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Sample records for methods triangulating findings

  1. Mixed Methods, Triangulation, and Causal Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/triangulation, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/triangulation that accommodates…

  2. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  3. TRIANGULATION OF METHODS OF CAREER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Turnsek Mikacic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of the current research in the field of career education and career planning. Presented results constitute a model based on the insight into different theories and empirical studies about career planning as a building block of personal excellence. We defined credibility, transferability and reliability of the research by means of triangulation. As sources of data of triangulation we included essays of participants of education and questionnaires. Qualitative analysis represented the framework for the construction of the paradigmatic model and the formulation of the final theory. We formulated a questionnaire on the basis of our own experiences in the area of the education of individuals. The quantitative analysis, based on the results of the interviews, confirms the following three hypotheses: The individuals who elaborated a personal career plan and acted accordingly, changed their attitudes towards their careers and took control over their lives; in addition, they achieved a high level of self-esteem and self-confidence, in tandem with the perception of personal excellence, in contrast to the individuals who did not participate in career education and did not elaborate a career plan. We used the tools of NLP (neurolinguistic programming as an additional technique at learning.

  4. Triangulation and the importance of establishing valid methods for food safety culture evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Lone; Wallace, Carol A

    2017-10-01

    The research evaluates maturity of food safety culture in five multi-national food companies using method triangulation, specifically self-assessment scale, performance documents, and semi-structured interviews. Weaknesses associated with each individual method are known but there are few studies in food safety where a method triangulation approach is used for both data collection and data analysis. Significantly, this research shows that individual results taken in isolation can lead to wrong conclusions, resulting in potentially failing tactics and wasted investments. However, by applying method triangulation and reviewing results from a range of culture measurement tools it is possible to better direct investments and interventions. The findings add to the food safety culture paradigm beyond a single evaluation of food safety culture using generic culture surveys. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Laser triangulation method for measuring the size of parking claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Ming; Pang, Ying

    2017-10-01

    With the development of science and technology and the maturity of measurement technology, the 3D profile measurement technology has been developed rapidly. Three dimensional measurement technology is widely used in mold manufacturing, industrial inspection, automatic processing and manufacturing, etc. There are many kinds of situations in scientific research and industrial production. It is necessary to transform the original mechanical parts into the 3D data model on the computer quickly and accurately. At present, many methods have been developed to measure the contour size, laser triangulation is one of the most widely used methods.

  6. Triangulating case-finding tools for patient safety surveillance: a cross-sectional case study of puncture/laceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Gerwin, Daniel; Morlock, Laura; Miller, Marlene R

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the need for triangulating case-finding tools in patient safety surveillance. This study applied four case-finding tools to error-associated patient safety events to identify and characterise the spectrum of events captured by these tools, using puncture or laceration as an example for in-depth analysis. Retrospective hospital discharge data were collected for calendar year 2005 (n=48,418) from a large, urban medical centre in the USA. The study design was cross-sectional and used data linkage to identify the cases captured by each of four case-finding tools. Three case-finding tools (International Classification of Diseases external (E) and nature (N) of injury codes, Patient Safety Indicators (PSI)) were applied to the administrative discharge data to identify potential patient safety events. The fourth tool was Patient Safety Net, a web-based voluntary patient safety event reporting system. The degree of mutual exclusion among detection methods was substantial. For example, when linking puncture or laceration on unique identifiers, out of 447 potential events, 118 were identical between PSI and E-codes, 152 were identical between N-codes and E-codes and 188 were identical between PSI and N-codes. Only 100 events that were identified by PSI, E-codes and N-codes were identical. Triangulation of multiple tools through data linkage captures potential patient safety events most comprehensively. Existing detection tools target patient safety domains differently, and consequently capture different occurrences, necessitating the integration of data from a combination of tools to fully estimate the total burden.

  7. The use of Triangulation in Social Sciences Research : Can qualitative and quantitative methods be combined?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashatu Hussein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to a study in Tanzania on fringe benefits or welfare via the work contract1 where we will work both quantitatively and qualitatively. My focus is on the vital issue of combining methods or methodologies. There has been mixed views on the uses of triangulation in researches. Some authors argue that triangulation is just for increasing the wider and deep understanding of the study phenomenon, while others have argued that triangulation is actually used to increase the study accuracy, in this case triangulation is one of the validity measures. Triangulation is defined as the use of multiple methods mainly qualitative and quantitative methods in studying the same phenomenon for the purpose of increasing study credibility. This implies that triangulation is the combination of two or more methodological approaches, theoretical perspectives, data sources, investigators and analysis methods to study the same phenomenon.However, using both qualitative and quantitative paradigms in the same study has resulted into debate from some researchers arguing that the two paradigms differ epistemologically and ontologically. Nevertheless, both paradigms are designed towards understanding about a particular subject area of interest and both of them have strengths and weaknesses. Thus, when combined there is a great possibility of neutralizing the flaws of one method and strengthening the benefits of the other for the better research results. Thus, to reap the benefits of two paradigms and minimizing the drawbacks of each, the combination of the two approaches have been advocated in this article. The quality of our studies on welfare to combat poverty is crucial, and especially when we want our conclusions to matter in practice.

  8. Triangulation of Methods in Labour Studies in Nigeria: Reflections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the distinctive aspects of social science research in Nigeria as in other ... method in their investigations while relegating qualitative methods to the background. In labour studies, adopting only quantitative method to studying workers ...

  9. All roads lead to Rome - New search methods for the optimal triangulation problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ottosen, T. J.; Vomlel, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 9 (2012), s. 1350-1366 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GEICC/08/E010; GA ČR GA201/09/1891 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Bayesian networks * Optimal triangulation * Probabilistic inference * Cliques in a graph Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/MTR/vomlel-all roads lead to rome - new search methods for the optimal triangulation problem.pdf

  10. Investigation of point triangulation methods for optimality and performance in Structure from Motion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Structure from Motion (SFM) systems are composed of cameras and structure in the form of 3D points and other features. It is most often that the structure components outnumber the cameras by a great margin. It is not uncommon to have a configuration with 3 cameras observing more than 500 3D points...... an overview of existing triangulation methods with emphasis on performance versus optimality, and will suggest a fast triangulation algorithm based on linear constraints. The structure and camera motion estimation in a SFM system is based on the minimization of some norm of the reprojection error between...

  11. Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

  12. Generation of triangulated random surfaces by the Monte Carlo method in the grand canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmushko, V.V.; Migdal, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A model of triangulated random surfaces which is the discrete analog of the Polyakov string is considered. An algorithm is proposed which enables one to study the model by the Monte Carlo method in the grand canonical ensemble. Preliminary results on the determination of the critical index γ are presented

  13. Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three…

  14. Theory, Method, and Triangulation in the Study of Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a comparative study of street children in Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City contributes to a synergism between theory and method. Notes how theoretical approaches of symbolic interactionism, genetic structuralism, and habitus theory complement interview, participant observation, and content analysis methods;…

  15. Triangulation positioning system network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfendourakis Marios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ongoing work on localization and positioning through triangulation procedure for a Fixed Sensors Network - FSN.The FSN has to work as a system.As the triangulation problem becomes high complicated in a case with large numbers of sensors and transmitters, an adequate grid topology is needed in order to tackle the detection complexity.For that reason a Network grid topology is presented and areas that are problematic and need further analysis are analyzed.The Network System in order to deal with problems of saturation and False Triangulations - FTRNs will have to find adequate methods in every sub-area of the Area Of Interest - AOI.Also, concepts like Sensor blindness and overall Network blindness, are presented. All these concepts affect the Network detection rate and its performance and ought to be considered in a way that the network overall performance won’t be degraded.Network performance should be monitored contentiously, with right algorithms and methods.It is also shown that as the number of TRNs and FTRNs is increased Detection Complexity - DC is increased.It is hoped that with further research all the characteristics of a triangulation system network for positioning will be gained and the system will be able to perform autonomously with a high detection rate.

  16. The Application of a Multiphase Triangulation Approach to Mixed Methods: The Research of an Aspiring School Principal Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngs, Howard; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research has emerged as a credible alternative to unitary research approaches. The authors show how a combination of a triangulation convergence model with a triangulation multilevel model was used to research an aspiring school principal development pilot program. The multilevel model is used to show the national and regional levels…

  17. Insights from triangulation of two purchase choice elicitation methods to predict social decision making in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Jennifer A; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R; Scuffham, Paul A

    2012-03-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) and the Juster scale are accepted methods for the prediction of individual purchase probabilities. Nevertheless, these methods have seldom been applied to a social decision-making context. To gain an overview of social decisions for a decision-making population through data triangulation, these two methods were used to understand purchase probability in a social decision-making context. We report an exploratory social decision-making study of pharmaceutical subsidy in Australia. A DCE and selected Juster scale profiles were presented to current and past members of the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee and its Economic Subcommittee. Across 66 observations derived from 11 respondents for 6 different pharmaceutical profiles, there was a small overall median difference of 0.024 in the predicted probability of public subsidy (p = 0.003), with the Juster scale predicting the higher likelihood. While consistency was observed at the extremes of the probability scale, the funding probability differed over the mid-range of profiles. There was larger variability in the DCE than Juster predictions within each individual respondent, suggesting the DCE is better able to discriminate between profiles. However, large variation was observed between individuals in the Juster scale but not DCE predictions. It is important to use multiple methods to obtain a complete picture of the probability of purchase or public subsidy in a social decision-making context until further research can elaborate on our findings. This exploratory analysis supports the suggestion that the mixed logit model, which was used for the DCE analysis, may fail to adequately account for preference heterogeneity in some contexts.

  18. Modification of the laser triangulation method for measuring the thickness of optical layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramov, V. N.; Adamov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of determining the thickness of thin films by the method of laser triangulation is considered. An expression is derived for the film thickness and the distance between the focused beams on the photo detector. The possibility of applying the chosen method for measuring thickness is in the range [0.1; 1] mm. We could resolve 2 individual light marks for a minimum film thickness of 0.23 mm. We resolved with the help of computer processing of photos with a resolution of 0.10 mm. The obtained results can be used in ophthalmology for express diagnostics during surgical operations on the corneal layer.

  19. The use of triangulation in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; DiCenso, Alba; Blythe, Jennifer; Neville, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. The current article will present the four types of triangulation followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source triangulation in qualitative inquiry.

  20. Delaunay Triangulation as a New Coverage Measurement Method in Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizari, Hassan; Hosseini, Majid; Poston, Timothy; Razak, Shukor Abd; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan

    2011-01-01

    Sensing and communication coverage are among the most important trade-offs in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) design. A minimum bound of sensing coverage is vital in scheduling, target tracking and redeployment phases, as well as providing communication coverage. Some methods measure the coverage as a percentage value, but detailed information has been missing. Two scenarios with equal coverage percentage may not have the same Quality of Coverage (QoC). In this paper, we propose a new coverage measurement method using Delaunay Triangulation (DT). This can provide the value for all coverage measurement tools. Moreover, it categorizes sensors as ‘fat’, ‘healthy’ or ‘thin’ to show the dense, optimal and scattered areas. It can also yield the largest empty area of sensors in the field. Simulation results show that the proposed DT method can achieve accurate coverage information, and provides many tools to compare QoC between different scenarios. PMID:22163792

  1. Discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative evaluation of randomised controlled trial results: achieving clarity through mixed methods triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin-Crine, Sarah; Anthierens, Sibyl; Hood, Kerenza; Yardley, Lucy; Cals, Jochen W L; Francis, Nick A; Coenen, Samuel; van der Velden, Alike W; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Llor, Carl; Butler, Chris C; Verheij, Theo J M; Goossens, Herman; Little, Paul

    2016-05-12

    Mixed methods are commonly used in health services research; however, data are not often integrated to explore complementarity of findings. A triangulation protocol is one approach to integrating such data. A retrospective triangulation protocol was carried out on mixed methods data collected as part of a process evaluation of a trial. The multi-country randomised controlled trial found that a web-based training in communication skills (including use of a patient booklet) and the use of a C-reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care test decreased antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners (GPs) for acute cough. The process evaluation investigated GPs' and patients' experiences of taking part in the trial. Three analysts independently compared findings across four data sets: qualitative data collected view semi-structured interviews with (1) 62 patients and (2) 66 GPs and quantitative data collected via questionnaires with (3) 2886 patients and (4) 346 GPs. Pairwise comparisons were made between data sets and were categorised as agreement, partial agreement, dissonance or silence. Three instances of dissonance occurred in 39 independent findings. GPs and patients reported different views on the use of a CRP test. GPs felt that the test was useful in convincing patients to accept a no-antibiotic decision, but patient data suggested that this was unnecessary if a full explanation was given. Whilst qualitative data indicated all patients were generally satisfied with their consultation, quantitative data indicated highest levels of satisfaction for those receiving a detailed explanation from their GP with a booklet giving advice on self-care. Both qualitative and quantitative data sets indicated higher patient enablement for those in the communication groups who had received a booklet. Use of CRP tests does not appear to engage patients or influence illness perceptions and its effect is more centred on changing clinician behaviour. Communication skills and the patient

  2. Simulating triangulations. Graphs, manifolds and (quantum) spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Triangulations, which can intuitively be described as a tessellation of space into simplicial building blocks, are structures that arise in various different branches of physics: They can be used for describing complicated and curved objects in a discretized way, e.g., in foams, gels or porous media, or for discretizing curved boundaries for fluid simulations or dissipative systems. Interpreting triangulations as (maximal planar) graphs makes it possible to use them in graph theory or statistical physics, e.g., as small-world networks, as networks of spins or in biological physics as actin networks. Since one can find an analogue of the Einstein-Hilbert action on triangulations, they can even be used for formulating theories of quantum gravity. Triangulations have also important applications in mathematics, especially in discrete topology. Despite their wide occurrence in different branches of physics and mathematics, there are still some fundamental open questions about triangulations in general. It is a prior unknown how many triangulations there are for a given set of points or a given manifold, or even whether there are exponentially many triangulations or more, a question that relates to a well-defined behavior of certain quantum geometry models. Another major unknown question is whether elementary steps transforming triangulations into each other, which are used in computer simulations, are ergodic. Using triangulations as model for spacetime, it is not clear whether there is a meaningful continuum limit that can be identified with the usual and well-tested theory of general relativity. Within this thesis some of these fundamental questions about triangulations are answered by the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, which are a probabilistic method for calculating statistical expectation values, or more generally a tool for calculating high-dimensional integrals. Additionally, some details about the Wang-Landau algorithm, which is the primary used

  3. Simulating triangulations. Graphs, manifolds and (quantum) spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Benedikt

    2016-07-01

    Triangulations, which can intuitively be described as a tessellation of space into simplicial building blocks, are structures that arise in various different branches of physics: They can be used for describing complicated and curved objects in a discretized way, e.g., in foams, gels or porous media, or for discretizing curved boundaries for fluid simulations or dissipative systems. Interpreting triangulations as (maximal planar) graphs makes it possible to use them in graph theory or statistical physics, e.g., as small-world networks, as networks of spins or in biological physics as actin networks. Since one can find an analogue of the Einstein-Hilbert action on triangulations, they can even be used for formulating theories of quantum gravity. Triangulations have also important applications in mathematics, especially in discrete topology. Despite their wide occurrence in different branches of physics and mathematics, there are still some fundamental open questions about triangulations in general. It is a prior unknown how many triangulations there are for a given set of points or a given manifold, or even whether there are exponentially many triangulations or more, a question that relates to a well-defined behavior of certain quantum geometry models. Another major unknown question is whether elementary steps transforming triangulations into each other, which are used in computer simulations, are ergodic. Using triangulations as model for spacetime, it is not clear whether there is a meaningful continuum limit that can be identified with the usual and well-tested theory of general relativity. Within this thesis some of these fundamental questions about triangulations are answered by the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, which are a probabilistic method for calculating statistical expectation values, or more generally a tool for calculating high-dimensional integrals. Additionally, some details about the Wang-Landau algorithm, which is the primary used

  4. linear time algorithm for finding the convex ropes between two vertices of a simple polygon without triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Thanh An

    2008-06-01

    The convex rope problem, posed by Peshkin and Sanderson in IEEE J. Robotics Automat, 2 (1986) pp. 53-58, is to find the counterclockwise and clockwise convex ropes starting at the vertex a and ending at the vertex b of a simple polygon, where a is on the boundary of the convex hull of the polygon and b is visible from infinity. In this paper, we present a linear time algorithm for solving this problem without resorting to a linear-time triangulation algorithm and without resorting to a convex hull algorithm for the polygon. The counterclockwise (clockwise, respectively) convex rope consists of two polylines obtained in a basic incremental strategy described in convex hull algorithms for the polylines forming the polygon from a to b. (author)

  5. Spectral triangulation: a 3D method for locating single-walled carbon nanotubes in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Wei; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Vu, Michael; Beckingham, Kathleen M.; Bruce Weisman, R.

    2016-05-01

    Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and imaging of cancer tumours, when linked to selective targeting agents such as antibodies. However, such applications face the challenge of sensitively detecting and localizing the source of SWIR emission from inside tissues. A new method, called spectral triangulation, is presented for three dimensional (3D) localization using sparse optical measurements made at the specimen surface. Structurally unsorted SWCNT samples emitting over a range of wavelengths are excited inside tissue phantoms by an LED matrix. The resulting SWIR emission is sampled at points on the surface by a scanning fibre optic probe leading to an InGaAs spectrometer or a spectrally filtered InGaAs avalanche photodiode detector. Because of water absorption, attenuation of the SWCNT fluorescence in tissues is strongly wavelength-dependent. We therefore gauge the SWCNT-probe distance by analysing differential changes in the measured SWCNT emission spectra. SWCNT fluorescence can be clearly detected through at least 20 mm of tissue phantom, and the 3D locations of embedded SWCNT test samples are found with sub-millimeter accuracy at depths up to 10 mm. Our method can also distinguish and locate two embedded SWCNT sources at distinct positions.Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and

  6. Generation of triangulated random surfaces by means of the Monte Carlo method in the grand canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmushko, V.V.; Migdal, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A model of triangulated random surfaces which is the discrete analogue of the Polyakov string is considered in the work. An algorithm is proposed which enables one to study the model by means of the Monte Carlo method in the grand canonical ensemble. Preliminary results are presented on the evaluation of the critical index γ

  7. Triangulation of Qualitative Methods for the Exploration of Activity Systems in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hackel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Research concerning ergonomic issues in interdisciplinary projects often raises several very specific questions depending on project objectives. To answer these questions the application of research methods should be thoroughly considered, regarding both the expenditure and the options within the scope of the given resources. The project AQUIMO develops an adaptable modelling tool for mechatronical engineering and creates a related qualification program. The task of social scientific research within this project is to identify requirements viewed from the perspective of the subsequent users. This formative evaluation is based on the approach of "developmental work research" as set forth by ENGESTRÖM and, thus, is a form of "action research". This paper discusses the triangulation of several qualitative methods addressing the examination of difficulties in interdisciplinary collaboration in mechatronical engineering. After a description of both background and analytic approach within the project AQUIMO, the methods are briefly described concerning their advantages and critical points. Their application within the research project AQUIMO is explained from an activity theoretical perspective. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803158

  8. A new approach for categorizing pig lying behaviour based on a Delaunay triangulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirahmadi, A; Hensel, O; Edwards, S A; Sturm, B

    2017-01-01

    Machine vision-based monitoring of pig lying behaviour is a fast and non-intrusive approach that could be used to improve animal health and welfare. Four pens with 22 pigs in each were selected at a commercial pig farm and monitored for 15 days using top view cameras. Three thermal categories were selected relative to room setpoint temperature. An image processing technique based on Delaunay triangulation (DT) was utilized. Different lying patterns (close, normal and far) were defined regarding the perimeter of each DT triangle and the percentages of each lying pattern were obtained in each thermal category. A method using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network, to automatically classify group lying behaviour of pigs into three thermal categories, was developed and tested for its feasibility. The DT features (mean value of perimeters, maximum and minimum length of sides of triangles) were calculated as inputs for the MLP classifier. The network was trained, validated and tested and the results revealed that MLP could classify lying features into the three thermal categories with high overall accuracy (95.6%). The technique indicates that a combination of image processing, MLP classification and mathematical modelling can be used as a precise method for quantifying pig lying behaviour in welfare investigations.

  9. Solving the Einstein constraint equations on multi-block triangulations using finite element methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobkin, Oleg; Pazos, Enrique [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Aksoylu, Burak [Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Holst, Michael [Department of Mathematics, University of California at San Diego 9500 Gilman Drive La Jolla, CA 92093-0112 (United States); Tiglio, Manuel [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2009-07-21

    In order to generate initial data for nonlinear relativistic simulations, one needs to solve the Einstein constraints, which can be cast into a coupled set of nonlinear elliptic equations. Here we present an approach for solving these equations on three-dimensional multi-block domains using finite element methods. We illustrate our approach on a simple example of Brill wave initial data, with the constraints reducing to a single linear elliptic equation for the conformal factor psi. We use quadratic Lagrange elements on semi-structured simplicial meshes, obtained by triangulation of multi-block grids. In the case of uniform refinement the scheme is superconvergent at most mesh vertices, due to local symmetry of the finite element basis with respect to local spatial inversions. We show that in the superconvergent case subsequent unstructured mesh refinements do not improve the quality of our initial data. As proof of concept that this approach is feasible for generating multi-block initial data in three dimensions, after constructing the initial data we evolve them in time using a high-order finite-differencing multi-block approach and extract the gravitational waves from the numerical solution.

  10. Solving the Einstein constraint equations on multi-block triangulations using finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobkin, Oleg; Pazos, Enrique; Aksoylu, Burak; Holst, Michael; Tiglio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    In order to generate initial data for nonlinear relativistic simulations, one needs to solve the Einstein constraints, which can be cast into a coupled set of nonlinear elliptic equations. Here we present an approach for solving these equations on three-dimensional multi-block domains using finite element methods. We illustrate our approach on a simple example of Brill wave initial data, with the constraints reducing to a single linear elliptic equation for the conformal factor ψ. We use quadratic Lagrange elements on semi-structured simplicial meshes, obtained by triangulation of multi-block grids. In the case of uniform refinement the scheme is superconvergent at most mesh vertices, due to local symmetry of the finite element basis with respect to local spatial inversions. We show that in the superconvergent case subsequent unstructured mesh refinements do not improve the quality of our initial data. As proof of concept that this approach is feasible for generating multi-block initial data in three dimensions, after constructing the initial data we evolve them in time using a high-order finite-differencing multi-block approach and extract the gravitational waves from the numerical solution.

  11. Acceptability of Parental Financial Incentives and Quasi-Mandatory Interventions for Preschool Vaccinations: Triangulation of Findings from Three Linked Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Adams

    Full Text Available Childhood vaccinations are a core component of public health programmes globally. Recent measles outbreaks in the UK and USA have prompted debates about new ways to increase uptake of childhood vaccinations. Parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory interventions (e.g. restricting entry to educational settings to fully vaccinated children have been successfully used to increase uptake of childhood vaccinations in developing countries, but there is limited evidence of effectiveness in developed countries. Even if confirmed to be effective, widespread implementation of these interventions is dependent on acceptability to parents, professionals and other stakeholders.We conducted a systematic review (n = 11 studies included, a qualitative study with parents (n = 91 and relevant professionals (n = 24, and an on-line survey with embedded discrete choice experiment with parents (n = 521 exploring acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory interventions for preschool vaccinations. Here we use Triangulation Protocol to synthesise findings from the three studies.There was a consistent recognition that incentives and quasi-mandatory interventions could be effective, particularly in more disadvantaged groups. Universal incentives were consistently preferred to targeted ones, but relative preferences for quasi-mandatory interventions and universal incentives varied between studies. The qualitative work revealed a consistent belief that financial incentives were not considered an appropriate motivation for vaccinating children. The costs of financial incentive interventions appeared particularly salient and there were consistent concerns in the qualitative work that incentives did not represent the best use of resources for promoting preschool vaccinations. Various suggestions for improving delivery of the current UK vaccination programme as an alternative to incentives and quasi-mandates were made.Parental financial

  12. Qualitative to quantitative: linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on HIV/AIDS in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ajay; Hutter, Inge

    2008-10-01

    With 3.1 million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in India and 39.5 million people globally, the epidemic has posed academics the challenge of identifying behaviours and their underlying beliefs in the effort to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is frequently used to identify risk behaviours and adherence behaviour in the field of HIV/AIDS. Risk behaviour studies that apply HBM have been largely quantitative and use of qualitative methodology is rare. The marriage of qualitative and quantitative methods has never been easy. The challenge is in triangulating the methods. Method triangulation has been largely used to combine insights from the qualitative and quantitative methods but not to link both the methods. In this paper we suggest a linked trajectory of method triangulation (LTMT). The linked trajectory aims to first gather individual level information through in-depth interviews and then to present the information as vignettes in focus group discussions. We thus validate information obtained from in-depth interviews and gather emic concepts that arise from the interaction. We thus capture both the interpretation and the interaction angles of the qualitative method. Further, using the qualitative information gained, a survey is designed. In doing so, the survey questions are grounded and contextualized. We employed this linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on the risk assessment of HIV/AIDS among migrant and mobile men. Fieldwork was carried out in Goa, India. Data come from two waves of studies, first an explorative qualitative study (2003), second a larger study (2004-2005), including in-depth interviews (25), focus group discussions (21) and a survey (n=1259). By employing the qualitative to quantitative LTMT we can not only contextualize the existing concepts of the HBM, but also validate new concepts and identify new risk groups.

  13. Label triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)

  14. Proposals for the Operationalisation of the Discourse Theory of Laclau and Mouffe Using a Triangulation of Lexicometrical and Interpretative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Glasze

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The discourse theory of Ernesto LACLAU and Chantal MOUFFE brings together three elements: the FOUCAULTian notion of discourse, the (post- MARXist notion of hegemony, and the poststructuralist writings of Jacques DERRIDA and Roland BARTHES. Discourses are regarded as temporary fixations of differential relations. Meaning, i.e. any social "objectivity", is conceptualised as an effect of such a fixation. The discussion on an appropriate operationalisation of such a discourse theory is just beginning. In this paper, it is argued that a triangulation of two linguistic methods is appropriate to reveal temporary fixations: by means of corpus-driven lexicometric procedures as well as by the analysis of narrative patterns, the regularities of the linkage of elements can be analysed (for example, in diachronic comparisons. The example of a geographic research project shows how, in so doing, the historically contingent constitution of an international community and "world region" can be analysed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702143

  15. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  16. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  17. Pre-processing for Triangulation of Probabilistic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.; Eijkhof, F. van den; Gaag, L.C. van der

    2001-01-01

    The currently most efficient algorithm for inference with a probabilistic network builds upon a triangulation of a networks graph. In this paper, we show that pre-processing can help in finding good triangulations for probabilistic networks, that is, triangulations with a minimal maximum

  18. Observation, innovation and triangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetmar, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    on experiences from a pilot project in three different classrooms methodological possibilities and problems are presented and discussed: 1) educational criticism, including the concepts of positions, perspectives and connoisseurship, 2) classroom observations and 3) triangulation as a methodological tool....

  19. Triangulation Made Easy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P

    2009-12-23

    We describe a simple and efficient algorithm for two-view triangulation of 3D points from approximate 2D matches based on minimizing the L2 reprojection error. Our iterative algorithm improves on the one by Kanatani et al. by ensuring that in each iteration the epipolar constraint is satisfied. In the case where the two cameras are pointed in the same direction, the method provably converges to an optimal solution in exactly two iterations. For more general camera poses, two iterations are sufficient to achieve convergence to machine precision, which we exploit to devise a fast, non-iterative method. The resulting algorithm amounts to little more than solving a quadratic equation, and involves a fixed, small number of simple matrixvector operations and no conditional branches. We demonstrate that the method computes solutions that agree to very high precision with those of Hartley and Sturm's original polynomial method, though achieves higher numerical stability and 1-4 orders of magnitude greater speed.

  20. Dynamical triangulated fermionic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Varsted, S.

    1990-12-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of randomly triangulated random surfaces which have fermionic world-sheet scalars θ i associated with each vertex i in addition to the usual bosonic world-sheet scalar χ i μ . The fermionic degrees of freedom force the internal metrics of the string to be less singular than the internal metric of the pure bosonic string. (orig.)

  1. Triangulation in rewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, V. van; Zantema, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a process, dubbed triangulation, turning any rewrite relation into a confluent one. It is more direct than usual completion, in the sense that objects connected by a peak are directly oriented rather than their normal forms. We investigate conditions under which this process preserves

  2. Multiple triangulation and collaborative research using qualitative methods to explore decision making in pre-hospital emergency care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paramedics make important and increasingly complex decisions at scene about patient care. Patient safety implications of influences on decision making in the pre-hospital setting were previously under-researched. Cutting edge perspectives advocate exploring the whole system rather than individual influences on patient safety. Ethnography (the study of people and cultures has been acknowledged as a suitable method for identifying health care issues as they occur within the natural context. In this paper we compare multiple methods used in a multi-site, qualitative study that aimed to identify system influences on decision making. Methods The study was conducted in three NHS Ambulance Trusts in England and involved researchers from each Trust working alongside academic researchers. Exploratory interviews with key informants e.g. managers (n = 16 and document review provided contextual information. Between October 2012 and July 2013 researchers observed 34 paramedic shifts and ten paramedics provided additional accounts via audio-recorded ‘digital diaries’ (155 events. Three staff focus groups (total n = 21 and three service user focus groups (total n = 23 explored a range of experiences and perceptions. Data collection and analysis was carried out by academic and ambulance service researchers as well as service users. Workshops were held at each site to elicit feedback on the findings and facilitate prioritisation of issues identified. Results The use of a multi-method qualitative approach allowed cross-validation of important issues for ambulance service staff and service users. A key factor in successful implementation of the study was establishing good working relationships with academic and ambulance service teams. Enrolling at least one research lead at each site facilitated the recruitment process as well as study progress. Active involvement with the study allowed ambulance service researchers and service

  3. Multiple triangulation and collaborative research using qualitative methods to explore decision making in pre-hospital emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maxine; O'Hara, Rachel; Hirst, Enid; Weyman, Andrew; Turner, Janette; Mason, Suzanne; Quinn, Tom; Shewan, Jane; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2017-01-24

    Paramedics make important and increasingly complex decisions at scene about patient care. Patient safety implications of influences on decision making in the pre-hospital setting were previously under-researched. Cutting edge perspectives advocate exploring the whole system rather than individual influences on patient safety. Ethnography (the study of people and cultures) has been acknowledged as a suitable method for identifying health care issues as they occur within the natural context. In this paper we compare multiple methods used in a multi-site, qualitative study that aimed to identify system influences on decision making. The study was conducted in three NHS Ambulance Trusts in England and involved researchers from each Trust working alongside academic researchers. Exploratory interviews with key informants e.g. managers (n = 16) and document review provided contextual information. Between October 2012 and July 2013 researchers observed 34 paramedic shifts and ten paramedics provided additional accounts via audio-recorded 'digital diaries' (155 events). Three staff focus groups (total n = 21) and three service user focus groups (total n = 23) explored a range of experiences and perceptions. Data collection and analysis was carried out by academic and ambulance service researchers as well as service users. Workshops were held at each site to elicit feedback on the findings and facilitate prioritisation of issues identified. The use of a multi-method qualitative approach allowed cross-validation of important issues for ambulance service staff and service users. A key factor in successful implementation of the study was establishing good working relationships with academic and ambulance service teams. Enrolling at least one research lead at each site facilitated the recruitment process as well as study progress. Active involvement with the study allowed ambulance service researchers and service users to gain a better understanding of the research

  4. Tradeoffs in Design Research: Development Oriented Triangulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen van Turnhout; Sabine Craenmehr; Robert Holwerda; Mark Menijn; Jan-Pieter Zwart; René Bakker

    2013-01-01

    The Development Oriented Triangulation (DOT) framework in this paper can spark and focus the debate about mixed-method approaches in HCI. The framework can be used to classify HCI methods, create mixed-method designs, and to align research activities in multidisciplinary projects. The framework is

  5. Employee-satisfaction: A triangulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Visser

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on employee-satisfaction was conducted in the manufacturing industry. The sample consisted of 543 employees. The methodology could be described as a "triangulation approach" where a combination of quantitative and qualitative measurements were utilised and the results of both types of measurement integrated in the study of the construct. The research confirms existing findings that although the measurement of dimensions such as equitable rewards, working conditions, supportive colleagues, job content, etc. yield results on the level of employee-satisfaction, a single question, namely, "How satisfied are you with your job?" compares favourably with the general index. The findings also suggest the advantage of complimenting the quantitative data with qualitative information. The conclusions confirm the value of a qualitative method in cross-cultural research in an African environment. Opsomming Die navorsing omtrent werknemerstevredenheid is uitgevoer in die vervaardigingsbedryf. Die steekproef het bestaan uit 543 werknemers. Die metode van ondersoek kan beskryf word as 'n "driekantige benadering" (triangulation approach waar daar van kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe meting gebruik gemaak is en die resultate geihtegreer is in die bestudering van die konstruk. Die navorsing bevestig bestaande bevindinge dat die meting van dimensies soos vergelykbare belonings, werkstoestande, ondersteunende kollegas, inhoud van werk, ens. resultate lewer rakende die vlak van werknemerstevredenheid, 'n enkel vraag, naamlik, "Hoe tevrede is jy met jou werk?" gunstig vergelyk met die algemene indeks. Die bevindinge dui ook op die voordele van 'n benadering waar die kwantitatiewe data gekomplimenteer word deur kwalitatiewe inligting soos verkry uit individuele onderhoude. Die gevolgtrekkings bevestig die waarde wat die kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetode inhou vir kruis-kulturele navorsing in 'n Afrika konteks.

  6. Interferometer predictions with triangulated images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Christian; Dullemond, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    the synthetic model images. To get the correct values of these integrals, the model images must have the right size and resolution. Insufficient care in these choices can lead to wrong results. We present a new general-purpose scheme for the computation of visibilities of radiative transfer images. Our method...... requires a model image that is a list of intensities at arbitrarily placed positions on the image-plane. It creates a triangulated grid from these vertices, and assumes that the intensity inside each triangle of the grid is a linear function. The Fourier integral over each triangle is then evaluated...... with an analytic expression and the complex visibility of the entire image is then the sum of all triangles. The result is a robust Fourier transform that does not suffer from aliasing effects due to grid regularities. The method automatically ensures that all structure contained in the model gets reflected...

  7. Using method triangulation to validate a new instrument (CPWQ-com) assessing cancer patients' satisfaction with communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Lundstrøm, Louise Hyldborg; Petersen, Morten Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Patients' perceptions of care including the communication with health care staff is recognized as an important aspect of the quality of cancer care. Using mixed methods, we developed and validated a short instrument assessing this communication.......Patients' perceptions of care including the communication with health care staff is recognized as an important aspect of the quality of cancer care. Using mixed methods, we developed and validated a short instrument assessing this communication....

  8. Gaussian vector fields on triangulated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, John H

    2016-01-01

    proven to be very useful to resolve the complex interplay between in-plane ordering of membranes and membrane conformations. In the present work we have developed a procedure for realistic representations of Gaussian models with in-plane vector degrees of freedoms on a triangulated surface. The method...

  9. Triangulation applied to Jan H. van Bemmel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasman, A.; Bergemann, D.; McCray, A. T.; Talmon, J. L.; Zvárová, J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the person of Jan H. van Bemmel from different points of view. METHOD: Triangulation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Jan H. van Bemmel successfully contributed to research and education in medical informatics. He inspired a lot of people in The Netherlands and internationally

  10. Onomatopoeia characters extraction from comic images using constrained Delaunay triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangping; Shoji, Kenji; Mori, Hiroshi; Toyama, Fubito

    2014-02-01

    A method for extracting onomatopoeia characters from comic images was developed based on stroke width feature of characters, since they nearly have a constant stroke width in a number of cases. An image was segmented with a constrained Delaunay triangulation. Connected component grouping was performed based on the triangles generated by the constrained Delaunay triangulation. Stroke width calculation of the connected components was conducted based on the altitude of the triangles generated with the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. The ising model on the dynamical triangulated random surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleinov, I.D.; Migelal, A.A.; Zmushkow, U.V.

    1990-01-01

    The critical properties of Ising model on the dynamical triangulated random surface embedded in D-dimensional Euclidean space are investigated. The strong coupling expansion method is used. The transition to thermodynamical limit is performed by means of continuous fractions

  12. Aerial Triangulation Close-range Images with Dual Quaternion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion is presented. Using dual quaternion to represent the spiral screw motion of the beam in the space, the real part of dual quaternion represents the angular elements of all the beams in the close-range area networks, the real part and the dual part of dual quaternion represents the line elements corporately. Finally, an aerial triangulation adjustment model based on dual quaternion is established, and the elements of interior orientation and exterior orientation and the object coordinates of the ground points are calculated. Real images and large attitude angle simulated images are selected to run the experiments of aerial triangulation. The experimental results show that the new method for the aerial triangulation of close-range images based on dual quaternion can obtain higher accuracy.

  13. Triangulating and guarding realistic polygons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aloupis, G.; Bose, P.; Dujmovic, V.; Gray, C.M.; Langerman, S.; Speckmann, B.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new model of realistic input: k-guardable objects. An object is k-guardable if its boundary can be seen by k guards in the interior of the object. In this abstract, we describe a simple algorithm for triangulating k-guardable polygons. Our algorithm, which is easily implementable, takes

  14. Triangulating and guarding realistic polygons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aloupis, G.; Bose, P.; Dujmovic, V.; Gray, C.M.; Langerman, S.; Speckmann, B.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new model of realistic input: k-guardable objects. An object is k-guardable if its boundary can be seen by k guards. We show that k-guardable polygons generalize two previously identified classes of realistic input. Following this, we give two simple algorithms for triangulating

  15. Triangulation in Friedmann's cosmological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundes, H.V.

    1977-01-01

    In Friedmann's model, physical 3-space has a curvature K = constant. In the cases of greatest interest (K different from 0) triangulation for the measurement of great distances should be based on non-Euclidean geometries: Riemannian (or doubly elliptic) geometry for a closed universe and Bolyai-Lobatchevsky's (or hiperbolic) geometry for an open universe [pt

  16. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  17. Methodological triangulation in work life research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    Based on examples from two research projects on preschool teachers' work, the paper will discuss potentials and challenges in methodological triangulation in work life research. Analysis of ethnographic and phenomenological inspired observations of everyday life in day care centers formed the basis...... for individual interviews and informal talks with employees. The interviews and conversations were based on a critical hermeneutic approach. The analysis of observations and interviews constituted a knowledge base as the project went in to the last phase: action research workshops. In the workshops findings from...

  18. Stereo-tomography in triangulated models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Shao, Wei-Dong; Xing, Feng-yuan; Xiong, Kai

    2018-04-01

    Stereo-tomography is a distinctive tomographic method. It is capable of estimating the scatterer position, the local dip of scatterer and the background velocity simultaneously. Building a geologically consistent velocity model is always appealing for applied and earthquake seismologists. Differing from the previous work to incorporate various regularization techniques into the cost function of stereo-tomography, we think extending stereo-tomography to the triangulated model will be the most straightforward way to achieve this goal. In this paper, we provided all the Fréchet derivatives of stereo-tomographic data components with respect to model components for slowness-squared triangulated model (or sloth model) in 2D Cartesian coordinate based on the ray perturbation theory for interfaces. A sloth model representation means a sparser model representation when compared with conventional B-spline model representation. A sparser model representation leads to a smaller scale of stereo-tomographic (Fréchet) matrix, a higher-accuracy solution when solving linear equations, a faster convergence rate and a lower requirement for quantity of data space. Moreover, a quantitative representation of interface strengthens the relationships among different model components, which makes the cross regularizations among these model components, such as node coordinates, scatterer coordinates and scattering angles, etc., more straightforward and easier to be implemented. The sensitivity analysis, the model resolution matrix analysis and a series of synthetic data examples demonstrate the correctness of the Fréchet derivatives, the applicability of the regularization terms and the robustness of the stereo-tomography in triangulated model. It provides a solid theoretical foundation for the real applications in the future.

  19. Triangulation-based 3D surveying borescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwer, S.; Steglich, P.; Villringer, C.; Bauer, J.; Burger, M.; Franz, M.; Grieshober, K.; Wirth, F.; Blondeau, J.; Rautenberg, J.; Mouti, S.; Schrader, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a measurement concept based on triangulation was developed for borescopic 3D-surveying of surface defects. The integration of such measurement system into a borescope environment requires excellent space utilization. The triangulation angle, the projected pattern, the numerical apertures of the optical system, and the viewing angle were calculated using partial coherence imaging and geometric optical raytracing methods. Additionally, optical aberrations and defocus were considered by the integration of Zernike polynomial coefficients. The measurement system is able to measure objects with a size of 50 μm in all dimensions with an accuracy of +/- 5 μm. To manage the issue of a low depth of field while using an optical high resolution system, a wavelength dependent aperture was integrated. Thereby, we are able to control depth of field and resolution of the optical system and can use the borescope in measurement mode with high resolution and low depth of field or in inspection mode with low resolution and higher depth of field. First measurements of a demonstrator system are in good agreement with our simulations.

  20. Hamiltonian Cycles on Random Eulerian Triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guitter, E.; Kristjansen, C.; Nielsen, Jakob Langgaard

    1998-01-01

    . Considering the case n -> 0, this implies that the system of random Eulerian triangulations equipped with Hamiltonian cycles describes a c=-1 matter field coupled to 2D quantum gravity as opposed to the system of usual random triangulations equipped with Hamiltonian cycles which has c=-2. Hence, in this case...

  1. Finding protein sites using machine learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Leonardo Bobadilla Molina

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of protein three-dimensional (3D structures determined by x-ray and NMR technologies as well as structures predicted by computational methods results in the need for automated methods to provide inital annotations. We have developed a new method for recognizing sites in three-dimensional protein structures. Our method is based on a previosly reported algorithm for creating descriptions of protein microenviroments using physical and chemical properties at multiple levels of detail. The recognition method takes three inputs: 1. A set of control nonsites that share some structural or functional role. 2. A set of control nonsites that lack this role. 3. A single query site. A support vector machine classifier is built using feature vectors where each component represents a property in a given volume. Validation against an independent test set shows that this recognition approach has high sensitivity and specificity. We also describe the results of scanning four calcium binding proteins (with the calcium removed using a three dimensional grid of probe points at 1.25 angstrom spacing. The system finds the sites in the proteins giving points at or near the blinding sites. Our results show that property based descriptions along with support vector machines can be used for recognizing protein sites in unannotated structures.

  2. Path integral measure and triangulation independence in discrete gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2012-02-01

    A path integral measure for gravity should also preserve the fundamental symmetry of general relativity, which is diffeomorphism symmetry. In previous work, we argued that a successful implementation of this symmetry into discrete quantum gravity models would imply discretization independence. We therefore consider the requirement of triangulation independence for the measure in (linearized) Regge calculus, which is a discrete model for quantum gravity, appearing in the semi-classical limit of spin foam models. To this end we develop a technique to evaluate the linearized Regge action associated to Pachner moves in 3D and 4D and show that it has a simple, factorized structure. We succeed in finding a local measure for 3D (linearized) Regge calculus that leads to triangulation independence. This measure factor coincides with the asymptotics of the Ponzano Regge Model, a 3D spin foam model for gravity. We furthermore discuss to which extent one can find a triangulation independent measure for 4D Regge calculus and how such a measure would be related to a quantum model for 4D flat space. To this end, we also determine the dependence of classical Regge calculus on the choice of triangulation in 3D and 4D.

  3. Internet information triangulation: Design theory and prototype evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; Brinkhuis, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Many discussions exist regarding the credibility of information on the Internet. Similar discussions happen on the interpretation of social scientific research data, for which information triangulation has been proposed as a useful method. In this article, we explore a design theory—consisting of a

  4. Triangulating' AMPATH: Demonstration of a multi-perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For strategic planning, the Kenyan HIV/AIDS programme AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) sought to evaluate its performance in 2006. The method used for this evaluation was termed 'triangulation,' because it used information from three different sources – patients, communities, and programme ...

  5. Alternative Polyadenylation: Methods, Findings, and Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alternative polyadenylation (APA, a phenomenon that RNA molecules with different 3′ ends originate from distinct polyadenylation sites of a single gene, is emerging as a mechanism widely used to regulate gene expression. In the present review, we first summarized various methods prevalently adopted in APA study, mainly focused on the next-generation sequencing (NGS-based techniques specially designed for APA identification, the related bioinformatics methods, and the strategies for APA study in single cells. Then we summarized the main findings and advances so far based on these methods, including the preferences of alternative polyA (pA site, the biological processes involved, and the corresponding consequences. We especially categorized the APA changes discovered so far and discussed their potential functions under given conditions, along with the possible underlying molecular mechanisms. With more in-depth studies on extensive samples, more signatures and functions of APA will be revealed, and its diverse roles will gradually heave in sight. Keywords: Alternative polyadenylation, Next-generation sequencing, 3′UTR, Alternative splicing, Gene regulation

  6. A REST Service for Triangulation of Point Sets Using Oriented Matroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Valero Medina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of a prototype REST service for triangulation of point sets collected by mobile GPS receivers. The first objective of this paper is to test functionalities of an application, which exploits mobile devices’ capabilities to get data associated with their spatial location. A triangulation of a set of points provides a mechanism through which it is possible to produce an accurate representation of spatial data. Such triangulation may be used for representing surfaces by Triangulated Irregular Networks (TINs, and for decomposing complex two-dimensional spatial objects into simpler geometries. The second objective of this paper is to promote the use of oriented matroids for finding alternative solutions to spatial data processing and analysis tasks. This study focused on the particular case of the calculation of triangulations based on oriented matroids. The prototype described in this paper used a wrapper to integrate and expose several tools previously implemented in C++.

  7. Measuring and Controlling Fairness of Triangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Gü nther, Felix; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    of fairness must take new aspects into account. We use concepts from discrete differential geometry (star-shaped Gauss images) to express fairness, and we also demonstrate how fairness can be incorporated into interactive geometric design of triangulated

  8. From causal dynamical triangulations to astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Jakub

    2017-09-01

    This letter discusses phenomenological aspects of dimensional reduction predicted by the Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) approach to quantum gravity. The deformed form of the dispersion relation for the fields defined on the CDT space-time is reconstructed. Using the Fermi satellite observations of the GRB 090510 source we find that the energy scale of the dimensional reduction is E* > 0.7 \\sqrt{4-d\\text{UV}} \\cdot 1010 \\text{GeV} at (95% CL), where d\\text{UV} is the value of the spectral dimension in the UV limit. By applying the deformed dispersion relation to the cosmological perturbations it is shown that, for a scenario when the primordial perturbations are formed in the UV region, the scalar power spectrum PS \\propto kn_S-1 , where n_S-1≈ \\frac{3 r (d\\text{UV}-2)}{(d\\text{UV}-1)r-48} . Here, r is the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We find that within the considered model, the predicted from CDT deviation from the scale invariance (n_S=1) is in contradiction with the up to date Planck and BICEP2.

  9. Fast randomized point location without preprocessing in two- and three-dimensional Delaunay triangulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, E.P.; Saias, I.; Zhu, B.

    1996-05-01

    This paper studies the point location problem in Delaunay triangulations without preprocessing and additional storage. The proposed procedure finds the query point simply by walking through the triangulation, after selecting a good starting point by random sampling. The analysis generalizes and extends a recent result of d = 2 dimensions by proving this procedure to take expected time close to O(n{sup 1/(d+1)}) for point location in Delaunay triangulations of n random points in d = 3 dimensions. Empirical results in both two and three dimensions show that this procedure is efficient in practice.

  10. Methods and findings of the SNR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeberlein, K.; Schaefer, H.; Spindler, H.

    1983-01-01

    A featfinding committee of the German Federal Parliament in July 1980 recommended to perform a ''risk-oriented study'' of the SNR-300, the German 300 MW fast breeder prototype reactor being under construction in Kalkar. The main aim of this study was to allow a comparative safety evaluation between the SNR-300 and a modern PWR, thus to prepare a basis for a political decision on the SNR-300. Methods and main results of the study are presented in this paper. In the first step of the risk analysis six groups of accidents have been identified which may initiate core destruction. These groups comprise all conceivable courses, potentially leading to core destruction. By reliability analyses, expected frequency of each group has been calculated. In the accident analysis potential failure modes of the reactor tank have been investigated. Core destruction may be accompanied by the release of significant amounts of mechanical energy. The primary coolant system of SNR-300 is designed to withstand mechanical energy releases up to 370 MJ. Design features make it possible to cool the molten core inside the reactor tank. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.

  12. A Sweepline Algorithm for Generalized Delaunay Triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven

    We give a deterministic O(n log n) sweepline algorithm to construct the generalized Voronoi diagram for n points in the plane or rather its dual the generalized Delaunay triangulation. The algorithm uses no transformations and it is developed solely from the sweepline paradigm together...

  13. Recent development of micro-triangulation for magnet fiducialisation

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachakis, Vasileios; Mainaud Durand, Helene; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The micro-triangulation method is proposed as an alternative for magnet fiducialisation. The main objective is to measure horizontal and vertical angles to fiducial points and stretched wires, utilising theodolites equipped with cameras. This study aims to develop various methods, algorithms and software tools to enable the data acquisition and processing. In this paper, we present the first test measurement as an attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of the method and to evaluate the accuracy. The preliminary results are very promising, with accuracy always better than 20 μm for the wire position, and of about40 μm/m for the wire orientation, compared with a coordinate measuring machine.

  14. Optimizing 3D Triangulations to Recapture Sharp Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this report, a technique for optimizing 3D triangulations is proposed. The method seeks to minimize an energy defined as a sum of energy terms for each edge in a triangle mesh. The main contribution is a novel per edge energy which strikes a balance between penalizing dihedral angle yet allowing...... sharp edges. The energy is minimized using edge swapping, and this can be done either in a greedy fashion or using simulated annealing. The latter is more costly, but effectively avoids local minima. The method has been used on a number of models. Particularly good results have been obtained on digital...

  15. Dynamically triangulated surfaces - some analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, I.K.

    1987-01-01

    We give a brief review of the analytical results concerning the model of dynamically triangulated surfaces. We will discuss the possible types of critical behaviour (depending on the dimension D of the embedding space) and the exact solutions obtained for D=0 and D=-2. The latter are important as a check of the Monte Carlo simulations applyed to study the model in more physical dimensions. They give also some general insight of its critical properties

  16. A mixed methods investigation of dropout among talented young dancers: findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Imogen J; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M; Redding, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand reasons for dropout from a dance-talent program in the UK, using a mixed methods design. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten dropout students to explore the influencing factors in their decision to leave the program. In order to triangulate these findings, reasons for dropout were then examined from descriptive records of 147 young dancers who had withdrawn from the talent program over a four-year period. Overall, the most frequently cited reasons for dropping out were conflicting demands, change in aspirations, course content, difficulty making friends, and lost passion. Injury, financial factors, low perceived competence, and teacher behavior emerged as minor reasons. Intervention strategies that focus on changes in course content may be the easiest to implement and most effective means to enhance student retention.

  17. Automated Photogrammetric Image Matching with Sift Algorithm and Delaunay Triangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Mioc, Darka

    2016-01-01

    An algorithm for image matching of multi-sensor and multi-temporal satellite images is developed. The method is based on the SIFT feature detector proposed by Lowe in (Lowe, 1999). First, SIFT feature points are detected independently in two images (reference and sensed image). The features detec...... of each feature set for each image are computed. The isomorphism of the Delaunay triangulations is determined to guarantee the quality of the image matching. The algorithm is implemented in Matlab and tested on World-View 2, SPOT6 and TerraSAR-X image patches....

  18. Marginal elasticity of periodic triangulated origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bryan; Sussman, Dan; Lubensky, Tom; Santangelo, Chris

    Origami, the classical art of folding paper, has inspired much recent work on assembling complex 3D structures from planar sheets. Origami, and more generally hinged structures with rigid panels, where all faces are triangles have special properties due to having a bulk balance of mechanical degrees of freedom and constraints. We study two families of periodic triangulated origami structures, one based on the Miura ori and one based on a kagome-like pattern due to Ron Resch. We point out the consequences of the balance of degrees of freedom and constraints for these ''metamaterial plates'' and show how the elasticity can be tuned by changing the unit cell geometry.

