Catherine; Busseuil, David; Desai, Dipika; Després, Jean-Pierre; de Souza, Russell J; Dummer, Trevor; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Knoppers, Bartha; Larose, Eric; Lear, Scott A; Marcotte, Francois; Moody, Alan R; Parker, Louise; Poirier, Paul; Robson, Paula J; Smith, Eric E; Spinelli, John J; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Teo, Koon K; Tusevljak, Natasa; Friedrich, Matthias G

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services) with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity), cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.

  19. Impact of the Healthy Foods North nutrition intervention program on Inuit and Inuvialuit food consumption and preparation methods in Canadian Arctic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Mead, Erin; Beck, Lindsay; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-07-04

    The 12-month Healthy Foods North intervention program was developed to improve diet among Inuit and Inuvialuit living in Arctic Canada and assess the impact of the intervention established for the communities. A quasi-experimental study randomly selected men and women (≥19 years of age) in six remote communities in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Validated quantitative food frequency and adult impact questionnaires were used. Four communities received the intervention and two communities served as delayed intervention controls. Pre- and post-intervention changes in frequency of/total intake of de-promoted food groups and healthiness of cooking methods were determined. The impact of the intervention was assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Post-intervention data were analysed in the intervention (n = 221) and control (n = 111) communities, with participant retention rates of 91% for Nunavut and 83% for the Northwest Territories. There was a significant decrease in de-promoted foods, such as high fat meats (-27.9 g) and high fat dairy products (-19.8 g) among intervention communities (all p ≤ 0.05). The use of healthier preparation methods significantly increased (14.7%) in intervention communities relative to control communities. This study highlights the importance of using a community-based, multi-institutional nutrition intervention program to decrease the consumption of unhealthy foods and the use of unhealthy food preparation methods.

  20. HEROs: Design of a Mixed-Methods Formative Research Phase for an Ecocultural Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating and Activity Behaviors in Rural Families With Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Laura L; McCloskey, Morgan; Clark, Lauren; Thompson, Darcy A; Bekelman, Traci A; Chamberlin, Barbara; Johnson, Susan L

    2018-04-10

    To describe the mixed-methods formative research phase in the development of the Healthy Environments Study (HEROs), a technology-based, interactive family intervention to promote healthy eating and activity behaviors for young children in the home environment. A mixed-method iterative approach, using ecocultural theory as a framework, will guide the development of both quantitative and qualitative formative research assessments. Rural eastern Colorado. Low-income families (n = 200) with preschool-aged children enrolled at 6 Head Start/preschool centers. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies will garner insights into 4 key topic areas: (1) food behaviors and environments (Remote Food Photography Method, parent focus group, and survey), (2) physical activity behaviors and environments (parent interview and survey), (3) mobile device use (parent survey and interview), and (4) daily life (ecocultural family interview and teacher/staff group discussions). Results will be interpreted in combination to allow for a holistic understanding of participant behaviors, beliefs, attitudes and values related to each of the 4 topic areas. Collectively, outcomes will provide a comprehensive picture of preschoolers' daily life and inform intervention design and strategies to enhance preschoolers' eating and activity behaviors in the home environment. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A systematic review of methods to assess intake of fruits and vegetables among healthy European adults and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riordan, Fiona; Ryan, Kathleen; Perry, Ivan J.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Andersen, Lene Frost; Geelen, Anouk; van’t Veer, Pieter; Eussen, Simone; Dagnelie, Pieter; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole; Harrington, Janas M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Evidence suggests that health benefits are associated with consuming recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V), yet standardised assessment methods to measure F&V intake are lacking. The current review aims to identify methods to assess F&V intake among children

  2. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind trial of the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant on gastrointestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, S.; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2008-01-01

    emptying, small intestinal transit and colonic transit of a radiolabelled, 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal ingested on day 2. RESULTS: Aprepitant did not change gastric retention at 15 min, gastric half emptying time, gastric mean transit time, time to small intestinal transit of 10%, small intestinal...... in healthy humans. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a crossover, double-blind study. In random order, each volunteer had a 125-mg capsule of aprepitant or placebo on day 1 followed by an 80-mg capsule of aprepitant or placebo on days 2-5. Gamma camera imaging was used to measure gastric...

  3. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods: moderating risk of type 2 diabetes in multi-ethnic middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Kathryn; Baranowski, Tom; DeBar, Lynn; Foster, Gary D; Kaufman, Francine; Kennel, Phyllis; Linder, Barbara; Schneider, Margaret; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Yin, Zenong

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed and implemented in response to the growing numbers of children and adolescents being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The objective was to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and glycemic dysregulation: body mass index > or =85th percentile, fasting glucose > or =5.55 mmol l(-1) (100 mg per 100 ml) and fasting insulin > or =180 pmol l(-1) (30 microU ml(-1)). A series of pilot studies established the feasibility of performing data collection procedures and tested the development of an intervention consisting of four integrated components: (1) changes in the quantity and nutritional quality of food and beverage offerings throughout the total school food environment; (2) physical education class lesson plans and accompanying equipment to increase both participation and number of minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; (3) brief classroom activities and family outreach vehicles to increase knowledge, enhance decision-making skills and support and reinforce youth in accomplishing goals; and (4) communications and social marketing strategies to enhance and promote changes through messages, images, events and activities. Expert study staff provided training, assistance, materials and guidance for school faculty and staff to implement the intervention components. A cohort of students were enrolled in sixth grade and followed to end of eighth grade. They attended a health screening data collection at baseline and end of study that involved measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference and a fasting blood draw. Height and weight were also collected at the end of the seventh grade. The study was conducted in 42 middle schools, six at each of seven locations across the country, with 21 schools randomized to receive the intervention and 21 to act as controls (data collection activities only). Middle school was the unit of

  4. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides from Arctii Fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Nan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Feng, Zi-Ming; Jiang, Jian-Shuang; Zhang, Pei-Cheng

    2014-09-17

    Twelve novel 7'-hydroxy lignan glucosides (1-12), including two benzofuran-type neolignans, two 8-O-4' neolignans, two dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, and six tetrahydrofuranoid lignans, together with six known lignan glucosides (13-18), were isolated from the fruit of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), commonly known as Arctii Fructus. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopy (1D and 2D NMR, MS, IR, ORD, and UV) and on the basis of chemical evidence. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-12 were confirmed using rotating frame nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), the circular dichroic (CD) exciton chirality method, and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced CD spectrum analysis. All of the isolated compounds were tested for hepatoprotective effects against D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in HL-7702 hepatic cells. Compounds 1, 2, 7-12, and 17 showed significantly stronger hepatoprotective activity than the positive control bicyclol at a concentration of 1 × 10(-5) M.

  6. Healthy living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... living URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002393.htm Healthy living To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Good health habits can allow you to avoid illness and improve your quality of life. The following steps will help you ...

  7. The CT (Hounsfield unit) number of brain tissue in healthy infants. A new reliable method for detection of possible degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, P; Bundgaard, F; Olsen, A

    1987-01-01

    It is difficult to correlate CT Hounsfield unit (H. U.) numbers from one CT investigation to another and from one CT scanner to another, especially when dealing with small changes in the brain substance, as in degenerative brain diseases in children. By subtracting the mean value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the mean value of grey and white matter, it is possible to remove most of the errors due, for example, to maladjustments, short and long-term drift, X-ray fan, and detector asymmetry. Measurements of white and grey matter using these methods showed CT H. U. numbers changing from 15 H. U. to 22 H. U. in white matter and 23 H. U. to 30 H. U. in grey matter in 86 healthy infants aged 0-5 years. In all measurements, the difference between grey and white matter was exactly 8 H. U. The method has proven to be highly accurate and reproducible.

  8. Correlations between two different methods to score bleeding and the relationship with plaque in systemically healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, S.C.; Slot, D.E.; Celeste, R.K.; Abegg, C.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Weijden, F.A. van der

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the correlation between bleeding on marginal probing (BOMP) and bleeding on pocket probing (BOPP), and the correlation of both bleeding indices with plaque. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study screened 336 participants, from which 268 were eligible for examination and

  9. Magnetic Resonance Elastography: Measurement of Hepatic Stiffness Using Different Direct Inverse Problem Reconstruction Methods in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeyoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hashido, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the mean hepatic stiffness values obtained by the application of two different direct inverse problem reconstruction methods to magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Thirteen healthy men (23.2±2.1 years) and 16 patients with liver diseases (78.9±4.3 years; 12 men and 4 women) were examined for this study using a 3.0 T-MRI. The healthy volunteers underwent three consecutive scans, two 70-Hz waveform and a 50-Hz waveform scans. On the other hand, the patients with liver disease underwent scanning using the 70-Hz waveform only. The MRE data for each subject was processed twice for calculation of the mean hepatic stiffness (Pa), once using the multiscale direct inversion (MSDI) and once using the multimodel direct inversion (MMDI). There were no significant differences in the mean stiffness values among the scans obtained with two 70-Hz and different waveforms. However, the mean stiffness values obtained with the MSDI technique (with mask: 2895.3±255.8 Pa, without mask: 2940.6±265.4 Pa) were larger than those obtained with the MMDI technique (with mask: 2614.0±242.1 Pa, without mask: 2699.2±273.5 Pa). The reproducibility of measurements obtained using the two techniques was high for both the healthy volunteers [intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs): 0.840-0.953] and the patients (ICC: 0.830-0.995). These results suggest that knowledge of the characteristics of different direct inversion algorithms is important for longitudinal liver stiffness assessments such as the comparison of different scanners and evaluation of the response to fibrosis therapy.

  10. Effects of bathing on cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers. Using Patlak plot method with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Yorizumi, Kouji

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effects of bathing in warm water on cerebral blood flow (CBF). Seven healthy male volunteers were subjected to experiments. The subjects were bathed in warm water at 39degC for 20 minutes in a sitting position immersed up to the neck. Each subject received two CBF examinations: one under normal conditions and the other after taking a bath mentioned above. There was an interval of at least seven days between the two examinations. To measure CBF, we used the Patlak plot method with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99m-Tc ECD). To examine CBF after bathing, 99m-Tc ECD was injected within 10 minutes after bathing. Brain perfusion index (BPI) and regional CBF (rCBF) were used as indexes for evaluating CBF. The body temperature, pulse, blood pressure, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure, and hematocrit were also measured. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for statistical analyses. The following were observed: BPI increased significantly after bathing (p<0.05). rCBF in the cerebral cortex, particularly in the frontal lobe, tended to increase after bathing (p<0.05). No definite changes were observed in the cerebellar cortex, caudate nucleus, or thalamus. The body temperature and pulse increased significantly after bathing. No definite changes were observed in blood pressure, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure, or hematocrit. From the above, we conclude that bathing in warm water causes the cerebral blood flow to increase in healthy subjects. (author)

  11. PH Measurements of the Brain Using Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31PMRS) in Healthy Men – Comparison of Two Analysis Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichocka, Monika; Kozub, Justyna; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pH provides information on homeostatic mechanisms in neurons and glial cells. The aim of this study was to define pH of the brain of male volunteers using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 PMRS) and to compare two methods of calculating this value. In this study, 35 healthy, young, male volunteers (mean age: 25 years) were examined by 31 PMRS in 1.5 T MR system (Signa Excite, GE). The FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2. Volume of interest (VOI) was selected depending on the size of the volunteers’ brain (11–14 cm 3 , mean 11.53 cm 3 ). Raw data were analyzed using SAGE (GE) software. Based on the chemical shift of peaks in the 31 PMRS spectrum, intracellular pH was calculated using two equations. In both methods the mean pH was slightly alkaline (7.07 and 7.08). Results were compared with a t-test. Significant difference (p<0.05) was found between these two methods. The 31 PMRS method enables non-invasive in vivo measurements of pH. The choice of the calculation method is crucial for computing this value. Comparing the results obtained by different teams can be done in a fully credible way only if the calculations were performed using the same formula

  12. Participant Assisted Data Collection Methods in the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Nasim A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Jina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    From November 2011 to March 2013, air quality was measured over 6-day periods in 324 residences across California using a mail-out strategy. All interactions with study participants, from recruitment, to data collection, to communication of results, were conducted with remote communication methods including conventional mail, electronic mail, telephone and text messaging. Potential participants were reached primarily by sharing study information with community groups and organizations that directed interested individuals to complete an online screening survey. Pollutant concentrations were measured with sampling equipment that was mailed to participants' homes with deployment instructions. Residence and household characteristics and activity data were collected via two phone surveys and an activity log. A comparison of responses to survey questions completed online versus over the phone indicated that a substantial fraction of participants (roughly 20%) required a researcher's assistance to respond to basic questions about appliance characteristics. Using the printed instructions and telephone assistance from researchers, roughly 90% of participants successfully deployed and returned sampling materials accurately and on schedule. The mail-out strategy employed in this study was found to be a cost-effective means for collecting residential air quality data.

  13. A Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Evaluation of Two Brands of Enalapril 20 mg Tablets in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Abu Dayyih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enalapril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor used for treatment of hypertension and chronic heart disease. Enalaprilat is its active metabolite responsible for the activity. This study aimed to develop and validate a method for enalapril and enalaprilat analysis and to determine the bioequivalence of two tablet formulae of enalapril. LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method was developed and validated and then applied to evaluate the bioavailability of two enalapril formulae. Antihyperglycemic sitagliptin was used as internal standard (IS. The method was accurate for the within- and between-days analysis, and precise CV% was 85% and the LOD was 0.907 and 0.910 ng/ml for enalapril and enalaprilat, respectively, and LLOQ was 1 ng/ml. The pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, tmax, AUC0–72, and AUC0–∞ values of enalapril and enalaprilat of the two formulae were calculated and nonsignificant differences were found. A linearity, specific, accurate, and precise method was developed and applied for the analysis of enalapril and enalaprilat in human plasma after oral administration of two formulae of enalapril 20 mg tablets in healthy volunteers. Depending on the statistical analysis it was concluded that the two enalapril formulae were bioequivalent.

  14. Trends in Meningococcal Meningitis Over the Past Twelve Years at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the trends in the occurrence of meningococcal meningitis at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu, Nigeria, as well as the antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: The results of all cerebrospinal fluid samples received by the microbiology laboratory (UNTH), Enugu ...

  15. Expand Your Child's Vocabulary: A Twelve-Week Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl B.

    This booklet shows parents how to help their children develop a number of strategies for understanding words by working together on a methodical, 12-week program of word study. Sections of the booklet describe the program week by week. The techniques described are: Read and Use Context; Search for Synonyms, Antonyms, Homonyms; Learn Important…

  16. [Courses in basic research methodology a valuable asset for clinicians. Twelve years' experiences in southern Sweden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Anders; Lindberg, Eva Pettersson; Henriksson, Karin

    2002-03-07

    At the Department of Community Medicine at Lund University we have given courses in basic research methodology since 1989. The course has yielded 20 points of university credit, the equivalent of one full-time semester of studies, and it has been run part-time, covering one and a half years. Our aim has been to provide a large number of physicians with basic training in research methods, and to stimulate the engagement of new scientific students from the whole Southern Health Care Region. During the first ten years, 138 general practitioners (20% of the GPs of the region) and 202 specialists completed our courses. Up till now, 19 GPs (14%) and 19 specialists (9%) have begun PhD studies. During the last two years, another 100 physicians from southern Sweden have attended our courses, as well as GPs from Zealand in Denmark. We have been developing our course in basic research methods during a twelve-year period, and it is now well established in our health care region. We feel that we have succeeded in reaching the two goals we had set up: to give a large number of physicians a fundamental knowledge of research methods and to recruit and increase the number of PhD students. We believe that medical research and development must flourish also outside the traditional university settings.

  17. Determinants of internal migrant health and the healthy migrant effect in South India: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Warren; Humphries, Sally; Patel, Kirit; Majowicz, Shannon; Little, Matthew; Dewey, Cate

    2017-09-12

    Internal labour migration is an important and necessary livelihood strategy for millions of individuals and households in India. However, the precarious position of migrant workers within Indian society may have consequences for the health of these individuals. Previous research on the connections between health and labour mobility within India have primarily focused on the negative health outcomes associated with this practice. Thus, there is a need to better identify the determinants of internal migrant health and how these determinants shape migrant health outcomes. An exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in 26 villages in the Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu. Sixty-six semi-structured interviews were completed using snowball sampling, followed by 300 household surveys using multi-stage random sampling. For qualitative data, an analysis of themes and content was completed. For quantitative data, information on current participation in internal labour migration, in addition to self-reported morbidity and determinants of internal migrant health, was collected. Morbidity categories were compared between migrant and non-migrant adults (age 14-65 years) using a Fisher's exact test. Of the 300 households surveyed, 137 households (45.7%) had at least one current migrant member, with 205 migrant and 1012 non-migrant adults (age 14-65 years) included in this study. The health profile of migrant and non-migrants was similar in this setting, with 53 migrants (25.9%) currently suffering from a health problem compared to 273 non-migrants (27.0%). Migrant households identified both occupational and livelihood factors that contributed to changes in the health of their migrant members. These determinants of internal migrant health were corroborated and further expanded on through the semi-structured interviews. Internal labour migration in and of itself is not a determinant of health, as participation in labour mobility can contribute to an improvement in health, a

  18. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  19. A systematic review of methods to assess intake of fruits and vegetables among healthy European adults and children: a DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Fiona; Ryan, Kathleen; Perry, Ivan J; Schulze, Matthias B; Andersen, Lene Frost; Geelen, Anouk; Van't Veer, Pieter; Eussen, Simone; Dagnelie, Pieter; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole; Harrington, Janas M

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that health benefits are associated with consuming recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V), yet standardised assessment methods to measure F&V intake are lacking. The current review aims to identify methods to assess F&V intake among children and adults in pan-European studies and inform the development of the DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) toolbox of methods suitable for use in future European studies. A literature search was conducted using three electronic databases and by hand-searching reference lists. English-language studies of any design which assessed F&V intake were included in the review. Studies involving two or more European countries were included in the review. Healthy, free-living children or adults. The review identified fifty-one pan-European studies which assessed F&V intake. The FFQ was the most commonly used (n 42), followed by 24 h recall (n 11) and diet records/diet history (n 7). Differences existed between the identified methods; for example, the number of F&V items on the FFQ and whether potatoes/legumes were classified as vegetables. In total, eight validated instruments were identified which assessed F&V intake among adults, adolescents or children. The current review indicates that an agreed classification of F&V is needed in order to standardise intake data more effectively between European countries. Validated methods used in pan-European populations encompassing a range of European regions were identified. These methods should be considered for use by future studies focused on evaluating intake of F&V.

  20. Metabolomic method: UPLC-q-ToF polar and non-polar metabolites in the healthy rat cerebellum using an in-vial dual extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amera A Ebshiana

    Full Text Available Unbiased metabolomic analysis of biological samples is a powerful and increasingly commonly utilised tool, especially for the analysis of bio-fluids to identify candidate biomarkers. To date however only a small number of metabolomic studies have been applied to studying the metabolite composition of tissue samples, this is due, in part to a number of technical challenges including scarcity of material and difficulty in extracting metabolites. The aim of this study was to develop a method for maximising the biological information obtained from small tissue samples by optimising sample preparation, LC-MS analysis and metabolite identification. Here we describe an in-vial dual extraction (IVDE method, with reversed phase and hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography (HILIC which reproducibly measured over 4,000 metabolite features from as little as 3mg of brain tissue. The aqueous phase was analysed in positive and negative modes following HILIC separation in which 2,838 metabolite features were consistently measured including amino acids, sugars and purine bases. The non-aqueous phase was also analysed in positive and negative modes following reversed phase separation gradients respectively from which 1,183 metabolite features were consistently measured representing metabolites such as phosphatidylcholines, sphingolipids and triacylglycerides. The described metabolomics method includes a database for 200 metabolites, retention time, mass and relative intensity, and presents the basal metabolite composition for brain tissue in the healthy rat cerebellum.

  1. Method for in-vivo NMR measurements in the human breast to screen for small breast cancer in an otherwise healthy breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollwitz, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described of conducting a noninvasive female breast cancer test comprising the steps of: (a) forming an inhomogeneous magnetic field between the poles of a magnet wherein the magnetic field defines a specific volume between the poles wherein the specific volume has a specified magnetic field intensity H/sub o/ for NMR testing and the specific volume extends outwardly to an edge defined by the outer edge of the female breast; (b) moving incrementally the specific volume from a beginning point toward an ending point to scan a breast between the pole pieces of the magnet and thereby move the specific volume through the breast the movement being with N examinations located along the breast at different locations wherein each specific volume has the defined thickness and outward extent; (c) periodically interrogating by a transmitted pulse from a coil into the breast portion located in the specific volume for NMR response wherein the NMR response is dependent on hydrogen in the water, and the water has two states, one state in cancer cells and the other state in healthy tissue, and the cancer cells provide a different NMR response compared with water in the healthy tissue, the step of interrogating including first and second NMR interrogations of specific breast volumes forming NMR responses; (d) wherein the magnetic field intensity in the specific volume and the pulse from the coil cause an NMR response from water in the body tissue making up the breast portion; and (e) determining cancer cell anomalies arising from cancer cells in the breast as indicated by comparison of the NMR water responses to form difference signals

  2. From morbid obesity to a healthy weight using cognitive-behavioral methods: a woman's three-year process with one and one-half years of weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a national health problem regularly confronting medical professionals. Although reduced-energy (kilocalorie [kcal]) eating and increased exercise will reliably reduce weight, these behaviors have been highly resistant to sustained change. To control eating using theory-based cognitive-behavioral methods that leverage the positive psychosocial effects of newly initiated exercise as an alternate to typical approaches of education about appropriate nutrition. A woman, age 48 years, with morbid obesity initiated exercise through a 6-month exercise support protocol based on social cognitive and self-efficacy theory (The Coach Approach). This program was followed by periodic individual meetings with a wellness professional intended to transfer behavioral skills learned to adapt to regular exercise, to then control eating. There was consistent recording of exercises completed, foods consumed, various psychosocial and lifestyle factors, and weight. Over the 4.4 years reported, weight decreased from 117.6 kg to 59.0 kg, and body mass index (BMI) decreased from 43.1 kg/m(2) to 21.6 kg/m(2). Mean energy intake initially decreased to 1792 kcal/day and further dropped to 1453 kcal/day by the end of the weight-loss phase. Consistent with theory, use of self-regulatory skills, self-efficacy, and overall mood significantly predicted both increased exercise and decreased energy intake. Morbid obesity was reduced to a healthy weight within 3.1 years, and weight was maintained in the healthy range through the present (1.3 years later). This case supports theory-based propositions that exercise-induced changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood transfer to and reinforce improvements in corresponding psychosocial factors related to controlled eating.

  3. Twelve tips for successful e-tutoring using electronic portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deketelaere, Ann; Degryse, Jan; De Munter, Agnes; De Leyn, Paul

    2009-06-01

    E-tutoring by means of a digital portfolio offers personal guidance in a context in which regular face-to-face contact between supervisor and student is difficult. However, implementing e-tutoring in practice is not always straightforward. This article investigates the conditions for successful e-tutoring of electronic portfolios. A combination of three methods is used: our own experience with e-tutoring, interviews with 14 tutors using an e-portfolio and the answers on questionnaires by 107 students. We present 12 tips to increase the chances of successful e-tutoring when using electronic portfolios. E-tutoring by means of electronic portfolios can be a feasible alternative in contexts in which face-to-face tutoring is difficult.

  4. Distribution of Malassezia species on the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and healthy volunteers assessed by conventional and molecular identification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, Tomasz; Rup, Elżbieta; Ziółkowska, Aleksandra; Roeske, Katarzyna; Macura, Anna B; Bielecki, Jacek

    2014-03-07

    The Malassezia yeasts which belong to the physiological microflora of human skin have also been implicated in several dermatological disorders, including pityriasis versicolor (PV), atopic dermatitis (AD), and psoriasis (PS). The Malassezia genus has repeatedly been revised and it now accommodates 14 species, all but one being lipid-dependent species. The traditional, phenotype-based identification schemes of Malassezia species are fraught with interpretative ambiguities and inconsistencies, and are thus increasingly being supplemented or replaced by DNA typing methods. The aim of this study was to explore the species composition of Malassezia microflora on the skin of healthy volunteers and patients with AD and PS. Species characterization was performed by conventional, culture-based methods and subsequently molecular techniques: PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/2 regions and the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. The Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Malassezia sympodialis was the predominant species, having been cultured from 29 (82.9%) skin samples collected from 17 out of 18 subjects under the study. Whereas AD patients yielded exclusively M. sympodialis isolates, M. furfur isolates were observed only in PS patients. The isolation of M. sympodialis was statistically more frequent among AD patients and healthy volunteers than among PS patients (P < 0.03). Whether this mirrors any predilection of particular Malassezia species for certain clinical conditions needs to be further evaluated. The overall concordance between phenotypic and molecular methods was quite high (65%), with the discordant results being rather due to the presence of multiple species in a single culture (co-colonization) than true misidentification. All Malassezia isolates were susceptible to cyclopiroxolamine and azole drugs, with M. furfur isolates being somewhat more drug tolerant than other Malassezia species

  5. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Hayashi, Naoto; Miyati, Tosiaki; Takao, Hidemasa; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Yamashita, Fumio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: "Frontal Lobe," "Hippocampus," "Occipital Lobe," "Orbital Gyrus," "Parietal Lobe," "Putamen," and "Temporal Lobe." Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies.

  6. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Osamu [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Takao, Hidemasa; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Iwatsubo, Takeshi [University of Tokyo, Department of Neuropathology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamashita, Fumio [Iwate Medical University, Department of Radiology, Yahaba, Iwate (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Integrative Brain Imaging Center National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: Japanese Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2013-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: ''Frontal Lobe,'' ''Hippocampus,'' ''Occipital Lobe,'' ''Orbital Gyrus,'' ''Parietal Lobe,'' ''Putamen,'' and ''Temporal Lobe.'' Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies. (orig.)

  7. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Hayashi, Naoto; Miyati, Tosiaki; Takao, Hidemasa; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Yamashita, Fumio; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: ''Frontal Lobe,'' ''Hippocampus,'' ''Occipital Lobe,'' ''Orbital Gyrus,'' ''Parietal Lobe,'' ''Putamen,'' and ''Temporal Lobe.'' Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies. (orig.)

  8. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities in methanolic extracts of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. Methods: The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested against two Grampositive bacteria, viz. Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, and two Gram-negative bacteria, viz. Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922 and Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264 using the disk diffusion assay. The antifungal activity was similarly tested against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of promising sponges extracts were determined by the microdilution technique. Results: All the sponge species in this study showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test strains. Antibacterial activities were observed in 66.7% of the sponges extracts, while 30.0% of the extracts exhibited antifungal activities. Among them, the extracts of the sponges Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. were the most active against four tested bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. The sponge Theonella swinhoei and two species of Xestospongia also displayed significant activities against two fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities were demonstrated in extracts from various marine sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. The most promising sponges among them were Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. This is the first report of antimicrobial activity in extracts of marine sponges from the Indonesian Anambas Islands.

  9. The Stability of DSM Personality Disorders over Twelve to Eighteen Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestadt, Gerald; Di, Chongzhi; Samuels, J F; Bienvenu, O J; Reti, I M; Costa, P; Eaton, William W; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Background Stability of personality disorders is assumed in most nomenclatures; however, the evidence for this is limited and inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the stability of DSM-III personality disorders in a community sample of eastern Baltimore residents unselected for treatment. Methods Two hundred ninety four participants were examined on two occasions by psychiatrists using the same standardized examination twelve to eighteen years apart. All the DSM-III criteria for personality disorders were assessed. Item-response analysis was adapted into two approaches to assess the agreement between the personality measures on the two occasions. The first approach estimated stability in the underlying disorder, correcting for error in trait measurement, and the second approach estimated stability in the measured disorder, without correcting for item unreliability. Results Five of the ten personality disorders exhibited moderate stability in individuals: antisocial, avoidant, borderline, histrionic, and schizotypal. Associated estimated ICCs for stability of underlying disorder over time ranged between approximately 0.4 and 0.7–0.8. A sixth disorder, OCPD, exhibited appreciable stability with estimated ICC of approximately 0.2–0.3. Dependent, narcissistic, paranoid, and schizoid disorders were not demonstrably stable. Conclusions The findings suggest that six of the DSM personality disorder constructs themselves are stable, but that specific traits within the DSM categories are both of lesser importance than the constructs themselves and require additional specification. PMID:19656527

  10. Transitioning HIV-Positive Adolescents to Adult Care: Lessons Learned From Twelve Adolescent Medicine Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Amanda E; Philbin, Morgan M; DuVal, Anna; Ellen, Jonathan; Kapogiannis, Bill; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-01-01

    To maximize positive health outcomes for youth with HIV as they transition from youth to adult care, clinical staff need strategies and protocols to help youth maintain clinic engagement and medication adherence. Accordingly, this paper describe transition processes across twelve clinics within the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) to provide lessons learned and inform the development of transition protocols to improve health outcomes as youth shift from adolescent to adult HIV care. During a large multi-method Care Initiative program evaluation, three annual visits were completed at each site from 2010-2012 and conducted 174 semi-structured interviews with clinical and program staff (baseline n=64, year 1 n=56, year 2=54). The results underscore the value of adhering to recent American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) transition recommendations, including: developing formal transition protocols, preparing youth for transition, facilitating youth's connection to the adult clinic, and identifying necessary strategies for transition evaluation. Transitioning youth with HIV involves targeting individual-, provider-, and system-level factors. Acknowledging and addressing key barriers is essential for developing streamlined, comprehensive, and context-specific transition protocols. Adolescent and adult clinic involvement in transition is essential to reduce service fragmentation, provide coordinated and continuous care, and support individual and community level health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds; Healthy food trends - linseeds; Healthy snacks - flaxseeds; Healthy diet - flaxseeds; Wellness - flaxseeds ... of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www. ...

  12. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without extra fat or salt. By Mayo Clinic Staff Healthy cooking doesn't mean that ...

  13. Model of twelve properties of a set of organic solvents with graph-theoretical and/or experimental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello

    2010-01-30

    Twelve properties of a highly heterogeneous class of organic solvents have been modeled with a graph-theoretical molecular connectivity modified (MC) method, which allows to encode the core electrons and the hydrogen atoms. The graph-theoretical method uses the concepts of simple, general, and complete graphs, where these last types of graphs are used to encode the core electrons. The hydrogen atoms have been encoded by the aid of a graph-theoretical perturbation parameter, which contributes to the definition of the valence delta, delta(v), a key parameter in molecular connectivity studies. The model of the twelve properties done with a stepwise search algorithm is always satisfactory, and it allows to check the influence of the hydrogen content of the solvent molecules on the choice of the type of descriptor. A similar argument holds for the influence of the halogen atoms on the type of core electron representation. In some cases the molar mass, and in a minor way, special "ad hoc" parameters have been used to improve the model. A very good model of the surface tension could be obtained by the aid of five experimental parameters. A mixed model method based on experimental parameters plus molecular connectivity indices achieved, instead, to consistently improve the model quality of five properties. To underline is the importance of the boiling point temperatures as descriptors in these last two model methodologies. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. QT interval in healthy dogs: which method of correcting the QT interval in dogs is appropriate for use in small animal clinics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira S. Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiography (ECG QT interval is influenced by fluctuations in heart rate (HR what may lead to misinterpretation of its length. Considering that alterations in QT interval length reflect abnormalities of the ventricular repolarisation which predispose to occurrence of arrhythmias, this variable must be properly evaluated. The aim of this work is to determine which method of correcting the QT interval is the most appropriate for dogs regarding different ranges of normal HR (different breeds. Healthy adult dogs (n=130; German Shepherd, Boxer, Pit Bull Terrier, and Poodle were submitted to ECG examination and QT intervals were determined in triplicates from the bipolar limb II lead and corrected for the effects of HR through the application of three published formulae involving quadratic, cubic or linear regression. The mean corrected QT values (QTc obtained using the diverse formulae were significantly different (ρ<0.05, while those derived according to the equation QTcV = QT + 0.087(1- RR were the most consistent (linear regression. QTcV values were strongly correlated (r=0.83 with the QT interval and showed a coefficient of variation of 8.37% and a 95% confidence interval of 0.22-0.23 s. Owing to its simplicity and reliability, the QTcV was considered the most appropriate to be used for the correction of QT interval in dogs.

  15. The Satiating Properties of Pork are not Affected by Cooking Methods, Sousvide Holding Time or Mincing in Healthy Men—A Randomized Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Mitra, Bhaskar; Aaslyng, Margit D.

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature long time (LTLT) sous-vide cooking may modify meat proteins in a way that could promote satiety. We investigated the effects of (1) cooking method (LTLT 58 °C vs. oven 160 °C), (2) LTLT holding time (17 h vs. 72 min), and (3) pork structure, LTLT 58 °C for 17 h (minced vs. roast) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad libitum energy intake (EI) after three hours was the primary endpoint. Moreover, subjective appetite sensations were assessed. Protein digestibility was determined in an in vitro simulated digestion model. Ad libitum EI did not differ between the meals. Furthermore, appetite ratings were not clearly affected. LTLT cooking for 72 min increased the proteolytic rate in the early gastric phase during digestion as compared to LTLT cooking for 17 h or oven cooking. In conclusion, LTLT cooking, LTLT holding time, and pork structure did not affect ad libitum EI. However, LTLT cooking at 58 °C for 72 min seemed to enhance in vitro protein digestibility. PMID:28846600

  16. Rationale, design, and methods for Canadian alliance for healthy hearts and minds cohort study (CAHHM – a Pan Canadian cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia S. Anand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes. Methods/Design Participants between 35 and 69 years of age are being recruited from existing cohorts and a new First Nations Cohort to undergo a detailed assessment of health behaviours (including diet and physical activity, cognitive function, assessment of their local home and workplace environments, and their health services access and utilization. Physical measures including weight, height, waist/hip circumference, body fat percentage, and blood pressure are collected. In addition, eligible participants undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain, heart, carotid artery and abdomen to detect early subclinical vascular disease and ectopic fat deposition. Discussion CAHHM is a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the impact of community level factors, individual health behaviours, and access to health services, on cognitive function, subclinical vascular disease, fat distribution, and the development of chronic diseases among adults living in Canada.

  17. The Satiating Properties of Pork are not Affected by Cooking Methods, Sousvide Holding Time or Mincing in Healthy Men-A Randomized Cross-Over Meal Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Mitra, Bhaskar; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Raben, Anne; Aaslyng, Margit D

    2017-08-26

    Low temperature long time (LTLT) sous-vide cooking may modify meat proteins in a way that could promote satiety. We investigated the effects of (1) cooking method (LTLT 58 °C vs. oven 160 °C), (2) LTLT holding time (17 h vs. 72 min), and (3) pork structure, LTLT 58 °C for 17 h (minced vs. roast) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad libitum energy intake (EI) after three hours was the primary endpoint. Moreover, subjective appetite sensations were assessed. Protein digestibility was determined in an in vitro simulated digestion model. Ad libitum EI did not differ between the meals. Furthermore, appetite ratings were not clearly affected. LTLT cooking for 72 min increased the proteolytic rate in the early gastric phase during digestion as compared to LTLT cooking for 17 h or oven cooking. In conclusion, LTLT cooking, LTLT holding time, and pork structure did not affect ad libitum EI. However, LTLT cooking at 58 °C for 72 min seemed to enhance in vitro protein digestibility.

  18. Influence of menstruation on the microbiota of healthy women's labia minora as analyzed using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Morotomi, Nobuo; Imamura, Yuri; Mishima, Junko; Imai, Shigeo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menstruation on the bacterial population of healthy Japanese women's vulvas, especially the labia minora. Labia minora swabs were obtained from 10 premenopausal, nonpregnant Japanese women at premenstruation and on day 2 of menstruation. Vaginal swabs were also obtained from 3 out of the 10 women. No significant difference was found in the average bacterial cell count between the menstruation and premenstruation samples. Molecular analysis using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method detected 22 genera from the labia minora swabs (total 20), with the genus Lactobacillus being predominant at both premenstruation and during menstruation in 7 out of the 10 women. Of the other 3 women, 2 showed various kinds of bacterial species, including oral and fecal bacteria, with Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis predominating in the remaining woman's vulva in both conditions. In total, 6 out of 10 cases (60%) showed significantly different microbiota of the labia minora between the two conditions. These results imply that menstruation may promote a distortion of the bacterial flora around the vulva, although it causes no significant increase of the bacterial count.

  19. The satiating properties of pork are not affected by cooking methods, sousvide holding time or mincing in healthy men - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Mitra, Bhaskar; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Low temperature long time (LTLT) sous-vide cooking may modify meat proteins in a way that could promote satiety. We investigated the effects of (1) cooking method (LTLT 58 °C vs. oven 160 °C), (2) LTLT holding time (17 h vs. 72 min), and (3) pork structure, LTLT 58 °C for 17 h (minced vs. roast......) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad...... libitum energy intake (EI) after three hours was the primary endpoint. Moreover, subjective appetite sensations were assessed. Protein digestibility was determined in an in vitro simulated digestion model. Ad libitum EI did not differ between the meals. Furthermore, appetite ratings were not clearly...

  20. Chapter Twelve

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    okada na obere jenareto ai passi mai nebo·. 17 ... Oluchukwu Micro-Finance Bank gbasara aka inyere ndi 10. Mmadu aka n'uzo di .... Nigeria· This in no small measure has been helping unemployed people, graduates ... Even in the transport sector people have been empowered to be self reliant· This could be seen in the ...

  1. Application of microarray and functional-based screening methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance genes in the microbiomes of healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick M Card

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to screen for the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes within the saliva and faecal microbiomes of healthy adult human volunteers from five European countries. Two non-culture based approaches were employed to obviate potential bias associated with difficult to culture members of the microbiota. In a gene target-based approach, a microarray was employed to screen for the presence of over 70 clinically important resistance genes in the saliva and faecal microbiomes. A total of 14 different resistance genes were detected encoding resistances to six antibiotic classes (aminoglycosides, β-lactams, macrolides, sulphonamides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim. The most commonly detected genes were erm(B, blaTEM, and sul2. In a functional-based approach, DNA prepared from pooled saliva samples was cloned into Escherichia coli and screened for expression of resistance to ampicillin or sulphonamide, two of the most common resistances found by array. The functional ampicillin resistance screen recovered genes encoding components of a predicted AcrRAB efflux pump. In the functional sulphonamide resistance screen, folP genes were recovered encoding mutant dihydropteroate synthase, the target of sulphonamide action. The genes recovered from the functional screens were from the chromosomes of commensal species that are opportunistically pathogenic and capable of exchanging DNA with related pathogenic species. Genes identified by microarray were not recovered in the activity-based screen, indicating that these two methods can be complementary in facilitating the identification of a range of resistance mechanisms present within the human microbiome. It also provides further evidence of the diverse reservoir of resistance mechanisms present in bacterial populations in the human gut and saliva. In future the methods described in this study can be used to monitor changes in the resistome in response to antibiotic therapy.