  19. Job resumption status, hindering factors, and interpersonal relationship within post-heart transplant 1 to 4 years as perceived by heart transplant recipients in Taiwan: a between-method triangulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, P H; Wang, S S; Chang, C L; Shih, F J

    2010-12-01

    This project examined heart transplant (HT) recipients' perspectives of (a) the changes in their working competence (WC), status for job resumption and related factors at 1- to 2-year, 2- to 3-year, and 3- to 4-year stages; and (b) impacts of HT on interpersonal relationships (IPR). We used a between-method triangulation (including qualitative and quantitative data) design. Quantitative data were collected using the Vertical Visual Analogue Scale and Taiwan's version of the World Health Organization Health-Related Quality-of-Life (HRQoL) questionnaire. Six qualitative semistructured questions were further applied to explore social and environmental domains. The Fifty subjects (86% males and 14% females) had an age range from 20 to 70 years old (mean, 47.68 years). Their post-HT time ranged from 1 to 4.1 years with 42%, 42%, and 16% at 1- to 2-, 2- to 3-, or 3- to 4-years post-HT, respectively. Within 6 months, 10% of administration or restaurant staff, and police resumed their jobs. At 6 to 12 months, 8% of administration, quality control, and design and planning staff resumed their jobs. At 12 months, 14% of educators, insurance personnel, managers, informatics engineers, and ironworkers resumed their jobs. Hindering factors to returning to work included (a) physical (ie, lack of energy, second heart attack, recurrence of rejection, physical discomforts of dizziness, memory lapses/lack of concentration or bone pain from osteoporosis); (b) psychological (ie, lack of confidence, worries about discrimination, being different, maladaptation); and (c) environmental (inadequate job opportunities due to poor socioeconomic conditions). Additionally, 34% reported worse IPR after HT due to diet limitations, slower pacing, less contacts with friends, and changes in personality. Reflections on both the meaning and value of life caused 10% to report better IPR with a better personality and positive mindset. By the end of the first postoperative year, the mean score of HRQoL in

  20. Grey signal processing and data reconstruction in the non-diffracting beam triangulation measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao; Wang, Zhongyu; Fu, Jihua

    2008-12-01

    The non-diffracting beam triangulation measurement system possesses the advantages of longer measurement range, higher theoretical measurement accuracy and higher resolution over the traditional laser triangulation measurement system. Unfortunately the measurement accuracy of the system is greatly degraded due to the speckle noise, the CCD photoelectric noise and the background light noise in practical applications. Hence, some effective signal processing methods must be applied to improve the measurement accuracy. In this paper a novel effective method for removing the noises in the non-diffracting beam triangulation measurement system is proposed. In the method the grey system theory is used to process and reconstruct the measurement signal. Through implementing the grey dynamic filtering based on the dynamic GM(1,1), the noises can be effectively removed from the primary measurement data and the measurement accuracy of the system can be improved as a result.

  1. The finite body triangulation: algorithms, subgraphs, homogeneity estimation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cantwell G; Levine, Jonathan S

    2016-09-01

    The concept of a finite body Dirichlet tessellation has been extended to that of a finite body Delaunay 'triangulation' to provide a more meaningful description of the spatial distribution of nonspherical secondary phase bodies in 2- and 3-dimensional images. A finite body triangulation (FBT) consists of a network of minimum edge-to-edge distances between adjacent objects in a microstructure. From this is also obtained the characteristic object chords formed by the intersection of the object boundary with the finite body tessellation. These two sets of distances form the basis of a parsimonious homogeneity estimation. The characteristics of the spatial distribution are then evaluated with respect to the distances between objects and the distances within them. Quantitative analysis shows that more physically representative distributions can be obtained by selecting subgraphs, such as the relative neighbourhood graph and the minimum spanning tree, from the finite body tessellation. To demonstrate their potential, we apply these methods to 3-dimensional X-ray computed tomographic images of foamed cement and their 2-dimensional cross sections. The Python computer code used to estimate the FBT is made available. Other applications for the algorithm - such as porous media transport and crack-tip propagation - are also discussed. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Weierstrass method for quaternionic polynomial root-finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, M. Irene; Miranda, Fernando; Severino, Ricardo; Soares, M. Joana

    2018-01-01

    Quaternions, introduced by Hamilton in 1843 as a generalization of complex numbers, have found, in more recent years, a wealth of applications in a number of different areas which motivated the design of efficient methods for numerically approximating the zeros of quaternionic polynomials. In fact, one can find in the literature recent contributions to this subject based on the use of complex techniques, but numerical methods relying on quaternion arithmetic remain scarce. In this paper we propose a Weierstrass-like method for finding simultaneously {\\sl all} the zeros of unilateral quaternionic polynomials. The convergence analysis and several numerical examples illustrating the performance of the method are also presented.

  3. Visualization research of 3D radiation field based on Delaunay triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Changji; Chen Yuqing; Li Shiting; Zhu Bo

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the three dimensional partition, the triangulation of discrete date sets is improved by the method of point-by-point insertion. The discrete data for the radiation field by theoretical calculation or actual measurement is restructured, and the continuous distribution of the radiation field data is obtained. Finally, the 3D virtual scene of the nuclear facilities is built with the VR simulation techniques, and the visualization of the 3D radiation field is also achieved by the visualization mapping techniques. It is shown that the method combined VR and Delaunay triangulation could greatly improve the quality and efficiency of 3D radiation field visualization. (authors)

  4. Exploring Torus Universes in Causal Dynamical Triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budd, Timothy George; Loll, R.

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new observables in nonperturbative quantum gravity, we consider Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) in 2+1 dimensions with the spatial topology of a torus. This system is of particular interest, because one can study not only the global scale factor, but also global...... shape variables in the presence of arbitrary quantum fluctuations of the geometry. Our initial investigation focusses on the dynamics of the scale factor and uncovers a qualitatively new behaviour, which leads us to investigate a novel type of boundary conditions for the path integral. Comparing large....... Apart from setting the stage for the analysis of shape dynamics on the torus, the new set-up highlights the role of nontrivial boundaries and topology....

  5. Measuring and Controlling Fairness of Triangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-09-30

    The fairness of meshes that represent geometric shapes is a topic that has been studied extensively and thoroughly. However, the focus in such considerations often is not on the mesh itself, but rather on the smooth surface approximated by it, and fairness essentially expresses a mesh’s suitability for purposes such as visualization or simulation. This paper focusses on meshes in the architectural context, where vertices, edges, and faces of meshes are often highly visible, and any notion of fairness must take new aspects into account. We use concepts from discrete differential geometry (star-shaped Gauss images) to express fairness, and we also demonstrate how fairness can be incorporated into interactive geometric design of triangulated freeform skins.

  6. A new method for finding vacua in string phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, James [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris and APC, Universite de Paris 7, 98 bis, Bd. Arago 75014, Paris (France); He, Yang-Hui [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)]|[Merton College, Oxford, OX1 4JD and Mathematical Institute, Oxford University, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Lukas, Andre [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    One of the central problems of string-phenomenology is to find stable vacua in the four dimensional effective theories which result from compactification. We present an algorithmic method to find all of the vacua of any given string-phenomenological system in a huge class. In particular, this paper reviews and then extends hep-th/0606122 to include various nonperturbative effects. These include gaugino condensation and instantonic contributions to the superpotential. (authors)

  7. Centroid finding method for position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Boie, R.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new centroid finding method for all detectors where the signal charge is collected or induced on strips of wires, or on subdivided resistive electrodes, is presented. The centroid of charge is determined by convolution of the sequentially switched outputs from these subdivisions or from the strips with a linear centroid finding filter. The position line width is inversely proportional to N/sup 3/2/, where N is the number of subdivisions

  8. Centroid finding method for position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Boie, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new centroid finding method for all detectors where the signal charge is collected or induced on strips or wires, or on subdivided resistive electrodes, is presented. The centroid of charge is determined by convolution of the sequentially switched outputs from these subdivisions or from the strips with a linear centroid finding filter. The position line width is inversely proportional to N 3 sup(/) 2 , where N is the number of subdivisions. (orig.)

  9. The relationships between stressful life events during childhood and differentiation of self and intergenerational triangulation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationships between stressful life events in childhood and differentiation of self and intergenerational triangulation in adulthood. The sample included 217 students (173 females and 44 males) from a college in northern Israel. Participants completed the Hebrew versions of Life Events Checklist (LEC), Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised (DSI-R) and intergenerational triangulation (INTRI). The main findings were that levels of stressful life events during childhood and adolescence among both genders were positively correlated with the levels of fusion with others and intergenerational triangulation. The levels of positive life events were negatively related to levels of emotional reactivity, emotional cut-off and intergenerational triangulation. Levels of stressful life events in females were positively correlated with emotional reactivity. Intergenerational triangulation was correlated with emotional reactivity, emotional cut-off, fusion with others and I-position. Findings suggest that families that experience higher levels of stressful life events may be at risk for higher levels of intergenerational triangulation and lower levels of differentiation of self. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. I/O-Efficient Construction of Constrained Delaunay Triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Arge, Lars; Yi, Ke

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we designed and implemented an I/O-efficient algorithm for constructing constrained Delaunay triangulations. If the number of constraining segments is smaller than the memory size, our algorithm runs in expected O( N B logM/B NB ) I/Os for triangulating N points in the plane, where...

  11. Degree-regular triangulations of torus and Klein bottle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 3 ... A triangulation of a connected closed surface is called degree-regular if each of its vertices have the same degree. ... In [5], Datta and Nilakantan have classified all the degree-regular triangulations of closed surfaces on at most 11 vertices.

  12. On-Line Metrology with Conoscopic Holography: Beyond Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available On-line non-contact surface inspection with high precision is still an open problem. Laser triangulation techniques are the most common solution for this kind of systems, but there exist fundamental limitations to their applicability when high precisions, long standoffs or large apertures are needed, and when there are difficult operating conditions. Other methods are, in general, not applicable in hostile environments or inadequate for on-line measurement. In this paper we review the latest research in Conoscopic Holography, an interferometric technique that has been applied successfully in this kind of applications, ranging from submicrometric roughness measurements, to long standoff sensors for surface defect detection in steel at high temperatures.

  13. Large N Limits in Tensor Models: Towards More Universality Classes of Colored Triangulations in Dimension d≥2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzom, Valentin

    2016-07-01

    We review an approach which aims at studying discrete (pseudo-)manifolds in dimension d≥ 2 and called random tensor models. More specifically, we insist on generalizing the two-dimensional notion of p-angulations to higher dimensions. To do so, we consider families of triangulations built out of simplices with colored faces. Those simplices can be glued to form new building blocks, called bubbles which are pseudo-manifolds with boundaries. Bubbles can in turn be glued together to form triangulations. The main challenge is to classify the triangulations built from a given set of bubbles with respect to their numbers of bubbles and simplices of codimension two. While the colored triangulations which maximize the number of simplices of codimension two at fixed number of simplices are series-parallel objects called melonic triangulations, this is not always true anymore when restricting attention to colored triangulations built from specific bubbles. This opens up the possibility of new universality classes of colored triangulations. We present three existing strategies to find those universality classes. The first two strategies consist in building new bubbles from old ones for which the problem can be solved. The third strategy is a bijection between those colored triangulations and stuffed, edge-colored maps, which are some sort of hypermaps whose hyperedges are replaced with edge-colored maps. We then show that the present approach can lead to enumeration results and identification of universality classes, by working out the example of quartic tensor models. They feature a tree-like phase, a planar phase similar to two-dimensional quantum gravity and a phase transition between them which is interpreted as a proliferation of baby universes. While this work is written in the context of random tensors, it is almost exclusively of combinatorial nature and we hope it is accessible to interested readers who are not familiar with random matrices, tensors and quantum

  14. METHODS OF FINDING BUSINESS PARTNERS OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Takahashi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses new methods of finding business partners for joint development in Japan. These methods create opportunities for a manufacturing firm, which has excellent technology, to find an appropriate business partner. We call these methods the Osaka model. In the model, a company finds a business partner among plenty of companies, while they establish mutual trust and solve higher levels of technological difficulties. The model shares strong points of both spot transaction and conventional co-development. In other words, this model takes advantages of both Western style and Japanese style inter-business relationship. This paper also argues the environment for encouraging the model. The area should be a place where you can obtain many sources of information. Increasing meetings or facilities on specific themes is an effective method to encourage the model in the area. In addition, a database with which each technological seed has been already arranged with their technological needs is beneficial for matching them. If such a database becomes a shared knowledge in the area, the model would be promoted.

  15. Strongly minimal triangulations of (S × S )#3 and (S S

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011) 986–995). We show that there are exactly 12 such triangulations up to isomorphism, 10 of which are orientable. Keywords. Stacked sphere; tight neighbourly triangulation; minimal triangulation. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification.

  16. Efficient triangulation of Poisson-disk sampled point sets

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2014-05-06

    In this paper, we present a simple yet efficient algorithm for triangulating a 2D input domain containing a Poisson-disk sampled point set. The proposed algorithm combines a regular grid and a discrete clustering approach to speedup the triangulation. Moreover, our triangulation algorithm is flexible and performs well on more general point sets such as adaptive, non-maximal Poisson-disk sets. The experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is robust for a wide range of input domains and achieves significant performance improvement compared to the current state-of-the-art approaches. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Looseness and Independence Number of Triangulations on Closed Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto Atsuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The looseness of a triangulation G on a closed surface F2, denoted by ξ (G, is defined as the minimum number k such that for any surjection c : V (G → {1, 2, . . . , k + 3}, there is a face uvw of G with c(u, c(v and c(w all distinct. We shall bound ξ (G for triangulations G on closed surfaces by the independence number of G denoted by α(G. In particular, for a triangulation G on the sphere, we have

  18. TRIANGULATION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Richardson, J. D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Burlaga, L. F. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Determining the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (LISMF) is important for understanding the heliosphere’s global structure, the properties of the interstellar medium, and the propagation of cosmic rays in the local galactic medium. Measurements of interstellar neutral atoms by Ulysses for He and by SOHO/SWAN for H provided some of the first observational insights into the LISMF direction. Because secondary neutral H is partially deflected by the interstellar flow in the outer heliosheath and this deflection is influenced by the LISMF, the relative deflection of H versus He provides a plane—the so-called B–V plane in which the LISMF direction should lie. Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) subsequently discovered a ribbon, the center of which is conjectured to be the LISMF direction. The most recent He velocity measurements from IBEX and those from Ulysses yield a B–V plane with uncertainty limits that contain the centers of the IBEX ribbon at 0.7–2.7 keV. The possibility that Voyager 1 has moved into the outer heliosheath now suggests that Voyager 1's direct observations provide another independent determination of the LISMF. We show that LISMF direction measured by Voyager 1 is >40° off from the IBEX ribbon center and the B–V plane. Taking into account the temporal gradient of the field direction measured by Voyager 1, we extrapolate to a field direction that passes directly through the IBEX ribbon center (0.7–2.7 keV) and the B–V plane, allowing us to triangulate the LISMF direction and estimate the gradient scale size of the magnetic field.

  19. Barriers to energy efficiency in shipping: A triangulated approach to investigate the principal agent problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmatulla, Nishatabbas; Smith, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency is a key policy strategy to meet some of the challenges being faced today and to plan for a sustainable future. Numerous empirical studies in various sectors suggest that there are cost-effective measures that are available but not always implemented due to existence of barriers to energy efficiency. Several cost-effective energy efficient options (technologies for new and existing ships and operations) have also been identified for improving energy efficiency of ships. This paper is one of the first to empirically investigate barriers to energy efficiency in the shipping industry using a novel framework and multidisciplinary methods to gauge implementation of cost-effective measures, perception on barriers and observations of barriers. It draws on findings of a survey conducted of shipping companies, content analysis of shipping contracts and analysis of energy efficiency data. Initial results from these methods suggest the existence of the principal agent problem and other market failures and barriers that have also been suggested in other sectors and industries. Given this finding, policies to improve implementation of energy efficiency in shipping need to be carefully considered to improve their efficacy and avoid unintended consequences. -- Highlights: •We provide the first analysis of the principal agent problem in shipping. •We develop a framework that incorporates methodological triangulation. •Our results show the extent to which this barrier is observed and perceived. •The presence of the barrier has implications on the policy most suited to shipping

  20. Reconstructing Surface Triangulations by Their Intersection Matrices 26 September 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arocha Jorge L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The intersection matrix of a simplicial complex has entries equal to the rank of the intersecction of its facets. We prove that this matrix is enough to define up to isomorphism a triangulation of a surface.

  1. Branches of Triangulated Origami Near the Unfolded State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gin-ge Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Origami structures are characterized by a network of folds and vertices joining unbendable plates. For applications to mechanical design and self-folding structures, it is essential to understand the interplay between the set of folds in the unfolded origami and the possible 3D folded configurations. When deforming a structure that has been folded, one can often linearize the geometric constraints, but the degeneracy of the unfolded state makes a linear approach impossible there. We derive a theory for the second-order infinitesimal rigidity of an initially unfolded triangulated origami structure and use it to study the set of nearly unfolded configurations of origami with four boundary vertices. We find that locally, this set consists of a number of distinct “branches” which intersect at the unfolded state, and that the number of these branches is exponential in the number of vertices. We find numerical and analytical evidence that suggests that the branches are characterized by choosing each internal vertex to either “pop up” or “pop down.” The large number of pathways along which one can fold an initially unfolded origami structure strongly indicates that a generic structure is likely to become trapped in a “misfolded” state. Thus, new techniques for creating self-folding origami are likely necessary; controlling the popping state of the vertices may be one possibility.

  2. Branches of Triangulated Origami Near the Unfolded State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Santangelo, Christian D.

    2018-01-01

    Origami structures are characterized by a network of folds and vertices joining unbendable plates. For applications to mechanical design and self-folding structures, it is essential to understand the interplay between the set of folds in the unfolded origami and the possible 3D folded configurations. When deforming a structure that has been folded, one can often linearize the geometric constraints, but the degeneracy of the unfolded state makes a linear approach impossible there. We derive a theory for the second-order infinitesimal rigidity of an initially unfolded triangulated origami structure and use it to study the set of nearly unfolded configurations of origami with four boundary vertices. We find that locally, this set consists of a number of distinct "branches" which intersect at the unfolded state, and that the number of these branches is exponential in the number of vertices. We find numerical and analytical evidence that suggests that the branches are characterized by choosing each internal vertex to either "pop up" or "pop down." The large number of pathways along which one can fold an initially unfolded origami structure strongly indicates that a generic structure is likely to become trapped in a "misfolded" state. Thus, new techniques for creating self-folding origami are likely necessary; controlling the popping state of the vertices may be one possibility.

  3. A Delaunay Triangulation Approach For Segmenting Clumps Of Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Quan; Chang, Hang; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    Cell-based fluorescence imaging assays have the potential to generate massive amount of data, which requires detailed quantitative analysis. Often, as a result of fixation, labeled nuclei overlap and create a clump of cells. However, it is important to quantify phenotypic read out on a cell-by-cell basis. In this paper, we propose a novel method for decomposing clumps of nuclei using high-level geometric constraints that are derived from low-level features of maximum curvature computed along the contour of each clump. Points of maximum curvature are used as vertices for Delaunay triangulation (DT), which provides a set of edge hypotheses for decomposing a clump of nuclei. Each hypothesis is subsequently tested against a constraint satisfaction network for a near optimum decomposition. The proposed method is compared with other traditional techniques such as the watershed method with/without markers. The experimental results show that our approach can overcome the deficiencies of the traditional methods and is very effective in separating severely touching nuclei.

  4. An evaluation of orthopaedic nurses’ participation in an educational intervention promoting research utilization – A triangulation convergence model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives To describe the orthopaedic nurses' experiences regarding the relevance of an educational intervention and their personal and contextual barriers to participation in the intervention. Background One of the largest barriers against nurses' research usage in clinical practice...... is the lack of participation. A previous survey identified 32 orthopaedic nurses as interested in participating in nursing research. An educational intervention was conducted to increase the orthopaedic nurses' research knowledge and competencies. However, only an average of six nurses participated. Design...... A triangulation convergence model was applied through a mixed methods design to combine quantitative results and qualitative findings for evaluation. Methods Data were collected from 2013–2014 from 32 orthopaedic nurses in a Danish regional hospital through a newly developed 21-item questionnaire and two focus...

  5. A TQFT of Tuarev-Viro type on shaped triangulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashaev, Rinat [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland); Luo, Feng [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Vartanov, Grigory [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    A shaped triangulation is a finite triangulation of an oriented pseudo three manifold where each tetrahedron carries dihedral angles of an ideal hyberbolic tetrahedron. To each shaped triangulation, we associate a quantum partition function in the form of an absolutely convergent state integral which is invariant under shaped 3-2 Pachner moves and invariant with respect to shape gauge transformations generated by total dihedral angles around internal edges through the Neumann-Zagier Poisson bracket. Similarly to Turaev-Viro theory, the state variables live on edges of the triangulation but take their values on the whole real axis. The tetrahedral weight functions are composed of three hyperbolic gamma functions in a way that they enjoy a manifest tetrahedral symmetry. We conjecture that for shaped triangulations of closed 3-manifolds, our partition function is twice the absolute value squared of the partition function of Techmueller TQFT defined by Andersen and Kashaev. This is similar to the known relationship between the Turaev-Viro and the Witten-Reshetikhin-Turaev invariants of three manifolds. We also discuss interpretations of our construction in terms of three-dimensional supersymmetric field theories related to triangulated three-dimensional manifolds.

  6. A TQFT of Tuarev-Viro type on shaped triangulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashaev, Rinat; Luo, Feng

    2012-10-01

    A shaped triangulation is a finite triangulation of an oriented pseudo three manifold where each tetrahedron carries dihedral angles of an ideal hyberbolic tetrahedron. To each shaped triangulation, we associate a quantum partition function in the form of an absolutely convergent state integral which is invariant under shaped 3-2 Pachner moves and invariant with respect to shape gauge transformations generated by total dihedral angles around internal edges through the Neumann-Zagier Poisson bracket. Similarly to Turaev-Viro theory, the state variables live on edges of the triangulation but take their values on the whole real axis. The tetrahedral weight functions are composed of three hyperbolic gamma functions in a way that they enjoy a manifest tetrahedral symmetry. We conjecture that for shaped triangulations of closed 3-manifolds, our partition function is twice the absolute value squared of the partition function of Techmueller TQFT defined by Andersen and Kashaev. This is similar to the known relationship between the Turaev-Viro and the Witten-Reshetikhin-Turaev invariants of three manifolds. We also discuss interpretations of our construction in terms of three-dimensional supersymmetric field theories related to triangulated three-dimensional manifolds.

  7. Robust EM Continual Reassessment Method in Oncology Dose Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Yin, Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    The continual reassessment method (CRM) is a commonly used dose-finding design for phase I clinical trials. Practical applications of this method have been restricted by two limitations: (1) the requirement that the toxicity outcome needs to be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment; and (2) the potential sensitivity to the prespecified toxicity probability at each dose. To overcome these limitations, we naturally treat the unobserved toxicity outcomes as missing data, and use the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the dose toxicity probabilities based on the incomplete data to direct dose assignment. To enhance the robustness of the design, we propose prespecifying multiple sets of toxicity probabilities, each set corresponding to an individual CRM model. We carry out these multiple CRMs in parallel, across which model selection and model averaging procedures are used to make more robust inference. We evaluate the operating characteristics of the proposed robust EM-CRM designs through simulation studies and show that the proposed methods satisfactorily resolve both limitations of the CRM. Besides improving the MTD selection percentage, the new designs dramatically shorten the duration of the trial, and are robust to the prespecification of the toxicity probabilities. PMID:22375092

  8. Multiomics Data Triangulation for Asthma Candidate Biomarkers and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecak, Matija; Korošec, Peter; Kunej, Tanja

    2018-06-01

    Asthma is a common complex disorder and has been subject to intensive omics research for disease susceptibility and therapeutic innovation. Candidate biomarkers of asthma and its precision treatment demand that they stand the test of multiomics data triangulation before they can be prioritized for clinical applications. We classified the biomarkers of asthma after a search of the literature and based on whether or not a given biomarker candidate is reported in multiple omics platforms and methodologies, using PubMed and Web of Science, we identified omics studies of asthma conducted on diverse platforms using keywords, such as asthma, genomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics. We extracted data about asthma candidate biomarkers from 73 articles and developed a catalog of 190 potential asthma biomarkers (167 human, 23 animal data), comprising DNA loci, transcripts, proteins, metabolites, epimutations, and noncoding RNAs. The data were sorted according to 13 omics types: genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, metabolomics, ncRNAomics, glycomics, lipidomics, environmental omics, pharmacogenomics, phenomics, and integrative omics. Importantly, we found that 10 candidate biomarkers were apparent in at least two or more omics levels, thus promising potential for further biomarker research and development and precision medicine applications. This multiomics catalog reported herein for the first time contributes to future decision-making on prioritization of biomarkers and validation efforts for precision medicine in asthma. The findings may also facilitate meta-analyses and integrative omics studies in the future.

  9. Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation revisited: is the phase transition really 1st order?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Forcrand, Philippe de

    2015-01-01

    The transition between the two phases of 4D Euclidean Dynamical Triangulation (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0370-2693(92)90709-D) was long believed to be of second order until in 1996 first order behavior was found for sufficiently large systems (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(96)00214-3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01277-4). However, one may wonder if this finding was affected by the numerical methods used: to control volume fluctuations, in both studies (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(96)00214-3, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01277-4) an artificial harmonic potential was added to the action and in (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0370-2693(96)01277-4) measurements were taken after a fixed number of accepted instead of attempted moves which introduces an additional error. Finally the simulations suffer from strong critical slowing down which may have been underestimated. In the present work, we address the above weaknesses: we allow the volume to fluctuate freely within a fixed interval; we take measurements after a fixed number of attempted moves; and we overcome critical slowing down by using an optimized parallel tempering algorithm (http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-5468/2010/01/P01020). With these improved methods, on systems of size up to N_4=64k 4-simplices, we confirm that the phase transition is 1"s"t order. In addition, we discuss a local criterion to decide whether parts of a triangulation are in the elongated or crumpled state and describe a new correspondence between EDT and the balls in boxes model. The latter gives rise to a modified partition function with an additional, third coupling. Finally, we propose and motivate a class of modified path-integral measures that might remove the metastability of the Markov chain and turn the phase transition into 2"n"d order.

  10. The Family System and Depressive Symptoms during the College Years: Triangulation, Parental Differential Treatment, and Sibling Warmth as Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponappa, Sujata; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Holowacz, Eugene; Ferriby, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Guided by Bowen theory, we investigated the relationships between parent-child triangulation, parental differential treatment (PDT), sibling warmth, and individual depressive symptoms in a sample of 77 sibling dyads, aged 18-25 years, recruited through undergraduate classes at a U.S. public University. Results of the actor-partner interdependence models suggested that being triangulated into parental conflict was positively related to both siblings' perception of PDT; however, as one sibling felt triangulated, the other perceived reduced levels of PDT. For both siblings, the perception of higher levels of PDT was related to decreased sibling warmth and higher sibling warmth was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The implications of these findings for research and the treatment of depression in the college-aged population are discussed. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  11. Spectral triangulation molecular contrast optical coherence tomography with indocyanine green as the contrast agent

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Changhuei; McGuckin, Laura E. L.; Simon, John D.; Choma, Michael A.; Applegate, Brian E.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2004-01-01

    We report a new molecular contrast optical coherence tomography (MCOCT) implementation that profiles the contrast agent distribution in a sample by measuring the agent's spectral differential absorption. The method, spectra triangulation MCOCT, can effectively suppress contributions from spectrally dependent scatterings from the sample without a priori knowledge of the scattering properties. We demonstrate molecular imaging with this new MCOCT modality by mapping the distribution of indocyani...

  12. Interprofessional collaboration from nurses and physicians – A triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schärli, Marianne; Müller, Rita; Martin, Jacqueline S; Spichiger, Elisabeth; Spirig, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Interprofessional collaboration between nurses and physicians is a recurrent challenge in daily clinical practice. To ameliorate the situation, quantitative or qualitative studies are conducted. However, the results of these studies have often been limited by the methods chosen. Aim: To describe the synthesis of interprofessional collaboration from the nursing perspective by triangulating quantitative and qualitative data. Method: Data triangulation was performed as a sub-project of the interprofessional Sinergia DRG Research program. Initially, quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed separately in a mixed methods design. By means of triangulation a „meta-matrix“ resulted in a four-step process. Results: The „meta-matrix“ displays all relevant quantitative and qualitative results as well as their interrelations on one page. Relevance, influencing factors as well as consequences of interprofessional collaboration for patients, relatives and systems become visible. Conclusion: For the first time, the interprofessional collaboration from the nursing perspective at five Swiss hospitals is shown in a „meta-matrix“. The consequences of insufficient collaboration between nurses and physicians are considerable. This is why it’s necessary to invest in interprofessional concepts. In the „meta-matrix“ the factors which influence the interprofessional collaboration positively or negatively are visible.

  13. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Large Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hodges, D. Greg [Fugro Airborne Surveys, Mississauga, ON (Canada); White, Jr., Curt M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    United States. When abandoned, many wells were not adequately sealed and now provide a potential conduit for the vertical movement of liquids and gases. Today, groundwater aquifers can be contaminated by surface pollutants flowing down wells or by deep, saline water diffusing upwards. Likewise, natural gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), or radon can travel upwards via these wells to endanger structures or human health on the surface. Recently, the need to find and plug wells has become critical with the advent of carbon dioxide injection into geologic formations for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or carbon storage. The potential for natural gas or brine leakage through existing wells has also been raised as a concern in regions where shale resources are hydraulically fractured for hydrocarbon recovery. In this study, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) updated existing, effective well finding techniques to be able to survey large areas quickly using helicopter or ground-vehicle-mounted magnetometers, combined with mobile methane detection. For this study, magnetic data were collected using airborne and ground vehicles equipped with two boom-mounted magnetometers, or on foot using a hand-held magnetometer with a single sensor. Data processing techniques were employed to accentuate well-casing-type magnetic signatures. To locate wells with no magnetic signature (wells where the steel well casing had been removed), the team monitored for anomalous concentrations of methane, which could indicate migration of volatile compounds from deeper sedimentary strata along a well or fracture pathway. Methane measurements were obtained using the ALPIS DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) sensor for helicopter surveys and the Apogee leak detection system (LDS) for ground surveys. These methods were evaluated at a 100-year-old oilfield in Wyoming, where a helicopter magnetic survey accurately located 93% of visible wells. In addition, 20% of the wells found by the survey were

  14. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Large Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hodges, D. Greg [Fugro Airborne Surveys, Mississauga, ON (Canada); White, Jr., Charles E. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    More than 10 million wells have been drilled during 150 years of oil and gas production in the United States. When abandoned, many wells were not adequately sealed and now provide a potential conduit for the vertical movement of liquids and gases. Today, groundwater aquifers can be contaminated by surface pollutants flowing down wells or by deep, saline water diffusing upwards. Likewise, natural gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), or radon can travel upwards via these wells to endanger structures or human health on the surface. Recently, the need to find and plug wells has become critical with the advent of carbon dioxide injection into geologic formations for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or carbon storage. The potential for natural gas or brine leakage through existing wells has also been raised as a concern in regions where shale resources are hydraulically fractured for hydrocarbon recovery. In this study, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) updated existing, effective well finding techniques to be able to survey large areas quickly using helicopter or ground-vehicle-mounted magnetometers, combined with mobile methane detection. For this study, magnetic data were collected using airborne and ground vehicles equipped with two boom-mounted magnetometers, or on foot using a hand-held magnetometer with a single sensor. Data processing techniques were employed to accentuate well-casing-type magnetic signatures. To locate wells with no magnetic signature (wells where the steel well casing had been removed), the team monitored for anomalous concentrations of methane, which could indicate migration of volatile compounds from deeper sedimentary strata along a well or fracture pathway. Methane measurements were obtained using the ALPIS DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) sensor for helicopter surveys and the Apogee leak detection system (LDS) for ground surveys. These methods were evaluated at a 100-year-old oilfield in Wyoming, where a helicopter magnetic

  15. Depth measurements of drilled holes in bone by laser triangulation for the field of oral implantology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, D.; Gayer, C.; Hering, P.

    2012-01-01

    Laser osteotomy is one possible method of preparing beds for dental implants in the human jaw. A major problem in using this contactless treatment modality is the lack of haptic feedback to control the depth while drilling the implant bed. A contactless measurement system called laser triangulation is presented as a new procedure to overcome this problem. Together with a tomographic picture the actual position of the laser ablation in the bone can be calculated. Furthermore, the laser response is sufficiently fast as to pose little risk to surrounding sensitive areas such as nerves and blood vessels. In the jaw two different bone structures exist, namely the cancellous bone and the compact bone. Samples of both bone structures were examined with test drillings performed either by laser osteotomy or by a conventional rotating drilling tool. The depth of these holes was measured using laser triangulation. The results and the setup are reported in this study.

  16. Triangulation of written assessments from patients, teachers and students: useful for students and teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Sarah Frandsen; Braend, Anja Maria; Lindbaek, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Many medical students in general practice clerkships experience lack of observation-based feedback. The StudentPEP project combined written feedback from patients, observing teachers and students. This study analyzes the perceived usefulness of triangulated written feedback. A total of 71 general practitioners and 79 medical students at the University of Oslo completed project evaluation forms after a 6-week clerkship. A principal component analysis was performed to find structures within the questionnaire. Regression analysis was performed regarding students' answers to whether StudentPEP was worthwhile. Free-text answers were analyzed qualitatively. Student and teacher responses were mixed within six subscales, with highest agreement on 'Teachers oral and written feedback' and 'Attitude to patient evaluation'. Fifty-four per cent of the students agreed that the triangulation gave concrete feedback on their weaknesses, and 59% valued the teachers' feedback provided. Two statements regarding the teacher's attitudes towards StudentPEP were significantly associated with the student's perception of worthwhileness. Qualitative analysis showed that patient evaluations were encouraging or distrusted. Some students thought that StudentPEP ensured observation and feedback. The patient evaluations increased the students' awareness of the patient perspective. A majority of the students considered the triangulated written feedback beneficial, although time-consuming. The teacher's attitudes strongly influenced how the students perceived the usefulness of StudentPEP.

  17. An integrating factor matrix method to find first integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputra, K V I; Quispel, G R W; Van Veen, L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop an integrating factor matrix method to derive conditions for the existence of first integrals. We use this novel method to obtain first integrals, along with the conditions for their existence, for two- and three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with constant terms. The results are compared to previous results obtained by other methods.

  18. Public health triangulation: approach and application to synthesizing data to understand national and local HIV epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberle-Grasse John

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health triangulation is a process for reviewing, synthesising and interpreting secondary data from multiple sources that bear on the same question to make public health decisions. It can be used to understand the dynamics of HIV transmission and to measure the impact of public health programs. While traditional intervention research and metaanalysis would be ideal sources of information for public health decision making, they are infrequently available, and often decisions can be based only on surveillance and survey data. Methods The process involves examination of a wide variety of data sources and both biological, behavioral and program data and seeks input from stakeholders to formulate meaningful public health questions. Finally and most importantly, it uses the results to inform public health decision-making. There are 12 discrete steps in the triangulation process, which included identification and assessment of key questions, identification of data sources, refining questions, gathering data and reports, assessing the quality of those data and reports, formulating hypotheses to explain trends in the data, corroborating or refining working hypotheses, drawing conclusions, communicating results and recommendations and taking public health action. Results Triangulation can be limited by the quality of the original data, the potentials for ecological fallacy and "data dredging" and reproducibility of results. Conclusions Nonetheless, we believe that public health triangulation allows for the interpretation of data sets that cannot be analyzed using meta-analysis and can be a helpful adjunct to surveillance, to formal public health intervention research and to monitoring and evaluation, which in turn lead to improved national strategic planning and resource allocation.

  19. Shared decision-making in medical encounters regarding breast cancer treatment: the contribution of methodological triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durif-Bruckert, C; Roux, P; Morelle, M; Mignotte, H; Faure, C; Moumjid-Ferdjaoui, N

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study on shared decision-making in the doctor-patient encounter about surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer, conducted in a regional cancer centre in France, was to further the understanding of patient perceptions on shared decision-making. The study used methodological triangulation to collect data (both quantitative and qualitative) about patient preferences in the context of a clinical consultation in which surgeons followed a shared decision-making protocol. Data were analysed from a multi-disciplinary research perspective (social psychology and health economics). The triangulated data collection methods were questionnaires (n = 132), longitudinal interviews (n = 47) and observations of consultations (n = 26). Methodological triangulation revealed levels of divergence and complementarity between qualitative and quantitative results that suggest new perspectives on the three inter-related notions of decision-making, participation and information. Patients' responses revealed important differences between shared decision-making and participation per se. The authors note that subjecting patients to a normative behavioural model of shared decision-making in an era when paradigms of medical authority are shifting may undermine the patient's quest for what he or she believes is a more important right: a guarantee of the best care available. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Quantum Computing in Decoherence-Free Subspace Constructed by Triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Qiao; Guo, Liu; Ruda, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    A formalism for quantum computing in decoherence-free subspaces is presented. The constructed subspaces are partial triangulated to an index related to environment. The quantum states in the subspaces are just projected states which are ruled by a subdynamic kinetic equation. These projected states can be used to perform ideal quantum logical operations without decoherence.

  1. Quantum Computing in Decoherence-Free Subspace Constructed by Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Bi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A formalism for quantum computing in decoherence-free subspaces is presented. The constructed subspaces are partial triangulated to an index related to environment. The quantum states in the subspaces are just projected states which are ruled by a subdynamic kinetic equation. These projected states can be used to perform ideal quantum logical operations without decoherence.

  2. Constructing Delaunay triangulations along space-filling curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Fiat, A.; Sanders, P.

    2009-01-01

    Incremental construction con BRIO using a space-filling curve order for insertion is a popular algorithm for constructing Delaunay triangulations. So far, it has only been analyzed for the case that a worst-case optimal point location data structure is used which is often avoided in implementations.

  3. A grand-canonical ensemble of randomly triangulated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, J.; Krzywicki, A.; Petersson, B.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm is presented generating the grand-canonical ensemble of discrete, randomly triangulated Polyakov surfaces. The algorithm is used to calculate the susceptibility exponent, which controls the existence of the continuum limit of the considered model, for the dimensionality of the embedding space ranging from 0 to 20. (orig.)

  4. Quantum gravity from simplices: analytical investigations of causal dynamical triangulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedetti, D.

    2007-01-01

    A potentially powerful approach to quantum gravity has been developed over the last few years under the name of Causal Dynamical Triangulations. Although these models can be solved exactly in a variety of ways in the case of pure gravity in (1+1) dimensions,it is difficult to extend any of the

  5. A new hierarchical method to find community structure in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoud, Bilal; Moussaoui, Abdelouahab

    2018-04-01

    Community structure is very important to understand a network which represents a context. Many community detection methods have been proposed like hierarchical methods. In our study, we propose a new hierarchical method for community detection in networks based on genetic algorithm. In this method we use genetic algorithm to split a network into two networks which maximize the modularity. Each new network represents a cluster (community). Then we repeat the splitting process until we get one node at each cluster. We use the modularity function to measure the strength of the community structure found by our method, which gives us an objective metric for choosing the number of communities into which a network should be divided. We demonstrate that our method are highly effective at discovering community structure in both computer-generated and real-world network data.

  6. EPA flow reference method testing and analysis: Findings report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report describes an experimental program sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate potential improvements to the Agency's current reference method for measuring volumetric flow (Method 2, 40 CFR Part 60, Appendix B). Method 2 (Determination of Stack Gas Velocity and Volumetric Flow Rate (Type S Pitot Tube)) specifies measurements to determine volumetric flow, but does not prescribe specific procedures to account for yaw or pitch angles of flow when the flow in the stack is not axial. Method 2 also allows the use of only two probe types, the Type S and the Prandtl

  7. Methods to Find the Number of Latent Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Behzad; Desmarais, Michel C.; Naceur, Rhouma

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the skills that determine the success or failure to exercises and question items is a difficult task. Multiple skills may be involved at various degree of importance, and skills may overlap and correlate. In an effort towards the goal of finding the skills behind a set of items, we investigate two techniques to determine the number of…

  8. The functional variable method for finding exact solutions of some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we implemented the functional variable method and the modified. Riemann–Liouville derivative for the exact solitary wave solutions and periodic wave solutions of the time-fractional Klein–Gordon equation, and the time-fractional Hirota–Satsuma coupled. KdV system. This method is extremely simple ...

  9. Obtaining the Andersen's chart, triangulation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation or stabilizing soil response. The process of obtaining the original chart has...

  10. Finding function: evaluation methods for functional genomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Daniel R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of the quality of genomic or proteomic data and computational methods is vital to our ability to use them for formulating novel biological hypotheses and directing further experiments. There is currently no standard approach to evaluation in functional genomics. Our analysis of existing approaches shows that they are inconsistent and contain substantial functional biases that render the resulting evaluations misleading both quantitatively and qualitatively. These problems make it essentially impossible to compare computational methods or large-scale experimental datasets and also result in conclusions that generalize poorly in most biological applications. Results We reveal issues with current evaluation methods here and suggest new approaches to evaluation that facilitate accurate and representative characterization of genomic methods and data. Specifically, we describe a functional genomics gold standard based on curation by expert biologists and demonstrate its use as an effective means of evaluation of genomic approaches. Our evaluation framework and gold standard are freely available to the community through our website. Conclusion Proper methods for evaluating genomic data and computational approaches will determine how much we, as a community, are able to learn from the wealth of available data. We propose one possible solution to this problem here but emphasize that this topic warrants broader community discussion.

  11. Publication Voting Power (PVP): method of finding Evidence-Support

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Extracting the best evidence that support a procedure is a difficult, time consuming task that needs expert statistical knowledge. A way to make weighting evidence more simple and straight for busy clinicians is needed. Methods: The publications about the procedure under question are lined in an ascending ...

  12. Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

    1989-01-01

    Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

  13. An overview of the stereo correlation and triangulation formulations used in DICe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Daniel Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document provides a detailed overview of the stereo correlation algorithm and triangulation formulation used in the Digital Image Correlation Engine (DICe) to triangulate three dimensional motion in space given the image coordinates and camera calibration parameters.

  14. Scaling analyses of the spectral dimension in 3-dimensional causal dynamical triangulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Joshua H.

    2018-05-01

    The spectral dimension measures the dimensionality of a space as witnessed by a diffusing random walker. Within the causal dynamical triangulations approach to the quantization of gravity (Ambjørn et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 347, 2001 Nucl. Phys. B 610 347, 1998 Nucl. Phys. B 536 407), the spectral dimension exhibits novel scale-dependent dynamics: reducing towards a value near 2 on sufficiently small scales, matching closely the topological dimension on intermediate scales, and decaying in the presence of positive curvature on sufficiently large scales (Ambjørn et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 171301, Ambjørn et al 2005 Phys. Rev. D 72 064014, Benedetti and Henson 2009 Phys. Rev. D 80 124036, Cooperman 2014 Phys. Rev. D 90 124053, Cooperman et al 2017 Class. Quantum Grav. 34 115008, Coumbe and Jurkiewicz 2015 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP03(2015)151, Kommu 2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 105003). I report the first comprehensive scaling analysis of the small-to-intermediate scale spectral dimension for the test case of the causal dynamical triangulations of 3-dimensional Einstein gravity. I find that the spectral dimension scales trivially with the diffusion constant. I find that the spectral dimension is completely finite in the infinite volume limit, and I argue that its maximal value is exactly consistent with the topological dimension of 3 in this limit. I find that the spectral dimension reduces further towards a value near 2 as this case’s bare coupling approaches its phase transition, and I present evidence against the conjecture that the bare coupling simply sets the overall scale of the quantum geometry (Ambjørn et al 2001 Phys. Rev. D 64 044011). On the basis of these findings, I advance a tentative physical explanation for the dynamical reduction of the spectral dimension observed within causal dynamical triangulations: branched polymeric quantum geometry on sufficiently small scales. My analyses should facilitate attempts to employ the spectral

  15. Functional Imaging of Autonomic Regulation: Methods and Key Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system processing of autonomic function involves a network of regions throughout the brain which can be visualized and measured with neuroimaging techniques, notably functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The development of fMRI procedures has both confirmed and extended earlier findings from animal models, and human stroke and lesion studies. Assessments with fMRI can elucidate interactions between different central sites in regulating normal autonomic patterning, and demonstrate how disturbed systems can interact to produce aberrant regulation during autonomic challenges. Understanding autonomic dysfunction in various illnesses reveals mechanisms that potentially lead to interventions in the impairments. The objectives here are to: 1 describe the fMRI neuroimaging methodology for assessment of autonomic neural control, 2 outline the widespread, lateralized distribution of function in autonomic sites in the normal brain which includes structures from the neocortex through the medulla and cerebellum, 3 illustrate the importance of the time course of neural changes when coordinating responses, and how those patterns are impacted in conditions of sleep-disordered breathing, and 4 highlight opportunities for future research studies with emerging methodologies. Methodological considerations specific to autonomic testing include timing of challenges relative to the underlying fMRI signal, spatial resolution sufficient to identify autonomic brainstem nuclei, blood pressure and blood oxygenation influences on the fMRI signal, and the sustained timing, often measured in minutes of challenge periods and recovery. Key findings include the lateralized nature of autonomic organization, which is reminiscent of asymmetric motor, sensory and language pathways. Testing brain function during autonomic challenges demonstrate closely-integrated timing of responses in connected brain areas during autonomic challenges, and the involvement with

  16. Method to Find Recovery Event Combinations in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Woo Sik; Riley, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    These research activities may develop mathematical methods, engineering analyses, and business processes. The research activities of the project covered by this scope are directed toward the specific issues of implementing the methods and strategies on a computational platform, identifying the features and enhancements to EPRI tools that would be necessary to realize significant improvements to the risk assessments performed by the end user. Fault tree analysis is extensively and successfully applied to the risk assessment of safety-critical systems such as nuclear, chemical and aerospace systems. The fault tree analysis is being used together with an event tree analysis in PSA of nuclear power plants. Fault tree solvers for a PSA are mostly based on the cutset-based algorithm. They generate minimal cut sets (MCSs) from a fault tree. The most popular fault tree solver in the PSA industry is FTREX. During the course of this project, certain technical issues (see Sections 2 to 5) have been identified that need to be addressed regarding how minimal cut sets are generated and quantified. The objective of this scope of the work was to develop new methods or techniques to address these technical limitations. By turning on all the cutset initiators (%1, %2, %3, %), all the possible minimal cut sets can be calculated easier than with the original fault tree. It is accomplished by the fact that the number of events in the minimal cut sets are significantly reduced by using cutset initiators instead of random failure events. And byy turning on a few chosen cutset initiators and turning off the other cutset initiators, minimal cut sets of the selected cutset initiator(s) can be easily calculated. As explained in the previous Sections, there is no way to calculate these minimal cut sets by turning off/on the random failure events in the original fault tree

  17. Method to Find Recovery Event Combinations in Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Woo Sik [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Riley, Jeff [Electric Power Research, Palo Alto (United States)

    2016-05-15

    These research activities may develop mathematical methods, engineering analyses, and business processes. The research activities of the project covered by this scope are directed toward the specific issues of implementing the methods and strategies on a computational platform, identifying the features and enhancements to EPRI tools that would be necessary to realize significant improvements to the risk assessments performed by the end user. Fault tree analysis is extensively and successfully applied to the risk assessment of safety-critical systems such as nuclear, chemical and aerospace systems. The fault tree analysis is being used together with an event tree analysis in PSA of nuclear power plants. Fault tree solvers for a PSA are mostly based on the cutset-based algorithm. They generate minimal cut sets (MCSs) from a fault tree. The most popular fault tree solver in the PSA industry is FTREX. During the course of this project, certain technical issues (see Sections 2 to 5) have been identified that need to be addressed regarding how minimal cut sets are generated and quantified. The objective of this scope of the work was to develop new methods or techniques to address these technical limitations. By turning on all the cutset initiators (%1, %2, %3, %), all the possible minimal cut sets can be calculated easier than with the original fault tree. It is accomplished by the fact that the number of events in the minimal cut sets are significantly reduced by using cutset initiators instead of random failure events. And byy turning on a few chosen cutset initiators and turning off the other cutset initiators, minimal cut sets of the selected cutset initiator(s) can be easily calculated. As explained in the previous Sections, there is no way to calculate these minimal cut sets by turning off/on the random failure events in the original fault tree.

  18. Findings from analysing and quantifying human error using current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, V.N.; Reer, B.

    1999-01-01

    In human reliability analysis (HRA), the scarcity of data means that, at best, judgement must be applied to transfer to the domain of the analysis what data are available for similar tasks. In particular for the quantification of tasks involving decisions, the analyst has to choose among quantification approaches that all depend to a significant degree on expert judgement. The use of expert judgement can be made more reliable by eliciting relative judgements rather than absolute judgements. These approaches, which are based on multiple criterion decision theory, focus on ranking the tasks to be analysed by difficulty. While these approaches remedy at least partially the poor performance of experts in the estimation of probabilities, they nevertheless require the calibration of the relative scale on which the actions are ranked in order to obtain the probabilities of interest. This paper presents some results from a comparison of some current HRA methods performed in the frame of a study of SLIM calibration options. The HRA quantification methods THERP, HEART, and INTENT were applied to derive calibration human error probabilities for two groups of operator actions. (author)

  19. Assessing Backwards Integration as a Method of KBO Family Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfell, Nathan; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    The age of young asteroid collisional families can sometimes be determined by using backwards n-body integrations of the solar system. This method is not used for discovering young asteroid families and is limited by the unpredictable influence of the Yarkovsky effect on individual specific asteroids over time. Since these limitations are not as important for objects in the Kuiper belt, Marcus et al. 2011 suggested that backwards integration could be used to discover and characterize collisional families in the outer solar system. But various challenges present themselves when running precise and accurate 4+ Gyr integrations of Kuiper Belt objects. We have created simulated families of Kuiper Belt Objects with identical starting locations and velocity distributions, based on the Haumea Family. We then ran several long-term test integrations to observe the effect of various simulation parameters on integration results. These integrations were then used to investigate which parameters are of enough significance to require inclusion in the integration. Thereby we determined how to construct long-term integrations that both yield significant results and require manageable processing power. Additionally, we have tested the use of backwards integration as a method of discovery of potential young families in the Kuiper Belt.

  20. Our findings, my method: Framing science in televised interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon, Rony; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2017-11-01

    The public communication of science and technology largely depends on their framing in the news media, but scientists' role in this process has only been explored indirectly. This study focuses on storied accounts told by scientists when asked to present their research or provide expert advice in the course of a news interview. A total of 150 items from a current affairs talk show broadcast in the Israeli media were explored through a methodology combining narrative and conversation analysis. Using the concept of framing as originally proposed by Erving Goffman, we show that researchers use personal accounts as a way of reframing news stories introduced by the program hosts. Elements of method and rationale, which are usually considered technical and are shunned in journalistic reports, emerged as a crucial element in the accounts that experts themselves provided. The implications for framing research and science communication training are discussed.

  1. Finding Similarities in Ancient Ceramics by EDXRF and Multivariate Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civici, N.; Stamati, F.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied 39 samples of fragments from ceramic roof tiles with different stamps(Diamalas and Heraion), dated between 330 to 170 BC and found at the archaeological site of Dimales, some 30 km from the Adriatic coast. The data from these samples were compared with those obtained from 7 samples of similar objects and period with the stamp H eraion , found at the archaeological site of APOLLONIA. The samples were analyzed by energy-dispersive X -ray fluorescence(EDXRF), using of the x-ray lines of the elements to the intensity of the Compton peak. The results have been treated with diverse multivariate methods. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis and factor analysis permitted the identification of two main clusters. The first cluster is composed from the ''Heraion'' samples discovered in Apollonia, while the second comprises all the samples discovered in Dimale independent of their stamp. (authors)

  2. Random discrete Morse theory and a new library of triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedetti, Bruno; Lutz, Frank Hagen

    2014-01-01

    We introduce random discrete Morse theory as a computational scheme to measure the complexity of a triangulation. The idea is to try to quantify the frequency of discrete Morse matchings with few critical cells. Our measure will depend on the topology of the space, but also on how nicely the space...... is triangulated. The scheme we propose looks for optimal discrete Morse functions with an elementary random heuristic. Despite its naiveté, this approach turns out to be very successful even in the case of huge inputs. In our view, the existing libraries of examples in computational topology are “too easy......” for testing algorithms based on discrete Morse theory. We propose a new library containing more complicated (and thus more meaningful) test examples....

  3. Putting a cap on causality violations in causal dynamical triangulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, Jan; Loll, Renate; Westra, Willem; Zohren, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The formalism of causal dynamical triangulations (CDT) provides us with a non-perturbatively defined model of quantum gravity, where the sum over histories includes only causal space-time histories. Path integrals of CDT and their continuum limits have been studied in two, three and four dimensions. Here we investigate a generalization of the two-dimensional CDT model, where the causality constraint is partially lifted by introducing branching points with a weight g s , and demonstrate that the system can be solved analytically in the genus-zero sector. The solution is analytic in a neighborhood around weight g s = 0 and cannot be analytically continued to g s = ∞, where the branching is entirely geometric and where one would formally recover standard Euclidean two-dimensional quantum gravity defined via dynamical triangulations or Liouville theory

  4. Triangulation based inclusion probabilities: a design-unbiased sampling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fehrmann, Lutz; Gregoire, Timothy; Kleinn, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    A probabilistic sampling approach for design-unbiased estimation of area-related quantitative characteristics of spatially dispersed population units is proposed. The developed field protocol includes a fixed number of 3 units per sampling location and is based on partial triangulations over their natural neighbors to derive the individual inclusion probabilities. The performance of the proposed design is tested in comparison to fixed area sample plots in a simulation with two forest stands. ...

  5. Planning Pharmacies: An Operational Method to Find the Best Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Tondelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the spatial distribution of the pharmacies on the territory is closely connected to urban planning and to services supply. In Italy, the regulatory change that took place in 2012, triggered partly by the need to adhere more to a constantly changing economic system, has led to a revision of the existing situation, consisting both on the method to quantify the pharmacies distribution and on the efficiency of the service. If Law 27/2012 has effectively allowed municipalities to increase the number of pharmacies that they can settle on the municipal territory, it has also started a process of rethinking the logic of pharmacies location and of their catchment areas. In this framework, the present paper aims to discuss the merits of a regulatory evolutions that sparked the process of liberalization of locations, integrating the law guidelines and goals with an operating logic process, usable and useful to translate goals into planning actions in a continuous dialogue between law and territory, constraints and opportunities, equity and accessibility of the care services. Following this logic operations, we have investigated the urban context of Castelfranco Emilia, assuming the location of new offices on the basis of pharmaceutical analyzes.

  6. Onychomycosis: Clinical findings, etiological agents and evaluation of laboratory methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljanin Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the etiological agents in patients with suspected onychomycosis, and to carry out comparative testing of individual or combinations of tests: direct microscopy with KOH and Blankophor (BP, culturing on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA, diluted Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (D-SDA and dermatophyte test medium (DTM. From 70 nail samples (65 toenails, 5 fingernails, 46 (60.5% had at least one of five positive tests. Isolation was possible in 41, while in 5 samples the presence of fungi was observed by KOH and/or BP. Dermatophytes were most frequently isolated (80.5% where Trichophyton rubrum was predominant. Candida spp. was isolated in 9.8%, Aspergillus spp. 4.9%, Alternaria spp. 2.4% and Fusarium spp. 2.4%. Application of BP as an individual test was the most sensitive method. The combination of BP with DTM or D-SDA provides the best sensitivity and allows the identification of fungi to the species/genus level.

  7. Quantum triangulations. Moduli spaces, strings, and quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfora, Mauro; Marzouli, Annalisa [Univ. degli Studi di Pavia (Italy). Dipt. Fisica Nucleare e Teorica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Research on polyhedral manifolds often points to unexpected connections between very distinct aspects of Mathematics and Physics. In particular triangulated manifolds play quite a distinguished role in such settings as Riemann moduli space theory, strings and quantum gravity, topological quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, and critical phenomena. Not only do they provide a natural discrete analogue to the smooth manifolds on which physical theories are typically formulated, but their appearance is rather often a consequence of an underlying structure which naturally calls into play non-trivial aspects of representation theory, of complex analysis and topology in a way which makes manifest the basic geometric structures of the physical interactions involved. Yet, in most of the existing literature, triangulated manifolds are still merely viewed as a convenient discretization of a given physical theory to make it more amenable for numerical treatment. The motivation for these lectures notes is thus to provide an approachable introduction to this topic, emphasizing the conceptual aspects, and probing, through a set of cases studies, the connection between triangulated manifolds and quantum physics to the deepest. This volume addresses applied mathematicians and theoretical physicists working in the field of quantum geometry and its applications. (orig.)

  8. Summations over equilaterally triangulated surfaces and the critical string measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, D.J.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the summation over dynamically triangulated Riemann surfaces which does not rely on properties of the potential in a matrix model. Instead, we formulate a purely algebraic discretization of critical string path integral. This is combined with a technique which assigns to each equilateral triangulation of a two-dimensional surface a Riemann surface defined over a certain finite extension of the field of rational numbers, i.e. an arithmetic surface. Thus we establish a new formulated in which the sum over randomly triangulated surfaces defines an invariant measure on the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces. It is shown that because of this it is far from obvious that this measure for large genera approximates the measure defined by the continuum theory, i.e. Liouville theory or critical string theory. In low genus this subtlety does not exist. In the case of critical string theory we explicitly compute the volume of the moduli space of arithmetic surfaces in terms of the modular height function and show that for low genus it approximates correctly the continuum measure. We also discuss a continuum limit which bears some resemblance with a double scaling limit in matrix models. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation methods in health promotion programmes: the description of a triangulation in Brazil Métodos em avaliação de programas de promoção da saúde: descrição de uma triangulação no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Maria de Souza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation is a key word in any health promotion programme. However, it is a challenge to choose the most appropriate method of evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to describe a triangulated methodology developed to evaluate a health promotion intervention based on intergenerational activities and to describe the theoretical framework, which guided the study. From February to December 2002 a triangulation involving a community controlled trial, focus groups technique and observation process was developed in Ceilândia, Federal District of Brazil. Samples of 253 students aged 12 to 18 years old from a secondary school and 266 elders aged 60 and over from the local area were randomly allocated to control and experimental groups. Over four months, 111 students and 32 elders had weekly meetings at school to share their life histories. Before and after the intervention, a questionnaire was administered to control and experimental groups including the outcome variables. Although the study had some limitations, it was valuable in showing for the first time that this method can be used in interventions of this kind and also to show the importance of developing a theoretical framework to understand possible mechanism of interactions in intergenerational interventions.Avaliação é palavra-chave em promoção de saúde. O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever uma triangulação para avaliar um programa de promoção de saúde baseada em atividades intergeracionais e descrever o modelo teórico utilizado para a investigação. Foi desenvolvida no período de fevereiro a dezembro de 2002 uma pesquisa incluindo um estudo controlado na comunidade, grupos focais e observação de processo. Foram selecionadas duas amostras randomizadas de 253 estudantes, com idade entre 12 e 18 anos de uma escola de ensino fundamental e 266 idosos com idade igual ou superior a 60 anos, residentes nas redondezas da escola. As duas amostras foram divididas e alocadas

  10. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    In 1919, the enthusiasm surrounding a short-lived gas play in Versailles Borough, Pennsylvania resulted in the drilling of many needless wells. The legacy of this activity exists today in the form of abandoned, unplugged gas wells that are a continuing source of fugitive methane in the midst of a residential and commercial area. Flammable concentrations of methane have been detected near building foundations, which have forced people from their homes and businesses until methane concentrations decreased. Despite mitigation efforts, methane problems persist and have caused some buildings to be permanently abandoned and demolished. This paper describes the use of magnetic and methane sensing methods by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to locate abandoned gas wells in Versailles Borough where site access is limited and existing infrastructure can interfere. Here, wells are located between closely spaced houses and beneath buildings and parking lots. Wells are seldom visible, often because wellheads and internal casing strings have been removed, and external casing has been cut off below ground level. The magnetic survey of Versailles Borough identified 53 strong, monopole magnetic anomalies that are presumed to indicate the locations of steel-cased wells. This hypothesis was tested by excavating the location of one strong, monopole magnetic anomaly that was within an area of anomalous methane concentrations. The excavation uncovered an unplugged gas well that was within 0.2 m of the location of the maximum magnetic signal. Truck-mounted methane surveys of Versailles Borough detected numerous methane anomalies that were useful for narrowing search areas. Methane sources identified during truck-mounted surveys included strong methane sources such as sewers and methane mitigation vents. However, inconsistent wind direction and speed, especially between buildings, made locating weaker methane sources (such as leaking wells) difficult. Walking surveys with

  11. A general and Robust Ray-Casting-Based Algorithm for Triangulating Surfaces at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decherchi, Sergio; Rocchia, Walter

    2013-01-01

    We present a general, robust, and efficient ray-casting-based approach to triangulating complex manifold surfaces arising in the nano-bioscience field. This feature is inserted in a more extended framework that: i) builds the molecular surface of nanometric systems according to several existing definitions, ii) can import external meshes, iii) performs accurate surface area estimation, iv) performs volume estimation, cavity detection, and conditional volume filling, and v) can color the points of a grid according to their locations with respect to the given surface. We implemented our methods in the publicly available NanoShaper software suite (www.electrostaticszone.eu). Robustness is achieved using the CGAL library and an ad hoc ray-casting technique. Our approach can deal with any manifold surface (including nonmolecular ones). Those explicitly treated here are the Connolly-Richards (SES), the Skin, and the Gaussian surfaces. Test results indicate that it is robust to rotation, scale, and atom displacement. This last aspect is evidenced by cavity detection of the highly symmetric structure of fullerene, which fails when attempted by MSMS and has problems in EDTSurf. In terms of timings, NanoShaper builds the Skin surface three times faster than the single threaded version in Lindow et al. on a 100,000 atoms protein and triangulates it at least ten times more rapidly than the Kruithof algorithm. NanoShaper was integrated with the DelPhi Poisson-Boltzmann equation solver. Its SES grid coloring outperformed the DelPhi counterpart. To test the viability of our method on large systems, we chose one of the biggest molecular structures in the Protein Data Bank, namely the 1VSZ entry, which corresponds to the human adenovirus (180,000 atoms after Hydrogen addition). We were able to triangulate the corresponding SES and Skin surfaces (6.2 and 7.0 million triangles, respectively, at a scale of 2 grids per Å) on a middle-range workstation. PMID:23577073

  12. Automated matching of corresponding seed images of three simulator radiographs to allow 3D triangulation of implanted seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Martin D.; Kassaee, Alireza

    1997-02-01

    To match corresponding seed images in different radiographs so that the 3D seed locations can be triangulated automatically and without ambiguity requires (at least) three radiographs taken from different perspectives, and an algorithm that finds the proper permutations of the seed-image indices. Matching corresponding images in only two radiographs introduces inherent ambiguities which can be resolved only with the use of non-positional information obtained with intensive human effort. Matching images in three or more radiographs is an `NP (Non-determinant in Polynomial time)-complete' problem. Although the matching problem is fundamental, current methods for three-radiograph seed-image matching use `local' (seed-by-seed) methods that may lead to incorrect matchings. We describe a permutation-sampling method which not only gives good `global' (full permutation) matches for the NP-complete three-radiograph seed-matching problem, but also determines the reliability of the radiographic data themselves, namely, whether the patient moved in the interval between radiographic perspectives.

  13. Measuring teamwork in primary care: Triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith Belle; Ryan, Bridget L; Thorpe, Cathy; Markle, Emma K R; Hutchison, Brian; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the triangulation of qualitative dimensions, reflecting high functioning teams, with the results of standardized teamwork measures. The study used a mixed methods design using qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess teamwork in 19 Family Health Teams in Ontario, Canada. This article describes dimensions from the qualitative phase using grounded theory to explore the issues and challenges to teamwork. Two quantitative measures were used in the study, the Team Climate Inventory (TCI) and the Providing Effective Resources and Knowledge (PERK) scale. For the triangulation analysis, the mean scores of these measures were compared with the qualitatively derived ratings for the dimensions. The final sample for the qualitative component was 107 participants. The qualitative analysis identified 9 dimensions related to high team functioning such as common philosophy, scope of practice, conflict resolution, change management, leadership, and team evolution. From these dimensions, teams were categorized numerically as high, moderate, or low functioning. Three hundred seventeen team members completed the survey measures. Mean site scores for the TCI and PERK were 3.87 and 3.88, respectively (of 5). The TCI was associated will all dimensions except for team location, space allocation, and executive director leadership. The PERK was associated with all dimensions except team location. Data triangulation provided qualitative and quantitative evidence of what constitutes teamwork. Leadership was pivotal in forging a common philosophy and encouraging team collaboration. Teams used conflict resolution strategies and adapted to the changes they encountered. These dimensions advanced the team's evolution toward a high functioning team. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Lymphoscintigraphy and triangulated body marking for morbidity reduction during sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynyckyi, Borys R; Shafir, Michail K; Kim, Suk Chul; Kim, Dong Wook; Travis, Arlene; Moadel, Renee M; Kim, Chun K

    2005-11-08

    Current trends in patient care include the desire for minimizing invasiveness of procedures and interventions. This aim is reflected in the increasing utilization of sentinel lymph node biopsy, which results in a lower level of morbidity in breast cancer staging, in comparison to extensive conventional axillary dissection. Optimized lymphoscintigraphy with triangulated body marking is a clinical option that can further reduce morbidity, more than when a hand held gamma probe alone is utilized. Unfortunately it is often either overlooked or not fully understood, and thus not utilized. This results in the unnecessary loss of an opportunity to further reduce morbidity. Optimized lymphoscintigraphy and triangulated body marking provides a detailed 3 dimensional map of the number and location of the sentinel nodes, available before the first incision is made. The number, location, relevance based on time/sequence of appearance of the nodes, all can influence 1) where the incision is made, 2) how extensive the dissection is, and 3) how many nodes are removed. In addition, complex patterns can arise from injections. These include prominent lymphatic channels, pseudo-sentinel nodes, echelon and reverse echelon nodes and even contamination, which are much more difficult to access with the probe only. With the detailed information provided by optimized lymphoscintigraphy and triangulated body marking, the surgeon can approach the axilla in a more enlightened fashion, in contrast to when the less informed probe only method is used. This allows for better planning, resulting in the best cosmetic effect and less trauma to the tissues, further reducing morbidity while maintaining adequate sampling of the sentinel node(s).

  15. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Optical System Using Shadows Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, J. Leiner; Vargas, Q. Lorena; Torres, M. Cesar; Mattos, V. Lorenzo

    2008-04-01

    In this work is developed a three-dimensional reconstruction system using the Shades3D tool of the Matlab® Programming Language and materials of low cost, such as webcam camera, a stick, a weak structured lighting system composed by a desk lamp, and observation plane in which the object is located. The reconstruction is obtained through a triangulation process that is executed after acquiring a sequence of images of the scene with a shadow projected on the object; additionally an image filtering process is done for obtaining only the part of the scene that will be reconstructed. Previously, it is necessary to develop a calibration process for determining the internal camera geometric and optical characteristics (intrinsic parameters), and the 3D position and orientation of the camera frame relative to a certain world coordinate system (extrinsic parameters). The lamp and the stick are used to produce a shadow which scans the object; in this technique, it is not necessary to know the position of the light source, instead the triangulation is obtained using shadow plane produced by intersection between the stick and the illumination pattern. The webcam camera captures all images with the shadow scanning the object, and Shades3D tool processes all information taking into account captured images and calibration parameters. Likewise, this technique is evaluated in the reconstruction of parts of the human body and its application in the detection of external abnormalities and elaboration of prosthesis or implant.

  16. Stakeholder management in the local government decision-making area: evidences from a triangulation study with the English local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corrêa Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The stakeholder theory has been in the management agenda for about thirty years and reservations about its acceptance as a comprehensive theory still remains. It was introduced as a managerial issue by the Labour Party in 1997 aiming to make public management more inclusive. This article aims to contribute to the stakeholder theory adding descriptive issues to its theoretical basis. The findings are derived from an inductive investigationcarried out with English Local Authorities, which will most likely be reproduced in other contexts. Data collection and analysis is based on a data triangulation method that involves case-studies, interviews of validation and analysis of documents. The investigation proposes a model for representing the nature of therelationships between stakeholders and the decision-making process of such organizations. The decision-making of local government organizations is in fact a stakeholder-based process in which stakeholders are empowered to exert influences due to power over and interest in the organization’s operations and outcomes.

  17. Two Strategies for Qualitative Content Analysis: An Intramethod Approach to Triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Susan M; Carrington, Jane M; Badger, Terry A

    2018-04-01

    The overarching aim of qualitative research is to gain an understanding of certain social phenomena. Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of empirical materials, all to describe moments and meanings in individuals' lives. Data derived from these various materials require a form of analysis of the content, focusing on written or spoken language as communication, to provide context and understanding of the message. Qualitative research often involves the collection of data through extensive interviews, note taking, and tape recording. These methods are time- and labor-intensive. With the advances in computerized text analysis software, the practice of combining methods to analyze qualitative data can assist the researcher in making large data sets more manageable and enhance the trustworthiness of the results. This article will describe a novel process of combining two methods of qualitative data analysis, or Intramethod triangulation, as a means to provide a deeper analysis of text.

  18. The Extraction of Road Boundary from Crowdsourcing Trajectory Using Constrained Delaunay Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of road boundary accurately from crowdsourcing trajectory lines is still a hard work.Therefore,this study presented a new approach to use vehicle trajectory lines to extract road boundary.Firstly, constructing constrained Delaunay triangulation within interpolated track lines to calculate road boundary descriptors using triangle edge length and Voronoi cell.Road boundary recognition model was established by integrating the two boundary descriptors.Then,based on seed polygons,a regional growing method was proposed to extract road boundary. Finally, taxi GPS traces in Beijing were used to verify the validity of the novel method, and the results also showed that our method was suitable for GPS traces with disparity density,complex road structure and different time interval.

  19. Triangulation-based edge measurement using polyview optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinan; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2018-04-01

    Laser triangulation sensors as non-contact measurement devices are widely used in industry and research for profile measurements and quantitative inspections. Some technical applications e.g. edge measurements usually require a configuration of a single sensor and a translation stage or a configuration of multiple sensors, so that they can measure a large measurement range that is out of the scope of a single sensor. However, the cost of both configurations is high, due to the additional rotational axis or additional sensor. This paper provides a special measurement system for measurement of great curved surfaces based on a single sensor configuration. Utilizing a self-designed polyview optics and calibration process, the proposed measurement system allows an over 180° FOV (field of view) with a precise measurement accuracy as well as an advantage of low cost. The detailed capability of this measurement system based on experimental data is discussed in this paper.

  20. Accuracy enhancement of point triangulation probes for linear displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Chan; Kim, Jong-Ahn; Oh, SeBaek; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kwak, Yoon Keun

    2000-03-01

    Point triangulation probes (PTBs) fall into a general category of noncontact height or displacement measurement devices. PTBs are widely used for their simple structure, high resolution, and long operating range. However, there are several factors that must be taken into account in order to obtain high accuracy and reliability; measurement errors from inclinations of an object surface, probe signal fluctuations generated by speckle effects, power variation of a light source, electronic noises, and so on. In this paper, we propose a novel signal processing algorithm, named as EASDF (expanded average square difference function), for a newly designed PTB which is composed of an incoherent source (LED), a line scan array detector, a specially selected diffuse reflecting surface, and several optical components. The EASDF, which is a modified correlation function, is able to calculate displacement between the probe and the object surface effectively even if there are inclinations, power fluctuations, and noises.

  1. Technique Triangulation for Validation in Directed Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áine M. Humble PhD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Division of labor in wedding planning varies for first-time marriages, with three types of couples—traditional, transitional, and egalitarian—identified, but nothing is known about wedding planning for remarrying individuals. Using semistructured interviews, the author interviewed 14 couples in which at least one person had remarried and used directed content analysis to investigate the extent to which the aforementioned typology could be transferred to this different context. In this paper she describes how a triangulation of analytic techniques provided validation for couple classifications and also helped with moving beyond “blind spots” in data analysis. Analytic approaches were the constant comparative technique, rank order comparison, and visual representation of coding, using MAXQDA 2007's tool called TextPortraits.

  2. Determination of Shift/Bias in Digital Aerial Triangulation of UAV Imagery Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Damian

    2017-12-01

    Currently UAV Photogrammetry is characterized a largely automated and efficient data processing. Depicting from the low altitude more often gains on the meaning in the uses of applications as: cities mapping, corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas e.g. forests. Additionally, high-resolution video image (HD and bigger) is more often use for depicting from the low altitude from one side it lets deliver a lot of details and characteristics of ground surfaces features, and from the other side is presenting new challenges in the data processing. Therefore, determination of elements of external orientation plays a substantial role the detail of Digital Terrain Models and artefact-free ortophoto generation. Parallel a research on the quality of acquired images from UAV and above the quality of products e.g. orthophotos are conducted. Despite so fast development UAV photogrammetry still exists the necessity of accomplishment Automatic Aerial Triangulation (AAT) on the basis of the observations GPS/INS and via ground control points. During low altitude photogrammetric flight, the approximate elements of external orientation registered by UAV are burdened with the influence of some shift/bias errors. In this article, methods of determination shift/bias error are presented. In the process of the digital aerial triangulation two solutions are applied. In the first method shift/bias error was determined together with the drift/bias error, elements of external orientation and coordinates of ground control points. In the second method shift/bias error was determined together with the elements of external orientation, coordinates of ground control points and drift/bias error equals 0. When two methods were compared the difference for shift/bias error is more than ±0.01 m for all terrain coordinates XYZ.

  3. Accurate measurement of surface areas of anatomical structures by computer-assisted triangulation of computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, J.T.; Jacomb-Hood, J.; Abulafi, A.M.; Williams, N.S. (Royal London Hospital (United Kingdom)); Cookson, J.; Dykes, E.; Holman, J. (London Hospital Medical College (United Kingdom))

    1993-05-01

    There is a need for accurate surface area measurement of internal anatomical structures in order to define light dosimetry in adjunctive intraoperative photodynamic therapy (AIOPDT). The authors investigated whether computer-assisted triangulation of serial sections generated by computed tomography (CT) scanning can give an accurate assessment of the surface area of the walls of the true pelvis after anterior resection and before colorectal anastomosis. They show that the technique of paper density tessellation is an acceptable method of measuring the surface areas of phantom objects, with a maximum error of 0.5%, and is used as the gold standard. Computer-assisted triangulation of CT images of standard geometric objects and accurately-constructed pelvic phantoms gives a surface area assessment with a maximum error of 2.5% compared with the gold standard. The CT images of 20 patients' pelves have been analysed by computer-assisted triangulation and this shows the surface area of the walls varies from 143 cm[sup 2] to 392 cm[sup 2]. (Author).

  4. The Global Optimal Algorithm of Reliable Path Finding Problem Based on Backtracking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in finding a global optimal path in transportation networks particularly when the network suffers from unexpected disturbance. This paper studies the problem of finding a global optimal path to guarantee a given probability of arriving on time in a network with uncertainty, in which the travel time is stochastic instead of deterministic. Traditional path finding methods based on least expected travel time cannot capture the network user’s risk-taking behaviors in path finding. To overcome such limitation, the reliable path finding algorithms have been proposed but the convergence of global optimum is seldom addressed in the literature. This paper integrates the K-shortest path algorithm into Backtracking method to propose a new path finding algorithm under uncertainty. The global optimum of the proposed method can be guaranteed. Numerical examples are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  5. The chromatic class and the chromatic number of the planar conjugated triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Malinina, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This material is dedicated to the estimation of the chromatic number and chromatic class of the conjugated triangulation (first conversion) and also of the second conversion of the planar triangulation. Also this paper introduces some new hypotheses, which are equivalent to Four Color Problem.

  6. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A Novel Model of Conforming Delaunay Triangulation for Sensor Network Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Delaunay refinement is a technique for generating unstructured meshes of triangles for sensor network configuration engineering practice. A new method for solving Delaunay triangulation problem is proposed in this paper, which is called endpoint triangle’s circumcircle model (ETCM. As compared with the original fractional node refinement algorithms, the proposed algorithm can get well refinement stability with least time cost. Simulations are performed under five aspects including refinement stability, the number of additional nodes, time cost, mesh quality after intruding additional nodes, and the aspect ratio improved by single additional node. All experimental results show the advantages of the proposed algorithm as compared with the existing algorithms and confirm the algorithm analysis sufficiently.

  8. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections From a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Tiainen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting, the group evolved its own breed of research practice based on multiple forms of triangulation. This implied the use of multiple data sources, methods, theories, and researchers, in different combinations. One of the outcomes of the work is a model for collaborative research. It highlights, among others, the importance of creating a climate for collaboration within the research group and following a process of individual and collaborative writing to achieve the potential benefits of such research. The article also identifies a set of remaining challenges relevant to collaborative research.

  9. Finding-equal regression method and its application in predication of U resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Huimo

    1995-03-01

    The commonly adopted deposit model method in mineral resources predication has two main part: one is model data that show up geological mineralization law for deposit, the other is statistics predication method that accords with characters of the data namely pretty regression method. This kind of regression method may be called finding-equal regression, which is made of the linear regression and distribution finding-equal method. Because distribution finding-equal method is a data pretreatment which accords with advanced mathematical precondition for the linear regression namely equal distribution theory, and this kind of data pretreatment is possible of realization. Therefore finding-equal regression not only can overcome nonlinear limitations, that are commonly occurred in traditional linear regression or other regression and always have no solution, but also can distinguish outliers and eliminate its weak influence, which would usually appeared when Robust regression possesses outlier in independent variables. Thus this newly finding-equal regression stands the best status in all kind of regression methods. Finally, two good examples of U resource quantitative predication are provided

  10. Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Parallel single- and multiple shooting methods were tested for finding periodic steady state solutions to a Stirling engine model. The model was used to illustrate features of the methods and possibilities for optimisations. Performance was measured using simulation of an experimental data set...

  11. Modification of backgammon shape cathode and graded charge division readout method for a novel triple charge division centroid finding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanmardi, F.; Matoba, M.; Sakae, T.

    1996-01-01

    Triple Charge Division (TCD) centroid finding method that uses modified pattern of Backgammon Shape Cathode (MBSC) is introduced for medium range length position sensitive detectors with optimum numbers of cathode segments. MBSC pattern has three separated areas and uses saw tooth like insulator gaps for separating the areas. Side areas of the MBSC pattern are severed by a central common area. Size of the central area is twice of the size of both sides. Whereas central area is the widest area among three, both sides' areas have the main role in position sensing. With the same resolution and linearity, active region of original Backgammon pattern increases twice by using MBSC pattern, and with the same length, linearity of TCD centroid finding is much better than Backgammon charge division readout method. Linearity prediction of TCD centroid finding and experimental results conducted us to find an optimum truncation of the apices of MBCS pattern in the central area. The TCD centroid finding has an especial readout method since charges must be collected from two segments in both sides and from three segments in the central area of MBSC pattern. The so called Graded Charge Division (GCD) is the especial readout method for TCD. The GCD readout is a combination of the charge division readout and sequence grading of serial segments. Position sensing with TCD centroid finding and GCD readout were done by two sizes MBSC patterns (200mm and 80mm) and Spatial resolution about 1% of the detector length is achieved

  12. Flattening of the electrocardiographic T-wave is a sign of proarrhythmic risk and a reflection of action potential triangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhuiyan, Tanveer Ahmed; Graff, Claus; Kanters, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced triangulation of the cardiac action potential is associated with increased risk of arrhythmic events. It has been suggested that triangulation causes a flattening of the electrocardiographic T-wave but the relationship between triangulation, T-wave flattening and onset of arrhythmia ...

  13. An effective method for finding special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Maochang; Fan Guihong

    2008-01-01

    There are many interesting methods can be utilized to construct special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with constant coefficients. However, most of these methods are not applicable to nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients. A new method is presented in this Letter, which can be used to find special solutions of nonlinear differential equations with variable coefficients. This method is based on seeking appropriate Bernoulli equation corresponding to the equation studied. Many well-known equations are chosen to illustrate the application of this method

  14. SOFTWARE MODULE FOR CONSTRUCTING THE INTERSECTION OF TRIANGULATED SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kurgansky

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effective algorithm is proposed for implementing Boolean operations over triangulated surfaces, namely, disjunction, conjunction and Boolean difference, and its software implementation. The idea consists in as follow. The first step is to determine pairs of intersecting triangles: localizing the intersection of the two surfaces using the bounding volume of the parallelepipeds and the future of their intersection. The second step is constructing an intersection line for each pair of triangles: a pair of intersecting triangles is selected, and the segment along which they intersect is constructed. Further, thanks to the entered data structure, "adjacent" triangles are selected, among which are selected those that form the intersecting pair. The process described above continues as long as such triangles can be detected. After that the triangles involved in the intersection are retriangulated. For each triangle, all the edges are known on which it intersects with triangles from another surface. These edges are structural edges in the triangulation problem with constraints for a given triangle. The third step is to combine all surfaces into one surface. Further, subsurfaces are constructed along the loops of intersection limited by the found loops. Since the intersection line of the surfaces was constructed in sequence, it is possible to specify the direction of each edge. Any edge from the intersection line is selected. The triangle is added to the subsurface under construction, which includes this edge and its orientation is the same as the direction of the edge. The edge which was selected previously is deleted from intersection line, but two new edges are added is the remaining edges of added triangle. The third step is to combine all surfaces into one surface. Further, subsurfaces are constructed along the cycles of intersection limited by the found cycles. Since the intersection line of the surfaces was constructed in sequence, it is

  15. AN EFFICIENT DATA MINING METHOD TO FIND FREQUENT ITEM SETS IN LARGE DATABASE USING TR- FCTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Suba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining association rules in large database is one of most popular data mining techniques for business decision makers. Discovering frequent item set is the core process in association rule mining. Numerous algorithms are available in the literature to find frequent patterns. Apriori and FP-tree are the most common methods for finding frequent items. Apriori finds significant frequent items using candidate generation with more number of data base scans. FP-tree uses two database scans to find significant frequent items without using candidate generation. This proposed TR-FCTM (Transaction Reduction- Frequency Count Table Method discovers significant frequent items by generating full candidates once to form frequency count table with one database scan. Experimental results of TR-FCTM shows that this algorithm outperforms than Apriori and FP-tree.

  16. General method to find the attractors of discrete dynamic models of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiao; Albert, Réka

    2018-04-01

    Analyzing the long-term behaviors (attractors) of dynamic models of biological networks can provide valuable insight. We propose a general method that can find the attractors of multilevel discrete dynamical systems by extending a method that finds the attractors of a Boolean network model. The previous method is based on finding stable motifs, subgraphs whose nodes' states can stabilize on their own. We extend the framework from binary states to any finite discrete levels by creating a virtual node for each level of a multilevel node, and describing each virtual node with a quasi-Boolean function. We then create an expanded representation of the multilevel network, find multilevel stable motifs and oscillating motifs, and identify attractors by successive network reduction. In this way, we find both fixed point attractors and complex attractors. We implemented an algorithm, which we test and validate on representative synthetic networks and on published multilevel models of biological networks. Despite its primary motivation to analyze biological networks, our motif-based method is general and can be applied to any finite discrete dynamical system.

  17. General method to find the attractors of discrete dynamic models of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiao; Albert, Réka

    2018-04-01

    Analyzing the long-term behaviors (attractors) of dynamic models of biological networks can provide valuable insight. We propose a general method that can find the attractors of multilevel discrete dynamical systems by extending a method that finds the attractors of a Boolean network model. The previous method is based on finding stable motifs, subgraphs whose nodes' states can stabilize on their own. We extend the framework from binary states to any finite discrete levels by creating a virtual node for each level of a multilevel node, and describing each virtual node with a quasi-Boolean function. We then create an expanded representation of the multilevel network, find multilevel stable motifs and oscillating motifs, and identify attractors by successive network reduction. In this way, we find both fixed point attractors and complex attractors. We implemented an algorithm, which we test and validate on representative synthetic networks and on published multilevel models of biological networks. Despite its primary motivation to analyze biological networks, our motif-based method is general and can be applied to any finite discrete dynamical system.

  18. A study on the effect of different image centres on stereo triangulation accuracy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of mixing the distortion centre, principal point and arithmetic image centre on the distortion correction, focal length determination and resulting real-world stereo vision triangulation. A robotic arm is used...

  19. Ising model of a randomly triangulated random surface as a definition of fermionic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadsky, M.A.; Migdal, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fermionic degrees of freedom are added to randomly triangulated planar random surfaces. It is shown that the Ising model on a fixed graph is equivalent to a certain Majorana fermion theory on the dual graph. (orig.)

  20. Methods for synthesizing findings on moderation effects across multiple randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C Hendricks; Sloboda, Zili; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Teasdale, Brent; Keller, Ferdinand; Burkhart, Gregor; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Howe, George; Masyn, Katherine; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Bengt; Stephens, Peggy; Grey, Scott; Perrino, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents new methods for synthesizing results from subgroup and moderation analyses across different randomized trials. We demonstrate that such a synthesis generally results in additional power to detect significant moderation findings above what one would find in a single trial. Three general methods for conducting synthesis analyses are discussed, with two methods, integrative data analysis and parallel analyses, sharing a large advantage over traditional methods available in meta-analysis. We present a broad class of analytic models to examine moderation effects across trials that can be used to assess their overall effect and explain sources of heterogeneity, and present ways to disentangle differences across trials due to individual differences, contextual level differences, intervention, and trial design.

  1. Methods for Synthesizing Findings on Moderation Effects Across Multiple Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C Hendricks; Sloboda, Zili; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Teasdale, Brent; Keller, Ferdinand; Burkhart, Gregor; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Howe, George; Masyn, Katherine; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Bengt; Stephens, Peggy; Grey, Scott; Perrino, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents new methods for synthesizing results from subgroup and moderation analyses across different randomized trials. We demonstrate that such a synthesis generally results in additional power to detect significant moderation findings above what one would find in a single trial. Three general methods for conducting synthesis analyses are discussed, with two methods, integrative data analysis, and parallel analyses, sharing a large advantage over traditional methods available in meta-analysis. We present a broad class of analytic models to examine moderation effects across trials that can be used to assess their overall effect and explain sources of heterogeneity, and present ways to disentangle differences across trials due to individual differences, contextual level differences, intervention, and trial design. PMID:21360061

  2. Drug repurposing by integrated literature mining and drug–gene–disease triangulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Peng; Guo, Jiong; Winnenburg, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    recent developments in computational drug repositioning and introduce the utilized data sources. Afterwards, we introduce a new data fusion model based on n-cluster editing as a novel multi-source triangulation strategy, which was further combined with semantic literature mining. Our evaluation suggests...... that utilizing drug–gene–disease triangulation coupled to sophisticated text analysis is a robust approach for identifying new drug candidates for repurposing....

  3. A Mixed Method Research for Finding a Model of Administrative Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Feizy; Alireza Moghali; Masuod Geramipoor; Reza Zare

    2015-01-01

    One of the critical issues of administrative decentralization in translating theory into practice is understanding its meaning. An important method to identify administrative decentralization is to address how it can be planned and implemented, and what are its implications, and how it would overcome challenges. The purpose of this study is finding a model for analyzing and evaluating administrative decentralization, so a mixed method research was used to explore and confirm the model of Admi...

  4. Restrictions on Measurement of Roughness of Textile Fabrics by Laser Triangulation: A Phenomenological Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Burhan

    2010-01-01

    Laser triangulation method is one of the methods used for contactless measurement of roughness of textile fabrics. Method is based on measurement of distance between the sensor and the object by imaging the light scattered from the surface. However, experimental results, especially for high values of roughness, show a strong dependence to duration of exposure time to laser pulses. Use of very short exposure times and long exposures times causes appearance on the surface of the scanned textile of pixels with Active peak heights. The number of Active peaks increases with decrease of exposure time down to 0.1 ms, and increases with increase of exposure time up to 100 ms. Appearance of Active peaks leads to nonrealistic increase of roughness of the surface both for short exposure times and long exposure times reaching a minimum somewhere in the region of medium exposure times, 1 to 2 ms. The above effect suggests a careful analysis of experimental data and, also, becomes an important restriction to the method. In this paper we attempt to make a phenomenological approach to the mechanisms leading to these effects. We suppose that effect is related both to scattering properties of scanned surface and to physical parameters of CCD sensors. The first factor becomes more important in the region of long exposure times, while second factor becomes more important in the region of short exposure times.

  5. Error-finding and error-correcting methods for the start-up of the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.; Selig, L.J.

    1987-02-01

    During the commissioning of an accelerator, storage ring, or beam transfer line, one of the important tasks of an accelertor physicist is to check the first-order optics of the beam line and to look for errors in the system. Conceptually, it is important to distinguish between techniques for finding the machine errors that are the cause of the problem and techniques for correcting the beam errors that are the result of the machine errors. In this paper we will limit our presentation to certain applications of these two methods for finding or correcting beam-focus errors and beam-kick errors that affect the profile and trajectory of the beam respectively. Many of these methods have been used successfully in the commissioning of SLC systems. In order not to waste expensive beam time we have developed and used a beam-line simulator to test the ideas that have not been tested experimentally. To save valuable physicist's time we have further automated the beam-kick error-finding procedures by adopting methods from the field of artificial intelligence to develop a prototype expert system. Our experience with this prototype has demonstrated the usefulness of expert systems in solving accelerator control problems. The expert system is able to find the same solutions as an expert physicist but in a more systematic fashion. The methods used in these procedures and some of the recent applications will be described in this paper

  6. "Expectations to Change" ((E2C): A Participatory Method for Facilitating Stakeholder Engagement with Evaluation Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E.; Nnawulezi, Nkiru A.; Vandenberg, Lela

    2015-01-01

    From a utilization-focused evaluation perspective, the success of an evaluation is rooted in the extent to which the evaluation was used by stakeholders. This paper details the "Expectations to Change" (E2C) process, an interactive, workshop-based method designed to engage primary users with their evaluation findings as a means of…

  7. Using Machine Learning Methods Jointly to Find Better Set of Rules in Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUG Hyontai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rough set-based data mining algorithms are one of widely accepted machine learning technologies because of their strong mathematical background and capability of finding optimal rules based on given data sets only without room for prejudiced views to be inserted on the data. But, because the algorithms find rules very precisely, we may confront with the overfitting problem. On the other hand, association rule algorithms find rules of association, where the association resides between sets of items in database. The algorithms find itemsets that occur more than given minimum support, so that they can find the itemsets practically in reasonable time even for very large databases by supplying the minimum support appropriately. In order to overcome the problem of the overfitting problem in rough set-based algorithms, first we find large itemsets, after that we select attributes that cover the large itemsets. By using the selected attributes only, we may find better set of rules based on rough set theory. Results from experiments support our suggested method.

  8. Bloch Modes and Evanescent Modes of Photonic Crystals: Weak Form Solutions Based on Accurate Interface Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Saba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new approach to calculate the complex photonic band structure, both purely dispersive and evanescent Bloch modes of a finite range, of arbitrary three-dimensional photonic crystals. Our method, based on a well-established plane wave expansion and the weak form solution of Maxwell’s equations, computes the Fourier components of periodic structures composed of distinct homogeneous material domains from a triangulated mesh representation of the inter-material interfaces; this allows substantially more accurate representations of the geometry of complex photonic crystals than the conventional representation by a cubic voxel grid. Our method works for general two-phase composite materials, consisting of bi-anisotropic materials with tensor-valued dielectric and magnetic permittivities ε and μ and coupling matrices ς. We demonstrate for the Bragg mirror and a simple cubic crystal closely related to the Kelvin foam that relatively small numbers of Fourier components are sufficient to yield good convergence of the eigenvalues, making this method viable, despite its computational complexity. As an application, we use the single gyroid crystal to demonstrate that the consideration of both conventional and evanescent Bloch modes is necessary to predict the key features of the reflectance spectrum by analysis of the band structure, in particular for light incident along the cubic [111] direction.

  9. Finding all solutions of nonlinear equations using the dual simplex method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Kiyotaka; Fujioka, Tsuyoshi

    2003-03-01

    Recently, an efficient algorithm has been proposed for finding all solutions of systems of nonlinear equations using linear programming. This algorithm is based on a simple test (termed the LP test) for nonexistence of a solution to a system of nonlinear equations using the dual simplex method. In this letter, an improved version of the LP test algorithm is proposed. By numerical examples, it is shown that the proposed algorithm could find all solutions of a system of 300 nonlinear equations in practical computation time.

  10. A Root-MUSIC-Like Direction Finding Method for Cyclostationary Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yide Wang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new root-MUSIC-like direction finding algorithm that exploits cyclostationarity in order to improve the direction-of-arrival estimation. The proposed cyclic method is signal selective, it allows to increase the resolution power and the noise robustness significantly, and it is also able to handle more sources than the number of sensors. Computer simulations are used to show the performance of the algorithm.

  11. Numerical form-finding method for large mesh reflectors with elastic rim trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongwu; Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Peng; Du, Jingli

    2018-06-01

    Traditional methods for designing a mesh reflector usually treat the rim truss as rigid. Due to large aperture, light weight and high accuracy requirements on spaceborne reflectors, the rim truss deformation is indeed not negligible. In order to design a cable net with asymmetric boundaries for the front and rear nets, a cable-net form-finding method is firstly introduced. Then, the form-finding method is embedded into an iterative approach for designing a mesh reflector considering the elasticity of the supporting rim truss. By iterations on form-findings of the cable-net based on the updated boundary conditions due to the rim truss deformation, a mesh reflector with a fairly uniform tension distribution in its equilibrium state could be finally designed. Applications on offset mesh reflectors with both circular and elliptical rim trusses are illustrated. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach and that a circular rim truss is more stable than an elliptical rim truss.

  12. Search methods that people use to find owners of lost pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Linda K; Wittum, Thomas E; Ferketich, Amy K; Funk, Julie A; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J

    2007-06-15

    To characterize the process by which people who find lost pets search for the owners. Cross-sectional study. Sample Population-188 individuals who found a lost pet in Dayton, Ohio, between March 1 and June 30, 2006. Procedures-Potential participants were identified as a result of contact with a local animal agency or placement of an advertisement in the local newspaper. A telephone survey was conducted to identify methods participants used to find the pets' owners. 156 of 188 (83%) individuals completed the survey. Fifty-nine of the 156 (38%) pets were reunited with their owners; median time to reunification was 2 days (range, 0.5 to 45 days). Only 1 (3%) cat owner was found, compared with 58 (46%) dog owners. Pet owners were found as a result of information provided by an animal agency (25%), placement of a newspaper advertisement (24%), walking the neighborhood (19%), signs in the neighborhood (15%), information on a pet tag (10%), and other methods (7%). Most finders (87%) considered it extremely important to find the owner, yet only 13 (8%) initially surrendered the found pet to an animal agency. The primary reason people did not surrender found pets was fear of euthanasia (57%). Only 97 (62%) individuals were aware they could run a found-pet advertisement in the newspaper at no charge, and only 1 person who was unaware of the no-charge policy placed an advertisement. Veterinarians and shelters can help educate people who find lost pets about methods to search for the pets' owners.

  13. A complete solution of cartographic displacement based on elastic beams model and Delaunay triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Guo, Q.; Sun, Y.

    2014-04-01

    In map production and generalization, it is inevitable to arise some spatial conflicts, but the detection and resolution of these spatial conflicts still requires manual operation. It is become a bottleneck hindering the development of automated cartographic generalization. Displacement is the most useful contextual operator that is often used for resolving the conflicts arising between two or more map objects. Automated generalization researches have reported many approaches of displacement including sequential approaches and optimization approaches. As an excellent optimization approach on the basis of energy minimization principles, elastic beams model has been used in resolving displacement problem of roads and buildings for several times. However, to realize a complete displacement solution, techniques of conflict detection and spatial context analysis should be also take into consideration. So we proposed a complete solution of displacement based on the combined use of elastic beams model and constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) in this paper. The solution designed as a cyclic and iterative process containing two phases: detection phase and displacement phase. In detection phase, CDT of map is use to detect proximity conflicts, identify spatial relationships and structures, and construct auxiliary structure, so as to support the displacement phase on the basis of elastic beams. In addition, for the improvements of displacement algorithm, a method for adaptive parameters setting and a new iterative strategy are put forward. Finally, we implemented our solution on a testing map generalization platform, and successfully tested it against 2 hand-generated test datasets of roads and buildings respectively.

  14. A simple method for finding explicit analytic transition densities of diffusion processes with general diploid selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun S; Steinrücken, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    The transition density function of the Wright-Fisher diffusion describes the evolution of population-wide allele frequencies over time. This function has important practical applications in population genetics, but finding an explicit formula under a general diploid selection model has remained a difficult open problem. In this article, we develop a new computational method to tackle this classic problem. Specifically, our method explicitly finds the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the diffusion generator associated with the Wright-Fisher diffusion with recurrent mutation and arbitrary diploid selection, thus allowing one to obtain an accurate spectral representation of the transition density function. Simplicity is one of the appealing features of our approach. Although our derivation involves somewhat advanced mathematical concepts, the resulting algorithm is quite simple and efficient, only involving standard linear algebra. Furthermore, unlike previous approaches based on perturbation, which is applicable only when the population-scaled selection coefficient is small, our method is nonperturbative and is valid for a broad range of parameter values. As a by-product of our work, we obtain the rate of convergence to the stationary distribution under mutation-selection balance.

  15. Methodically finding solutions of equipments for carrying out experiments in materials testing and research. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, D.; Nachtweide, D.; Kuntze, G.

    1983-01-01

    In comparison with the development of industrial products the development of test equipments is of special kind, which is demonstrated by methodical proceeding for finding solutions and by potentialities for technical design and production of test equipment engineering. Some general principles are turned out and explained by several realized examples of design belonging to the sphere of materials testing in den Federal Institute of Materials Testing (BAM) representative of other problems. User are large scientific institutes independent of university, scientific institutes as members of university just as test stands and quality control offices of industrial works. (orig.) [de

  16. Robotic tool positioning process using a multi-line off-axis laser triangulation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, T. C.; Matos, G.

    2018-03-01

    Proper positioning of a friction stir welding head for pin insertion, driven by a closed chain robot, is important to ensure quality repair of cracks. A multi-line off-axis laser triangulation sensor was designed to be integrated to the robot, allowing relative measurements of the surface to be repaired. This work describes the sensor characteristics, its evaluation and the measurement process for tool positioning to a surface point of interest. The developed process uses a point of interest image and a measured point cloud to define the translation and rotation for tool positioning. Sensor evaluation and tests are described. Keywords: laser triangulation, 3D measurement, tool positioning, robotics.

  17. An automated method to find transition states using chemical dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Núñez, Emilio

    2015-02-05

    A procedure to automatically find the transition states (TSs) of a molecular system (MS) is proposed. It has two components: high-energy chemical dynamics simulations (CDS), and an algorithm that analyzes the geometries along the trajectories to find reactive pathways. Two levels of electronic structure calculations are involved: a low level (LL) is used to integrate the trajectories and also to optimize the TSs, and a higher level (HL) is used to reoptimize the structures. The method has been tested in three MSs: formaldehyde, formic acid (FA), and vinyl cyanide (VC), using MOPAC2012 and Gaussian09 to run the LL and HL calculations, respectively. Both the efficacy and efficiency of the method are very good, with around 15 TS structures optimized every 10 trajectories, which gives a total of 7, 12, and 83 TSs for formaldehyde, FA, and VC, respectively. The use of CDS makes it a powerful tool to unveil possible nonstatistical behavior of the system under study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. BAYESIAN DATA AUGMENTATION DOSE FINDING WITH CONTINUAL REASSESSMENT METHOD AND DELAYED TOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suyu; Yin, Guosheng; Yuan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    A major practical impediment when implementing adaptive dose-finding designs is that the toxicity outcome used by the decision rules may not be observed shortly after the initiation of the treatment. To address this issue, we propose the data augmentation continual re-assessment method (DA-CRM) for dose finding. By naturally treating the unobserved toxicities as missing data, we show that such missing data are nonignorable in the sense that the missingness depends on the unobserved outcomes. The Bayesian data augmentation approach is used to sample both the missing data and model parameters from their posterior full conditional distributions. We evaluate the performance of the DA-CRM through extensive simulation studies, and also compare it with other existing methods. The results show that the proposed design satisfactorily resolves the issues related to late-onset toxicities and possesses desirable operating characteristics: treating patients more safely, and also selecting the maximum tolerated dose with a higher probability. The new DA-CRM is illustrated with two phase I cancer clinical trials. PMID:24707327

  19. Reducing false-positive incidental findings with ensemble genotyping and logistic regression based variant filtering methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kyu-Baek; Lee, In-Hee; Park, Jin-Ho; Hambuch, Tina; Choe, Yongjoon; Kim, MinHyeok; Lee, Kyungjoon; Song, Taemin; Neu, Matthew B; Gupta, Neha; Kohane, Isaac S; Green, Robert C; Kong, Sek Won

    2014-08-01

    As whole genome sequencing (WGS) uncovers variants associated with rare and common diseases, an immediate challenge is to minimize false-positive findings due to sequencing and variant calling errors. False positives can be reduced by combining results from orthogonal sequencing methods, but costly. Here, we present variant filtering approaches using logistic regression (LR) and ensemble genotyping to minimize false positives without sacrificing sensitivity. We evaluated the methods using paired WGS datasets of an extended family prepared using two sequencing platforms and a validated set of variants in NA12878. Using LR or ensemble genotyping based filtering, false-negative rates were significantly reduced by 1.1- to 17.8-fold at the same levels of false discovery rates (5.4% for heterozygous and 4.5% for homozygous single nucleotide variants (SNVs); 30.0% for heterozygous and 18.7% for homozygous insertions; 25.2% for heterozygous and 16.6% for homozygous deletions) compared to the filtering based on genotype quality scores. Moreover, ensemble genotyping excluded > 98% (105,080 of 107,167) of false positives while retaining > 95% (897 of 937) of true positives in de novo mutation (DNM) discovery in NA12878, and performed better than a consensus method using two sequencing platforms. Our proposed methods were effective in prioritizing phenotype-associated variants, and an ensemble genotyping would be essential to minimize false-positive DNM candidates. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  20. THE USE OF THE PATENT ANALYSIS METHOD FOR FINDING ANALOGUES AND PROTOTYPES OF RECEIVED TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Petrova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research deals with the issue of the patent analysis efficiency, which is a necessary stage of seaching analogues and prototypes to obtain technical solutions. The article presents the results of analyzing the present automation systems for finding necessary information in the patent databases and identifies their advantages and disadvantages. It gives a description of the “Intellect” system, which is an example of software systems for the conceptual design stage support. Materials and Methods The article presents some of the possible ways to organize the patents-analogues search process and specific features of searching analogues and prototypes for the generated parametric structure scheme of the technical solution, which is the result of the synthesis of a new information-measuring and control system element in the “Intellect” system. The description of the proposed search query forming method is given. The article gives the structure of the patent passport, which must be stored in a database to organize the process of searcing analogues and prototypes. There given a description of algorithms for automatic adding a patent to the database, recalculating the weights while adding a patent by experts, identifying the fact of using different physical and technical effects in a patent. Results The final part of the article contains an example of the results of testing the developed subsystem implementing the proposed method. According to the test results it is concluded that the selected software and algorithmic solutions are effective.