  2. Do supervised weekly exercise programs maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life, twelve months after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin to decline unless the program is of longer duration or ongoing maintenance exercise is followed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise compared to home exercise will maintain the benefits gained from an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects to twelve months. Methods Following completion of an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, COPD subjects will be recruited and randomised (using concealed allocation in numbered envelopes into either the maintenance exercise group (supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise or the control group (unsupervised home exercise and followed for twelve months. Measurements will be taken at baseline (post an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, three, six and twelve months. The exercise measurements will include two six-minute walk tests, two incremental shuttle walk tests, and two endurance shuttle walk tests. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnoea will be monitored during all these tests. Quality of life will be measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants will be excluded if they require supplemental oxygen or have neurological or musculoskeletal co-morbidities that will prevent them from exercising independently. Discussion Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important part in the management of COPD and the results from this study will help determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise can successfully maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life following an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects in Australia.

  3. Accumulation of aluminum and barium in twelve Punjab wheat varieties and their contents in the agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shar, G.Q.; Lashari, A.K.H.; Haider, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    Wheat samples of twelve varieties, grown by breeders at NIAB, Faisalabad Pakistan and its soil, were collected and analyzed for aluminum and barium content by atomic absorption spectroscopy using acetylene-nitroxide flame. For dissolution for heavy metals, aluminum and barium, wet acid digestion method was used. The experimental study was conducted using six samples for each twelve varieties of FSC and RD (Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department) as standard reference materials and representative samples, and the soil which was also collected from agricultural plot of Nuclear Inst. of Agricultural and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Punjab. The characteristics mean of both elements in each variety of representative samples was found to be 28.32, 71.02, 37.41, 36.95, 28.32, 47.40, 30.14, 14.69, 25.41, 32.86, 30.14 and 41.95 for the aluminum and 12.67, 6.92, 5.67, 19.82, 3.28, 17.34, 10.25, 10.49, 8.01, 14.23, 15.16 and 6.92 mg/kg for the barium of Chakwal-86, Bakhatawar-92, Shahkar-95, Parwaz-94, Punjab-96, Bahawal pur-97, Shahkar-91, Inquilab-91, Pasban-90, Punjab-85, Faisalabad-85 and Pak-81 varieties respectively. The soil of that specific plot contains 35964.3 and 111.08 mg/kg of aluminum and barium respectively. The representative samples, which are compared with certified samples at 95% confidence limit. The purpose of this study was to study the variation in uptake of aluminum and barium in twelve different wheat varieties grown in same agricultural plot. (author)

  4. Caregivers' perception of factors associated with a healthy diet among people with intellectual disability living in community residences: A Concept mapping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, Marte Pilskog; Raanaas, Ruth Kjærsti; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-12-01

    Many people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in community-based residences have been found to have unhealthy diet and weight disturbances. In Norway, a majority of people with ID live in such residences. The aim of the study was to examine factors affecting the caregivers' opportunity to promote a healthy diet among the residents. A concept mapping methodology was adopted, including group-based brainstorming, idea synthesising, sorting, rating and analysis of the results. Informants were caregivers in four different community residences for people with mild to moderate ID in the southeast of Norway. A total of 13 informants were recruited (12 females and 1 male), and 10 informants completed two sessions. Eight clusters were identified as affecting the caregivers' ability to promote a healthy diet: "Availability and accessibility", "Guidance and autonomy", "Competence among staff", "Planning and involvement", "Customization", "External conditions affecting staff", "Legislation, rules and structure" and "Everyday challenges", each including both barriers and facilitators. Multiple factors affect the caregivers' ability to promote a healthy diet. Caregivers' opportunity to promote a healthy diet is complex. Availability and accessibility of healthy food is crucial, but a healthy diet also requires time and competence among the caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Healthy lifestyle in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kamran, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a questionnaire including demographic healthy lifestyle questions. Analysis of the data was performed through Software SPSS version 18. The mean age of the subjects was 40.26 ± 6.05 years and, BMI mean was 25.08 ± 3.20. 96.8% of them were married and 3.1% also were single. 1% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 13.5%had moderate, 85.4% had a good lifestyle. In terms of nutrition, 2% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 23% moderate, 74% good. 76% in terms of physical activity, 29.2% smoking and 21.9% stress had a weak lifestyle. According to the results, planning for teachers in school for receiving information about healthy lifestyle is important.

  6. [Training session on healthy environments: evaluation of an intervention for local stakeholders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Virginie; Rivard, Marie-Claude; Trudeau, François

    2016-01-01

    Around the world, various interventions have been developed to encourage the adoption of healthy lifestyles, particularly nutrition and physical activity. Physical, political, economic and socio-cultural environments have a major influence on individual attitudes in relation to healthy lifestyle. However, stakeholders with the greatest impact on improving these environments are not always well informed about the theory and their roles on the creation of environments favourable to healthy lifestyles. Various stakeholders from the province of Quebec were therefore invited to attend training sessions in order to prepare them to act on these four environments. 1) To describe the perceptions of the stakeholders who attended these sessions concerning the content and teaching methods and 2) to identify stakeholders’ changes of perceptions and practices following the training session. Twelve (12) focus groups and 52 individual interviews were conducted across Quebec with stakeholders who attended a training session. Our results indicate increased awareness of stakeholders on the importance of their role but also the need to more precisely target those aspects requiring increased awareness. A content better suited to the level of expertise is therefore proposed to maximize the benefits of these training sessions. Training sessions must be addressed to influential stakeholders with a limited knowledge on the subject, which is often the case for municipal decision-makers known to play a major role in promoting environments favourable to healthy eating and physical activity.

  7. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  8. A Healthy Eating Education Program for Midwives to Investigate and Explore Their Knowledge, Understanding, and Confidence to Support Pregnant Women to Eat Healthily: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Shwikar Mahmoud Etman; Steen, Mary P; Jayasekara, Rasika; Fleet, Julie-Anne

    2018-05-25

    Nutrition and healthy eating behaviors during pregnancy are vitally important for the health of a mother and her developing baby. However, some midwives have reported a lack of evidence-based nutrition knowledge for providing information about healthy eating to women during pregnancy. In this study, the aim is to design and evaluate a healthy eating education program to enhance midwives' knowledge, understanding, and confidence to support pregnant women in South Australia to make healthy eating choices. This mixed-methods study consists of two phases. The first phase, Phase 1, consists of an education program for midwives, "Healthy Eating in Pregnancy," to be delivered through a workshop or webinar. Each midwife will attend one workshop or webinar, which will be approximately two hours in length. This program will be evaluated through pre-, immediate-, and post-educational questionnaires utilizing a website specifically designed for this study. The participants will be midwives who are members of the Australian College of Midwives and the Australian Nursing and Midwives Federation, and users of social media (eg, Facebook and Twitter) residing and employed in South Australia. Phase 2 will consist of semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of midwives. These interviews will be undertaken to gain an in-depth understanding of midwives' views and how confident they feel educating pregnant women after receiving the healthy eating education. Interviews will be face-to-face or conducted by telephone with midwives who have participated in the healthy eating educational program. A systematic review has previously been undertaken to inform this study protocol. This paper describes and discusses the protocol for this mixed-methods study, which will be completed in April 2019. The results from the systematic review suggest that there is clear justification to undertake this mixed-methods study to investigate and explore midwives' knowledge, understanding and

  9. Effects of the H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Studies on animals have shown that histamine may be involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tone. However, the role of histamine in the regulation of human gastric motor function is not clear. This study examined the effect of ranitidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. Material and methods. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...... computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. Results...

  10. Effects of the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J.L.; Graff, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies on animals have shown that histamine may be involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal smooth muscle tone. However, the role of histamine in the regulation of human gastric motor function is not clear. This study examined the effect of ranitidine, an H(2)-receptor antagonist......, on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...... computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. RESULTS...

  11. Effects of the H(2)-receptor antagonist ranitidine on gastric motor function after a liquid meal in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Graff, J

    2008-01-01

    , on gastric volume and gastric emptying after a liquid meal in healthy humans. Material and methods. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover study with 50 mg ranitidine as a bolus intravenously versus no medication. Gastric volume at baseline was determined with single photon emission...... computed tomography (SPECT) after intravenous injection of 99(m)Tc-pertechnetate. After ingestion of a 600-mL liquid meal radiolabelled with (111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, dual-isotope technique with SPECT and planar imaging assessed gastric volume as well as gastric emptying. Results....... Ranitidine did not change gastric volume before the meal, nor at 0 h or 1 h after it. Furthermore, ranitidine did not influence gastric retention of meal components after 0.5 h and 1 h. Conclusions. Intravenous bolus injection of 50 mg ranitidine does not modify gastric volume or gastric emptying after a 600...

  12. Who should do what in environmental management? Twelve principles for allocating responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.

    2015-01-01

    In environmental management there is often discussion on the allocation of responsibilities. Such discussions can continue for a long time and can form an obstacle for effective action. In this article twelve normative principles for the allocation of responsibilities are identified, coming from

  13. Key lessons: Twelve factors critical to the success of WDM at the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Key lessons: Twelve factors critical to the success of WDM at the policy and at the operational levels ... from slums in central New Delhi to the city's desolate periphery face daily indignities and danger as they collect water o.

  14. Peucedanum ostruthium (L. Koch: Morphological and phytochemical variability of twelve accessions from the Swiss alpine region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCardell, Jessica Heather

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostruthin, a natural bioactive compound mainly occurring in the roots of Peucedanum ostruthium, is the focus of this study. P. ostruthium was collected from twelve locations in the Swiss alpine region and reared in an experimental field, subdivided into twelve lots over two years. In the spring and fall, a portion of each of the twelve accessions was harvested and separated into above and below ground plant parts. The dried plants were then extracted with 60 % ethanol using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE and analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC.The above and below ground plant parts were then analyzed concerning their dry matter yield (DMY, their ostruthin concentration and their ostruthin yield. Focusing on ostruthin, it was found that the below ground plant parts harvested in the fall rendered the highest ostruthin yield. Furthermore, a variability concerning ostruthin among the twelve accessions was found. This variability among the accessions is of interest with regards to a breeding program used to develop a cultivar with a high ostruthin yield.

  15. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  16. Isolation and characterization of twelve microsatellite loci for the Japanese Devilray (Mobula japanica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, Marloes; Galvan-Magana, Felipe; Bernardi, Giacomo; Croll, Donald A.; Olsen, Jeanine L.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellites loci were characterized for Mobula japanica (Japanese Devilray) using an enrichment protocol. All but two loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium or null-alleles for a sample of 40 individuals from two populations. The

  17. Premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Premarital sex increases the risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV if unprotected and contraception is not used. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess premarital sex in the last twelve months and its predictors among regular undergraduate students of Wollega ...

  18. The effects of planting density and cultural intensity on loblolly pine crown characteristics at age twelve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison Akers; Michael Kane; Robert Teskey; Richard Daniels; Dehai Zhao; Santosh Subedi

    2012-01-01

    Twelve-year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands were analyzed for the effects of planting density and cultural intensity on tree and crown attributes. Four study installations were located in the Piedmont and Upper Coastal Plain regions of the U.S. South. The treatments included six planting densities (740, 1480, 2220, 2960, 3700, 4440 trees...

  19. Selective method for identification and quantification of Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis BB-12 (BB-12) from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy volunteers ingesting a combination probiotic of BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutsiaka, D D; Mahoney, I J; McDermott, L A; Stern, L L; Thorpe, C M; Kane, A V; Baez-Giangreco, C; McKinney, J; Davidson, L E; Leyva, R; Goldin, B; Snydman, D R

    2017-05-01

    To develop a novel validated method for the isolation of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) from faecal specimens and apply it to studies of BB-12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) recovered from the healthy human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. A novel method for isolating and enumerating BB-12 was developed based on its morphologic features of growth on tetracycline-containing agar. The method identified BB-12 correctly from spiked stool close to 100% of the time as validated by PCR confirmation of identity, and resulted in 97-104% recovery of BB-12. The method was then applied in a study of the recovery of BB-12 and LGG from the GI tract of healthy humans consuming ProNutrients ® Probiotic powder sachet containing BB-12 and LGG. Viable BB-12 and LGG were recovered from stool after 21 days of probiotic ingestion compared to baseline. In contrast, no organisms were recovered 21 days after baseline in the nonsupplemented control group. We demonstrated recovery of viable BB-12, using a validated novel method specific for the isolation of BB-12, and LGG from the GI tract of healthy humans who consumed the probiotic supplement. This method will enable more detailed and specific studies of BB-12 in probiotic supplements, including when in combination with LGG. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  1. Healthy Pets and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent the spread of germs between pets and people. Keep pets and their supplies out of the kitchen, and ... a local wildlife rehabilitation facility. More Information Healthy Pets Healthy People Clean Hands Save Lives! Stay Healthy at Animal ...

  2. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thalassemia” More What can a person living with thalassemia do to stay healthy? A healthy lifestyle is ... disorder”, as well as making healthy choices. Managing Thalassemia Thalassemia is a treatable disorder that can be ...

  3. Healthy food trends - kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... Kale is full of vitamins and minerals, including: Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin K If you take ...

  4. Design and methods for a cluster-controlled trial conducted at sixty-eight daycare facilities evaluating the impact of “JolinchenKids – Fit and Healthy in Daycare”, a program for health promotion in 3- to 6-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Steenbock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention of overweight and obesity during infancy is a highly relevant public health topic given the significant impact of childhood obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, and well-being in later stages of life. Apart from the family setting, daycare facilities (DFs represent a key setting for health promotion among children under the age of six years. “JolinchenKids – Fit and Healthy in Daycare” is a multi-component program promoting physical activity (PA, healthy eating, and mental well-being in 3- to 6-year-old preschoolers at DFs, originally designed by the German health insurance AOK. To evaluate program effectiveness, a cluster-controlled trial involving 68 DFs is currently conducted. The objective of this article is to describe the background, study design, and aims of this trial. Methods/design Sixty-eight DFs across Germany will be recruited to take part in the study, half of them serving as intervention DFs and half of them as delayed intervention control DFs (which receive the program upon completion of the study. At each DF, height, weight, and body composition, as well as motor skills, will be assessed in twenty 3- to 6-year-old children. Children’s eating and PA habits, and mental well-being will be assessed via parental questionnaires. A subsample of children (i.e., at 24 DFs which are randomly selected within a geographic region will be asked to wear accelerometers at their wrists to objectively measure PA over the course of seven days. To compare changes in body composition, motor skills, eating and PA habits, and mental well-being of children at intervention DFs with those observed among children at delayed intervention control DFs over one year, all measurements will take place at baseline and twelve months after the launch of the program at all DFs. Discussion This study investigates the influence of a health promotion program in the daycare setting on various outcomes

  5. Parental Translation into Practice of Healthy Eating and Active Play Messages and the Impact on Childhood Obesity: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Huxtable

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a significant health issue worldwide. Modifiable risk factors in early childhood relate to child healthy eating and active play, and are influenced by parents. The aim of the study was two-fold. Firstly, to determine the weight status of children aged between birth and 3.5 years in a rural and remote area of Australia. Secondly, to explore the relationship between child weight status and translation of advice on healthy eating and active play provided to parents by local, nurse-led, Maternal Child Health (MCH services. Measured anthropometric data (n = 438 were provided by MCH services. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two MCH nurses and 15 parents. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was calculated. Local childhood overweight/obesity prevalence was lower than the national average at age 3.5 years (11.38%; 20%. Parents identified the MCH service as a key source of healthy eating and active play advice and reported mostly following recommendations but struggling with screen time and fussy eating recommendations. We observed a relaxation in parent attitudes towards healthy child behaviours which coincided with a trend towards obesity from 12 months (p < 0.001. MCH services provide useful and effective advice to parents but ongoing support is required to prevent obesity later in childhood.

  6. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11-13 year old children. A mixed methods study in four Danish public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Breiting, Soren; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to provide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils' attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food and health. An observational cross-sectional study was designed, and the participants were 6th grade Danish pupils from two schools with organic food provision and two schools with non-organic food provision. The pupils were asked to complete an online adapted food frequency questionnaire, after which selected pupils were invited to focus group interviews. More positive school lunch habits were observed in pupils in the organic schools than in the non-organic schools. Generally all the pupils had positive attitudes towards organic food and health and this had a significant impact on their intention to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods, organic foods and healthy eating habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  8. Tanzania national survey on iodine deficiency: impact after twelve years of salt iodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimboka Sabas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many low-income countries, children are at high risk of iodine deficiency disorders, including brain damage. In the early 1990s, Tanzania, a country that previously suffered from moderate to severe iodine deficiency, adopted universal salt iodation (USI as an intervention strategy, but its impact remained unknown. Methods We report on the first national survey in mainland Tanzania, conducted in 2004 to assess the extent to which iodated salt was used and its apparent impact on the total goitre prevalence (TGP and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC among the schoolchildren after USI was initiated. In 2004, a cross-sectional goitre survey was conducted; covering 140,758 schoolchildren aged 6 - 18 years were graded for goitre according to new WHO goitre classification system. Comparisons were made with district surveys conducted throughout most of the country during the 1980s and 90s. 131,941 salt samples from households were tested for iodine using rapid field test kits. UIC was determined spectrophotometrically using the ammonium persulfate digestion method in 4523 sub-sampled children. Results 83.6% (95% CI: 83.4 - 83.8 of salt samples tested positive for iodine. Whereas the TGP was about 25% on average in the earlier surveys, it was 6.9% (95%CI: 6.8-7.0 in 2004. The TGP for the younger children, 6-9 years old, was 4.2% (95%CI: 4.0-4.4, n = 41,965. In the 27 goitre-endemic districts, TGP decreased from 61% (1980s to 12.3% (2004. The median UIC was 204 (95% CF: 192-215 μg/L. Only 25% of children had UIC Conclusion Our study demonstrates a marked improvement in iodine nutrition in Tanzania, twelve years after the initiation of salt iodation programme. The challenge in sustaining IDD elimination in Tanzania is now two-fold: to better reach the areas with low coverage of iodated salt, and to reduce iodine intake in areas where it is excessive. Particular attention is needed in improving quality control at production level and

  9. Gender Differences in Cerebral Regional Homogeneity of Adult Healthy Volunteers: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to use the regional homogeneity (ReHo approach as an index in the resting-state functional MRI to investigate the gender differences of spontaneous brain activity within cerebral cortex and resting-state networks (RSNs in young adult healthy volunteers. Methods. One hundred and twelve healthy volunteers (56 males, 56 females participated in the resting-state fMRI scan. The ReHo mappings in the cerebral cortex and twelve RSNs of the male and female groups were compared. Results. We found statistically significant gender differences in the primary visual network (PVN (P<0.004, with Bonferroni correction and left attention network (LAtN, default mode network (DMN, sensorimotor network (SMN, executive network (EN, and dorsal medial prefrontal network (DMPFC as well (P<0.05, uncorrected. The male group showed higher ReHo in the left precuneus, while the female group showed higher ReHo in the right middle cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. Conclusions. Our results suggested that men and women had regional specific differences during the resting-state. The findings may improve our understanding of the gender differences in behavior and cognition from the perspective of resting-state brain function.

  10. Ultra pressure liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization mass spectrometry determination of twelve halobenzoquinones at ng/L levels in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongfu; Wang, Wei; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Zhao, Yuli; Li, Xing-Fang

    2013-05-07

    We report here the characterization of twelve halobenzoquinones (HBQs) using electrospray ionization (ESI) high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The high resolution negative ESI spectra of the twelve HBQs formed two parent ions, [M + H(+) + 2e(-)], and the radical M(-•). The intensities of these two parent ions are dependent on their chemical structures and on instrumental parameters such as the source temperature and flow rate. The characteristic ions of the HBQs were used to develop an ultra pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. At the UPLC flow rate (400 μL/min) and under the optimized ESI conditions, eleven HBQs showed the stable and abundant transitions [M + H(+) + 2e(-)] → X(-) (X(-) representing Cl(-), Br(-), or I(-)), while dibromo-dimethyl-benzoquinone (DBDMBQ) showed only the transition of M(-•) → Br(-). The UPLC efficiently separates all HBQs including some HBQ isomers, while the MS/MS offers exquisite limits of detection (LODs) at subng/mL levels for all HBQs except DBDMBQ. Combined with solid phase extraction (SPE), the method LOD is down to ng/L. The results from analysis of authentic samples demonstrated that the SPE-UPLC-MS/MS method is reliable, fast, and sensitive for the identification and quantification of the twelve HBQs in drinking water.

  11. Twelve-month safety and efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate in children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Allen, David; Milanowski, Janusz

    2004-01-01

    , exacerbations, and requirements for oral steroid treatment and more symptom-free days and days without use of rescue treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months of treatment with inhaled FP (100 microg twice daily) in preschool children aged 1 to 3 years with recurrent wheeze has no effect on growth and no other......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the 12-month safety and efficacy of fluticasone propionate (FP) and sodium cromoglycate (SCG) in children aged 1 to 3 years with mild to moderate recurrent wheeze. METHODS: The study was a randomized, parallel-group, open-label multicenter study of 625 children......, aged 1 to 3 years, with recurrent wheeze randomized in a 3:1 ratio to treatment for 52 weeks with FP (100 microg twice daily) via metered-dose inhaler and Babyhaler spacer device or SCG (5 mg 4 times daily) via metered-dose inhaler and Nebuhaler spacer device, respectively. RESULTS...

  12. Have a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... important that you: Don’t smoke or drink alcohol. Eat healthy foods and get enough folic acid. Stay active. Take ... Learn more: Pregnant? Don’t Smoke! Quit Smoking Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Next ... 7 of 11 sections Take Action: Eat Healthy and Stay Active Eat healthy foods. Making healthy food choices during pregnancy can help ...

  13. Design and methods for "Commit to Get Fit" - a pilot study of a school-based mindfulness intervention to promote healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Druker, Sue; Meyer, Florence; Bock, Beth; Crawford, Sybil; Pbert, Lori

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular prevention is more effective if started early in life, but available interventions to promote healthy lifestyle habits among youth have been ineffective. Impulsivity in particular has proven to be an important barrier to the adoption of healthy behaviors in youth. Observational evidence suggests that mindfulness interventions may reduce impulsivity and improve diet and physical activity. We hypothesize that mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education will improve dietary habits and physical activity among teenagers by reducing impulsive behavior and improving planning skills. The Commit to Get Fit study is a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial examining the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of school-based mindfulness training in adjunct to traditional health education for promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity among adolescents. Two schools in central Massachusetts (30 students per school) will be randomized to receive mindfulness training plus standard health education (HE-M) or an attention-control intervention plus standard health education (HE-AC). Assessments will be conducted at baseline, intervention completion (2 months), and 8 months. Primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, diet, impulsivity, mood, body mass index, and quality of life. This study will provide important information about feasibility and preliminary estimates of efficacy of a school-delivered mindfulness and health education intervention to promote healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors among adolescents. Our findings will provide important insights about the possible mechanisms by which mindfulness training may contribute to behavioral change and inform future research in this important area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors for chronic noncontiguous diseases: Twelve-week prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapčević Mirjana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors (RF of chronic noncontiguous diseases (CND are mutual and cannot be observed individually since there is an inter-reaction (interaction of RF in various combinations, what makes so-called personality risk profile for development of particular disease. Almost all CND belong to the group of preventable diseases, because their course may be influenced and changed through RF modification and reduction. Bad habits also contribute to CND incidence. CND prevention is the first priority of primary health care physicians. The main objective of our study was to detect RF in patients during everyday activities of general practitioner, to estimate the risk of CND within the existing RF combination, to show the results of 12-week active monitoring of population with RF of CND, and with already present CND; while the secondary goal was to assess how much population is interested in active collaboration as well as to evaluate the qualification of general medicine teams for work based on defined methodology. The study was multicentric, prospective and interventional. The study included 2086 subjects, aged from 25-64 years, and it was carried out in 17 health centers throughout Serbia in the period January-April 2002. The subjects were selected by method of open clinical experiment. Thereafter, 12-week medical intervention was initiated involving non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment. The first control was scheduled after 8, and the second after 12 months of intervention. Congruence χ2 test, ANOVA for repeated measurements and Logistic regression were used for statistical data processing. Out of a total of 2086 subjects, the following proportion of them reported specific diagnosis in their medical histories: 77% of them reported arterial hypertension (HTA, 68% - increased body mass (BMI>27Kg/m2, 66% - hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP, 34% - diabetes mellitus (DM, 56% - inadequate physical activity (PA, and 23% - cigarette smoking (CS. On the

  15. Beverage and water intake of healthy adults in some European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional surveys frequently collect some data of consumption of beverages; however, information from different sources and different methodologies raises issues of comparability. The main objective of this review was to examine the available techniques used for assessing beverage intake in European epidemiological studies and to describe the most frequent method applied to assess it. Information of beverage intake available from European surveys and nutritional epidemiological investigations was obtained from gray literature. Twelve articles were included and relevant data were extracted. The studies were carried out on healthy adults by different types of assessments. The most frequent tool used was a 7-d dietary record. Only Germany used a specific beverage assessment tool (Beverage Dietary History). From the limited data available and the diversity of the methodology used, the results show that consumption of beverages is different between countries. Current epidemiological studies in Europe focusing on beverage intake are scarce. Further research is needed to clarify the amount of beverage intake in European population.

  16. Vitamin and mineral intake of twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jakobsen, Jette; Friis, H

    2005-01-01

    runners was carried out to determine their micronutrient intake. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over a two-week period, samples of the main eaten food were collected for analysis of micronutrient distribution and a daily 24 recall interview performed to determine additional food intake. RESULTS: The estimated...... mg, 1309 microg, and 79 microg, respectively. CONCLUSION: Total daily micronutrient intake of the twelve Kalenjin runners was far from adequate compared to FAO/WHO daily recommended and suggested adequate intake....

  17. A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2003-12-13

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  18. The social, cultural and medicinal use of kava for twelve Tongan born men living in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosa, Vili; Ofanoa, Malakai

    2009-02-01

    Kava consumption is a very popular practise amongst Pacific people especially amongst the Tongan communities. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the key cultural, social and medicinal elements of kava use amongst Tongan men. Twelve face to face interviews in this study were undertaken. The paper argues that kava drinking is strongly linked to many of the ceremonial, social and cultural obligations that are deeply embedded within the Tongan culture. The positive uses of kava include medicinal purposes, male bonding, alternative to alcohol consumption, reaffirming and establishing relationships amongst other Tongan men, The men also stated negative uses of kava such as it made them lazy, tired so they were not able to go to work, a lack of sexual activities by being too tired have sex with their partners, and very expensive to buy in New Zealand. The aim of this paper is to discuss and examine the social, cultural and medicinal kava use amongst twelve Tongan born men living in Auckland, New Zealand. The study used qualitative methods, specifically individual interviews were conducted in Tongan or English. Participants were recruited through community networks in Auckland. A number of Tongan churches, Tongan medical clinics such as Langimailie, and kava clubs were approached to recruit participants. The open ended interview schedule covered themes such as access, quantity, frequency, and problems associated with kava use. The interviews were conducted by a Tongan researcher either in English or Tongan. All interviews were translated and transcribed into English. A thematic analysis based on multiple readings of the transcripts was used The analysis identified commonalities and differences. The study was granted ethical approval by the University of Auckland Human Subjects Ethics Committee in December 2004. Interviews were conducted at the beginning of 2005. Interviews were undertaken in a place where the participants felt comfortable. Interview times

  19. Morphology of the spermathecae of twelve species of Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Ribeiro, Aline Rimoldi; Almeida, Larissa Aguiar; de Oliveira, Jader; Mendonça, Vagner José; Cilense, Mário; da Rosa, João Aristeu

    2017-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted by triatomines that have been described in a large number of studies. Most of those studies are related to external morphology and taxonomy, but some biochemical, genetic and physiological studies have also been published. There are a few publications in the literature about the internal organs of Triatominae, for instance the spermathecae, which are responsible for storing and maintaining the viability of the spermatozoids until the fertilization of the oocytes. This work aims to study the spermathecae of twelve species of triatomines obtained from the Triatominae Insectarium of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP, Araraquara, using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The spermathecae of the twelve species studied showed three morphological patterns: a) P. herreri sn, P. lignarius, P. megistus, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. juazeirensis, T. sherlocki and T. tibiamaculata have spermathecae with a thin initial portion and an oval-shaped final portion; b) R. montenegrensis, R. nasutus, R. neglectus, R. pictipes and R. prolixus have tubular and winding spermathecae; c) T. infestans has oval spermathecae. In addition to the three morphological patterns, it was noted that each of the twelve species has particular features that differentiate them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased strength of the scapular stabilizer and lumbar muscles after twelve weeks of Pilates training using the Reformer machine: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Núbia Tomain Otoni; Raimundo, Karoline Cipriano; da Silva, Sheila Aparecida; Souza, Lara Andrade; Ferreira, Karoline Carregal; Borges Santo Urbano, Zuleika Ferreira; Gasparini, Andréa Licre Pessina; Bertoncello, Dernival

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze muscle strength in Pilates novices who used the Reformer equipment during twelve training sessions. Twenty-four healthy young female volunteers, who were non-smokers and did not exercise regularly, were split into a control group (mean age 28 ± 4 years and BMI 24.55 ± 3.21 kg/m 2 ) and a training group (mean age 29 ± 4 years and BMI 22.69 ± 2.87 kgm 2 ). The data were checked for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and were then analyzed using the t-test (p Pilates group). The corresponding values for the lumbar muscles were 53.83 ± 11.66/53.28 ± 11.14 (control group) and 54.75 ± 10.27/64.80 ± 10.20 (Pilates group). After twelve sessions of Pilates with the Reformer equipment, there were improvements in lumbar extensor and scapular stabilizer strength. Several benefits are reported by practitioners of Pilates, but until now, there has been limited scientific evidence of the improvement of strength in the trunk and limbs after application of the technique. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Blood Pressure, Sleep Quality and Fatigue in Shift Working Police Officers: Effects of a Twelve Hour Roster System on Cardiovascular and Sleep Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaymen L. Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Police officers have been reported to exhibit a high incidence of pathologies, which present prematurely in an otherwise healthy population. Shift work has also been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and sleep disorders, attributable to its propensity for circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, contention exists as to whether shift work has a direct effect upon blood pressure (BP regulation. Methods: This cross-sectional study sought to determine changes in BP and associations with the overall sleep quality and fatigue in 206 general duties police officers (n = 140 males of the New South Wales Police Force in Australia. The subjects’ BP was assessed before and after their twelve hour shift, during which time they also completed the Lifestyle Appraisal Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Results: Poor sleep quality (PSQI and fatigue severity (FSS were found to predominate in the sample (69% and 51% respectively. Although there was no change in BP for male participants, female officers’ systolic blood pressure (SBP was found to increase significantly across the shift (p < 0.001, but with no change found in females’ diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Finally, higher pre and post-shift SBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.25, p = 0.001, respectively and DBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.26, p = 0.001, respectively were significantly correlated with lower FSS scores after accounting for age, waist-hip ratio and lifestyle risk factors. Conclusions: Based on these preliminary findings, there was a significant increase in SBP of female police officers after shift work, while BP and fatigue levels in all police officers were strongly related. Moreover, the predominating poor sleep quality and impact of fatigue in this sample remain a concern. Further research is required to ensure the physiological welfare of police officers, while strategies

  2. Changes in six-minute walking distance during pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD and in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Ben Cheikh Rejbi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Imen Ben Cheikh Rejbi1, Yassine Trabelsi1, Afef Chouchene1, Wafa Ben Turkia1, Helmi Ben Saad1, Abdelkarim Zbidi1, Abdelhamid Kerken2, Zouhair Tabka11Department of Physiology and Lung Testing, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, Tunisia; 2Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine of Monastir, TunisiaBackground: The six-minute walking distance (6MWD test has demonstrated validity and reliability to assess changes in functional capacity following pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. However, no attempt has been made to establish an iterative measurement of 6MWD during the overall period of pulmonary rehabilitation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a twelve-week rehabilitation program on the iterative weekly measurement of 6MWD in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and healthy subjects.Methods: Twenty-six patients with COPD and nine age-matched healthy subjects were studied. Measurements were taken at baseline and after twelve weeks except for the 6MWD. The exercise measurements included a six-minute walking test (6MWT and an incremental exercise test. Oxygen saturation, heart rate, and dyspnea will be monitored during all these tests. Results: At baseline there were significant differences between groups, except in age, body mass index, and oxygen saturation. After 12 weeks, there was no significant change in lung function in patients with COPD and healthy subjects. The 6MWD, peak oxygen uptake VO2peak and anaerobic threshold increased significantly after training in both groups (P < 0.01. The averaged trace of the 6MWD of patients with COPD and healthy subjects was followed-up respectively by a logarithmic and linear fitting. 6MWD showed a plateau after eight weeks in patients with COPD, however, it increased continually overall in healthy subjects.Conclusion: Both patients with COPD and healthy subjects demonstrated functional responses to training but with

  3. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for restoring areas with degraded water quality, as well as protecting healthy waters from emerging problems before expensive damages occur. ... exclusively on restoring impaired waters, EPA created the Healthy ... more emphasis to proactively protecting high quality waters, following the ...

  4. Tips for Healthy Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent voice problems and maintain a healthy voice: Drink water (stay well hydrated): Keeping your body well hydrated by drinking plenty of water each day (6-8 glasses) is essential to maintaining a healthy voice. The ...

  5. [Healthy school environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Corzo, Josefina; Munévar-Molina, Raúl A; Munévar-Quintero, Fabio I

    2015-04-01

    Objective To determine factors that characterizes school environments and their relationship with student learning, welfare and health. Method This is a case study supported by a comprehensive qualitative paradigm applied to classroom ecology. The fieldwork was carried out in six public schools for students in economic strata one and two that use computers in virtual classrooms. The information was collected through field journals, film recordings, observation, and recordings of interviews. The information was analyzed by categories in open general and focused cycles. Results The virtual era has enriched the debate about the importance of the environment in pedagogical processes. Nonetheless, the emergence of new diseases is a risk which students are exposed to. Pollution and overcrowding factors prevail in traditional classroom activities, while in the computer rooms the environment is healthier. Hence the need to incorporate these issues into the curriculum reforms and action plans to guide healthy living of schoolchildren and their families. Despite budget constraints, innovative ideas and projects were found. Schools have developed free preventive and corrective strategies such as workshops, talks and lectures by invited specialists, trainees, and students writing theses. They have also introduced controlled Internet access. Conclusion The educational community understands that the concept of health is at the heart of a comprehensive concept of education. In addition, classroom ecology has determining implications for learning and living together in pleasant and healthy environments that are incorporated into institutional educational projects.

  6. Subjective experience of coercion in psychiatric care: a study comparing the attitudes of patients and healthy volunteers towards coercive methods and their justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielau, J; Altunbay, J; Gallinat, J; Heinz, A; Bermpohl, F; Lehmann, A; Montag, C

    2016-06-01

    Under certain conditions, coercive interventions in psychotic patients can help to regain insight and alleviate symptoms, but can also traumatize subjects. This study explored attitudes towards psychiatric coercive interventions in healthy individuals and persons suffering from schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder. The impact of personal history of coercive treatment on preferences concerning clinical management of patients unable to consent was investigated. Six case vignettes depicting scenarios of ethical dilemmas and demanding decisions in favour of or against coercive interventions were presented to 60 healthy volunteers and 90 patients. Structured interviews focusing on experienced coercion were performed in conjunction with the Coercion Experience Scale and the Admission Experience Survey. Symptom severity, psychosocial functioning and insight into illness were assessed as influencing variables. Student's t tests compared patients' and controls' judgments, followed by regression analyses to define the predictive value of symptoms and measures of coercion on judgments regarding the total patient sample and patients with experience of fixation. Patients and non-psychiatric controls showed no significant difference in their attitudes towards involuntary admission and forced medication. Conversely, patients more than controls significantly disapproved of mechanical restraint. Subjective experience of coercive interventions played an important role for the justification of treatment against an individual's "natural will". Factors influencing judgments on coercion were overall functioning and personal experience of treatment effectiveness and fairness. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of perceived coercion, in addition to insight into illness, predicted judgments of previously fixated patients. Results underline the importance of the quality of practical implementation and care, if coercive interventions cannot be avoided.

  7. Definition of a Twelve-Point Polygonal SAA Boundary for the GLAST Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; UC, Santa Cruz; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), set to launch in early 2008, detects gamma rays within a huge energy range of 100 MeV - 300 GeV. Background cosmic radiation interferes with such detection resulting in confusion over distinguishing cosmic from gamma rays encountered. This quandary is resolved by encasing GLAST's Large Area Telescope (LAT) with an Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD), a device which identifies and vetoes charged particles. The ACD accomplishes this through plastic scintillator tiles; when cosmic rays strike, photons produced induce currents in Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) attached to these tiles. However, as GLAST orbits Earth at altitudes ∼550km and latitudes between -26 degree and 26 degree, it will confront the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), a region of high particle flux caused by trapped radiation in the geomagnetic field. Since the SAA flux would degrade the sensitivity of the ACD's PMTs over time, a determined boundary enclosing this region need be attained, signaling when to lower the voltage on the PMTs as a protective measure. The operational constraints on such a boundary require a convex SAA polygon with twelve edges, whose area is minimal ensuring GLAST has maximum observation time. The AP8 and PSB97 models describing the behavior of trapped radiation were used in analyzing the SAA and defining a convex SAA boundary of twelve sides. The smallest possible boundary was found to cover 14.58% of GLAST's observation time. Further analysis of defining a boundary safety margin to account for inaccuracies in the models reveals if the total SAA hull area is increased by ∼20%, the loss of total observational area is < 5%. These twelve coordinates defining the SAA flux region are ready for implementation by the GLAST satellite

  8. New Eyes on the Universe Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    "New Eyes on the Universe -- Twelve Cosmic Mysteries and the Tools We Need to Solve Them" gives an up-to-date broad overview of some of the key issues in modern astronomy and cosmology. It describes the vast amount of observational data that the new generation of observatories and telescopes are currently producing, and how that data might solve some of the outstanding puzzles inherent in our emerging world view. Included are questions such as: What is causing the Universe to blow itself apart? What could be powering the luminous gamma-ray bursters? Where is all the matter in the Uni

  9. A novel double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick William

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a novel proposal of double quad-inverter configuration for multilevel twelve-phase open-winding ac converter. Modular power units are developed from reconfigured eight classical three-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs). Each VSI has one additional bi-directional switching...... numerical simulation software's (Matlab/PLECS) developments. Further, the results confirm the good agreement to the developed theoretical background. Proposed converter suits the need of low-voltage/high-current applications such as ac tractions and `More-Electric Aircraft' propulsion systems....

  10. ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTHY EATING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne

    understanding of adolescent healthy eating. Based on this, the thesis presents three research questions which are investigated in three research papers. The research questions are: 1. Which roles do parents and adolescents have in healthy eating socialisation? 2. How does the social influence from parents...... and family members’ roles regarding healthy eating socialisation is underexposed, the study aimed at exploring adolescents’ and parents’ awareness of and involvement in healthy eating and investigated how they related it to their roles in the healthy eating socialisation taking place within the family...... or a cooperative one helping parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often fulfilling the adolescents’ demands and acknowledging their help. The findings confirm that parents still have the upper hand, when it comes to healthy eating...

  11. A cluster randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote healthy lifestyle habits to school leavers: study rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Standage, Martyn; Verplanken, Bas

    2014-03-04

    Physical inactivity and a poor diet predict lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. Marked declines in physical activity occur during late adolescence, coinciding with the point at which many young people leave school and enter the workforce and begin to take greater control over their lifestyle behaviours. The work outlined within this paper sought to test a theoretically-informed intervention aimed at supporting increased engagement in physical activity and healthy eating habits in young people at the point of transition from school to work or work-based learning. As actively engaging young people in initiatives based on health messages is challenging, we also tested the efficacy of financial incentives in promoting initial engagement with the programme. A three-arm cluster-randomised design was used. Participants were school pupils from Year 11 and 13 (i.e., in their final year of study), aged 16-18 years. To reduce contamination effects, the unit of randomisation was school. Participants were randomly allocated to receive (i) a 12-week behavioural support intervention consisting of six appointments, (ii) a behavioural support intervention plus incentives (totalling £40), or (iii) an information-only control group. Behavioural support was provided by fitness advisors at local leisure centres following an initial consultation with a dietician. Sessions focused on promoting habit formation through setting implementation intentions as part of an incremental goal setting process. Consistent with self-determination theory, all advisors were trained to provide guidance in an autonomy-supportive manner so that they were equipped to create a social context supportive of autonomous forms of participant motivation. The primary outcome was objectively assessed physical activity (via GT1M accelerometers). Secondary outcome measures were diet, motivation and habit strength. Data were collected at baseline, post

  12. Work environment perceptions following relocation to open-plan offices: A twelve-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jessica; Miller, Michael; Horneij, Eva

    2015-01-01

    A workplace's design can have various positive or negative effects on the employees and since the 1970s the advantages and disadvantages of open-plan offices have been discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived health, work environment and self-estimated productivity one month before and at three, six and twelve months after relocation from individual offices to an open-plan office environment. Employees from three departments within the same company group and who worked with relatively similar tasks and who were planned to be relocated from private offices to open-plan offices were invited to participate. Questionnaires comprising items from The Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale, The Work Experience Measurement Scale, the questionnaire by Brennan et al. about perceived performance and one question from the Work Ability Index were sent to participants one month before relocation (baseline) to open-plan offices and then at three, six and twelve months after relocation. At baseline, 82 questionnaires were sent out. The response rate was 85%. At the follow-ups 77-79 questionnaires were sent out and the response-rate was 70%-81%. At follow-ups, perceived health, job satisfaction and performance had generally deteriorated. The results of the study indicate that employees' perception of health, work environment and performance decreased during a 12 month period following relocation from individual offices to open-plan offices.

  13. Twelve fundamental life histories evolving through allocation-dependent fecundity and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jacob; Brännström, Åke; Metz, Johan A J; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2018-03-01

    An organism's life history is closely interlinked with its allocation of energy between growth and reproduction at different life stages. Theoretical models have established that diminishing returns from reproductive investment promote strategies with simultaneous investment into growth and reproduction (indeterminate growth) over strategies with distinct phases of growth and reproduction (determinate growth). We extend this traditional, binary classification by showing that allocation-dependent fecundity and mortality rates allow for a large diversity of optimal allocation schedules. By analyzing a model of organisms that allocate energy between growth and reproduction, we find twelve types of optimal allocation schedules, differing qualitatively in how reproductive allocation increases with body mass. These twelve optimal allocation schedules include types with different combinations of continuous and discontinuous increase in reproduction allocation, in which phases of continuous increase can be decelerating or accelerating. We furthermore investigate how this variation influences growth curves and the expected maximum life span and body size. Our study thus reveals new links between eco-physiological constraints and life-history evolution and underscores how allocation-dependent fitness components may underlie biological diversity.

  14. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Jeremiah J; Earl, Josh; de Vries, Stefan P W; Ahmed, Azad; Hu, Fen Z; Bootsma, Hester J; Stol, Kim; Hermans, Peter W M; Wadowsky, Robert M; Ehrlich, Garth D; Hays, John P; Campagnari, Anthony A

    2011-01-26

    M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM) and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH), which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens.

  15. Agreement between arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen values obtained by direct arterial blood measurements versus noninvasive methods in conscious healthy and ill foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David M; Alcott, Cody J; Wang, Chong; Bornkamp, Jennifer L; Young, Jessica L; Sponseller, Brett A

    2011-11-15

    To determine agreement between indirect measurements of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)) with direct measurements of PaCO(2) and calculated saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood (SaO(2)) in conscious healthy and ill foals. Validation study. 10 healthy and 21 ill neonatal foals. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed on healthy and ill foals examined at a veterinary teaching hospital to determine direct measurements of PaCO(2) and PaO(2) along with SaO(2). Concurrently, PetCO(2) was measured with a capnograph inserted into a naris, and SpO(2) was measured with a reflectance probe placed at the base of the tail. Paired values were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, and level of agreement was assessed with the Bland-Altman method. Mean ± SD difference between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2) was 0.1 ± 5.0 mm Hg. There was significant strong correlation (r = 0.779) and good agreement between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2). Mean ± SD difference between SaO(2) and SpO(2) was 2.5 ± 3.5%. There was significant moderate correlation (r = 0.499) and acceptable agreement between SaO(2) and SpO(2). Both PetCO(2) obtained by use of nasal capnography and SpO(2) obtained with a reflectance probe are clinically applicable and accurate indirect methods of estimating and monitoring PaCO(2) and SaO(2) in neonatal foals. Indirect methods should not replace periodic direct measurement of corresponding parameters.

  16. The Elbow-EpiTrainer: a method of delivering graded resistance to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Effectiveness of a prototype device in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navsaria, Rishi; Ryder, Dionne M; Lewis, Jeremy S; Alexander, Caroline M

    2015-03-01

    Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylopathy (LE) is experienced as the lateral elbow has a reported prevalence of 1.3%, with symptoms lasting up to 18 months. LE is most commonly attributed to tendinopathy involving the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon. The aim of tendinopathy management is to alleviate symptoms and restore function that initially involves relative rest followed by progressive therapeutic exercise. To assess the effectiveness of two prototype exercises using commonly available clinical equipment to progressively increase resistance and activity of the ECRB. Eighteen healthy participants undertook two exercise progressions. Surface electromyography was used to record ECRB activity during the two progressions, involving eccentric exercises of the wrist extensors and elbow pronation exercises using a prototype device. The two progressions were assessed for their linearity of progression using repeated ANOVA and linear regression analysis. Five participants repeated the study to assess reliability. The exercise progressions led to an increase in ECRB electromyographic (EMG) activity (p0.7) between the first and second tests for five participants. Manipulation of resistance and leverage with the prototype exercises was effective in creating significant increases of ECRB normalised EMG activity in a linear manner that may, with future research, become useful to clinicians treating LE. In addition, between trial reliability for the device to generate a consistent load was acceptable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Pilot Testing a Photo-Based Food Diary in Nine- to Twelve- Year Old- Children from Dunedin, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany K. Davison

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate if an Evernote app-based electronic food diary is an acceptable method to measure nutrient intake in children aged 9–12 years. A convenience sample of 16 nine- to twelve-year-olds from Dunedin, New Zealand, completed a paper-based food dairy on four days, followed by four more days using a photo-based diary on an iPod. This photo-based diary used a combination of photographs and short written descriptions of foods consumed. The photo-based diaries produced similar results to written diaries for all macronutrients and major micronutrients (e.g., calcium, fibre, vitamin C. Spearman correlation coefficients between the two methods for all nutrients, except sugars, were above 0.3. However, burden on researchers and participants was reduced for the photo-based diary, primarily due to the additional information obtained from photographs. Participating children needed less help from parents with completing the electronic diaries and preferred them to the paper version. This electronic diary is likely to be suitable, after additional formal validity testing, for use in measuring nutrient intake in children.

  18. Comparative assay of fluorescent antibody test results among twelve European National Reference Laboratories using various anti-rabies conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robardet, E.; Andrieu, S.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Twelve National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for rabies have undertaken a comparative assay to assess the comparison of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) results using five coded commercial anti-rabies conjugates (Biorad, Bioveta, Fujirebio, Millipore, and SIFIN conjugates). Homogenized positive...

  19. The use of a sensitive equilibrium dialysis method for the measurement of free testosterone levels in healthy, cycling women and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Hikim, I; Arver, S; Beall, G; Shen, R; Guerrero, M; Sattler, F; Shikuma, C; Nelson, J C; Landgren, B M; Mazer, N A; Bhasin, S

    1998-04-01

    Measurements of total and free testosterone levels in women have lacked precision and accuracy because of limited assay sensitivity. The paucity of normative data on total and free testosterone levels in healthy women has confounded interpretation of androgen levels in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other disease states. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop sensitive assays for the measurement of the low total and free testosterone levels in women to define the range for these hormones during the normal menstrual cycle and assess the total and free testosterone levels in HIV-infected women. By using a larger volume of serum, increasing the incubation time, and reducing the antibody concentration, the sensitivity of the total testosterone assay was increased to 0.008 nmol/L, and that of the free testosterone assay was increased to 2 pmol/L. The mean percent free testosterone was 1.0 +/- 0.1% of the total testosterone. Serum total and free testosterone levels in the follicular and luteal phases were not significantly different, but both demonstrated a modest preovulatory increase, 3 days before the LH peak. Serum total [0.50 +/- 0.32 (14.60 +/- 9.22) vs. 1.2 +/- 0.7 nmol/L (34.3 +/- 21.0 ng/dL); P copy number. Serum FSH, but not LH, levels were significantly higher in HIV-infected women than in controls. Using assays with sufficient sensitivity, we defined the range for total and free testosterone levels during the normal menstrual cycle. Serum total and free testosterone levels are lower in HIV-infected women and correlate inversely with plasma HIV ribonucleic acid levels. The hypothesis that androgen deficiency contributes to wasting in HIV-infected women remains to be tested.

  20. The twelve-flavor β-function and dilaton tests of the sextet scalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fodor Zoltan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss near-conformal gauge theories beyond the standard model (BSM where interesting results on the twelve-flavor β-function of massless fermions in the fundamental representation of the SU(3 color gauge group and dilaton tests of the light scalar with two massless fermions in the two-index symmetric tensor (sextet representation can be viewed as parts of the same BSM paradigm under investigation. The clear trend in the decreasing size of β-functions at fixed renormalized gauge coupling is interpreted as a first indicator how the conformal window (CW is approached in correlation with emergent near-conformal light scalars. BSM model building close to the CW will be influenced by differing expectations on the properties of the emergent light 0++ scalar either as a σ-particle of chiral symmetry breaking (ΧS B, or as a dilaton of scale symmetry breaking. The twelve-flavor β-function emerges as closest to the CW, perhaps near-conformal, or perhaps with an infrared fixed point (IRFP at some unexplored strong coupling inside the CW. It is premature to speculate on dilaton properties of the twelveflavor model since the near-conformal realization remains an open question. However, it is interesting and important to investigate dilaton tests of the light sextet scalar whose β-function is closest to the CW in the symmetry breaking phase and emerges as the leading candidate for dilaton tests of the light scalar. We report results from high precision analysis of the twelve-flavor β-function [1] refuting its published IRFP [2, 3]. We present our objections to recent claims [4, 5] for non-universal behavior of staggered fermions used in our analysis. We also report our first analysis of dilaton tests of the light 0++ scalar in the sextet model and comment on related post-conference developments. The dilaton test is the main thrust of this conference contribution including presentation #405 on the nf = 12 β-function and presentation #260 on dilaton

  1. [Healthy Cities projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  2. Are there healthy obese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro and genetic diversity studies of twelve accessions of aerial yams (D. bulbifera and D. alata) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsekpor, C.

    2014-07-01

    Aerial yams (D. bulbifera and D. alata) are usually among the dioscoreaceae, in that they are cultivated not only for their tubers but also for the bulbils that develop at the leaf axils of the vine. Twelve accessions collected from five geographic regions were evaluated for morphological characteristics. The results indicate that the 12 accessions exhibited similarity with respect to 11 traits but were variable with respect to 5. Bulbils from the twelve accessions of aerial yams collected from the experimental field, were analysed for proximate composition including moisture, crude protein, crude ash, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate content using the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) method. Elemental composition of the bulbils was also determined through instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Accession S recorded the highest crude protein (6.77 %), crude fibre (3.38 %) and carbohydrate (25.39 %) contents. Bulbils from D, G and T recorded the highest crude fat (0.56 %), moisture (72.97 %) and crude ash (7.96 %) content respectively. Accession V recorded the highest amount of magnesium (143.43 mg/100g), potassium (2644.4 mg/100g), chlorine (3272.2 mg/100g) and copper (1.116 mg/100g). Bulbils from accession F also recorded the highest amount of aluminum (5.26 mg/100g) and manganese (0.43 mg/100g), while accession B, C, E and R also recorded highest percentages of vanadium (0.037 mg/100g), sodium (26.63 mg/100g), calcium (333.5 mg/100g) and zinc (4.53 mg/100g) respectively. Nodal explants of 12 accessions of the aerial yam were cultured in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with varying concentrations of kinetin with or without activated charcoal, as assessed for ability to regenerate plantlets with distinct shoots, leaves and roots. The highest regeneration of plantlets was achieved at kinetin concentration of 2.0 mg/l with activated charcoal. Kinetin concentration beyond 2.0 mg/l proved to be phytotoxic and

  4. Twelve recommendations for integrating existing systematic reviews into new reviews: EPC guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen A; Chou, Roger; Berkman, Nancy D; Newberry, Sydne J; Fu, Rongwei; Hartling, Lisa; Dryden, Donna; Butler, Mary; Foisy, Michelle; Anderson, Johanna; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Relevo, Rose; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Chang, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    As time and cost constraints in the conduct of systematic reviews increase, the need to consider the use of existing systematic reviews also increases. We developed guidance on the integration of systematic reviews into new reviews. A workgroup of methodologists from Evidence-based Practice Centers developed consensus-based recommendations. Discussions were informed by a literature scan and by interviews with organizations that conduct systematic reviews. Twelve recommendations were developed addressing selecting reviews, assessing risk of bias, qualitative and quantitative synthesis, and summarizing and assessing body of evidence. We provide preliminary guidance for an efficient and unbiased approach to integrating existing systematic reviews with primary studies in a new review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.

  6. Twelve tips for developing and delivering a massive open online course in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D; Henningsohn, Lars; DeRuiter, Marco C; de Jong, Peter G M; Reinders, Marlies E J

    2017-07-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are a novel mode of online learning. They are typically based on higher education courses and can attract a high number of learners, often in the thousands. They are distinct from on-campus education and deliver the learning objectives through a series of short videos, recommended readings and discussion fora, alongside automated assessments. Within medical education the role of MOOCs remains unclear, with recent proposals including continuing professional development, interprofessional education or integration into campus-based blended learning curricula. In this twelve tips article, we aim to provide a framework for readers to use when developing, delivering and evaluating a MOOC within medical education based on the literature and our own experience. Practical advice is provided on how to design the appropriate curriculum, engage with learners on the platform, select suitable assessments, and comprehensively evaluate the impact of your course.

  7. Exploring Content Schemata Influence on L2 Reading: The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amizura Hanadi Mohd Radzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the aspects of content schemata in second language reading among diploma level students who were taking a reading course in Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis. In this qualitative case study, the researcher had selected two short stories that are categorized as content-familiar texts, i.e. The Hunted Fox and Twelve and Not Stupid. Six participants were asked to write a 150-word entry response on the short story and a grading criteria was used to assess the participants’ level of comprehension. An in-depth interview was also conducted on each participant. The entry responses and the interview patterns were analyzed to determine whether content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text. This study discovered that content schemata had contributed to the learners’ understanding of the text because the learners’ comprehension was facilitated by their background knowledge on the content-familiar texts.

  8. Development of twelve microsatellite loci in the red tree corals Primnoa resedaeformis and Primnoa pacifica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Cheryl L.; Springmann, Marcus J.; Shroades, Kelsey; Stone, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    A suite of tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide microsatellite loci were developed from Roche 454 pyrosequencing data for the cold-water octocorals Primnoa resedaeformis and P. pacifica. Twelve of 98 primer sets tested consistently amplified in 30 P. resedaeformis samples from Baltimore Canyon (western North Atlantic Ocean) and in 24 P. pacifica samples (Shutter Ridge, eastern Gulf of Alaska). The loci displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (average 7.5 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 47 %). Levels of genetic diversity were sufficient to produce unique multi-locus genotypes and to distinguish species. These common species are long-lived (hundreds of years) and provide essential fish habitat (P. pacifica), yet populations are provided little protection from human activities. These loci will be used to determine regional patterns of population connectivity to inform effective marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  9. Twelve tips for teaching child development and disability to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    Child development is a marker of well-being in childhood and recognition of developmental delay allows timely investigation and intervention for children with developmental disabilities. Despite this, child development and disabilities are not given emphasis in the medical curriculum. This under representation of teaching combined with the stigma associated with disabilities contributes to the sub-optimal health care of people with disabilities. As well as, addressing the stigma of disability a medical undergraduate curriculum should include: the key concepts of child development; the clinical presentation of the most common developmental disabilities; developmental history taking and the infant neurodevelopmental examination. The following twelve tips provide practical advice about how to teach this knowledge and these skills during medical training.

  10. Comparative analysis and supragenome modeling of twelve Moraxella catarrhalis clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Peter WM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background M. catarrhalis is a gram-negative, gamma-proteobacterium and an opportunistic human pathogen associated with otitis media (OM and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. With direct and indirect costs for treating these conditions annually exceeding $33 billion in the United States alone, and nearly ubiquitous resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among M. catarrhalis clinical isolates, a greater understanding of this pathogen's genome and its variability among isolates is needed. Results The genomic sequences of ten geographically and phenotypically diverse clinical isolates of M. catarrhalis were determined and analyzed together with two publicly available genomes. These twelve genomes were subjected to detailed comparative and predictive analyses aimed at characterizing the supragenome and understanding the metabolic and pathogenic potential of this species. A total of 2383 gene clusters were identified, of which 1755 are core with the remaining 628 clusters unevenly distributed among the twelve isolates. These findings are consistent with the distributed genome hypothesis (DGH, which posits that the species genome possesses a far greater number of genes than any single isolate. Multiple and pair-wise whole genome alignments highlight limited chromosomal re-arrangement. Conclusions M. catarrhalis gene content and chromosomal organization data, although supportive of the DGH, show modest overall genic diversity. These findings are in stark contrast with the reported heterogeneity of the species as a whole, as wells as to other bacterial pathogens mediating OM and COPD, providing important insight into M. catarrhalis pathogenesis that will aid in the development of novel therapeutic regimens.

  11. Advanced time-series analysis of MEG data as a method to explore olfactory function in healthy controls and Parikinson's disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Knol, D.L.; Verbunt, J.P.A.; Berendse, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether time-series analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data is a suitable method to study brain activity related to olfactory information processing, and to detect differences in odor-induced brain activity between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls.

  12. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the determination of clebopride and its application to a pharmacokinetics study in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhirong; Ouyang, Dongsheng; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Gan; Cao, Shan; Wang, Yicheng; Peng, Xiujuan; Zhou, Honghao

    2010-08-01

    A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the identification and quantification of clebopride in human plasma using itopride as an internal standard. The method involves a simple liquid-liquid extraction. The analytes were separated by isocratic gradient elution on a CAPCELL MG-III C(18) (5 microm, 150 mm x 2.1 mm i.d.) column and analyzed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization (ESI) interface using the respective [M+H](+) ions, m/z 373.9-->m/z184.0 for clebopride, m/z 359.9-->m/z71.5 for itopride. The method was validated over the concentration range of 69.530-4450.0 pg/ml for clebopride. Within- and between-batch precision (RSD%) was all within 6.83% and accuracy ranged from -8.16 to 1.88%. The LLOQ was 69.530 pg/ml. The extraction recovery was on an average 77% for clebopride. The validated method was used to study the pharmacokinetics profile of clebopride in human plasma after oral administration of clebopride. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C.; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Asenbaum, Susanne; Booij, Jan; Kapucu, Ozlem L.; Kluge, Andreas; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Koulibaly, Pierre Malick; Nobili, Flavio; Pagani, Marco; Sabri, Osama; Borght, Thierry vander; Laere, Koen van; Tatsch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [ 123 I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls. SPECT data from 139 healthy controls (74 men, 65 women; age range 20 - 83 years, mean 53 years) acquired in 13 different centres were included. Images were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm without correction (NOACSC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter correction using the triple-energy window method (ACSC). Region-of-interest analysis was performed using the BRASS software (caudate and putamen), and the Southampton method (striatum). The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR). A significant effect of age on SBR was found for all data. Gender had a significant effect on SBR in the caudate and putamen for the NOACSC and AC data, and only in the left caudate for the ACSC data (BRASS method). Significant effects of age and gender on striatal SBR were observed for all data analysed with the Southampton method. Overall, there was a significant age-related decline in SBR of between 4 % and 6.7 % per decade. This study provides a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced gender representation. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 5.5 % per decade was found for both genders, in agreement with previous reports. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference database for

  14. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, R5:02, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Knudsen, Gitte M. [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls. SPECT data from 139 healthy controls (74 men, 65 women; age range 20 - 83 years, mean 53 years) acquired in 13 different centres were included. Images were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm without correction (NOACSC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter correction using the triple-energy window method (ACSC). Region-of-interest analysis was performed using the BRASS software (caudate and putamen), and the Southampton method (striatum). The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR). A significant effect of age on SBR was found for all data. Gender had a significant effect on SBR in the caudate and putamen for the NOACSC and AC data, and only in the left caudate for the ACSC data (BRASS method). Significant effects of age and gender on striatal SBR were observed for all data analysed with the Southampton method. Overall, there was a significant age-related decline in SBR of between 4 % and 6.7 % per decade. This study provides a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced gender representation. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 5.5 % per decade was found for both genders, in agreement with previous reports. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference

  15. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  16. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  17. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... working with or incorporating the nudge approach into programs or policies aimed at making healthy choices easier...

  18. A personalized healthy workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Justin

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, seven partners signed a contract to collaborate on a project called the Healthy Workplace. Measuremen, Menzis, Health2Work, ENGIE, Planon, and Hanzehogeschool Groningen are dedicated to make the regular workplace a healthy workplace. Health is of primary importance for both the

  19. Methods for economic evaluation of a factorial-design cluster randomised controlled trial of a nutrition supplement and an exercise programme among healthy older people living in Santiago, Chile: the CENEX study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Damian G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to promote healthy ageing and preserve health and function, the government of Chile has formulated a package of actions into the Programme for Complementary Food in Older People (Programa de Alimentación Complementaria para el Adulto Mayor - PACAM. The CENEX study was designed to evaluate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of the PACAM and a specially designed exercise programme on pneumonia incidence, walking capacity and body mass index in healthy older people living in low- to medium-socio-economic status areas of Santiago. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the methods that will be used to estimate the incremental costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Methods and design The base-case analysis will adopt a societal perspective, including the direct medical and non-medical costs borne by the government and patients. The cost of the interventions will be calculated by the ingredients approach, in which the total quantities of goods and services actually employed in applying the interventions will be estimated, and multiplied by their respective unit prices. Relevant information on costs of interventions will be obtained mainly from administrative records. The costs borne by patients will be collected via exit and telephone interviews. An annual discount rate of 8% will be used, consistent with the rate recommended by the Government of Chile. All costs will be converted from Chilean Peso to US dollars with the 2007 average period exchange rate of US$1 = 522.37 Chilean Peso. To test the robustness of model results, we will vary the assumptions over a plausible range in sensitivity analyses. Discussion The protocol described here indicates our intent to conduct an economic evaluation alongside the CENEX study. It provides a detailed and transparent statement of planned data collection methods and analyses. Trial registration ISRCTN48153354

  20. The Munik—Reteaming Method is a Way to Rehabilitate Psychosomatic and Work-Related Diseases and a Way to Create Healthy Psychosocial Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia von Vultée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental illness and stress are increasing at work. Sick leaves escalate. It is suggested to be due to organizational factors. There are a few methods to identify the organizational factors creating the negative psychosocial atmosphere at work. In Sweden, the work-related diseases have increased by 70% since 2010. Methods: Munik is a validated assessment instrument to identify psychosocial status among employees and find weak and strong organizational factors involved in the individual psychosocial well-being. We measure psychosocial well-being as mental energy, work-related exhaustion, and work satisfaction. Conclusions: In this study, we evaluate the treatment of employees at risk with low values on mental energy, high risk for developing work-related exhaustion, and reporting poor work satisfaction. Originality: We used Ben Furman’s positive solution-based coaching/therapy. This resulted in a more satisfied work group, and even though this group showed a large risk of developing work-related exhaustion in the start, none of the participants got on sick leave during the coaching/therapy period. After 3 months, 8 of 10 reported higher values on all 3 psychosocial levels measured.

  1. Sleep in Healthy Black and White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. METHODS: A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the ...

  2. Entropy as a method to investigate complex biological systems. An alternative view on the biological transition from healthy aging to frailty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Siciliano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Everyone is subject to a process of progressive deterioration of control mechanisms, which supervise the complex network of human physiological functions, reducing the individual ability to adapt to emerging situations of stress or change. In the light of results obtained during the last years, it appears that some of the tools of nonlinear dynamics, first developed for the physical sciences are well suited for studies of biological systems. We believe that, considering the level of order or complexity of the anatomical apparatus by measuring a physical quantity, which is the entropy, we can evaluate the health status or vice versa fragility of a biological system. In particular, a reduction in the entropy value, indicates modification of the structural order with a progressive reduction of functional reserve of the individual, which is associated with a failure to adapt to stress conditions, difficult to be analyzed and documented with a unique traditional biochemical or biomolecular vision. Therefore, in this paper, we present a method that, conceptually combines complexity, disease and aging, alloys Poisson statistics, predictive of the personal level of health, to the entropy value indicating the status of bio-dynamic and functional body, seen as a complex and open thermodynamic system.

  3. Twelve Monkeys, the Kassandra dilemma and innovation diffusion: transdisciplinary lessons for animal and environmental activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rutherford Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Animal activists and environmental activists believe that the world and its inhabitants face devastating consequences in the future if behaviour towards and the treatment of animals and the environment do not change. However, despite their predictions many people are not swayed to change their behaviour. This article suggests that these activists experience what is known as Kassandra’s dilemma; the conundrum of knowing what the future holds but being unable to prevent events from happening. Drawing on the film, Twelve Monkeys and Greek mythology this article explores this mythological dilemma and explains how this dilemma is a lived experience for activists. The article suggests that activists can resolve Kassandra’s dilemma by taking a transdisciplinary approach towards animal and environmental activism. Thus, in order to escape Kassandra’s dilemma the article suggests that animal and environmental activists require transdisciplinary knowledge; knowledge of the actual and potential harm done to animals and the environment and how this can be prevented as well as knowledge on how to successfully convey this knowledge to others. The article highlights innovation diffusion theory as an example of the type of transdisciplinary knowledge that could assist in escaping from Kassandra’s dilemma and in order to better advocate on behalf of animals and the environment.

  4. Risk of stress urinary incontinence twelve years after the first pregnancy and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktrup, Lars; Rortveit, Guri; Lose, Gunnar

    2006-08-01

    To estimate the impact of onset of stress urinary incontinence in first pregnancy or postpartum period, for the risk of symptoms 12 years after the first delivery. In a longitudinal cohort study, 241 women answered validated questions about stress urinary incontinence after first delivery and 12 years later. Twelve years after first delivery the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence was 42% (102 of 241). The 12-year incidence was 30% (44 of 146). The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence 12 years after first pregnancy and delivery was significantly higher (Ppregnancy (56%, 37 of 66) and in women with onset shortly after delivery (78%, 14 of 18) compared with those without initial symptoms (30%, 44 of 146). In 70 women who had onset of symptoms during first pregnancy or shortly after the delivery but remission 3 months postpartum, a total of 40 (57%) had stress urinary incontinence 12 years later. In 11 women with onset of symptoms during the first pregnancy or shortly after delivery but no remission 3 months postpartum, a total of 10 (91%) had stress urinary incontinence 12 years later. Cesarean during first delivery was significantly associated with a lower risk of incontinence. Other obstetric factors were not significantly associated with the risk of incontinence 12 years later. Patients who were overweight before their first pregnancy were at increased risk. Onset of stress urinary incontinence during first pregnancy or puerperal period carries an increased risk of long-lasting symptoms.

  5. High-energy, twelve-channel laser facility (DEFIN) for spherical irradiation of thermonuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Danilov, A.E.; Krokhin, O.N.; Kruglov, B.V.; Mikhailov, Yu.A.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Fedotov, S.I.; Fedorov, A.N.

    This paper describes a high-energy, twelve-channel laser facility (DELFIN) intended for high-temperature heating of thermonuclear targets with spherical symmetry. The facility includes a neodymium-glass laser with the ultimate radiation energy of 10 kJ, a pulse length of approximately 10 -10 to 10 -9 s, beam divergence of 5 x 10 -4 radians, a vacuum chamber in which laser radiation interacts with the plasma, and a system of diagnostic instrumentation for the observation of laser beam and plasma parameters. Described are the optical scheme and construction details of the laser facility. Presented is an analysis of focusing schemes for target irradiation and described is the focusing scheme of the DELFIN facility, which is capable of attaining a high degree of spherical symmetry in irradiating targets with maximum beam intensity at the target surface of approximately 10 15 W/cm 2 . This paper examines the most important problems connected with the physical investigations of thermonuclear laser plasma and the basic diagnostic problems involved in their solution

  6. TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. VIII. CATALOG OF TRANSIT TIMING MEASUREMENTS OF THE FIRST TWELVE QUARTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazeh, Tsevi; Nachmani, Gil; Holczer, Tomer; Sokol, Gil [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Ragozzine, Darin [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Lissauer, Jack J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Zucker, Shay [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Carter, Joshua A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Quintana, Elisa V. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Steffen, Jason H. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, P.O. Box 500, MS 127, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Welsh, William [Astronomy Department, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Following the works of Ford et al. and Steffen et al. we derived the transit timing of 1960 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) using the pre-search data conditioning light curves of the first twelve quarters of the Kepler data. For 721 KOIs with large enough signal-to-noise ratios, we obtained also the duration and depth of each transit. The results are presented as a catalog for the community to use. We derived a few statistics of our results that could be used to indicate significant variations. Including systems found by previous works, we have found 130 KOIs that showed highly significant times of transit variations (TTVs) and 13 that had short-period TTV modulations with small amplitudes. We consider two effects that could cause apparent periodic TTV—the finite sampling of the observations and the interference with the stellar activity, stellar spots in particular. We briefly discuss some statistical aspects of our detected TTVs. We show that the TTV period is correlated with the orbital period of the planet and with the TTV amplitude.

  7. Twelve Years of the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys : Calibration Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-06-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) has been a workhorse HST imager for over twelve years, subsequent to its Servicing Mission 3B installation. The once defunct ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) has now been operating longer since its Servicing Mission 4 repair than it had originally operated prior to its 2007 failure. Despite the accumulating radiation damage to the WFC CCDs during their long stay in low Earth orbit, ACS continues to be heavily exploited by the HST community as both a prime and a parallel detector. Conspicuous examples include the recently completed HST Multi-cycle Treasury programs, and the ongoing HST Frontier Fields (HFF) program.We review recent developments in ACS calibration that enable the continued high performance of this instrument, with particular attention the to the Wide Field Channel. Highlights include: 1) the refinement of the WFC geometric distortion solution and its time dependency; 2) the efficacy of both pixel-based and catalog-based corrections for the worsening WFC charge-transfer efficiency (CTE); 3) the extension of pixel-based CTE correction to the WFC 2K subarray mode; and 4) a novel "self-calibration" technique appropriate for large-number stacks of deep WFC exposures (such as the HFF targets) that provides superior reductions compared to the standard CALACS reduction pipeline.

  8. Correlation between clinical severity and type and degree of pectus excavatum in twelve brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Elham A; Hassan, Marwa H; Torad, Faisal A

    2018-05-18

    The aim of the study was to correlate the clinical severity of pectus excavatum with its type and degree based on objective radiographic evaluation. Twelve brachycephalic dogs were included. Grading of the clinical severity was done based on a 6-point grading score. Thoracic radiographs were used to calculate the frontosagittal and vertebral indices at the tenth thoracic vertebra and the vertebra overlying the excavatum. Correlation between the clinical severity score and frontosagittal and vertebral indices was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Typical pectus excavatum was recorded in the caudal sternum in seven dogs, with a mean clinical severity score of 1.7 ± 1.4, whereas in five dogs, atypical mid-sternal deviation was recorded with a mean clinical severity score of 3.8 ± 0.7. A strong correlation (r=0.7) was recorded between the clinical severity score and vertebral index in the atypical form, whereas a weak correlation (r=0.02) was recorded in the typical form (Pcorrelated (r=0.3) in the typical form of pectus excavatum, whereas it was strongly correlated (r=0.9) in the atypical form. Pectus excavatum in dogs is associated with compressive cardiopulmonary dysfunction, which depends mainly on the site/type of deviation rather than the degree of deviation.

  9. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geochemistry of twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backus, S.; Swyripa, M.; Peddle, J.; Jeffries, D.S.

    1995-01-01

    Suspended sediment and water samples collected from twelve major rivers in the Northwest Territories were analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to assess the sources and transport of hydrocarbons entering the Arctic Ocean. Three stations on the Mackenzie River and one station near the mouth of eleven other northern rivers were selected for sampling. Samples were collected on the Mackenzie River on four occasions to characterize spring, summer and fall flow conditions and once on the remaining eleven rivers during high flow conditions. The Mackenzie River is distinctively different then the other eleven rivers. Naturally occurring hydrocarbons predominate in the river. These hydrocarbons include biogenic alkanes, diagenic PAHs, petrogenic alkanes, and PAHs from oil seeps and/or bitumens. Anthropogenic inputs of PAHs are low as indicated by low concentrations of combustion PAHs. Alkyl PAH distributions indicate that a significant component of the lower molecular weight PAH fraction is petrogenic. The majority of the high molecular weight PAHs, together with the petrogenic PAHs have a principal source in the Mackenzie River

  10. Whole-Proteome Analysis of Twelve Species of Alphaproteobacteria Links Four Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Zhou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of whole-genome and whole-proteome sequences have been made available through advances in sequencing technology, and sequences of millions more organisms will become available in the coming years. This wealth of genetic information will provide numerous opportunities to enhance our understanding of these organisms including a greater understanding of relationships among species. Researchers have used 16S rRNA and other gene sequences to study the evolutionary origins of bacteria, but these strategies do not provide insight into the sharing of genes among bacteria via horizontal transfer. In this work we use an open source software program called pClust to cluster proteins from the complete proteomes of twelve species of Alphaproteobacteria and generate a dendrogram from the resulting orthologous protein clusters. We compare the results with dendrograms constructed using the 16S rRNA gene and multiple sequence alignment of seven housekeeping genes. Analysis of the whole proteomes of these pathogens grouped Rickettsia typhi with three other animal pathogens whereas conventional sequence analysis failed to group these pathogens together. We conclude that whole-proteome analysis can give insight into relationships among species beyond their phylogeny, perhaps reflecting the effects of horizontal gene transfer and potentially providing insight into the functions of shared genes by means of shared phenotypes.

  11. Twelve-Year Trends of PM10 and Visibility in the Hefei Metropolitan Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China has been experiencing severe air pollution and previous studies have mostly focused on megacities and a few hot spot regions. Hefei, the provincial capital city of Anhui province, has a population of near 5 million in its metropolitan area, but its air quality has not been reported in literature. In this study, daily PM10 and visibility data in 2001–2012 were analyzed to investigate the air quality status as well as the twelve-year pollution trends in Hefei. The results reveal that Hefei has been suffering high PM10 pollution and low visibility during the study period. The annual average PM10 concentrations are 2~3 times of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM10 shows fluctuating variation in 2001–2007 and has a slightly decreasing trend after 2008. The annual average visibility range is generally lower than 7 km and shows a worsening trend from 2001 to 2006 followed by an improving trend from 2007 to 2012. Wind speed, precipitation, and relative humidity have negative effects on PM10 concentrations in Hefei, while temperature could positively or negatively affect PM10. The results provide a general understanding of the status and long-term trends of PM10 pollution and visibility in a typical second-tier city in China.

  12. Estimation of admixture of twelve quark bag state in sup 4 He nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Mosallem, A M

    2002-01-01

    The p sup 4 He elastic scattering at the energy range from 0.695 to 393 GeV is analyzed in the framework of the Glauber theory. The Glauber amplitudes were evaluated using isospin-averaged nucleon-nucleon amplitudes and the sup 4 He wave function as a superposition of the Gaussian functions. The values of the calculated differential cross sections usually exceed the experimental ones. In order to overcome the discrepancy, it is assumed following to the paper by L. G. Dakno and N. N. Nikolaev that the ground state wave function of sup 4 He has an admixture of a twelve quark bag. Neglecting all transition amplitudes, the p - 12q bag scattering amplitude was chosen in a simple Gaussian form.The inclusion of the 12q bag leads to decreasing the p sup 4 He differential cross section and to a shift of the dip position to a large values of t what is needed for a successful description of the experimental data. While fitting the data it is found that the weight of the 12q bag state in the ground state of the sup 4 He ...

  13. What about Gender in Climate Change? Twelve Feminist Lessons from Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jerneck

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation and mitigation are two key responses to climate change. In the global South they prompt many questions: what is the direction and degree of change needed? How can new climate change policies be aligned with existing development initiatives? How are core social relations such as gender understood and prioritized in relation to technical and other solutions? In search of synergies between adaptation, development and mitigation, this article asks a pertinent question for sub-Saharan small-scale agriculture in particular: what can adaptation and mitigation learn from development debates on social goal setting, institutional change and gender equality? From the perspective of sustainability science and feminist literature, three main findings emerge. First, as regards social goal setting, adaptation and mitigation should, like development, support the escape out of poverty, ill-health and food-insecurity. Second, as regards institutions, adaptation and mitigation should address how gender regulates access to, use of and control over resources in terms of labor, land and strategic decision-making power. Third, as regards gender equality, adaptation and mitigation should learn from how development in theory and practice has addressed gender, women, nature and the environment. At its core, the analysis contributes twelve salient themes that can significantly inform adaptation and mitigation in research, policy and practice, thus serving as inspiration for a critical debate on much needed synergetic trajectories.

  14. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  15. Peer teaching in medical education: twelve reasons to move from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Cate, Olle; Durning, Steven

    2007-09-01

    To provide an estimation of how often peer teaching is applied in medical education, based on reports in the literature and to summarize reasons that support the use of this form of teaching. We surveyed the 2006 medical education literature and categorised reports of peer teaching according to educational distance between students teaching and students taught, group size, and level of formality of the teaching. Subsequently, we analysed the rationales for applying peer teaching. Most reports were published abstracts in either Medical Education's annual feature 'Really Good Stuff' or the AMEE's annual conference proceedings. We identified twelve distinct reasons to apply peer teaching, including 'alleviating faculty teaching burden', 'providing role models for junior students', 'enhancing intrinsic motivation' and 'preparing physicians for their future role as educators'. Peer teaching appears to be practiced often, but many peer teaching reports do not become full length journal articles. We conclude that specifically 'near-peer teaching' appears beneficial for student teachers and learners as well as for the organisation. The analogy of the 'journeyman', as intermediate between 'apprentice' and 'master', with both learning and teaching tasks, is a valuable but yet under-recognized source of education in the medical education continuum.