  1. Electrocution of Raptors on Power Lines: A Review of Necropsy Methods and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Decades after the problem was first identified, power line electrocution continues to be a cause of avian mortality. Currently, several federal laws protect eagles and other migratory birds, meaning that utility companies may be liable for electrocution-related deaths. Veterinarians and veterinary pathologists called upon to diagnose and treat electrocuted birds should keep this in mind when conducting clinical and postmortem examinations. This review details necropsy findings and methods used to diagnose electrocution. A combination of gross, subgross, and radiographic examinations can aid in identification of subtle injury. Diagnosis is made based on the presence of skin and/or feather burns. Other necropsy findings may include skin lacerations, subcutaneous burns, bruising, limb avulsion, hemopericardium, and vascular rupture. At the US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Forensics Laboratory, from 2000 to 2015, 417 raptor deaths were determined to have been caused by electrocution. Bald eagles and golden eagles were the most commonly submitted species. In a retrospective review of 377 cases, for which whole bodies were submitted, 18% of the electrocuted birds had only a single, small (less than 3 cm in diameter) external burn. Small, isolated burns tended to occur on the undersides of the wings at and distal to the elbow and on the lower legs and feet. These areas should be most carefully examined in cases where electrocution injury is not immediately apparent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Using mixed methods to assess fidelity of delivery and its influencing factors in a complex self-management intervention for people with osteoarthritis and low back pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, Elaine

    2017-08-04

    Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of fidelity of delivery within complex behaviour change interventions, it is often poorly assessed. This mixed methods study aimed to establish the fidelity of delivery of a complex self-management intervention and explore the reasons for these findings using a convergent\\/triangulation design.

  3. Theoretical triangulation as an approach for revealing the complexity of a classroom discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drie, J.; Dekker, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the value of theoretical triangulation as a methodological approach for the analysis of classroom interaction. We analyze an excerpt of a whole-class discussion in history from three theoretical perspectives: interactivity of the discourse, conceptual level raising and

  4. An Array of Qualitative Data Analysis Tools: A Call for Data Analysis Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important steps in the qualitative research process is analysis of data. The purpose of this article is to provide elements for understanding multiple types of qualitative data analysis techniques available and the importance of utilizing more than one type of analysis, thus utilizing data analysis triangulation, in order to…

  5. Making the Most of Obesity Research: Developing Research and Policy Objectives through Evidence Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Aicken, Catherine; Arai, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Drawing lessons from research can help policy makers make better decisions. If a large and methodologically varied body of research exists, as with childhood obesity, this is challenging. We present new research and policy objectives for child obesity developed by triangulating user involvement data with a mapping study of interventions aimed at…

  6. The Marginalized "Model" Minority: An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…

  7. Mesh Generation via Local Bisection Refinement of Triangulated Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Science and Technology Organisation DSTO–TR–3095 ABSTRACT This report provides a comprehensive implementation of an unstructured mesh generation method...and Technology Organisation 506 Lorimer St, Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207, Australia Telephone: 1300 333 362 Facsimile: (03) 9626 7999 c© Commonwealth...their behaviour is critically linked to Maubach’s method and the data structures N and T . The top- level mesh refinement algorithm is also presented

  8. School Locations and Traffic Emissions — Environmental (InJustice Findings Using a New Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philine Gaffron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling. We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.

  9. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: Synthesis of Findings across Cohorts and Relevance to Dietary Guidance1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality

  10. Automatically repairing invalid polygons with a constrained triangulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledoux, H.; Arroyo Ohori, K.; Meijers, M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the validation of single polygons has received considerable attention, the automatic repair of invalid polygons has not. Automated repair methods can be considered as interpreting ambiguous or ill-defined polygons and giving a coherent and clearly defined output. At this moment, automatic

  11. Old Wine in New Skins: The Sensitivity of Established Findings to New Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Wiley-Exley, Elizabeth; Bickman, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Findings from an evaluation of a model system for delivering mental health services to youth were reassessed to determine the robustness of key findings to the use of methodologies unavailable to the original analysts. These analyses address a key concern about earlier findings--that the quasi-experimental design involved the comparison of two…

  12. Cooling as a method of finding topological dislocations in lattice models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomberoff, K.

    1989-01-01

    It is well known that the O(3) two-dimensional model has configurations with topological charge Q=1 and action S/sub min/=6.69. Since the exponent characterizing the renormalization-group behavior of this model is 4π such configurations invalidate the standard scaling behavior of the topological susceptibility. The analog exponent for the four-dimensional lattice SU(2) gauge model is 10.77. If there would exist configurations with Q=1 and S<10.77 in this model, they would invalidate the standard scaling behavior of its topological susceptibility. Kremer et al. have calculated the action of different configurations during cooling runs. They report that they do not find any configuration with S<12.7 and Q=1. I show that in the O(3) two-dimensional model cooling runs fail to uncover the well-known configurations with S<8. We conclude that the cooling method is not effective in uncovering the smallest action configurations in the Q=1 sector

  13. Novel method of finding extreme edges in a convex set of N-dimension vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Lun J.

    2001-11-01

    As we published in the last few years, for a binary neural network pattern recognition system to learn a given mapping {Um mapped to Vm, m=1 to M} where um is an N- dimension analog (pattern) vector, Vm is a P-bit binary (classification) vector, the if-and-only-if (IFF) condition that this network can learn this mapping is that each i-set in {Ymi, m=1 to M} (where Ymithere existsVmiUm and Vmi=+1 or -1, is the i-th bit of VR-m).)(i=1 to P and there are P sets included here.) Is POSITIVELY, LINEARLY, INDEPENDENT or PLI. We have shown that this PLI condition is MORE GENERAL than the convexity condition applied to a set of N-vectors. In the design of old learning machines, we know that if a set of N-dimension analog vectors form a convex set, and if the machine can learn the boundary vectors (or extreme edges) of this set, then it can definitely learn the inside vectors contained in this POLYHEDRON CONE. This paper reports a new method and new algorithm to find the boundary vectors of a convex set of ND analog vectors.

  14. Stereo matching and view interpolation based on image domain triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickel, Guilherme Pinto; Jung, Claudio R; Malzbender, Tom; Samadani, Ramin; Culbertson, Bruce

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach for stereo matching and view interpolation problems based on triangular tessellations suitable for a linear array of rectified cameras. The domain of the reference image is initially partitioned into triangular regions using edge and scale information, aiming to place vertices along image edges and increase the number of triangles in textured regions. A region-based matching algorithm is then used to find an initial disparity for each triangle, and a refinement stage is applied to change the disparity at the vertices of the triangles, generating a piecewise linear disparity map. A simple post-processing procedure is applied to connect triangles with similar disparities generating a full 3D mesh related to each camera (view), which are used to generate new synthesized views along the linear camera array. With the proposed framework, view interpolation reduces to the trivial task of rendering polygonal meshes, which can be done very fast, particularly when GPUs are employed. Furthermore, the generated views are hole-free, unlike most point-based view interpolation schemes that require some kind of post-processing procedures to fill holes.

  15. Health, utilisation of health services, 'core' information, and reasons for non-participation: a triangulation study amongst non-respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näslindh-Ylispangar, Anita; Sihvonen, Marja; Kekki, Pertti

    2008-11-01

    To explore health, use of health services, 'core' information and reasons for non-participation amongst males. Gender may provide an explanation for non-participation in the healthcare system. A growing body of research suggests that males are less likely than females to seek help from health professionals for their problems. The current research had its beginnings with the low response rate in a prior voluntary survey and health examination for Finnish males born in 1961. Data triangulation among 28 non-respondent middle-aged males in Helsinki was used. The methods involved structured and in-depth interviews and health measurements to explore the views of these males concerning their health-related behaviours and use of health services. Non-respondent males seldom used healthcare services. Despite clinical risk factors (e.g. obesity and blood pressure) and various symptoms, males perceived their health status as good. Work was widely experienced as excessively demanding, causing insomnia and other stress symptoms. Males expressed sensitive messages when a session was ending and when the participant was close to the door and leaving the room. This 'core' information included major causes of concern, anxiety, fears and loneliness. This triangulation study showed that by using an in-depth interview as one research strategy, more sensitive 'feminist' expressions in health and ill-health were got by men. The results emphasise a male's self-perception of his masculinity that may have relevance to the health experience of the male population. Nurses and physicians need to pay special attention to the requirements of gender-specific healthcare to be most effective in the delivery of healthcare to males.

  16. Breached fuel location in FFTF by delayed neutron monitor triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, W.L.; Tang, E.L.

    1985-10-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) features a three-loop, sodium-cooled 400 MWt mixed oxide fueled reactor designed for the irradiation testing of fuels and materials for use in liquid metal cooled fast reactors. To establish the ultimate capability of a particular fuel design and thereby generate information that will lead to improvements, many of the fuel irradiations are continued until a loss of cladding integrity (failure) occurs. When the cladding fails, fission gas escapes from the fuel pin and enters the reactor cover gas system. If the cladding failure permits the primary sodium to come in contact with the fuel, recoil fission products can enter the sodium. The presence of recoil fission products in the sodium can be detected by monitoring for the presence of delayed neutrons in the coolant. It is the present philosophy to not operate FFTF when a failure has occurred that permits fission fragments to enter the sodium. Thus, it is important that the identity and location of the fuel assembly that contains the failed cladding be established in order that it might be removed from the core. This report discusses method of location of fuel element when cladding is breached

  17. Infant feeding experiences among teen mothers in North Carolina: Findings from a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samandari Ghazaleh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days

  18. Interprofessional teamwork in comprehensive primary healthcare services: Findings from a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael; Freeman, Toby; Baum, Fran; Javanparast, Sara

    2018-05-01

    This article draws on data from a 5-year project that examined the effectiveness of Comprehensive primary healthcare (CPHC) in local communities. A hallmark of CPHC services is interprofessional teamwork. Drawing from this study, our article presents factors that enabled, or hindered, healthcare teams working interprofessionally in Australian primary healthcare (PHC) services. The article reports on the experiences of teams working in six Australian PHC services (four managed by state governments, one non-government sexual health organisation, and one Aboriginal community-controlled health service) during a time of significant health sector restructure. Findings are drawn from two key methods: an online survey of practitioners and managers (n = 154), and interviews with managers and practitioners (n = 60) from the six study sites. The majority of survey respondents worked with other health professionals in their service to provide interprofessional care to clients. Processes included formal team meetings, case conferencing, referring clients to other health professionals if needed, informal communication with other health professionals about clients, and team-based delivery of care. A range of interrelated factors affected interprofessional work at the services, from contextual, organisational, processual, and relational domains. Funding cuts and policy changes that saw a reorientation and re-medicalisation of South Australian services undermined interprofessional work, while a shared CPHC culture and commitment among some staff was helpful in resisting some of these effects. The co-location of services was a factor in PHC teams working interprofessionally and not only enabled some PHC teams to work more interprofessionally but also created barriers to interprofessional teamwork through disruption resulting from restructuring of services. Our study indicates the importance of decision makers taking into account the potential effects of policy and structural

  19. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla D; Davidson, Peter J; Pollini, Robin A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, whilst conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors' research on HIV risk amongst injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a Needle/Syringe Exchange Program in Los Angeles, CA, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts

  20. Findings, theories and methods in the study of children's national identifications and national attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrett, M.; Oppenheimer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the relevant background findings against which the empirical studies reported in this special issue were designed. Particular attention is given to previous findings on the development of children’s national knowledge, national attitudes and national identifications. The

  1. Triangulation of the monophasic action potential causes flattening of the electrocardiographic T-wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhuiyan, Tanveer Ahmed; Graff, Claus; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard

    2012-01-01

    of the action potential under the effect of the IKr blocker sertindole and associated these changes to concurrent changes in the morphology of electrocardiographic T-waves in dogs. We show that, under the effect of sertindole, the peak changes in the morphology of action potentials occur at time points similar......It has been proposed that triangulation on the cardiac action potential manifests as a broadened, more flat and notched T-wave on the ECG but to what extent such morphology characteristics are indicative of triangulation is more unclear. In this paper, we have analyzed the morphological changes...... to those observed for the peak changes in T-wave morphology on the ECG. We further show that the association between action potential shape and ECG shape is dose-dependent and most prominent at the time corresponding to phase 3 of the action potential....

  2. Classification and Filtering of Constrained Delaunay Triangulation for Automated Building Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Peipei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Building aggregation is an important part of research on large scale map generalization. A triangulation based approach is proposed from the perspective of shape features, six measure parameters of triangles in a constrained Delaunay triangulation are proposed. First of all, use the six measure parameters to determine which triangles are retained and which are erased. Then, the contours of retained triangles, as bridge areas between buildings, are automatically identified and right angle processed. And then, the buildings are aggregated with right angle feature retained by merging the bridge areas with connecting buildings. Finally, the approach is verified by being carried out on actual data. Experimental result shows that it is efficient and practical.

  3. Quantum triangulations moduli space, quantum computing, non-linear sigma models and Ricci flow

    CERN Document Server

    Carfora, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses key conceptual aspects and explores the connection between triangulated manifolds and quantum physics, using a set of case studies ranging from moduli space theory to quantum computing to provide an accessible introduction to this topic. Research on polyhedral manifolds often reveals unexpected connections between very distinct aspects of mathematics and physics. In particular, triangulated manifolds play an important role in settings such as Riemann moduli space theory, strings and quantum gravity, topological quantum field theory, condensed matter physics, critical phenomena and complex systems. Not only do they provide a natural discrete analogue to the smooth manifolds on which physical theories are typically formulated, but their appearance is also often a consequence of an underlying structure that naturally calls into play non-trivial aspects of representation theory, complex analysis and topology in a way that makes the basic geometric structures of the physical interactions involv...

  4. (2+1)-dimensional quantum gravity as the continuum limit of causal dynamical triangulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, D.; Loll, R.; Zamponi, F.

    2007-01-01

    We perform a nonperturbative sum over geometries in a (2+1)-dimensional quantum gravity model given in terms of causal dynamical triangulations. Inspired by the concept of triangulations of product type introduced previously, we impose an additional notion of order on the discrete, causal geometries. This simplifies the combinatorial problem of counting geometries just enough to enable us to calculate the transfer matrix between boundary states labeled by the area of the spatial universe, as well as the corresponding quantum Hamiltonian of the continuum theory. This is the first time in dimension larger than 2 that a Hamiltonian has been derived from such a model by mainly analytical means, and it opens the way for a better understanding of scaling and renormalization issues

  5. Incremental Reconstruction of Urban Environments by Edge-Points Delaunay Triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Romanoni, Andrea; Matteucci, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Urban reconstruction from a video captured by a surveying vehicle constitutes a core module of automated mapping. When computational power represents a limited resource and, a detailed map is not the primary goal, the reconstruction can be performed incrementally, from a monocular video, carving a 3D Delaunay triangulation of sparse points; this allows online incremental mapping for tasks such as traversability analysis or obstacle avoidance. To exploit the sharp edges of urban landscape, we ...

  6. GEOPOSITIONING PRECISION ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE IMAGE TRIANGULATION USING LRO NAC LUNAR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Di

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical analysis of the geopositioning precision of multiple image triangulation using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC images at the Chang’e-3(CE-3 landing site. Nine LROC NAC images are selected for comparative analysis of geopositioning precision. Rigorous sensor models of the images are established based on collinearity equations with interior and exterior orientation elements retrieved from the corresponding SPICE kernels. Rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs of each image are derived by least squares fitting using vast number of virtual control points generated according to rigorous sensor models. Experiments of different combinations of images are performed for comparisons. The results demonstrate that the plane coordinates can achieve a precision of 0.54 m to 2.54 m, with a height precision of 0.71 m to 8.16 m when only two images are used for three-dimensional triangulation. There is a general trend that the geopositioning precision, especially the height precision, is improved with the convergent angle of the two images increasing from several degrees to about 50°. However, the image matching precision should also be taken into consideration when choosing image pairs for triangulation. The precisions of using all the 9 images are 0.60 m, 0.50 m, 1.23 m in along-track, cross-track, and height directions, which are better than most combinations of two or more images. However, triangulation with selected fewer images could produce better precision than that using all the images.

  7. Relating covariant and canonical approaches to triangulated models of quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsdorf, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the relation between covariant and canonical approaches to quantum gravity and BF theory. We will focus on the dynamical triangulation and spin-foam models, which have in common that they can be defined in terms of sums over spacetime triangulations. Our aim is to show how we can recover these covariant models from a canonical framework by providing two regularizations of the projector onto the kernel of the Hamiltonian constraint. This link is important for the understanding of the dynamics of quantum gravity. In particular, we will see how in the simplest dynamical triangulation model we can recover the Hamiltonian constraint via our definition of the projector. Our discussion of spin-foam models will show how the elementary spin-network moves in loop quantum gravity, which were originally assumed to describe the Hamiltonian constraint action, are in fact related to the time-evolution generated by the constraint. We also show that the Immirzi parameter is important for the understanding of a continuum limit of the theory

  8. Chromatic polynomials of planar triangulations, the Tutte upper bound and chromatic zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrock, Robert; Xu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Tutte proved that if G pt is a planar triangulation and P(G pt , q) is its chromatic polynomial, then |P(G pt , τ + 1)| ⩽ (τ − 1) n−5 , where τ=(1+√5 )/2 and n is the number of vertices in G pt . Here we study the ratio r(G pt ) = |P(G pt , τ + 1)|/(τ − 1) n−5 for a variety of planar triangulations. We construct infinite recursive families of planar triangulations G pt,m depending on a parameter m linearly related to n and show that if P(G pt,m , q) only involves a single power of a polynomial, then r(G pt,m ) approaches zero exponentially fast as n → ∞. We also construct infinite recursive families for which P(G pt,m , q) is a sum of powers of certain functions and show that for these, r(G pt,m ) may approach a finite nonzero constant as n → ∞. The connection between the Tutte upper bound and the observed chromatic zero(s) near to τ + 1 is investigated. We report the first known graph for which the zero(s) closest to τ + 1 is not real, but instead is a complex-conjugate pair. Finally, we discuss connections with the nonzero ground-state entropy of the Potts antiferromagnet on these families of graphs. (paper)

  9. Quality of life in child and adolescent illness: concepts, methods, and findings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koot, Hans M; Wallander, Jan Lance

    2001-01-01

    ... and Findings Edited by Hans M. Koot Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands and Jan L. Wallander University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA I ~ ~~o~~~n~~~up LONDON...

  10. A path method for finding energy barriers and minimum energy paths in complex micromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, R.; Schrefl, T.; Suess, D.; Scholz, W.; Forster, H.; Fidler, J.

    2002-01-01

    Minimum energy paths and energy barriers are calculated for complex micromagnetic systems. The method is based on the nudged elastic band method and uses finite-element techniques to represent granular structures. The method was found to be robust and fast for both simple test problems as well as for large systems such as patterned granular media. The method is used to estimate the energy barriers in CoCr-based perpendicular recording media

  11. The Expanded FindCore Method for Identification of a Core Atom Set for Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David A.; Grullon, Jennifer; Huang, Yuanpeng J.; Tejero, Roberto; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing the scientific impact of NMR-based structure determination requires robust and statistically sound methods for assessing the precision of NMR-derived structures. In particular, a method to define a core atom set for calculating superimpositions and validating structure predictions is critical to the use of NMR-derived structures as targets in the CASP competition. FindCore (D.A. Snyder and G.T. Montelione PROTEINS 2005;59:673–686) is a superimposition independent method for identifying a core atom set, and partitioning that set into domains. However, as FindCore optimizes superimposition by sensitively excluding not-well-defined atoms, the FindCore core may not comprise all atoms suitable for use in certain applications of NMR structures, including the CASP assessment process. Adapting the FindCore approach to assess predicted models against experimental NMR structures in CASP10 required modification of the FindCore method. This paper describes conventions and a standard protocol to calculate an “Expanded FindCore” atom set suitable for validation and application in biological and biophysical contexts. A key application of the Expanded FindCore method is to identify a core set of atoms in the experimental NMR structure for which it makes sense to validate predicted protein structure models. We demonstrate the application of this Expanded FindCore method in characterizing well-defined regions of 18 NMR-derived CASP10 target structures. The Expanded FindCore protocol defines “expanded core atom sets” that match an expert’s intuition of which parts of the structure are sufficiently well-defined to use in assessing CASP model predictions. We also illustrate the impact of this analysis on the CASP GDT assessment scores. PMID:24327305

  12. Quantitative evaluation for small surface damage based on iterative difference and triangulation of 3D point cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyan; Guo, Quanli; Wang, Zhenchun; Yang, Degong

    2018-03-01

    This paper proposes a non-contact, non-destructive evaluation method for the surface damage of high-speed sliding electrical contact rails. The proposed method establishes a model of damage identification and calculation. A laser scanning system is built to obtain the 3D point cloud data of the rail surface. In order to extract the damage region of the rail surface, the 3D point cloud data are processed using iterative difference, nearest neighbours search and a data registration algorithm. The curvature of the point cloud data in the damage region is mapped to RGB color information, which can directly reflect the change trend of the curvature of the point cloud data in the damage region. The extracted damage region is divided into three prism elements by a method of triangulation. The volume and mass of a single element are calculated by the method of geometric segmentation. Finally, the total volume and mass of the damage region are obtained by the principle of superposition. The proposed method is applied to several typical injuries and the results are discussed. The experimental results show that the algorithm can identify damage shapes and calculate damage mass with milligram precision, which are useful for evaluating the damage in a further research stage.

  13. Finding ultracool brown dwarfs with MegaCam on CFHT: method and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, P.; Willott, C. J.; Forveille, T.; Delfosse, X.; Reylé, C.; Bertin, E.; Albert, L.; Artigau, E.; Robin, A. C.; Allard, F.; Doyon, R.; Hill, G. J.

    2008-06-01

    Aims: We present the first results of a wide field survey for cool brown dwarfs with the MegaCam camera on the CFHT telescope, the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey, hereafter CFBDS. Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field-brown dwarf mass function thanks to a larger sample of L and T dwarfs. Methods: We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images using optimised psf-fitting within Source Extractor, and follow them up with pointed near-infrared imaging on several telescopes. Results: We have so far analysed over 350 square degrees and found 770 brown dwarf candidates brighter than z'_AB=22.5. We currently have J-band photometry for 220 of these candidates, which confirms 37% as potential L or T dwarfs. Some are among the reddest and farthest brown dwarfs currently known, including an independent identification of the recently published ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 and the discovery of a second brown dwarf later than T8, CFBDS J005910.83-011401.3. Infrared spectra of three T dwarf candidates confirm their nature, and validate the selection process. Conclusions: The completed survey will discover ~100 T dwarfs and ~500 L dwarfs or M dwarfs later than M8, approximately doubling the number of currently known brown dwarfs. The resulting sample will have a very well-defined selection function, and will therefore produce a very clean luminosity function. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations made

  14. A simple method for finding the scattering coefficients of quantum graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum walks are roughly analogous to classical random walks, and similar to classical walks they have been used to find new (quantum) algorithms. When studying the behavior of large graphs or combinations of graphs, it is useful to find the response of a subgraph to signals of different frequencies. In doing so, we can replace an entire subgraph with a single vertex with variable scattering coefficients. In this paper, a simple technique for quickly finding the scattering coefficients of any discrete-time quantum graph will be presented. These scattering coefficients can be expressed entirely in terms of the characteristic polynomial of the graph’s time step operator. This is a marked improvement over previous techniques which have traditionally required finding eigenstates for a given eigenvalue, which is far more computationally costly. With the scattering coefficients we can easily derive the “impulse response” which is the key to predicting the response of a graph to any signal. This gives us a powerful set of tools for rapidly understanding the behavior of graphs or for reducing a large graph into its constituent subgraphs regardless of how they are connected

  15. Literature Shows Recurring Efforts at Finding a Method of Teaching Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudtson, Judy

    1994-01-01

    Reviews classroom journalism texts and articles published in "Quill and Scroll" and this journal since the early 1970s. Notes that the topic of ethics has been addressed recurrently. Finds a wealth of commitment to and concern for ethical issues for high school journalists. (RS)

  16. A comparison of three clustering methods for finding subgroups in MRI, SMS or clinical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Jensen, Rikke K; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-01-01

    ). There is a scarcity of head-to-head comparisons that can inform the choice of which clustering method might be suitable for particular clinical datasets and research questions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison of three commonly available methods (SPSS TwoStep CA, Latent Gold...... LCA and SNOB LCA). METHODS: The performance of these three methods was compared: (i) quantitatively using the number of subgroups detected, the classification probability of individuals into subgroups, the reproducibility of results, and (ii) qualitatively using subjective judgments about each program...... classify individuals into those subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Our subjective judgement was that Latent Gold offered the best balance of sensitivity to subgroups, ease of use and presentation of results with these datasets but we recognise that different clustering methods may suit other types of data...

  17. Finding all real roots of a polynomial by matrix algebra and the Adomian decomposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Fatoorehchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we put forth a combined method for calculation of all real zeroes of a polynomial equation through the Adomian decomposition method equipped with a number of developed theorems from matrix algebra. These auxiliary theorems are associated with eigenvalues of matrices and enable convergence of the Adomian decomposition method toward different real roots of the target polynomial equation. To further improve the computational speed of our technique, a nonlinear convergence accelerator known as the Shanks transform has optionally been employed. For the sake of illustration, a number of numerical examples are given.

  18. Non-degenerated Ground States and Low-degenerated Excited States in the Antiferromagnetic Ising Model on Triangulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    We study the unexpected asymptotic behavior of the degeneracy of the first few energy levels in the antiferromagnetic Ising model on triangulations of closed Riemann surfaces. There are strong mathematical and physical reasons to expect that the number of ground states (i.e., degeneracy) of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangulations of a fixed closed Riemann surface is exponential in the number of vertices. In the set of plane triangulations, the degeneracy equals the number of perfect matchings of the geometric duals, and thus it is exponential by a recent result of Chudnovsky and Seymour. From the physics point of view, antiferromagnetic triangulations are geometrically frustrated systems, and in such systems exponential degeneracy is predicted. We present results that contradict these predictions. We prove that for each closed Riemann surface S of positive genus, there are sequences of triangulations of S with exactly one ground state. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is that exponential degeneracy would be found in the excited states with energy close to the ground state energy. However, as our second result, we show the existence of a sequence of triangulations of a closed Riemann surface of genus 10 with exactly one ground state such that the degeneracy of each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th excited energy levels belongs to O( n), O( n 2), O( n 3) and O( n 4), respectively.

  19. Towards understanding household-level forest reliance in Cambodia - study sites, methods, and preliminary findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ra, Koy; Pichdara, Lonn; Dararath, Yem

    There is growing international interest in the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction. In consequence, this broad area of investigation has been subject to increased research; one major international research project is that facilitated by the Poverty Environment Network (PEN). This ......). This project covers a large number of sites in 26 countries throughout the tropics. The present report contains contextual details, methodological information and preliminary findings for the PEN sites in Cambodia....

  20. CT findings of pancreatic carcinoma. Evaluation with the combined method of early enhancement CT and high dose enhancement CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shigeki; Endo, Tokiko; Isomura, Takayuki; Ishigaki, Takeo; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Senda, Kouhei.

    1995-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were studied with the combined method of early enhancement CT and high dose enhancement CT in 72 carcinomas. Common Findings were change in pancreatic contour, abnormal attenuation in a tumor and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct. The incidence of abnormal attenuation and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct and bile duct was constant regardless of tumor size. The finding of hypoattenuation at early enhancement CT was most useful for demonstrating a carcinoma. However, this finding was negative in ten cases, five of which showed inhomogenous hyperattenuation at high dose enhancement CT. The detection of change in pancreatic contour and dilatation of the main pancreatic duct was most frequent at high dose enhancement CT. The finding of change in pancreatic contour and/or abnormal attenuation in a tumor could be detected in 47 cases at plain CT, 66 at early enhancement CT and 65 at high dose enhancement CT. Since the four cases in which neither finding was detected by any CT method showed dilatated main pancreatic duct, there was no case without abnormal CT findings. This combined CT method will be a reliable diagnostic technique in the imaging of pancreatic carcinoma. (author)

  1. Exploration of barriers and facilitators to publishing local public health findings: A mixed methods protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Selina A.; Webb, Nancy C.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.; Willcox, Bobbie; Ballance, Darra; Kinard, Faith; Gates, Madison L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the US accounts for a large proportion of journals related to public health. Although the American Public Health Association (APHA) includes 54 affiliated regional and state associations, little is known about their capacity to support public health scholarship. The aim of this study is to assess barriers and facilitators to operation of state journals for the dissemination of local public health research and practices. Methods A mixed methods approach will be used to co...

  2. Hybrid of Natural Element Method (NEM with Genetic Algorithm (GA to find critical slip surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahrokhabadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in geotechnical engineering is the slope stability analysis for determination of the factor of safety and the probable slip surface. Finite Element Method (FEM is well suited for numerical study of advanced geotechnical problems. However, mesh requirements of FEM creates some difficulties for solution processing in certain problems. Recently, motivated by these limitations, several new Meshfree methods such as Natural Element Method (NEM have been used to analyze engineering problems. This paper presents advantages of using NEM in 2D slope stability analysis and Genetic Algorithm (GA optimization to determine the probable slip surface and the related factor of safety. The stress field is produced under plane strain condition using natural element formulation to simulate material behavior analysis utilized in conjunction with a conventional limit equilibrium method. In order to justify the preciseness and convergence of the proposed method, two kinds of examples, homogenous and non-homogenous, are conducted and results are compared with FEM and conventional limit equilibrium methods. The results show the robustness of the NEM in slope stability analysis.

  3. The Lagrangian Multiplier Method of Finding Upper and Lower Limits to Critical Stresses of Clamped Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-01-01

    geometrica ~ boundary condi- tions of the problem. (2) The energy of the load-plate system is computed for this deflection surface and is then minimized...and interpolating to find the k that makes the seriw vanish. The correct value of m is that which gives the lowest value of k. For two half waves (m=2...the square plate, the present rekdively simple upper- and lower-limit calcula- tions show that his est,imatd limit of error is correct for this case

  4. A numerical method for finding sign-changing solutions of superlinear Dirichlet problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    In a recent result it was shown via a variational argument that a class of superlinear elliptic boundary value problems has at least three nontrivial solutions, a pair of one sign and one which sign changes exactly once. These three and all other nontrivial solutions are saddle points of an action functional, and are characterized as local minima of that functional restricted to a codimension one submanifold of the Hilbert space H-0-1-2, or an appropriate higher codimension subset of that manifold. In this paper, we present a numerical Sobolev steepest descent algorithm for finding these three solutions.

  5. The Findings from the OECD/NEA/CSNI UMS (Uncertainty Method Study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.; Glaeser, H.

    2013-01-01

    Within licensing procedures there is the incentive to replace the conservative requirements for code application by a 'best estimate' concept supplemented by an uncertainty analysis to account for predictive uncertainties of code results. Methods have been developed to quantify these uncertainties. The Uncertainty Methods Study (UMS) Group, following a mandate from CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations) of OECD/NEA (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development / Nuclear Energy Agency), has compared five methods for calculating the uncertainty in the predictions of advanced 'best estimate' thermal-hydraulic codes. Most of the methods identify and combine input uncertainties. The major differences between the predictions of the methods came from the choice of uncertain parameters and the quantification of the input uncertainties, i.e. the wideness of the uncertainty ranges. Therefore, suitable experimental and analytical information has to be selected to specify these uncertainty ranges or distributions. After the closure of the Uncertainty Method Study (UMS) and after the report was issued comparison calculations of experiment LSTF-SB-CL-18 were performed by University of Pisa using different versions of the RELAP 5 code. It turned out that the version used by two of the participants calculated a 170 K higher peak clad temperature compared with other versions using the same input deck. This may contribute to the differences of the upper limit of the uncertainty ranges. A 'bifurcation' analysis was also performed by the same research group also providing another way of interpreting the high temperature peak calculated by two of the participants. (authors)

  6. An efficient search method for finding the critical slip surface using the compositional Monte Carlo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goshtasbi, K.; Ahmadi, M; Naeimi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Locating the critical slip surface and the associated minimum factor of safety are two complementary parts in a slope stability analysis. A large number of computer programs exist to solve slope stability problems. Most of these programs, however, have used inefficient and unreliable search procedures to locate the global minimum factor of safety. This paper presents an efficient and reliable method to determine the global minimum factor of safety coupled with a modified version of the Monte Carlo technique. Examples arc presented to illustrate the reliability of the proposed method

  7. Simultaneous hit finding and timing method for pulse shape analysis of drift chamber signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaile, D; Schaile, O; Schwarz, J

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for the analysis of the digitized signal waveform of drift chamber pulses is described which yields a good multihit resolution and an accurate drift time determination with little processing time. The method has been tested and evaluated with measured pulse shapes from the full size prototype of the OPAL central detector which were digitized by 100 MHz FADCs. (orig.).

  8. Simultaneous hit finding and timing method for pulse shape analysis of drift chamber signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaile, D; Schaile, O; Schwarz, J

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for the analysis of the digitized signal waveform of drift chamber pulses is described which yields a good multihit resolution and an accurate drift time determination with little processing time. The method has been tested and evaluated with measured pulse shapes from the full size prototype of the OPAL central detector which were digitized by 100 MHz FADCs.

  9. Towards predicting the (dis)comfort performance by modelling: methods and findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naddeo, A.

    2017-01-01

    The research work underlying this thesis starts from a societal issue: A comfortable artefact helps people to improve their well-being and can be sold easier.
    In order to fulfil these two requirements (wellbeing and companies’ profit) a comfort-driven human-centred design method is

  10. A Simple Method to Find out when an Ordinary Differential Equation Is Separable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Jose Angel

    2009-01-01

    We present an alternative method to that of Scott (D. Scott, "When is an ordinary differential equation separable?", "Amer. Math. Monthly" 92 (1985), pp. 422-423) to teach the students how to discover whether a differential equation y[prime] = f(x,y) is separable or not when the nonlinearity f(x, y) is not explicitly factorized. Our approach is…

  11. Paediatric cardiac CT examinations: impact of the iterative reconstruction method ASIR on image quality - preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieville, Frederic A.; Gudinchet, Francois; Rizzo, Elena; Ou, Phalla; Brunelle, Francis; Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose exposure is of particular concern in children due to the possible harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) method is a promising new technique that reduces image noise and produces better overall image quality compared with routine-dose contrast-enhanced methods. To assess the benefits of ASIR on the diagnostic image quality in paediatric cardiac CT examinations. Four paediatric radiologists based at two major hospitals evaluated ten low-dose paediatric cardiac examinations (80 kVp, CTDI vol 4.8-7.9 mGy, DLP 37.1-178.9 mGy.cm). The average age of the cohort studied was 2.6 years (range 1 day to 7 years). Acquisitions were performed on a 64-MDCT scanner. All images were reconstructed at various ASIR percentages (0-100%). For each examination, radiologists scored 19 anatomical structures using the relative visual grading analysis method. To estimate the potential for dose reduction, acquisitions were also performed on a Catphan phantom and a paediatric phantom. The best image quality for all clinical images was obtained with 20% and 40% ASIR (p < 0.001) whereas with ASIR above 50%, image quality significantly decreased (p < 0.001). With 100% ASIR, a strong noise-free appearance of the structures reduced image conspicuity. A potential for dose reduction of about 36% is predicted for a 2- to 3-year-old child when using 40% ASIR rather than the standard filtered back-projection method. Reconstruction including 20% to 40% ASIR slightly improved the conspicuity of various paediatric cardiac structures in newborns and children with respect to conventional reconstruction (filtered back-projection) alone. (orig.)

  12. Paediatric cardiac CT examinations: impact of the iterative reconstruction method ASIR on image quality - preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mieville, Frederic A. [University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland); University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Institute of Radiation Physics - Medical Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Gudinchet, Francois; Rizzo, Elena [University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ou, Phalla; Brunelle, Francis [Necker Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R. [University Hospital Center and University of Lausanne, Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    Radiation dose exposure is of particular concern in children due to the possible harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) method is a promising new technique that reduces image noise and produces better overall image quality compared with routine-dose contrast-enhanced methods. To assess the benefits of ASIR on the diagnostic image quality in paediatric cardiac CT examinations. Four paediatric radiologists based at two major hospitals evaluated ten low-dose paediatric cardiac examinations (80 kVp, CTDI{sub vol} 4.8-7.9 mGy, DLP 37.1-178.9 mGy.cm). The average age of the cohort studied was 2.6 years (range 1 day to 7 years). Acquisitions were performed on a 64-MDCT scanner. All images were reconstructed at various ASIR percentages (0-100%). For each examination, radiologists scored 19 anatomical structures using the relative visual grading analysis method. To estimate the potential for dose reduction, acquisitions were also performed on a Catphan phantom and a paediatric phantom. The best image quality for all clinical images was obtained with 20% and 40% ASIR (p < 0.001) whereas with ASIR above 50%, image quality significantly decreased (p < 0.001). With 100% ASIR, a strong noise-free appearance of the structures reduced image conspicuity. A potential for dose reduction of about 36% is predicted for a 2- to 3-year-old child when using 40% ASIR rather than the standard filtered back-projection method. Reconstruction including 20% to 40% ASIR slightly improved the conspicuity of various paediatric cardiac structures in newborns and children with respect to conventional reconstruction (filtered back-projection) alone. (orig.)

  13. A critical assessment of theoretical methods for finding reaction pathways and transition states of surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimes, JirI; Michaelides, Angelos; Bowler, David R

    2010-01-01

    The performance of a variety of techniques for locating transition states on potential energy surfaces is evaluated within the density functional theory framework. Diffusion of a water molecule across NaCl(001) and HCl bond breaking on the same surface are treated as general test cases; the former is an example of a low barrier diffusion process and the latter an example of a relatively high barrier covalent bond rupture event. The methods considered include the nudged elastic band (NEB), Dewar, Healy and Stewart (DHS), dimer, constrained optimization (CO), activation-relaxation technique (ART) and one-side growing string (OGS) as well as novel combinations of the DHS with growing string (DHS + GS) and DHS plus climbing image (CI-DHS). A key conclusion to come from this study is that the NEB method is relatively fast, especially when just a single (climbing) image is used. Indeed, using more images represents an unnecessary computational burden for our set of processes. The dimer method exhibits variable performance; being poor for the water diffusion processes, which have small activation energies, but much more efficient for the HCl bond breaking process which has a higher barrier. When only a poor initial guess of the transition state geometry is available, the CI-DHS scheme is one of the most efficient techniques considered. And as a means to quickly establish an approximate minimum energy pathway the DHS + GS scheme offers some potential.

  14. A comparison of companion matrix methods to find roots of a trigonometric polynomial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, John P.

    2013-08-01

    A trigonometric polynomial is a truncated Fourier series of the form fN(t)≡∑j=0Naj cos(jt)+∑j=1N bj sin(jt). It has been previously shown by the author that zeros of such a polynomial can be computed as the eigenvalues of a companion matrix with elements which are complex valued combinations of the Fourier coefficients, the "CCM" method. However, previous work provided no examples, so one goal of this new work is to experimentally test the CCM method. A second goal is introduce a new alternative, the elimination/Chebyshev algorithm, and experimentally compare it with the CCM scheme. The elimination/Chebyshev matrix (ECM) algorithm yields a companion matrix with real-valued elements, albeit at the price of usefulness only for real roots. The new elimination scheme first converts the trigonometric rootfinding problem to a pair of polynomial equations in the variables (c,s) where c≡cos(t) and s≡sin(t). The elimination method next reduces the system to a single univariate polynomial P(c). We show that this same polynomial is the resultant of the system and is also a generator of the Groebner basis with lexicographic ordering for the system. Both methods give very high numerical accuracy for real-valued roots, typically at least 11 decimal places in Matlab/IEEE 754 16 digit floating point arithmetic. The CCM algorithm is typically one or two decimal places more accurate, though these differences disappear if the roots are "Newton-polished" by a single Newton's iteration. The complex-valued matrix is accurate for complex-valued roots, too, though accuracy decreases with the magnitude of the imaginary part of the root. The cost of both methods scales as O(N3) floating point operations. In spite of intimate connections of the elimination/Chebyshev scheme to two well-established technologies for solving systems of equations, resultants and Groebner bases, and the advantages of using only real-valued arithmetic to obtain a companion matrix with real-valued elements

  15. 1:500 Scale Aerial Triangulation Test with Unmanned Airship in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feifei, Xie; Zongjian, Lin; Dezhu, Gui

    2014-01-01

    A new UAVS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System) for low altitude aerial photogrammetry is introduced for fine surveying and mapping, including the platform airship, sensor system four-combined wide-angle camera and photogrammetry software MAP-AT. It is demonstrated that this low-altitude aerial photogrammetric system meets the precision requirements of 1:500 scale aerial triangulation based on the test of this system in Hubei province, including the working condition of the airship, the quality of image data and the data processing report. This work provides a possibility for fine surveying and mapping

  16. First Instances of Generalized Expo-Rational Finite Elements on Triangulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Zanaty, Peter; Laksa˚, Arne; Bang, Børre

    2011-12-01

    In this communication we consider a construction of simplicial finite elements on triangulated two-dimensional polygonal domains. This construction is, in some sense, dual to the construction of generalized expo-rational B-splines (GERBS). The main result is in the obtaining of new polynomial simplicial patches of the first several lowest possible total polynomial degrees which exhibit Hermite interpolatory properties. The derivation of these results is based on the theory of piecewise polynomial GERBS called Euler Beta-function B-splines. We also provide 3-dimensional visualization of the graphs of the new polynomial simplicial patches and their control polygons.

  17. Summing Feynman graphs by Monte Carlo: Planar φ3-theory and dynamically triangulated random surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulatov, D.V.

    1988-01-01

    New combinatorial identities are suggested relating the ratio of (n-1)th and nth orders of (planar) perturbation expansion for any quantity to some average over the ensemble of all planar graphs of the nth order. These identities are used for Monte Carlo calculation of critical exponents γ str (string susceptibility) in planar φ 3 -theory and in the dynamically triangulated random surface (DTRS) model near the convergence circle for various dimensions. In the solvable case D=1 the exact critical properties of the theory are reproduced numerically. (orig.)

  18. Development of the delyed-neutron triangulation technique for locating failed fuel in LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Two major accomplishments of the ORNL delayed neutron triangulation program are (1) an analysis of anticipated detector counting rates and sensitivities to unclad fuel and erosion types of pin failure, and (2) an experimental assessment of the accuracy with which the position of failed fuel can be determined in the FFTF (this was performed in a quarter-scale water mockup of realistic outlet plenum geometry using electrolyte injections and conductivity cells to simulate delayed-neutron precursor releases and detections, respectively). The major results and conclusions from these studies are presented, along with plans for further DNT development work at ORNL for the FFTF and CRBR. (author)

  19. Triangulating laser profilometer as a navigational aid for the blind: optical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcy, R.; Denise, B.; Damaschini, R.

    1996-03-01

    We propose a navigational aid approach for the blind that relies on active optical profilometry with real-time electrotactile interfacing on the skin. Here we are concerned with the optical parts of this system. We point out the particular requirements the profilometer must meet to meet the needs of blind people. We show experimentally that an adequate compromise is possible that consists of a compact class I IR laser-diode triangulation profilometer with the following angular resolution, 20-ms acquisition time per measure of distance, 60 degrees angular scanning field.

  20. The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowler, William C; Coresh, Josef; Elston, Robert C; Freedman, Barry I; Iyengar, Sudha K; Kimmel, Paul L; Olson, Jane M; Plaetke, Rosemarie; Sedor, John R; Seldin, Michael F

    2005-01-01

    The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) is a multicenter study designed to identify genetic determinants of diabetic nephropathy. It is conducted in eight U.S. clinical centers and a coordinating center, and with four ethnic groups (European Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and American Indians). Two strategies are used to localize susceptibility genes: a family-based linkage study and a case-control study using mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD). In the family-based study, probands with diabetic nephropathy are recruited with their parents and selected siblings. Linkage analyses will be conducted to identify chromosomal regions containing genes that influence the development of diabetic nephropathy or related quantitative traits such as serum creatinine concentration, urinary albumin excretion, and plasma glucose concentrations. Regions showing evidence of linkage will be examined further with both genetic linkage and association studies to identify genes that influence diabetic nephropathy or related traits. Two types of MALD studies are being done. One is a case-control study of unrelated individuals of Mexican American heritage in which both cases and controls have diabetes, but only the case has nephropathy. The other is a case-control study of African American patients with nephropathy (cases) and their spouses (controls) unaffected by diabetes and nephropathy; offspring are genotyped when available to provide haplotype data. Identification of genes that influence susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy will lead to a better understanding of how nephropathy develops. This should eventually lead to improved treatment and prevention.

  1. The use of multicriteria decision making methods to find the environmental costs of hydropower development alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, A.J.; Wenstoep, F.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with a decision support system (DSS) developed to find the costs of environmental goods. The system is based on multicriteria decision making and uses pairwise comparisons of two and two criteria. The criteria weights are calculated with linear regression. When one criterion is monetary, all criteria weights can be expressed in monetary units when the weights are known. The DSS has been tested on a hydropower project in the area of Sauda in Norway. To represent the decision makers, three panels each consisting of three persons were formed. The persons were selected from governmental agencies, the developers, the local environmental administration and a local politician. The DSS worked well with the panels. One problem was that impacts of hydropower projects are very site specific and also hard to quantify. Therefore, a considerable amount of time was used in creating a cognitive understanding of the issues involved and how they were represented by quantitative criteria. Some had also difficulties in accepting the principle of expressing environmental goods in monetary units. The results so far are preliminary. This research work is part of the Norwegian research programme Energy, Environment and Development. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Microplastic pollution in China's inland water systems: A review of findings, methods, characteristics, effects, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Shi, Huahong; Peng, Jinping; Wang, Yinghui; Xiong, Xiong; Wu, Chenxi; Lam, Paul K S

    2018-07-15

    The pollution of marine environments and inland waters by plastic debris has raised increasing concerns worldwide in recent years. China is the world's largest developing country and the largest plastic producer. In this review, we gather available information on microplastic pollution in China's inland water systems. The results show that microplastics are ubiquitous in the investigated inland water systems, and high microplastic abundances were observed in developed areas. Although similar sampling and analytical methods were used for microplastic research in inland water and marine systems, methods of investigation should be standardized in the future. The characteristics of the detected microplastics suggest secondary sources as their major sources. The biological and ecological effects of microplastics have been demonstrated, but their risks are difficult to determine at this stage due to the discrepancy between the field-collected microplastics and microplastics used in ecotoxicological studies. Although many laws and regulations have already been established to manage and control plastic waste in China, the implementation of these laws and regulations has been ineffective and sometimes difficult. Several research priorities are identified, and we suggest that the Chinese government should be more proactive in tackling plastic pollution problems to protect the environment and fulfill international responsibilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The value of earth observations: methods and findings on the value of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly M.; Serbina, Larisa O.; Richardson, Leslie A.; Ryker, Sarah J.; Newman, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Data from Earth observation systems are used extensively in managing and monitoring natural resources, natural hazards, and the impacts of climate change, but the value of such data can be difficult to estimate, particularly when it is available at no cost. Assessing the socioeconomic and scientific value of these data provides a better understanding of the existing and emerging research, science, and applications related to this information and contributes to the decision making process regarding current and future Earth observation systems. Recent USGS research on Landsat data has advanced the literature in this area by using a variety of methods to estimate value. The results of a 2012 survey of Landsat users, a 2013 requirements assessment, and 2013 case studies of applications of Landsat imagery are discussed.

  4. Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography as a Method for Finding Die Attach Voids in Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahm, E. N.; Rolin, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA analyzes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts used in space vehicles to understand failure modes of these components. The diode is an EEE part critical to NASA missions that can fail due to excessive voiding in the die attach. Metallography, one established method for studying the die attach, is a time-intensive, destructive, and equivocal process whereby mechanical grinding of the diodes is performed to reveal voiding in the die attach. Problems such as die attach pull-out tend to complicate results and can lead to erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study is to determine if three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), a nondestructive technique, is a viable alternative to metallography for detecting die attach voiding. The die attach voiding in two- dimensional planes created from 3DCT scans was compared to several physical cross sections of the same diode to determine if the 3DCT scan accurately recreates die attach volumetric variability

  5. Mixing Methods in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs): Validation, Contextualization, Triangulation, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, James P.; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Dorner, Lisa; Barnes, Carol; May, Henry; Huff, Jason; Camburn, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we described how we mixed research approaches in a Randomized Control Trial (RCT) of a school principal professional development program. Using examples from our study we illustrate how combining qualitative and quantitative data can address some key challenges from validating instruments and measures of mediator variables to…

  6. Description and pilot results from a novel method for evaluating return of incidental findings from next-generation sequencing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Katrina A B; Whitlock, Evelyn P; Berg, Jonathan S; Williams, Marc S; Webber, Elizabeth M; Webster, Jennifer A; Lin, Jennifer S; Schrader, Kasmintan A; Campos-Outcalt, Doug; Offit, Kenneth; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Hollombe, Celine

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, operationalize, and pilot test a transparent, reproducible, and evidence-informed method to determine when to report incidental findings from next-generation sequencing technologies. Using evidence-based principles, we proposed a three-stage process. Stage I "rules out" incidental findings below a minimal threshold of evidence and is evaluated using inter-rater agreement and comparison with an expert-based approach. Stage II documents criteria for clinical actionability using a standardized approach to allow experts to consistently consider and recommend whether results should be routinely reported (stage III). We used expert opinion to determine the face validity of stages II and III using three case studies. We evaluated the time and effort for stages I and II. For stage I, we assessed 99 conditions and found high inter-rater agreement (89%), and strong agreement with a separate expert-based method. Case studies for familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary hemochromatosis, and α1-antitrypsin deficiency were all recommended for routine reporting as incidental findings. The method requires definition of clinically actionable incidental findings and provide documentation and pilot testing of a feasible method that is scalable to the whole genome.

  7. The Teaching of General Solution Methods to Pattern Finding Problems through Focusing on an Evaluation and Improvement Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Junichi

    1997-01-01

    Examines the effects of a teaching strategy in which fifth-grade students evaluated the strengths or weaknesses of solution methods to pattern finding problems, including an experimental and control group each consisting of 34 elementary students, in Japan. The experimental group showed a significantly better performance on the retention test…

  8. Finding an optimal method for imaging lymphatic vessels of the upper limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, Susan; Purushotham, Arnie D.; Rose, Sarah L.; Chilvers, Alison J.; Ballinger, James R.; Solanki, Chandra K.; Barber, Robert W.; Peters, A. Michael; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy involves interstitial injection of radiolabelled particulate materials or radioproteins. Although several variations in the technique have been described, their place in clinical practice remains controversial. Traditional diagnostic criteria are based primarily on lymph node appearances but in situations such as breast cancer, where lymph nodes may have been excised, these criteria are of limited use. In these circumstances, lymphatic vessel morphology takes on greater importance as a clinical endpoint, so a method that gives good definition of lymphatic vessels would be useful. In patients with breast cancer, for example, such a method, used before and after lymph node resection, may assist in predicting the development of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. The aim of this study was to optimise a method for the visualisation of lymphatic vessels. Subcutaneous (sc) and intradermal (id) injection sites were compared, and technetium-99m nanocolloid, a particulate material, was compared with 99m Tc-human immunoglobulin (HIG), which is a soluble macromolecule. Twelve normal volunteers were each studied on two occasions. In three subjects, id 99m Tc-HIG was compared with sc 99m Tc-HIG, in three id 99m Tc-nanocolloid was compared with sc 99m Tc-nanocolloid, in three id 99m Tc-HIG was compared with id 99m Tc-nanocolloid and in three sc 99m Tc-HIG was compared with sc 99m Tc-nanocolloid. Endpoints were quality of lymphatic vessel definition, the time after injection at which vessels were most clearly visualised, the rate constant of depot disappearance (k) and the systemic blood accumulation rate as measured by gamma camera imaging over the liver or cardiac blood pool. Excellent definition of lymphatic vessels was obtained following id injection of either radiopharmaceutical, an injection route that was clearly superior to sc. Differences between radiopharmaceuticals were less clear, although after id injection, 99m Tc-HIG gave images that were

  9. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.