  16. Alcoholics Anonymous and twelve-step recovery: a model based on social and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the course of achieving abstinence from alcohol, longstanding members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) typically experience a change in their addiction-related attitudes and behaviors. These changes are reflective of physiologically grounded mechanisms which can be investigated within the disciplines of social and cognitive neuroscience. This article is designed to examine recent findings associated with these disciplines that may shed light on the mechanisms underlying this change. Literature review and hypothesis development. Pertinent aspects of the neural impact of drugs of abuse are summarized. After this, research regarding specific brain sites, elucidated primarily by imaging techniques, is reviewed relative to the following: Mirroring and mentalizing are described in relation to experimentally modeled studies on empathy and mutuality, which may parallel the experiences of social interaction and influence on AA members. Integration and retrieval of memories acquired in a setting like AA are described, and are related to studies on storytelling, models of self-schema development, and value formation. A model for ascription to a Higher Power is presented. The phenomena associated with AA reflect greater complexity than the empirical studies on which this article is based, and certainly require further elucidation. Despite this substantial limitation in currently available findings, there is heuristic value in considering the relationship between the brain-based and clinical phenomena described here. There are opportunities for the study of neuroscientific correlates of Twelve-Step-based recovery, and these can potentially enhance our understanding of related clinical phenomena. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  17. Methods for economic evaluation of a factorial-design cluster randomised controlled trial of a nutrition supplement and an exercise programme among healthy older people living in Santiago, Chile: the CENEX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Damian G; Aedo, Cristian; Albala, Cecilia; Allen, Elizabeth; Dangour, Alan D; Elbourne, Diana; Grundy, Emily; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-05-27

    In an effort to promote healthy ageing and preserve health and function, the government of Chile has formulated a package of actions into the Programme for Complementary Food in Older People (Programa de Alimentación Complementaria para el Adulto Mayor - PACAM). The CENEX study was designed to evaluate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of the PACAM and a specially designed exercise programme on pneumonia incidence, walking capacity and body mass index in healthy older people living in low- to medium-socio-economic status areas of Santiago. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the methods that will be used to estimate the incremental costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. The base-case analysis will adopt a societal perspective, including the direct medical and non-medical costs borne by the government and patients. The cost of the interventions will be calculated by the ingredients approach, in which the total quantities of goods and services actually employed in applying the interventions will be estimated, and multiplied by their respective unit prices. Relevant information on costs of interventions will be obtained mainly from administrative records. The costs borne by patients will be collected via exit and telephone interviews. An annual discount rate of 8% will be used, consistent with the rate recommended by the Government of Chile. All costs will be converted from Chilean Peso to US dollars with the 2007 average period exchange rate of US$1 = 522.37 Chilean Peso. To test the robustness of model results, we will vary the assumptions over a plausible range in sensitivity analyses. The protocol described here indicates our intent to conduct an economic evaluation alongside the CENEX study. It provides a detailed and transparent statement of planned data collection methods and analyses. ISRCTN48153354.

  18. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1·25 million people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapsomaniki, Eleni; Timmis, Adam; George, Julie; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar; Shah, Anoop D; Denaxas, Spiros; White, Ian R; Caulfield, Mark J; Deanfield, John E; Smeeth, Liam; Williams, Bryan; Hingorani, Aroon; Hemingway, Harry

    2014-05-31

    The associations of blood pressure with the different manifestations of incident cardiovascular disease in a contemporary population have not been compared. In this study, we aimed to analyse the associations of blood pressure with 12 different presentations of cardiovascular disease. We used linked electronic health records from 1997 to 2010 in the CALIBER (CArdiovascular research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records) programme to assemble a cohort of 1·25 million patients, 30 years of age or older and initially free from cardiovascular disease, a fifth of whom received blood pressure-lowering treatments. We studied the heterogeneity in the age-specific associations of clinically measured blood pressure with 12 acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases, and estimated the lifetime risks (up to 95 years of age) and cardiovascular disease-free life-years lost adjusted for other risk factors at index ages 30, 60, and 80 years. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01164371. During 5·2 years median follow-up, we recorded 83,098 initial cardiovascular disease presentations. In each age group, the lowest risk for cardiovascular disease was in people with systolic blood pressure of 90-114 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure of 60-74 mm Hg, with no evidence of a J-shaped increased risk at lower blood pressures. The effect of high blood pressure varied by cardiovascular disease endpoint, from strongly positive to no effect. Associations with high systolic blood pressure were strongest for intracerebral haemorrhage (hazard ratio 1·44 [95% CI 1·32-1·58]), subarachnoid haemorrhage (1·43 [1·25-1·63]), and stable angina (1·41 [1·36-1·46]), and weakest for abdominal aortic aneurysm (1·08 [1·00-1·17]). Compared with diastolic blood pressure, raised systolic blood pressure had a greater effect on angina, myocardial infarction, and peripheral arterial disease, whereas raised diastolic blood pressure had a greater effect on abdominal aortic aneurysm than did raised systolic pressure. Pulse pressure associations were inverse for abdominal aortic aneurysm (HR per 10 mm Hg 0·91 [95% CI 0·86-0·98]) and strongest for peripheral arterial disease (1·23 [1·20-1·27]). People with hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or those receiving blood pressure-lowering drugs) had a lifetime risk of overall cardiovascular disease at 30 years of age of 63·3% (95% CI 62·9-63·8) compared with 46·1% (45·5-46·8) for those with normal blood pressure, and developed cardiovascular disease 5·0 years earlier (95% CI 4·8-5·2). Stable and unstable angina accounted for most (43%) of the cardiovascular disease-free years of life lost associated with hypertension from index age 30 years, whereas heart failure and stable angina accounted for the largest proportion (19% each) of years of life lost from index age 80 years. The widely held assumptions that blood pressure has strong associations with the occurrence of all cardiovascular diseases across a wide age range, and that diastolic and systolic associations are concordant, are not supported by the findings of this high-resolution study. Despite modern treatments, the lifetime burden of hypertension is substantial. These findings emphasise the need for new blood pressure-lowering strategies, and will help to inform the design of randomised trials to assess them. Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, and Wellcome Trust. Copyright © 2014 Rapsomaniki et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Disparities -- Healthy People 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health based on their racial or ethnic group; religion; socioeconomic status; gender; age; mental health; cognitive, sensory, ... Contact Us Site Map Accessibility Privacy Policy Disclaimers Freedom of Information Act Healthy People 2010 Archive Nondiscrimination ...

  20. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Jaundice in Healthy Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Jaundice in ... within a few days of birth. Types of Jaundice The most common types of jaundice are: Physiological ( ...

  1. Healthy Living after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Cooking for Health Food for Thought: Heart-healthy Diet is Also Good For Your Brain Physical Activity Get Moving and Boost Your Brain Power Understanding Risky Conditions Converging Risk Factors for Stroke ...

  2. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin. If you’re helping out in the kitchen, make sure you use hot pads or wear ... in humans, plants, and animals, while others are essential for a healthy life. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) ( ...

  3. Healthy Lifestyle: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintain a healthy weight. Try brisk walking, jogging, biking, swimming or water aerobics. If you're a ... as dancing and gardening, also can improve your health. Whatever you choose, take time to warm up ...

  4. Healthy Ride Trip Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...

  5. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  6. Weight of preterm newborns during the first twelve weeks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Anchieta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal and prospective study was carried out at two state-operated maternity hospitals in Belo Horizonte during 1996 in order to assess the weight of preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns during the first twelve weeks of life. Two hundred and sixty appropriate-for-gestational-age preterm infants with birth weight <2500 g were evaluated weekly. The infants were divided into groups based on birth weight at 250-g intervals. Using weight means, somatic growth curves were constructed and adjusted to Count's model. Absolute (g/day and relative (g kg-1 day-1 velocity curves were obtained from a derivative of this model. The growth curve was characterized by weight loss during the 1st week (4-6 days ranging from 5.9 to 13.3% (the greater the percentage, the lower the birth weight, recovery of birth weight within 17 and 21 days, and increasingly higher rates of weight gain after the 3rd week. These rates were proportional to birth weight when expressed as g/day (the lowest and the highest birth weight neonates gained 15.9 and 30.1 g/day, respectively. However, if expressed as g kg-1 day-1, the rates were inversely proportional to birth weight (during the 3rd week, the lowest and the highest weight newborns gained 18.0 and 11.5 g kg-1 day-1, respectively. During the 12th week the rates were similar for all groups (7.5 to 10.2 g kg-1 day-1. The relative velocity accurately reflects weight gain of preterm infants who are appropriate for gestational age and, in the present study, it was inversely proportional to birth weight, with a peak during the 3rd week of life, and a homogeneous behavior during the 12th week for all weight groups.

  7. Twelve Years of Education and Public Outreach with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.; McLin, K. M.; Simonnet, A.; Fermi E/PO Team

    2013-04-01

    During the past twelve years, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has supported a wide range of Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities, targeting K-14 students and the general public. The purpose of the Fermi E/PO program is to increase student and public understanding of the science of the high-energy Universe, through inspiring, engaging and educational activities linked to the mission’s science objectives. The E/PO program has additional more general goals, including increasing the diversity of students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) pipeline, and increasing public awareness and understanding of Fermi science and technology. Fermi's multi-faceted E/PO program includes elements in each major outcome category: ● Higher Education: Fermi E/PO promotes STEM careers through the use of NASA data including research experiences for students and teachers (Global Telescope Network), education through STEM curriculum development projects (Cosmology curriculum) and through enrichment activities (Large Area Telescope simulator). ● Elementary and Secondary education: Fermi E/PO links the science objectives of the Fermi mission to well-tested, customer-focused and NASA-approved standards-aligned classroom materials (Black Hole Resources, Active Galaxy Education Unit and Pop-up book, TOPS guides, Supernova Education Unit). These materials have been distributed through (Educator Ambassador and on-line) teacher training workshops and through programs involving under-represented students (after-school clubs and Astro 4 Girls). ● Informal education and public outreach: Fermi E/PO engages the public in sharing the experience of exploration and discovery through high-leverage multi-media experiences (Black Holes planetarium and PBS NOVA shows), through popular websites (Gamma-ray Burst Skymap, Epo's Chronicles), social media (Facebook, MySpace), interactive web-based activities (Space Mysteries, Einstein@Home) and activities by

  8. Twelve-year history of late-life depression and subsequent feelings to God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Arjan W; Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke; van der Horst, Marleen H L; Steunenberg, Bas; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Tilburg, Willem; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2014-11-01

    Growing evidence shows several possible relations between religiousness and late-life depression. Emotional aspects of religiousness such as facets of the perceived relationship with God can be crucial in this connection. The aim of the current study was to examine the association between the course of late-life depression and feelings about God and religious coping. Longitudinal survey study; naturalistic; 12-year follow-up. Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam; population-based, in three regions in The Netherlands. A subsample of 343 respondents (mean age: 77.2 years), including all respondents with high levels of depressive symptoms at any measurement cycle between 1992 and 2003 (assessed by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule) and a random sample of nondepressed respondents who completed a postal questionnaire in 2005. Scales on God Image and Religious Coping. Twelve-year depression course trajectories serve as predicting variables and are specified according to recency and seriousness. Persistent and emergent depression are significantly associated with fear of God, feeling wronged by God, and negative religious coping. In terms of negative religious coping, significant associations were observed after adjustment for concurrent depression with a history of repeated minor depression and previous major depression. Late-life depression seems to maintain a pervasive relationship over time with affective aspects of religiousness. Religious feelings may parallel the symptoms of anhedonia or a dysphoric mood and could represent the experience of an existential void. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interventional effect of multiple LDR on splenocyte apoptosis and immunity on twelve-week diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Wang Zhicheng; Li Pengwu; Guo Wei; Zhao Hongguang; Liu Yang; Gong Shouliang; Guo Caixia

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the effect of multiple low dose irradiation (LDR) on the apoptosis of splenocytes, immune factors and lymphocyte subgroups in twelve-week diabetes mellitus (DM), the experiment was carried out with control, DM and DM+LDR groups. The irradiation dose every time was 25, 50 and 75 mGy respectively, and the irradiated times were 15. At the eighth weekend after the DM rats were irradiated, the percentages of CD4 + , CD8 + T lymphocytes and TCR α β were detected by flowcytometry (FCM). The content of IL-2 in both serum and supernatant of cultured splenocytes were detected by ELISA. And the apoptotic rate of splenocytes was detected by FCM and TUNEL respectively. The result shows that as compared with that in the control, the body weight (BW) decreases both in the DM and the DM + LDR groups, particularly in the DM group. The blood glucose (BG) level in the DM+LDR groups is higher than that in the control, but lower than that in the DM group. As compared with those in the control, the percentages of TCR α β and CD4 + T cells, the content of IL-2 in serum and supernatant of cultured splenocytes, and the apoptotic rate of splenocytes in DM + LDR groups increase significantly. However, as compared with those in the DM group, the percentages of TCR α β, CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and the splenocyte apoptotic rates in the DM+LDR groups decrease while the content of IL-2 and the ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells increase. It is obvious that the multiple LDR could regulate and weaken the loss of BW and increase of BG caused by DM, correct the imbalance of lymphocyte subgroups and immune factors, decrease the increment of splenocyte apoptosis resulted from DM. Multiple LDR could result in body protection. (authors)

  10. Indifference to pain syndrome in a twelve-year-old boy (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baghdadi T

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: People vary greatly in their response to painful stimuli, from those with a low pain threshold to those with indifference to pain. However, insensitivity to pain is a rare disorder, characterized by the lack of usual subjective and objective responses to noxious stimuli. Patients who have congenital indifference to pain sustain painless injuries beginning in infancy, but have sensory responses that are otherwise normal on examination. Perception of passive movement, joint position, and vibration is normal in these patients, as are tactile thresholds and light touch perception. Case report: A twelve-year-old boy was admitted to the hospital for a painless deformity, degeneration in both knees and a neglected femoral neck fracture that was inappropriately painless. Further examination revealed normal sensory responses, perception of passive movement, joint position, vibration tactile thresholds and light touch perception. Spinal cord and brain MRI were normal as was the electromyography and nerve conduction velocity (EMG/NCV examination. There was no positive family history for this disorder. Conclusion: The deficits present in the different pain insensitivity syndromes provide insight into the complex anatomical and physiological nature of pain perception. Reports on pain asymbolia, in which pain is perceived but does not cause suffering, and related cortical conditions illustrate that there can be losses that independently involve either the sensory-discriminative component or the affective-motivational component of pain perception, thus highlighting their different anatomical localization. The paucity of experience with this entity and the resultant diagnostic problems, the severity of the associated disabling arthropathy and underscore the importance of this case report of indifference to pain.

  11. A survey of innovation through duplication in the reduced genomes of twelve parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D DeBarry

    Full Text Available We characterize the prevalence, distribution, divergence, and putative functions of detectable two-copy paralogs and segmental duplications in the Apicomplexa, a phylum of parasitic protists. Apicomplexans are mostly obligate intracellular parasites responsible for human and animal diseases (e.g. malaria and toxoplasmosis. Gene loss is a major force in the phylum. Genomes are small and protein-encoding gene repertoires are reduced. Despite this genomic streamlining, duplications and gene family amplifications are present. The potential for innovation introduced by duplications is of particular interest. We compared genomes of twelve apicomplexans across four lineages and used orthology and genome cartography to map distributions of duplications against genome architectures. Segmental duplications appear limited to five species. Where present, they correspond to regions enriched for multi-copy and species-specific genes, pointing toward roles in adaptation and innovation. We found a phylum-wide association of duplications with dynamic chromosome regions and syntenic breakpoints. Trends in the distribution of duplicated genes indicate that recent, species-specific duplicates are often tandem while most others have been dispersed by genome rearrangements. These trends show a relationship between genome architecture and gene duplication. Functional analysis reveals: proteases, which are vital to a parasitic lifecycle, to be prominent in putative recent duplications; a pair of paralogous genes in Toxoplasma gondii previously shown to produce the rate-limiting step in dopamine synthesis in mammalian cells, a possible link to the modification of host behavior; and phylum-wide differences in expression and subcellular localization, indicative of modes of divergence. We have uncovered trends in multiple modes of duplicate divergence including sequence, intron content, expression, subcellular localization, and functions of putative recent duplicates that

  12. Elements of healthy death: a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Rahimi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Death is a natural and frightening phenomenon, which is inevitable. Previous studies on death, which presented a negative and tedious image of this process, are now being revised and directed towards acceptable death and good death. One of the proposed terms about death and dying is "healthy death", which encourages dealing with death positively and leading a lively and happy life until the last moment. This study aimed to explain the views of Iranians about the elements of healthy death. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted for 12 months in two general hospitals in Tehran (capital of Iran), using the thematic analysis method. After conducting 23 in-depth interviews with 21 participants, transcription of content, and data immersion and analysis, themes, as the smallest meaningful units were extracted, encoded and classified. Results: One main category of healthy death with 10 subthemes, including dying at the right time, dying without hassle, dying without cost, dying without dependency and control, peaceful death, not having difficulty at dying, not dying alone and dying at home, inspired death, preplanned death, and presence of a clergyman or a priest, were extracted as the elements of healthy death from the perspective of the participants in this study. Conclusion: The study findings well explained the elements of healthy death. Paying attention to the conditions and factors causing healthy death by professionals and providing and facilitating quality services for patients in the end stage of life make it possible for patients to experience a healthy death.

  13. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on the Content of Twelve Bestselling US Principles of Economics Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2013-01-01

    How have authors of twelve bestselling introductory US textbooks in economics responded to the traumatizing financial crisis? In general the financial crisis is described with a couple of lines here and there or it is dealt with in boxes, separate sections, or specific isolated chapters. Some...

  14. Comparisons of High School Graduation Rates of Students with Disabilities and Their Peers in Twelve Southern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Theodore Scott; Manuel, Nancy; Stokes, Billy R.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared differences in diploma and graduation dropout rates among students with and without disabilities, analyzed differences in various graduation-types by disabilities, and offered recommendations to improve graduation rates through evidence-based practices. The geographic catchment area of this study was limited to twelve Southern…

  15. Healthy human gut phageome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.

  16. Short-term test-retest-reliability of conditioned pain modulation using the cold-heat-pain method in healthy subjects and its correlation to parameters of standardized quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, Julia; Mainka, Tina; Vollert, Jan; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K

    2016-08-05

    Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) is often used to assess human descending pain inhibition. Nine different studies on the test-retest-reliability of different CPM paradigms have been published, but none of them has investigated the commonly used heat-cold-pain method. The results vary widely and therefore, reliability measures cannot be extrapolated from one CPM paradigm to another. Aim of the present study was to analyse the test-retest-reliability of the common heat-cold-pain method and its correlation to pain thresholds. We tested the short-term test-retest-reliability within 40 ± 19.9 h using a cold-water immersion (10 °C, left hand) as conditioning stimulus (CS) and heat pain (43-49 °C, pain intensity 60 ± 5 on the 101-point numeric rating scale, right forearm) as test stimulus (TS) in 25 healthy right-handed subjects (12females, 31.6 ± 14.1 years). The TS was applied 30s before (TSbefore), during (TSduring) and after (TSafter) the 60s CS. The difference between the pain ratings for TSbefore and TSduring represents the early CPM-effect, between TSbefore and TSafter the late CPM-effect. Quantitative sensory testing (QST, DFNS protocol) was performed on both sessions before the CPM assessment. paired t-tests, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, significance level p Pain ratings during CPM correlated significantly (ICC: 0.411…0.962) between both days, though ratings for TSafter were lower on day 2 (p pain thresholds. The short-term test-retest-reliability of the early CPM-effect using the heat-cold-pain method in healthy subjects achieved satisfying results in terms of the ICC. The SRD of the early CPM effect showed that an individual change of > 20 NRS can be attributed to a real change rather than chance. The late CPM-effect was weaker and not reliable.

  17. Healthy Buildings '88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, B.; Lindvall, T.; Maansson, L.G.

    1988-06-01

    The Healthy Buildings '88 Conference focuses on the technical solutions and functional requirements contributing to Healthy Buildings for people to live and work in. The main object of the Conference is to give architects, consultants, real-estate owners and manufacturers of building materials recommendations on choice of materials and choice of systems and on how to combine materials and systems. The program includes overview lectures, plenary symposia with invited speakers, workshops, poster presentations and an exhibition of scientific, educational and technical material. One part of the conference is devoted to the problem of radon in residential buildings

  18. A rule-based automatic sleep staging method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sheng-Fu; Kuo, Chin-En; Hu, Yu-Han; Cheng, Yu-Shian

    2012-03-30

    In this paper, a rule-based automatic sleep staging method was proposed. Twelve features including temporal and spectrum analyses of the EEG, EOG, and EMG signals were utilized. Normalization was applied to each feature to eliminating individual differences. A hierarchical decision tree with fourteen rules was constructed for sleep stage classification. Finally, a smoothing process considering the temporal contextual information was applied for the continuity. The overall agreement and kappa coefficient of the proposed method applied to the all night polysomnography (PSG) of seventeen healthy subjects compared with the manual scorings by R&K rules can reach 86.68% and 0.79, respectively. This method can integrate with portable PSG system for sleep evaluation at-home in the near future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Perception of adolescents on healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Dayanne Caroline de Assis; Frazão, Iracema da Silva; Osório, Mônica Maria; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena de

    2015-11-01

    The objective in this article is to analyze how adolescents at a school in the interior of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, perceive healthy eating. A descriptive and exploratory study was undertaken, based on the qualitative method. Forty adolescents between 10 and 14 years of age were investigated, using a semistructured interview. The interviews were analyzed using the software Alceste, which evidenced two thematic axes: Eating practices, divided in two classes (routine eating diary and Eating at weekends); and Education practices, consisting of four classes (Factors interfering in and facilitating the maintenance of healthy eating, Role of the school in the education process for healthy eating, Knowledge on healthy eating, The family and the promotion of healthy eating). Although the interviewed adolescents are familiar with healthy eating, they do not always put it in practice, due to the multiple factors that interfere in their preferred diet. The school and the family play a fundamental role in encouraging healthy eating. The school needs to accomplish eating education practices that encourage the consumption of locally produced foods.

  20. Healthy Eating for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and beverages, such as some yogurts and juices. Foods and Beverages to Limit To keep weight in check at ... helps with weight control, muscle strength and stress management. Reviewed April 2018 Tags Food Health Nutrition Wellness Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate Healthy ...

  1. Many Healthy Returns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    International travel is usually very safe but there are things you should do to stay safe and healthy. Experts show you how to avoid problems when visiting developing nations. This includes being cautious about the food you eat and the water you drink, and to be aware of vehicles and road conditions to prevent problems.

  2. Eating Healthy for Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    You are what you eat—and so is your baby. In addition to being smokefree, eating well during pregnancy is one of the best and most important things you can do for yourself and your baby. But healthy “eating for two” is more than just eating more.

  3. Diabetes Diet: Create Your Healthy-Eating Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... methods works for you: The plate method. The American Diabetes Association offers a simple seven-step method of meal ... complications. Diabetes meal plans and a healthy diet. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/ ...

  4. Relationship transitions and change in health behavior: A four-phase, twelve-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Kim; Elovainio, Marko; Stenholm, Sari; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kauppi, Maarit; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2018-03-19

    Extensive scientific evidence shows an association between involvement in social relationships and healthy lifestyle. Prospective studies with many participants and long follow-ups are needed to study the dynamics and change in social factors within individuals over time. Our aim was to determine whether a change in relationship status (single, married, divorced, widow, cohabiting) is followed by a change in health behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index). We used data from 81,925 healthy adults participating in the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study in the period 2000-2013. We analyzed 327,700 person-observations from four data collection phases. Missing data were multiply imputed. A within-individual methodology was used to minimize the possibility of selection effects affecting the interpretation. All four health behaviors showed associations with relationship status. The effects were very similar and in the same direction in women and men, although there were gender differences in the magnitudes of the effects. The end of a relationship was followed by a decrease in body mass index, increased odds of being a smoker, increase in physical activity, and increase in alcohol consumption (widowed men). The effects were reverse when forming a new relationship. A change in relationship status is associated with a change in health behavior. The association is not explained by socioeconomic status, subjective health status, or anxiety level. People leaving or losing a relationship are at increased risk of unhealthy behavior (smoking and alcohol consumption), but at the same time they have a lower BMI and show higher physical activity compared to the time they were in a relationship. It is not clear if the cumulative health effect of these health behavior changes is positive or negative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regurgitation in healthy and non healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallo Luciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncomplicate regurgitation in otherwise healthy infants is not a disease. It consists of milk flow from mouth during or after feeding. Common causes include overfeeding, air swallowed during feeding, crying or coughing; physical exam is normal and weight gain is adequate. History and physical exam are diagnostic, and conservative therapy is recommended. Pathologic gastroesophageal reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease refers to infants with regurgitation and vomiting associated with poor weight gain, respiratory symptoms, esophagitis. Reflux episodes occur most often during transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter unaccompanied by swallowing, which permit gastric content to flow into the esophagus. A minor proportion of reflux episodes occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to increase pressure during a sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure or when lower esophageal sphincter resting pressure is chronically reduced. Alterations in several protective mechanisms allow physiologic reflux to become gastroesophageal reflux disease; diagnostic approach is both clinical and instrumental: radiological series are useful to exclude anatomic abnormalities; pH-testing evaluates the quantity, frequency and duration of the acid reflux episodes; endoscopy and biopsy are performed in the case of esophagitis. Therapy with H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are suggested.

  6. The effects of gamma radiation on 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DFG) content in healthy men's erythrocytes after submaximal physical exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, I.; Zagorski, T.; Kedziora, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of gamma radiation and submaximal physical exercise on 2,3-DFG content in healthy men erythrocytes were studied. Twelve men aged 20-22 were examined. They were loaded by physical exrecise (at doses of 2 M/kg body weight) for 15 minutes. Erythrocytes were exposed to gamma radiation (500 Gy doses) from a 60 Co source. The concentration of 2,3-DFG in erythrocytes was estimated by Bartlett's method. Gamma radiation was found to decrese 2,3-DFG content in erythrocytes both at rest and after submaximal exercise. Furthermore, submaximal physical exercise was found to decrease 2,3-DFG content in non-irradiated erythrocytes. 20 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  7. SU-F-T-491: Photon Beam Matching Analysis at Multiple Sites Up to Twelve Years Post Installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Able, C [Florida Cancer Specialists - New Port Richey, New Port Richey, FL (United States); Zakikhani, R [Florida Cancer Specialists - Largo, Largo, FL (United States); Yan, K [Florida Cancer Specialists- Tampa, Tampa, FL (United States); Sha, D [Florida Cancer Specialist - New Port Richey, New Port Richey, FL (United States); Chopra, A [Florida Cancer Specialist - Brooksville, Spring Hill, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine if the photon beams associated with several models of accelerators are matched with ‘Golden Beam’ data (VGBD) to assess treatment planning modeling and delivery. Methods: Six accelerators’ photon beams were evaluated to determine if they matched the manufacturer’s (Varian Medical Systems, Inc.) VGBD. Additional direct comparisons of the 6X and 18X beams using the manufacturer’s specification of Basic and Fine beam matching were also performed. The Cseries accelerator models were 21 EX (3), IX (2), and a IX Trilogy, ranging from three to twelve years post installation. Computerized beam scanning was performed (IBA Blue Phantom 2) with 2 CC13 ion chambers in water at 100 cm SSD. Dmax (10 cm2 field size), percentage depth dose (6 cm2, 10 cm2, 20 cm2, and 30 cm2 field sizes) and beam uniformity (10 cm2, 30 cm2 and 40 cm2 field sizes) were evaluated. Results: When comparing the beams with VGBD using the ‘Basic’ matching criteria, all beams were within the specifications ( 1.5mm at dmax, 1% PDD, and 2% Profiles). When considering the “Fine” matching criteria ( 1.5mm at dmax, 0.5% PDD, and 2% Profiles), only three of six 6MV beams and two of six high energy (five 18MV & one 15MV) beams passed. Direct comparisons between accelerators using the Clinac IX (installed 2012) as the reference beam datasets resulted in all 6 MV and 18MV beams meeting both the “Basic” and “Fine” criterion with the exception of two accelerators. Conclusion: Linear accelerators installed up to nine years apart are capable of meeting the manufacturers beam matching criteria for “Basic” matching. Without any adjustments most beams, when evaluated, may meet the “Fine” match criteria. The use of a single dataset (VGBD or designated accelerator reference data) for treatment planning commissioning is acceptable and can provide quality treatment delivery.

  8. Rationale and methods of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to promote active and healthy lifestyles among Brazilian students: the "Fortaleça sua Saúde" program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Lima, Antônio Barroso; de Souza, Evanice Avelino; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Silva, Kelly Samara; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha; Trompieri Filho, Nicolino; de Araújo, Thábyta Silva; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe Carvalhedo; Mota, Jorge

    2015-12-07

    Interventions on adolescents' lifestyle are important, but the main mechanisms that explain the changes (mediating variables) on lifestyle are unclear. This paper presents the rationale and methods of an intervention program focused on promoting active and healthy lifestyles (especially physical activity [PA] practice and reducing screen time) among Brazilian students-the Fortaleça sua Saúde program (Portuguese for "strengthen your health"). This is a school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial. Three intervention and three control (no intervention) full-time public schools were randomly selected in Fortaleza, northeastern Brazil. Students (n = 1,272) from classes in Grades 7-9 were eligible, and 1,085 (548 in the intervention and 537 in control schools) completed the baseline and follow-up measures. The program duration was approximately four months and took place in 2014. Intervention strategies focused on teacher training, activities on health in the curriculum, active opportunities in the school environment (the availability of equipment for PA), and health education (health materials for students and parents). Data collection was undertaken before and immediately after the intervention. The primary variables included the practice of PA (weekly PA volume, PA behavior change stage and preference for PA during leisure-time) and screen time (TV and computer/video games). Potential intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental mediators of PA and screen time were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire. Other lifestyle components (e.g., eating habits, substance use), psychological (e.g., self-rated health, body satisfaction) and biological (general and abdominal obesity) aspects, as well as academic performance were also evaluated in the total sample. Depressive symptoms, eating disorders, sleep quality, objectively-measured PA, and sedentary time were evaluated in obese students. If effective, this program will contribute to the development of public

  9. Effect of two-linked mutations of the FMO3 gene on itopride metabolism in Chinese healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Ping; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Hao; Guo, Dong; Chen, Yao; Huang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Lian-Sheng; Zhang, Guo-Gang

    2014-11-01

    Itopride is an effective gastroprokinetic agent mainly used for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) has been confirmed to be the key enzyme involved in the main itopride metabolic pathway. We investigated whether the FMO3 genotypes can affect itopride metabolism in Chinese healthy volunteers. Twelve healthy volunteers who had been genotyped for FMO3 gene were selected to participate in our study. Volunteers were given 50 mg itopride orally and then blood samples were collected from 0 to 24 h. The plasma concentrations of itopride and itopride N-oxide were determined by HPLC-MS/MS method. Itopride and itopride N-oxide both exhibit FMO3 genotype-dependent pharmacokinetic profiles. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of itopride increased by 127.82 ± 41.99 % (P itopride N-oxide decreased by 30.30 ± 25.70 % (P itopride and itopride N-oxide were observed between these two genotypes. The FMO3 allele can significantly affect the metabolism of itopride. The pharmacokinetic parameters of both itopride and itopride N-oxide were significantly different between these two genotypes.

  10. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography consisting of twelve second-dimension columns for comprehensive analysis of intact proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangtao; Beckner, Matthew A; Lynch, Kyle B; Chen, Huang; Zhu, Zaifang; Yang, Yu; Chen, Apeng; Qiao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Shaorong; Lu, Joann J

    2018-05-15

    A comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LCxLC) system consisting of twelve columns in the second dimension was developed for comprehensive analysis of intact proteins in complex biological samples. The system consisted of an ion-exchange column in the first dimension and the twelve reverse-phase columns in the second dimension; all thirteen columns were monolithic and prepared inside 250 µm i.d. capillaries. These columns were assembled together through the use of three valves and an innovative configuration. The effluent from the first dimension was continuously fractionated and sequentially transferred into the twelve second-dimension columns, while the second-dimension separations were carried out in a series of batches (six columns per batch). This LCxLC system was tested first using standard proteins followed by real-world samples from E. coli. Baseline separation was observed for eleven standard proteins and hundreds of peaks were observed for the real-world sample analysis. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography, often considered as an effective tool for mapping proteins, is seen as laborious and time-consuming when configured offline. Our online LCxLC system with increased second-dimension columns promises to provide a solution to overcome these hindrances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Healthy eating at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Egberg Mikkelsen, Bent

    ". This paper highlights the role that the organisation of food provision plays by comparing the attitudes of students towards in-school food provision as opposed to out-of-school provision where food is provided by outside caterers. Schools having internal food production and schools having external food...... operated catering seems to have a negative effect on the social and cultural structures and functions related to the meal during lunchtime. Having meals in schools where external caterers are employed is experienced as an individual act by the students in comparison with schools having internal catering......Unhealthy eating are common among adolescents and the school is a well suited setting for promoting healthy eating. For the school to play a role here, however an environment must be created, in which the school and the students develop a sense of ownership for a healthy food and nutrition "regime...

  12. : Healthy lifestyles’ promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Erika; Díaz-Campo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The goal of this research was to analyse the advertising of food broadcast by the two Spanish private thematic channels aimed at children with more audience in Spain (Neox and Boing). A content analysis was made in order to study the commercials showed during the hours of children’s enhanced protection established by the normative of this country. The paper presents the increasing concern about kids´ obesity and the role of food industry. Healthy lifestyles are promote...

  13. Some like it healthy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contini, Caterina; Casini, Leonardo; Stancu, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Authorising new health claims in Europe will favour the diffusion on the market of a greater number of foods with health claims. This scenario presents new opportunities to promote healthy food choices and launches new challenges to define strategies aimed at promoting products on the market...... sensitive of health claims and to characterise them with respect to the rest of the population. The results supply insights for the development of more targeted health promotion campaigns, as well as for actions in food marketing....

  14. Many Healthy Returns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-08

    International travel is usually very safe but there are things you should do to stay safe and healthy. Experts show you how to avoid problems when visiting developing nations. This includes being cautious about the food you eat and the water you drink, and to be aware of vehicles and road conditions to prevent problems.  Created: 2/8/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/8/2010.

  15. EXERCISE LIMITATIONS IN A COMPETITIVE CYCLIST TWELVE MONTHS POST HEART TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas G. Walton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well documented that for heart transplant recipients (HTrecipient post transplantation exercise capacity does not exceed 60% of healthy age-matched controls. Few studies have been undertaken to determine the cause of exercise limitations following heart transplantation (HT for an elite athlete. Participant was a 39 year old elite male cyclist who suffered an acute myocardial infarction after a cycling race and received a heart transplant (HT four months later. Six weeks prior to his AMI fitness testing was completed and a predicted VO2max of 58 mL·kg-1·min-1 and HRmax of 171 bpm was achieved. The participant underwent maximal exercise testing 6 and 12 months post transplant to determine exercise limitations. His results 6 and 12 months post transplant were a VO2max of 33.8 and 44.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 respectively, and a HR max that was 97% and 96% of HRmax measured. The participant showed an increase in both HRmax and VO2max 12 months post HT compared to previous testing. Results suggest that the limiting factors to exercise following HT are likely due to peripheral function, which became diminished as a result accumulated from 4 months of congestive heart failure, the strain of HT, and immunosuppressive therapy leading up to the exercise testing. Lifestyle before HT and a more aggressive approach to HT recovery should be considered necessary in the improvement of peripheral functioning following HT

  16. Empowering a healthy practice environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Jodi; Ruffin, Tasha

    2015-03-01

    This article provides frontline nurses a tool kit so they can advocate a healthy practice environment. The healthy nurse, healthy work hours, job satisfaction, adequate sleep, power naps at work, and balancing family/work are discussed. The overweight nurse, nurse fatigue, compassion fatigue, shift work sleep disorder, and role strain are discussed as barriers to a healthy practice environment. Case reports with analysis and recommendations are discussed to overcome these barriers. Resources are presented for frontline nurses to develop a tool kit for transforming their environment to a healthy practice environment and to empower them to become healthy nurses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy, a networked Europe - Twelve proposals for a common energy infrastructure policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, Michel

    2015-01-01

    energies (wind, photovoltaic), but also the emergence of new uses, such as electric vehicles. - Ensuring solidarity between the States and regions, in a context where the technological uncertainties of the new sectors are added to the older ones of a geopolitical nature. - Continuing to ensure equal access to energy services, without the transition becoming a discriminating factor against those citizens who are economically the weakest. Pooling knowledge and thinking to adapt the networks is a necessity if the Europeans want the energy transition to be a success. Article 194 of the Treaty of Lisbon has already laid down the way to greater intervention by the Union in this regard. But the Europeans must go further and explore, as quickly as possible, areas of joint cooperation, innovation and investment. The challenge is great since hundreds of billions of euros of investment will have to be made between now and 2030, and no argument is needed to convince oneself that, in a convalescent Europe, every euro will have to be invested with the greatest concern for effectiveness for our communities. Finally, this 'networked European energy', that we all wish for, will not only be a physical, technical and economic challenge. It must also embody these 'shared idiosyncrasies' that today characterise the European energy space: the verticality of the national hierarchies will be followed by the horizontality of communication between the territories; the authority of the powers in place, by the legitimacy of the citizen, initiative and success; industrial uniformity, by the diversity of models of organisation; a situation of separate States, by exchanges within the European area. The twelve proposals presented at the end of this report thus aim to promote the emergence of a coherent and pragmatic European approach in the field of networks, to solve today's problems and to meet tomorrow's challenges. From this standpoint, these proposals are structured

  18. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Professionals En Español Publications, Data, & Statistics Healthy Swimming Resources Health Promotion Materials Find Your State Training & ... Announcements Outbreak Response Toolkits CDC at Work: Healthy Swimming Fast Facts Index of Water-Related Topics Model ...

  19. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.

  20. Healthy Habits Can Lengthen Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2018 Print this issue Health Capsule Healthy Habits Can Lengthen Life Send us your comments Physical activity is one of five healthy lifestyle factors that can lower your risk for several diseases and lengthen ...

  1. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  2. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  3. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of your control, you can make positive lifestyle changes to lose weight and to maintain a healthy weight. These include a healthy eating plan and being more physically active. Take the Challenge When it comes to aiming for a healthy ...

  4. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with no breaks in the surface. It is warm (not hot or red) and neither dry and flaky nor moist and wrinkled. Healthy skin is a mirror of a healthy body. How to take care of your skin NUTRITION: To keep your skin healthy, eat a well- ...