  10. Insights on leadership from early career nurse academics: findings from a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Jackson, Debra; Daly, John; Gray, Joanne; Salamonson, Yenna; Andrew, Sharon; Peters, Kath

    2016-03-01

    To explore the perceptions of early career nursing academics on leadership in academia. There is growing emphasis on leadership capacity building across all domains of nursing. However, there is limited evidence on leadership capacity in early career academics. This study tested an intervention to develop leadership capacity amongst early career nursing academics in two Australian universities. A sequential mixed methods design, using online surveys and semi-structured interviews, was used to collect data. Twenty-three early career nursing academics participated. Most had experience of formal leadership roles and were aware of its importance to them as they developed their academic careers. Participants were able to discuss their own views of themselves as leaders; their perceptions of their own needs for leadership development, and ways in which they could seek to develop further as leaders. There is a need to provide initial and ongoing opportunities for leadership development amongst nurse academics. These opportunities should be contextualised and recognise factors such as gender, and the effects of structural oppression. Nurse academics are involved in the preparation of the next generation of clinical leaders and it is imperative that they are able to articulate a clear view of leadership. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An improved triangulation laser rangefinder using a custom CMOS HDR linear image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscombe, Michael

    3-D triangulation laser rangefinders are used in many modern applications, from terrain mapping to biometric identification. Although a wide variety of designs have been proposed, laser speckle noise still provides a fundamental limitation on range accuracy. These works propose a new triangulation laser rangefinder designed specifically to mitigate the effects of laser speckle noise. The proposed rangefinder uses a precision linear translator to laterally reposition the imaging system (e.g., image sensor and imaging lens). For a given spatial location of the laser spot, capturing N spatially uncorrelated laser spot profiles is shown to improve range accuracy by a factor of N . This technique has many advantages over past speckle-reduction technologies, such as a fixed system cost and form factor, and the ability to virtually eliminate laser speckle noise. These advantages are made possible through spatial diversity and come at the cost of increased acquisition time. The rangefinder makes use of the ICFYKWG1 linear image sensor, a custom CMOS sensor developed at the Vision Sensor Laboratory (York University). Tests are performed on the image sensor's innovative high dynamic range technology to determine its effects on range accuracy. As expected, experimental results have shown that the sensor provides a trade-off between dynamic range and range accuracy.

  12. Indirect measurement of molten steel level in tundish based on laser triangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Zhiqi; He, Qing, E-mail: heqing@ise.neu.edu.cn; Xie, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Synthetical Automation for Process Industries, School of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-03-15

    For real-time and precise measurement of molten steel level in tundish during continuous casting, slag level and slag thickness are needed. Among which, the problem of slag thickness measurement has been solved in our previous work. In this paper, a systematic solution for slag level measurement based on laser triangulation is proposed. Being different from traditional laser triangulation, several aspects for measuring precision and robustness have been done. First, laser line is adopted for multi-position measurement to overcome the deficiency of single point laser range finder caused by the uneven surface of the slag. Second, the key parameters, such as installing angle and minimum requirement of the laser power, are analyzed and determined based on the gray-body radiation theory to fulfill the rigorous requirement of measurement accuracy. Third, two kinds of severe noises in the acquired images, which are, respectively, caused by heat radiation and Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI), are cleaned via morphological characteristic of the liquid slag and color difference between EMI and the laser signals, respectively. Fourth, as false target created by stationary slag usually disorders the measurement, valid signals of the slag are distinguished from the false ones to calculate the slag level. Then, molten steel level is obtained by the slag level minus the slag thickness. The measuring error of this solution is verified by the applications in steel plants, which is ±2.5 mm during steady casting and ±3.2 mm at the end of casting.

  13. Indirect measurement of molten steel level in tundish based on laser triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhiqi; He, Qing; Xie, Zhi

    2016-03-01

    For real-time and precise measurement of molten steel level in tundish during continuous casting, slag level and slag thickness are needed. Among which, the problem of slag thickness measurement has been solved in our previous work. In this paper, a systematic solution for slag level measurement based on laser triangulation is proposed. Being different from traditional laser triangulation, several aspects for measuring precision and robustness have been done. First, laser line is adopted for multi-position measurement to overcome the deficiency of single point laser range finder caused by the uneven surface of the slag. Second, the key parameters, such as installing angle and minimum requirement of the laser power, are analyzed and determined based on the gray-body radiation theory to fulfill the rigorous requirement of measurement accuracy. Third, two kinds of severe noises in the acquired images, which are, respectively, caused by heat radiation and Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI), are cleaned via morphological characteristic of the liquid slag and color difference between EMI and the laser signals, respectively. Fourth, as false target created by stationary slag usually disorders the measurement, valid signals of the slag are distinguished from the false ones to calculate the slag level. Then, molten steel level is obtained by the slag level minus the slag thickness. The measuring error of this solution is verified by the applications in steel plants, which is ±2.5 mm during steady casting and ±3.2 mm at the end of casting.

  14. Occupational burnout among radiation therapists in Australia: Findings from a mixed methods study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Wright, C.; Knight, K.; Baird, M.; Akroyd, D.; Adams, R.D.; Schneider, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence demonstrates that health care professionals in the palliative care context are more burned out than other health professionals. The aims of this study were to examine: (1) occupational burnout levels among radiation therapists in Australia, (2) association between demographic factors on burnout and (3) radiation therapists' perceptions of burnout. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey including the Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered to Radiation Therapists in Australia. Data were analysed using SPSS Ver 20 and open ended comments were analysed thematically using Nvivo 10. Results: A total of 200 radiation therapists participated in the survey. RTs had a high mean (±SD) burnout score for emotional exhaustion (38.5 ± 8.2), depersonalisation (17.5 ± 4.7) and personal achievement (30.5.3 ± 4.3) compared to RTs and health workers in other studies. High levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and low levels of personal achievement were present in 93% (186/200), 87% (174/200) and 61% (122/200) of participants respectively. RTs identified high workload and staff shortages, interpersonal conflict and technology as key sources of stress in the RT work environment. Conclusion: Australian RTs' level of burnout on all three stages of burnout exceed previously reported burnout levels for similar cohorts both locally and internationally. It is important that future interventions aimed at minimising or preventing stressors are identified and implemented in the radiation therapy work environment. - Highlights: • The burnout rate is higher among Australian RTs compared to studies in other countries. • Dealing with patients and their emotions were not a contributing factor to RTs' stress. • Challenging interpersonal relationships between staff was identified as one of the key stressors. • It is important that future interventions aimed at minimising or preventing stressors are recognised.

  15. Exploring community gardens in a health disparate population: findings from a mixed methods pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Zanko, Ashley; Price, Bryan; Bonner, Jennifer; Hill, Jennie L

    2012-01-01

    Despite recommendations, there have been few efforts to apply the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in the development, implementation, and evaluation of community gardens. As guided by the CBPR approach and grounded in a social-ecological model and behavioral theory, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand opinions and interests in developing and implementing a community garden and to understand factors impacting fruit, vegetable, and gardening behaviors. Community and academic members collaborated to develop and execute this study. The qualitative phase- targeting regional key informants-was designed to elicit perceived benefits and challenges of community gardens at the environmental, community, and individual levels. The quantitative phase targeted low resourced youth and parents and included a variety of validated theory-based questionnaires to understand factors impacting fruit, vegetable, and gardening behaviors. Major benefits of community gardens that emerged from the 10 qualitative interviews included increasing community cohesion and improving nutrition and physical activity factors. The quantitative phase included 87 youth and 67 parents. Across 16 items for fruits and vegetables, the average willingness to try was 1.32 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.40) on a 2-point scale. The majority of youth indicated they would work in a garden (n = 59; 68%) and eat food grown in their garden (n = 71; 82%). Among parents, gardening attitude, belief, and self-efficacy scores were all above average; however, gardening intentions were neutral. This research illustrates the successful partnering a community-academic team and has provided the partnership with a clearer lens to conceptualize and launch future regional community garden efforts.

  16. Healthy bread initiative: methods, findings, and theories--Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-03-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4 +/- 0.4 g% before study to 12 +/- 0.6 g% after the intervention (p bread decreased from 13 +/- 1.8 g% to 2 +/- 0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the longstanding problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model.

  17. An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenuil Anne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians. The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa.

  18. Healthy Bread Initiative: Methods, Findings, and Theories—Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4±0.4 g% before study to 12±0.6 g% after the intervention (p<0.001). The preparation and baking times remarkably increased. Wastage of bread decreased from 13±1.8 g% to 2±0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p<0.001). The HB Initiative managed to add new breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the long-standing problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model. PMID

  19. A Review on Hot-IP Finding Methods and Its Application in Early DDoS Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Dau Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On the high-speed connections of the Internet or computer networks, the IP (Internet Protocol packet traffic passing through the network is extremely high, and that makes it difficult for network monitoring and attack detection applications. This paper reviews methods to find the high-occurrence-frequency elements in the data stream and applies the most efficient methods to find Hot-IPs that are high-frequency IP addresses of IP packets passing through the network. Fast finding of Hot-IPs in the IP packet stream can be effectively used in early detection of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service attack targets and spreading sources of network worms. Research results show that the Count-Min method gives the best overall performance for Hot-IP detection thanks to its low computational complexity, low space requirement and fast processing speed. We also propose an early detection model of DDoS attack targets based on Hot-IP finding, which can be deployed on the target network routers.

  20. Use of traditional and modern contraceptives among childbearing women: findings from a mixed methods study in two southwestern Nigerian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Akpan, Wilson

    2018-05-09

    Contraceptive use has numerous health benefits such as preventing unplanned pregnancies, ensuring optimum spacing between births, reducing maternal and child mortality, and improving the lives of women and children in general. This study examines the level of contraceptive use, its determinants, reasons for non-use of contraception among women in the reproductive age group (18-49 years) in two southwestern Nigerian states. The study adopted an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data from 809 participants selected using a 3-stage cluster random sampling technique. We also conducted 46 in-depth interviews. In order to investigate the association between the socio-demographic variables and use of contraceptive methods, we estimated the binary logistic regression models. The findings indicated that knowledge of any methods of contraception was almost universal among the participants. The rates of ever use and current use of contraception was 80 and 66.6%, respectively. However, only 43.9% of the participants had ever used any modern contraceptive methods, considered to be more reliable. The fear of side effects of modern contraceptive methods drove women to rely on less effective traditional methods (withdrawal and rhythm methods). Some women employed crude and unproven contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancies. Our findings show that the rate of contraceptive use was high in the study setting. However, many women chose less effective traditional contraceptive methods over more effective modern contraceptive methods due to fear of side effects of the latter. Patient education on the various options of modern contraceptives, their side effects and management would be crucial towards expanding the family planning services in the study setting.

  1. The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method.

  2. Image matching for digital close-range stereo photogrammetry based on constraints of Delaunay triangulated network and epipolar-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Sheng, Y. H.; Li, Y. Q.; Han, B.; Liang, Ch.; Sha, W.

    2006-10-01

    In the field of digital photogrammetry and computer vision, the determination of conjugate points in a stereo image pair, referred to as "image matching," is the critical step to realize automatic surveying and recognition. Traditional matching methods encounter some problems in the digital close-range stereo photogrammetry, because the change of gray-scale or texture is not obvious in the close-range stereo images. The main shortcoming of traditional matching methods is that geometric information of matching points is not fully used, which will lead to wrong matching results in regions with poor texture. To fully use the geometry and gray-scale information, a new stereo image matching algorithm is proposed in this paper considering the characteristics of digital close-range photogrammetry. Compared with the traditional matching method, the new algorithm has three improvements on image matching. Firstly, shape factor, fuzzy maths and gray-scale projection are introduced into the design of synthetical matching measure. Secondly, the topology connecting relations of matching points in Delaunay triangulated network and epipolar-line are used to decide matching order and narrow the searching scope of conjugate point of the matching point. Lastly, the theory of parameter adjustment with constraint is introduced into least square image matching to carry out subpixel level matching under epipolar-line constraint. The new algorithm is applied to actual stereo images of a building taken by digital close-range photogrammetric system. The experimental result shows that the algorithm has a higher matching speed and matching accuracy than pyramid image matching algorithm based on gray-scale correlation.

  3. Triangulation and Gender Perspectives in ‘Falling Man’ by Don DeLillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Abe

    2011-09-01

    Susannah Radstone argues that the rhetorical response to 9/11 by the Bush administration is based on the opposition of two father figures: “the 'chastened' but powerful 'good' patriarchal father” Vs. “the 'bad' archaic father”. She explains: “In this Manichean fantasy can be glimpsed the continuing battle between competing versions of masculinity” (2002:459 that leaves women on the margins. The battle of the fathers of Bush’s rhetoric is counterposed in Falling Man by a battle between two men that stands for an unaccomplished fatherhood. Furthermore, the dualistic vision engendered by post-9/11 rhetoric and reflected in the novel should be evaluated in a trilateral dimension, given that at its core lies a triangulation built upon three stereotypical representations: the white middle-class man; the Arab terrorist; and a composite character in the middle, the woman, who shifts from ally, to victim, to a plausible supporter of the enemy.

  4. Introductory review on `Flying Triangulation': a motion-robust optical 3D measurement principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Svenja

    2015-04-01

    'Flying Triangulation' (FlyTri) is a recently developed principle which allows for a motion-robust optical 3D measurement of rough surfaces. It combines a simple sensor with sophisticated algorithms: a single-shot sensor acquires 2D camera images. From each camera image, a 3D profile is generated. The series of 3D profiles generated are aligned to one another by algorithms, without relying on any external tracking device. It delivers real-time feedback of the measurement process which enables an all-around measurement of objects. The principle has great potential for small-space acquisition environments, such as the measurement of the interior of a car, and motion-sensitive measurement tasks, such as the intraoral measurement of teeth. This article gives an overview of the basic ideas and applications of FlyTri. The main challenges and their solutions are discussed. Measurement examples are also given to demonstrate the potential of the measurement principle.

  5. Zur Rekonstruktion einer Typologie jugendlichen Medienhandelns gemäß dem Leitbild der Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Peter Treumann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Die im Folgenden dargestellten Ergebnisse sind im Rahmen des von der DFG geförderten Forschungsprojekts „Eine Untersuchung zum Mediennutzungsverhalten 12- bis 20-Jähriger und zur Entwicklung von Medienkompetenz im Jugendalter“ entstanden, das gemeinsam von Klaus Peter Treumann, Uwe Sander und Dorothee Meister geleitet wird. Das Forschungsprojekt untersucht das Medienhandeln Jugendlicher sowohl hinsichtlich Neuer als auch alter Medien. Zum einen fragen wir dabei nach den Ausprägungen von Medienkompetenz in verschiedenen Dimensionen und zum anderen konzentrieren wir uns auf die Entwicklung einer empirisch fundierten Typologie jugendlichen Medienhandelns. Methodologisch ist die Untersuchung an dem Leitbild der Triangulation orientiert und kombiniert qualitative und quantitative Zugänge zum Forschungsfeld in Form von Gruppendiskussionen, leitfadengestützten Einzelinterviews und einer Repräsentativerhebung.

  6. Thermal Entanglement and Critical Behavior of Magnetic Properties on a Triangulated Kagomé Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ananikian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium magnetic and entanglement properties in a spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg model on a triangulated Kagomé lattice are analyzed by means of the effective field for the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality. The calculation is reduced to decoupled individual (clusters trimers due to the separable character of the Ising-type exchange interactions between the Heisenberg trimers. The concurrence in terms of the three qubit isotropic Heisenberg model in the effective Ising field in the absence of a magnetic field is non-zero. The magnetic and entanglement properties exhibit common (plateau, peak features driven by a magnetic field and (antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. The (quantum entangled and non-entangled phases can be exploited as a useful tool for signalling the quantum phase transitions and crossovers at finite temperatures. The critical temperature of order-disorder coincides with the threshold temperature of thermal entanglement.

  7. Fixed-topology Lorentzian triangulations: Quantum Regge Calculus in the Lorentzian domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kyle; Visser, Matt

    2011-11-01

    A key insight used in developing the theory of Causal Dynamical Triangu-lations (CDTs) is to use the causal (or light-cone) structure of Lorentzian manifolds to restrict the class of geometries appearing in the Quantum Gravity (QG) path integral. By exploiting this structure the models developed in CDTs differ from the analogous models developed in the Euclidean domain, models of (Euclidean) Dynamical Triangulations (DT), and the corresponding Lorentzian results are in many ways more "physical". In this paper we use this insight to formulate a Lorentzian signature model that is anal-ogous to the Quantum Regge Calculus (QRC) approach to Euclidean Quantum Gravity. We exploit another crucial fact about the structure of Lorentzian manifolds, namely that certain simplices are not constrained by the triangle inequalities present in Euclidean signa-ture. We show that this model is not related to QRC by a naive Wick rotation; this serves as another demonstration that the sum over Lorentzian geometries is not simply related to the sum over Euclidean geometries. By removing the triangle inequality constraints, there is more freedom to perform analytical calculations, and in addition numerical simulations are more computationally efficient. We first formulate the model in 1 + 1 dimensions, and derive scaling relations for the pure gravity path integral on the torus using two different measures. It appears relatively easy to generate "large" universes, both in spatial and temporal extent. In addition, loopto-loop amplitudes are discussed, and a transfer matrix is derived. We then also discuss the model in higher dimensions.

  8. Outcomes and Impact of HIV Prevention, ART and TB Programs in Swaziland – Early Evidence from Public Health Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L.; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Swaziland’s severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Methods Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. Results By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4<350/mm3, with progressively improving patient retention and survival. As of 2010, 88% of health facilities providing antenatal care offered comprehensive PMTCT services. The HTC program recorded a halving in the proportion of adults tested who were HIV-infected; similarly HIV infection rates among HIV-exposed babies halved from 2007 to 2010. Case fatality rates among hospital patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS started to decrease from 2005–6 in adults and especially in children, contrasting with stable case fatality for other causes including TB. All-cause child in-patient case fatality rates started to decrease from 2005–6. TB case notifications as well as rates of HIV/TB co-infection among notified TB patients continued a steady increase through 2010, while coverage of HIV testing and CPT for co-infected patients increased to above 80%. Conclusion Against a background of high, but stable HIV prevalence and decreasing HIV incidence, we documented early evidence of a mortality decline associated with the expanded national HIV response since 2004. Attribution of impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future

  9. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C. Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field.

  10. When are night shifts effective for nursing student clinical learning? Findings from a mixed-method study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Basso, Felix; Del Negro, Elena; Achil, Illarj; Ferraresi, Annamaria; Morandini, Marzia; Moreale, Renzo; Mansutti, Irene

    2017-05-01

    Some nursing programmes offer night shifts for students while others do not, mainly due to the lack of evidence regarding their effectiveness on clinical learning. The principal aims of the study were to describe nursing students' perceptions and to explore conditions influencing effectiveness on learning processes during night shifts. An explanatory mixed-method study design composed of a cross-sectional study (primary method, first phase) followed by a descriptive phenomenological study design (secondary method, second phase) in 2015. Two bachelor of nursing degree programmes located in Northern Italy, three years in length and requiring night shifts for students starting in the second semester of the 1st year, were involved. First phase: all nursing students ending their last clinical placement of the academic year attended were eligible; 352 out the 370 participated. Second phase: a purposeful sample of nine students among those included in the first phase and who attended the highest amount of night shifts were interviewed. First phase: a questionnaire composed of closed and open-ended questions was adopted; data was analyzed through descriptive statistical methods. Second phase: an open-ended face-to-face audio-recorded interview was adopted and data was analyzed through content analysis. Findings from the quantitative phase, showed that students who attended night shifts reported satisfaction (44.7%) less frequently than those who attended only day shifts (55.9%). They also reported boredom (23.5%) significantly more often compared to day shift students (p=0001). Understanding of the nursing role and learning competence was significantly inferior among night shift students as compared to day shift students, while the perception of wasting time was significantly higher among night shift students compared to their counterparts. Night shift students performed nursing rounds (288; 98.2%), non-nursing tasks (247; 84.3%) and/or less often managed clinical problems

  11. Data governance requirements for distributed clinical research networks: triangulating perspectives of diverse stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Katherine K; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Holm, Roberta; Hack, Lori; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    There is currently limited information on best practices for the development of governance requirements for distributed research networks (DRNs), an emerging model that promotes clinical data reuse and improves timeliness of comparative effectiveness research. Much of the existing information is based on a single type of stakeholder such as researchers or administrators. This paper reports on a triangulated approach to developing DRN data governance requirements based on a combination of policy analysis with experts, interviews with institutional leaders, and patient focus groups. This approach is illustrated with an example from the Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research, which resulted in 91 requirements. These requirements were analyzed against the Fair Information Practice Principles (FIPPs) and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protected versus non-protected health information. The requirements addressed all FIPPs, showing how a DRN's technical infrastructure is able to fulfill HIPAA regulations, protect privacy, and provide a trustworthy platform for research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Simulations of four-dimensional simplicial quantum gravity as dynamical triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agishtein, M.E.; Migdal, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, Four-Dimensional Simplicial Quantum Gravity is simulated using the dynamical triangulation approach. The authors studied simplicial manifolds of spherical topology and found the critical line for the cosmological constant as a function of the gravitational one, separating the phases of opened and closed Universe. When the bare cosmological constant approaches this line from above, the four-volume grows: the authors reached about 5 x 10 4 simplexes, which proved to be sufficient for the statistical limit of infinite volume. However, for the genuine continuum theory of gravity, the parameters of the lattice model should be further adjusted to reach the second order phase transition point, where the correlation length grows to infinity. The authors varied the gravitational constant, and they found the first order phase transition, similar to the one found in three-dimensional model, except in 4D the fluctuations are rather large at the transition point, so that this is close to the second order phase transition. The average curvature in cutoff units is large and positive in one phase (gravity), and small negative in another (antigravity). The authors studied the fractal geometry of both phases, using the heavy particle propagator to define the geodesic map, as well as with the old approach using the shortest lattice paths

  13. Indoor Trajectory Tracking Scheme Based on Delaunay Triangulation and Heuristic Information in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Junping; Sun, Shiwen; Deng, Qingxu; Liu, Limin; Tian, Yonghong

    2017-06-02

    Object tracking and detection is one of the most significant research areas for wireless sensor networks. Existing indoor trajectory tracking schemes in wireless sensor networks are based on continuous localization and moving object data mining. Indoor trajectory tracking based on the received signal strength indicator ( RSSI ) has received increased attention because it has low cost and requires no special infrastructure. However, RSSI tracking introduces uncertainty because of the inaccuracies of measurement instruments and the irregularities (unstable, multipath, diffraction) of wireless signal transmissions in indoor environments. Heuristic information includes some key factors for trajectory tracking procedures. This paper proposes a novel trajectory tracking scheme based on Delaunay triangulation and heuristic information (TTDH). In this scheme, the entire field is divided into a series of triangular regions. The common side of adjacent triangular regions is regarded as a regional boundary. Our scheme detects heuristic information related to a moving object's trajectory, including boundaries and triangular regions. Then, the trajectory is formed by means of a dynamic time-warping position-fingerprint-matching algorithm with heuristic information constraints. Field experiments show that the average error distance of our scheme is less than 1.5 m, and that error does not accumulate among the regions.

  14. Simultaneous hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of satellite images through combined data sampling and anisotropic triangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazzini, Jacopo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dillard, Scott [PNNL

    2010-10-21

    The automatic detection, recognition , and segmentation of object classes in remote sensed images is of crucial importance for scene interpretation and understanding. However, it is a difficult task because of the high variability of satellite data. Indeed, the observed scenes usually exhibit a high degree of complexity, where complexity refers to the large variety of pictorial representations of objects with the same semantic meaning and also to the extensive amount of available det.ails. Therefore, there is still a strong demand for robust techniques for automatic information extraction and interpretation of satellite images. In parallel, there is a growing interest in techniques that can extract vector features directly from such imagery. In this paper, we investigate the problem of automatic hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of multispectral satellite images. We propose a new algorithm composed of the following steps: (i) a non-uniform sampling scheme extracting most salient pixels in the image, (ii) an anisotropic triangulation constrained by the sampled pixels taking into account both strength and directionality of local structures present in the image, (iii) a polygonal grouping scheme merging, through techniques based on perceptual information , the obtained segments to a smaller quantity of superior vectorial objects. Besides its computational efficiency, this approach provides a meaningful polygonal representation for subsequent image analysis and/or interpretation.

  15. Finding possible transition states of defects in silicon-carbide and alpha-iron using the dimer method

    CERN Document Server

    Gao Fei; Weber, W J; Corrales, L R; Jonsson, H

    2003-01-01

    Energetic primary recoil atoms from ion implantation or fast neutron irradiation produce isolated point defects and clusters of both vacancies and interstitials. The migration energies and mechanisms for these defects are crucial to successful multiscale modeling of microstructural evolution during ion-implantation, thermal annealing, or under irradiation over long periods of time. The dimer method is employed to search for possible transition states of interstitials and small interstitial clusters in SiC and alpha-Fe. The method uses only the first derivatives of the potential energy to find saddle points without knowledge of the final state of the transition. In SiC, the possible migration pathway for the C interstitial is found to consist of the first neighbor jump via a Si site or second neighbor jump, but the relative probability for the second neighbor jump is very low. In alpha-Fe, the possible transition states are studied as a function of interstitial cluster size, and the lowest energy barriers corr...

  16. Mixed methods evaluation of targeted case finding for cardiovascular disease prevention using a stepped wedged cluster RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Tom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pilot project cardiovascular prevention was implemented in Sandwell (West Midlands, UK. This used electronic primary care records to identify untreated patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease then invited these high risk patients for assessment by a nurse in their own general practice. Those found to be eligible for treatment were offered treatment. During the pilot a higher proportion of high risk patients were started on treatment in the intervention practices than in control practices. Following the apparent success of the prevention project, it was intended to extend the service to all practices across the Sandwell area. However the pilot project was not a robust evaluation. There was a need for an efficient evaluation that would not disrupt the planned rollout of the project. Methods/design Project nurses will sequentially implement targeted cardiovascular case finding in a phased way across all general practices, with the sequence of general practices determined randomly. This is a stepped wedge randomised controlled trial design. The target population is patients aged 35 to 74, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease whose ten-year cardiovascular risk, (determined from data in their electronic records is ≥20%. The primary outcome is the number of high risk patients started on treatment, because these data could be efficiently obtained from electronic primary care records. From this we can determine the effects of the case finding programme on the proportion of high risk patients started on treatment in practices before and after implementation of targeted case finding. Cost-effectiveness will be modelled from the predicted effects of treatments on cardiovascular events and associated health service costs. Alongside the implementation it is intended to interview clinical staff and patients who participated in the programme in order to determine acceptability to patients and clinicians. Practical

  17. RECONSTRUCTION, QUANTIFICATION, AND VISUALIZATION OF FOREST CANOPY BASED ON 3D TRIANGULATIONS OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING POINT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vauhkonen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D forest canopy is described and quantified using airborne laser scanning (ALS data with densities of 0.6–0.8 points m-2 and field measurements aggregated at resolutions of 400–900 m2. The reconstruction was based on computational geometry, topological connectivity, and numerical optimization. More precisely, triangulations and their filtrations, i.e. ordered sets of simplices belonging to the triangulations, based on the point data were analyzed. Triangulating the ALS point data corresponds to subdividing the underlying space of the points into weighted simplicial complexes with weights quantifying the (empty space delimited by the points. Reconstructing the canopy volume populated by biomass will thus likely require filtering to exclude that volume from canopy voids. The approaches applied for this purpose were (i to optimize the degree of filtration with respect to the field measurements, and (ii to predict this degree by means of analyzing the persistent homology of the obtained triangulations, which is applied for the first time for vegetation point clouds. When derived from optimized filtrations, the total tetrahedral volume had a high degree of determination (R2 with the stem volume considered, both alone (R2=0.65 and together with other predictors (R2=0.78. When derived by analyzing the topological persistence of the point data and without any field input, the R2 were lower, but the predictions still showed a correlation with the field-measured stem volumes. Finally, producing realistic visualizations of a forested landscape using the persistent homology approach is demonstrated.

  18. Improved laser-based triangulation sensor with enhanced range and resolution through adaptive optics-based active beam control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Syed Azer; Khwaja, Tariq Shamim; Mazhar, Mohsin Ali; Niazi, Haris Khan; Nawab, Rahma

    2017-07-20

    Various existing target ranging techniques are limited in terms of the dynamic range of operation and measurement resolution. These limitations arise as a result of a particular measurement methodology, the finite processing capability of the hardware components deployed within the sensor module, and the medium through which the target is viewed. Generally, improving the sensor range adversely affects its resolution and vice versa. Often, a distance sensor is designed for an optimal range/resolution setting depending on its intended application. Optical triangulation is broadly classified as a spatial-signal-processing-based ranging technique and measures target distance from the location of the reflected spot on a position sensitive detector (PSD). In most triangulation sensors that use lasers as a light source, beam divergence-which severely affects sensor measurement range-is often ignored in calculations. In this paper, we first discuss in detail the limitations to ranging imposed by beam divergence, which, in effect, sets the sensor dynamic range. Next, we show how the resolution of laser-based triangulation sensors is limited by the interpixel pitch of a finite-sized PSD. In this paper, through the use of tunable focus lenses (TFLs), we propose a novel design of a triangulation-based optical rangefinder that improves both the sensor resolution and its dynamic range through adaptive electronic control of beam propagation parameters. We present the theory and operation of the proposed sensor and clearly demonstrate a range and resolution improvement with the use of TFLs. Experimental results in support of our claims are shown to be in strong agreement with theory.

  19. Triangulated Proxy Reporting: a technique for improving how communication partners come to know people with severe cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gordon; De Bortoli, Tania; Arthur-Kelly, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This paper explains and demonstrates the pilot application of Triangulated Proxy Reporting (TPR); a practical technique for enhancing communication around people who have severe cognitive impairment (SCI). An introduction explains SCI and how this impacts on communication; and consequently on quality of care and quality of life. This is followed by an explanation of TPR and its origins in triangulation research techniques. An illustrative vignette explicates its utility and value in a group home for a resident with profound multiple disabilities. The Discussion and Conclusion sections propose the wider application of TPR for different cohorts of people with SCIs, their communication partners and service providers. TPR presents as a practical technique for enhancing communication interactions with people who have SCI. The paper demonstrates the potential of the technique for improving engagement amongst those with profound multiple disabilities, severe acquired brain injury and advanced dementia and their partners in and across different care settings. Implications for Rehabilitation Triangulated Proxy Reporting (TPR) shows potential to improve communications between people with severe cognitive impairments and their communication partners. TPR can lead to improved quality of care and quality of life for people with profound multiple disabilities, very advanced dementia and severe acquired brain injury, who otherwise are very difficult to support. TPR is a relatively simple and inexpensive technique that service providers can incorporate into practice to improving communications between clients with severe cognitive impairments, their carers and other support professionals.

  20. A Parallel Non-Overlapping Domain-Decomposition Algorithm for Compressible Fluid Flow Problems on Triangulated Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Chan, Tony F.; Tang, Wei-Pai

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers an algebraic preconditioning algorithm for hyperbolic-elliptic fluid flow problems. The algorithm is based on a parallel non-overlapping Schur complement domain-decomposition technique for triangulated domains. In the Schur complement technique, the triangulation is first partitioned into a number of non-overlapping subdomains and interfaces. This suggests a reordering of triangulation vertices which separates subdomain and interface solution unknowns. The reordering induces a natural 2 x 2 block partitioning of the discretization matrix. Exact LU factorization of this block system yields a Schur complement matrix which couples subdomains and the interface together. The remaining sections of this paper present a family of approximate techniques for both constructing and applying the Schur complement as a domain-decomposition preconditioner. The approximate Schur complement serves as an algebraic coarse space operator, thus avoiding the known difficulties associated with the direct formation of a coarse space discretization. In developing Schur complement approximations, particular attention has been given to improving sequential and parallel efficiency of implementations without significantly degrading the quality of the preconditioner. A computer code based on these developments has been tested on the IBM SP2 using MPI message passing protocol. A number of 2-D calculations are presented for both scalar advection-diffusion equations as well as the Euler equations governing compressible fluid flow to demonstrate performance of the preconditioning algorithm.

  1. L1 Use in EFL Classes with English-only Policy: Insights from Triangulated Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hatam Tamimi Sa’d

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of the use of the L1 in EFL classes from the perspective of EFL learners. The triangulated data were collected using class observations, focus group semi-structured interviews and the learners’ written reports of their perceptions and attitudes in a purpose-designed questionnaire. The participants consisted of sixty male Iranian EFL learners who constituted three classes. The results indicated a strong tendency among the participants toward L1 and its positive effects on language learning; while only a minority of the learners favoured an English-only policy, the majority supported the judicious, limited and occasional use of the L1, particularly on the part of the teacher. The participants mentioned the advantages as well as the disadvantages of the use/non-use of the L1. While the major advantage and the main purpose of L1 use was said to be the clarification and intelligibility of instructions, grammatical and lexical items, the main advantages of avoiding it were stated as being the improvement of speaking and listening skills, aximizing learners’ exposure to English and their becoming accustomed to it. The study concludes that, overall and in line with the majority of the previous research studies, a judicious, occasional and limited use of the L1 is a better approach to take in EFL classes than to include or exclude it totally. In conclusion, a re-examination of the English-only policy and a reconsideration of the role of the L1 are recommended. Finally, the commonly held assumption that L1 is a hindrance and an impediment to the learners’ language learning is challenged.

  2. Disconnects in pedagogy and practice in community health nursing clinical experiences: Qualitative findings of a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl-Zieber, Em M; Barton, Sylvia; Awosoga, Olu; Konkin, Jill

    2015-10-01

    Many baccalaureate schools of nursing are using non-traditional placements for undergraduate community health clinical rotations. These placements occur at agencies not organizationally affiliated with the health care system and they typically do not employ registered nurses (RNs). In this paper, we describe the qualitative findings of a mixed method study that explored these gaps as they relate to pre-registration nursing students' preparation for community health roles. While non-traditional community health placements offer unique opportunities for learning through carefully crafted service learning pedagogy, these placements also present challenges for student preparation for practice in community health roles. The theory-practice gap and the gap between the expected and actual performance of new graduates are accentuated through the use of non-traditional community clinical experiences. These gaps are not necessarily due to poor pedagogy, but rather due to the perceptions and values of the stakeholders involved: nursing students, community health nursing faculty, and community health nurses. New ways must be developed between academe and community health practice areas to provide students with opportunities to develop competence for practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-06-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (P(trend) carcinogens relevant for CRC risk. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cash transfers for HIV prevention: what do young women spend it on? Mixed methods findings from HPTN 068

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine MacPhail

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social grants have been found to have an impact on health and wellbeing in multiple settings. Who receives the grant, however, has been the subject of discussion with regards to how the money is spent and who benefits from the grant. Methods Using survey data from 1214 young women who were in the intervention arm and completed at least one annual visit in the HPTN 068 trial, and qualitative interview data from a subset of 38 participants, we examined spending of a cash transfer provided to young women conditioned on school attendance. Results We found that spending was largely determined and controlled by young women themselves and that the cash transfer was predominately spent on toiletries, clothing and school supplies. In interview data, young women discussed the significant role of cash transfers for adolescent identity, specifically with regard to independence from family and status within the peer network. There were almost no negative consequences from receiving the cash transfer. Conclusions We established that providing adolescents access to cash was not reported to be associated with social harms or negative consequences. Rather, spending of the cash facilitated appropriate adolescent developmental behaviours. The findings are encouraging at a time in which there is global interest in addressing the structural drivers of HIV risk, such as poverty, for young women. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01233531 (1 Nov 2010. First participant enrolled 5 March 2011.

  5. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (P trend < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (P trend = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (P trend = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk

  6. Differential impact of contraceptive methods on seizures varies by antiepileptic drug category: Findings of the Epilepsy Birth Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Andrew G; Mandle, Hannah B; Cahill, Kaitlyn E; Fowler, Kristen M; Hauser, W Allen

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether categories of contraception differ in their impact on seizures in women with epilepsy and whether the impact varies by antiepileptic drug category. Retrospective survey data came from 2712 contraceptive experiences reported by 1144 women with epilepsy. We compared risk ratios for reports of increase and decrease in seizure frequency on hormonal versus nonhormonal contraception, stratified by antiepileptic drug categories. More women with epilepsy reported a change in seizures on hormonal (28.2%) than on nonhormonal contraception (9.7%) (pcontraception (4.2%) was 4.47 (pcontraception (5.5%) was 1.71, pcontraception, the risk ratio for seizure increase was greater than for decrease (1.98, pmethod with a greater risk ratio for seizure decrease than combined pills. Seizure increase was greater for hormonal than nonhormonal contraception for each antiepileptic drug category (pcontraception, relative to the non-enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drug category which had the lowest rate, each of the other categories had significantly greater risks for seizure increase, especially the enzyme-inhibiting (valproate) category (risk ratio=2.53, p=0.0002). The findings provide community-based, epidemiological survey evidence that contraceptive methods may differ in their impact on seizures and that this impact may vary by antiepileptic drug category. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A Randomized Trial Evaluating Two Approaches for Promoting Pharmacy-Based Referrals to the Tobacco Quitline: Methods and Baseline Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zillich, Alan J.; Corelli, Robin L.; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Magnusson, L. Brooke; Fenlon, Christine M.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; de Moor, Carl; Hudmon, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Historically, community pharmacies have not integrated tobacco cessation activities into routine practice, instead unbundling them as unique services. This approach might have limited success and viability. Objective The objective of this report is to describe the methods and baseline findings for a two-state, randomized trial evaluating two intervention approaches for increasing pharmacy-based referrals to their state’s tobacco quitline. Methods Participating community pharmacies in Connecticut (n=32) and Washington (n=32) were randomized to receive either (a) on-site education with an academic detailer, describing methods for implementing brief interventions with patients and providing referrals to the tobacco quitline, or (b) quitline materials delivered by mail. Both interventions advocated for pharmacy personnel to ask about tobacco use, advise patients who smoke to quit, and refer patients to the tobacco quitline for additional assistance with quitting. Study outcome measures include the number of quitline registrants who are referred by pharmacies (before and during the intervention period), the number of quitline materials distributed to patients, and self-reported behavior of cessation counseling and quitline referrals, assessed using written surveys completed by pharmacy personnel (pharmacists, technicians). Results Pharmacists (n=124) and pharmacy technicians (n=127), representing 64 participating pharmacies with equal numbers of retail chain and independently-owned pharmacies, participated in the study. Most pharmacists (67%) and half of pharmacy technicians (50%) indicated that they were “not at all” familiar with the tobacco quitline. During the baseline (pre-intervention) monitoring period, the quitline registered 120 patients (18 in CT and 102 in WA) who reported that they heard about the quitline from a pharmacy. Conclusion Novel tobacco intervention approaches are needed to capitalize on the community pharmacy’s frequent

  8. Hand-held triangulation laser profilometer with audio output for blind people Profilométre laser à triangulation tenu en main avec sortie sonare pour non-voyants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcy, R.; Damaschini, R.

    1998-06-01

    We describe a device currently under industrial development which will give to the blind a means of three-dimensional space perception. It consists of a 350 g hand-held triangulating laser telemeter including electronic parts and batteries, with auditory feedback either inside the apparatus or close to the ear. The microprocessor unit converts in real time the distance measured by the telemeter into a musical note. Scanning the space with an adequate movement of the hand produces musical lines corresponding to the profiles of the environment. We discuss the optical configuration of the system relative to our first year of clinical experimentation.

  9. Experimental Validation of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method to Find the Mass Properties of an Iron Bird Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander W.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Fladung, William A.; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    The mass properties of an aerospace vehicle are required by multiple disciplines in the analysis and prediction of flight behavior. Pendulum oscillation methods have been developed and employed for almost a century as a means to measure mass properties. However, these oscillation methods are costly, time consuming, and risky. The NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center has been investigating the Dynamic Inertia Measurement, or DIM method as a possible alternative to oscillation methods. The DIM method uses ground test techniques that are already applied to aerospace vehicles when conducting modal surveys. Ground vibration tests would require minimal additional instrumentation and time to apply the DIM method. The DIM method has been validated on smaller test articles, but has not yet been fully proven on large aerospace vehicles.

  10. Some error estimates for the lumped mass finite element method for a parabolic problem

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzipantelidis, P.; Lazarov, R. D.; Thomé e, V.

    2012-01-01

    for the standard Galerkin method carry over to the lumped mass method whereas nonsmooth initial data estimates require special assumptions on the triangulation. We also discuss the application to time discretization by the backward Euler and Crank-Nicolson methods

  11. Source parameters for the 1952 Kern County earthquake, California: A joint inversion of leveling and triangulation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Bawden, Gerald W.

    2001-01-01

    Coseismic leveling and triangulation observations are used to determine the faulting geometry and slip distribution of the July 21, 1952, Mw 7.3 Kern County earthquake on the White Wolf fault. A singular value decomposition inversion is used to assess the ability of the geodetic network to resolve slip along a multisegment fault and shows that the network is sufficient to resolve slip along the surface rupture to a depth of 10 km. Below 10 km, the network can only resolve dip slip near the fa...

  12. An Example of the Use of Research Methods and Findings as an Experiential Learning Exercise in an Accounting Theory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Bruce; Philipich, Kirk; Blatz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching note is to describe an experiential learning exercise used in a master's level financial accounting theory course. The experiential exercise illustrates how order effects can affect user's judgments, a long-standing research finding. This experiential exercise was used in an attempt to make students more cognizant of…

  13. Experimental Validation of the Dynamic Inertia Measurement Method to Find the Mass Properties of an Iron Bird Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  14. For a reasoned development of experimental methods in information and communication sciences Some epistemological findings of methodological pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier COURBET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available If multidisciplinarity is necessary, first, for studying the widest possible set of communication phenomena (organizational, in groups, interpersonal, media, computer-mediated communication... and, secondly, for grasping the complexity of the different moments of the same phenomenon of communication (production, content, reception, circulation ..., methodological pluralism is also important. However, French research in communication sciences leaves in the shade a number of phenomena and moments of communication that could be better understood thanks to the experimental method. We will underline that the epistemological issues related to rational use of the experimental method in communication sciences are not negligible: it allows the study of objects that cannot be investigated with other methods and offers the opportunity to build knowledge by the refutation of hypotheses and theoretical propositions. We will clarify some epistemological misunderstandings concerning this method. First, it is actually a method of studying complex systems and communication processes. Secondly, its use is not incompatible with constructivism.

  15. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  16. How do clinical genetics consent forms address the familial approach to confidentiality and incidental findings? A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheensa, Sandi; Crawford, Gillian; Salter, Claire; Parker, Michael; Fenwick, Angela; Lucassen, Anneke

    2018-01-01

    Genetic test results can be relevant to patients and their relatives. Questions thus arise around whether clinicians regard genetic information as confidential to individuals or to families, and about how they broach this and other issues, including the potential for incidental findings, in consent (forms) for genetic testing. We conducted a content analysis of UK-wide genetic testing consent forms and interviewed 128 clinicians/laboratory scientists. We found that almost all genetic services offered patients multiple, sometimes unworkable, choices on forms, including an option to veto the use of familial genetic information to benefit relatives. Participants worried that documented choices were overriding professional judgement and cautioned against any future forms dictating practice around incidental findings. We conclude that 'tick-box' forms, which do little to enhance autonomy, are masking valid consent processes in clinical practice. As genome-wide testing becomes commonplace, we must re-consider consent processes, so that they protects patients'-and relatives'-interests.

  17. Radiographic localization of unerupted teeth: further findings about the vertical tube shift method and other localization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S G

    2000-10-01

    The parallax method (image/tube shift method, Clark's rule, Richards' buccal object rule) is recommended to localize unerupted teeth. Richards' contribution to the development of the parallax method is discussed. The favored method for localization uses a rotational panoramic radiograph in combination with an occlusal radiograph involving a vertical shift of the x-ray tube. The use of this combination when localizing teeth and supernumeraries in the premolar region is illustrated. When taking an occlusal radiograph to localize an unerupted maxillary canine, clinical situations are presented where modification of the vertical angulation of the tube of 70 degrees to 75 degrees or of the horizontal position of the tube is warranted. The limitations of axial (true, cross-sectional, vertex) occlusal radiographs are also explored.

  18. A new generalized exponential rational function method to find exact special solutions for the resonance nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Behzad; Inc, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    The present paper suggests a novel technique to acquire exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. The main idea of the method is to generalize the exponential rational function method. In order to examine the ability of the method, we consider the resonant nonlinear Schrödinger equation (R-NLSE). Many variants of exact soliton solutions for the equation are derived by the proposed method. Physical interpretations of some obtained solutions is also included. One can easily conclude that the new proposed method is very efficient and finds the exact solutions of the equation in a relatively easy way.

  19. Exploring asthma in the workplace: A triangulation of perspectives from management, employees and people with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Denise H; Cheung, Janet M Y; Smith, Lorraine; Saini, Bandana

    2017-08-31

    People with asthma spend a significant amount of time in the workplace but little is known about the current state of disease management in such contexts. The aim of the current study is to explore the experiences, attitudes and perceptions of asthma across different stakeholders in the workplace to help inform potential recommendations for workplace asthma policies. Using purposive and convenience sampling methods, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Australia with 5 human resource personnel, 10 employees with asthma and 10 employees without asthma. Interviews were guided by a schedule of questions focusing on attitudes and experiences of people with asthma in the workplace, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Analysis of the qualitative dataset revealed three key themes: Beliefs and Attitudes about Asthma, Asthma Solutions in the Workplace and Workplace Obstacles. Findings suggest that employees with asthma experience problems managing their asthma at work and there is a lack of workplace support in relation to asthma emergency management. Key recommendations for workplace asthma policies have been made to provide better support for employees with asthma. However, further investigation into the experience of managing asthma is required in a wider variety of occupations and work experiences to inform the development of a workplace asthma policy.

  20. Applications of the Integrated High-Performance CMOS Image Sensor to Range Finders — from Optical Triangulation to the Automotive Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe-Air Jiang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available With their significant features, the applications of complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor (CMOS image sensors covers a very extensive range, from industrialautomation to traffic applications such as aiming systems, blind guidance, active/passiverange finders, etc. In this paper CMOS image sensor-based active and passive rangefinders are presented. The measurement scheme of the proposed active/passive rangefinders is based on a simple triangulation method. The designed range finders chieflyconsist of a CMOS image sensor and some light sources such as lasers or LEDs. Theimplementation cost of our range finders is quite low. Image processing software to adjustthe exposure time (ET of the CMOS image sensor to enhance the performance oftriangulation-based range finders was also developed. An extensive series of experimentswere conducted to evaluate the performance of the designed range finders. From theexperimental results, the distance measurement resolutions achieved by the active rangefinder and the passive range finder can be better than 0.6% and 0.25% within themeasurement ranges of 1 to 8 m and 5 to 45 m, respectively. Feasibility tests onapplications of the developed CMOS image sensor-based range finders to the automotivefield were also conducted. The experimental results demonstrated that our range finders arewell-suited for distance measurements in this field.

  1. Tomography methods for diagnostic examination of cerebrovascular disease: a comparative evaluation of SPECT, PET and MR/CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, W.; Kaiser, H.J.; Weiller, C.; Altehoefer, C.; Buell, U.; Isensee, C.

    1991-01-01

    Single Photon Emissions Computerized Tomography (SPECT), Positron Emissions Tomography (PET), Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MR), and Transmission Computerized Tomography (CT) complement each other and lead to a consideration of the cerebrovascular disease under patho-physiological aspects. Indications for the combined application of functionally oriented (SPECT/PET) and morphologically oriented (CT/MR) examination methods with cerebrovascular disease are presented. (orig./MG) [de

  2. The Continuing Search to Find a More Effective and Less Intimidating Way to Teach Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature examining the teaching of research methods highlights difficulties students face when developing research competencies. Studies of student-centred teaching approaches have found increased student performance and improved confidence in undertaking research projects. To develop a student-centred approach, it could be beneficial…

  3. A genetic-algorithm-based method to find unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation and application to a one-bit oracle decision problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Jeongho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seokwon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the 'genetic parameter vector' of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.

  4. Finding Relevant Parameters for the Thin-film Photovoltaic Cells Production Process with the Application of Data Mining Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaczyk, Jan; Morawiec, Krzysztof; Zabierowski, Paweł; Drobiazg, Tomasz; Barreau, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    A data mining approach is proposed as a useful tool for the control parameters analysis of the 3-stage CIGSe photovoltaic cell production process, in order to find variables that are the most relevant for cell electric parameters and efficiency. The analysed data set consists of stage duration times, heater power values as well as temperatures for the element sources and the substrate - there are 14 variables per sample in total. The most relevant variables of the process have been found based on the so-called random forest analysis with the application of the Boruta algorithm. 118 CIGSe samples, prepared at Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, were analysed. The results are close to experimental knowledge on the CIGSe cells production process. They bring new evidence to production parameters of new cells and further research. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Method for finding the distribution function of the ions formed in an electrode sheath in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumenkov, V.

    1981-01-01

    A steady-state one-dimensional kinetic equation is studied for the ions formed in an electrode sheath in a discharge in a transverse magnetic field and also in the ionization--acceleration zone of Hall accelerators. Only single ionization of atoms by electron impact is considered in the collision term on the right side of the equation. The variables which appear on the right side are grouped into an expression which is a measure of the ion energy distribution. The problem is solved through the use of an empirical expression for the integrated ion energy distribution. This approach for finding the ion distribution function makes it a comparatively simple matter to trace the evolution of the distribution function due to changes in the external parameters (the magnetic field, the discharge voltage, and the pressure) or in the geometric characteristics of the discharge apparatus

  6. Paediatric cardiac CT examinations: impact of the iterative reconstruction method ASIR on image quality--preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miéville, Frédéric A; Gudinchet, François; Rizzo, Elena; Ou, Phalla; Brunelle, Francis; Bochud, François O; Verdun, Francis R

    2011-09-01

    Radiation dose exposure is of particular concern in children due to the possible harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) method is a promising new technique that reduces image noise and produces better overall image quality compared with routine-dose contrast-enhanced methods. To assess the benefits of ASIR on the diagnostic image quality in paediatric cardiac CT examinations. Four paediatric radiologists based at two major hospitals evaluated ten low-dose paediatric cardiac examinations (80 kVp, CTDI(vol) 4.8-7.9 mGy, DLP 37.1-178.9 mGy·cm). The average age of the cohort studied was 2.6 years (range 1 day to 7 years). Acquisitions were performed on a 64-MDCT scanner. All images were reconstructed at various ASIR percentages (0-100%). For each examination, radiologists scored 19 anatomical structures using the relative visual grading analysis method. To estimate the potential for dose reduction, acquisitions were also performed on a Catphan phantom and a paediatric phantom. The best image quality for all clinical images was obtained with 20% and 40% ASIR (p ASIR above 50%, image quality significantly decreased (p ASIR, a strong noise-free appearance of the structures reduced image conspicuity. A potential for dose reduction of about 36% is predicted for a 2- to 3-year-old child when using 40% ASIR rather than the standard filtered back-projection method. Reconstruction including 20% to 40% ASIR slightly improved the conspicuity of various paediatric cardiac structures in newborns and children with respect to conventional reconstruction (filtered back-projection) alone.