  5. Pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its main metabolites after single intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Yang, Man; Liu, Man; Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Xue; Liu, Huichen

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of lansoprazole (LPZ) and its main metabolites 5'-hydroxy lansoprazole (HLPZ) and lansoprazole sulphone (LPZS) after single intravenous (i.v.) doses of LPZ in healthy Chinese subjects, and the relationship between the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 phenotypes and the plasma concentrations of LPZS at the time-points in the elimination phase of LPZ. Twelve subjects were given lansoprazole by i.v. infusion. Blood samples were collected at designated time points up to 24 h. Plasma concentrations of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS were quantified by a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. After single i.v. doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg LPZ, C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t)) of LPZ were 725 ± 151, 1480 ± 190, 3130 ± 480 µg · L(-1) and 1690 ± 1210, 3630 ± 2530, 8080 ± 4550 µg · h · L(-1), respectively. LPZ was generally well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects, and displayed linear PK in the range of 15-60 mg. There were significant differences in the elimination of LPZ and the formation of LPZS between the single CYP2C19 poor metabolizer (PM) and the CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EM). The concentration of LPZS at the time-points in the elimination phase of LPZ could be monitored for CYP2C19 phenotyping. As a probe drug for CYP2C19 phenotyping, LPZ for injection might be more suitable than LPZ oral formulations.

  6. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  7. Effect of ensure on the oral bioavailability of gatifloxacin in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Michael B; Overholser, Brian R; Lagvankar, Seema; Goldman, Mitchell; Sowinski, Kevin M

    2005-11-01

    To determine the effect of Ensure on the relative oral bioavailability of gatifloxacin in healthy volunteers. Single-dose, randomized, crossover study. University-affiliated research center. Twelve healthy volunteers (six men, six women) aged 18 years or older with no clinically significant abnormal findings on physical examination or in medical history. Intervention. Subjects consumed 120 ml of study liquid-water or Ensure-every 30 minutes for five doses. With the second dose, subjects ingested a single gatifloxacin 400-mg tablet that had been uniformly crushed and mixed into the study liquid. Serial blood samples were collected for 48 hours, and gatifloxacin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by using noncompartmental methods. Maximum serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) were tested for bioequivalence after log-transformation of the data. Comparison of parameters for gatifloxacin administered with water versus those with Ensure showed that Cmax (4.35 +/- 0.90 vs 2.41 +/- 0.58 mug/ml, pinfinity) (42.4 +/- 10.1 vs 31.3 +/- 8.3 mg*hr/L, pinfinity. The median time to reach Cmax was significantly prolonged when gatifloxacin was administered with Ensure versus that with water (2.5 hrs vs 1.0 hr, p=0.006). The Cmax and AUC0-infinity of gatifloxacin were significantly decreased when the drug was administered with Ensure. The clinical significance of these findings will depend on the offending pathogen and its susceptibility to gatifloxacin.

  8. Conformational analysis of six- and twelve-membered ring compounds by molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, I T; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    1997-01-01

    . A series of methyl-substituted 1,3-dioxanes were investigated at 1000 K, and the number of chair-chair interconversions could be quantitatively correlated to the experimentally determined ring inversion barrier. Similarly, the distribution of sampled minimum-energy conformations correlated with the energy......-derived Boltzmann distribution. The macrocyclic ring system cyclododecane was subjected to an MD simulation at 1000 K and 71 different conformations could be sampled. These conformations were compared with the results of previously reported conformational analyses using stochastic search methods, and the MD method...

  9. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  10. A Classification Scheme for Adult Education. Education Libraries Bulletin, Supplement Twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Monica A., Comp.

    This classification scheme, based on the 'facet formula' theory of Ranganathan, is designed primarily for the library of the National Institute of Adult Education in London, England. Kinds of persons being educated (educands), methods and problems of education, specific countries, specific organizations, and forms in which the information is…

  11. Teenage Mothers' Anger over Twelve Years: Partner Conflict, Partner Transitions and Children's Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Sorenson, Ann M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of maternal anger, partner transitions and partner conflict on later oppositional and angry behavior of the children of teenage mothers. Methods: One hundred and twenty-one teenage women were interviewed prior to the birth of the baby and at 3 points subsequently, when children were newborn, 7 years old…

  12. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in twelve European countries results of the European cardiac rehabilitation registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzer, Werner; Rauch, Bernhard; Schmid, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Results from EuroCaReD study should serve as a benchmark to improve guideline adherence and treatment quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in Europe. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 2.054 CR patients in 12 European countries were derived from 69 centres. 76% were male. Indication for CR...

  13. Twelve-year retrospective review of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzerd, Emilie; Schreuder, Henk W R; Vleugels, Michel P H; Veersema, Sebastiaan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify factors contributing to the occurrence of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands. Even though Essure is a permanent method of contraception, unintended pregnancies have been reported.  Design  Retrospective case series analysis. Setting Not

  14. Attentional neural networks impairment in healthy aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazquez-Marrufo, Manuel; Luisa Benitez, Maria; Rodriguez-Gomez, Guillermo; Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; Fernandez-Del Olmo, Aaron; Vaquero-Casares, Encarnacion

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Diverse evidences have shown that the process of natural aging causes a decline in different cognitive functions, including among them the attentional process. Aim. To determine how the healthy aging affects to the different attentional networks. Subjects and methods. Two groups: young

  15. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. We measured the blood pressures of 650 healthy, randomly ... In addition, blood pressure measurement should be a part of the routine clinical examination of children. ... familial risk factors.2 ... common cause of elevated blood pressure in children.4 They ... sphygmomanometer (Accoson, hospital model BS 274,.

  16. Healthy worker effect in hairdressing apprentices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    potential healthy worker effect. Methods. During the first 2 weeks of training, 382 hairdressing apprentices were enrolled in this study. All apprentices completed a self-administered questionnaire, including previously validated questions regarding, for example, previous and present hand eczema, eczema...... and by 11.9% of the controls (p worker effect, as there was a lower reported incidence of hand eczema and eczema...

  17. Barley husk carbon as the fiber coating for the solid-phase microextraction of twelve pesticides in vegetables prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weiqian; Wang, Juntao; Zang, Xiaohuan; Dong, Wenhuan; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2017-03-31

    In this work, a barley husk biomaterial was successfully carbonized by hydrothermal method. The carbon had a high specific surface area and good stability. It was coated onto a stainless steel wire through sol-gel technique to prepare a solid-phase microextraction fiber for the extraction of trace levels of twelve pesticides (tsumacide, fenobucarb, indoxacarb, diethofencarb, thimet, terbufos, malathion, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, buprofezin, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam) from vegetable samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) detection. The main experimental parameters that could influence the extraction efficiency such as extraction time, extraction temperature, sample pH, sample salinity, stirring rate, desorption temperature and desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity was observed in the range of 0.2-75.0μgkg -1 for tomato samples, and 0.3-60.0μgkg -1 for cucumber samples, with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9959 to 0.9983. The limits of detection of the method were 0.01-0.05μgkg -1 for tomato samples, and 0.03-0.10μgkg -1 for cucumber samples. The recoveries of the analytes for the method from spiked samples were in the range of 76%-104%, and the precision, expressed as the relative standard deviations, was less than 12%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An Algorithm Using Twelve Properties of Antibiotics to Find the Recommended Antibiotics, as in CPGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopra, R; Venot, A; Duclos, C

    2014-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) incorporating justifications, updating and adjustable recommendations can considerably improve the quality of healthcare. We propose a new approach to the design of CDSS for empiric antibiotic prescription, based on implementation of the deeper medical reasoning used by experts in the development of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), to deduce the recommended antibiotics. We investigated two methods ("exclusion" versus "scoring") for reproducing this reasoning based on antibiotic properties. The "exclusion" method reproduced expert reasoning the more accurately, retrieving the full list of recommended antibiotics for almost all clinical situations. This approach has several advantages: (i) it provides convincing explanations for physicians; (ii) updating could easily be incorporated into the CDSS; (iii) it can provide recommendations for clinical situations missing from CPGs.

  19. VARIATION IN BIOFUEL POTENTIAL OF TWELVE CALOPYLLUM INOPHYLLUM POPULATIONS IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Leksono Budi; Laksmi Hendrati Rina; Windyarini Eritrina; Hasnah Trimaria

    2014-01-01

    The global energy crisis has raises demand for biofuel prices. It has driven the world to enhance environmentally-friendly renewable-energy (biofuel) production. Oil from the seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum (nyamplung) which can be harvested up to 50 years, is one of  such potential biofuel source. Methods for biofuel production from nyamplung seeds have been developed at an industrial scale by cooperative in Cilacap (Java) and Energy Self-Sufficient Villages (Desa Mandiri Energi) in Banyuwan...

  20. The Frequency of Occurrence of Air Masses Over Twelve European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    cluster analysis technique to investigate the possibility of simplifying the European "",Oskar Essermanger, 1954, Neue Methode der Zerleang von...Masses, Streamlines, and the Boreal Forest," Geographical Bulletin, Vol 8 11 J. M. Davis, 1981, The Use of Cluster Analysis in the Identification and...Atmosphere and a Proposed Model for Frontal Analysis," Tellus, Vol 5 ’’N. S. McDonald, 1975, "Etgenvectur Analisis as an Aid to Air Mass Recognition

  1. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve

  2. Risk assessment of K basin twelve-inch drain valve failure from a postulated seismic initiating event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORGAN, R.G.

    1999-04-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project will transfer metallic SNF from the Hanford 105 K-East and 105 K-West Basins to safe interim storage in the Canister Storage Building in the 200 Area. The initial basis for design, fabrication, installation, and operation of the fuel removal systems was that the basin leak rates which could result from a postulated accident condition would not be excessive relative to reasonable recovery operations. However, an additional potential K Basin water leak path is through the K Basin drain valves. Three twelve-inch drain valves are located in the main basin bays along the north wall. The sumps containing the valves are filled with concrete which covers the drain valve body. Visual observations suggest that only the valve's bonnet and stem are exposed above the basin concrete floor. It was recognized, however, that damage of the drain valve bonnet or stem during a seismic initiating event could provide a potential K Basin water leak path. The objectives of this activity are to: (1) evaluate the risk of damaging the three twelve-inch drain valves located along the north wall of the main basin from a seismic initiating event, and (2) determine the associated potential leak rate from a damaged valve.

  3. "Healthy Eating - Healthy Action": evaluating New Zealand's obesity prevention strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuvasa Ausaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand rates of obesity and overweight have increased since the 1980s, particularly among indigenous Māori people, Pacific people and those living in areas of high deprivation. New Zealand's response to the obesity epidemic has been The Healthy Eating-Healthy Action: Oranga Kai - Oranga Pumau (HEHA Strategy ('the Strategy', launched in 2003. Because the HEHA Strategy explicitly recognises the importance of evaluation and the need to create an evidence base to support future initiatives, the Ministry of Health has commissioned a Consortium of researchers to evaluate the Strategy as a whole. Methods This paper discusses the Consortium's approach to evaluating the HEHA Strategy. It includes an outline of the conceptual framework underpinning the evaluation, and describes the critical components of the evaluation which are: judging to what extent stakeholders were engaged in the process of the strategy implementation and to what extent their feedback was incorporated in to future iterations of the Strategy (continuous improvement, to what extent the programmes, policies, and initiatives implemented span the target populations and priority areas, whether there have been any population changes in nutrition and/or physical activity outcomes or behaviours relating to those outcomes, and to what extent HEHA Strategy and spending can be considered value for money. Discussion This paper outlines our approach to evaluating a complex national health promotion strategy. Not only does the Evaluation have the potential to identify interventions that could be adopted internationally, but also the development of the Evaluation design can inform other complex evaluations.

  4. Twelve tips for maximizing the effectiveness of game-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Borman-Shoap, Emily C; Eppich, Walter J

    2015-01-01

    Game-based learning (GBL) in medical education is emerging as a valid alternative to traditional teaching methods. Well-designed GBL sessions use non-threatening competition to capitalize on heightened learner arousal, allowing for high-level engagement and dynamic group discussion. While many templates for specific educational games have been published, little has been written on strategies for educators to create their own or how to use them with maximal effectiveness. These 12 tips provide specific recommendations for the successful design and implementation of GBL sessions in medical education based on a review of the literature and insight from experienced designers.

  5. Malassezia versus Candida in Healthy Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihelská Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.

  6. NASA/JPL Solar System Educators Program: Twelve Years of Success and Looking Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, K.; NASA/JPL Solar System Educators Program

    2011-12-01

    Since 1999, the NASA/JPL Solar System Educators Program (SSEP) has been the model of a successful master teacher volunteer program. Integrating nationwide volunteers in this professional development program helped optimize agency funding set aside for education. Through the efforts of these volunteers, teachers across the country became familiarized with NASA's STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) educational materials, schools added these products to their curriculum and students benefitted. The years since 1999 have brought about many changes. There have been advancements in technology that allow more opportunities for telecon and web based learning methods. Along with those advancements have also come significant challenges. With NASA budgets for education shrinking, this already frugal program has become more spartan. Teachers face their own hardships with school budget cuts, limited classroom time and little support for professional development. In order for SSEP to remain viable in the face of these challenges, the program management, mission funders and volunteers themselves are working together to find ways of maintaining the quality that made the program a success and at the same time incorporate new, cost-effective methods of delivery. The group will also seek new partnerships to provide enhancements that will aid educators in advancing their careers at the same time as they receive professional development. By working together and utilizing the talent and experience of these master teachers, the Solar System Educators Program can enjoy a revitalization that will meet the needs of today's educators at the same time as renewing the enthusiasm of the volunteers.

  7. Heart rate variability in healthy population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Hussain, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Heart rate variability has been considered as an indicator of autonomic status. Little work has been done on heart rate variability in normal healthy volunteers. We aimed at evolving the reference values of heart rate variability in our healthy population. Methods: Twenty-four hour holter monitoring of 37 healthy individuals was done using Holter ECG recorder 'Life card CF' from 'Reynolds Medical'. Heart rate variability in both time and frequency domains was analysed with 'Reynolds Medical Pathfinder Digital/700'. Results: The heart rate variability in normal healthy volunteers of our population was found in time domain using standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDNN), standard deviation of average NN intervals (SDANN), and Square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD). Variation in heart rate variability indices was observed between local and foreign volunteers and RMSSD was found significantly increased (p<0.05) in local population. Conclusions: The values of heart rate variability (RMSSD) in healthy Pakistani volunteers were found increased compared to the foreign data reflecting parasympathetic dominance in our population. (author)

  8. Microbiology of middle meatus in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariante, Afonso Ravanello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.

  9. Twelve years nuclear medicine - results and outlook - illustrated by 7414 cerebral scintigrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaeger, R.

    1981-01-01

    It is a fact that until the invention of computerized tomography, scintiscanning was an excellent method for diagnosing tumours, metastases, vascular processes, inflammations and traumatic lesions. Now even the differential diagnosis is possible, and also follow-up examinations are often carried out. On the basis of the 7414 considered and studied scintigrams we came to the positive result that in most cases with deliberate questions directed to specific facts, this examination procedure was applied. Scintigraphy can be considered as the predecessor of computerized tomography. With respect to differential diagnostics the following can be said: Cerebral scintigraphy measures in cases of cerebral lesions only masses, whereas the computerized tomograph permits within certain limits even the differentiation between lesion and perifocal oedema. The tomographs of the last generation even differentiate between white and grey cerebral substance. Nevertheless, the residual domaine of scintigraphy remains untouched: the patients with non-focal symptoms, including headaches, general behaviour disorders and psychiatric processes. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Twelve-year survival after multiple recurrences and repeated metastasectomies for renal cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jue

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC presents a therapeutic challenge for clinicians because of the unpredictable clinical course, resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy and the limited response to immunotherapy. Patients and Methods We report a case of a 62-year-old woman who underwent nephrectomy for T4N0 RCC, clear cell type, Fuhrman grade 3/4 in 1999. The patinet subsequently had multiple tumor recurrences. Results The patient underwent eight metastasectomies, including multiple partial left nephrectomies, right adrenalectomy, a complete left nephrectomy, and distal pancreatectomy. She remains well and tumor free 12 years after initial diagnosis. Conclusion Repeated resections after initial metastasectomy can be carried out safely and provide long-term survival in selected patients with recurrent metastasis from RCC. The findings from our case indicate that close follow-up for the early detection of recurrence and complete resection of metastases can improve the results after repeated resection.

  11. VARIATION IN BIOFUEL POTENTIAL OF TWELVE CALOPYLLUM INOPHYLLUM POPULATIONS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Leksono

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global energy crisis has raises demand for biofuel prices. It has driven the world to enhance environmentally-friendly renewable-energy (biofuel production. Oil from the seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum (nyamplung which can be harvested up to 50 years, is one of  such potential biofuel source. Methods for biofuel production from nyamplung seeds have been developed at an industrial scale by cooperative in Cilacap (Java and Energy Self-Sufficient Villages (Desa Mandiri Energi in Banyuwangi, Purworejo, Kebumen, Ujung Kulon (Java and Selayar (South Sulawesi. However, there is only a limited-information available on biofuel potential, in term of  productivity and quality, from nyamplung populations. This paper reports the variations in biofuel potential among 12 populations in Indonesia (6 from Java, 6 outside Java. The oil was extracted using a combination of  vertical hot press (VHP and screw press expeller (SPE methods, followed by degumming to make refined oil, and esterification-transesterification to turn it into biodiesel. The result show great variation of  biofuel content among the population. Oil production percentage varies from 37-48.5% (VHP and 50-58% (SPE crude oil, 36-48% (VHP and 40-53% (SPE refined oil, and 1733% (SPE for biodiesel. Seed resin content is responsible for most of the variation after degumming. DNA analysis shows genetic variation among populations ranges from intermediate within Java to high ouside Java and is intermediate within populations. Information about biofuel content and potential of  populations and genetic variation between and within population are important factors for establishment of  geneticallyimproved seed-sources for biofuel production from nyamplung.

  12. Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, Dushantha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories. PMID:25299511

  13. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.......001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  14. Effect of Terbinafine on Theophylline Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Eric F.; Nafziger, Anne N.; Amsden, Guy W.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Subjects received single doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg) with and without multiple-dose terbinafine, and 11 blood samples were collected over 24 h. The study phases were separated by a 4-week washout period. Theophylline serum data were modeled via noncompartmental analysis. When the control phase (i.e., no terbinafine) was compared to the treatment phase (terbinafine), theophylline exposure (the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity) increased by 16% (P = 0.03), oral clearance decreased by 14% (P = 0.04), and half-life increased by 24% (P = 0.002). No significant changes in other theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were evident. PMID:9517954

  15. Design and methods for a cluster-controlled trial conducted at sixty-eight daycare facilities evaluating the impact of "JolinchenKids - Fit and Healthy in Daycare", a program for health promotion in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbock, Berit; Zeeb, Hajo; Rach, Stefan; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-07-11

    The prevention of overweight and obesity during infancy is a highly relevant public health topic given the significant impact of childhood obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, and well-being in later stages of life. Apart from the family setting, daycare facilities (DFs) represent a key setting for health promotion among children under the age of six years. "JolinchenKids - Fit and Healthy in Daycare" is a multi-component program promoting physical activity (PA), healthy eating, and mental well-being in 3- to 6-year-old preschoolers at DFs, originally designed by the German health insurance AOK. To evaluate program effectiveness, a cluster-controlled trial involving 68 DFs is currently conducted. The objective of this article is to describe the background, study design, and aims of this trial. Sixty-eight DFs across Germany will be recruited to take part in the study, half of them serving as intervention DFs and half of them as delayed intervention control DFs (which receive the program upon completion of the study). At each DF, height, weight, and body composition, as well as motor skills, will be assessed in twenty 3- to 6-year-old children. Children's eating and PA habits, and mental well-being will be assessed via parental questionnaires. A subsample of children (i.e., at 24 DFs which are randomly selected within a geographic region) will be asked to wear accelerometers at their wrists to objectively measure PA over the course of seven days. To compare changes in body composition, motor skills, eating and PA habits, and mental well-being of children at intervention DFs with those observed among children at delayed intervention control DFs over one year, all measurements will take place at baseline and twelve months after the launch of the program at all DFs. This study investigates the influence of a health promotion program in the daycare setting on various outcomes, including body composition and objectively measured PA, in a nationwide

  16. An assessment of twelve- versus eighteen-month cycles for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momsen, B.F.; Dale, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the technical and economic factors involved in 18-month cycles for Zion pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The technical factors are divided into the factors that define input to the economic analysis and factors that are combined with the economic results in the final decisionmaking process. The economic analysis was performed by using a Present Value of the Revenue Requirements (PVRR) method and a complementary cash flow examination. The PVRR analysis examined total costs associated with both the 12- and 18-month cycles. The only significant technical problem that was identified was the relatively low new fuel enrichment limit of 3.2 w/o U 235 . The economic analysis demonstrated that 18-month cycles yielded significant PVRR savings over the 15-year study period. The economic benefits of 18-month cycles decreased as the fuel cost increased, the operating capacity factor decreased, the refueling outage length decreased, the differential 18-month cycle outage length increased, the replacement power cost decreased, and the escalation rate decreased

  17. Characterization and evaluation of catechol oxygenases by twelve bacteria, isolated from oil contaminated soils in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tavakoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Catechol is a common intermediate compound in aromatic degradation process. Some microorganisms have this potentiality to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons by catechol dioxygenases to less toxic compounds with ability of entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In the present study, the catechol oxygenase activity was measured for 12 crude oil degrader bacteria. Materials and methods: Catechol oxygenase activity of two enzymes includes catechol 1, 2 dioxygenase and catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase were determined using spectrophotometer at 260 nm and 375 nm, respectively. Results: The highest enzyme activity for catechol 1, 2 dioxygenase by Bacillus cereus UKMP-6G was (0.07 U/mL and about catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase was 0.031 U/mL by Rhodococcus ruber UKMP-5M during the first minute of incubation. Catechol 1, 2 dioxygenase and catechol 2, 3 dioxygenase followed the ortho and meta pathway, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The enzyme assay results showed that among 12 examined bacteria, only R. ruber UKMP-5M has the ability to use meta pathway for degradation and produce 2-hydroxymuconic acid. The other isolates use ortho pathway and create cis, cis-muconic acid.

  18. Twelve-year retrospective review of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzerd, Emilie; Schreuder, Henk W R; Vleugels, Michel P H; Veersema, Sebastiaan

    2016-04-01

    To identify factors contributing to the occurrence of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands. Even though Essure is a permanent method of contraception, unintended pregnancies have been reported. Retrospective case series analysis. Not applicable. Thirty-five pregnancies were reported in the Netherlands after Essure sterilization from 2002 through 2014 out of 27,346 placements. Data regarding Essure placement procedure, confirmation tests, and pregnancy outcome of the reported cases were obtained and analyzed to identify a possible cause of failure. Four causes of failure were identified: perforation (n = 10), expulsion (n = 7), unilateral placement (n = 7), and luteal pregnancy (n = 2). The occurrence of most pregnancies was related to physician noncompliance (n = 14). The other cases were associated with patient noncompliance (n = 5) or misinterpretation of the confirmation test (n = 9). Most pregnancies occurred within the first 24 months after the 3-month confirmation test (n = 23). The results of this study show that the incidence of pregnancies after Essure sterilization is low. Most pregnancies were related to incorrect positioning of a device or unilateral placement, and seem therefore preventable. Unilateral placement without prior history of salpingectomy should always be considered as unsuccessful sterilization. Furthermore, interpretation of the confirmation tests should be done by trained physicians, and with caution. We want to emphasize the importance of strictly adhering to placement and follow-up protocols. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Salvage whole abdominal radiation therapy for ovarian cancer: a twelve year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Katherine; Reddy, Susheel; Lee, Myung-Sook; Geest, Koen de; Lincoln, Sarah; Sarin, Pramilla; Graham, James; Yordan, Edgardo; Reddy, Salitha

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To evaluate whole abdominal radiation therapy (WART) as a salvage modality in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma who have failed one or more chemotherapeutic regimens; 2) To assess the feasibility and long-term toxicity of such treatment. Materials and Methods: Between June 1983 and October 1994, 51 patients who had failed one or more chemotherapeutic regimens received WART. Forty-seven patients had epithelial ovarian carcinoma, the remaining had primary carcinoma of the peritoneal cavity. Forty patients (78%) had FIGO stage III and IV disease. Grade III and IV tumors were seen in 29 patients (57%). The residual disease was classified as being either microscopic or macroscopic disease depending on the status after the laparotomy prior to radiation treatment, irrespective of the extent of disease prior to debulking. In 22 patients (43%) macroscopic disease was present after laparotomy, while the remaining 29 patients (57%) had only microscopic disease present. Twenty patients (39%) had residual disease limited to the pelvis, and 31 patients (61%) had upper abdominal involvement. An open field technique was used to deliver planned doses of 25Gy to the whole abdomen with shielding of the kidneys posteriorly after 12Gy. Boost fields to the pelvis and/or areas of gross residual disease were treated when indicated. The Kaplan-Meier Method was used to calculate survival data from the initiation of radiation until death or recurrence. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 53 months, with a range of 17 to 122 months. Results: Five patients (10%) were unable to complete therapy secondary to acute toxicity. An additional fourteen patients (27%) required a one to five week break usually secondary to cytopenias. Four year actuarial survival and recurrence-free survival rates for the entire group of patients were 32% and 23% respectively. For patients with microscopic residual disease, survival and recurrence-free survival rates were 48% and 37

  20. Twelve worlds: a geo-demographic comparison of global inequalities in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, P; Pearce, J; Dorling, D

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clusters of nations grouped by health outcomes in order to provide sensible groupings for international comparisons. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by comparing life expectancy and a range of health system indicators within and between each cluster. Age- and sex-specific mortality data for 190 member states were extracted from the Burden of Disease Estimates statistics produced by the World Health Organization. A hierarchical cluster method was used to identify groupings of countries that are homogeneous in terms of mortality rates. 12 clusters of countries were identified. The average life expectancy of each cluster ranged from 81.5 years (cluster 1) to 37.7 years (cluster 12). The two highest ranked clusters were dominated by Western European countries, Australia, Japan and Canada. Cluster 3 included the UK and USA. The four clusters with the lowest life expectancies were characterised by different configurations of African countries. Health system indicators for workforce, hospital beds, access to medicines and measles vaccination corresponded well with a clear association with cluster life expectancy. On a per capita basis, worldwide health spending was concentrated within the three highest life expectancy clusters, especially cluster 3 containing the USA. Considerable inequalities in life expectancy and healthcare are made clearer when viewed across clusters of countries grouped by health outcomes. This geo-demographic taxonomy of global mortality has advantages over traditional more ad hoc systems for comparing global health inequalities and for deciding which countries appear to have the most comparable health outcomes.

  1. Retrospective study comparing six - and twelve-core prostate biopsy in detection of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Tobiume

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We compared the safety and efficacy of the 12-core biopsy with those of the conventional systematic 6-core biopsy with PSA levels between 4.1 and 20.0 ng/mL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 428 patients who underwent a 6-core biopsy and 128 patients who underwent a 12-core biopsy. Biopsies were performed transrectally under ultrasound guidance. The 12-core biopsy scheme involved obtaining 6 far lateral cores. RESULTS: For patients with PSA level between 4.1 and 10.1 ng/mL, 47 of the 265 patients who underwent 6-core biopsy and 32 of the 91 patients who underwent a12-core biopsy were diagnosed with prostate cancer (p = 0.0006. Among the patients with a PSA level between 10.1 and 20.0 ng/mL, 48 of 163 patients who underwent the 6-core biopsy and 16 of 37 patients who underwent the 12-core biopsy were diagnosed with prostate cancer (p = 0.0606. Three of the 95 patients who were diagnosed with prostate cancer through the 6-core biopsy and 12 of the 48 patients who were diagnosed through the 12-core biopsy had cancer located in the anterior apex. The 12-core biopsy increased the diagnostic rate in the apex (p = 0.001. No statistically significant differences were found in incidence of complications. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the 12-core biopsy is a safe and more effective procedure for increasing the diagnostic rate of prostate cancer than the 6-core biopsy in patients with PSA level between 4.1 and 10.0 ng/mL, and the most useful anatomical area to be added was found to be cores from the anterior apex.

  2. Twelve months follow-up after retrograde recanalization of superficial femoral artery chronic total occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wojtasik-Bakalarz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Fifty percent of cases of peripheral artery disease are caused by chronic total occlusion (CTO of the superficial femoral artery (SFA. Ten–fifteen percent of percutaneous SFA recanalization procedures are unsuccessful. In those cases the retrograde technique can increase the success rate of the procedure, but the long-term follow-up of such procedures is still unknown. Aim : To assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes during long-term follow-up after retrograde recanalization of the SFA. Material and methods: We included patients after at least one unsuccessful percutaneous antegrade recanalization of the SFA. Patients were evaluated for the procedural and clinical follow-up of mean time 13.9 months. Results: The study included 17 patients (7 females, 10 males who underwent percutaneous retrograde recanalization of the SFA from June 2011 to June 2015. The mean age of patients was 63 ±7 years. Retrograde puncture of the distal SFA was successful in all cases. A retrograde procedure was performed immediately after antegrade failure in 4 (23.5% patients and after a previously failed attempt in 13 (76.5% patients. The procedure was successful in 15 (88.2% patients, and unsuccessful in 2 (11.8% patients. Periprocedural complications included 1 peripheral distal embolization (successfully treated with aspiration thrombectomy, 1 bleeding event from the puncture site and 7 puncture site hematomas. During follow-up the all-cause mortality rate was 5.8% (1 patient, non-cardiac death. The primary patency rate at 12 months was 88.2% and secondary patency 100%. Conclusions : The retrograde SFA puncture seems to be a safe and successful technique for CTO recanalization and is associated with a low rate of perioperative and long-term follow-up complications.

  3. Twelve-year analysis of microbial keratitis trends at a UK tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Z; Walkden, A; Au, L; Fullwood, C; Hamilton, A; Qamruddin, A; Armstrong, M; Brahma, A K; Carley, F

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the frequencies, trends, and in vitro drug susceptibilities of the causative pathogens in microbial keratitis in Manchester Royal Eye Hospital.Patients and methodsCorneal scrape results recorded by the microbiology service between 2004 and 2015 were extracted from an established database. A total of 4229 corneal scrape specimens were identified from an established database. First-line antibiotic treatment in our centre during the study period was ofloxacin and second line was cefuroxime and gentamicin.ResultsMean age was 45.9±21.0. A total of 1379 samples (32.6%) were culture positive. One hundred forty-eight (10.7%) specimens cultured multiple organisms. Of the 1539 organisms identified, 63.3% were Gram-positive bacteria, 27.3% Gram-negative bacteria, 7.1% fungi, and 2.3% Acanthamoebae. A decreasing trend in Gram-positive isolates was found together with a stable trend in Gram negatives and an increasing trend in Acanthamoeba and fungi. There appeared to be a significant increasing trend of Moraxella infection (P=0.001). In all, 83.1 and 90.8% of Gram-positive and -negative isolates tested were susceptible to ofloxacin, respectively. Cefuroxime covered 86.6% of Gram-positive and 61.4% of Gram-negative isolates, whereas gentamicin covered 88.8 and 96.5% of Gram-positive and -negative isolates, respectively.ConclusionWe found a change in the type of Gram-negative organisms isolated over time, with the Moraxella species on the rise. Reassuringly, no significant increase in resistance was observed in vitro for any of the commonly used antibiotics. Ofloxacin remains a good first-line antibiotic treatment but duo-therapy does have broader coverage and should be considered in non-responsive cases.

  4. Predictors of the change in bilirubin levels over twelve weeks of treatment with atazanavir

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, Aoife G

    2013-05-16

    AbstractObjectiveTo determine the factors associated with change in bilirubin concentration 12 weeks after the initiation of an atazanavir (ATV)-containing antiretroviral regimen.MethodsWe performed a retrospective case note review of all patients prescribed ATV between January 2004 and October 2007 in a cohort of HIV infected subjects. Data collected included baseline demographics, hepatitis B and C serology, current antiretroviral therapy, baseline and week 12 routine bloods. The primary endpoint was the change in bilirubin concentration at 12 weeks after start of ATV. Multvariable linear regression was performed to assess the relationships between the change in bilirubin and variables of interest. Results: Eighty-three ATV-treated patients were included in the analysis of whom 46 (60.5%) were hepatitis C antibody positive. The median (interquartile range) change in bilirubin by week 12 was 16 (4, 22) umol\\/L; only 1 patient developed grade 4 hyperbilirubinaemia at week 12. After controlling for baseline bilirubin levels, HCV seropositivity and baseline ALP were associated with a smaller change in bilirubin over the 12 weeks with a trend towards lower increases in those receiving tenofovir. Sensitivity analyses reported similar associations with methadone use and injection drug use, when these variables replaced HCV sero-positivity in the model. Conclusion: Patients with hepatitis C co-infection experience smaller changes in bilirubin upon exposure to ATV. Although the underlying mechanism for this association remains unclear, these data support the safe use of this drug in this patient setting. Further research into the clinical predictors of ATV-related hyperbilirubinaemia is warranted.

  5. Adolescents' Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Communication about Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore Chinese adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating, their perceptions of various socializing agents shaping their eating habits, and their opinions about various regulatory measures which might be imposed to encourage healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus group interview sessions…

  6. Vital Signs Predict Rapid-Response Team Activation within Twelve Hours of Emergency Department Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Walston

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rapid-response teams (RRTs are interdisciplinary groups created to rapidly assess and treat patients with unexpected clinical deterioration marked by decline in vital signs. Traditionally emergency department (ED disposition is partially based on the patients’ vital signs (VS at the time of hospital admission. We aimed to identify which patients will have RRT activation within 12 hours of admission based on their ED VS, and if their outcomes differed. Methods: We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting from January 2009 to December 2012 to a tertiary ED who subsequently had RRT activations within 12 hours of admission (early RRT activations. The medical records of patients 18 years and older admitted to a non-intensive care unit (ICU setting were reviewed to obtain VS at the time of ED arrival and departure, age, gender and diagnoses. Controls were matched 1:1 on age, gender, and diagnosis. We evaluated VS using cut points (lowest 10%, middle 80% and highest 10% based on the distribution of VS for all patients. Our study adheres to the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines for reporting observational studies. Results: A total of 948 patients were included (474 cases and 474 controls. Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% CI [1.25-3.27], tachypneic (OR 2.92, 95% CI [1.73-4.92], and had lower oxygen saturations (OR 2.25, 95% CI [1.42-3.56] upon arrival to the ED. Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic at the time of disposition from the ED (OR 2.76, 95% CI [1.65-4.60], more likely to have extremes of systolic blood pressure (BP (OR 1.72, 95% CI [1.08-2.72] for low BP and OR 1.82, 95% CI [1.19-2.80] for high BP, higher respiratory rate (OR 4.15, 95% CI [2.44-7.07] and lower oxygen saturation (OR 2.29, 95% CI [1.43-3.67]. Early RRT activation was associated with increased healthcare

  7. Vibrational modes of isolated substitution impurities in twelve compounds AN B8-N with the blende structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumelle, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    We have studied a particular point defect, the isolated substitution in twelve compounds CuCl, CuBr, CuI, ZnTe, CdTe, ZnS, ZnSe, GaAs, GaP, InSb, InP and GaSb. The model of the perfect lattice is a rigid ion model with eleven parameters. Infrared localized vibrational modes of impurities are observed in a series of samples. By comparison of these experimental results with the calculated values it is possible to determine the perturbation for each particular case. A relation obtained between a force constant of the perfect crystal and the force constant of the impurity suggests that no change is introduced by the isoelectronic impurities. (author) [fr

  8. Twelve month follow-up on a randomised controlled trial of relaxation training for post-stroke anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Katherine; Fife-Schaw, Chris; Kneebone, Ian

    2017-09-01

    To follow up participants in a randomised controlled trial of relaxation training for anxiety after stroke at 12 months. Twelve month follow-up to a randomised controlled trial, in which the control group also received treatment. Community. Fifteen of twenty one original participants with post-stroke anxiety participated in a one year follow-up study. A self-help autogenic relaxation CD listened to five times a week for one month, immediately in the intervention group and after three months in the control group. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status for inclusion. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale for outcome. All measures were administered by phone. Anxiety ratings reduced significantly between pre and post-intervention, and between pre-intervention and one year follow-up ( χ 2 (2) = 22.29, p autogenic relaxation CD appear to be maintained after one year.

  9. Metagenomic binning reveals the functional roles of core abundant microorganisms in twelve full-scale biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    and environmental factors on MAGs abundance and to investigate the methanogenic performance of the biogas plants. Prediction of the functional properties of MAGs was obtained analyzing their KEGG pathways and their carbohydrate active domains. Network analysis allowed investigation of species-species associations......The aim of this work was to elucidate the microbial ecology in twelve mesophilic and thermophilic full-scale biogas plants using a genome-centric metagenomic approach. In this study both biogas plants treating manure and those treating sludge from waste water treatment plants were considered...... and shed light on syntrophic interactions between members belonging to the anaerobic digestion dark matter (phylum Fermentibacteria). By stratifying and comparing different levels of information, it was predicted that some MAGs have a crucial role in the manure-supplemented thermophilic biogas plants...

  10. Nucleic acids in mummified plant seeds: screening of twelve specimens by gel-electrophoresis, molecular hybridization and DNA cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, F; La Marca, A; Amici, A

    1987-02-01

    Twelve seed specimens of varying ages and from different archaeological sites were analyzed for the presence of polymerized DNA and RNA. Amongst the samples tested, one of Vitis vinifera from an archaeological site in Iran (2,000-3,000 B.C.) was found to be completely devoid of nucleic acids. Zea mais seeds of Precolumbial age from Peru (about 800 A.D.) contained depolymerized DNA and RNA. Samples of Vitis vinifera and Rubus sp. from a Lombard archaeological site (800 A.D.) as well as radiocarbon dated seeds from the site of the "Spring Sanctuary" near Metaponto (I-IV century B.C.) were found to contain polymerized DNA and rRNA bands. However the electrophoretic properties of the rRNAs in one case and hybridization experiments performed with cloned seed DNA in the other, clearly demonstrated that the polymerized nucleic acids were not of plant origin.

  11. Developing and Testing Twelve-Step Facilitation for Adolescents with Substance Use Disorder: Manual Development and Preliminary Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent substance use disorder treatment programs are often based on the 12-step philosophy of Alcoholics Anonymous and/or link adolescents to these free resources. Despite this, no studies have developed and rigorously tested a twelve-step facilitation (TSF intervention for young people, leaving a significant evidence gap. This study describes the first systematic development of an outpatient adolescent TSF treatment. An integrated twelve-step facilitation (iTSF treatment incorporated TSF, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy elements and was developed in an iterative manner with weekly feedback provided by 36 adolescents ( M age 17 years [SD = 1.4]; 52.8% white with DSM-IV substance use disorder recruited from the community. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at three and six months. Participants completed 6 of 10 sessions on average (8 participants completed all 10. Notable treatment developments were the inclusion of “in-services” led by Marijuana Anonymous members, including parents in a portion of individual sessions to provide a rationale for TSF, and use of a Socratic therapeutic interaction style. Acceptability and feasibility of the treatment were excellent (treatment satisfaction was 4.29 [SD = 0.59] out of 5. In keeping with TSF theory, the intervention substantially increased 12-step participation, and greater participation related to greater abstinence. iTSF is a replicable manualized treatment that can be implemented and tested in outpatient settings. Given the widespread compatibility of iTSF with the current adolescent treatment, if found efficacious, iTSF could be relatively easily adopted, implemented, and sustained and could provide an evidence-based option that could undergird current practice.