  7. An econometric method for estimating population parameters from non-random samples: An application to clinical case finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Rulof P; McLaren, Zoë M

    2017-09-01

    The problem of sample selection complicates the process of drawing inference about populations. Selective sampling arises in many real world situations when agents such as doctors and customs officials search for targets with high values of a characteristic. We propose a new method for estimating population characteristics from these types of selected samples. We develop a model that captures key features of the agent's sampling decision. We use a generalized method of moments with instrumental variables and maximum likelihood to estimate the population prevalence of the characteristic of interest and the agents' accuracy in identifying targets. We apply this method to tuberculosis (TB), which is the leading infectious disease cause of death worldwide. We use a national database of TB test data from South Africa to examine testing for multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Approximately one quarter of MDR-TB cases was undiagnosed between 2004 and 2010. The official estimate of 2.5% is therefore too low, and MDR-TB prevalence is as high as 3.5%. Signal-to-noise ratios are estimated to be between 0.5 and 1. Our approach is widely applicable because of the availability of routinely collected data and abundance of potential instruments. Using routinely collected data to monitor population prevalence can guide evidence-based policy making. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. An Innovative Method of Measuring Changes in Access to Healthful Foods in School Lunch Programs: Findings from a Pilot Evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P Hawkes

    Full Text Available A large local health department in Colorado partnered with 15 school districts to develop an approach to evaluate changes in access to healthy foods in reimbursable school lunches and a la carte offerings.School district nutrition managers were engaged at the start of this project. Health department dietitians developed criteria to classify food items as "Lower Fat and less added Sugar" (LFS and "Higher Fat and more added Sugar" (HFS based on the percentage of calories from fat and grams of added sugar. Lunch production sheets were obtained for two time periods, food items and the number of planned servings recorded. LFS and HFS planned servings were summed for each time period, and a LFS to HFS ratio calculated by dividing LFS planned servings by HFS planned servings. Additional analyses included calculating LFS: HFS ratios by school district, and for a la carte offerings.In 2009, the LFS: HFS ratio was 2.08, in 2011, 3.71 (P<0.0001. The method also detected changes in ratios at the school district level. For a la carte items, in 2009 the ratio of LFS: HFS was 0.53, and in 2011, 0.61 (not statistically significant.This method detected an increase in the LFS: HFS ratio over time and demonstrated that the school districts improved access to healthful food/drink by changing the contents of reimbursable school lunches. The evaluation method discussed here can generate information that districts can use in helping sustain and expand their efforts to create healthier environments for children and adults. Although federal regulations now cover all food and beverages served during the school day, there are still opportunities to improve and measure changes in food served in other settings such as child care centers, youth correction facilities, or in schools not participating in the National School Lunch Program.

  9. Characterization of a millefiori glass find from Aquincum by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzonyi, I.; Csontos, K.; Verebes, A.; Cserhati, C.; Csedreki, L.; Kis-Varga, M.; Kiss, A.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Research has been focused on the analysis of archaeological glasses from the Roman age and medieval times. Study of ancient millefiori type glasses from the collection of Hungarian Museums has been started. A test measurement, carried out on a glass fragment supposedly part of a dish, was performed by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE methods. Complementary analytical data were obtained for texture and composition. Results suggest that Roman and Mesopotamian techniques were used together. Our data contribute to data bases of millefiori glasses.

  10. Characterization of a millefiori glass find from Aquincum by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzonyi, I., E-mail: uzonyi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary); Csontos, K.; Verebes, A. [Budapest History Museum, Aquincum Museum H-8211 Budapest, Zahony u. 4. (Hungary); Cserhati, C. [Department of Solid State Physics, University of Debrecen H-4032 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/B (Hungary); Csedreki, L.; Kis-Varga, M.; Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/C (Hungary)

    2011-10-15

    Research has been focused on the analysis of archaeological glasses from the Roman age and medieval times. Study of ancient millefiori type glasses from the collection of Hungarian Museums has been started. A test measurement, carried out on a glass fragment supposedly part of a dish, was performed by SEM-EDX and micro-PIXE methods. Complementary analytical data were obtained for texture and composition. Results suggest that Roman and Mesopotamian techniques were used together. Our data contribute to data bases of millefiori glasses.

  11. Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions on mHealth Privacy and Security: Findings From a Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienza, Audie A; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Vaughon, Wendy; Hughes, Penelope; Patel, Vaishali; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Pritts, Joy

    2015-01-01

    This study examined consumers' attitudes and perceptions regarding mobile health (mHealth) technology use in health care. Twenty-four focus groups with 256 participants were conducted in 5 geographically diverse locations. Participants were also diverse in age, education, race/ethnicity, gender, and rural versus urban settings. Several key themes emerged from the focus groups. Findings suggest that consumer attitudes regarding mHealth privacy/security are highly contextualized, with concerns depending on the type of information being communicated, where and when the information is being accessed, who is accessing or seeing the information, and for what reasons. Consumers frequently considered the tradeoffs between the privacy/security of using mHealth technologies and the potential benefits. Having control over mHealth privacy/security features and trust in providers were important issues for consumers. Overall, this study found significant diversity in attitudes regarding mHealth privacy/security both within and between traditional demographic groups. Thus, to address consumers' concerns regarding mHealth privacy and security, a one-size-fits-all approach may not be adequate. Health care providers and technology developers should consider tailoring mHealth technology according to how various types of information are communicated in the health care setting, as well as according to the comfort, skills, and concerns individuals may have with mHealth technology.

  12. Interwoven histories: Mental health nurses with experience of mental illness, qualitative findings from a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Jennifer; Drey, Nicholas; Jones, Julia

    2018-02-15

    The effects of mental health nurses' own experience of mental illness or being a carer have rarely been researched beyond the workplace setting. This study aimed to explore how the experience of mental illness affects mental health nurses' lives outside of and inside work. A sample of 26 mental health nurses with personal experience of mental illness took part in semistructured interviews. Data were analysed thematically using a six-phase approach. The analysis revealed the broad context of nurses' experiences of mental illness according to three interwoven themes: mental illness as part of family life; experience of accessing services; and life interwoven with mental illness. Participants typically described personal and familial experience of mental illness across their life course, with multiple causes and consequences. The findings suggest that nurses' lives outside of work should be taken into account when considering the impact of their personal experience of mental illness. Similarly being a nurse influences how mental illness is experienced. Treatment of nurses with mental illness should account for their nursing expertise whilst recognizing that the context for nurses' mental illness could be much broader than the effect of workplace stress. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. Diagnostic methods in finding out the causes of infertility, results of HSG examination and laparoscopy in infertile women examined at the Gynecological Ward of the City Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasniewski, S.; Kukulski, P.; Szymanski, J.; Kwasniewska, A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents diagnostic methods and the results of hysterosalpingography (HSG) and laparoscopy examination, with special attention being drawn to the usefulness of these methods in finding out the causes of infertility. 51 patients with primary and second infertility were examined. HSG and laparoscopy make it possible to diagnose correctly the cause of infertility. They also enable adequate and early classification of patients for further diagnosis and treatment at highly specialized centers dealing with the problems of infertility. (author)

  14. The structure of chromatic polynomials of planar triangulations and implications for chromatic zeros and asymptotic limiting quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrock, Robert; Xu Yan

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the structure and properties of chromatic polynomials P(G pt,m-vector, q) of one-parameter and multi-parameter families of planar triangulation graphs G pt,m-vector , where m-vector = (m 1 ,…,m p ) is a vector of integer parameters. We use these to study the ratio of |P(G pt,m-vector, τ+1)| to the Tutte upper bound (τ − 1) n−5 , where τ=(1+√5)/2 and n is the number of vertices in G pt,m-vector . In particular, we calculate limiting values of this ratio as n → ∞ for various families of planar triangulations. We also use our calculations to analyze zeros of these chromatic polynomials. We study a large class of families G pt,m-vector with p = 1 and p = 2 and show that these have a structure of the form P(G pt,m ,q) = c G pt ,1 λ 1 m + c G pt ,2 λ 2 m + c G pt ,3 λ 3 m for p = 1, where λ 1 = q − 2, λ 2 = q − 3, and λ 3 = −1, and P(G pt,m-vector ,q) =Σ i 1 =1 3 Σ i 2 =1 3 c G pt ,i 1 i 2 λ i 1 m 1 λ i 2 m 2 for p = 2. We derive properties of the coefficients c G pt ,i-vector and show that P(G pt,m-vector ,q) has a real chromatic zero that approaches (1/2)(3+√5) as one or more of the m i → ∞. The generalization to p ⩾ 3 is given. Further, we present a one-parameter family of planar triangulations with real zeros that approach 3 from below as m → ∞. Implications for the ground-state entropy of the Potts antiferromagnet are discussed. (paper)

  15. Tle Triangulation Campaign by Japanese High School Students as a Space Educational Project of the Ssh Consortium Kochi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Okamoto, Sumito; Miyoshi, Terunori; Takamura, Yuzaburo; Aoshima, Akira; Hinokuchi, Jin

    As one of the space educational projects in Japan, a triangulation observation project of TLE (Transient Luminous Events: sprites, elves, blue-jets, etc.) has been carried out since 2006 in collaboration between 29 Super Science High-schools (SSH) and Kochi University of Technol-ogy (KUT). Following with previous success of sprite observations by "Astro High-school" since 2004, the SSH consortium Kochi was established as a national space educational project sup-ported by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). High-sensitivity CCD camera (Watec, Neptune-100) with 6 mm F/1.4 C-mount lens (Fujinon) and motion-detective software (UFO-Capture, SonotaCo) were given to each participating team in order to monitor Northern night sky of Japan with almost full-coverage. During each school year (from April to March in Japan) since 2006, thousands of TLE images were taken by many student teams, with considerably large numbers of successful triangulations, i.e., (School year, Numbers of TLE observations, Numbers of triangulations) are (2006, 43, 3), (2007, 441, 95), (2008, 734, 115), and (2009, 337, 78). Note that, school year in Japan begins on April 1 and ends on March 31. The observation campaign began in December 2006, numbers are as of Feb. 28, 2010. Recently, some high schools started wide field observations using multiple cameras, and others started VLF observations using handmade loop antennae and amplifiers. Infomation exchange among the SSH consortium Kochi is frequently communicated with scientific discussion via KUT's mailing lists. Also, interactions with amateur observers in Japan are made through an internet forum of "SonotaCo Network Japan" (http://sonotaco.jp). Not only as an educational project but also as a scientific one, the project is also in success. In February 2008, simultaneous observations of Elves were obtained, in November 2009 a Giant "Graft-shaped" Sprites driven by Jets was clearly imaged with VLF signals. Most recently, ob-servations of Elves

  16. Ongoing challenges to finding people with Parkinson's disease for epidemiological studies: a comparison of population-level case ascertainment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M Anne; Koehoorn, Mieke; Teschke, Kay

    2011-07-01

    Locating Parkinson's disease cases for epidemiological studies has long been challenging. Self reports, secondary records of physician diagnosis and drug tracer methods each exhibit known disadvantages but have rarely been compared directly. Prescriptions of levodopa have in some studies been considered to comprise a reasonable proxy for Parkinson's disease diagnosis. We tested this assumption by comparing three methods of population-level case ascertainment. We compared the number of Parkinson's disease cases in British Columbia derived from self-reports in the 2001 Canadian Community Health Survey to those obtained from administrative records of filled levodopa prescriptions and to Parkinson's disease diagnoses from physician visit billing and hospital discharge records in 1996 and 2005. We directly compared a case definition based on levodopa prescriptions with a definition based on records of physician diagnosis by calculating positive predictive value and sensitivity. Crude prevalence estimates ranged from approximately 100 to 200 per 100,000. Levodopa-based case definitions overestimated prevalence, while physician- and hospital-record-based case definitions provided lower prevalence estimates compared to survey derived estimates. The proportion of levodopa users with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease declined from 62% to 52% between 1996 and 2005. This decrease was most dramatic among women (64%-44%) and those under age 65 (54%-39%). Sex and age trends suggest increasing use of levodopa among patients with conditions other than Parkinson's disease, such as restless legs syndrome. Increased non-Parkinson's levodopa use decreases the efficiency of levodopa as a Parkinson's disease case tracer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Finding out who is nesting where: a method for locating nest sites of hole-nesting species prior to egg laying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieco, F.

    2000-01-01

    A method to find out which species is more likely to start egg laying in a certain nestbox is described. Nestboxes were visited daily and the behaviour of the birds (Great, Blue and Coal Tits) that appeared around the nestbox was observed. The birds' response consisted mainly of giving alarm calls

  18. The TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study: Methods and Findings from an Exploratory Research Project on Eighth-Grade Mathematics Instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, James W.; Gonzales, Patrick; Kawanaka, Takako; Knoll, Steffen; Serrano, Ana

    1999-01-01

    Describes the methods and preliminary findings of the Videotape Classroom Study, a video survey of eighth-grade mathematics lessons in Germany, Japan, and the United States. Part of the Third International Mathematics and Science study, this research project is the first study of videotaped records from national probability samples. (SLD)

  19. Qualitative to quantitative : linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on HIV/AIDS in Goa, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Ajay; Hutter, Inge

    2008-01-01

    With 3.1 million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in India and 39.5 million people globally, the epidemic has posed academics the challenge of identifying behaviours and their underlying beliefs in the effort to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is

  20. First Year Students in a Foreign Fabric: A Triangulation Study on Facebook as a Method of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Shane

    2012-01-01

    As American high school seniors graduate and prepare to attend college, these students must change in order to adapt to the new rituals that higher education presents. Teens, for the most part, leave their family structure and their normal everyday routines to pursue a degree and a chance for a good paying job. However, these students can be…

  1. The application of infrared chemical imaging to the detection and enhancement of latent fingerprints: method optimization and further findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtouh, Mark; Despland, Pauline; Shimmon, Ronald; Kalman, John R; Reedy, Brian J

    2007-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) chemical imaging allows the collection of fingerprint images from backgrounds that have traditionally posed problems for conventional fingerprint detection methods. In this work, the suitability of this technique for the imaging of fingerprints on a wider range of difficult surfaces (including polymer banknotes, various types of paper, and aluminum drink cans) has been tested. For each new surface, a systematic methodology was employed to optimize settings such as spectral resolution, number of scans, and pixel aggregation in order to reduce collection time and file-size without compromising spatial resolution and the quality of the final fingerprint image. The imaging of cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints on polymer banknotes has been improved, with shorter collection times for larger image areas. One-month-old fingerprints on polymer banknotes have been successfully fumed and imaged. It was also found that FTIR chemical imaging gives high quality images of cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints on aluminum drink cans, regardless of the printed background. Although visible and UV light sources do not yield fingerprint images of the same quality on difficult, nonporous backgrounds, in many cases they can be used to locate a fingerprint prior to higher quality imaging by the FTIR technique. Attempts to acquire FTIR images of fingerprints on paper-based porous surfaces that had been treated with established reagents such as ninhydrin were all unsuccessful due to the swamping effect of the cellulose constituents of the paper.

  2. Outcomes and impact of HIV prevention, ART and TB programs in Swaziland--early evidence from public health triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Swaziland's severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future household surveys, and improved routine (program, surveillance, and hospital) data at district level.

  3. The Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study, finding the genes causing Tourette syndrome: objectives and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Andrea; Fernandez, Thomas V; King, Robert A; State, Matthew W; Tischfield, Jay A; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heiman, Gary A

    2015-02-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent motor and vocal tics, often accompanied by obsessive-compulsive disorder and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. While the evidence for a genetic contribution is strong, its exact nature has yet to be clarified fully. There is now mounting evidence that the genetic risks for TS include both common and rare variants and may involve complex multigenic inheritance or, in rare cases, a single major gene. Based on recent progress in many other common disorders with apparently similar genetic architectures, it is clear that large patient cohorts and open-access repositories will be essential to further advance the field. To that end, the large multicenter Tourette International Collaborative Genetics (TIC Genetics) study was established. The goal of the TIC Genetics study is to undertake a comprehensive gene discovery effort, focusing both on familial genetic variants with large effects within multiply affected pedigrees and on de novo mutations ascertained through the analysis of apparently simplex parent-child trios with non-familial tics. The clinical data and biomaterials (DNA, transformed cell lines, RNA) are part of a sharing repository located within the National Institute for Mental Health Center for Collaborative Genomics Research on Mental Disorders, USA, and will be made available to the broad scientific community. This resource will ultimately facilitate better understanding of the pathophysiology of TS and related disorders and the development of novel therapies. Here, we describe the objectives and methods of the TIC Genetics study as a reference for future studies from our group and to facilitate collaboration between genetics consortia in the field of TS.

  4. Numerical methods for finding periodic points in discrete maps. High order islands chains and noble barriers in a toroidal magnetic configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrecher, G. [Association Euratom-Nasti Romania, Dept. of Theoretical Physics, Physics Faculty, University of Craiova (Romania); Reuss, J.D.; Misguich, J.H. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2001-11-01

    We first remind usual physical and mathematical concepts involved in the dynamics of Hamiltonian systems, and namely in chaotic systems described by discrete 2D maps (representing the intersection points of toroidal magnetic lines in a poloidal plane in situations of incomplete magnetic chaos in Tokamaks). Finding the periodic points characterizing chains of magnetic islands is an essential step not only to determine the skeleton of the phase space picture, but also to determine the flux of magnetic lines across semi-permeable barriers like Cantori. We discuss here several computational methods used to determine periodic points in N dimensions, which amounts to solve a set of N nonlinear coupled equations: Newton method, minimization techniques, Laplace or steepest descend method, conjugated direction method and Fletcher-Reeves method. We have succeeded to improve this last method in an important way, without modifying its useful double-exponential convergence. This improved method has been tested and applied to finding periodic points of high order m in the 2D 'Tokamap' mapping, for values of m along rational chains of winding number n/m converging towards a noble value where a Cantorus exists. Such precise positions of periodic points have been used in the calculation of the flux across this Cantorus. (authors)

  5. Using the Critical Incident Technique for Triangulation and Elaboration of Communication Management Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Margaret Ann; Jeffrey, Lynn Maud

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research using the critical incident technique to identify the use of key competencies for communication management practitioners. Qualitative data was generated from 202 critical incidents reported by 710 respondents. We also present a brief summary of the quantitative data, which identified two superordinate…

  6. The evaluation of student-centredness of teaching and learning: a new mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ana R; Sandars, John E; Alves, Palmira; Costa, Manuel J

    2014-08-14

    The aim of the study was to develop and consider the usefulness of a new mixed-methods approach to evaluate the student-centredness of teaching and learning on undergraduate medical courses. An essential paradigm for the evaluation was the coherence between how teachers conceptualise their practice (espoused theories) and their actual practice (theories-in-use). The context was a module within an integrated basic sciences course in an undergraduate medical degree programme. The programme had an explicit intention of providing a student-centred curriculum. A content analysis framework based on Weimer's dimensions of student-centred teaching was used to analyze data collected from individual interviews with seven teachers to identify espoused theories and 34h of classroom observations and one student focus group to identify theories-in-use. The interviewees were identified by purposeful sampling. The findings from the three methods were triangulated to evaluate the student-centredness of teaching and learning on the course. Different, but complementary, perspectives of the student-centredness of teaching and learning were identified by each method. The triangulation of the findings revealed coherence between the teachers' espoused theories and theories-in-use. A mixed-methods approach that combined classroom observations with interviews from a purposeful sample of teachers and students offered a useful evaluation of the extent of student-centredness of teaching and learning of this basic science course. Our case study suggests that this new approach is applicable to other courses in medical education.

  7. Automatic NC-Data generation method for 5-axis cutting of turbine-blades by finding Safe heel-angles and adaptive path-intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao, Cheng Dao; Lee, Cheol Soo; Cho, Kyu Zong; Park, Gwang Ryeol

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient method for generating 5-axis cutting data for a turbine blade is presented. The interference elimination of 5-axis cutting currently is very complicated, and it takes up a lot of time. The proposed method can generate an interference-free tool path, within an allowance range. Generating the cutting data just point to the cutting process and using it to obtain NC data by calculating the feed rate, allows us to maintain the proper feed rate of the 5-axis machine. This paper includes the algorithms for: (1) CL data generation by detecting an interference-free heel angle, (2) finding the optimal tool path interval considering the cusp-height, (3) finding the adaptive feed rate values for each cutter path, and (4) the inverse kinematics depending on the structure of the 5-axis machine, for generating the NC data

  8. Description of multiple processes on the basis of triangulation in the velocity space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, A.M.; Baldin, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of the construction of polyhedrons in the relative four-velocity space is suggested which gives a complete description of multiple processes. A method of the consideration of a general case, when the total number of the relative velocity variables exceeds the number of the degrees of freedom, is also given. The account of the particular features of the polyhedrons due to the clusterization in the velocity space, as well as the account of the existence of intermediate asymptotics and the correlation depletion principle makes it possible to propose an algorithm for processing much larger bulk of experimental information on multiple processes as compared to the inclusive approach

  9. Teaching Analytics: A Clustering and Triangulation Study of Digital Library User Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Beijie; Recker, Mimi

    2012-01-01

    Teachers and students increasingly enjoy unprecedented access to abundant web resources and digital libraries to enhance and enrich their classroom experiences. However, due to the distributed nature of such systems, conventional educational research methods, such as surveys and observations, provide only limited snapshots. In addition,…

  10. A new method for finding the minimum free energy pathway of ions and small molecule transportation through protein based on 3D-RISM theory and the string method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Norio

    2018-05-01

    A new method for finding the minimum free energy pathway (MFEP) of ions and small molecule transportation through a protein based on the three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory combined with the string method has been proposed. The 3D-RISM theory produces the distribution function, or the potential of mean force (PMF), for transporting substances around the given protein structures. By applying the string method to the PMF surface, one can readily determine the MFEP on the PMF surface. The method has been applied to consider the Na+ conduction pathway of channelrhodopsin as an example.

  11. Does CSR Improve Organization Financial Performance? Evidence from Nigeria Using Triangulation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Adewale MURITALA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR on organizational financial performance of some selected banks in Nigeria using time series of annual data of ten banks over the period of 1990 to 2010. Pearson Correlation coefficient was used to analyse the correlation that exist between CSR and organization performance while collected data were regressed using Ordinary Least Square technique. Findings indicate a positive relationship between CSR cost and Profit after Tax (PAT. The study therefore recommends that top management in an organization must ensure prudence in its spending and get committed to any social activity it wants to embark upon and allow the members of the public to associate such an activity or activities.

  12. A colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide by finding the critical color in a color change process using silver triangular nanoplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiu-Hua; Ling, Jian, E-mail: lingjian@ynu.edu.cn; Peng, Jun; Cao, Qiu-E., E-mail: qecao@ynu.edu.cn; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Bian, Long-Chun

    2013-10-10

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Demonstrated a new colorimetric strategy for iodide detection by silver nanoplates. •The colorimetric strategy is to find the critical color in a color change process. •The colorimetric strategy is more accurate and sensitive than common colorimetry. •Discovered a new morphological transformation phenomenon of silver nanoplates. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated a novel colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide using citrate-stabilized silver triangular nanoplates (silver TNPs). Very lower concentration of iodide can induce an appreciable color change of silver TNPs solution from blue to yellow by fusing of silver TNPs to nanoparticles, as confirmed by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principle of this colorimetric assay is not an ordinary colorimetry, but a new colorimetric strategy by finding the critical color in a color change process. With this strategy, 0.1 μM of iodide can be recognized within 30 min by naked-eyes observation, and lower concentration of iodide down to 8.8 nM can be detected using a spectrophotometer. Furthermore, this high sensitive colorimetric assay has good accuracy, stability and reproducibility comparing with other ordinary colorimetry. We believe this new colorimetric method will open up a fresh insight of simple, rapid and reliable detection of iodide and can find its future application in the biochemical analysis or clinical diagnosis.

  13. A colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide by finding the critical color in a color change process using silver triangular nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiu-Hua; Ling, Jian; Peng, Jun; Cao, Qiu-E.; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Bian, Long-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Demonstrated a new colorimetric strategy for iodide detection by silver nanoplates. •The colorimetric strategy is to find the critical color in a color change process. •The colorimetric strategy is more accurate and sensitive than common colorimetry. •Discovered a new morphological transformation phenomenon of silver nanoplates. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we demonstrated a novel colorimetric method for highly sensitive and accurate detection of iodide using citrate-stabilized silver triangular nanoplates (silver TNPs). Very lower concentration of iodide can induce an appreciable color change of silver TNPs solution from blue to yellow by fusing of silver TNPs to nanoparticles, as confirmed by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The principle of this colorimetric assay is not an ordinary colorimetry, but a new colorimetric strategy by finding the critical color in a color change process. With this strategy, 0.1 μM of iodide can be recognized within 30 min by naked-eyes observation, and lower concentration of iodide down to 8.8 nM can be detected using a spectrophotometer. Furthermore, this high sensitive colorimetric assay has good accuracy, stability and reproducibility comparing with other ordinary colorimetry. We believe this new colorimetric method will open up a fresh insight of simple, rapid and reliable detection of iodide and can find its future application in the biochemical analysis or clinical diagnosis

  14. Global pathways to men's caregiving: mixed methods findings from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey and the Men Who Care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Wallace, Jane; Barker, Gary; Eads, Marci; Levtov, Ruti

    2014-01-01

    Promoting men's participation in unpaid care work is part of the Programme of Action for the International Conference on Population and Development. However, men's involvement in care work does not mirror the advances women have made in paid work outside the home. This mixed method study explores which men are more involved in caregiving, and what childhood and adulthood factors influence their level of involvement. Quantitative research presents findings from 1169 men across six countries with children aged 0-4, and a qualitative study presents findings from in-depth interviews with 83 men engaged in atypical caregiving practices. Survey research finds that being taught to care for children, witnessing one's father take care of one's siblings, respondents' present attitudes about gender equality and having outside help (or none, in some cases) were all also associated with men's higher level of involvement. Qualitative research reveals that men's experiences of violence, the normalisation of domestic work as children and life circumstances rather than greater-than-average beliefs in gender equality all propelled them into care work. Findings suggest that engaging more men into care work implies changes to policies and structural realities in the workplace coupled with changing gender attitudes. These insights inform policy and practice aimed at promoting greater involvement in care work by men.

  15. A comparison of three clustering methods for finding subgroups in MRI, SMS or clinical data: SPSS TwoStep Cluster analysis, Latent Gold and SNOB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter; Jensen, Rikke K; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-10-02

    There are various methodological approaches to identifying clinically important subgroups and one method is to identify clusters of characteristics that differentiate people in cross-sectional and/or longitudinal data using Cluster Analysis (CA) or Latent Class Analysis (LCA). There is a scarcity of head-to-head comparisons that can inform the choice of which clustering method might be suitable for particular clinical datasets and research questions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison of three commonly available methods (SPSS TwoStep CA, Latent Gold LCA and SNOB LCA). The performance of these three methods was compared: (i) quantitatively using the number of subgroups detected, the classification probability of individuals into subgroups, the reproducibility of results, and (ii) qualitatively using subjective judgments about each program's ease of use and interpretability of the presentation of results.We analysed five real datasets of varying complexity in a secondary analysis of data from other research projects. Three datasets contained only MRI findings (n = 2,060 to 20,810 vertebral disc levels), one dataset contained only pain intensity data collected for 52 weeks by text (SMS) messaging (n = 1,121 people), and the last dataset contained a range of clinical variables measured in low back pain patients (n = 543 people). Four artificial datasets (n = 1,000 each) containing subgroups of varying complexity were also analysed testing the ability of these clustering methods to detect subgroups and correctly classify individuals when subgroup membership was known. The results from the real clinical datasets indicated that the number of subgroups detected varied, the certainty of classifying individuals into those subgroups varied, the findings had perfect reproducibility, some programs were easier to use and the interpretability of the presentation of their findings also varied. The results from the artificial datasets

  16. Evidence-informed health policy 1 – Synthesis of findings from a multi-method study of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moynihan Ray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations have been established in many countries and internationally to support the use of research evidence by producing clinical practice guidelines, undertaking health technology assessments, and/or directly supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level. Learning from these organizations can reduce the need to 'reinvent the wheel' and inform decisions about how best to organize support for such organizations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods We undertook a multi-method study in three phases – a survey, interviews, and case descriptions that drew on site visits – and in each of the second and third phases we focused on a purposive sample of those involved in the previous phase. We used the seven main recommendations that emerged from the advice offered in the interviews to organize much of the synthesis of findings across phases and methods. We used a constant comparative method to identify themes from across phases and methods. Results Seven recommendations emerged for those involved in establishing or leading organizations that support the use of research evidence in developing health policy: 1 collaborate with other organizations; 2 establish strong links with policymakers and involve stakeholders in the work; 3 be independent and manage conflicts of interest among those involved in the work; 4 build capacity among those working in the organization; 5 use good methods and be transparent in the work; 6 start small, have a clear audience and scope, and address important questions; and 7 be attentive to implementation considerations, even if implementation is not a remit. Four recommendations emerged for the World Health Organization (WHO and other international organizations and networks: 1 support collaborations among organizations; 2 support local adaptation efforts; 3 mobilize support; and 4 create

  17. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  18. Optical profilometer using laser based conical triangulation for inspection of inner geometry of corroded pipes in cylindrical coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschinelli, Pedro D. V.; Melo, João. Ricardo C.; Albertazzi, Armando; Santos, João. M. C.; Camerini, Claudio S.

    2013-04-01

    An axis-symmetrical optical laser triangulation system was developed by the authors to measure the inner geometry of long pipes used in the oil industry. It has a special optical configuration able to acquire shape information of the inner geometry of a section of a pipe from a single image frame. A collimated laser beam is pointed to the tip of a 45° conical mirror. The laser light is reflected in such a way that a radial light sheet is formed and intercepts the inner geometry and forms a bright laser line on a section of the inspected pipe. A camera acquires the image of the laser line through a wide angle lens. An odometer-based triggering system is used to shot the camera to acquire a set of equally spaced images at high speed while the device is moved along the pipe's axis. Image processing is done in real-time (between images acquisitions) thanks to the use of parallel computing technology. The measured geometry is analyzed to identify corrosion damages. The measured geometry and results are graphically presented using virtual reality techniques and devices as 3D glasses and head-mounted displays. The paper describes the measurement principles, calibration strategies, laboratory evaluation of the developed device, as well as, a practical example of a corroded pipe used in an industrial gas production plant.

  19. A triangulation approach to the identification of acute sector nurses' training needs for formal nurse practitioner status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C; Hennessy, D

    1998-01-01

    The current confusion surrounding the definition and role function of the nurse practitioner (NP) has created a situation in which advanced clinical practice is delivered in a variety of ways and at many levels. Not surprisingly, this has led to difficulties in regulating educational provision for NPs. This study reports a survey of the perceptions of the role definitions and training needs of all nurses working at advanced clinical levels within an acute sector Trust. Although this concept is not a novel one in advanced nursing practice, the procedure adopted differed from previous studies in two fundamental ways: firstly, a unique training needs assessment instrument was used, which because of its validity and opacity, was capable of yielding a highly reliable data-base, comprising a prioritized profile of real training needs as opposed to the standard wish-list typically elicited. Secondly, it did not rely simply on the self-reported needs of the nurse sample, but also included the perceptions of the sample's immediate medical and managerial colleagues. In this way, a triangulation paradigm was adopted. The results indicated that overall, there was high agreement between the nurses and their managers, regarding both the definition of the NP role and the essential training requirements, with somewhat different opinions being offered by the medical staff. When the raw scores were standardized to correct for response bias, the data provided an operational definition of the role of the NP and a prioritized profile of training needs for nurses who wished to train to this level.

  20. Evidence-informed health policy 1 - synthesis of findings from a multi-method study of organizations that support the use of research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Moynihan, Ray; Paulsen, Elizabeth J

    2008-12-17

    Organizations have been established in many countries and internationally to support the use of research evidence by producing clinical practice guidelines, undertaking health technology assessments, and/or directly supporting the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level. Learning from these organizations can reduce the need to 'reinvent the wheel' and inform decisions about how best to organize support for such organizations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We undertook a multi-method study in three phases - a survey, interviews, and case descriptions that drew on site visits - and in each of the second and third phases we focused on a purposive sample of those involved in the previous phase. We used the seven main recommendations that emerged from the advice offered in the interviews to organize much of the synthesis of findings across phases and methods. We used a constant comparative method to identify themes from across phases and methods. Seven recommendations emerged for those involved in establishing or leading organizations that support the use of research evidence in developing health policy: 1) collaborate with other organizations; 2) establish strong links with policymakers and involve stakeholders in the work; 3) be independent and manage conflicts of interest among those involved in the work; 4) build capacity among those working in the organization; 5) use good methods and be transparent in the work; 6) start small, have a clear audience and scope, and address important questions; and 7) be attentive to implementation considerations, even if implementation is not a remit. Four recommendations emerged for the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations and networks: 1) support collaborations among organizations; 2) support local adaptation efforts; 3) mobilize support; and 4) create global public goods. This synthesis of

  1. Reliability of change in lumbar MRI findings over time in patients with and without disc prosthesis - comparing two different image evaluation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Linda; Espeland, Ansgar; Gjertsen, Oeivind; Hellum, Christian; Neckelmann, Gesche; Johnsen, Lars G.; Eide, Geir E.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the reliability of change in lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings evaluated retrospectively by direct comparison of images and by non-comparison. Pre-treatment and 2-year follow-up MRI was performed in 126 patients randomized to disc prosthesis surgery or non-surgical treatment. Two experienced radiologists independently evaluated progress and regress for Modic changes, disc findings, and facet arthropathy (FA) at L3/L4, L4/L5, and L5/S1, both by non-comparison and by comparison of initial and follow-up images. FA was evaluated at all levels, and other findings at non-operated levels. We calculated prevalence- and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) values for interobserver agreement. The impact of an adjacent prosthesis (which causes artefacts) and image evaluation method on PABAK was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Image comparison indicated good interobserver agreement on progress and regress (PABAK 0.63-1.00) for Modic changes, posterior high-intensity zone, disc height, and disc contour at L3-S1 and for nucleus pulposus signal and FA at L3/L4; and moderate interobserver agreement (PABAK 0.46-0.59) on decreasing nucleus signal and increasing FA at L4-S1. Image comparison indicated lower (but fair) interobserver agreement (PABAK 0.29) only for increasing FA at L5/S1 in patients with prosthesis in L4/L5 and/or L5/S1. An adjacent prosthesis had no overall impact on PABAK values (p ≥ 0.22). Comparison yielded higher PABAK values than non-comparison (p < 0.001). Regarding changes in lumbar MRI findings over time, comparison of images can provide moderate or good interobserver agreement, and better agreement than non-comparison. An adjacent prosthesis may not reduce agreement on change for most findings. (orig.)

  2. Estimation Of Young’s Modulus Of Elesticity By The Form Finding Of Grid Shell Structures By The Dynamic Relaxation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grančičová Ivana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is basically focused on the process of form finding by the dynamic relaxation method (DRM with the aid of computational tools that enable us to make many calculations with different inputs. There are many important input values with a significant impact on the course of the calculations and the resulting displacement of a structure. One of these values is Young’s modulus of elasticity. This value has a considerable impact on the final displacement of a grid shell structure and the resulting internal forces.

  3. Realist theory construction for a mixed method multilevel study of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John G; Kemp, Lynn A; Jalaludin, Bin B

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described a protocol for a study that aims to build a theory of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression. That protocol proposed a critical realist Explanatory Theory Building Method comprising of an: (1) emergent phase, (2) construction phase, and (3) confirmatory phase. A concurrent triangulated mixed method multilevel cross-sectional study design was described. The protocol also described in detail the Theory Construction Phase which will be presented here. The Theory Construction Phase will include: (1) defining stratified levels; (2) analytic resolution; (3) abductive reasoning; (4) comparative analysis (triangulation); (5) retroduction; (6) postulate and proposition development; (7) comparison and assessment of theories; and (8) conceptual frameworks and model development. The stratified levels of analysis in this study were predominantly social and psychological. The abductive analysis used the theoretical frames of: Stress Process; Social Isolation; Social Exclusion; Social Services; Social Capital, Acculturation Theory and Global-economic level mechanisms. Realist propositions are presented for each analysis of triangulated data. Inference to best explanation is used to assess and compare theories. A conceptual framework of maternal depression, stress and context is presented that includes examples of mechanisms at psychological, social, cultural and global-economic levels. Stress was identified as a necessary mechanism that has the tendency to cause several outcomes including depression, anxiety, and health harming behaviours. The conceptual framework subsequently included conditional mechanisms identified through the retroduction including the stressors of isolation and expectations and buffers of social support and trust. The meta-theory of critical realism is used here to generate and construct social epidemiological theory using stratified ontology and both abductive and retroductive analysis. The findings will be applied to the

  4. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 3: methods for assessing methodological limitations, data extraction and synthesis, and confidence in synthesized qualitative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Flemming, Kate; Garside, Ruth; Harden, Angela; Lewin, Simon; Pantoja, Tomas; Hannes, Karin; Cargo, Margaret; Thomas, James

    2018-05-01

    The Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group develops and publishes guidance on the synthesis of qualitative and mixed-method implementation evidence. Choice of appropriate methodologies, methods, and tools is essential when developing a rigorous protocol and conducting the synthesis. Cochrane authors who conduct qualitative evidence syntheses have thus far used a small number of relatively simple methods to address similarly written questions. Cochrane has invested in methodological work to develop new tools and to encourage the production of exemplar reviews to show the value of more innovative methods that address a wider range of questions. In this paper, in the series, we report updated guidance on the selection of tools to assess methodological limitations in qualitative studies and methods to extract and synthesize qualitative evidence. We recommend application of Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation-Confidence in the Evidence from Qualitative Reviews to assess confidence in qualitative synthesized findings. This guidance aims to support review authors to undertake a qualitative evidence synthesis that is intended to be integrated subsequently with the findings of one or more Cochrane reviews of the effects of similar interventions. The review of intervention effects may be undertaken concurrently with or separate to the qualitative evidence synthesis. We encourage further development through reflection and formal testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Options for a health system researcher to choose in Meta Review (MR approaches-Meta Narrative (MN and Meta Triangulation (MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Davey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new approaches in systematic reviewing i.e. Meta-narrative review(MNR (which a health researcher can use for topics which are differently conceptualized and studied by different types of researchers for policy decisions and Meta-triangulation review(MTR (done to build theory for studying multifaceted phenomena characterized by expansive and contested research domains are ready for penetration in an arena of health system research. So critical look at which approach in Meta-review is better i.e. Meta-narrative review or Meta-triangulation review, can give new insights to a health system researcher. A systematic review on 2 key words-"meta-narrative review" and "meta-triangulation review" in health system research, were searched from key search engines, such as Pubmed, Cochrane library, Bio-med Central and Google Scholar etc till 21st March 2014 since last 20 years. Studies from both developed and developing world were included in any form and scope to draw final conclusions. However unpublished data from thesis was not included in systematic review. Meta-narrative review is a type of systematic review which can be used for a wide range of topics and questions involving making judgments and inferences in public health. On the other hand Meta-triangulation review is a three-phased, qualitative meta-analysis process which can be used to explore variations in the assumptions of alternative paradigms, gain insights into these multiple paradigms at one point of time and addresses emerging themes and the resulting theories.

  6. Assessment of behavioral changes associated with oral meloxicam administration at time of dehorning in calves using a remote triangulation device and accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theurer Miles E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dehorning is common in the cattle industry, and there is a need for research evaluating pain mitigation techniques. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, on cattle behavior post-dehorning by monitoring the percent of time spent standing, walking, and lying in specific locations within the pen using accelerometers and a remote triangulation device. Twelve calves approximately ten weeks of age were randomized into 2 treatment groups (meloxicam or control in a complete block design by body weight. Six calves were orally administered 0.5 mg/kg meloxicam at the time of dehorning and six calves served as negative controls. All calves were dehorned using thermocautery and behavior of each calf was continuously monitored for 7 days after dehorning using accelerometers and a remote triangulation device. Accelerometers monitored lying behavior and the remote triangulation device was used to monitor each calf’s movement within the pen. Results Analysis of behavioral data revealed significant interactions between treatment (meloxicam vs. control and the number of days post dehorning. Calves that received meloxicam spent more time at the grain bunk on trial days 2 and 6 post-dehorning; spent more time lying down on days 1, 2, 3, and 4; and less time at the hay feeder on days 0 and 1 compared to the control group. Meloxicam calves tended to walk more at the beginning and end of the trial compared to the control group. By day 5, the meloxicam and control group exhibited similar behaviors. Conclusions The noted behavioral changes provide evidence of differences associated with meloxicam administration. More studies need to be performed to evaluate the relationship of behavior monitoring and post-operative pain. To our knowledge this is the first published report demonstrating behavioral changes following dehorning using a remote triangulation device in conjunction

  7. Finding Sliesthorp?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, Andres S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a hitherto unknown Viking age settlement was discovered at Füsing in Northern Germany close to Hedeby/Schleswig, the largest of the early Scandinavian towns. Finds and building features suggest a high status residence and a seat of some chiefly elite that flourished from around 700 to th...... and the transformation of socio‐political structures in Northern Europe as it transitioned from prehistory into the middle Ages....

  8. A comprehensive method to find RPO trajectory and incentive scheme for promotion of renewable energy in India with study of impact of RPO on tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shereef, R.M.; Khaparde, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) regime in India started in 2011 with the announcement of benchmark RPO (BRPO) of states for the Financial Year (FY) 2011 by respective State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERC), to promote Renewable Energy (RE). The report submitted to Forum of Regulators (FoR) in this regard has recommended uniform rate of increase of BRPO of states and studied the impact of RPO on tariff for FY 2011–2015. However, more rigorous analysis is needed for fixing BRPO in a scientific manner and for fair allocation of incentives to promote RE. This paper attempts to evaluate all states on a common platform to find BRPO, giving due weightage to the state-wise energy demand and RE generation, ensuring minimum change in BRPO of consecutive years and hence less impact of RPO on tariff. To encourage the states to align their actual RPO with BRPO, a financial incentive scheme is proposed giving due weightage to RE consumption, RE capacity addition and RPO compliance of the states. The methods are illustrated for the Indian states using real system data. A study of RPO's impact on electricity tariff of Indian states is also conducted and reported for FY 2011–2015, considering Renewable Energy Certificate (REC). - Author-Highlights: • Proposes a comprehensive method to find the BRPO of Indian states for promoting RE. • Minimum change in BRPO of consecutive years hence less impact of RPO on tariff. • Incentive scheme to encourage the states to align their actual RPO with BRPO. • Study of impact of RPO on tariff of Indian states is conducted

  9. Hide and vanish: data sets where the most parsimonious tree is known but hard to find, and their implications for tree search methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloboff, Pablo A

    2014-10-01

    Three different types of data sets, for which the uniquely most parsimonious tree can be known exactly but is hard to find with heuristic tree search methods, are studied. Tree searches are complicated more by the shape of the tree landscape (i.e. the distribution of homoplasy on different trees) than by the sheer abundance of homoplasy or character conflict. Data sets of Type 1 are those constructed by Radel et al. (2013). Data sets of Type 2 present a very rugged landscape, with narrow peaks and valleys, but relatively low amounts of homoplasy. For such a tree landscape, subjecting the trees to TBR and saving suboptimal trees produces much better results when the sequence of clipping for the tree branches is randomized instead of fixed. An unexpected finding for data sets of Types 1 and 2 is that starting a search from a random tree instead of a random addition sequence Wagner tree may increase the probability that the search finds the most parsimonious tree; a small artificial example where these probabilities can be calculated exactly is presented. Data sets of Type 3, the most difficult data sets studied here, comprise only congruent characters, and a single island with only one most parsimonious tree. Even if there is a single island, missing entries create a very flat landscape which is difficult to traverse with tree search algorithms because the number of equally parsimonious trees that need to be saved and swapped to effectively move around the plateaus is too large. Minor modifications of the parameters of tree drifting, ratchet, and sectorial searches allow travelling around these plateaus much more efficiently than saving and swapping large numbers of equally parsimonious trees with TBR. For these data sets, two new related criteria for selecting taxon addition sequences in Wagner trees (the "selected" and "informative" addition sequences) produce much better results than the standard random or closest addition sequences. These new methods for Wagner

  10. New treatment method for developmental dysplasia of the hips after walking age. Arthroscopic reduction with limboplasty based on the findings of preoperative imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Toshio; Morita, Mitsuaki; Nakagawa, Keisuke; Wada, Mayuko; Kuroda, Takaaki; Imai, Yuuki; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Eguchi, Yoshitaka

    2010-01-01

    What makes treatment choice for developmental dysplasia of the hips diagnosed after walking age difficult is the poor understanding of prereduction conditions that obstruct the reduction in spatial terms. To evaluate these problems, we employed subtraction three-dimensional imaging to search for the factors involved in intraarticular obstruction. On the basis of the findings of preoperative subtraction three-dimensional imaging from computed tomography, we developed a new method, a minimum invasive arthroscopic reduction with limboplasty, for reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hips after walking age. The purposes of this report were to: describe the technique of the arthroscopic procedure, and evaluate our new method using radiographic parameters. Ten patients with ten hips with developmental dysplasia after walking age treated by arthroscopic reduction with limboplasty were included in this study. The mean age of the patients at reduction was 22.6 months (range, 18.6-29.7 months); mean age at follow up was 7.2 years (range, 3.9-10.9 years); and mean follow up was 5.4 years (range, 1.7-9.0 years). These ten hips were evaluated using radiographic measurements. Moderate or severe avascular necrosis of the femoral head was not observed. Two hips that had a spherical-shaped head with minimal residual height loss or coxa magna were classified as Kalamchi and MacEwen grade 1. Additional surgery had been performed for two hips classified as Severin group 4 during the course of follow up. These two hips were classified as Severin group 1 at final examination. One more hip was classified as Severin group 4 at final examination, and additional surgery was recommended. The remaining seven hips (70%) therefore obtained good evaluations by arthroscopic reduction with limboplasty alone. We developed a new reduction method by using an arthroscopic procedure for the reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hips after walking age when this dysplasia failed to be reduced

  11. El uso de la triangulación en un estudio de detección de necesidades de formación permanente en profesorado no universitario de la Comunidad de Madrid. Using triangulation to assess continuing education teacher needs in Madrid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende destacar la importancia de la triangulación como elemento o herramienta para comparar y validar informaciones obtenidas mediante diferentes fuentes y métodos. Para ello se apoya en los resultados de un estudio realizado en la Comunidad de Madrid con el fin de determinar las necesidades que el profesorado manifiesta con respecto a la oferta de formación permanente que se les ofrece en la actualidad. Dichos resultados son producto de la utilización de diferentes modos de recogida de información así como de diferentes técnicas de análisis de datos, hecho que los dota de mayor complejidad y riqueza. Partiendo de una breve introducción sobre la técnica de triangulación, se presentan los métodos, fuentes y análisis de datos llevados a cabo junto a los resultados y las conclusiones principales del estudio. This article aims at highlighting the importance of triangulation as tool to compare and validate information coming from different sources and procedures. To do so, we assessed the needs for in-service training demanded by teachers and offered by the educational administration in Madrid (Spain. The data was collected using different techniques and analyzed with different data-analysis method and from this combination the results are richer and more complex. Starting with a short introduction about triangulation, we present methods, sources and analysis of the data as well main results and conclusions obtained via triangulation.

  12. Application of advanced biomechanical methods in studying low back pain – recent development in estimation of lower back loads and large-array surface electromyography and findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazrgari B

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Babak Bazrgari,1 Ting Xia2 1F. Joseph Halcomb III, M.D. Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research, Palmer College of Chiropractic, Davenport, IA, USA Abstract: Low back pain (LBP is a major public health problem and the leading disabling musculoskeletal disorder globally. A number of biomechanical methods using kinematic, kinetic and/or neuromuscular approaches have been used to study LBP. In this narrative review, we report recent developments in two biomechanical methods: estimation of lower back loads and large-array surface electromyography (LA-SEMG and the findings associated with LBP. The ability to estimate lower back loads is very important for the prevention and the management of work-related low back injuries based on the mechanical loading model as one category of LBP classification. The methods used for estimation of lower back loads vary from simple rigid link-segment models to sophisticated, optimization-based finite element models. In general, reviewed reports of differences in mechanical loads experienced in lower back tissues between patients with LBP and asymptomatic individuals are not consistent. Such lack of consistency is primarily due to differences in activities under which lower back mechanical loads were investigated as well as heterogeneity of patient populations. The ability to examine trunk neuromuscular behavior is particularly relevant to the motor control model, another category of LBP classification. LA-SEMG not only is noninvasive but also provides spatial resolution within and across muscle groups. Studies using LA-SEMG showed that healthy individuals exhibit highly organized, symmetric back muscle activity patterns, suggesting an orderly recruitment of muscle fibers. In contrast, back muscle activity patterns in LBP patients are asymmetric or multifocal, suggesting lack of orderly muscle recruitment. LA-SEMG was also shown capable of

  13. Accuracy of unfolded map method for determining the left ventricular border. Evaluation of the cut-off value from autopsy finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugibayashi, Keiichi; Abe, Yoshiteru; Suga, Yutaka

    1996-01-01

    To improve the quantification of the left ventricular surface area (LVSA) by unfolded map method, we evaluated the cut-off value for determining the left ventricular border. The LVSA measured by unfolded map was compared with those measured using myocardial phantom and autopsy findings. The relative error (RE) was calculated as difference between LVSA in phantom and area of unfolded map. In phantom study, the cut-off value was calculated as 73.3±0.5% when the RE was zero. In autopsy study, the cut-off value was 74.0±7.2%. The area of unfolded map had good correlation with LVSA at autopsy when the cut-off value was 74% (r=0.83, p<0.003). The diameter of left ventricle at autopsy was compared with that of beating heart obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography, because the area of unfolded map was greater than LVSA at autopsy. The ratio of LVSA at autopsy to beating heart was calculated as 1.37. The suitable cut-off value was evaluated as 55.6% when the unfolded map area obtained by autopsy was increased 1.37 magnifications. There was a good correlation between LVSA of unfolded map (cut-off=56%) and the LVSA at autopsy (r=0.90, p<0.001). These results suggest that the cut-off value for determining the left ventricular border in vivo is 56%. (author)

  14. Characterization of the porosity of human dental enamel and shear bond strength in vitro after variable etch times: initial findings using the BET method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang T; Miller, Arthur; Orellana, Maria F

    2011-07-01

    (1) To quantitatively characterize human enamel porosity and surface area in vitro before and after etching for variable etching times; and (2) to evaluate shear bond strength after variable etching times. Specifically, our goal was to identify the presence of any correlation between enamel porosity and shear bond strength. Pore surface area, pore volume, and pore size of enamel from extracted human teeth were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas adsorption before and after etching for 15, 30, and 60 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with Transbond to the samples with variable etch times and were subsequently applied to a single-plane lap shear testing system. Pore volume and surface area increased after etching for 15 and 30 seconds. At 60 seconds, this increase was less pronounced. On the contrary, pore size appears to decrease after etching. No correlation was found between variable etching times and shear strength. Samples etched for 15, 30, and 60 seconds all demonstrated clinically viable shear strength values. The BET adsorption method could be a valuable tool in enhancing our understanding of enamel characteristics. Our findings indicate that distinct quantitative changes in enamel pore architecture are evident after etching. Further testing with a larger sample size would have to be carried out for more definitive conclusions to be made.

  15. Potentiation of E-4031-induced torsade de pointes by HMR1556 or ATX-II is not predicted by action potential short-term variability or triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, G; Dempster, J; Kane, K A; Coker, S J

    2007-12-01

    Torsade de pointes (TdP) can be induced by a reduction in cardiac repolarizing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess whether IKs blockade or enhancement of INa could potentiate TdP induced by IKr blockade and to investigate whether short-term variability (STV) or triangulation of action potentials preceded TdP. Experiments were performed in open-chest, pentobarbital-anaesthetized, alpha 1-adrenoceptor-stimulated, male New Zealand White rabbits, which received three consecutive i.v. infusions of either the IKr blocker E-4031 (1, 3 and 10 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)), the IKs blocker HMR1556 (25, 75 and 250 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or E-4031 and HMR1556 combined. In a second study rabbits received either the same doses of E-4031, the INa enhancer, ATX-II (0.4, 1.2 and 4.0 nmol kg(-1)) or both of these drugs. ECGs and epicardial monophasic action potentials were recorded. HMR1556 alone did not cause TdP but increased E-4031-induced TdP from 25 to 80%. ATX-II alone caused TdP in 38% of rabbits, as did E-4031; 75% of rabbits receiving both drugs had TdP. QT intervals were prolonged by all drugs but the extent of QT prolongation was not related to the occurrence of TdP. No changes in STV were detected and triangulation was only increased after TdP occurred. Giving modulators of ion channels in combination substantially increased TdP but, in this model, neither STV nor triangulation of action potentials could predict TdP.