  12. Comparison ofYield of TwelveBasilCultivarsinTwo Provinces:Isfahan and Mazandaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Amoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basil(Ocimumbasilicum L.is a diploid plant with48chromosomes. Basil isthe aromatic annual herbofthe Lamiaceae familyofleafy vegetablesandhas mentionedand originated inIndiaandIran. Basilhasiron, calcium, magnesium, potassiumandvitamins Aand B. More than 60 varietiesof basilhave been identifiedthathavegreenleavesandredto purple.The performance of15varietiesof basilin Mazandaran province were studied, genotypescollected fromSari(darkgreen withthe23.63 tha-1(fresh weight had thehighestyield. In comparison, 38the massbasil, withtwocultivars(Opal andKashkanyLulu, localpopulationsofmanyof the traits(e.g.,length and width ofleavesandfresh and dry weight showed superiority than cultivars. Incomparing the performance of38varietiesof basilinItaly, drymatter yieldper hectarerangedfrom1812 to6165kg ha-1thatthis wasmore attributestobegenetic aspects. Landraces ofbasilhavevaluabletraitssuch asdrought resistance, saltresistance, resistancetodisease, resistancetocoldandheat. In order to achieveoptimalpopulationpurple basil with high-performance inIsfahan andMazandaran, the present studywas conducted usingsomeof the populationinthese two provinces. Materials and Methods: The number of populations of purple basil wasstudied toselect superior genotypes according to the yield and adaptation to climatic conditions in two provinces at Agricultural Research Station Gharahil of Mazandaran and Kabootarabad of Isfahan. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications with seeds collected from two areas of the province (a total of 12 varieties of basil during one year. Land preparationwas consisted ofplowanddiscperpendicular to each other(for crushinghunk and thenlevelingandplotsofland. Inprovinces, nitrogen, phosphorusandpotassiumfertilizerwas used based on soiltest.In this experiment,harvest time was4st. for every two region. Duringthe growing seasonweed controlwascarried outmechanically. Result and Discussions: In

  13. Dvylikos Olimpo dievų vaizdavimas Enijaus Analuose. Depiction of twelve Olympian gods in Ennius’ Annales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Veteikis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Annales of Ennius, partly aimed at survey of Roman history year by year, partly at memorizing Roman heroes and equating them to gods, though had a few antecedant models in Hellenistic epic, remains unrivalled in respect of vastitude and bravery of the innovatory devise. The poem, praising deeds of Roman god-like ancestors, kings, consuls and tribunes, had certain political aspirations tending to melt the scepticism towards Greek culture and its reception among conservative members of aristocracy of Ennius’ time. On the other hand, being performed in traditional Roman convivial setting, Annales were in accord with Roman piety and reverent attitude towards gods, whence poet’s aim at his own otherness and impartiality might be discerned.Annales of Ennius not only reminds its readers of Roman strategy of gaining over Carthaginian or Greek deities during Roman expansion outside Appenines, but also claims their common identity with Roman gods, whence the idea of Greek and Roman cultural affinity and common genealogy comes. This idea most probably originates from the deep consideration of homeric and hellenistic epic and their exegetical traditions combined with other philosophical views (even contrasting ones attainable in III B. C. Italy. However, the state of extant text of Annales, consisting of over 600 fragmentary verses (plus around 100 more or less identified testimonia together with recently deciphered fragments from Herculanean papyrus, doesn’t provide us with certain argument what attitude in Ennius’ notion prevailed, unless we investigate one by one all the mentions of gods in this poem. The complex task is treated in this article in a selective manner: the main attention is paid only to the limited part of over 40 deities present in Annales, namely, to the Greco-Roman dodekatheon or di consentes, most clearly attested in Ann. 240–241 Sk. The method of investigation rests on the description of each deity separately, both trying to

  14. Growth, Flowering Time and Quality of Twelve Apple Varieties under Urmia Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rezaee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple is a major commercial fruit crop grown in Iran. The country produces approximately 1.6 - 2.7 million tonnes of apples and was one of the top 10 apple producing countries in the world during the last decade. West Azerbaijan province, with more than 50,000 hectare of apple orchards and by producing of approximately one million tonne of fresh apple, is one of the main regions of apple production in Iran. In this region, two common apple cultivars Red Delicious and Golden Delicious are dominant (>90%, which needs to be updated by new apple cultivars to satisfy different technical/management as well as worldwide marketing requirements. Apple cultivars evaluations was started in Iran since 1953 and a lot of apple collection were established, but and until new apple cultivar was not introduced to farmers, As a first step for introduction of alternative cultivars, in this study, vegetative growth, flowering time, fruit ripening time as well as fruit quality of 12 apple (Malus pumilla Mill cultivars were evaluated under Urmia climatic conditions. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate vegetative growth, quality and compatibility of some apple cultivars to allow selection of alternative cultivars for commercial apple production in the northwest province of Iran. Materials and methods: This experiment was conducted at the Kahriz Horticultural Research Station located in Urmia-Iran (latitude 44°07' E; 37º 53' N.; altitude, 1325 m above sea level. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with 12 treatments (cultivars and three replications. The apple cultivars including Golden Delicious, Red Delicious, Red Spur, Fuji, Delbar Stival, Golden Smothee, Jonagold, Gholab-Kohanz, Golab-Kermanshah, Mahali Shikhi and Shafie Abadi were grafted on MM 111 rootstock. Trees were 10-year-old with a planting distance of 3 x 4 m and were trained as modified leader system. Data collected for annual shoot growth, time

  15. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: A twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paice E

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory, and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five. Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire and personality. Results Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Conclusions Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style.

  16. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: A twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, IC; Keeling, A; Paice, E

    2004-01-01

    Background The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five). Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire) and personality. Results Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Conclusions Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style. PMID:15317650

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  18. Comparative optimism about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproesser, Gudrun; Klusmann, Verena; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated people's perception of their own as compared to their peers' healthy eating and related these perceptions to actual healthy eating, BMI, and subsequent healthy eating behavior. Data were collected within the framework of the longitudinal cohort study Konstanz Life Study (T1: N = 770; T2: N = 510). Our results demonstrated an optimistic bias on the group level. Specifically, people rated their own eating behavior as healthier on average than that of their average peers. This comparative optimism occurred even when actual healthy eating was unfavorable and BMI was high. However, it increased with actual healthy eating behavior. Importantly, optimistic perceptions were positively related to the intention to eat healthily and healthy eating six months later. Hence, the results suggest that an optimistic comparative view of one's own healthy eating is grounded in reality and boosts rather than deters subsequent health behavior. This implies that there might not be a need to reduce optimistic perceptions of healthy eating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrition and Healthy Eating: Caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're like most adults, caffeine is a part of ... US adults: 2001-2010. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015;101:1081. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for ...

  20. Healthy lifestyle and Czech consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kubešová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on healthy lifestyle. It concentrates specifically on impact on human health and which lifestyle lives Czech population. This work summarizes the principles of helathy lifestyle and reveals lifestyles of Czech people with market segmentation and MML-TGI data in the practical part. This can help firms in targeting and addressing people within healthy lifestyle.

  1. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...

  2. Healthy Eating and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between healthy eating and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a healthy school nutrition environment to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  3. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…

  4. Healthy School Communities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…

  5. Characteristics of a Healthy Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Phylis Lan

    The reason for studying the characteristics of a healthy family is to encourage and strengthen the family and to move toward an enriched family life by using the characteristics as bench marks. Six characteristics are discussed as the essence of a healthy family: (1) commitment; (2) togetherness; (3) appreciation; (4) good communication; (5)…

  6. Cardiovascular risk after preeclampsia : The effect of communicating risk factors on intended healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokslag, Anouk; Kroeze, Willemieke; de Groot, Christianne J.M.; Teunissen, Pim W.

    Objective: We studied the effect of communicating cardiovascular risk factors on intended healthy behavior in women with a history of preeclampsia or uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods: Intention for healthy behavior was assessed before and after cardiovascular risk assessment. Changes were calculated

  7. Quantification of dopamine transporter density with [18F]FECNT PET in healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nye, Jonathon A.; Votaw, John R.; Bremner, J. Douglas; Davis, Margaret R.; Voll, Ronald J.; Camp, Vernon M.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fluorine-18 labeled 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-(2-fluoroethyl)nortropane ([ 18 F]FECNT) binds reversibly to the dopamine transporter (DAT) with high selectivity. [ 18 F]FECNT has been used extensively in the quantification of DAT occupancy in non-human primate brain and can distinguish between Parkinson's and healthy controls in humans. The purpose of this work was to develop a compartment model to characterize the kinetics of [ 18 F]FECNT for quantification of DAT density in healthy human brain. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers underwent 180 min dynamic [ 18 F]FECNT PET imaging including sampling of arterial blood. Regional time-activity curves were extracted from the caudate, putamen and midbrain including a reference region placed in the cerebellum. Binding potential, BP ND , was calculated for all regions using kinetic parameters estimated from compartmental and Logan graphical model fits to the time-activity data. Simulations were performed to determine whether the compartment model could reliably fit time-activity data over a range of BP ND values. Results: The kinetics of [ 18 F]FECNT were well-described by the reversible 2-tissue arterial input and full reference tissue compartment models. Calculated binding potentials in the caudate, putamen and midbrain were in good agreement between the arterial input model, reference tissue model and the Logan graphical model. The distribution volume in the cerebellum did not reach a plateau over the duration of the study, which may be a result of non-specific binding in the cerebellum. Simulations that included non-specific binding show that the reference and arterial input models are able to estimate BP ND for DAT densities well below that observed in normal volunteers. Conclusion: The kinetics of [ 18 F]FECNT in human brain are well-described by arterial input and reference tissue compartment models. Measured and simulated data show that BP ND calculated with reference tissue model

  8. Investigation the Response of Some Proteins That Involved in Cachexia Syndrome to Acute Resistance Exercise in Healthy Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of plasma Myostatin and insulin growth factor like-1 (IGF-1, as two most important proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome, to acute resistance exercise in healthy elderly people. Methods & Materials: Twelve healthy older men (Age=67±1.3 years, BMI=25±1.4 kg/m2 volunteered for participation in this study. 72 hours after the determination of muscular maximal strength (by 1-RM test, subjects participated in acute resistance exercises via 75% 1-RM. In this research, two blood samples were collected at before and immediately after the exercise from Antecubital vein. Plasma Myostatin and serum levels of IGF-1 were measured by ELISA methods. Paired T-Test used for statical analyses of research data. Significant level was set at P≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that plasma Myostatin significantly decreased in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. Also the serum levels of IGF-1 increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. In turn, the results reveled that the IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resistance exercise through increases of IGF-1 and decreases of Myostatin causes increment of IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio. According to the results of this study it seems prescription of resistance exercise could positive changes in proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome in elderly people. Presumably, through this way we can prevent from Cachexia and its many physiological and physical related dysfunctions in theses people. Although more study is needed to clear its mechanisms.

  9. The effects of patterned electrical stimulation combined with voluntary contraction on spinal reciprocal inhibition in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, Yoko; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary contraction (VC) on the modulation of reciprocal inhibition induced by patterned electrical stimulation (PES) in healthy individuals. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in this study. PES was applied to the common peroneal nerve...... a soleus H-reflex conditioning-test paradigm at the time points of before, immediately after, 10 min after, 20 min after, and 30 min after the tasks. PES+VC increased the amount of reciprocal inhibition, with after-effects lasting up to 20 min. PES alone increased reciprocal inhibition and maintained...

  10. Support for healthy breastfeeding mothers with healthy term babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Mary J; McCormick, Felicia M; Wade, Angela; Quinn, Beverley; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence of important health risks for infants and mothers related to not breastfeeding. In 2003, the World Health Organization recommended infants be exclusively breastfed until six months of age, with breastfeeding continuing as an important part of the infant’s diet till at least two years of age. However, breastfeeding rates in many countries currently do not reflect this recommendation. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of support for breastfeeding mothers. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (3 October 2011). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing extra support for healthy breastfeeding mothers of healthy term babies with usual maternity care. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Main results Of the 67 studies that we assessed as eligible for inclusion, 52 contributed outcome data to the review (56,451 mother-infant pairs) from 21 countries. All forms of extra support analysed together showed an increase in duration of ‘any breastfeeding’ (includes partial and exclusive breastfeeding) (risk ratio (RR) for stopping any breastfeeding before six months 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.96). All forms of extra support together also had a positive effect on duration of exclusive breastfeeding (RR at six months 0.86, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.91; RR at four to six weeks 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.89). Extra support by both lay and professionals had a positive impact on breastfeeding outcomes. Maternal satisfaction was poorly reported. Authors’ conclusions All women should be offered support to breastfeed their babies to increase the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding. Support is likely to be more effective in settings with high initiation rates, so efforts to increase the uptake of breastfeeding should be in place. Support may be offered either by

  11. Twelve tips for blueprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Sylvain; Woloschuk, Wayne; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2009-04-01

    Content validity is a requirement of every evaluation and is achieved when the evaluation content is congruent with the learning objectives and the learning experiences. Congruence between these three pillars of education can be facilitated by blueprinting. Here we describe an efficient process for creating a blueprint and explain how to use this tool to guide all aspects of course creation and evaluation. A well constructed blueprint is a valuable tool for medical educators. In addition to validating evaluation content, a blueprint can also be used to guide selection of curricular content and learning experiences.

  12. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... ... restricting sales of unhealthy food and drink in the vicinity of schools, and ... Read the full story of change: Caribbean health: Healthy children, ... the Caribbean by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund, ...

  13. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  14. Results of primary central nervous system lymphoma treated by radiation and chemotherapy. Retrospective analysis of twelve institutions in the Tokai district of Japan, 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Toshiki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the therapeutic results and prognostic factors of 46 primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) patients who were treated at twelve institutions in the Tokai district of Japan between 1995 and 1999. We compared the results with those of a Japanese nationwide survey performed in the past. We sent each institution a questionnaire about the state of patients' disease, pathological type, method and doses of radiotherapy, regimen and intensity of chemotherapy, and patients' prognoses. The range of patients' ages was 33 to 93 years (median, 61 years). Thirty-one were men and 15 were women. The most prevalent histology was diffuse large B cell type (33 patients). We used the Kaplan-Meier method to calculate the survival rate and Cox's proportional hazards model to analyze the prognostic factors. The five-year cumulative survival rate was 25%, and the median survival time was 22.7 months. The five-year disease-free survival rate was 23%. In monovariate analysis, patients who were both younger than 60 years old and had a World Health Organization (WHO) performance status (PS) score equal to or less than 2 showed a better survival rate. Furthermore, the patients receiving systemic chemotherapy showed a significantly better local control rate. In addition, patients who received systemic chemotherapy achieved a higher complete remission rate than those not receiving it. However, no factors that significantly influenced survival rate were identified in multivariate analysis. We demonstrated that the therapeutic outcome of PCNSL patients has recently improved. In particular, patients with good PS showed better local control than those with poor PS. However, we could not identify any significant prognostic factors in PCNSL patients. (author)

  15. Making Healthy Decisions About Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens: How to Make Healthy Decisions About Sex Page Content Article Body Before you decide to ... alcohol or use drugs. Are You Ready for Sex? Sex can change your life and relationships. Having ...

  16. Eat for a Healthy Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods you buy. “Product labels give consumers the power to compare foods quickly and easily so they can judge which products best fit into a heart healthy diet or meet other dietary needs,” Schneeman says. “ ...

  17. Disability and Health: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  18. Healthy eating at schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne

    eating. In Denmark most children eat a packed lunch brought from home. It is challenging to collect dietary data from a pediatric population where recall problems exist and estimation of portion sizes can be complicated. Thus, to measure and assess the dietary effect of an intervention, new valid methods...... consecutive days during a week at each of the three measurements. In total 984 school children were invited at baseline – 493 from the 2nd -3rd grades and 491 from the 5th-6th grades. A standardized DPM was used to collect data on food intake 3 consecutive days in a week at all of the 3 measurements...

  19. Uptake of radionuclide thorium by twelve native plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils from south part of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Screen dominant plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils. • Quantify the content of "2"3"2Th of soil samples from uranium mill tailings. • Quantify the transfer factor, bioconcentration factor and phytoremediation factor. • Screen out the plant species capable of remediating radionuclide contaminated soils. • Guide the reuse of study area in future. - Abstract: The concentrations of thorium ("2"3"2Th) in soil from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. The results showed that all the soil samples were acidic and the concentrations of "2"3"2Th in all the soil samples were more than the natural radionuclide content in soil of China. Through the field investigation, twelve kinds of dominant plants were discovered. The total quantity of "2"3"2Th in the whole plant is highest in rice flat sedge. We also found that Miscanthus floridulus has the greatest transfer factor (TF) for "2"3"2Th, rice flat sedge has the greatest bioconcentration factor (BF) for "2"3"2Th. At the mean time, M. floridulus has the greatest phytoremediation factor (PF) for "2"3"2Th. On the basis of the above conclusions and the definition for hyperaccumulator, rice flat sedge and M. floridulus could be the candidates of phytoremediation for radionuclide "2"3"2Th in the soil.

  20. Measuring performance in off-patent drug markets: a methodological framework and empirical evidence from twelve EU Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavos, Panos

    2014-11-01

    This paper develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies post-patent expiry or after loss of exclusivity in non-tendering settings, comprising five indicators (generic availability, time delay to and speed of generic entry, number of generic competitors, price developments, and generic volume share evolution) and proposes a series of metrics to evaluate performance. The paper subsequently tests this framework across twelve EU Member States (MS) by using IMS data on 101 patent expired molecules over the 1998-2010 period. Results indicate that significant variation exists in generic market entry, price competition and generic penetration across the study countries. Size of a geographical market is not a predictor of generic market entry intensity or price decline. Regardless of geographic or product market size, many off patent molecules lack generic competitors two years after loss of exclusivity. The ranges in each of the five proposed indicators suggest, first, that there are numerous factors--including institutional ones--contributing to the success of generic entry, price decline and market penetration and, second, MS should seek a combination of supply and demand-side policies in order to maximise cost-savings from generics. Overall, there seems to be considerable potential for faster generic entry, uptake and greater generic competition, particularly for molecules at the lower end of the market. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Twelve-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of comprehensive physiotherapy following disc herniation operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenbichler, Gerold R; Inschlag, Silke; Pflüger, Verena; Stemberger, Regina; Wiesinger, Günther; Novak, Klaus; Christoph, Krall; Resch, Karl L

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of postoperative comprehensive physiotherapy starting one week after lumbar disc surgery. Twelve-year follow-up of a three-armed, randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial. Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. Of 111 patients following first-time, uncomplicated lumbar disc surgery who participated in the original study and completed the treatment originally allocated, 74 ((67%; 29 (73%) physiotherapy, 22 (58%) sham therapy, 23 (68%) no therapy) completed a 12-year follow-up examination. In the original study, patients had been randomly assigned to comprehensive physiotherapy, sham intervention (neck massage), or no therapy. Low Back Pain Rating Scale; best score 0, worst score 130 points). At 12 years after surgery, the group participating in comprehensive physiotherapy had significantly better functional outcomes, as rated on the Low Back Pain Rating Score, than the untreated group (mean difference: -13.2 (95% CI: (-25.4; -1.0)). Equally, there was a clinically relevant, non-significant difference between the sham therapy and no therapy (mean difference: -12.5 (95%CI: -26.1; 1.1)). Consequently, the Low Back Pain Rating Score outcome did not differ between physiotherapy and sham therapy (mean difference: -0.7 (95%CI: -14.2; 12.8)). Participating in a comprehensive physiotherapy program following lumbar disc surgery may be associated with better long-term health benefits over no intervention, but may not be superior to sham therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Effect of the composition of extra virgin olive oils on the differentiation and antioxidant capacities of twelve monovarietals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Edwar; Paucar, Fiorela; Tapia, Francisco; Ortiz, Jaime; Jimenez, Paula; Romero, Nalda

    2018-03-15

    The effect of the composition of twelve varieties of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) on their differentiation based in agronomic criteria and on the antioxidant capacity was studied. Principal component analysis permitted an overview of the samples and their compositions, showing evidence of grouping and correlation between antioxidant capacity, oleuropein and ligstroside derivatives (OLD) and specific extinction at 270. Oleic and linoleic acids, 3,4-DHPEA-EA and p-HPEA-EDA (OLD), unsaturated/saturated ratio and induction time (IT) allowed the correct classification of samples according to year of harvest, ripening stage and variety. The antioxidant capacity of EVOOs was satisfactory predicted through a partial least square model based on ΔK, hydroxytyrosol, pinoresinol, oleuropein derivate and IT. Validation of the model gave a correlation R>0.83 and an error of 7% for independent samples. This model could be a useful tool for the olive industry to highlight the nutritional quality of EVOOs and improve their marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bright ideas: Twelve steps to break our energy addiction - with technologies and policy options that are available today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-31

    The deleterious effects of excessive energy use, the effects of climate change and Canadian commitments under the Kyoto Protocol are discussed. The discussion takes the form of a series of recommendations to show that contrary to skeptics, it is possible to achieve our Kyoto commitments and even exceed them, with technology already at our disposal. A series of twelve recommendations are made, each recommendation accompanied by a brief discussion of its major virtues and contributions to a more sustainable energy future. The recommendations are: (1) reward efficiency and responsibility; (2) set mandatory efficiency targets for industry; (3) build more efficient and livable cities; (4) impose fuel efficiency standards; (5) increase funding for public transportation; (6) improve freight transportation; (7) adopt energy-efficient building code standards for new buildings; (8) introduce a national retrofit program for existing buildings; (9) set higher efficiency standards for appliances; (10) support the renewable energy industry; (11) reduce demand for electric power; and (12) implement a renewable portfolio standard.

  4. Uptake of radionuclide thorium by twelve native plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils from south part of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Xun, E-mail: m13836295186@163.com

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Screen dominant plants grown in uranium mill tailings soils. • Quantify the content of {sup 232}Th of soil samples from uranium mill tailings. • Quantify the transfer factor, bioconcentration factor and phytoremediation factor. • Screen out the plant species capable of remediating radionuclide contaminated soils. • Guide the reuse of study area in future. - Abstract: The concentrations of thorium ({sup 232}Th) in soil from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. The results showed that all the soil samples were acidic and the concentrations of {sup 232}Th in all the soil samples were more than the natural radionuclide content in soil of China. Through the field investigation, twelve kinds of dominant plants were discovered. The total quantity of {sup 232}Th in the whole plant is highest in rice flat sedge. We also found that Miscanthus floridulus has the greatest transfer factor (TF) for {sup 232}Th, rice flat sedge has the greatest bioconcentration factor (BF) for {sup 232}Th. At the mean time, M. floridulus has the greatest phytoremediation factor (PF) for {sup 232}Th. On the basis of the above conclusions and the definition for hyperaccumulator, rice flat sedge and M. floridulus could be the candidates of phytoremediation for radionuclide {sup 232}Th in the soil.

  5. Obesity intervention on the healthy lifestyle in childhood: results of the PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Dietrich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Due to increasing problems with childhood and adolescent obesity in Austria PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity created a school based intervention program for promoting a healthy lifestyle in Austrian youth.

    Methods: PRESTO was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team including a physician, a psychologist, a nutritionist and an exercise physiologist. The study was carried out in 12 first grade school classes in Austria (2002-2004, mainly in Vienna (N=260. The control group consisted of 231 subjects. Medical examinations were performed and the participantsf knowledge on good nutrition and dietary habits were collected. Twelve nutrition sessions, one hour per week in each class, were conducted. Teachers were advised to discuss health issues in their classes and specific exercise physiologists were informed about how to integrate appropriate exercises into their lessons.

    Results: In comparison with control group, classes who performed PRESTO showed a significant knowledge of nutrition, consuming less unhealthy foods. These effects could be observed in the short term (14 weeks and at follow up (10 months. 24% subjects could be classified as being overweight (BMI .90.Perc..

    Conclusions: School-oriented intervention programs/studies, like PRESTO, are a potential way to demonstrate positive effect on nutrition, physical activity and healthy behaviours in youth, especially if carried out on a long-term basis. Ultimately PRESTO has proven to be a suitable programme to be disseminated onto schools throughout Austria.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole and its main metabolites after single and multiple intravenous doses in healthy Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Man; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Man; Han, Jing; Liu, Huichen

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole (LPZ) and its main metabolites, 5'-hydroxy lansoprazole (HLPZ) and lansoprazole sulfone (LPZS), after single and multiple intravenous (i.v.) doses of LPZ in healthy Chinese subjects. Twelve subjects (six males and six females) were given a single dose of LPZ by i.v. infusion on day 1, and multiple doses from day 2 to day 6. Blood samples were collected at designated time points for analysis of plasma concentrations of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS by an LC-MS/MS method. LPZ was generally well tolerated in healthy Chinese subjects. After single and multiple i.v. doses of 30 mg LPZ, the C max values of LPZ, HLPZ and LPZS were 1490 ± 290 and 1450 ± 280, 175 ± 71 and 154 ± 56, and 51.3 ± 82.9 and 74.1 ± 158.7 ng/mL, with the AUC0-t values 3280 ± 2550 and 4260 ± 3880, 381 ± 128 and 389 ± 111, and 389 ± 1204 and 700 ± 2255 ng h/mL, respectively. The t 1/2 and CL values of LPZ after single and multiple i.v. doses were 1.48 ± 1.03 and 2.19 ± 1.03 h, and 11.67 ± 4.49 and 9.56 ± 4.08 L/h, respectively. Compared with the pharmacokinetics of LPZ after a single dose, t 1/2 increased markedly, CL decreased significantly and AUC increased by over 20 % after multiple doses. The results indicated that there was drug accumulation of LPZ after multiple i.v. doses, and there was no gender-related difference in pharmacokinetics of LPZ and its two metabolites.

  7. Modelling innovative interventions for optimising healthy lifestyle promotion in primary health care: "Prescribe Vida Saludable" phase I research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pombo Haizea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of a healthy lifestyle, including physical activity, a balanced diet, a moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence from smoking, are associated with large decreases in the incidence and mortality rates for the most common chronic diseases. That is why primary health care (PHC services are trying, so far with less success than desirable, to promote healthy lifestyles among patients. The objective of this study is to design and model, under a participative collaboration framework between clinicians and researchers, interventions that are feasible and sustainable for the promotion of healthy lifestyles in PHC. Methods and design Phase I formative research and a quasi-experimental evaluation of the modelling and planning process will be undertaken in eight primary care centres (PCCs of the Basque Health Service – OSAKIDETZA, of which four centres will be assigned for convenience to the Intervention Group (the others being Controls. Twelve structured study, discussion and consensus sessions supported by reviews of the literature and relevant documents, will be undertaken throughout 12 months. The first four sessions, including a descriptive strategic needs assessment, will lead to the prioritisation of a health promotion aim in each centre. In the remaining eight sessions, collaborative design of intervention strategies, on the basis of a planning process and pilot trials, will be carried out. The impact of the formative process on the practice of healthy lifestyle promotion, attitude towards health promotion and other factors associated with the optimisation of preventive clinical practice will be assessed, through pre- and post-programme evaluations and comparisons of the indicators measured in professionals from the centres assigned to the Intervention or Control Groups. Discussion There are four necessary factors for the outcome to be successful and result in important changes: (1 the commitment of professional

  8. The joint action on healthy life years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Cambois, Emmanuelle; Nusselder, Wilma

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Life expectancy has been increasing during the last century within the European Union (EU). To measure progress in population health it is no longer sufficient to focus on the duration of life but quality of life should be considered. Healthy Life Years (HLY) allow estimating...... the quality of the remaining years that a person is expected to live, in terms of being free of long-standing activity limitation. The Joint Action on Healthy Life Years (JA: EHLEIS) is a joint action of European Member States (MS) and the European Union aiming at analysing trends, patterns and differences...... in HLY, as well as in other Summary Measures of Population Health (SMPH) indicators, across the European member states. METHODS: The JA: EHLEIS consolidates existing information on life and health expectancy by maximising the European comparability; by analysing trends in HLY within the EU; by analysing...

  9. The perceived healthiness of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    Functional foods presumably enable the consumer to lead a healthier life without changing eating habits. Whether consumers accept this proposition or not is potentially influenced by their perceptions of the healthiness of the processing methods, enrichment components, food-types, and health claims...... used in the production and marketing of functional foods. Because consumers may perceive functional enrichment as interfering with nature, cultural values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature may also influence consumer acceptance of functional foods. The purpose of the study described here...... is to clarify to which extent Danish, Finnish and American consumers' perceptions of the healthiness of functional foods are explained by the factors mentioned above. The general results indicate that values pertaining to man's manipulation of nature is only modestly related to the acceptance of functional...

  10. The Healthy Start project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Buch-Andersen, Tine; Händel, Mina N

    2012-01-01

    . Finally, interventions focused on other factors than diet and activity are lacking. The objectives were to perform a randomized, controlled intervention aiming at preventing overweight in children aged 2-6 years, who are yet normal weight, but have high predisposition for future overweight......, and to intervene not only by improving diet and physical activity, but also reduce stress and improve sleep quality and quantity. METHODS: Based on information from the Danish national birth registry and administrative birth forms, children were selected based on having either high birth weight, a mother who......-going, but it is estimated that 394 children will be included. The intervention took place over on average 11/2 year, between 2009 and 2011, and consisted of optional individual guidance in optimizing diet and physical activity habits, reducing chronic stress and stressful events and improving sleep quality and quantity...

  11. A Healthy Start Can Begin Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy pregnancy begins before you ever become pregnant. Give yourself the best chance for a healthy pregnancy and healthy baby before you start down the road to motherhood. If you smoke, now’s a great time to quit.

  12. Making Healthy Choices at Fast Food Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and ...

  13. Evaluation of a web-based lifestyle coach designed to maintain a healthy bodyweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelders, Saskia Marion; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Werkman, Andrea; Seydel, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a web-based intervention, the Healthy Weight Assistant (HWA), which was designed to help people with a healthy bodyweight, or those who are slightly overweight, to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Four evaluation methods were used: (1) pre- and post-test questionnaires; (2) real

  14. Reported Motivations for and Locations of Healthy Eating among Georgia High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gayathri S.; Bryan, Michael; Bayakly, Rana; Drenzek, Cherie; Merlo, Caitlin; Perry, Geraldine S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding how youth perceive eating healthy foods can inform programs and policies that aim to improve healthy eating. We assessed the reasons for and the most common locations of eating healthy foods among Georgia's (GA) high school (HS) students. Methods: Using the 2013 GA HS Youth Risk Behavior Survey, we examined motivations…

  15. Reliability of System Identification Techniques to Assess Standing Balance in Healthy Elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available System identification techniques have the potential to assess the contribution of the underlying systems involved in standing balance by applying well-known disturbances. We investigated the reliability of standing balance parameters obtained with multivariate closed loop system identification techniques.In twelve healthy elderly balance tests were performed twice a day during three days. Body sway was measured during two minutes of standing with eyes closed and the Balance test Room (BalRoom was used to apply four disturbances simultaneously: two sensory disturbances, to the proprioceptive and the visual system, and two mechanical disturbances applied at the leg and trunk segment. Using system identification techniques, sensitivity functions of the sensory disturbances and the neuromuscular controller were estimated. Based on the generalizability theory (G theory, systematic errors and sources of variability were assessed using linear mixed models and reliability was assessed by computing indexes of dependability (ID, standard error of measurement (SEM and minimal detectable change (MDC.A systematic error was found between the first and second trial in the sensitivity functions. No systematic error was found in the neuromuscular controller and body sway. The reliability of 15 of 25 parameters and body sway were moderate to excellent when the results of two trials on three days were averaged. To reach an excellent reliability on one day in 7 out of 25 parameters, it was predicted that at least seven trials must be averaged.This study shows that system identification techniques are a promising method to assess the underlying systems involved in standing balance in elderly. However, most of the parameters do not appear to be reliable unless a large number of trials are collected across multiple days. To reach an excellent reliability in one third of the parameters, a training session for participants is needed and at least seven trials of two

  16. Dual-resolution Raman spectroscopy for measurements of temperature and twelve species in hydrocarbon–air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Barlow, Robert S.

    2016-07-12

    This study introduces dual-resolution Raman spectroscopy as a novel diagnostics approach for measurements of temperature and species in flames where multiple hydrocarbons are present. Simultaneous measurement of multiple hydrocarbons is challenging because their vibrational Raman spectra in the C–H stretch region are closely overlapped and are not well known over the range of temperature encountered in flames. Overlap between the hydrocarbon spectra is mitigated by adding a second spectrometer, with a higher dispersion grating, to collect the Raman spectra in the C–H stretch region. A dual-resolution Raman spectroscopy instrument has been developed and optimized for measurements of major species (N2, O2, H2O, CO2, CO, H2, DME) and major combustion intermediates (CH4, CH2O, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6) in DME–air flames. The temperature dependences of the hydrocarbon Raman spectra over fixed spectral regions have been determined through a series of measurements in laminar Bunsen-burner flames, and have been used to extend a library of previously acquired Raman spectra up to flame temperature. The paper presents the first Raman measurements of up to twelve species in hydrocarbon flames, and the first quantitative Raman measurements of formaldehyde in flames. Lastly, the accuracy and precision of the instrument are determined from measurements in laminar flames and the applicability of the instrument to turbulent DME–air flames is discussed.

  17. Twelve novel HGD gene variants identified in 99 alkaptonuria patients: focus on ‘black bone disease' in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Martina; Radvanszky, Jan; Kadasi, Ludevit; Ascher, David B; Pires, Douglas E V; Blundell, Tom L; Porfirio, Berardino; Mannoni, Alessandro; Santucci, Annalisa; Milucci, Lia; Sestini, Silvia; Biolcati, Gianfranco; Sorge, Fiammetta; Aurizi, Caterina; Aquaron, Robert; Alsbou, Mohammed; Marques Lourenço, Charles; Ramadevi, Kanakasabapathi; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Gallagher, James A; van Kan, Christa; Hall, Anthony K; Olsson, Birgitta; Sireau, Nicolas; Ayoob, Hana; Timmis, Oliver G; Le Quan Sang, Kim-Hanh; Genovese, Federica; Imrich, Richard; Rovensky, Jozef; Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Bharadwaj, Shruthi K; Spiegel, Ronen; Zatkova, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) gene leading to the deficiency of HGD enzyme activity. The DevelopAKUre project is underway to test nitisinone as a specific treatment to counteract this derangement of the phenylalanine-tyrosine catabolic pathway. We analysed DNA of 40 AKU patients enrolled for SONIA1, the first study in DevelopAKUre, and of 59 other AKU patients sent to our laboratory for molecular diagnostics. We identified 12 novel DNA variants: one was identified in patients from Brazil (c.557T>A), Slovakia (c.500C>T) and France (c.440T>C), three in patients from India (c.469+6T>C, c.650–85A>G, c.158G>A), and six in patients from Italy (c.742A>G, c.614G>A, c.1057A>C, c.752G>A, c.119A>C, c.926G>T). Thus, the total number of potential AKU-causing variants found in 380 patients reported in the HGD mutation database is now 129. Using mCSM and DUET, computational approaches based on the protein 3D structure, the novel missense variants are predicted to affect the activity of the enzyme by three mechanisms: decrease of stability of individual protomers, disruption of protomer-protomer interactions or modification of residues in the region of the active site. We also present an overview of AKU in Italy, where so far about 60 AKU cases are known and DNA analysis has been reported for 34 of them. In this rather small group, 26 different HGD variants affecting function were described, indicating rather high heterogeneity. Twelve of these variants seem to be specific for Italy. PMID:25804398

  18. Twelve novel HGD gene variants identified in 99 alkaptonuria patients: focus on 'black bone disease' in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Martina; Radvanszky, Jan; Kadasi, Ludevit; Ascher, David B; Pires, Douglas E V; Blundell, Tom L; Porfirio, Berardino; Mannoni, Alessandro; Santucci, Annalisa; Milucci, Lia; Sestini, Silvia; Biolcati, Gianfranco; Sorge, Fiammetta; Aurizi, Caterina; Aquaron, Robert; Alsbou, Mohammed; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Ramadevi, Kanakasabapathi; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan R; Gallagher, James A; van Kan, Christa; Hall, Anthony K; Olsson, Birgitta; Sireau, Nicolas; Ayoob, Hana; Timmis, Oliver G; Sang, Kim-Hanh Le Quan; Genovese, Federica; Imrich, Richard; Rovensky, Jozef; Srinivasaraghavan, Rangan; Bharadwaj, Shruthi K; Spiegel, Ronen; Zatkova, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase (HGD) gene leading to the deficiency of HGD enzyme activity. The DevelopAKUre project is underway to test nitisinone as a specific treatment to counteract this derangement of the phenylalanine-tyrosine catabolic pathway. We analysed DNA of 40 AKU patients enrolled for SONIA1, the first study in DevelopAKUre, and of 59 other AKU patients sent to our laboratory for molecular diagnostics. We identified 12 novel DNA variants: one was identified in patients from Brazil (c.557T>A), Slovakia (c.500C>T) and France (c.440T>C), three in patients from India (c.469+6T>C, c.650-85A>G, c.158G>A), and six in patients from Italy (c.742A>G, c.614G>A, c.1057A>C, c.752G>A, c.119A>C, c.926G>T). Thus, the total number of potential AKU-causing variants found in 380 patients reported in the HGD mutation database is now 129. Using mCSM and DUET, computational approaches based on the protein 3D structure, the novel missense variants are predicted to affect the activity of the enzyme by three mechanisms: decrease of stability of individual protomers, disruption of protomer-protomer interactions or modification of residues in the region of the active site. We also present an overview of AKU in Italy, where so far about 60 AKU cases are known and DNA analysis has been reported for 34 of them. In this rather small group, 26 different HGD variants affecting function were described, indicating rather high heterogeneity. Twelve of these variants seem to be specific for Italy.

  19. The poetics of comic in the «The Twelve Chairs» novel (to the problem of a funny word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kildyaeva Yu.I.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available the article deals with the role of a funny word in the comic structure of «The Twelve Chairs» by I. Ilf and E. Petrov. The researcher reveals its different functions taking into account authors’ strategy, directed to the creation of a special type of comic.

  20. Two new genera and twelve new species of Graphidaceae from Puerto Rico: a case for higher endemism of lichenized fungi in islands of the Caribbean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Mercado-Diaz; Robert Lücking; Sittiporn Parnmen

    2014-01-01

    Two new genera and twelve new species of Graphidaceae are described from Puerto Rico. The two new genera, Borinquenotrema and Paratopeliopsis, are based on a combination of molecular sequence data and phenotype characters. Borinquenotrema, with the single new species B. soredicarpum, features rounded ascomata developing beneath and persistently covered with soralia and...

  1. The great controversy : the individual's struggle between good and evil in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs and in their Jewish and Christian contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Tom de

    2013-01-01

    The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs are an early Christian work. The argumentation in this work finds its foundation in the struggle between good and evil. In the Testaments this struggle is applied individually, which is a theme found only in Christian works.