  16. Main findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Licensing regimes vary from country to country. When the license regime involves several regulators and several licenses, this may lead to complex situations. Identifying a leading organisation in charge of overall coordination including preparation of the licensing decision is a useful practice. Also, if a stepwise licensing process is implemented, it is important to fix in legislation decisions and/or time points and to identify the relevant actors. There is considerable experience in civil and mining engineering that can be applied when constructing a deep geological disposal facility. Specific challenges are, however, the minimization of disturbances to the host rock and the understanding of its long-term behavior. Construction activities may affect the geo-hydraulic and geochemical properties of the various system components which are important safety features of the repository system. Clearly defined technical specifications and an effective quality management plan are important in ensuring successful repository implementation which is consistent with safety requirements. Monitoring plan should also be defined in advance. The regulatory organization should prepare itself to the licensing review before construction by allocating sufficient resources. It should increase its competence, e.g., by interacting early with the implementer and through its own R and D. This will allow the regulator to define appropriate technical conditions associated to the construction license and to elaborate a relevant inspection plan of the construction work. After construction, obtaining the operational license is the most important and crucial step. Main challenges include (a) establishing sufficient confidence so that the methods for closing the individual disposal units comply with the safety objectives and (b) addressing the issue of ageing of materials during a 50-100 years operational period. This latter challenge is amplified when reversibility/retrievability is required

  17. The Study Related to the Execution of a Triangulation Network in the Dump of Rovinari Pit, in Order to be Restored to the Economic Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Popescu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The lignite mining extraction within the mining perimeter in Rovinari is carried out through mining works in the open, by using large equipments for the excavation, transport and storage of the mining material. These surfaces are currently being set up in the area of level two of the dump, the west and north-west part of Rovinari pit. In order to carry out the set-up works and of follow-up of the stability of the pit levels it is necessary to maintain the triangulation network.

  18. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorent, Natalie; Choun, Kimcheng; Malhotra, Shelly; Koeut, Pichenda; Thai, Sopheak; Khun, Kim Eam; Colebunders, Robert; Lynen, Lut

    2015-01-01

    While community-based active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers. Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively. Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs. TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers to care in

  19. Why do some physicians in Portuguese-speaking African countries work exclusively for the private sector? Findings from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; de Sousa, Bruno; Sidat, Mohsin; Ferrinho, Paulo; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-09-11

    Despite the growing interest in the private health sector in low- and middle-income countries, little is known about physicians working outside the public sector. The present work adopts a mixed-methods approach to explore characteristics, working patterns, choices, and motivations of the physicians working exclusively for the private sector in the capital cities of Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, and Mozambique. The paper's objective is to contribute to the understanding of such physicians, ultimately informing the policies regulating the medical profession in low- and middle-income countries. The qualitative part of the study involved 48 interviews with physicians and health policy-makers and aimed at understanding the practice in the three locations. The quantitative study included a survey of 329 physicians, and multivariate analysis was conducted to analyse characteristics, time allocation, earnings, and motivations of those physicians working only for the private sector, in comparison to their public sector-only and dual practice peers. Our findings showed that only a limited proportion of physicians in the three locations work exclusively for the private sector (11.2%), with members of this group being older than those practicing only in the public or in both sectors. They were found to work fewer hours per week (49 hours) than their public (56 hours) and dual practice peers (62 hours) (P private-only physicians' preference for an independent and more flexible work modality, and this was quoted as a determining factor for their choice of sector. This group appears to include those working in the more informal sector, and those who decided to leave the civil service following a disagreement with the public employer. The study shows the importance of understanding the relation between health professionals' characteristics, motivations, and their engagement with the private sector to develop effective policies to regulate the profession. This may ultimately

  20. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Lorent

    Full Text Available While community-based active case finding (ACF for tuberculosis (TB holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers.Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively.Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs.TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential in mitigating barriers

  1. Assessment of a multimedia-based prospective method to support public deliberations on health technology design: participant survey findings and qualitative insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, P; Jimenez-Pernett, J; Miller, F A; Williams-Jones, B

    2016-10-26

    Using a combination of videos and online short stories, we conducted four face-to-face deliberative workshops in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) with members of the public who later joined additional participants in an online forum to discuss the social and ethical implications of prospective technologies. This paper presents the participants' appraisal of our intervention and provides novel qualitative insights into the use of videos and online tools in public deliberations. We applied a mixed-method study design. A self-administered survey contained open- and close-ended items using a 5-level Likert-like scale. Absolute frequencies and proportions for the close-ended items were compiled. Qualitative data included field notes, the transcripts of the workshops and the participants' contributions to the online forum. The qualitative data were used to flesh out the survey data describing the participants' appraisal of: 1) the multimedia components of our intervention; 2) its deliberative face-to-face and online processes; and 3) its perceived effects. Thirty-eight participants contributed to the workshops and 57 to the online forum. A total of 46 participants filled-in the survey, for a response rate of 73 % (46/63). The videos helped 96 % of the participants to understand the fictional technologies and the online scenarios helped 98 % to reflect about the issues raised. Up to 81 % considered the arguments of the other participants to be well thought-out. Nearly all participants felt comfortable sharing their ideas in both the face-to-face (89 %) and online environments (93 %), but 88 % preferred the face-to-face workshop. As a result of the intervention, 85 % reflected more about the pros and cons of technology and 94 % learned more about the way technologies may transform society. This study confirms the methodological feasibility of a deliberative intervention whose originality lies in its use of videos and online scenarios. To increase deliberative depth and foster a

  2. A Mixed Methods Portrait of Urban Instrumental Music Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn about the ways that instrumental music teachers in Chicago navigated the urban landscape. The design of the study most closely resembles Creswell and Plano Clark's (2007) two-part Triangulation Convergence Mixed Methods Design, with the addition of an initial exploratory focus group component.…

  3. An alignment-free method to find similarity among protein sequences via the general form of Chou's pseudo amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M K; Niyogi, R; Misra, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to create the 60-dimensional feature vector for protein sequences via the general form of pseudo amino acid composition. The construction of the feature vector is based on the contents of amino acids, total distance of each amino acid from the first amino acid in the protein sequence and the distribution of 20 amino acids. The obtained cosine distance metric (also called the similarity matrix) is used to construct the phylogenetic tree by the neighbour joining method. In order to show the applicability of our approach, we tested it on three proteins: 1) ND5 protein sequences from nine species, 2) ND6 protein sequences from eight species, and 3) 50 coronavirus spike proteins. The results are in agreement with known history and the output from the multiple sequence alignment program ClustalW, which is widely used. We have also compared our phylogenetic results with six other recently proposed alignment-free methods. These comparisons show that our proposed method gives a more consistent biological relationship than the others. In addition, the time complexity is linear and space required is less as compared with other alignment-free methods that use graphical representation. It should be noted that the multiple sequence alignment method has exponential time complexity.

  4. Statistical comparison of leaching behavior of incineration bottom ash using seawater and deionized water: Significant findings based on several leaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Dou, Xiaomin; Ren, Fei; Chan, Wei-Ping; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2018-02-15

    Bottom ashes generated from municipal solid waste incineration have gained increasing popularity as alternative construction materials, however, they contains elevated heavy metals posing a challenge for its free usage. Different leaching methods are developed to quantify leaching potential of incineration bottom ashes meanwhile guide its environmentally friendly application. Yet, there are diverse IBA applications while the in situ environment is always complicated, challenging its legislation. In this study, leaching tests were conveyed using batch and column leaching methods with seawater as opposed to deionized water, to unveil the metal leaching potential of IBA subjected to salty environment, which is commonly encountered when using IBA in land reclamation yet not well understood. Statistical analysis for different leaching methods suggested disparate performance between seawater and deionized water primarily ascribed to ionic strength. Impacts of leachant are metal-specific dependent on leaching methods and have a function of intrinsic characteristics of incineration bottom ashes. Leaching performances were further compared on additional perspectives, e.g. leaching approach and liquid to solid ratio, indicating sophisticated leaching potentials dominated by combined geochemistry. It is necessary to develop application-oriented leaching methods with corresponding leaching criteria to preclude discriminations between different applications, e.g., terrestrial applications vs. land reclamation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of DEM resolution on rainfall-triggered landslide modeling within a triangulated network-based model. A case study in the Luquillo Forest, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, E.; Dialynas, Y. G.; Noto, L. V.; Bras, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    Catchment slope distribution is one of the topographic characteristics that significantly control rainfall-triggered landslide modeling, in both direct and indirect ways. Slope directly determines the soil volume associated with instability. Indirectly slope also affects the subsurface lateral redistribution of soil moisture across the basin, which in turn determines the water pore pressure conditions that impact slope stability. In this study, we investigate the influence of DEM resolution on slope stability and the slope stability analysis by using a distributed eco-hydrological and landslide model, the tRIBS-VEGGIE (Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator - VEGetation Generator for Interactive Evolution). The model implements a triangulated irregular network to describe the topography, and it is capable of evaluating vegetation dynamics and predicting shallow landslides triggered by rainfall. The impact of DEM resolution on the landslide prediction was studied using five TINs derived from five grid DEMs at different resolutions, i.e. 10, 20, 30, 50 and 70 m respectively. The analysis was carried out on the Mameyes Basin, located in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico, where previous landslide analyses have been carried out. Results showed that the use of the irregular mesh reduced the loss of accuracy in the derived slope distribution when coarser resolutions were used. The impact of the different resolutions on soil moisture patterns was important only when the lateral redistribution was considerable, depending on hydrological properties and rainfall forcing. In some cases, the use of different DEM resolutions did not significantly affect tRIBS-VEGGIE landslide output, in terms of landslide locations, and values of slope and soil moisture at failure.

  6. Vape Factor Fast Find-Adult (VF3-A): a prototype survey method for recording brand-specific vaping factors in adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S; Zhang, Tancy C; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael

    2018-03-23

    In population studies, vaping is often treated as a dichotomous exposure (present/absent) without consideration of specific vaping devices and materials being used. A survey instrument is needed to record specific vaping devices and materials. We developed a database of 613 vaping device models and 3196 vaping liquid products, indexed by device brand, device type, liquid brand, liquid name and liquid flavour type. We developed a survey instrument to allow participants to report their vaping device and liquid from the indexed lists. The survey was pilot tested with a convenience sample of 208 adults (≥age 21). We validated the vaping device and liquid responses with a recontact survey. We report the proportion of respondents finding their products, characteristics of people finding their products and survey response times. Devices used most frequently in the past 30 days were electronic cigarettes (33% of respondents), vaping pens (28%) and vaping mods (16%). Fifty-seven per cent used liquids containing nicotine most frequently in the past 30 days, followed by liquids without nicotine (20%) and marijuana or hashish (10%). Most (85%) participants found their vaping device successfully (median 19.7 s) and 74% found their vaping liquid (median 19.8 s). Females and older adults were less likely to find their devices and liquids. Responses were validated for 91% and 76% of devices and e-liquids, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of an internet-based survey instrument to record specific vaping factors for use in studies of vaping and health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. A new generalized expansion method and its application in finding explicit exact solutions for a generalized variable coefficients KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.; Zahran, M.A.; Fan Engui

    2004-01-01

    A generalized expansion method is proposed to uniformly construct a series of exact solutions for general variable coefficients non-linear evolution equations. The new approach admits the following types of solutions (a) polynomial solutions, (b) exponential solutions, (c) rational solutions, (d) triangular periodic wave solutions, (e) hyperbolic and solitary wave solutions and (f) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. The efficiency of the method has been demonstrated by applying it to a generalized variable coefficients KdV equation. Then, new and rich variety of exact explicit solutions have been found

  8. Psychological Distress and Help Seeking Amongst Higher Education Students: Findings from a Mixed Method Study of Undergraduate Nursing/Midwifery and Teacher Education Students in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Christine; Coughlan, Barry; Pironom, Julie; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress as experienced by higher education students is of major concern because of its potential to adversely impact academic performance, retention, mental health and lifestyle. This paper reports a mixed method investigation of student self-reported psychological distress and help-seeking behaviour. The sample comprised all…

  9. Striking trends in the incidence of health problems in the Netherlands (2002-05): findings from a new method for record linkage in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermans, M.C.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Vries Robbé, P.F. de; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to detect striking trends based on a new strategy for monitoring public health. METHODS: We used data over 4 years from electronic medical records of a large, nationally representative network of general practices. Episodes were either directly recorded by general

  10. How to find non-dependent opiate users: a comparison of sampling methods in a field study of opium and heroin users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, D.J.; van Ginkel, P.; Benschop, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/aim The first aim is to better understand the potentials and limitations of different sampling methods for reaching a specific, rarely studied population of drug users and for persuading them to take part in a multidisciplinary study. The second is to determine the extent to which these

  11. Are current case-finding methods under-diagnosing tuberculosis among women in Myanmar? An analysis of operational data from Yangon and the nationwide prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M S; Khine, T M; Hutchison, C; Coker, R J; Hane, K M; Innes, A L; Aung, S

    2016-03-03

    Although there is a large increase in investment for tuberculosis control in Myanmar, there are few operational analyses to inform policies. Only 34% of nationally reported cases are from women. In this study, we investigate sex differences in tuberculosis diagnoses in Myanmar in order to identify potential health systems barriers that may be driving lower tuberculosis case finding among women. From October 2014 to March 2015, we systematically collected data on all new adult smear positive tuberculosis cases in ten township health centres across Yangon, the largest city in Myanmar, to produce an electronic tuberculosis database. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of sex differences in tuberculosis diagnoses at the township health centres. We also analysed national prevalence survey data to calculate additional case finding in men and women by using sputum culture when smear microscopy was negative, and estimated the sex-specific impact of using a more sensitive diagnostic tool at township health centres. Overall, only 514 (30%) out of 1371 new smear positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at the township health centres were female. The proportion of female patients varied by township (from 21% to 37%, p = 0.0172), month of diagnosis (37% in February 2015 and 23% in March 2015 p = 0.0004) and age group (26% in 25-64 years and 49% in 18-25 years, p Myanmar, found that substantially fewer women than men were diagnosed in all study townships. The sex ratio of newly diagnosed cases varied by age group, month of diagnosis and township of diagnosis. Low sensitivity of tuberculosis diagnosis may lead to a potential under-diagnosis of tuberculosis among women.

  12. Online Versus Telephone Methods to Recruit and Interview Older Gay and Bisexual Men Treated for Prostate Cancer: Findings from the Restore Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, B R Simon; Capistrant, Benjamin

    2016-07-19

    Recently, researchers have faced the challenge of conflicting recommendations for online versus traditional methods to recruit and interview older, sexual minority men. Older populations represent the cohort least likely to be online, necessitating the use of traditional research methods, such as telephone or in-person interviews. By contrast, gay and bisexual men represent a population of early adopters of new technology, both in general and for medical research. In a study of older gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer, we asked whether respondents preferred online versus offline methods for data collection. Given the paucity of research on how to recruit older gay and bisexual men in general, and older gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer in particular, we conducted an observational study to identify participant preferences when participating in research studies. To test online versus offline recruitment demographic data collection, and interview preferences of older gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer. Email blasts were sent from a website providing support services for gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer, supplemented with an email invitation from the web-host. All invitations provided information via the study website address and a toll-free telephone number. Study tasks included respondents being screened, giving informed consent, completing a short survey collecting demographic data, and a 60-75 minute telephone or Internet chat interview. All materials stressed that enrollees could participate in each task using either online methods or by telephone, whichever they preferred. A total of 74 men were screened into the study, and 30 were interviewed. The average age of the participants was 63 years (standard deviation 6.9, range 48-75 years), with most residing in 14 American states, and one temporarily located overseas. For screening, consent, and the collection of demographic data, 97% (29/30) of the participants completed these tasks

  13. A New Method Based on Simulation-Optimization Approach to Find Optimal Solution in Dynamic Job-shop Scheduling Problem with Breakdown and Rework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Amirkhani

    2017-03-01

    The proposed method is implemented on classical job-shop problems with objective of makespan and results are compared with mixed integer programming model. Moreover, the appropriate dispatching priorities are achieved for dynamic job-shop problem minimizing a multi-objective criteria. The results show that simulation-based optimization are highly capable to capture the main characteristics of the shop and produce optimal/near-optimal solutions with highly credibility degree.

  14. How to find non-dependent opiate users: a comparison of sampling methods in a field study of opium and heroin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korf, Dirk J; van Ginkel, Patrick; Benschop, Annemieke

    2010-05-01

    The first aim is to better understand the potentials and limitations of different sampling methods for reaching a specific, rarely studied population of drug users and for persuading them to take part in a multidisciplinary study. The second is to determine the extent to which these different methods reach similar or dissimilar segments of the non-dependent opiate-using population. Using ethnographic fieldwork (EFW) and targeted canvassing (TARC; small newspaper advertisements and website announcements), supplemented by snowball referrals, we recruited and interviewed 127 non-dependent opiate users (lifetime prevalence of use 5-100 times; 86.6% had used heroin and 56.7% opium). Average age was 39.0; 66.1% were male and 33.9% female. In addition to opiates, many respondents had wide experience with other illicit drugs. The majority had non-conventional lifestyles. Both EFW and TARC yielded only limited numbers of snowball referrals. EFW requires specific skills, is labour-intensive, thus expensive, but allows unsuitable candidates to be excluded faster. Respondents recruited through EFW were significantly more likely to have experience with opium and various drugs other than opiates. TARC resulted in larger percentages of women and respondents with conventional lifestyles. TARC is less labour-intensive but requires more time for screening candidates; its cost-effectiveness depends on the price of advertising for the recruitment. Different methods reach different segments of the population of non-dependent opiate users. It is useful to employ a multi-method approach to reduce selectivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Finding of experience of the use of computer-integrated forms and methods of teaching in the process of preparation of future teachers of initial school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinopalnikova N.N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically grounded and experimentally examined that one of the trends of future teachers training for the integrated activity is gaining experience in using the integrated organization forms of learning. It is realized in the process of specially organized student's learning and during their pedagogical practice. It was promoted by conducting the special course The integrated forms of learning organization in primary school with the use of interactive forms and methods of learning, fulfilling the aimed tasks while passing pedagogical practice.

  16. Importance of diagnostic laboratory methods of beta hemolytic streptococcus group A in comparison with clinical findings in the diagnosis of streptococcal sore throat and unnecessary antibacterial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiman Eini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus Pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS is the most important cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adolescents. Acute pharyngitis is one of the most common conditions in all ages but it is most common in children. Over diagnosis of acute pharyngitis represents one of the major causes of antibiotic abuse. The goal of this study is to make an estimate of the frequency of group A streptococcus in sore throat patients in Farshchian hospital emergency department and clinic in Hamadan. Methods: For estimation of the clinical features role in diagnosis of streptococcal sore throat, we took samples of 100 patients with average age of 32.96±29.86 years with sore throat. We took samples from pharynx and used standard methods of bacteriology in order to detect streptococcus. Results: Group A Streptococcus (GAS accounts for 3 percent of all cases of pharyngitis. Clinically, all of the patients had sore throat. The percent breakdowns are as follows: 30% had exudate, 78% had fever, 8% had lymphadenopathy and 7.7 percent of exudative pharyngitis was streptococcal. The cost for unnecessary antibiotic therapy for every single patient who had negative pharynx culture was approximately 32160 Rails. Conclusion: The low frequency of streptococcus pharyngitis in treated patients reveal that diagnosis based on clinical features is not reliable. We recommend use of other diagnostic methods such as Rapid Antigen Detection Tests (RATs. Only reliable and scientific protocols for antibiotic to therapy.

  17. Methods for medical device and equipment procurement and prioritization within low- and middle-income countries: findings of a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, Karin; Chen, Yen-Fu; Cummins, Carole; Jimenez Moyao, Gabriela; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Lilford, Richard

    2017-08-18

    Forty to 70 % of medical devices and equipment in low- and middle-income countries are broken, unused or unfit for purpose; this impairs service delivery to patients and results in lost resources. Undiscerning procurement processes are at the heart of this issue. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to August 2013 with no time or language restrictions to identify what product selection or prioritization methods are recommended or used for medical device and equipment procurement planning within low- and middle-income countries. We explore the factors/evidence-base proposed for consideration within such methods and identify prioritization criteria. We included 217 documents (corresponding to 250 texts) in the narrative synthesis. Of these 111 featured in the meta-summary. We identify experience and needs-based methods used to reach procurement decisions. Equipment costs (including maintenance) and health needs are the dominant issues considered. Extracted data suggest that procurement officials should prioritize devices with low- and middle-income country appropriate technical specifications - i.e. devices and equipment that can be used given available human resources, infrastructure and maintenance capacity. Suboptimal device use is directly linked to incomplete costing and inadequate consideration of maintenance services and user training during procurement planning. Accurate estimation of life-cycle costing and careful consideration of device servicing are of crucial importance.

  18. Despite Barriers, Education Providers, Health Professionals, and Students Perceive ELearning to Be an Effective Method of Education A review of:Childs, Sue, Elizabeth Blenkinsopp, Amanda Hall, and Graham Walton. “Effective E‐Learning for Health Professionals and Students—Barriers and Their Solutions. A Systematic Review of the Literature—Findings from the HeXL Project.” Health Information & Libraries Journal 22.S2 (2005: 20-32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorie A. Kloda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine barriers or problems and possible solutions related to elearning, and to determine the effectiveness of e‐learning among health professionals and students. Design – Systematic review of qualitative literature, in addition to interviews and questionnaires, to allow for triangulation of the data. Setting – “The HeXL Project: Surmounting the Barriers to NHS E-Learning in the North-East.” The National Health Service (NHS in the North-East of England, from May 2003 to March 2004. Subjects – A systematic review of 57 qualitative studies on health and e‐learning, phone interviews with 13 managers and trainers, and 149 questionnaires completed by users and non‐users of e‐learning. All participants of the interviews and questionnaires were staff and students of the NHS in the North‐East of England. Methods – The study used three methods to collect data to meet the objectives of the study. For the systematic review, the databases AMED (Allied and Alternative Medicine, ASSIA (Applied Social Sciences, CINAHL (Nursing and Allied Health, ERIC (Education, HMIC (health Management, LISA (Library and Information Sciences, PubMed (Medline, and Web of Science were searched using the terms “e‐learning” or “computer assisted instruction”, and “health”, and “barriers.” Any type of research or comprehensive literature review was selected from the results to be included in analysis. Based on the findings from the systematic review, a semi‐structured interview schedule was developed for use in phone interviews to be conducted with managers or e‐learning trainers. Also based on the systematic review, questionnaires were developed and distributed to users and non‐users of e‐learning. The three methods permitted triangulation of the data. Main results – The search produced 161 results of which 57 met the methodological criteria. The 57 studies categorized elearning barriers and solutions into eight

  19. An Examination of Regional Competitiveness: Early Findings from Banten, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holis, Y. M.; Syabri, I.; Prabatmojo, H.

    2018-05-01

    Over time, the regional development planning paradigm continues to change procedural, substantive, actor and institutional aspects. The increasing globalization and decentralized governance systems will continue to determine how a country or region can compete and even be able to take advantage of the positive value of economic globalization. This certainly provides challenges and opportunities for the renewal of regional development concepts, in particular, the concept of regional competitiveness. This concept still lacks a scientific basis and its interpretation is still in debate. To date, the clear scientific basis is the concepts of corporate and national competitiveness. Whereas, the concept of competitiveness at the meso-level, namely the competitiveness of the region, becomes very important. Regional competitiveness prepares a region and to survive in response to the more open dynamics of economic globalization and the system of decentralization of authority in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to complement the concept of competitiveness which is still at the level of microeconomics (business theory) and macroeconomy (theory of growth) with the concept of competitiveness at the regional level that focuses on (i) finding determinant factors at the regional level in Indonesia; (ii) profiling regional competitiveness in several regions; and (iii) assessing the role of local government (institutional and actor) on determinants of regional competitiveness. This research is carried out by using a mixed-methods approach with a concurrent triangulation strategy model. The research follows the stages of literature study to identify the determinant factors of regional competitiveness relevant to the purpose of research, followed by descriptive analysis of the variables and selected by statistics through Analytical Network Process (ANP) to become the determinant factor of competitiveness. In accordance with the concept and definition of regional

  20. MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM AND THE CASE OF CSR IN THE TUNISIAN INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES: WHAT FINDINGS BY THE METHOD OF STRUCTURAL EQUATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Dkhili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to the behavior of management control; it is providing a model to the behavior of integration of social responsibility in the management control tools. This model was validated with 306 Tunisian companies in the industrial sector. Through a questionnaire, the data collected are processed using exploratory and confirmatory analysis by the methods of structural equations. The results revealed that the management control system in industrial Tunisia is facing economic responsibility. This is in response to emerging pressures of uncertainty related to the environment, and in enrolling a strategy of domination by cost. In addition, the management control system is designed as a guidance tool actions and behaviors.

  1. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Livi, Francesco; Hagemann, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The results presented demonstrate how the screening of 104 light-absorbing low band gap polymers for suitability in roll coated polymer solar cells can be accomplished through rational synthesis according to a matrix where 8 donor and 13 acceptor units are organized in rows and columns. Synthesis...... silver comb back electrode structure. The matrix organization enables fast identification of active layer materials according to a weighted merit factor that includes more than simply the power conversion efficiency and is used as a method to identify the lead candidates. Based on several characteristics...

  2. Application of mixed-methods design in community-engaged research: Lessons learned from an evidence-based intervention for Latinos with chronic illness and minor depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Alfonso, Moya L; Chan, Isabella; Anderson, Kelsey; Tyson, Dinorah Dina Martinez; Gonzales, Junius; Corvin, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned from a collaborative, community-informed mixed-methods approach to adapting an evidence-based intervention to meet the needs of Latinos with chronic disease and minor depression and their family members. Mixed-methods informed by community-based participatory research (CBPR) were employed to triangulate multiple stakeholders' perceptions of facilitators and barriers of implementing the adapted intervention in community settings. Community partners provided an insider perspective to overcome methodological challenges. The study's community informed mixed-methods: research approach offered advantages to a single research methodology by expanding or confirming research findings and engaging multiple stakeholders in data collection. This approach also allowed community partners to collaborate with academic partners in key research decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Servicemembers and veterans with major traumatic limb loss from Vietnam war and OIF/OEF conflicts: survey methods, participants, and summary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiber, Gayle E; McFarland, Lynne V; Hubbard, Sharon; Maynard, Charles; Blough, David K; Gambel, Jeffrey M; Smith, Douglas G

    2010-01-01

    Care of veterans and servicemembers with major traumatic limb loss from combat theaters is one of the highest priorities of the Department of Veteran Affairs. We achieved a 62% response rate in our Survey for Prosthetic Use from 298 Vietnam war veterans and 283 servicemembers/veterans from Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) who sustained major traumatic limb loss. Participants reported their combat injuries; health status; quality of life; and prosthetic device use, function, rejection, and satisfaction. Despite the serious injuries experienced, health status was rated excellent, very good, or good by 70.7% of Vietnam war and 85.5% of OIF/OEF survey participants. However, many health issues persist for Vietnam war and OIF/OEF survey participants (respectively): phantom limb pain (72.2%/76.0%), chronic back pain (36.2%/42.1%), residual-limb pain (48.3%/62.9%), prosthesis-related skin problems (51.0%/58.0%), hearing loss (47.0%/47.0%), traumatic brain injury (3.4%/33.9%), depression (24.5%/24.0%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (37.6%/58.7%). Prosthetic devices are currently used by 78.2% of Vietnam war and 90.5% of OIF/OEF survey participants to improve function and mobility. On average, the annual rate for prosthetic device receipt is 10.7-fold higher for OIF/OEF than for Vietnam war survey participants. Findings from this cross-conflict survey identify many strengths in prosthetic rehabilitation for those with limb loss and several areas for future attention.

  4. Radiological findings after gastrectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedl, P.; Polterauer, P.; Funovics, J.

    1980-06-01

    In 63 patients after total gastrectomy and reconstruction of the small bowel described by Beal-Longmire, Roux and Tomoda radiological findings were correlated with clinical symptoms. No correlation could be found between clinical symptoms of dumping and oesophagitis caused by reflux on one side and increased length of intestinal transit time, increased diameter of intestinal loops and gastro-oesophageal reflux on the other side. Enlarged blind loops after termino-lateral oesophago-jejunostomy and insufficient ligations (operation technique by Tomoda) were correlated with higher incidence of pains. Patients operated by the method of Beal-Longmire and Roux showed better results than those operated with the method of Tomoda.

  5. The TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study: Methods and Findings from an Exploratory Research Project on Eighth-Grade Mathematics Instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States. A Research and Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, James W.; Gonzales, Patrick; Kwanaka, Takako; Knoll, Steffen; Serrano, Ana

    This report presents the methods and preliminary findings of the Videotape Classroom Study, a video study of eighth-grade mathematics lessons in Germany, Japan, and the United States. This exploratory research project is part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The study included 231 eighth-grade mathematics…

  6. Support for targeted sampling of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) feces in Sweden: a method to improve the probability of finding Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L; Olsson, Gert E; Sollenberg, Sofia; Skarin, Moa; Wahlström, Helene; Höglund, Johan

    2016-11-29

    Localized concentrations of Echinococcus multilocularis eggs from feces of infected red fox (Vulpes vulpes) can create areas of higher transmission risk for rodent hosts and possibly also for humans; therefore, identification of these areas is important. However, in a low prevalence environment, such as Sweden, these areas could be easily overlooked. As part of a project investigating the role of different rodents in the epidemiology of E. multilocularis in Sweden, fox feces were collected seasonally from rodent trapping sites in two regions with known parasite status and in two regions with unknown parasite status, 2013-2015. The aim was to evaluate background contamination in rodent trapping sites from parasite eggs in these regions. To maximize the likelihood of finding fox feces positive for the parasite, fecal collection was focused in habitats with the assumed presence of suitable rodent intermediate hosts (i.e. targeted sampling). Parasite eggs were isolated from feces through sieving-flotation, and parasite species were then confirmed using PCR and sequencing. Most samples were collected in the late winter/early spring and in open fields where both Arvicola amphibius and Microtus agrestis were captured. Fox feces positive for E. multilocularis (41/714) were found within 1-3 field collection sites within each of the four regions. The overall proportion of positive samples was low (≤5.4%) in three regions, but was significantly higher in one region (22.5%, P < 0.001). There was not a significant difference between seasons or years. Compared to previous national screenings, our sampling strategy identified multiple E. multilocularis positive feces in all four regions, including the two regions with previously unknown parasite status. These results further suggest that the distribution of E. multilocularis is highly aggregated in the environment and provide support for further development of a targeted sampling strategy. Our results show that it was

  7. How possible is the development of an operational psychometric method to assess the presence of the 5-HTTLPR s allele? Equivocal preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszik Andras

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The s allele of the 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene has been found to be associated with neuroticism-related traits, affective temperaments and response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment. The aim of the current study was to develop a psychometric tool that could at least partially substitute for laboratory testing and could predict the presence of the s allele. Methods The study included 138 women of Caucasian origin, mean 32.20 ± 1.02 years old. All subjects completed the Hungarian standardised version of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A instrument and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR using PCR. The statistical analysis included the calculation of the Index of Discrimination (D, Discriminant Function Analysis, creation of scales on the basis of the above and then item analysis and calculation of sensitivity and specificity. Results Four indices were eventually developed, but their psychometric properties were relatively poor and their joint application did not improve the outcome. Conclusions We could not create a scale that predicts the 5-HTTLPR genotype with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, therefore we could not substitute a psychometric scale for laboratory genetic testing in predicting genotype, and also possibly affective disorder characterisation and treatment.

  8. Motivation or demotivation of health workers providing maternal health services in rural areas in Vietnam: findings from a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Nguyen Thi Hoai; Wilson, Andrew; McDonald, Fiona

    2015-12-02

    Motivation is an important driver for health professionals to maintain their professional competencies, continue in the workforce and make a positive contribution to their workplace. While there is some research about the motivation of health workers in low- to middle-income countries, maternal morbidity and mortality remains high and this can be lowered by improving the quality of maternal health services and the training and maintenance of the skills of maternal health workers. This study examines the impact of motivation on maintenance of professional competence among maternal health workers in Vietnam using mixed methods. The study consisted of a survey using a self-administered questionnaire of 240 health workers in five districts across two Vietnamese provinces and in-depth interviews with 43 health workers and health managers at the commune, district and provincial level to explore external factors that influenced motivation. The questionnaire includes a 23-item motivation instrument based on the Kenyan health context, modified for Vietnamese language and culture. The 240 responses represented an estimated 95% of the target sample. Multivariate analysis showed that three factors contributed to the motivation of health workers: access to training (β = -0.14, P = 0.03), ability to perform key tasks (β = 0.22, P = 0.001) and shift schedule (β = -0.13, P = 0.05). Motivation was higher in health workers self-identifying as competent or who were enabled to provide more maternal care services. Motivation was lower in those who worked more frequent night shifts and those who had received training in the last 12 months. The interviews identified that the latter was because they felt the training was irrelevant to them, and in some cases, they do not have the opportunity to practice their learnt skills. The qualitative data also showed other factors relating to service context and organisational management practices contributed to

  9. Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions

  10. Granulomatous mastitis: radiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, M.; Mavili, E.; Kahriman, G.; Akcan, A.C.; Ozturk, F. [Depts. of Radiology, Surgery, and Pathology, Erciyes Univ. Medical Faculty, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiological, ultrasonographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Material and Methods: Between April 2002 and June 2005, the mammography, ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, non enhanced MR, and dynamic MR findings of nine patients with the preliminary clinical diagnosis of malignancy and the final diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis were evaluated. Results: On mammography, asymmetrical focal densities with no distinct margins, ill-defined masses with spiculated contours, and bilateral multiple ill-defined nodules were seen. On ultrasound, in four patients a discrete, heterogenous hypoechoic mass, in two patients multiple abscesses, in one patient bilateral multiple central hypo peripheral hyperechoic lesions, in two patients heterogeneous hypo- and hyperechoic areas together with parenchymal distortion, and in one patient irregular hypoechoic masses with tubular extensions and abscess cavities were seen. Five of the lesions were vascular on color Doppler ultrasound. On MR mammography, the most frequent finding was focal or diffuse asymmetrical signal intensity changes that were hypointense on T1W images and hyperintense on T2W images, without significant mass effect. Nodular lesions were also seen. On dynamic contrast-enhanced mammography, mass-like enhancement, ring-like enhancement, and nodular enhancement were seen. The time-intensity curves differed from patient to patient and from lesion to lesion. Conclusion: The imaging findings of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis have a wide spectrum, and they are inconclusive for differentiating malignant and benign lesions.

  11. An optical method for measuring the thickness of a falling condensate in gravity assisted heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasanický Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of variables is the main problem of designing systems which uses heat pipes, whether it is a traditional - gravity, or advanced - capillary, pulsating, advanced heat pipes. This article is a methodology for measuring the thickness of the falling condensate in gravitational heat pipes, with using the optical triangulation method, and the evaluation of risks associated with this method.

  12. RO1 Funding for Mixed Methods Research: Lessons learned from the Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression Project

    OpenAIRE

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Fetters, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research has made significant in-roads in the effort to examine complex health related phenomenon. However, little has been published on the funding of mixed methods research projects. This paper addresses that gap by presenting an example of an NIMH funded project using a mixed methods QUAL-QUAN triangulation design entitled “The Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression.” We present the Cultural Determinants of Health Seeking model that framed the study, the specific aims, ...

  13. New method of three-dimensional reconstruction from two-dimensional MR data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrazidlo, W.; Schneider, S.; Brambs, H.J.; Richter, G.M.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Geiger, B.; Fischer, C.

    1989-01-01

    In medical diagnosis and therapy, cross-sectional images are obtained by means of US, CT, or MR imaging. The authors propose a new solution to the problem of constructing a shape over a set of cross-sectional contours from two-dimensional (2D) MR data sets. The authors' method reduces the problem of constructing a shape over the cross sections to one of constructing a sequence of partial shapes, each of them connecting two cross sections lying on adjacent planes. The solution makes use of the Delaunay triangulation, which is isomorphic in that specific situation. The authors compute this Delaunay triangulation. Shape reconstruction is then achieved section by pruning Delaunay triangulations

  14. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  15. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  16. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  17. The challenge of conceptual stretching in multi-method research

    OpenAIRE

    Ahram, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Multi-method research (MMR) has gained enthusiastic support among political scientists in recent years. Much of the impetus for MMR has been based on the seemingly intuitive logic of convergent triangulation: two tests are better than one, since a hypothesis that had survived a series of tests with different methods would be regarded as more valid than a hypothesis tested only a single method. In their seminal Design-ing Social Inquiry, King, Keohane, and Verba (1994) argue that combining qu...

  18. Can Source Triangulation Be Used to Overcome Limitations of Self-Assessments? Assessing Educational Needs and Professional Competence of Pharmacists Practicing in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheir, Nadir; Al-Ismail, Muna Said; Al-Nakeeb, Reem

    2017-01-01

    Continuing professional development activities should be designed to meet the identified personal goals of the learner. This article aims to explore the self-perceived competency levels and the professional educational needs of pharmacists in Qatar and to compare these with observations of pharmacy students undergoing experiential training in pharmacies (students) and pharmacy academics, directors, and managers (managers). Three questionnaires were developed and administered to practicing pharmacists, undergraduate pharmacy students who have performed structured experiential training rotations in multiple pharmacy outlets in Qatar and pharmacy managers. The questionnaires used items extracted from the National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA) Professional competencies for Canadian pharmacists at entry to practice and measured self- and observed pharmacists' competency and satisfaction with competency level. Training and educational needs were similar between the pharmacists and observers, although there was trend for pharmacists to choose more fact-intensive topics compared with observers whose preferences were toward practice areas. There was no association between the competency level of pharmacists as perceived by observers and as self-assessed by pharmacists (P ≤ .05). Pharmacists' self-assessed competency level was consistently higher than that reported by students (P ≤ .05). The results suggest that the use of traditional triangulation might not be sufficient to articulate the professional needs and competencies of practicing pharmacists as part of a strategy to build continuing professional development programs. Pharmacists might have a limited ability to accurately self-assess, and observer assessments might be significantly different from self-assessments which present a dilemma on which assessment to consider closer to reality. The processes currently used to evaluate competence may need to be enhanced through the use of well

  19. Find a Podiatrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RSS Home » Learn About Feet » Find a Podiatrist Find a Podiatrist Search Criteria: First Name: Last Name: ... first 3 digits of your zip code to find the closest doctor. Country: Australia Canada Guam Israel ...

  20. Find a Therapist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My ADAA Blog Home / Find Help Print | Email Find a Therapist Zip Code: Radius: 5 Miles 10 ... personal referrals. We supply information to help you find local mental health services and resources that allow ...

  1. Radiological findings in angiofibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schick, B. [Univ. of Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases; Kahle, G. [Univ. of Marburg, (Germany). Inst.of Radiology

    2000-11-01

    Surgery after pre-operative embolization has become the main treatment modality in angiofibroma therapy. As surgical planning is based on precise pre-operative tumour evaluation, knowledge of the characteristic growth patterns is of great interest. Analysis of tumour extension and blood supply, as well as methods of controlling intra-operative bleeding, help in determining the appropriate surgical approach. Though benign, angiofibroma demonstrates a locally aggressive nature. This fibrovascular tumour is characterised by typical radiological findings and by predictable growth patterns. The tumour extension and blood supply can be accurately determined by CT, MR imaging and angiography. With classic radiological findings, no pre-operative biopsy is necessary in most angiofibromas. Advances in radiological imaging have contributed to improved surgical planning and tumour resection. The surgeon is able to select the least traumatic approach with secure haemostatic control, which is also critical for avoiding the disturbance of facial skeletal growth in this group of young patients. Embolization, pre-operative autologous donation and the cell saver system for immediate retransfusion of the collected blood after filtration, are important tools for dealing with blood loss in angiofibroma surgery as they minimize homologous blood transfusion.

  2. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  3. A nodal method applied to a diffusion problem with generalized coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laazizi, A.; Guessous, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we consider second order neutrons diffusion problem with coefficients in L ∞ (Ω). Nodal method of the lowest order is applied to approximate the problem's solution. The approximation uses special basis functions in which the coefficients appear. The rate of convergence obtained is O(h 2 ) in L 2 (Ω), with a free rectangular triangulation. (authors)

  4. Behavioral Changes Based on a Course in Agroecology: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Kristyn; King, James; Francis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated and described student perceptions of a course in agroecology to determine if participants experienced changed perceptions and behaviors resulting from the Agroecosystems Analysis course. A triangulation validating quantitative data mixed methods approach included a written survey comprised of both quantitative and open-ended…

  5. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically uniqu...

  6. Community referral for presumptive TB in Nigeria: a comparison of four models of active case finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adejumo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engagement of communities and civil society organizations is a critical part of the Post-2015 End TB Strategy. Since 2007, many models of community referral have been implemented to boost TB case detection in Nigeria. Yet clear insights into the comparative TB yield from particular approaches have been limited. Methods We compared four models of active case finding in three Nigerian states. Data on presumptive TB case referral by community workers (CWs, TB diagnoses among referred clients, active case finding model characteristics, and CWs compensation details for 2012 were obtained from implementers and CWs via interviews and log book review. Self-reported performance data were triangulated against routine surveillance data to assess concordance. Analysis focused on assessing the predictors of presumptive TB referral. Results CWs referred 4–22 % of presumptive TB clients tested, and 4–24 % of the total TB cases detected. The annual median referral per CW ranged widely among the models from 1 to 48 clients, with an overall average of 13.4 referrals per CW. The highest median referrals (48 per CW/yr and mean TB diagnoses (7.1/yr per CW (H =70.850, p < 0.001 was obtained by the model with training supervision, and $80/quarterly payments (Comprehensive Quotas-Oriented model. The model with irregularly supervised, trained, and compensated CWs contributed the least to TB case detection with a median of 13 referrals per CW/yr and mean of 0.53 TB diagnoses per CW/yr. Hours spent weekly on presumptive TB referral made the strongest unique contribution (Beta = 0.514, p < 0.001 to explaining presumptive TB referral after controlling for other variables. Conclusion All community based TB case-finding projects studied referred a relative low number of symptomatic individuals. The study shows that incentivized referral, appropriate selection of CWs, supportive supervision, leveraged treatment support roles, and a

  7. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerida Hyett

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12, social sciences and anthropology (n=7, or methods (n=15 case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

  8. Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners. PMID:24809980

  9. Using a mixed-methods design to examine nurse practitioner integration in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster-Gormley, Esther; Griffith, Janessa; Schreiber, Rita; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    To discuss and provide examples of how mixed-methods research was used to evaluate the integration of nurse practitioners (NPs) into a Canadian province. Legislation enabling NPs to practise in British Columbia (BC) was enacted in 2005. This research evaluated the integration of NPs and their effect on the BC healthcare system. Data were collected using surveys, focus groups, participant interviews and case studies over three years. Data sources and methods were triangulated to determine how the findings addressed the research questions. The challenges and benefits of using the multiphase design are highlighted in the paper. The multiphase mixed-methods research design was selected because of its applicability to evaluation research. The design proved to be robust and flexible in answering research questions. As sub-studies within the multiphase design are often published separately, it can be difficult for researchers to find examples. This paper highlights ways that a multiphase mixed-methods design can be conducted for researchers unfamiliar with the process.

  10. Adjustment technique without explicit formation of normal equations /conjugate gradient method/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, N. K.

    1974-01-01

    For a simultaneous adjustment of a large geodetic triangulation system, a semiiterative technique is modified and used successfully. In this semiiterative technique, known as the conjugate gradient (CG) method, original observation equations are used, and thus the explicit formation of normal equations is avoided, 'huge' computer storage space being saved in the case of triangulation systems. This method is suitable even for very poorly conditioned systems where solution is obtained only after more iterations. A detailed study of the CG method for its application to large geodetic triangulation systems was done that also considered constraint equations with observation equations. It was programmed and tested on systems as small as two unknowns and three equations up to those as large as 804 unknowns and 1397 equations. When real data (573 unknowns, 965 equations) from a 1858-km-long triangulation system were used, a solution vector accurate to four decimal places was obtained in 2.96 min after 1171 iterations (i.e., 2.0 times the number of unknowns).

  11. MRI finding of hemangioblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Cheol; Oh, Min Cheol; Chung, Hwan Hoon; Seol, Hye Young; Lee, Nam Joon; Kim, Jung Hyuk

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of posterior fossa hemanangioblastoma and usefulness of contrast enhancement with Gd-DTPA. Seven patients with posterior fossa hemangioblastoma were studied with both pre- and post-enhanced MRI. The MR images were reviewed regarding the location, size, signal intensities of cysts and mural nodules, and their contrast enhancement pattern. Five tumors were located in cerebellar hemisphere, one in vermis, and one in posterior part of medulla. One patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease had a medullary hemangioblastoma with multiple pancreatic cysts. In 6 cases, the major portion of the tumor was cysts and had small mulkal nodules. The solid portion was relatively lange in one cases, cemprising half of the tumor cysts were oval shaped and their sized were 3-6.7 cm in diameter. In five cases(71%), septations were noted within the cysts. Cysts were isointense or slightly hyperintense on T1-weighted image and hyperintense on T2- weighted image compared with cerebrospinal fluid. Mural nodules were oval or rounded radiotherapy had better prognosis than those treated with radiotherapy alwas 0.5-2.5 cm in diameter. Mural nodules were isointense to gray matter. They were detected in five cases on T1-weighted images and one case on T2-weighted images. In two cases, vascular signal void area was noted in mural nodules. On contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images, all mural nodules were intensely enhanced. MRI provide to be a good diagnostic method to detect and characterize posterior fossa hemangioblastoma. The most common finding is Cystic posterior fossa lesion with enhancing mural nodule. Contrast enhancement is essential for specific diagnosis

  12. Finding a Neurosurgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tip: Finding A Neurosurgeon The first step in getting proper treatment for Chiari is to find the right doctor. While many patients are ... surgical, Conquer Chiari recommends that patients see a neurosurgeon for evaluation. As a policy, Conquer Chiari does ...

  13. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts

  14. Find a Dermatologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Practice Tools Education Meetings & Events Advocacy Public & Patients Find a Dermatologist Why see a dermatologist? Learn more . ... Last Name Search Special Proprietary Notice and Disclaimer "Find a Dermatologist" is produced by the American Academy ...

  15. Find din stemme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Barnholdt

    2010-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Dorte Kock og Lene Kleinschmidts: Find din stemme. En brugsbog.Hans Reitzels Forlag 2010.......Anmeldelse af Dorte Kock og Lene Kleinschmidts: Find din stemme. En brugsbog.Hans Reitzels Forlag 2010....

  16. Metasynthesis findings: potential versus reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2014-11-01

    Early on, qualitative researchers predicted that metasynthesis research had the potential to significantly push knowledge development forward. More recently, scholars have questioned whether this is actually occurring. To examine this concern, a randomly selected sample of metasynthesis articles was systematically reviewed to identify the types of findings that have been produced. Based on this systematic examination, it appears that findings from metasynthesis investigations might not be reaching their full potential. Metasynthesis investigations frequently result in isolated findings rather than findings in relationship, and opportunities to generate research hypotheses and theoretical models are not always fully realized. With this in mind, methods for moving metasynthesis findings into relationship are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Radiologic findings of sacroiliitis : emphasis on MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Jong Ho

    1997-01-01

    To compare the characteristic MR findings of infectious sacroiliitis (IS) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We retrospectively reviewed MR findings in eight patients with IS (pyogenic in six, tuberculosis in two) confirmed by culture and clinical follow-up, and in six with AS by HLA-B27 typing. AA control group of 13 asymptomatic volunteers was formed, and they underwent MRI Findings were analysed for morphology, degree of bone erosion, and adjacent soft tissue change. CT findings of AS in four patients and IS in four were also compared to MR findings. MR characteristics of IS included unilaterality (100%), abnormal cartilage signal intensity (100%), bone marrow change (100%), contrast enhancement (100%), erosion (63%), and soft tissue change (63%). MR findings of AS showed bilaterality (67%), abnormal cartilage signal intensity (80%), bone marrow change (80%), erosion (80%), contrast enhancement (44%) and soft tissue change (10%). CT scan showed bony sclerosis and erosion (86%), and abnormal joint space (71%). MR findings of sacroiliitis were loss of thin zone of a cartilage and erosions on T1-weighted image, and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted image. MRI is regarded as a useful diagnostic method where conventional diagnosis is difficult, and is able to image cartilage abnormalities directly and noninvasively. Significant differences in MR findings between IS and AS were not noted, however

  18. Finding beam focus errors automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Clearwater, S.H.; Kleban, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    An automated method for finding beam focus errors using an optimization program called COMFORT-PLUS. The steps involved in finding the correction factors using COMFORT-PLUS has been used to find the beam focus errors for two damping rings at the SLAC Linear Collider. The program is to be used as an off-line program to analyze actual measured data for any SLC system. A limitation on the application of this procedure is found to be that it depends on the magnitude of the machine errors. Another is that the program is not totally automated since the user must decide a priori where to look for errors

  19. Some error estimates for the lumped mass finite element method for a parabolic problem

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzipantelidis, P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the spatially semidiscrete lumped mass method for the model homogeneous heat equation with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Improving earlier results we show that known optimal order smooth initial data error estimates for the standard Galerkin method carry over to the lumped mass method whereas nonsmooth initial data estimates require special assumptions on the triangulation. We also discuss the application to time discretization by the backward Euler and Crank-Nicolson methods. © 2011 American Mathematical Society.

  20. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  1. Understanding the Effects of Time on Collaborative Learning Processes in Problem Based Learning: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, J.; Van den Bossche, P.; de Grave, W.; Bos, G.; Schuwirth, L.; Scherpbier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known how time influences collaborative learning groups in medical education. Therefore a thorough exploration of the development of learning processes over time was undertaken in an undergraduate PBL curriculum over 18 months. A mixed-methods triangulation design was used. First, the quantitative study measured how various learning…

  2. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Glaucia; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro (HUAP/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: the aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. Methods: this was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. Results: the majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). Conclusions: it is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. (author)

  3. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Seob; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang

    1985-01-01

    Examining the eye with high resolution ultrasonography, authors encountered 34 cases (41 eyeballs) of cataract and found out its characteristic ultrasonographic findings, though cataract is easily recognized by physician on inspection. Ultrasonographic findings of cataract were as follows; 1. Thickening of lens due to edema. 2. Demonstration of lens echo in whole circumference. 3. Multiple internal lens echo

  5. Teaching learning methods of an entrepreneurship curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmi, Keramat; Marzoughi, Rahmatallah; Torkzadeh, Jafar

    2015-10-01

    One of the most significant elements of entrepreneurship curriculum design is teaching-learning methods, which plays a key role in studies and researches related to such a curriculum. It is the teaching method, and systematic, organized and logical ways of providing lessons that should be consistent with entrepreneurship goals and contents, and should also be developed according to the learners' needs. Therefore, the current study aimed to introduce appropriate, modern, and effective methods of teaching entrepreneurship and their validation. This is a mixed method research of a sequential exploratory kind conducted through two stages: a) developing teaching methods of entrepreneurship curriculum, and b) validating developed framework. Data were collected through "triangulation" (study of documents, investigating theoretical basics and the literature, and semi-structured interviews with key experts). Since the literature on this topic is very rich, and views of the key experts are vast, directed and summative content analysis was used. In the second stage, qualitative credibility of research findings was obtained using qualitative validation criteria (credibility, confirmability, and transferability), and applying various techniques. Moreover, in order to make sure that the qualitative part is reliable, reliability test was used. Moreover, quantitative validation of the developed framework was conducted utilizing exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis methods and Cronbach's alpha. The data were gathered through distributing a three-aspect questionnaire (direct presentation teaching methods, interactive, and practical-operational aspects) with 29 items among 90 curriculum scholars. Target population was selected by means of purposive sampling and representative sample. Results obtained from exploratory factor analysis showed that a three factor structure is an appropriate method for describing elements of teaching-learning methods of entrepreneurship curriculum

  6. Radiologic findings of anthracofibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Mi Jin; Ko, Eun Joo; Yoon, Sook Ja; Tien, Kuang Lung; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jin Hwan

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of bronchial anthracofibrosis. Fourteen patients with bronchoscopically confirmed anthracofibrosis were involved in this study. CT findings (n=3D12) were retrospectively analysed; the pattern, distri-bution and extent of bronchial and parenchymal abnormalities and additional findings such as mediastinal lymphadenopathy and pleural effusion were assessed. Age, sex, and occupational and disease history were history were also reviewed. Patients were aged between 63 and 95 (mean, 71.3) years, and ten were female. Only one patient had an occupational history, but four had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Frequent radiologic findings were bronchial wall thickening(n=3D6), atelectasis(n=3D8), mediastinal lymphad-enopathy(n=3D7) and mass(n=3D4). Other accompanying findings were bronchial wall calcification(n=3D3), consolidation(n=3D2) and pleural effusion(n=3D2). Right upper (n=3D7) and right middle lobe(n=3D7) were the most commonly involved sites, and multifocal involvement (n=3D7) was frequent. Bronchial wall thickening, atelectasis and mediastinal lymphadenopathy were characteristic CT findings of anthracofibrosis. When such findings are noted in older or aged female patients, anthracofibrosis should be included in the differential diagnosis

  7. Findings from non-participant observational data concerning health promoting nursing practice in the acute hospital setting focusing on generalist nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Dympna

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports on the non-participant observational findings from a study, which examined hospital-based nurses' health promoting nursing practice in an acute setting. Nurses are considered to have a key role in health promotion. However, the development of the role of the generalist hospital-based nurse in health promotion has been slow and is not well-understood. The conceptual framework used was based on the Ottawa Charter (WHO 1986). A single qualitative embedded case study, employing data source and methodological triangulation was used. A framework for identifying nurse's use of health promotion methods was developed and used to collect non-participant observations on a purposive sample of eight nurses working on an acute hospital ward. Following the observations a semi structured one-to-one interview was conducted with each observed nurse. One randomly selected patient that the observed nurse had cared for during the observations was also interviewed. Qualitative data analysis based on the work of Miles and Huberman was employed. Two categories were identified 'health promotion strategies and content' and 'patient participation'. The findings indicated that, overall, the strategies used by nurses to promote health were prescriptive and individualistic. The main strategy observed was information giving and the content was 'preparatory information'. Predominantly, nurses practised traditional health education. Overall, patient participation was limited to minor personal aspects of care as nurses focused on the routine and getting the tasks completed. There was no evidence of a ward culture which valued health promotion. Ward managers are key in creating a culture for health promotion. A review of the methods of organizing nursing care is warranted. Nursing programmes must highlight health promotion as integral to practice and emphasis the socio-political dimensions of health promotion.