  2. Delayed clearance of triglyceride‐rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, R.; Lekahl, S.; Moen, O. S.; Florholmen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age‐ and sex‐matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA‐IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA‐IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. PMID:26469529

  3. Ultrastructural Comparison of the Nasal Epithelia of Healthy and Naturally Affected Rabbits with Pasteurella multocida A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Esquinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultrastructural comparison between the nasal cavities of healthy rabbits and those suffering from two forms of spontaneous infection with Pasteurella multocida was undertaken. Twelve commercially produced rabbits of different ages and respiratory health status were divided into four groups: healthy from 0 to 21 days (G1, n=2; healthy from 23 to 49 days (G2, n=2; healthy from 51 to 69 days (G3, n=2; diseased rabbits with septicemia and the rhinitic form of P. multocida infection (G4, n=3. The main ultrastructural changes observed were a widening of the interepithelial spaces, increased activity and number of goblet cells, the formation of two types of vacuoles in epithelial cells, the degranulation and migration of heterophils between the epithelial cells, and the association of this migration with some of the other changes. No bacteria were observed adhering to the epithelium, and very few were observed free in the mucus. Scant inter-epithelial spaces were found in healthy rabbits, but they were not as large and numerous as those found in diseased animals. We discuss the origin and meaning of these changes but, we focus on the significance of the inter-epithelial spaces and goblet cells for the defense of the upper respiratory airways against the bacterium and its lipopolysaccharide.

  4. Delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in young, healthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M A; Goll, R; Lekahl, S; Moen, O S; Florholmen, J

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. The aims were, first, to study the postprandial triglyceride clearance in young, healthy obese subjects and, second, to investigate if fasting triglycerides can predict delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance. Eighteen apparently healthy, obese subjects with no clinical signs of metabolic disturbances participated. Controls were age- and sex-matched, healthy, normal weight subjects. Subclinical markers of metabolic disturbances were assessed by measuring postprandial triglycerides in serum and in chylomicrons by oral fat tolerance test. Postprandial triglyceride clearance for 8 h was assessed indirectly as removal of the lipid from serum during the oral fat tolerance test. Insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Twelve (66%) of the apparently healthy obese individuals had insulin resistance measured by HOMA-IR. There was a delayed clearance of serum triglycerides and chylomicron triglycerides at 6 h when compared with the control group, while, at 8 h, the differences were only detected for the chylomicron triglyceride clearance. Triglyceride response was significantly greater in the obese subjects. Fasting triglycerides in upper normal level predicted a delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. In young, apparently healthy obese subjects early metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance can be detected. Fasting serum triglyceride in upper normal level predicted delayed postprandial triglyceride clearance and insulin resistance. © 2015 World Obesity.

  5. Rimonabant effects on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in healthy humans: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Queiroz, Regina H C; Chagas, Marcos H N; Linares, Ila M P; Arrais, Kátia C; de Oliveira, Danielle C G; Queiroz, Maria E; Nardi, Antonio E; Huestis, Marilyn A; Hallak, Jaime E C; Zuardi, Antonio W; Moreira, Fabrício A; Crippa, José A S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that rimonabant, a cannabinoid antagonist/inverse agonist, would increase anxiety in healthy subjects during a simulation of the public speaking test. Participants were randomly allocated to receive oral placebo or 90 mg rimonabant in a double-blind design. Subjective effects were measured by Visual Analogue Mood Scale. Physiological parameters, namely arterial blood pressure and heart rate, also were monitored. Twelve participants received oral placebo and 12 received 90 mg rimonabant. Rimonabant increased self-reported anxiety levels during the anticipatory speech and performance phase compared with placebo. Interestingly, rimonabant did not modulate anxiety prestress and was not associated with sedation, cognitive impairment, discomfort, or blood pressure changes. Cannabinoid-1 antagonism magnifies the responses to an anxiogenic stimulus without interfering with the prestress phase. These data suggest that the endocannabinoid system may work on-demand to counteract the consequences of anxiogenic stimuli in healthy humans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Adolescents' perceptions of healthy eating and communication about healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    2009-01-01

    /methodology/approach - Four focus group interview sessions were conducted with 22 eighth and ninth grade adolescents (aged 13 to 15) in Hong Kong. Findings - The participants perceived a balanced diet and regular meal times as the most important attributes of healthy eating. Participants were most likely to eat unhealthy...

  7. Movement Discordance between Healthy and Non-Healthy US Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Swartz

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to significantly impact cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data, as a measure of physical activity, can be used to objectively identify a disparity in movement (movement discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the Movement Discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults in a large US population sample.Demographic, health and accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cohorts were used for this study. Participants were classified as either having a "normal" or "abnormal" value for each cardiometabolic health parameter examined, based on published criteria. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine significance of each abnormal health parameter (risk factor in its unique effect on the accelerometer counts, controlling for age and gender. Average accelerometer counts per minute (cpm by gender and age categories were estimated separately for the groups of normal and abnormal cardiometabolic risk.Average cpm for those with healthy levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 296 cpm (for C reactive protein to 337 cpm (for waist circumference, while average cpm for those with abnormal levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 216 cpm (for insulin to 291 cpm (for LDL-cholesterol. After controlling for age and gender, waist circumference, HbA1c, Insulin, Homocysteine, and HDL-Cholesterol were the cardiometabolic health parameters that showed significant, unique and independent effects on cpm. Overall, individuals who have abnormal values for all significant cardiometabolic health parameters ("unhealthy" averaged 267 cpm (SE = 15 cpm, while the healthy sample of this study averaged 428 cpm (SE = 10 cpm. The difference in cpm between the unhealthy and healthy groups is similar between males and females. Further, for both males and females, the

  8. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Three Forms of Vaginal Progesterone Administered in Either Single Or Multiple Dose Regimen in Healthy Post-menopausal Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Shentu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A generic vaginal progesterone gel has recently been developed in China. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties in Chinese subjects. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of three forms of vaginal progesterone gel (test formulations at 4 and 8% strength vs. a reference formulation: Crinone 8% in Chinese healthy post-menopausal women.Methods: This study consisted of two parts study. The part 1 study was a single-center, open-label, 3-period study. Twelve healthy post-menopausal women were to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of 45 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 4% following single dose and multiple doses administered once every other day (q.o.d. for six times or once daily (q.d. for 6 days. The part 2 study was a randomized, open-label, 3-stage crossover study. Twelve post-menopausal women received 90 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 8% or 90 mg Crinone (Reference 8% following single dose and multiple doses (q.o.d. or q.d.. Plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured up to 72 h by using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞ were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data.Results: Totally 24 subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Following single dose, The geometric mean Cmax values for Test 4%, Test 8%, and Crinone 8% were 6.35, 10.34, 10.45 ng/mL, and their geometric mean AUC0-t (AUC0-∞ were 113.73 (118.00, 169.39 (173.98, and 190.07 (201.13 ng⋅h/mL, respectively. The mean T1/2 values of progesterone were 11.00, 10.92, and 11.40 h, respectively. For 8% test formulation vs. reference, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 78.32–124

  9. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Fasted State Colonic Liquid Pockets in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Mudie, Deanna M; Wright, Jeff; Heissam, Khaled; Abrehart, Nichola; Pritchard, Susan E; Al Atwah, Salem; Gowland, Penny A; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Marciani, Luca

    2017-08-07

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent on the volume of liquid in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, little is known about the time course of GIT liquid volumes after drinking a glass of water (8 oz), particularly in the colon, which is a targeted site for both locally and systemically acting drug products. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies offered novel insights on GIT liquid distribution in fasted humans in the stomach and small intestine, and showed that freely mobile liquid in the intestine collects in fairly distinct regions or "pockets". Based on this previous pilot data, we hypothesized that (1) it is possible to quantify the time course of the volume and number of liquid pockets in the undisturbed colon of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of 240 mL, using noninvasive MRI methods; (2) the amount of freely mobile water in the fasted human colon is of the order of only a few milliliters. Twelve healthy volunteers fasted overnight and underwent fasted abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (∼8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water they were scanned at frequent intervals for 2 h. The images were processed to quantify freely mobile water in the total and regional colon: ascending, transverse, and descending. The fasted colon contained (mean ± SEM) 11 ± 5 pockets of resting liquid with a total volume of 2 ± 1 mL (average). The colonic fluid peaked at 7 ± 4 mL 30 min after the water drink. This peak fluid was distributed in 17 ± 7 separate liquid pockets in the colon. The regional analysis showed that pockets of free fluid were found primarily in the ascending colon. The interindividual variability was very high; the subjects showed a range of number of colonic fluid pockets from 0 to 89 and total colonic freely mobile fluid volume from 0 to 49 mL. This is the first study measuring the time course of the number, regional location, and volume of

  11. The application of a network approach to Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL): introducing a new method for assessing HRQoL in healthy adults and cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, Jolanda J; Epskamp, Sacha; Kieffer, Jacobien M; van Borkulo, Claudia D; Rhemtulla, Mijke; Borsboom, Denny

    2016-04-01

    Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) research has typically adopted either a formative approach, in which HRQoL is the common effect of its observables, or a reflective approach--defining HRQoL as a latent variable that determines observable characteristics of HRQoL. Both approaches, however, do not take into account the complex organization of these characteristics. The objective of this study was to introduce a new approach for analyzing HRQoL data, namely a network model (NM). An NM, as opposed to traditional research strategies, accounts for interactions among observables and offers a complementary analytic approach. We applied the NM to samples of Dutch cancer patients (N = 485) and Dutch healthy adults (N = 1742) who completed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Networks were constructed for both samples separately and for a combined sample with diagnostic status added as an extra variable. We assessed the network structures and compared the structures of the two separate samples on the item and domain levels. The relative importance of individual items in the network structures was determined using centrality analyses. We found that the global structure of the SF-36 is dominant in all networks, supporting the validity of questionnaire's subscales. Furthermore, results suggest that the network structure of both samples was highly similar. Centrality analyses revealed that maintaining a daily routine despite one's physical health predicts HRQoL levels best. We concluded that the NM provides a fruitful alternative to classical approaches used in the psychometric analysis of HRQoL data.

  12. Maximum tolerated dose evaluation of the AMPA modulator Org 26576 in healthy volunteers and depressed patients: a summary and method analysis of bridging research in support of phase II dose selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, Kari R; Bursi, Roberta; Dogterom, Peter; Ereshefsky, Larry; Gertsik, Lev; Mant, Tim; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    A key challenge to dose selection in early central nervous system (CNS) clinical drug development is that patient tolerability profiles often differ from those of healthy volunteers (HVs), yet HVs are the modal population for determining doses to be investigated in phase II trials. Without clear tolerability data from the target patient population, first efficacy trials may include doses that are either too high or too low, creating undue risk for study participants and the development program overall. Bridging trials address this challenge by carefully investigating safety and tolerability in the target population prior to full-scale proof-of-concept trials. Org 26576 is an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor positive allosteric modulator that acts by modulating ionotropic AMPA-type glutamate receptors to enhance glutamatergic neurotransmission. In preparation for phase II efficacy trials in major depressive disorder (MDD), two separate phase I trials were conducted to evaluate safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in HVs and in the target patient population. Both trials were randomized and placebo controlled, and included multiple rising-dose cohorts (HV range 100-400 mg bid; MDD range 100-600 mg bid). HVs (n = 36) and patients with MDD (n = 54) were dosed under similarly controlled conditions in an inpatient facility, HVs for up to 14 days and MDD patients for up to 28 days. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics were assessed frequently. Despite comparable pharmacokinetic profiles, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in depressed patients was 450 mg bid, twice the MTD established in HVs. No clinically relevant safety issues associated with Org 26576 were noted. This article presents safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data from two different populations examined under similar dosing conditions. The important implications of such bridging work in phase II dose selection are discussed, as are study

  13. Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa; Erickson, Darin J; Laska, Melissa N

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). The present study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types; and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of twelve healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN, USA, not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. One hundred and nineteen small food retailers and seventy-one store managers. Availability of specific items varied across store type. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63% v. 8% of gas-marts, 0% of dollar stores and 23% of pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash-and-carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement and innovative distribution practices.

  14. Biliary clearance of bromosulfophthalein in healthy and ketotic Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Kirovski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis is a metabolic disorder closely associated with liver lipidosis. Numerous tests have been developed to detect hepatic dysfunction in dairy cows. Bromosulfophthalein (BSP clearance is established as a sensitive index of hepatic function. The objective of this study was to examine the difference of biliary excretion of BSP between ketotic and healthy Holstein cows and to correlate this excretion with other indicators of liver dysfunction. Twenty puerperal Holstein cows divided in two groups (10 cows each were involved in the study. The first group included healthy and the second group ketotic cows. Blood samples were taken 10 days after parturition. Concentrations of total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, Ca, P, total lipids, urea and glucose were determined. Immediately after blood sampling, BSP test was performed. Blood samples were taken 5 and 45 minutes after injection, and the percentage of retained pigment in the sample obtained at minute 45 was calculated. Blood albumin and glucose concentrations were significantly higher in healthy then ketotic cows. Total bilirubin concentration was significantly higher in ketotic than healthy cows. BSP excretion was significantly higher in ketotic compared to healthy cows. There was a significant positive correlation between BSP values and total bilirubin concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows and a significant negative correlation between BSP values and glucose concentrartions in both healthy and ketotic cows. In conclusion, biliary clearance of BSP may be used as a reliable method for the detection of hepatic dysfunction associated with clinical symptoms of ketosis in dairy cows.

  15. Virtual coaches for healthy lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Klaassen, Randy; Nijholt, Antinus; Esposito, Anna; Jain, Lakhmi C.

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the idea of the software interface agent the question recurs whether these agents should be personified and graphically visualized in the interface. In this chapter we look at the use of virtual humans in the interface of healthy lifestyle coaching systems. Based on theory

  16. Interdisciplinary Research on Healthy Aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Carey, James; Li, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    This Special Collection was edited by Frans Willekens, James R. Carey, and Qiang Li. The papers in this collection represent a small selection of papers presented at an international conference on healthy aging, held in October 2012 in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. The first part of the conference,

  17. Social discourses of healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the frame...

  18. Program Review: Raising Healthy Eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Benavente, Janet C.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight children and adults has been increasing steadily over the past three decades. Behaviors related to diet and nutrition are often established in early childhood. Toddlers most often develop healthy eating habits through parent modeling. Due to the steady increase in obesity in children, there is a clear need for…

  19. Review of Healthy, Happy Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfrich, Christine M.; Fetsch, Robert J.; Jefferson, Gisele

    2011-01-01

    The number of obese children has nearly tripled in the past 30 years. Research has identified a clear connection between parental income, education, ethnicity, and the risk for obesity. Recent research demonstrates that parenting style may also impact the ability to establish healthy eating environments. This article reviews a program, currently…

  20. From Survival to Healthy Aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evron, Lotte Orr; Wind, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    and the spouses built their mutual and individual lives focusing on their relationship and strived to return to their usual everyday life. Within three to six months the couples went from “survival” where the diagnosis dominated to “wellbeing” where healthy aging/lifestyle dominated. All eight couples led...

  1. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24342605 . Review Date 4/24/2016 Updated by: Emily Wax, RD, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, ...

  2. Genetic Variability Studies on Twelve Genotypes of Rice (Oryza sativa L. for Growth and Yield Performance in South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent N. ONYIA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve genotypes of rice collected from the National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI, Badeggi, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria were evaluated to estimate the magnitude of genetic variability and relationship of some agronomic traits of rice and their contributions to yield. The results obtained showed a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 among the genotypes in all the traits studied. Genotype ‘WAB 35-1-FX2’ produced a significantly higher grain yield of 3.40 t/ha compared with all the other genotypes in the two years combined. Genotypes ‘WAB 33-25’, ‘WAB 56-1-FX2’, ‘WAB 56-39’, ‘WAB 56-125’, ‘ITA 150’ and ‘FAROX 16 (LC’ were the most stable grain yielding genotypes across the two years of the experiment. High broad sense heritability (h2bs was associated with grain yield (h2bs = 98.63%, number of spikelets/panicle (98.78%, plant height (98.34% for the first year planting, whereas in the second year planting, days to 50% flowering (96.72%, days to maturity (94.14% and grain yield (83.33% were among the traits that showed high broad sense heritability. The two years combined correlation analysis showed that grain yield correlated significantly and positively with number of spikelets/panicle (r = 0.2358*, number of panicles/m2 (r = 0.1895*, number of fertile spikelets/panicle (r = 0.1672* and 1,000 grain weight (r = 0.1247*, indicating that these traits can be phenotypic basis for improving grain yield of rice. Conversely, grain yield exhibited negative correlation with days to 50% flowering (-0.3009 and days to maturity (-0.2650, though not significant. This suggests that rice grain yield can be improved by selecting early flowering and maturing genotypes especially under heat and drought prone conditions.

  3. Healthy Lifestyle of Czech University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Marholdová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the healthy lifestyle of Czech university students. The main objectives are to map the healthy lifestyle of Czech university students, especially to find out whether they follow the principles of healthy lifestyle, to find out their knowledge concerning this issue, to find out if there are any obstacles to follow the healthy lifestyle and to find out whether they know any projects supporting health and healthy lifestyle. In the theoretical part of the thesis the basic te...

  4. A Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM)-Based Method for Absolute Quantification of Aβ38, Aβ40, and Aβ42 in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pannee, Josef; Portelius, Erik; Oppermann, Madalina

    2013-01-01

    with mild to moderate dementia. Analytical characteristics of the method include a lower limit of quantification of 62.5 pg/mL for Aβ42 and coefficients of variations below 10%. In a pilot study on AD patients and controls, we verified disease-association with decreased levels of Aβ42 similar......). Samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction and quantification was performed using stable-isotope labeled Aβ peptides as internal standards. The diagnostic performance of the method was evaluated on two independent clinical materials with research volunteers who were cognitively normal and AD patients...

  5. [Development of "assessment guideline of family power for healthy life"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, M; Shimanouchi, S; Kamei, T; Takagai, E; Hoshino, Y; Sugiyama, I

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop "assessment guideline of family power for healthy life" aiming at expanding self-care power of family in community nursing practice. The subjects of this study covered those families in one hundred and fifty six instances that we had seized as subject for nursing care and study. The method of this study had constructed assessment guideline inductively out of each case, and modified it by applying to cases of families with health problems and others. As a result, we had formed nine items of "family power for healthy life" and three items of "conditions influencing family power for healthy life" for "assessment guideline of family power for healthy life".

  6. A PRISMA-Driven Systematic Review of Predictive Equations for Assessing Fat and Fat-Free Mass in Healthy Children and Adolescents Using Multicomponent Molecular Models as the Reference Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analiza M. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple methods to assess both fat (FM and fat-free mass (FFM are required in paediatric populations. Several bioelectrical impedance instruments (BIAs and anthropometric equations have been developed using different criterion methods (multicomponent models for assessing FM and FFM. Through childhood, FFM density increases while FFM hydration decreases until reaching adult values. Therefore, multicomponent models should be used as the gold standard method for developing simple techniques because two-compartment models (2C model rely on the assumed adult values of FFM density and hydration (1.1 g/cm3 and 73.2%, respectively. This study will review BIA and/or anthropometric-based equations for assessing body composition in paediatric populations. We reviewed English language articles from MEDLINE (1985–2012 with the selection of predictive equations developed for assessing FM and FFM using three-compartment (3C and 4C models as criterion. Search terms included children, adolescent, childhood, adolescence, 4C model, 3C model, multicomponent model, equation, prediction, DXA, BIA, resistance, anthropometry, skinfold, FM, and FFM. A total of 14 studies (33 equations were selected with the majority developed using DXA as the criterion method with a limited number of studies providing cross-validation results. Overall, the selected equations are useful for epidemiological studies, but some concerns still arise on an individual basis.

  7. Healthy Pregnancies. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A woman's behaviors during pregnancy can have a significant influence on her baby's healthy development. Women who smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy, go without prenatal care or suffer from poor nutrition are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy or childbirth, and their babies are at increased risk for developing a number…

  8. Comparison of high-definition oscillometry -- a non-invasive technology for arterial blood pressure measurement -- with a direct invasive method using radio-telemetry in awake healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Eric; Egner, Beate; Brown, Scott A; King, Jonathan N; Laveissiere, Arnaud; Champeroux, Pascal; Richard, Serge

    2013-12-01

    This study compared indirect blood pressure measurements using a non-invasive method, high-definition oscillometry (HDO), with direct measurements using a radio-telemetry device in awake cats. Paired measurements partitioned to five sub-ranges were collected in six cats using both methods. The results were analysed for assessment of correlation and agreement between the two methods, taking into account all pressure ranges, and with data separated in three sub-groups, low, normal and high ranges of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. SBP data displayed a mean correlation coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.02 that was reduced for low SBP. The agreement level evaluated from the whole data set was high and slightly reduced for low SBP values. The mean correlation coefficient of DBP was lower than for SBP (ie, 0.81 ± 0.02). The bias for DBP between the two methods was 22.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, suggesting that HDO produced lower values than telemetry. These results suggest that HDO met the validation criteria defined by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus panel and provided a faithful measurement of SBP in conscious cats. For DBP, results suggest that HDO tended to underestimate DBP. This finding is clearly inconsistent with the good agreement reported in dogs, but is similar to outcomes achieved in marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting that this is not related to HDO but is species related. The data support that the HDO is the first and only validated non-invasive blood pressure device and, as such, it is the only non-invasive reference technique that should be used in future validation studies.

  9. Knee kinematics and kinetics in former soccer players with a 16-year-old ACL injury – the effects of twelve weeks of knee-specific training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training of neuromuscular control has become increasingly important and plays a major role in rehabilitation of subjects with an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL. Little is known, however, of the influence of this training on knee stiffness during loading. Increased knee stiffness occurs as a loading strategy of ACL-injured subjects and is associated with increased joint contact forces. Increased or altered joint loads contribute to the development of osteoarthritis. The aim of the study was to determine if knee stiffness, defined by changes in knee kinetics and kinematics of gait, step activity and cross-over hop could be reduced through a knee-specific 12-week training programme. Methods A 3-dimensional motion analysis system (VICON and a force plate (AMTI were used to calculate knee kinetics and kinematics before and after 12 weeks of knee-specific training in 12 males recruited from a cohort with ACL injury 16 years earlier. Twelve uninjured males matched for age, sex, BMI and activity level served as a reference group. Self-reported patient-relevant data were obtained by the KOOS questionnaire. Results There were no significant changes in knee stiffness during gait and step activity after training. For the cross-over hop, increased peak knee flexion during landing (from 44 to 48 degrees, p = 0.031 and increased internal knee extensor moment (1.28 to 1.55 Nm/kg, p = 0.017 were seen after training, indicating reduced knee stiffness. The KOOS sport and recreation score improved from 70 to 77 (p = 0.005 and was significantly correlated with the changes in knee flexion during landing for the cross-over hop (r = 0.6, p = 0.039. Conclusion Knee-specific training improved lower extremity kinetics and kinematics, indicating reduced knee stiffness during demanding hop activity. Self-reported sport and recreational function correlated positively with the biomechanical changes supporting a clinical importance of the

  10. Twelve weeks of dance exergaming in overweight and obese adolescent girls: Transfer effects on physical activity, screen time, and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Beyl, Robbie A.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Newton, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the low levels of physical activity (PA) among adolescent girls in the US, there is a need to identify tools to motivate increased PA. Although there is limited evidence that adolescents transfer PA from one context to another context, exergames (i.e., video games that require gross motor activity) may act as a gateway to promote overall PA outside of game play. The purpose of this study was to examine potential transfer effects (i.e., influences on external behaviors and psychological constructs) of a 12-week exergaming intervention on adolescent girls’ PA, screen-time, and self-efficacy towards PA, as well as the intrinsic motivation of exergaming. Methods Participants were 37 girls aged 14–18 years (65% African American, 35% White) who were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) and were recruited from the community via school, physicians, news media, and social media sites. Adolescents were randomly assigned to a 12-week group exergaming intervention (thirty-six 60 min sessions of group-based dance exergaming in a research laboratory using Kinect for Xbox 360) or to a no-treatment control group. Outcome variables included objectively measured PA (total) and self-reported leisure-time PA (discretionary time only) 1-week before vs. 1-week after the intervention; selected type and intensity of PA when placed in a gym setting for 30 min (“cardio free choice”); screen-time; self-efficacy towards PA; and intrinsic motivation towards exergaming. Results Attendance to the exergaming sessions was high (80%). Compared to the control group, the intervention group self-reported an increase in PA (p = 0.035) and fewer hours watching TV/videos (p = 0.01) after the intervention, but there were no significant differences in sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous PA measured by accelerometry. The intervention group significantly improved self-efficacy towards PA (p = 0.028). The intervention group highly rated intrinsic motivation

  11. Effectiveness of community-based treatment for problem gambling: a quasi-experimental evaluation of cognitive-behavioral vs. twelve-step therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneatto, Tony; Dragonetti, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing availability of gambling throughout North America, there is interest in developing more effective treatments. This study compares the effectiveness of two brief outpatient treatments for problem gambling: eight sessions of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (n = 65) and eight sessions of a twelve-step treatment-oriented approach based on the first five steps of Gamblers Anonymous (n = 61). There were no baseline group differences on gambling-relevant variables. Twelve months post-treatment showed no group differences on key gambling variables (eg, frequency, abstinence rates, money wagered) in an analysis of completers. Participants who attended more sessions and chose an initial abstinent treatment goal appeared to achieve better outcomes.

  12. Evaluation agriculture morphological and analysis of yield components in twelve cañahua agreements (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayta-Mamani Adelio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, they were carried out the analysis descriptive statistic, variance analysis, comparison of stockings of Duncan, multiple correlation and analysis of path coefficient, this I finish to determine the direct and indirect effects, in cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen. The study behaved at random under the design of blocks with four repetitions and twelve treatments (cañahua agreements, during the campaign agricultural 2009 and 2010. The results show, the grain production on the average general of 7.67 grain/plant, with a coefficient of variability of 23.1%, and with better yields they were the agreements 455, 222, ILLPA-INIA and CUPI, achieved to produce 12.28 grain/plant on the average, 10.58 grain/plant, 10.29 grain/plant and 10.16 grain/plant, respectively. Through the path analysis, selection approaches the components of yields were identified. In the agreement 455, the coefficient of determination of the system plants dear it reached 36.5%, and main yield components were constituted, number of branches, vegetable covering and height of the plant, with an association degree and direct effect of r=0.505 P=0.327, r=0.446 P=0.168 and r=0.417 P=0.196, respectively. In the agreement 222, the characters morphological that influence in the yield this explained in 40.5%, and as better yield component the number of branches has been constituted (r=0.462 (P=0.261, vegetable covering (r=0.514 (P=0.271 and height of the plant (r=0.383 (P=0.047. In the agreement ILLPA-INIA, it has been determined as better yield component, the number of branches (r=0.514 (P=0.318 and diameter of the shaft (r=0.479 (P=0.524, these characters in its group justify that the system plants defined total it was 44.7% of the direct influence. Agreement CUPI, in this cultivation the characters that influenced in the grain yield are implied in 36.4% and with better characters morphological that have been able to influence in a direct way they are

  13. Healthy Municipios in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.

  14. Effects of Ramadan fasting on glucose homeostasis and adiponectin levels in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanou, Justin V; Caszo, Brinnell A; Khalil, Khalifah M; Abdullah, Shahidah L; Knight, Victor F; Bidin, Mohd Z

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes during the fasting phase of the fast-fed cycle. Ramadan fasting involves prolonged fasting for up to twelve hours and thus could lead to increased secretion of adiponectin by adipocytes. However, studies on the role of adiponectin on glucose and body weight homeostasis during Ramadan fasting is still a matter of controversy. Thus the specific aim of this study was to assess the effect of fasting during Ramadan on the adiponectin levels, body weight and glucose homeostasis in healthy male Malaysian subjects. Twenty healthy male (19-23 years) Muslim subjects were followed up during the fasting month of Ramadan. Anthropometry and blood samples were taken one week before and during the fourth week of fasting. Plasma glucose, insulin and adiponectin were estimated and insulin sensitivity indices were estimated using the Homeostasis Model Assessment. Subjects experienced a significant decrease in body weight (2.4 %, p Ramadan fasting in young healthy individuals has a positive impact on the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. It also shows that adiponectin levels dropped along with significant loss in weight. We feel caloric restriction during the Ramadan fasting is in itself sufficient to improve insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals.

  15. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondel, Laurent; Romer, Michael A; Nougues, Pauline M; Touyarou, Peio; Davenne, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Acute partial sleep deprivation increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and decreases those of leptin. The objective was to observe modifications in energy intake and physical activity after acute partial sleep deprivation in healthy men. Twelve men [age: 22 +/- 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.30 +/- 1.83] completed a randomized 2-condition crossover study. During the first night of each 48-h session, subjects had either approximately 8 h (from midnight to 0800) or approximately 4 h (from 0200 to 0600) of sleep. All foods consumed subsequently (jam on buttered toast for breakfast, buffet for lunch, and a free menu for dinner) were eaten ad libitum. Physical activity was recorded by an actimeter. Feelings of hunger, perceived pleasantness of the foods, desire to eat some foods, and sensation of sleepiness were also evaluated. In comparison with the 8-h sleep session, subjects consumed 559 +/- 617 kcal (ie, 22%) more energy on the day after sleep restriction (P < 0.01), and preprandial hunger was higher before breakfast (P < 0.001) and dinner (P < 0.05). No change in the perceived pleasantness of the foods or in the desire to eat the foods was observed. Physical activity from 1215 to 2015 was higher after sleep restriction than after 8 h of sleep (P < 0.01), even though the sensation of sleepiness was more marked (P < 0.01). One night of reduced sleep subsequently increased food intake and, to a lesser extent, estimated physical activity-related energy expenditure in healthy men. These experimental results, if confirmed by long-term energy balance measurements, suggest that sleep restriction could be a factor that promotes obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00986492.

  16. Study of GABA in healthy volunteers: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies show that GABA exerts anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. Because little is known about its absorption and effects in humans, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GABA in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were subjected to an open-labeled, three-period trial involving sequential oral administration of placebo, 2g GABA once, and 2g GABA three times/day for seven days, with a 7-day washout between each period. GABA was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 0.5~1 h with the half-life (t1/2 of 5 h. No accumulation was observed after repeated oral GABA administration for 7 days. Remarkably, GABA significantly increased circulating insulin levels in the subjects under either fasting (1.6-fold, single dose; 2.0-fold, repeated dose; p<0.01 or fed conditions (1.4-fold, single dose; 1.6-fold, repeated dose; p<0.01. GABA also increased glucagon levels only under fasting conditions (1.3-fold, single dose, p<0.05; 1.5-fold, repeated dose, p<0.01. However, there were no significant differences in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and no significant change in glucose levels in these healthy subjects during the study period. Importantly, GABA significantly decreased glycated albumin levels in the repeated dosing period. Subjects with repeated dosing showed an elevated incidence of minor adverse events in comparison to placebo or the single dosing period, most notably transitional discomforts such as dizziness and sore throat. However, there were no serious adverse events observed throughout the study. Our data show that GABA is rapidly absorbed and tolerated in human beings; its endocrine effects, exemplified by increasing islet hormonal secretion, suggest potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes.

  17. Eccentric Exercise, Kinesiology Tape, and Balance in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosp, Simona; Folie, Ramona; Csapo, Robert; Hasler, Michael; Nachbauer, Werner

    2017-07-01

      Deficits in balance have been identified as a possible risk factor for knee injuries in athletes. Despite a lack of evidence for its effectiveness, kinesiology tape (KT) is widely used to prevent knee injuries.   To investigate the influence of KT at the knee joint on balance ability in healthy men after eccentric exercise.   Crossover study.   University laboratory.   Twelve young men with no history of lower limb injury volunteered for the study (age = 23.3 ± 2.6 years). All participants were students enrolled in a sports science program.   Participants performed the balance test with and without KT at the knee joint on 2 separate days.   The ability to maintain balance was assessed during a single-legged-stance test using a computerized balance-stability test system. The test was performed before and after 30 minutes of downhill walking on a treadmill.   Eccentric exercise resulted in a deterioration of balance ability, which was attenuated by the use of KT. Further analyses revealed that the effectiveness of KT depended on the participant's balance status, with the preventive effect being greater in participants presenting with poorer baseline balance ability.   Applied to the knee joint, KT counteracted the exercise-related deterioration of balance ability observed when no tape was used. Participants presenting with below-average balance ability received more benefit from KT. By preventing exercise-related impairment of balance ability, KT might help to reduce the risk of sport-associated knee injuries.

  18. Motivations for Healthy Lifestyle in Railroad Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Ostan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the results of a survey of railroad employees’ motivation for a healthy lifestyle. For this purpose a specific questionnaire was developed. The study was performed on 245 Slovene railroad workers (168 of them blue-collar ones. The great majority (66.9% were found to be overweight or obese (BMI 25 or more, with no significant difference between blue- and white-collar workers. The great majority of them were in general aware of having unhealthy nutrition and an unhealthy lifestyle. Most of the employees felt the need to improve (at least in part their nutrition (74.7% and lifestyle (78.0%; the majority (67.8% also declared that they could adopt a healthier lifestyle despite the constraints of everyday life and work conditions; however, 57.6% said that they had been already putting considerable effort into a healthier nutrition and lifestyle. Thus the effort needed to overcome constraints toward a healthier lifestyle seems to be the key problem: the majority (54.3% would rather choose walking than running or other intensive forms of exercise; they are not ready to do it for more than one hour per day (60%, and they are not ready to give up permanently food that they like and that is considered unhealthy. The differences in motivations for a healthy lifestyle between blue- and white-collar workers were not significant at the 0.05 level. Further research in this field is needed; however, it seems that the methods of efficient marginal modifications of lifestyle are required. KEYWORDS human resources management, railroad, blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, healthy lifestyle, motivations

  19. Periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia: a case report with twelve-year follow-up and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senia, E S; Sarao, M S

    2015-11-01

    To present a case report describing the long-term behaviour of periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia by observing the radiographic changes that took place over a period of 12 years. A review of the pertinent literature is also presented. A healthy 26-year-old white female was referred to the Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center Endodontic Department for evaluation of an asymptomatic radiolucency at the apex of the right mandibular lateral incisor. Following a clinical evaluation that included pulp testing, a diagnosis of periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD) was made. No treatment was rendered but follow-up visits were recommended. The patient was subsequently re-evaluated 8 times over a period of 12 years. During that time the lesion changed in appearance, displaying the various phases of PCOD. At the same time, lesions affecting the three adjoining incisors appeared and behaved in a similar manner. At the 12-year recall, the right lateral and both central incisors revealed no evidence of PCOD and an almost normal trabecular pattern of bone could be seen. Misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment of PCOD may be avoided with careful pulp testing and knowledge of its most common locations of occurrence, radiographic appearances (phases) and benign behaviour. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Segmental wall movement of the left ventricle in healthy persons and myocardial infarct patients studied by a catheter-less nuclear medical method (camera-cinematography of the heart)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffers, H; Sigel, H; Bitter, F; Kampmann, H; Stauch, M; Adam, W E

    1976-08-01

    Camera-Kinematography is a nearly noninvasive method to investigate regional motion of the myocard, and allows evaluation of the function of the heart. About 20 min after injection of 15-20 mCi of 99mTC-Human-Serum-Albumin, when the tracer is distributed homogenously within the bloodpool, data acquisition starts. Myocardial wall motion is represented in an appropriate quasi three-dimensional form. In this representation scars can be revealed as "silent" (akinetic) regions, aneurysms by asynchronic motion. Time activity curves for arbitrarily chosen regions can be calculated and give an equivalent for regional volume changes. 16 patients with an old infarction have been investigated. In fourteen cases the location and extent of regions with abnormal motion could be evaluated. Only two cases of a small posterior wall infarction did not show deviations from normal contraction pattern.

  1. Revised Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index and associations with obesity and iron deficiency in schoolchildren: The Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Y; Moschonis, G; Papandreou, C; Politidou, E; Naoumi, A; Peppas, D; Mavrogianni, C; Lionis, C; Chrousos, G P

    2015-02-01

    The Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index (HLD-index), previously developed to assess the degree of adherence to dietary and lifestyle guidelines for primary schoolchildren, was revised according to updated recommendations. Τhe association of the revised HLD-index (R-HLD-index) with obesity and iron deficiency (ID) was also examined. A representative sample of 2660 primary schoolchildren from Greece (9-13 years old) participating in the 'Healthy Growth Study' was examined. Twelve components related to dietary and lifestyle patterns were used to develop the R-HLD-index. Scores from 0 up to 4 were assigned to each one of these components, giving a total score ranging from 0 to 48. The associations between the R-HLD-index, obesity and ID were examined via logistic regression analysis. The total score of the R-HLD-index calculated for each one of the study participants was found to range between 2 and 32 units, with higher scores being indicative of a healthier lifestyle and better diet quality. After adjusting for potential confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that an increase in the R-HLD-index score by one unit was associated with 6% lower odds for obesity. However, no significant association was observed between the R-HLD-index score and ID. The R-HLD-index may be a useful tool for public health policy makers and healthcare professionals when assessing diet quality and lifestyle patterns of primary schoolchildren. Identification of children with lower scores in the R-HLD-index and its individual components could guide tailored made interventions targeting specific children and behaviors. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  2. Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives. Healthy People...

  3. Brain Serotonin Transporter Occupancy by Oral Sibutramine Dosed to Steady State: A PET Study Using 11C-DASB in Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Peter S; Bradley, Stefan; Clarke, Cyril P; Babalola, Kola O; Philipp, Andrew W; Brown, Gavin; McMahon, Adam W; Matthews, Julian C

    2010-01-01

    Sibutramine is a centrally acting monoamine reuptake inhibitor prescribed as an appetite suppressant in the management of obesity. Its effects are mostly attributable to serotonin and norepinephrine transporter (SERT and NET, respectively) inhibition by its potent metabolites mono-desmethylsibutramine (M1) and di-desmethylsibutramine (M2). However, there is a paucity of in vivo data in humans about mechanisms underlying both clinical efficacy and the dose-independent non-response observed in a minority of patients. Twelve healthy male patients (mean age 41 years) completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover investigation of brain SERT occupancy by sibutramine 15 mg daily at steady state. Correlations were measured between occupancy and (i) plasma concentrations of sibutramine, M1 and M2; (ii) appetite suppression. 11C-DASB PET scans were performed on the HRRT camera. Binding potentials (BPND) were calculated by the Logan reference tissue (cerebellum) method. SERT occupancy was modest (mean 30±10%), was similar across brain regions, but varied widely across subjects (15–46%). Occupancy was correlated positively (p=0.09) with M2 concentration, but not with sibutramine or M1. No significant appetite suppression was seen at sibutramine is of modest magnitude and may be mediated predominantly by M2 in humans. 5-HT reuptake inhibition may be necessary but is not sufficient for sibutramine's efficacy in humans, supporting preclinical data suggesting that the hypophagic effect requires the co-inhibition of both SERT and NET. PMID:19890256

  4. Multi-Electrode Impedance Method for Detection of Regional Ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Norio; Sakamoto, Katsuyuki

    2013-01-01

    By means of computer simulation and experiment, we investigated the feasibility of simultaneously measuring the transfer impedance changes in the right apex, left apex, right base and left base of the lungs using the multi-electrode impedance method. To obtain the transfer impedance in each region, while suppressing the effects of other regions, changing the amplitude and polarity of the applied current must localize the high sensitivity areas in the interest region. Twelve current and eight voltage electrodes were equidistantly arranged on the anterior and posterior chest walls. The amplitudes and polarities of the currents that were simultaneously applied to the current electrodes, and which provided the appropriate sensitivity distribution, were theoretically obtained. The effects of the localized sensitivity distribution were verified by comparing the simulation results of the investigated method with the results of the conventional four-electrode method. From the results of the computer simulation, we developed a multi-electrode impedance pneumography and applied it to healthy adult volunteers who were both in sitting position and in left decubitus. We found that the measurement results were physiologically reasonable.

  5. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12 and allergic dogs (n = 6 from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between

  6. Healthy Aging with Go4Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Healthy Aging with Go4Life ® Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of ... is to make physical activity a cornerstone of healthy aging, for a simple reason. Being physically active is ...

  7. Come On! Using intervention mapping to help healthy pregnant women achieve healthy weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkx, Astrid; Ausems, Marlein; de Vries, Raymond; Nieuwenhuijze, Marianne J

    2017-06-01

    Gaining too much or too little weight in pregnancy (according to Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines) negatively affects both mother and child, but many women find it difficult to manage their gestational weight gain (GWG). Here we describe the use of the intervention mapping protocol to design 'Come On!', an intervention to promote adequate GWG among healthy pregnant women. We used the six steps of intervention mapping: (i) needs assessment; (ii) formulation of change objectives; (iii) selection of theory-based methods and practical strategies; (iv) development of the intervention programme; (v) development of an adoption and implementation plan; and (vi) development of an evaluation plan. A consortium of users and related professionals guided the process of development. As a result of the needs assessment, two goals for the intervention were formulated: (i) helping healthy pregnant women to stay within the IOM guidelines for GWG; and (ii) getting midwives to adequately support the efforts of healthy pregnant women to gain weight within the IOM guidelines. To reach these goals, change objectives and determinants influencing the change objectives were formulated. Theories used were the Transtheoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model. Practical strategies to use the theories were the foundation for the development of 'Come On!', a comprehensive programme that included a tailored Internet programme for pregnant women, training for midwives, an information card for midwives, and a scheduled discussion between the midwife and the pregnant woman during pregnancy. The programme was pre-tested and evaluated in an effect study.

  8. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention promotes improvements in nutrition, activity and body weight in American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K

    2016-10-01

    American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.

  9. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  10. Multicenter R2* mapping in the healthy brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropele, Stefan; Wattjes, Mike P; Langkammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    structures. METHODS: R2* mapping was performed in 81 healthy subjects in seven centers using different 3 T systems. R2* was calculated from a dual-echo gradient echo sequence and was assessed in several deep gray matter structures. The inter-scanner and inter-subject variability of R2* was calculated...

  11. Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…

  12. Chocolate: A Heart-healthy Food? Show Me the Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Sandra M.; Schmitz, Harold H.; Keen, Carl L.

    2002-01-01

    Cocoa and chocolate foods produced by appropriate methods can contribute significant amounts of heart-healthy flavanols to the diet. These flavanols may enhance cardiovascular health by delaying blood clotting, improving vascular endothelial function, and helping to moderate inflammation. The benefits of chocolate can be enjoyed without guilt as part of a healthful balanced diet.

  13. Transformative Learning Factors to Enhance Integral Healthy Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavinpipatkul, Chanchai; Ratana-Ubol, Archanya; Charungkaittikul, Suwithida

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on how organizations search for the key factors to develop integral changes and determine broader and higher transcendental learning skills in order to achieve healthy and sustainable organizational growth more effectively and efficiently. This study employed qualitative approaches. The research method used is an in-depth…

  14. Testicular volume of healthy term neonates: Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: This was a hospital.based, cross.sectional and descriptive study. Eight hundred and eleven apparently healthy term Igbo male neonates within the first 3 days of life were studied. The TV was measured with Prader Orchidometer (ZKL.135.H), ESP Model. Smoothed centiles (3.97th percentile values) ...

  15. Improved Processing and Marketing of Healthy Fish Products in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improved Processing and Marketing of Healthy Fish Products in Inland Fisheries in Malawi (CultiAF). This project aims ... They will test different pre-drying methods: -no pre-drying treatment -parboiling -smoking -brining Solar dryer and business model testing Researchers will assess the solar dryers' economic performance.

  16. Association between osteocalcin and cognitive performance in healthy older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradburn, Steven; Mcphee, Jamie S.; Bagley, Liam; Sipila, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; Narici, Marco Vincenzo; Pääsuke, Mati; Gapeyeva, Helena; Osborne, Gabrielle; Sassano, Lorraine; Meskers, Carel G.M.; Maier, Andrea B.; Hogrel, Jean Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Murgatroyd, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: cognitive deterioration and reductions of bone health coincide with increasing age. We examine the relationship between bone composition and plasma markers of bone remodelling with measures of cognitive performance in healthy adults. Methods: this cross-sectional study included 225 old

  17. Glycemic Response of some Local Nigerian Drinks in Healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and methods: The drinks investigated were oil Palm-Wine, Bottled Raphia wine, 'Kunu', 'Zobo' drink, and Plantain-Wine. The proximate composition of the drinks were determined and the amounts that will deliver 50g carbohydrate were administered to the subjects after an overnight fast. Sixty healthy subjects were ...

  18. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  19. College Students' Motivation to Achieve and Maintain a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furia, Andrea C.; Lee, Rebecca E.; Strother, Myra L.; Huang, Terry T-K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and refine a scale of motivational factors related to healthy weight achievement and maintenance and to examine differences by gender and weight status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 300 university students aged 18-24 years. Results: Factor analysis yielded 6 factors--Intrinsic (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73): affective…

  20. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Materials and Methods: Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be ...

  1. Reference ranges of some haematological parameters in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The haematological values of populations differ due to numerous factors. It is essential to establish the normal haematological values in every population to ensure appropriate interpretation of results in health and disease states. Materials and Methods: A total of 184 consenting apparently healthy adults (62 ...

  2. Healthy eating in persons with serious mental illnesses: understanding and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Laura K; Ferron, Joelle C; Davis, Kristin E; Whitley, Rob

    2011-01-01

    To explore the understanding of a healthy diet and the barriers to healthy eating in persons with serious mental illnesses. In-depth semi-structured qualitative interviews about health behaviors were conducted in 31 individuals with serious mental illnesses. Participants were recruited from a mental health center in Chicago, Illinois, and ranged in age from 30 to 61 years old. Most participants described healthy eating as consuming fruits and vegetables, using low fat cooking methods, and limiting sweets, sodas, fast food, and/or junk food. Internal barriers to nutritional change included negative perceptions of healthy eating, the decreased taste and satiation of healthy foods, difficulty changing familiar eating habits, eating for comfort, and the prioritization of mental health. External barriers were the reduced availability and inconvenience of healthy foods, social pressures, and psychiatric medication side effects. This study revealed several modifiable barriers to healthy eating. Interventions that addressed these could aid in improving the diet and lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. Recommendations are to provide healthy eating education that is individualized, emphasizes the health consequences of poor eating, and provides opportunities to prepare and taste healthy foods. Family and friends should be included in all educational efforts. At community mental health centers and group homes, only healthy foods should be offered. Lastly, practitioners should encourage eating a healthy diet, inquire about eating in response to emotions, and explore the impact of psychiatric medications on eating behaviors.

  3. Consumer lay theories on healthy nutrition: A Q methodology application in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarar, Nadine; Orth, Ulrich R

    2018-01-01

    Food is an important driver of individual health, and an important subject in public policy and health intervention research. Viewpoints on what constitutes healthy nutrition, however, are manifold and highly subjective in nature, suggesting there is no one-size-fits-all behavioral change intervention. This research explores fundamental lay theories regarding healthy nutrition with consumers in Germany. The study aimed at identifying and characterizing distinct groups of consumers based on similarities and differences in the lay theories individuals hold by means of Q methodology. Thirty German consumers ranked a Q set of 63 statements representing a vast spectrum of individual opinions and beliefs on healthy nutrition into a quasi-normal distribution. Factor analysis identified four major lay theories on healthy nutrition: (1) "Healthy is what tastes good, in moderation", (2) "Healthy nutrition is expensive and inconvenient", (3) "Healthy is everything that makes me slim and pretty", and (4) "Only home-made, organic, and vegetarian food is healthy". Consensus existed among the theories about the question of whom to trust regarding nutritional information and the low relevance of information from official sources. Disagreement existed concerning the overall importance of healthy nutrition in day-to-day lives and whether food healthiness is related to organic or conventional production methods. The findings underscore that specific consumer groups should be engaged separately when intervening in healthy nutrition issues. Implications for public policies and intervention strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of twelve mitochondrial protein-coding genes as barcodes for mollusk DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes from 238 mitochondrial genomes of 140 molluscan species as potential DNA barcodes for mollusks. Three barcoding methods (distance, monophyly and character-based methods) were used in species identification. The species recovery rates based on genetic distances for the 12 genes ranged from 70.83 to 83.33%. There were no significant differences in intra- or interspecific variability among the 12 genes. The monophyly and character-based methods provided higher resolution than the distance-based method in species delimitation. Especially in closely related taxa, the character-based method showed some advantages. The results suggested that besides the standard COI barcode, other 11 mitochondrial protein-coding genes could also be potentially used as a molecular diagnostic for molluscan species discrimination. Our results also showed that the combination of mitochondrial genes did not enhance the efficacy for species identification and a single mitochondrial gene would be fully competent.

  5. Tear ferning test in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Arianne P; Raposo, Ana Claudia S; Araújo, Nayone L L C; Lima, Felipe B; Masmali, Ali M

    2017-11-07

    To evaluate and compare three tear sampling methods using two grading scales for administering the tear ferning test (TFT) to healthy dogs. In total, 90 dogs (180 eyes) were subjected to tear sampling using millimetered strips, reused after the Schirmer tear test (STT) (Schirmer group, SG). Then, the dogs were subdivided into three groups according to sampling approach: micropipette (MPG), microcapillary (MCG), and Schirmer sample 2 (S2G). The collected tears were dried on a clean microscope glass slide at room temperature and humidity. The ferning patterns were observed under a polarized light microscope and classified according to the Rolando and Masmali grading scales. Although all three methods were feasible, the STT was easier to perform in clinical settings. Type I and Grade 1 were the most commonly observed (64.17% and 61.7%, respectively) regardless of collection method. There was no significant difference between the STT median values and the TFT classifications. The TFT is appropriate for dogs and can be performed using the three suggested sampling methods, with a higher frequency of Type I and Grade 1. Thus, it is possible to use both grading scales in the classification of tear ferning in dogs. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

  7. Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on hemostasis in healthy adults treated with heparin: a randomized, controlled, blinded crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Brahm

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of nitric oxide (NO on hemostasis have been studied in various investigational settings, but data regarding inhaled NO on bleeding and platelet function are conflicting. It is not known if inhaled NO has an effect when administered with drugs that influence hemostasis. This trial evaluated effects of inhaled NO on hemostasis in the presence of heparin using aspirin as a positive control. Patients/Methods Twelve healthy adult males were enrolled in a single-center, randomized, single-blind, four-way crossover trial. Subjects received 80 ppm NO or medical air (placebo inhalation for 30 min with simultaneous injection of placebo or heparin. Aspirin capsules were used as a positive control. Parameters of hemostasis were measured before treatment and at post-treatment intervals. Results Activated clotting time (ACT, prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT increased only in groups that received heparin. Areas under the curve for ACT in heparin groups receiving inhaled NO were judged to be equivalent to those receiving medical air for both 0- to 4-h (ratio: 1.00; 90% CI, 0.90-1.11 and 0- to 24-h time intervals (ratio: 1.01; 90% CI, 0.92-1.12. Changes in bleeding time and platelet aggregation were observed only in aspirin groups. No clinically significant changes in hemoglobin, red blood cell counts or haematocrit were observed in any group. Conclusions Inhaled NO, when administered with heparin, exhibited no significant additive effects on ACT, PT, aPTT, bleeding time or platelet aggregation.

  8. Utility-driven evidence for healthy cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The question whether the WHO Healthy Cities project 'works' has been asked ever since a number of novel ideas and actions related to community health, health promotion and healthy public policy in the mid 1980s came together in the Healthy Cities Movement initiated by the World Health Organization....... The question, however, has become more urgent since we have entered an era in which the drive for 'evidence' seems all-pervasive. The article explores the nature of evidence, review available evidence on Healthy Cities accomplishments, and discusses whether enough evidence has been accumulated on different...... performances within the realm of Healthy Cities. A main point of reference is the European Healthy Cities Project (E-HCP). Building on the information gathered through documentary research on the topic, it is concluded that there is fair evidence that Healthy Cities works. However, the future holds great...

  9. Hematology of healthy Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.W.; Harr, K.E.; Murphy, D.; Walsh, M.T.; Nolan, E.C.; Bonde, R.K.; Pate, M.G.; Deutsch, C.J.; Edwards, H.H.; Clapp, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hematologic analysis is an important tool in evaluating the general health status of free-ranging manatees and in the diagnosis and monitoring of rehabilitating animals. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate diagnostically important hematologic analytes in healthy manatees (Trichechus manatus) and to assess variations with respect to location (free ranging vs captive), age class (small calves, large calves, subadults, and adults), and gender. Methods: Blood was collected from 55 free-ranging and 63 captive healthy manatees. Most analytes were measured using a CELL-DYN 3500R; automated reticulocytes were measured with an ADVIA 120. Standard manual methods were used for differential leukocyte counts, reticulocyte and Heinz body counts, and plasma protein and fibrinogen concentrations. Results: Rouleaux, slight polychromasia, stomatocytosis, and low numbers of schistocytes and nucleated RBCs (NRBCs) were seen often in stained blood films. Manual reticulocyte counts were higher than automated reticulocyte counts. Heinz bodies were present in erythrocytes of most manatees. Compared with free-ranging manatees, captive animals had slightly lower MCV, MCH, and eosinophil counts and slightly higher heterophil and NRBC counts, and fibrinogen concentration. Total leukocyte, heterophil, and monocyte counts tended to be lower in adults than in younger animals. Small calves tended to have higher reticulocyte counts and NRBC counts than older animals. Conclusions: Hematologic findings were generally similar between captive and free-ranging manatees. Higher manual reticulocyte counts suggest the ADVIA detects only reticulocytes containing large amounts of RNA. Higher reticulocyte and NRBC counts in young calves probably reflect an increased rate of erythropoiesis compared with older animals. ?? 2009 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Perception of urge-to-cough and dyspnea in healthy smokers with decreased cough reflex sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kanezaki, Masashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Nikkuni, Etsuhiro; Gui, Peijun; Suda, Chihiro; Ebihara, Takae; Yamasaki, Miyako; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Background Although cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms, the perceptional aspects of two symptoms in smokers have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we simultaneously evaluated the cough reflex sensitivity, the cognition of urge-to-cough and perception of dyspnea in both healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods Fourteen male healthy never-smokers and 14 age-matched male healthy current-smokers were recruited via publ...

  11. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P.; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P.; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T.; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C.; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina del Mar; Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Kapczinski, Flávio; Rosa, Adriane R.; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Methods: Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychologic...

  12. Asset life cycle plans: twelve steps to assist strategic decision-making in asset life cycle management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, Richard Jacob; Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan; van Dongen, Leonardus Adriana Maria; Carnero, Maria Carmen; Gonzalez-Prida, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of physical assets should deliver maximum business value. Therefore, Asset Management standards such as PAS 55 and ISO 55000 ask for a life cycle approach. However, most existing methods focus only on the short term of the asset's life or the estimation of its remaining life.

  13. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in healthy Turkish eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıcı, Ceyhun; Arslan, Osman Sevki; Dikkaya, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the normative values of corneal endothelial cell density, morphology, and central corneal thickness in healthy Turkish eyes. Methods. Specular microscopy was performed in 252 eyes of 126 healthy volunteers (M : F, 42 : 84). Parameters studied included mean endothelial cell density (MCD), mean cell area (MCA), coefficient of variation (CV) in cell size, percentage of hexagonal cells, and central corneal thickness (CCT). Results. The mean age of volunteers was 44.3 ± 13.5 (range, 20 to 70) years. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD (P Filipino eyes and higher than that described in Indian, Thai, and Iranian eyes.

  14. ERICA: prevalence of healthy eating habits among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; dos Santos, Debora França; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Tavares, Bruno Mendes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of eating habits considered healthy in adolescents according to sex, age, education level of the mother, school type, session of study, and geographic region. METHODS The assessed data come from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, national and school-based study. Adolescents of 1,247 schools of 124 Brazilian municipalities were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire with a section on aspects related to eating behaviors. The following eating behaviors were considered healthy: consuming breakfast, drinking water, and having meals accompanied by parents or legal guardians. All prevalence estimates were presented proportionally, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences in healthy eating habits prevalences according to other variables. The module survey of the Stata program version 13.0 was used to analyze complex data. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents (72.9% of the eligible students). Of these, 55.2% were female, average age being 14.6 years (SD = 1.6). Among Brazilian adolescents, approximately half of them showed healthy eating habits when consuming breakfast, drinking five or more glasses of water a day, and having meals with parents or legal guardians. All analyzed healthy eating habits showed statistically significant differences by sex, age, type of school, session of study, or geographic region . CONCLUSIONS We suggest that specific actions of intersectoral approach are implemented for the dissemination of the benefits of healthy eating habits. Older female adolescents (15 to 17 years old) who studied in public schools, resided in the Southeast region, and whose mothers had lower education levels, should be the focus of these actions since they present lower frequencies concerning the evaluated healthy habits.

  15. Formative Evaluation to Increase Availability of Healthy Snacks and Beverages in Stores Near Schools in Two Rural Oregon Counties, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Betty T.; Findholt, Nancy E.; Pickus, Hayley A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Children living in rural areas are at greater risk for obesity than their urban counterparts. Differences in healthy food access may contribute to this disparity. Most healthy food access initiatives target stores in urban areas. We conducted a formative evaluation to increase availability of healthy snacks and beverages in food stores near schools in rural Oregon. Methods We assessed availability of healthy snacks and beverages in food stores (n = 15) using the SNACZ (Students N...

  16. Evaluative Indices Assigned to Contraceptive Methods by University Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Robert J.; Malo, Teri L.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Daley, Ellen M.; Mayer, Alyssa B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Preordinate attitudes and beliefs about contraception may influence acceptance or rejection of a particular method. Purpose: We examined the attitudes about contraception methods held by undergraduate students (N=792) at two large southeastern universities in the United States. Methods: Twelve methods were rated on 40 semantic…

  17. Pain perception in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janum, Susanne; Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Werner, Mads U

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the relationship between pain perception and cytokine release during systemic inflammation. We present a randomized crossover trial in healthy volunteers (n = 17) in 37 individual trials. Systemic inflammation was induced by an i.v. bolus of Escherichia coli LPS (2 ng/kg) on two...... separate trial days, with or without a nicotine patch applied 10 h previously. Pain perception at baseline, and 2 and 6 h after LPS was assessed by pressure algometry and tonic heat stimulation at an increasing temperature (45-48℃) during both trials. Compared with baseline, pain pressure threshold...... was reduced 2 and 6 h after LPS, while heat pain perception was accentuated at all testing temperatures after 2 but not 6 h. The magnitude of changes in pain perception did not correlate to cytokine release. No effect of transdermal nicotine or training status was observed. In conclusion, LPS administration...

  18. Being Active, Engaged, and Healthy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huijg, Johanna M.; van Delden, A. (Lex) E. Q.; van der Ouderaa, Frans J. G.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study took an emic multidimensional approach on successful aging and examined what older people consider important to age successfully by asking them about their plans and wishes (PWs). Associations between participants' demographics, health status, working life, social contacts...... with a higher life satisfaction indicated significantly more often to have PWs than individuals with a lower life satisfaction. DISCUSSION: The majority of older people desire an active, engaged, and healthy life. PWs were variable and personal, which endorses an emic, multidimensional approach to successful...... aging. Knowledge on what older individuals find important in their lives and what they want to achieve can assist older individuals in setting and attaining their goals toward aging well....

  19. Healthy lifestyles and school life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Circe Sánchez-Rodríguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Promoting a culture in health not only towards the physical but mental health of the human being is a priority in the training of the professionals of the Preschool Education, evidenced in the diagnosis implemented, that provided the necessary information of the real and desired state in terms of the insufficiencies that present the students of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of the day course of the Degree in Pre-school Education; in their lifestyles for the formation of coexistence in the university context. It demonstrates the need to develop an educational strategy that contributes to the formation of coexistence based on the promotion of healthy lifestyles, which in the hands of teachers will help to transform the behavioral attitudes of students, which will allow them to interact in a positive way with society and be better people and professionals.

  20. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla L. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69. CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support.

  1. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C

    2017-12-01

    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  2. Breed differences in natriuretic peptides in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, K.; Wess, G.; Ljungvall, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma concentration of natriuretic peptides (NPs) is suggested to be of value in diagnosis of cardiac disease in dogs, but many factors other than cardiac status may influence their concentrations. Dog breed potentially is 1 such factor. OBJECTIVE: To investigate breed...... variation in plasma concentrations of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide 31-67 (proANP 31-67) and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 535 healthy, privately owned dogs of 9 breeds were examined at 5 centers as part of the European Union (EU) LUPA project. METHODS: Absence...... the median concentration in Doberman Pinschers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Considerable interbreed variation in plasma NP concentrations was found in healthy dogs. Intrabreed variation was large in several breeds, especially for NT-proBNP. Additional studies are needed to establish breed...

  3. Kalijodo transformation in establishment of healthy environment in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanto, Erik; Junadi, Purnawan

    2018-03-01

    A good city setting can create a healthy environment. One of the structuring of cities that can create a healthy environment is the development of public space like Green Open Space (RTH) and Child-Friendly Integrated Public Space (RPTRA) such as in Kalijodo, Jakarta, Indonesia. The objective of building a public space in Kalijodo is to restore the functioning of the green zone in the area that previously used for housing residents and prostitution businesses to increase public space in Jakarta. The purpose of this study is to describe the formation of a healthy environment and the impact felt by users of this public space. The research method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with a phenomenological approach through interview, observation and documentation. There are three types of community activities in the public sphere, such as sports, children’s playground, and relaxation. The results show that the decline in crime rates and the presence of facilities and infrastructure in time to establish a healthy environment. The construction of facilities in the public spaces changes the image of Kalijodo from the previous place that has a negative image then turned into a positive image because the environment of Kalijodo became healthy. We also find that this changing image creates a positive spirit of the surrounding community and people are generally healthier and happier.

  4. [Comparative effects of ginkgo biloba extracts on psychomotor performances and memory in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warot, D; Lacomblez, L; Danjou, P; Weiller, E; Payan, C; Puech, A J

    1991-01-01

    The effect on psychomotor and mnesic performances of acute oral dose (600 mg) of 2 Ginkgo biloba extracts were evaluated in twelve healthy female in a dummy placebo-controlled double blind study. Tests were performed comprising: objective measures of vigilance [critical flicker frequency (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT)], memory tasks (pictures and Sternberg scanning tests) and self-rating evaluation (visual analogue scales). Tests session took place before and 1 hour post-dosing. No statistically significant changes from placebo were observed on CFF, CRT or subjective rating of drug effects. No differences between treatment were evidenced on Sternberg scanning test and pictures recognition. Comparing to baseline, free recall score, while decreasing under placebo and Ginkgo, remained the same under Tanakan. As the differences between treatment are localized on one test, it appears important to examine the reproductility in healthy subjects. In order to verify the clinical relevance of these results, they need to be replicated in older healthy volunteers with age-associated memory impairment.

  5. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  6. Interleukin-7 Plasma Levels in Human Differentiate Anorexia Nervosa, Constitutional Thinness and Healthy Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, panorexia nervosa (24.2±5.6, panorexia nervosa (64.2±16.1, p = 0.01) and healthy obese patients (51±3.2, panorexia nervosa, confirming its difference with constitutional thinness. Healthy obesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7.

  7. Characterization of the cutaneous mycobiota in healthy and allergic cats using next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meason-Smith, Courtney; Diesel, Alison; Patterson, Adam P; Older, Caitlin E; Johnson, Timothy J; Mansell, Joanne M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline

    2017-02-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) studies have demonstrated a diverse skin-associated microbiota and microbial dysbiosis associated with atopic dermatitis in people and in dogs. The skin of cats has yet to be investigated using NGS techniques. We hypothesized that the fungal microbiota of healthy feline skin would be similar to that of dogs, with a predominance of environmental fungi, and that fungal dysbiosis would be present on the skin of allergic cats. Eleven healthy cats and nine cats diagnosed with one or more cutaneous hypersensitivity disorders, including flea bite, food-induced and nonflea nonfood-induced hypersensitivity. Healthy cats were sampled at twelve body sites and allergic cats at six sites. DNA was isolated and Illumina sequencing was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer region of fungi. Sequences were processed using the bioinformatics software QIIME. The most abundant fungal sequences from the skin of all cats were classified as Cladosporium and Alternaria. The mucosal sites, including nostril, conjunctiva and reproductive tracts, had the fewest number of fungi, whereas the pre-aural space had the most. Allergic feline skin had significantly greater amounts of Agaricomycetes and Sordariomycetes, and significantly less Epicoccum compared to healthy feline skin. The skin of healthy cats appears to have a more diverse fungal microbiota compared to previous studies, and a fungal dysbiosis is noted in the skin of allergic cats. Future studies assessing the temporal stability of the skin microbiota in cats will be useful in determining whether the microbiota sequenced using NGS are colonizers or transient microbes. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Empowerment for healthy nutrition in German communities: a study framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Susanne; Curbach, Janina; Lindacher, Verena; Rueter, Jana; Warrelmann, Berit; Loss, Julika

    2017-06-01

    Empowerment is seen as a key strategy for sustainable health promotion efforts. However, there is only limited research on how to link the empowerment approach to the promotion of healthy eating, which is a major current public health issue. The article presents the development of a study framework for implementing and evaluating an empowerment intervention for healthy nutrition. This framework was created for a community intervention study meaning to involve elderly citizens in Bavaria, Germany. The study protocol was developed in an iterative process basing on (i) literature reviews on the topics empowerment in relation to healthy nutrition and mixed-methods evaluation, (ii) workshops with empowerment and public health experts and (iii) consultations with local community representatives. Through these measures we identified good practice criteria as well as specific challenges of integrating empowerment and healthy nutrition, e.g. engaging people in healthy nutrition, reconciling participants' nutrition preferences with public health nutrition priorities and evaluating bottom-up activities in the community. Consequences for the study design were deducted from the literature and the consultations, e.g. practical recommendations as to how power could be gradually assigned to group members. A qualitative mixed-method evaluation design was chosen to capture emergent empowerment processes. The study framework presented here is the first on empowerment and nutrition to provide explicit guidance on how empowerment may be applied to healthy nutrition and implemented and evaluated in the community context. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  10. Excretion of moxidectin into breast milk and pharmacokinetics in healthy lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth-Bradley, Joan M; Parks, Virginia; Chalon, Stephan; Gourley, Ian; Matschke, Kyle; Gossart, Sophie; Bryson, Philip; Fleckenstein, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    Moxidectin, registered worldwide as a veterinary antiparasitic agent, is currently under development for humans for the treatment of onchocerciasis in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in healthy lactating women, including the excretion into breast milk. Twelve women, ages 23 to 38 years, weighing 54 to 79 kg, all more than 5 months postpartum, were enrolled, following their plan to wean their infants and provision of informed consent. A single 8-mg, open-label dose was administered orally after consumption of a standard breakfast. Complete milk collection was done for approximately 28 days, and plasma samples were collected for 90 days. Moxidectin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection, with a validated range of 0.08 to 120 ng/ml. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic methods were used to find the following results: peak concentration in plasma (C(max)), 87 ± 25 ng/ml; time to C(max) (t(max)), 4.18 ± 1.59 h; terminal-phase elimination half-life (t(1/2)), 832 ± 321 h; total area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), 4,046 ± 1,796 ng · h/ml; apparent oral dose clearance (CL/F), 2.35 ± 1.07 l/h; ratio of CL/F to the terminal-phase disposition rate constant, λ(z) (Vλ(z)/F), 2,526 ± 772 liters; percentage of maternal dose excreted in milk, 0.701 ± 0.299%; absolute amount excreted in milk, 0.056 ± 0.024 mg; relative infant dose, 8.73 ± 3.17% of maternal dose assuming complete absorption; clearance in milk (CL(milk)), 0.016 ± 0.009 liter/h. Nine of 12 subjects reported adverse events, all of which were considered treatment emergent but not drug related and were mostly reported during the long outpatient period 8 to 90 days after dose administration. The most frequently reported adverse events were headache and nausea (n = 4), oropharyngeal pain (n = 2), rhinitis, viral pharyngitis, and viral upper

  11. Additive effects of heating and exercise on baroreflex control of heart rate in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peçanha, Tiago; Forjaz, Cláudia L M; Low, David A

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed the additive effects of passive heating and exercise on cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve healthy young men (25 ± 1 yr, 23.8 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 ) randomly underwent two experimental sessions: heat stress (HS; whole body heat stress using a tube-lined suit to increase core temperature by ~1°C) and normothermia (NT). Each session was composed of a preintervention rest (REST1); HS or NT interventions; postintervention rest (REST2); and 14 min of cycling exercise [7 min at 40%HR reserve (EX1) and 7 min at 60%HR reserve (EX2)]. Heart rate and finger blood pressure were continuously recorded. cBRS was assessed using the sequence (cBRS SEQ ) and transfer function (cBRS TF ) methods. HRV was assessed using the indexes standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN) and root mean square of successive RR intervals (RMSSD). cBRS and HRV were not different between sessions during EX1 and EX2 (i.e., matched heart rate conditions: EX1 = 116 ± 3 vs. 114 ± 3 and EX2 = 143 ± 4 vs. 142 ± 3 beats/min but different workloads: EX1 = 50 ± 9 vs. 114 ± 8 and EX2 = 106 ± 10 vs. 165 ± 8 W; for HS and NT, respectively; P heat stress to exercise does not affect cBRS and HRV. Alternatively, in workload-matched conditions, the addition of heat to exercise results in reduced cBRS and HRV compared with exercise in normothermia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study assessed cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during the combination of heat and exercise stresses. This is the first study to show that prior whole body passive heating reduces cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation of heart rate during exercise. These findings contribute to the better understanding of the role of thermoregulation on cardiovascular regulation during exercise.

  12. Randomized trial of achieving healthy lifestyles in psychiatric rehabilitation: the ACHIEVE trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guallar Eliseo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among persons with serious mental illness. These conditions likely contribute to premature cardiovascular disease and a 20 to 30 percent shortened life expectancy in this vulnerable population. Persons with serious mental illness need effective, appropriately tailored behavioral interventions to achieve and maintain weight loss. Psychiatric rehabilitation day programs provide logical intervention settings because mental health consumers often attend regularly and exercise can take place on-site. This paper describes the Randomized Trial of Achieving Healthy Lifestyles in Psychiatric Rehabilitation (ACHIEVE. The goal of the study is to determine the effectiveness of a behavioral weight loss intervention among persons with serious mental illness that attend psychiatric rehabilitation programs. Participants randomized to the intervention arm of the study are hypothesized to have greater weight loss than the control group. Methods/Design A targeted 320 men and women with serious mental illness and overweight or obesity (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 will be recruited from 10 psychiatric rehabilitation programs across Maryland. The core design is a randomized, two-arm, parallel, multi-site clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of an 18-month behavioral weight loss intervention to usual care. Active intervention participants receive weight management sessions and physical activity classes on-site led by study interventionists. The intervention incorporates cognitive adaptations for persons with serious mental illness attending psychiatric rehabilitation programs. The initial intensive intervention period is six months, followed by a twelve-month maintenance period in which trained rehabilitation program staff assume responsibility for delivering parts of the intervention. Primary outcomes are weight loss at six and 18 months. Discussion Evidence-based approaches to the high burden

  13. Healthy indoors : achieving healthy indoor environments in Canada : Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    A large proportion of the lives of Canadians is spent indoors, whether in vehicles, restaurants, shopping malls, offices or houses. The health of people working and living in those indoor settings might be damaged a a result, despite best efforts. Indoor pollution has been identified as one of the most serious risks to human health, according to numerous leading authorities, among them the American Lung Association, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC). A large number of cancer deaths are attributed to indoor pollution each year in the United States, as well as respiratory health problems. A causal link between certain indoor exposures and the development and provocation of asthma was established recently in a report on asthma and indoor air quality published by the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine. Exposure to indoor pollutants has also resulted in thousands of children experiencing elevated blood lead levels. Not enough attention is paid in Canada to pollution in buildings by government agencies, corporations and other non-governmental organizations and citizens. Not much seems to have changed in the past thirty years. An ambitious strategy by Pollution Probe was described in this document, listing the initial goals and measures required to achieve those goals. The creation of Healthy Indoors Partnership (HIP) was proposed to regroup all the stakeholders under the same umbrella. refs., tabs

  14. Swedish nurses encounter barriers when promoting healthy habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungkrona-Falk, Lena; Brekke, Hilde; Nyholm, Maria

    2014-12-01

    To increase the understanding of difficulties in promoting healthy habits to parents, we explore barriers in health-care provision. The aim of this study is to describe nurses' perceived barriers when discussing with parents regarding healthy food habits, physical activity and their child's body weight. A mixed method approach was chosen. Nurses (n = 76) working at 29 different Child Health Care Centers' in an area in west Sweden were included in the study. Three focus group interviews were conducted and 17 nurses were selected according to maximum variation. Data were categorized and qualitative content analysis was the chosen analysis method. In the second method, data were obtained from a questionnaire distributed to all 76 nurses. The latent content was formulated into a theme: even with encouragement and support, the nurses perceive barriers of both an external and internal nature. The results identified four main barriers: experienced barriers in the workplace-internal and external; the nurse's own fear and uncertainty; perceived obstacles in nurse-parent interactions and modern society impedes parents' ability to promote healthy habits. The nurses' perceived barriers were confirmed by the results from 62 of the nurses who completed the questionnaire. Despite education and professional support, the health professionals perceived both external and internal barriers in promoting healthy habits to parents when implementing a new method of health promotion in primary care. Further qualitative studies are needed to gain deeper understanding of the perceived barriers when promoting healthy habits to parents. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Mapping the availability and accessibility of healthy food in rural and urban New Zealand--Te Wai o Rona: Diabetes Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Williams, Margaret; Rush, Elaine; Crook, Nic; Forouhi, Nita G; Simmons, David

    2010-07-01

    Uptake of advice for lifestyle change for obesity and diabetes prevention requires access to affordable 'healthy' foods (high in fibre/low in sugar and fat). The present study aimed to examine the availability and accessibility of 'healthy' foods in rural and urban New Zealand. We identified and visited ('mapped') 1230 food outlets (473 urban, 757 rural) across the Waikato/Lakes areas (162 census areas within twelve regions) in New Zealand, where the Te Wai O Rona: Diabetes Prevention Strategy was underway. At each site, we assessed the availability of 'healthy' foods (e.g. wholemeal bread) and compared their cost with those of comparable 'regular' foods (e.g. white bread). Healthy foods were generally more available in urban than rural areas. In both urban and rural areas, 'healthy' foods were more expensive than 'regular' foods after adjusting for the population and income level of each area. For instance, there was an increasing price difference across bread, meat, poultry, with the highest difference for sugar substitutes. The weekly family cost of a 'healthy' food basket (without sugar) was 29.1% more expensive than the 'regular' basket ($NZ 176.72 v. $NZ 136.84). The difference between the 'healthy' and 'regular' basket was greater in urban ($NZ 49.18) than rural areas ($NZ 36.27) in adjusted analysis. 'Healthy' foods were more expensive than 'regular' choices in both urban and rural areas. Although urban areas had higher availability of 'healthy' foods, the cost of changing to a healthy diet in urban areas was also greater. Improvement in the food environment is needed to support people in adopting healthy food choices.

  16. Sleep in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E

    2014-05-01

    Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the Hollingshead scale participated in weeklong assessments of sleep duration and fragmentation, assessed by using actigraphy; sleep duration and perceived quality, assessed by using daily diaries; and daytime sleepiness and sleep delay, assessed by using a questionnaire. Students slept during the school week a mean ± SD of 6.0 ± 0.9 hours per night according to actigraphy and 6.8 ± 1.1 hours according to daily diary, and during the weekend, a mean of 7.4 ± 1.2 and 8.7 ± 1.4 hours, respectively. Black participants and male participants slept less and had more fragmented sleep; female participants reported poorer quality of sleep in their daily diaries and more daytime sleepiness. The results remained significant after adjustments for age, physical activity, smoking status, and percentile BMI. Most students slept less than the 8 to 9 hours suggested by the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black male participants had the least amount of sleep, which may play a role in the substantial risks experienced by this demographic group. Our findings are consistent with recommendations that pediatricians should routinely screen their adolescent patients about their sleep, especially those from at-risk subgroups. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Relationship between the three kinds of healthy habits and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takashi; Fukumoto, Tsutomu; Ito, Kyoko; Hasegawa, Yasutaka; Osaki, Takanobu

    2009-08-01

    In 2005, the diagnostic criteria for Japan-specific metabolic syndrome were published. The representative health habits are Breslow's seven healthy practices, Morimoto's eight items and Ikeda's six healthy habits. We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome related with life-style strongly among these three sets of healthy habit. Cross-sectional study was conducted for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by practicing these healthy habits. 20,776 Japanese individuals visited the Health Science Center at Jikei University Hospital in Japan for medical check-ups. Subjects were divided into 8 groups based on gender and age (females in their 30s, 40s, 50s and 60s, and males in their 30s, 40s, 50s and 60s). Participants completed a simple, self-administered lifestyle questionnaire based on the three sets of healthy habits. Subjects were divided into three groups (poor, moderate and favorable) according to each of the healthy habit criteria. Significant differences were observed among 10 groups for Breslow's seven healthy practices, 4 groups for Morimoto's eight items, and 13 groups for Ikeda's six healthy habits. Ikeda's six healthy habits showed the most significant differences among the three sets of habits. Among the three methods tested, to practice more Ikeda's healthy habits were the most useful for metabolic syndrome. © 2009 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors For vitamin D deficiency among healthy infants in Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin D status of healthy infants 6-18 months of age in Sacramento, CA. Patients and Methods: This was a one-year, cross-sectional study among a convenience sample of healthy infants seen at routine “well child” or follow-up appointments at t...

  19. Human milk composition differs in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares, M.; Albrecht, S.; Palma, de G.; Desamparados Ferrer, M.; Castillejo, G.; Schols, H.A.; Sanz, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether breast-milk composition and microbiota differ in healthy mothers and mothers with celiac disease (CD) to ultimately contribute to identify additional factors determining CD risk. Methods Breast-milk samples from healthy mothers (n = 12) and mothers with CD (n = 12)

  20. Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure and pulse rate of apparently healthy adults on land and in water: A comparative study. AI Bello, BOA Adegoke, OA Abass, O Addo. Abstract. Objective: The study compared cardiovascular parameters of apparently healthy adults in erect standing posture on land and whilst immersed in water at rest. Methods: ...