  8. Dermoscopic findings in cicatricial alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seher Arı

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermoscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. Newly, this method has also been used in the diagnosis and follow-up hair and scalp disorders. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate dermoscopic findings in a sample of patients with clinical and histopathological compatible with cicatricial alopecia. Methods: Twenty nine patients with cicatricial alopecia diagnosed by clinical and histological findings were examined by dermoscopy.. Results: Dermoscopic features evaluated included folliculitis decalvans (n=8, pseudopelade of Brocq (n=7, lichen planopilaris (n=6, discoid lupus erythematosus (n=2, dissecting cellulitis (n=1, and secondary cicatricial alopecia (n=5. Visualization of structures previously examined with naked eye were seen in great detail with dermoscopy. The loss of follicular orifices was seen in all patients with cicatricial alopecia. Perifollicular scaling, arborizing red lines, honeycomb pigment pattern, white dots and tufted hairs were the other most obvious findings. Conclusion: Use of dermoscopy in the clinical evaluation of cicatrical alopecia improves diagnostic capability beyond simple clinic inspection, but larger studies correlating dermoscopic findings with histopathology exams are needed to improve understanding of this method.

  9. Finding the Right Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certified hospital Communicating with Healthcare Professionals for Caregivers Consumer Health Care • Home • Health Insurance Information • Your Healthcare Team Introduction Finding the Right Doctor Talking to Your Doctor Getting a Second ...

  10. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  11. Find a Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spira Galifianakis Gallagher Galvez-Jimenez Gancher Garnett Garrett Gates Gayton Gaziano Gelb Geleris George Gerber Gerlach Germano ... Donate Donate Online Membership Find an Event Donor Bill of Rights About Dystonia Symptoms & Diagnosis Forms of ...

  12. Find a Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Manager Book Appointments Getting Care When on Active Duty Getting Care When Traveling What's Covered Health Care Dental Care ... Manager Book Appointments Getting Care When on Active Duty Getting Care When Traveling Bread Crumbs Home Find a Doctor ...

  13. CT findings of colonic diverticulitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Although colonic diverticulitis has no indication for operation, but in some mistaken cases were operated with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We evaluated the CT findings of colonic diverticulitis about 19 cases and of asymptomatic colonic diverticula about 15 cases retrospectively. Diagnosis was confirmed of barium enema and operation. CT are complementary methods of examination that can delineated the range of thickening of the colon and the extension of inflammatory changes around the colon. We also believe that CT findings of colonic diverticulitis are useful for differentiating from a diagnosis of appendicitis. (author)

  14. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  15. Migration, settlement change and health in post-apartheid South Africa: Triangulating health and demographic surveillance with national census data1

    Science.gov (United States)

    COLLINSON, MARK A.; TOLLMAN, STEPHEN M.; KAHN, KATHLEEN

    2010-01-01

    Background World population growth will be increasingly concentrated in the urban areas of the developing world; however, some scholars caution against the oversimplification of African urbanization noting that there may be “counter-urbanization” and a prevailing pattern of circular rural–urban migration. The aim of the paper is to examine the ongoing urban transition in South Africa in the post-apartheid period, and to consider the health and social policy implications of prevailing migration patterns. Methods Two data sets were analysed, namely the South African national census of 2001 and the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance system. A settlement-type transition matrix was constructed on the national data to show how patterns of settlement have changed in a five-year period. Using the sub-district data, permanent and temporary migration was characterized, providing migration rates by age and sex, and showing the distribution of origins and destinations. Findings The comparison of national and sub-district data highlight the following features: urban population growth, particularly in metropolitan areas, resulting from permanent and temporary migration; prevailing patterns of temporary, circular migration, and a changing gender balance in this form of migration; stepwise urbanization; and return migration from urban to rural areas. Conclusions Policy concerns include: rural poverty exacerbated by labour migration; explosive conditions for the transmission of HIV; labour migrants returning to die in rural areas; and the challenges for health information created by chronically ill migrants returning to rural areas to convalesce. Lastly, suggestions are made on how to address the dearth of relevant population information for policy-making in the fields of migration, settlement change and health. PMID:17676507

  16. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  17. Ultrasonographic findings of gynecomastia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Park, Chang Yun [Yongdong Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The purposes of our study were to find out characteristic ultrasonographic findings of gynecomastia and to analyze age distribution, causative factors of gynecomastia. For these purposes, medical records of 39 male patients with gynecomastia were reviewed and sonographic findings of 13 cases of gentamycin were analyzed. Gynecomastia was found most commonly in teenagers and commonly in twenties. Almostly, it occurred without any evident etiology and classified as idiopathic or pirbuterol type. Less frequently, it occurred due to drug administration, systemic disease, or male hormone deficiency. Unilateral involvement was seen in 29 cases; 17cases involving the left and 12 cases the right. Bilateral involvement was seen in 10 cases. Sonographically,gynecomastia appeared as hypoechoic or intermediate echoic mass with various shape in the subareolar area. One case showed diffuse fatty breast pattern without definable mass. On sonographic evaluation, prominent nipple should not be misinterpreted as a breast mass. For the correct diagnosis of gynecomastia, both side breasts should be evaluated for comparison

  18. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... scanners will find mostly superficial errors. Thus, when bugs span multiple functions, even if simple, they become undetectable by most code scanners. The studied set of historical bugs contained many of such cases. This PhD thesis proposes a bug-finding technique that is both lightweight and capable...

  19. Mobious syndrome: MR findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskal Revanna Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Möbius syndrome is an extremely rare congenital disorder. We report a case of Möbius syndrome in a 2-year-old girl with bilateral convergent squint and left-sided facial weakness. The characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of Möbius syndrome, which include absent bilateral abducens nerves and absent left facial nerve, were noted. In addition, there was absence of left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA and absence of bilateral facial colliculi. Clinical features, etiology, and imaging findings are discussed.

  20. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  1. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  2. Primary cerebral lymphoma: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J.C.; Grandse, D.; Equidazu, J.; Elizagaray, E.; Grande, J.; Carrandi, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present four cases of primary cerebral lymphoma in non-immunodepressed adult patients. All cases were dsemonstrated with pathological study. CAT study showed solitary or multiple isodense lesions, which incorporated avidly and homoneneously the contrast. Arteriography performed in three patients and magnetic resonance, performed in one did not help for diagnosis. We also review the radiological findings obtained with different imaging methods, and suggest the criteria which could be useful for early diagnosis (Author)

  3. Finding Their Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Every time Dr. Larry Shinagawa teaches his "Introduction to Asian American Studies" course at the University of Maryland (UMD), College Park, he finds that 10 to 20 percent of his students are adoptees. Among other things, they hunger to better comprehend the social and political circumstances overseas leading to their adoption. In…

  4. Neuroblastoma: computed tomographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Choon Sik; Ahn, Chang Su; Kim, Myung Jun; Oh, Ki Keun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristic CT findings of neuroblastoma, we studied neuroblastomas. We analysed CT findings of available 25 cases among pathologically proved 51 neuroblastomas from Jan. 1983 to Sept. 1990. The most frequent site of origin is adrenal gland (40%) and the second is retroperitoneum (32%) and the third ismediastinum (16%). Characteristic CT findings are as follows: Calcifications within the tumor is detected in 86% of abdominal neuroblastomas and 50% of mediastinal origin. Hemorrhagic and necrotic changes within the tumor is noted at 86% in the tumor of abdominal origin and 25% in mediastinal neuroblastomas. Contrast enhanced study showed frequently seperated enhanced appearance with/without solid contrast enhancement. Encasements of major great vessels such as aorta and IVC with/without displacement by metastatic lymph nodes or tumor are frequently seen in 90% of abdominal neuroblastomas. Multiple lymphadenopathy are detected in 95% of abdominal neuroblastomas and 25% of mediastinal neuroblastomas. The most common organ or contiguous direct invasion is kidney in 6 cases and the next one is liver but intraspinal canal invasion is also noted in 2 cases. We concluded that diagnosis of neuroblastoma would be easily obtained in masses of pediatric group from recognition of above characteristic findings

  5. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... by matching temporal bug-patterns against the control-flow graph of this program abstraction. I have implemented a proof-of-concept bug finder based on this technique, EBA, and confirmed that it is both scalable and effective at finding bugs. On a benchmark of historical Linux double-lock bugs, EBA was able...

  6. MR findings of craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Woo, Young Hoon; Joo, Yang Goo; Suh, Soo Jhi [College of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    Craniopharyngioma is a benign, slow-growing tumor that constitues 3-9% of all intracranial tumors, and arises from epithelial remnants of the Rathke's pouch. We analyzed MR (2.0T) findings of ten cases with surgically proved craniopharyngioma retrospectively. CT was available in five cases, and Gd-DTPA was used in six cases. Characteristic findings of craniopharyngioma in MRI included multilocularity and variable signal intensities within each loculus that were more prominent in T1WI. Detection rate of calcification in MR was 60%. Six cases with Gd-DTPA enhancement revealed irregular or rim-like enhancement. MRI provides useful information regarding the location, extent and biochemical characteristics of the oraniopharyngioma as well as its relationship to the neighboring structures which will be valuable in planning surgical resection.

  7. MR findings of craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Woo, Young Hoon; Joo, Yang Goo; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1992-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a benign, slow-growing tumor that constitues 3-9% of all intracranial tumors, and arises from epithelial remnants of the Rathke's pouch. We analyzed MR (2.0T) findings of ten cases with surgically proved craniopharyngioma retrospectively. CT was available in five cases, and Gd-DTPA was used in six cases. Characteristic findings of craniopharyngioma in MRI included multilocularity and variable signal intensities within each loculus that were more prominent in T1WI. Detection rate of calcification in MR was 60%. Six cases with Gd-DTPA enhancement revealed irregular or rim-like enhancement. MRI provides useful information regarding the location, extent and biochemical characteristics of the oraniopharyngioma as well as its relationship to the neighboring structures which will be valuable in planning surgical resection

  8. Heterotopic pregnancy: Sonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Tae Hee

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of the heterotopic pregnancy which is increasing recently. Thirty-nine cases of heterotopic pregnancy after ovulation induction and IVF-ET (In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer) during the recent 3 years were analyzed. They were diagnosed by ultrasonography and proved surgically afterwards. Sonographic findings were analyzed focusing on gestational week of intrauterine pregnancy and location of ectopic pregnancy. In particular, adnexal mass was evaluated with regard to size and the characteristic findings such as ectopic gestational sac (echogenic ring). Also, overian cyst and fluid collection in cul-de-sac space were reviewed carefully. Heterotopic pregnancy was proved surgically by salpingectomy in 33 cases and by resection of cornus in six cases. Sonographic diagnosis using transvaginal ultrasound was made from five weeks to nine weeks two days (six weeks and four days in average) from last menstral period in all 39 cases. Ectopic pregnancy was identified in ampullary part in 29 cases, in the isthmic portion of tube in four cases and in the cornus of uterus in six cases. The intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed by identifying the intrauterine gestational saccontaining a yolk sac in seven cases and the embryo with fetal heart beat in the remaining 32 cases. Adnexal masses of heterotopic pregnancy were less than 3 cm in diameter in 2 cases (57%), 3-4 cm in 11 cases (28%) and more than 4 cm in 6 cases (15%). A characteristic finding of ectopic mass was echogenic ring which was visible in 33 (84.6%) cases by transvaginal ultrasound. Six cases had pelvic hematosalpinx and two had pelvic hematoma. Of 10 cases (26%) which were identified to have ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, eight (21%) had large amount of fluid collection in cul-de-sac and abdomen. Ultrasonographic identification of the intrauterine pregnancy and the ectopic chorion ring is effective for the early diagnosis of the heterotopic pregnancy.

  9. MELAS syndrome: neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, A.; Romero, A. I.; Bravo, F.; Vida, J. M.; Espejo, S.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) findings in MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) and their contribution to the diagnosis of this entity. We present three patients in which a diagnosis of MELAS syndrome was confirmed by muscle biopsy. CT revealed pathological findings in two patients: bilateral calcifications in the basal nuclei in one and low-attenuation lesions in occipital lobes in the other. Initial or follow-up MR demonstrated pathological findings highly suggestive of MELAS syndrome in all the patients. They consisted of hyperintense lesions in T2-weighted images, located predominantly in the cortex of occipital and parietal lobes. Cerebellar atrophy was also observed in two patients. The clinical signs varied, but epileptic seizures, headache, vomiting, ataxia, muscle weakness and pyramidal involvement were among the major ones. Only one patient presented high lactic acid levels, and in two, the initial muscle biopsy was not conclusive enough to provide the definitive diagnosis. CT and, especially, MR are useful tools in the diagnosis of MELAS syndrome, particularly in those cases in which initial negative laboratory and histological results make diagnosis difficult. (Author) 21 refs

  10. CT findings of slilcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dong Hee; Kim, Kun Il; Son, Hyun Ju; Ro, Young Jin; Jung, Doo Young; Park, Jae Yeong; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1996-01-01

    To describe chest radiographic and CT findings of silicosis, and to compare their findings. Ten coal miners and six stonemasons were included in this study. All were male and their mean age was 53.1. The mean duration of dust exposure was 15.2 years(range, 5-30 years) in coal miners and 25.3 years(range, 15-35 years) in stonemasons. Chest radiographs(n=16), conventional CT scans(n=4), and high resolution CT(HRCT) scans(n=13) were evaluated. Parenchymal abnormalities were interpreted on the basis of ILO standard films(1980) in chest radiographs and on the basis of CAP(College of American Pathologists, 1979) in CT(HRCT) films. Chest radiographs revealed large opacities(n=8), small opacities(n=6), and normal findings(n=2). Type r(n=4) and category 1/1(n=2) were most common for small opacities, while for large opacities, category B(n=4) and category c(n=4) were most common. These small and large opacities were located predominantly in the area of the upper and middle lung. Associated findings were emphysema(n=7), eggshell nodal calcifications(n=3), pneumothorax(n=3), C-P angle blunting(n=4), and pleural thickening(n=1). CT scans revealed micronodules(n=16), nodules(n=3), and progressive massive fibrosis(PMF, n=8). All these lesions were located in the upper and middle lungs, especially in the central portion of the posterior lung. PMF showed diffuse and homogenous(n=3) and puntate(n=2) calcifications, cavitations(n=5), air bronchograms(n=3), and necrosis(n=1). Peripheral paracicatrical emphysema was associated with PMF(n=8). Other findings were pneumothorax(n=4), emphysema(n=10), hilar and mediastinal nodal enlargement(n=11) bronchial wall thick- enings(n=6), bronchiectasis(n=1), pleural thickening(n=7), parenchymal fibrosis(n=1), and pulmonary tuberculosis(n=2). Small and large opacities in chest radiographs and micronodules, nodules, and PMFs in CT (HRCT) films were located predominately in the upper and middle lungs, especially in the central portion of the

  11. Long-term versus short-term deformation of the meizoseismal area of the 2008 Achaia-Elia (MW 6.4) earthquake in NW Peloponnese, Greece: Evidence from historical triangulation and morphotectonic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiros, Stathis; Moschas, Fanis; Feng, Lujia; Newman, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The deformation of the meizoseismal area of the 2008 Achaia-Elia (MW 6.4) earthquake in NW Peloponnese, of the first significant strike slip earthquake in continental Greece, was examined in two time scales; of 102 years, based on the analysis of high-accuracy historical triangulation data describing shear, and of 105-106 years, based on the analysis of the hydrographic network of the area for signs of streams offset by faulting. Our study revealed pre-seismic accumulation of shear strain of the order of 0.2 μrad/year in the study area, consistent with recent GPS evidence, but no signs of significant strike slip-induced offsets in the hydrographic network. These results confirm the hypothesis that the 2008 fault, which did not reached the surface and was not associated with significant seismic ground deformation, probably because of a surface flysch layer filtering high-strain events, was associated with an immature or a dormant, recently activated fault. This fault, about 150 km long and discordant to the morphotectonic trends of the area, seems first, to contain segments which have progressively reactivated in a specific direction in the last 20 years, reminiscent of the North Anatolian Fault, and second, to limit an 150 km wide (recent?) shear zone in the internal part of the arc, in a region mostly dominated by thrust faulting and strong destructive earthquakes. Deformation of the first main strike slip fault in continental Greece analyzed. Triangulation data show preseismic shear, hydrographic net no previous faulting. Surface shear deformation only in low strain rates. Immature or reactivated dormant strike slip fault, with gradual oriented rupturing. Interplay between shear and thrusting along the arc.

  12. Radiological findings in NAO syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Otaibi, Leftan; Hugosson, Claes O. [Department of Radiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Mayouf, Sulalman M.; Majeed, Mahmoud; Al-Eid, Wea' am; Bahabri, Sultan [Department of Paediatrics, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2002-07-01

    Background: Diseases exhibiting osteolysis in children are rare hereditary conditions. Several types have been recognised with different clinical manifestations. One type includes subcutaneous nodules, arthropathy and osteolysis and has been termed NAO syndrome. Previous radiological reports have described the affected bones, usually the carpal and tarsal regions, but a detailed analysis of the radiological findings of both the axial as well as the appendicular skeleton has not been reported. Objectives: To describe the radiological findings in a large group of children with an autosomal recessive disease characterized by nodules, familial arthropathy and osteolysis. Materials and methods: The study comprises 14 patients from 9 families and all patients had the triad of nodulosis, arthropathy and osteolysis (NAO). Results: The most common radiological manifestations were osteopenia, undertubulation of long bones, arthritic changes, sclerotic sutures of the calvaria, osteolysis and muscle contractures. Other common findings were squared vertebrae, broad medial clavicles and brachycephaly. Progress of disease was documented in more than half of the patients. Conclusions: Our study is the first report of the detailed radiological findings of NAO syndrome. In NAO syndrome, both the axial and appendicular skeleton are involved (orig.)

  13. Radiological findings in NAO syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Otaibi, Leftan; Hugosson, Claes O.; Al-Mayouf, Sulalman M.; Majeed, Mahmoud; Al-Eid, Wea'am; Bahabri, Sultan

    2002-01-01

    Background: Diseases exhibiting osteolysis in children are rare hereditary conditions. Several types have been recognised with different clinical manifestations. One type includes subcutaneous nodules, arthropathy and osteolysis and has been termed NAO syndrome. Previous radiological reports have described the affected bones, usually the carpal and tarsal regions, but a detailed analysis of the radiological findings of both the axial as well as the appendicular skeleton has not been reported. Objectives: To describe the radiological findings in a large group of children with an autosomal recessive disease characterized by nodules, familial arthropathy and osteolysis. Materials and methods: The study comprises 14 patients from 9 families and all patients had the triad of nodulosis, arthropathy and osteolysis (NAO). Results: The most common radiological manifestations were osteopenia, undertubulation of long bones, arthritic changes, sclerotic sutures of the calvaria, osteolysis and muscle contractures. Other common findings were squared vertebrae, broad medial clavicles and brachycephaly. Progress of disease was documented in more than half of the patients. Conclusions: Our study is the first report of the detailed radiological findings of NAO syndrome. In NAO syndrome, both the axial and appendicular skeleton are involved (orig.)

  14. MR findings of ulegyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, Suketaka; Shiga, Hayao; Yuasa, Yuji; Imai, Yutaka; Higuchi, Nobuya; Maezawa, Mariko.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) findings of the brains diagnosed to have ulegyria were reviewed. The reviewed subjects comprised six epileptic children, ranged from 2 to 16 years of age. All patients had convulsion of tonic-clonic type of various severity and had histories of ischemic-hypoxic or hypoglycemic episode in the perinatal or postnatal period. T 1 -weighted images demonstrated the findings precisely reflecting the salient macroscopic features of ulegyria; localized atrophy of the brain with mushroom-shaped cortical gyri with narrow roots and relatively spared wider crowns. T 2 -weighted images showed the areas of hyperintensity in the subcortical and deep white matter subjacent to the atrophic cortex, suggestive of cicatrical gliosis as well as cystic degeneration. The atrophic gyri were seen in the anterior and/or posterior parasagittal arterial border zones bilaterally with minimal asymmetry. Although these findings were nearly pathognomonic to ulegyria, polymicrogyria could mimic it since both are characterized by abnormally diminutive cortical gyri seen in epileptic children. In polymicrogyria, however, affected gyri are uniformly diminutive and not mushroom-shaped, the cortex is rather thickened than atrophic, the underlying white matter shows no focal hyperintensity, subcortical cystic changes are not present, and affected cortex is not restricted to arterial border zones. Even in one of our cases with extensive ulegyria, it was easy to differentiate it from polymicrogyria since parasagittal regions were most severely affected. Although the previous reports on ulegyria have been exclusively based on postmortem pathological examinations or experimental models, its easy recognition on MRI would contribute to further understanding of its clinical significance and mechanisms. (author)

  15. MR findings of spondylolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojiri, Hiroya; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Hashimoto, Toru; Doi, Michiko; Irie, Takeo; Tatsuno, Satoshi; Tada, Shinpei; Toyoda, Keiko.

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed MR images of 50 patients with spondylolisthesis to disclose MR findings of spondylolysis. In almost half of our series, spondylolysis was detected as a low signal intensity band traversing in the pairs interarticularis on both T1 and T2 weighted images. Sagittal images was superior to axial image in detection of the low signal intensity band. In some patients, a focal high signal intensity accompanying the low signal intensity band was considered to be fluid collection within pseudoarthrosis due to spondylolysis on T2-weighted image. (author)

  16. MR findings of spondylolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojiri, Hiroya; Fukuda, Kunihiko; Hashimoto, Toru; Doi, Michiko; Irie, Takeo; Tatsuno, Satoshi; Tada, Shinpei (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Toyoda, Keiko

    1994-08-01

    We reviewed MR images of 50 patients with spondylolisthesis to disclose MR findings of spondylolysis. In almost half of our series, spondylolysis was detected as a low signal intensity band traversing in the pairs interarticularis on both T1 and T2 weighted images. Sagittal images was superior to axial image in detection of the low signal intensity band. In some patients, a focal high signal intensity accompanying the low signal intensity band was considered to be fluid collection within pseudoarthrosis due to spondylolysis on T2-weighted image. (author).

  17. [Ultrasound findings in rhabdomyolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Galván-Talamantes, Yazmin; Meza-Ayala, Cynthia Margarita; Cruz-Santana, Julio Alberto; Bonilla-Reséndiz, Luis Ignacio

    Rhabdomyolysis is defined as skeletal muscle necrosis. Ultrasound assessment has recently become a useful tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of muscle diseases, including rhabdomyolysis. A case is presented on the ultrasound findings in a patient with rhabdomyolysis. To highlight the importance of ultrasound as an essential part in the diagnosis in rhabdomyolysis, to describe the ultrasound findings, and review the literature. A 30 year-old with post-traumatic rhabdomyolysis of both thighs. Ultrasound was performed using a Philips Sparq model with a high-frequency linear transducer (5-10MHz), in low-dimensional scanning mode (2D), in longitudinal and transverse sections at the level of both thighs. The images obtained showed disorganisation of the orientation of the muscle fibres, ground glass image, thickening of the muscular fascia, and the presence of anechoic areas. Ultrasound is a useful tool in the evaluation of rhabdomyolysis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasonographic findings of Epicondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Seo Hyun; Song, In Sup; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Yoo, Seung Min; Yang, Seong Jun; Seo, Kyung Mook

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonographic findings of the common extensor and flexor tendon in evaluation of patients with lateral and medial epicondylitis. Thirty eight elbows from twenty four patients (mean age=45.2 years) were included. Ultrasonographic examination was performed to evaluate lateral or medial epicondylitis. Epicondylitis was divided into five groups according to the severity of disease: 1) normal, 2) tendinopathy, 3) tendinopathy with a partial tear, partial tear and 4) complete tear. Change in the size of a tendon, bony change of the epicondylitis, presence or absence of calcification or echogenic foci in the common tendon and hypervascularity for each categories were also assessed. In addition, these lesions were divided into the superficial and deep according to the location of lesions. According to the severity, there were 15 cases of normal, 13 tendinopathies, 8 tendinopathies with a partial tear, 2 partial tears and 0 complete tear. Bony change was seen only in tendinopathy, tendinopathy with partial tear and partial tear. Calcification or echogenic foci were only observed in cases with tendinopathy and tendinopathy with partial tear. Hypervascularity was only seen in one case of tendinopathy. With thorough understanding of ultrasonographic findings of epicondylitis, ultrasonographic examination can be especially useful and effective in evaluating the severity and location of lesions.

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of Epicondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Seo Hyun; Song, In Sup; Lee, Jong Beum; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Yoo, Seung Min; Yang, Seong Jun [Yong San Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Kyung Mook [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonographic findings of the common extensor and flexor tendon in evaluation of patients with lateral and medial epicondylitis. Thirty eight elbows from twenty four patients (mean age=45.2 years) were included. Ultrasonographic examination was performed to evaluate lateral or medial epicondylitis. Epicondylitis was divided into five groups according to the severity of disease: 1) normal, 2) tendinopathy, 3) tendinopathy with a partial tear, partial tear and 4) complete tear. Change in the size of a tendon, bony change of the epicondylitis, presence or absence of calcification or echogenic foci in the common tendon and hypervascularity for each categories were also assessed. In addition, these lesions were divided into the superficial and deep according to the location of lesions. According to the severity, there were 15 cases of normal, 13 tendinopathies, 8 tendinopathies with a partial tear, 2 partial tears and 0 complete tear. Bony change was seen only in tendinopathy, tendinopathy with partial tear and partial tear. Calcification or echogenic foci were only observed in cases with tendinopathy and tendinopathy with partial tear. Hypervascularity was only seen in one case of tendinopathy. With thorough understanding of ultrasonographic findings of epicondylitis, ultrasonographic examination can be especially useful and effective in evaluating the severity and location of lesions.

  20. Climate change: Recent findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesselmans, G.H.F.M.

    1993-08-01

    In the late eighties several reports have been published on climate change and sea level rise. In the meantime insights may have changed due to the availability of better and more observations and/or more advanced climate models. The aim of this report is to present the most recent findings with respect to climate change, in particular of sea level rise, storm surges and river peak flows. These climate factors are important for the safety of low-lying areas with respect to coastal erosion and flooding. In the first chapters a short review is presented of a few of the eighties reports. Furthermore, the predictions by state of the art climate models at that time are given. The reports from the eighties should be considered as 'old' information, whereas the IPCC supplement and work, for example, by Wigley should be considered as new information. To assess the latest findings two experts in this field were interviewed: dr J. Oerlemans and dr C.J.E. Schuurmans, a climate expert from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI). Their views are presented together with results published in recent papers on the subject. On the basis of this assessment, the report presents current knowledge regarding predictions of climate change (including sea-level rise) over the next century, together with an assessment of the uncertainties associated with these predictions. 14 figs., 11 tabs., 24 refs

  1. Community health needs assessment with precede-proceed model: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community health services in China have developed over the last few decades. In order to use limited health resources more effectively, we conducted a community health needs assessment. This aimed to provide an understanding of the community's health problems and the range of potential factors affecting risk behaviours for the priority health problems. Methods We used the precede-proceed model for the needs assessment. Triangulation of data, methods and researchers were employed in data collection. Results Main findings include: cardiovascular diseases (CVDs were identified as the priority health problems in the study communities; risk factors associated with CVDs included smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly amongst male residents with low education level; factors negatively affecting behaviours were classified into predisposing factors (limited knowledge, beliefs and lack of perceived needs, enabling factors (limited access to health promotion activities, unawareness of health promotion, lack of work-site and school health promotion, absence of health promotion related policy and reinforcing factors (culture. Policies and organization were not perfect; there were limited staff skilled in providing health promotion in the community. Conclusion CVDs were identified by the communities as priority health problems. Future health programs should focus on smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviours. Behaviour change strategies should take predisposing factors, enabling factors and reinforcing factors into consideration. Policies, organization and human resource need strengthening.

  2. Electroencephalographic findings in panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Regine de Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have reported the importance of electroencephalography (EEG as a method for investigating abnormal parameters in psychiatric disorders. Different findings in time and frequency domain analysis with regard to central nervous system arousal during acute panic states have already been obtained. This study aimed to systematically review the EEG findings in panic disorder (PD, discuss them having a currently accepted neuroanatomical hypothesis for this pathology as a basis, and identify limitations in the selected studies. Literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, using the keywords electroencephalography and panic disorder; 16 articles were selected. Despite the inconsistency of EEG findings in PD, the major conclusions about the absolute power of alpha and beta bands point to a decreased alpha power, while beta power tends to increase. Different asymmetry patterns were found between studies. Coherence studies pointed to a lower degree of inter-hemispheric functional connectivity at the frontal region and intra-hemispheric at the bilateral temporal region. Studies on possible related events showed changes in memory processing in PD patients when exposed to aversive stimuli. It was noticed that most findings reflect the current neurobiological hypothesis of PD, where inhibitory deficits of the prefrontal cortex related to the modulation of amygdala activity, and the subsequent activation of subcortical regions, may be responsible to trigger anxiety responses. We approached some important issues that need to be considered in further researches, especially the use of different methods for analyzing EEG signals. Keywords: Electroencephalography, panic disorder, neurobiology, brain mapping.

  3. Radiologic findings in neurofibromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dai Young; Jeon, Seok Chol; Lee, Kwan Se; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Choo, Dong Woon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    Neurofibromatosis is an uncommon but certainly not a rare hereditary disorder, probably of neuralcrest origin, involving not only neuroectoderm and mesoderm but also endoderm and characterized by cafe au lait spots and cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors, with secondary mesodermal defects responsible for protean osseous abnormalities and various manifestations in other systems. This paper is a study of confirmed 143 cases of neurofibromatosis collected for past 8 years. In this analysis, special attention was given to the selected 37 cases which showed abnormal findings on radiological examinations. Overall male to female ratio was 1 : 1.3. The most frequent kind of abnormalities was vertebral kyphoscoliosis in 12 cases. Among the more pathognomonic but uncommon abnormalities to neurofibromatosis, we experienced each 2 cases of lambdoid defect, pseudoarthrosis and renovascular hypertension, and 1 cases of sphenoid bone absence.

  4. Trochanteric bursitis: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revilla, T.Y.; Manjon, P.; Lozaono, C.

    1997-01-01

    To describe the radiological findings associated with trochanteric bursitis. Six patients studied by means of plain radiography (n=6), CT(n=4) and MR(n=2). The conventional radiography study was normal in two patients and disclosed bone abnormalities in four. US showed a hypoechoic or anechoic collection in all the patients. Two patients presented areas suggestive of calcification, and septa were observed in one. CT disclosed the presence of well defined, low-attenuation, unenhanced collections. MR images identified collections with a signal intensity similar to that of water. Trochanteric bursitis is a relatively common cause of hip pain, and can involve any one of a number of etiologies. US is a good imaging technique for diagnosing this pathology. (Author) 10 refs

  5. CT findings in mucopolysaccharidoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tomio; Nemoto, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Kazue; Hayakawa, Isao; Nihei, Kenji.

    1981-01-01

    The CT findings for four patients with mucopolysaccharidosis were analyzed using a Delta scan-25 (Ohio Nuclear). In three cases of Hunter's syndrome (MPS IIA 13-year-old male, MPS IIB 12-year-old male, and 25-year-old male), a dilatation of the cortical sulci was observed. Moderate dilatations were also seen in the basal cistern, the quadrigeminal cistern, and the ambient cistern. In one case of Hunter's syndrome, a low-density area was observed in the bilateral tharamic regions. An irregular low-density area was also seen in the white matter in some cases. PVL was not apparent in any case. Marked ventricular dilations were observed in cases with mental retardation, for example, in one case of Hurler's syndrome (8-year-old male) and one case of MPS IIA. The circulation and absorbtion of CSF in cortical snbarachnoid spaces were supposed to be moderately retarded by metrizamide CT cisternography. (author)

  6. Radiologic findings of dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, M. S.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.; Kim, D. H. [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D. H. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The stature of human is very important factor in human-being, especially in childhood. The stature depends on various different conditions, such as familial factor, constitutional factor, chromosomal anomalies, skeletal disorders, or endocrinopathies. The early diagnosis of dwarfism is very important problem, because if appropriate treatment is delayed, the complication or sequales are more increased. The survey of familial history or patient's past history, detail check up of physical examination, radiological evaluation, and other laboratory examinations are essentially needed for the accurate diagnosis of dwarfism. Among the patients admitted to Yonsei University college of Medicine, Severance Hospital since 1963, with chief complaint of short stature or other associated diseases, an analysis of radiological findings were made for the 72 cases of chromosomal anomalies, skeletal dysplasia, and cretinism in which radiologic evaluation was available. The conclusions are as follows; 1. The cause of short stature are chromosomal anomalies (48 cases), skeletal dysplasia (14 cases) and cretinism (10 cases). 2. in chromosomal anomalies, 43 cases of mongolism and 5 cease of Turner's syndrome are noted. In mongolism, 18 cases among the 30 cases below 1 year old are distributed below the 10 percentile of height. On radiologic findings, 11 paired ribs (22/43), congenital heart disease (14/43), decreased iliac index (8/12), and associated anomalies or diseases, such as pneumonia (14 cases), C1-C2 dislocation (1 case), imperforated anus (1 case), Morgagni's hernia (1 case) and leukemia with sepsis (1 case). In Turner's syndrome, decreased bone density (5/5), positive metacarpal sign (2/5), positive carpal sign (1/5), change of knee joint (3/5), hypoplasia of (1/3), and increased carrying angle of elbows (1/3) are noted.

  7. Radiologic findings of dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, M. S.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The stature of human is very important factor in human-being, especially in childhood. The stature depends on various different conditions, such as familial factor, constitutional factor, chromosomal anomalies, skeletal disorders, or endocrinopathies. The early diagnosis of dwarfism is very important problem, because if appropriate treatment is delayed, the complication or sequales are more increased. The survey of familial history or patient's past history, detail check up of physical examination, radiological evaluation, and other laboratory examinations are essentially needed for the accurate diagnosis of dwarfism. Among the patients admitted to Yonsei University college of Medicine, Severance Hospital since 1963, with chief complaint of short stature or other associated diseases, an analysis of radiological findings were made for the 72 cases of chromosomal anomalies, skeletal dysplasia, and cretinism in which radiologic evaluation was available. The conclusions are as follows; 1. The cause of short stature are chromosomal anomalies (48 cases), skeletal dysplasia (14 cases) and cretinism (10 cases). 2. in chromosomal anomalies, 43 cases of mongolism and 5 cease of Turner's syndrome are noted. In mongolism, 18 cases among the 30 cases below 1 year old are distributed below the 10 percentile of height. On radiologic findings, 11 paired ribs (22/43), congenital heart disease (14/43), decreased iliac index (8/12), and associated anomalies or diseases, such as pneumonia (14 cases), C1-C2 dislocation (1 case), imperforated anus (1 case), Morgagni's hernia (1 case) and leukemia with sepsis (1 case). In Turner's syndrome, decreased bone density (5/5), positive metacarpal sign (2/5), positive carpal sign (1/5), change of knee joint (3/5), hypoplasia of (1/3), and increased carrying angle of elbows (1/3) are noted

  8. Ultrasonographic findings of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sung Hoo; Kang, Ik Won; Park, Yang Hee; Kim, Chu Wan; Chi, Je Geun

    1982-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in infants and young children which has relatively favorable prognosis with early diagnosis and adequate treatment, however, it can be lethal if the treatment is delayed or inadequate. Clinically, early diagnosis is often difficult because of minimal subjective and objective signs and symptoms, and the patients are usually too young to complain visual disturbance. When ophthalmoscopicexamination is impossible due to presence of opaue media in front of tumor mass as associated inflammatory reaction, hemorrhage, corneal opacity, retinal detachment, etc, ultrasonography is necessary for diagnosis of retinoblastoma. Authors analyzed ultrasonographic al findings with pathological correlation on 10 cases of confirmed retinoblastoma during the period of March 1981 to September1982 at the Seoul National University Hospital. In all cases, ultrasonography demonstrates intraocular masses and all of which are cystic type.Reflectivity of masses are higher than retroorbital fat tissue in 8 cases, and 7 cases show irregular internal echogenic texture. There is no correlation between reflexivity and internal echogenic texture with microscopic findings as rosette, pseudo rosette and micro cysts. Calcifications are demonstrated by ultrasonography as strong reflectiveness with posterior sonic shadowing in 9 cases and 9 of 10 cases are well correlated with calcifications in pathologic specimens. Anechoic cystic areas are shown in 9 cases, and 6 of 10 cases are well correlated with necrosis in pathologic specimen. In all cases, there is no attenuation of sound within tumor masses, and no demonstrable choroidal excavation. Associated retinal detachment is hardly identifiable in irregular contour and internal texture of cystic tumor masses

  9. Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatico, Rosana; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Yanez, Paulina; Romero, Carlos; Trejo, Mariano; Lambre, Hector

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author) [es

  10. Calcaneal tendon: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montandon, Cristiano; Fonseca, Cristiano Rezio; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio; Lobo, Leonardo Valadares; Ribeiro, Flavia Aparecida de Souza; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the radiological and clinical features of 23 patients with calcaneal tendon diseases, who were submitted to ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. The objective of this study was to characterize the lesions for a precise diagnosis of calcaneal tendon injuries. A wide range of calcaneal tendon diseases include degenerative lesions, inflammation of the peritendinous tissue such as peritendinitis and bursitis, and rupture. Imaging methods are essential in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of calcaneal tendon diseases. (author)

  11. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2015-08-01

    examine the processes of implementation of this novel digital health programme and the various barriers and facilitators of this, including the practicalities of providing an online treatment programme in an environment in which there are multiple, complex security requirements and considerations. Additionally, the acceptability of the BFHJ programme to prisoners who may have limited experience of using online technologies was also explored. Clinical outcomes in terms of the programmes impact on substance dependence and use were also examined. Methods: In line with the Medical Research Council (MRC guidelines around development and evaluation of complex interventions (Craig et al., 2008, a mixed-methods approach was used including a qualitative study to explore the implementation of this online treatment programme within the secure prison environment, and offender perceptions of this novel, technology-enhanced approach to substance misuse treatment. In addition, quantitative data derived from a battery of standardised psychometric assessments was used to examine clinical effectiveness of BFHJ. Results: In order to meet MoJ security requirements prior to implementation, the BFHJ programme had to be reviewed and ‘white listed’ by NOMS and their security partner XMA to ensure the programme met all security, quality and information assurance processes and standards. This was a lengthy and costly process that entailed freshly developing the programme in partnership with VC experts at NOMS to ensure the programme is ‘sterile’ i.e., there are no holes in the system or links to external websites – this comprised some aspects of the programme content and resulted in some clinical techniques requiring reworking e.g., removing Google maps from one section of the programme. Themes emerging from qualitative data around offenders experiences of BFHJ illustrate its potential for use in prison settings and also to provide, for the first time, genuine continuity of care during

  12. Using mixed methods to assess fidelity of delivery and its influencing factors in a complex self-management intervention for people with osteoarthritis and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Elaine; Matthews, James; Hurley, Deirdre A

    2017-08-04

    Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of fidelity of delivery within complex behaviour change interventions, it is often poorly assessed. This mixed methods study aimed to establish the fidelity of delivery of a complex self-management intervention and explore the reasons for these findings using a convergent/triangulation design. Feasibility trial of the Self-management of Osteoarthritis and Low back pain through Activity and Skills (SOLAS) intervention (ISRCTN49875385), delivered in primary care physiotherapy. 60 SOLAS sessions were delivered across seven sites by nine physiotherapists. Fidelity of delivery of prespecified intervention components was evaluated using (1) audio-recordings (n=60), direct observations (n=24) and self-report checklists (n=60) and (2) individual interviews with physiotherapists (n=9). Quantitatively, fidelity scores were calculated using percentage means and SD of components delivered. Associations between fidelity scores and physiotherapist variables were analysed using Spearman's correlations. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis to explore potential reasons for fidelity scores. Integration of quantitative and qualitative data occurred at an interpretation level using triangulation. Quantitatively, fidelity scores were high for all assessment methods; with self-report (92.7%) consistently higher than direct observations (82.7%) or audio-recordings (81.7%). There was significant variation between physiotherapists' individual scores (69.8% - 100%). Both qualitative and quantitative data (from physiotherapist variables) found that physiotherapists' knowledge (Spearman's association at p=0.003) and previous experience (p=0.008) were factors that influenced their fidelity. The qualitative data also postulated participant-level (eg, individual needs) and programme-level factors (eg, resources) as additional elements that influenced fidelity. The intervention was delivered with high fidelity. This study contributes

  13. Findings of autopsy imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Seiji; Saito, Tsukuru; Itoya, Saori

    2009-01-01

    Described is the outline of autopsy imaging (Ai) by CT, MRI and ultrasonography (US) as the reading of the postmortem images is becoming important for radiologist on site. The present major Ai modality is CT, where the cause of death can be identified in most cases of injuries like that by traffic accident, and of intracranial hemorrhagic lesions. It is difficult for CT alone to determine the cause due to acute heart failure, for which Ai by enhanced CT (2-min heart massage during the intravenous infusion of a contrast agent) has been introduced. CT findings in Ai are varied according to the death cause, anabiotic treatment conducted and postmortem changes. The second item includes the gastrointestinal tract dilation, rib fracture, pneumo- or hemo-thorax, bruise or rupture, and intravascular gas, and the third, the blood hypostasis, which emphasizing the shadow at the gravity-loaded portions in Ai CT. MRI signals vary dependently on the temperature and the inversion time should be shortened to suppress the cerebrospinal signal at Ai of the cold body like that stored in a refrigerator. US can detect clear, macroscopic morphological changes and the portable machine has been in practice at autopsy onsite. As sound speed depends on the temperature in water, Ai US images are obscure relative to living body due to the low temperature. Authors think the problem to identify the cause of death will be mostly solved in Japan when radiological technologists more actively participate in Ai. (K.T.)

  14. Radiographic findings in immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, R.; Lynch, D.A.; Cink, T.M.; Newell, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the chest radiographs and high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans in patients with immunodeficiency disorders and define the role of HRCT. Thirty-three cases were retrospectively graded according to the consensus of two radiologists. Patients with HIV seropositivity and asthma were excluded. HRCT was performed in 12 cases with standard techniques. Diagnoses included common variable hypogammaglobulinemia (n = 19), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 4), chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (n = 4), and selective immunoglobulin g deficiencies (n = 2). Chest radiographs showed bronchiectasis in 11 of 33 cases with a predominant lower lobe distribution (82%). Nodules were present in six cases and mucus plugs in four cases. HRCT showed bronchiectasis in nine of 12 cases; in five of these nine cases, bronchiectasis was not apparent on chest radiographs. Other HRCT findings included segmental air trapping (four of 12), mucus plugs (three of 12), hazy consolidation (four of 12), nodules (five of 12), and bronchiolectasis (two of 12). Therapy was altered in seven of 12 cases in which HRCT was performed. Most pertinent to clinical management were the presence of a thymoma (n = 1) and severe focal of diffuse bronchiectasis

  15. Verified scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullinger, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this essay, the author attempts to enlighten the reader as to the meaning of the term ''verified scientific findings'' in section 13, sub-section 1, sentence 2 of the new Chemicals Control Law. The examples given here are the generally accepted regulations in regards to technology (that is sections 7a and 18b of the WHG (law on water economy), section 3, sub-section 1 of the machine- and engine protection laws) and to the status of technology (section 3, sub-section 6 of the BImSchG (Fed. law on prevention of air-borne pollution)), and to the status of science (section 5, sub-section 2 of the AMG (drug legislation). The ''status of science and technology'' as defined in sections 4 ff of the Atomic Energy Law (AtomG) and in sections 3, 4, 12, 2) of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance (1.StrlSch. VO), is also being discussed. The author defines the in his opinion ''dynamic term'' as the generally recognized result of scientific research, and the respective possibilities of practical utilization of technology. (orig.) [de

  16. Laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis: chest CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Helena Ribeiro; Zanetti, Glaucia; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ranke, Felipe Mussi von [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante Luiz [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina e Apoio Diagnostico; Hochhegger, Bruno [Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), RS (Brazil). Diagnostico por Imagem; Irion, Klaus Loureiro [Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Souza, Carolina Althoff [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the findings on chest CTs in 16 patients (8 men and 8 women) with laryngotracheobronchial papillomatosis. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving patients ranging from 2 to 72 years of age. The evaluation of the CT scans was independently performed by two observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. The inclusion criteria were presence of abnormalities on the CT scans, and the diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological examination of the papillomatous lesions. Results: The most common symptoms were hoarseness, cough, dyspnea, and recurrent respiratory infections. The major CT findings were nodular formations in the trachea, solid or cavitated nodules in the lung parenchyma, air trapping, masses, and consolidation. Nodular formations in the trachea were observed in 14 patients (87.5%). Only 2 patients had lesions in lung parenchyma without tracheal involvement. Only 1 patient had no pulmonary dissemination of the disease, showing airway involvement only. Solid and cavitated lung nodules were observed in 14 patients (87.5%) and 13 (81.2%), respectively. Masses were observed in 6 patients (37.5%); air trapping, in 3 (18.7%); consolidation in 3 (18.7%); and pleural effusion, in 1 (6.3%). Pulmonary involvement was bilateral in all cases. Conclusions: The most common tomography findings were nodular formations in the trachea, as well as solid or cavitated nodules and masses in the lung parenchyma. Malignant transformation of the lesions was observed in 5 cases. (author)

  17. Aortographic findings of Takayasu's arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Man Chung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Hyo Rin; Choo, Dong Woon

    1973-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis is a stenosing inflammatory process of unknown etiology affecting not only the aortic arch and its branches, but also the abdominal aorta, its branches and the pulmonary arteries. During the period from August 1971 to August 1973, 9 cases with Takayasu's arteries have been observed in the Seoul National University Hospital. The diagnosis was mainly based upon the aortography, which is the only practical method of delineating the extent and nature of the vascular involvement. The purpose of this paper is describe and analyze the radiographic findings, especially aortographic aspect. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The 9 cases are all female and two thirds are under 30 years of age. Headache, dizziness, absent or weak radial pulse and hypertension are the most common symptoms and signs. The laboratory data are generally unremarkable, except elevation of E.S.R. and gamma globulin fraction on electrophoresis. 2. Conventional roentgenography of the chest may be helpful but not specific in diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis. 3. The aortographic findings are characteristic and pathognomonic in diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis. In our cases, the most common findings are stenosis or occlusion of subclavian artery, diffuse narrowing with irregular contour of descending aorta, renal artery involvement, narrowing and aneurysmal dilatation of abdominal aorta, and multiple sites involvement. 4. Therefore, value of total aortography was stressed

  18. Is human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome decreasing among Brazilian injection drug users? Recent findings and how to interpret them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco I Bastos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review findings from Brazilian settings where the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs seems to be decreasing, highlighting recent findings from Rio de Janeiro and discussing methodological alternatives. Former analyses using serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion have shown that HIV incidence has been low in IDUs recruited by two different surveys carried out in Rio, where low injection frequencies and infection rates have been found among new injectors. The proportion of AIDS cases among IDUs in Rio has been fairly modest, compared to São Paulo and especially to the southernmost states. Notwithstanding, the interpretation of findings from serial surveys constitutes a challenge, magnified in the assessment of HIV spread among IDUs due to the dynamic nature of the drug scenes and limitations of sampling strategies targeting hard-to-reach populations. Assessment of epidemic trends may profit from the triangulation of data, but cannot avert biases associated with sampling errors. Efforts should be made to triangulate data from different sources, besides exploring specific studies from different perspectives. In an attempt to further assess the observed trends, we carried out original analyses using data from Brazilian AIDS databank.

  19. Hippocampal malrotation: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez, Paulina; Martinez, Adriana; Romero, Carlos; Lopez, Miriam; Zaffaroni, Alejandra; Lopez, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the common features of hippocampus malrotation in patients with epilepsy by volumetric and high-resolution MRI. Material and methods: MRI study was performed in 5 patients (2 females and 3 males) ages ranged between 6-41 years (average: 25 years), all of them with epilepsy diagnosis. MRI was performed with a 1.5 T (GE Signa). The epilepsy protocol include sagittal T1, axial T1 and T2, coronal FLAIR, coronal T2 (high-resolution) and volumetric 3D SPGR IR 1.5 mm thick sequences. Results: The common features found in all patients were: a) Incomplete inversion and round configuration of the hippocampus; b) Unilateral affectation; c) Variable affectation of the hippocampus; d) Normal signal intensity; e) Modification of the inner structure of the hippocampus; f) Abnormal angularity of the collateral sulcus; g) Abnormal position and size of the fornix; h) Normal size of the temporal lobe; and i) Enlargement of the temporal horn with particular configuration. Conclusion: Hippocampus malrotation is a malformation that should be included in the differential diagnosis of the epilepsy patients. MRI provides accurate information for the diagnosis. (author)

  20. Finding Ernst Mayr's Plato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Many biologists have accepted Ernst Mayr's claim that evolutionary biology undermined an essentialist or typological view of species that had its roots in Platonic philosophy. However, Mayr has been accused of failing to support with textual evidence his attributions to Plato of these sorts of views about biology. Contemporary work in history and philosophy of biology often seems to take onboard Mayr's account of Plato's view of species. This paper seeks to provide a critical account of putative inconsistencies between an evolutionary view of species and Platonic philosophy with renewed attention to the Platonic texts in light of recent Plato scholarship; I argue that claims that Plato held an essentialist view of species inconsistent with evolutionary biology are inadequately supported by textual evidence. If Mayr's essentialist thesis fails, one might think that the intuition that Platonic philosophy is in tension with Darwinian evolution could nonetheless be accounted for by Plato's apparent privileging of a certain sort of teleological explanation, a thesis that Mayr suggests in his 1959 paper on Louis Agassiz. However, this thesis also faces difficulties. Ernst Mayr's Plato is more likely to be found in the writings of anti-evolutionary 19th century biologists like Mayr's frequent target, Agassiz, than in a cautious reading of the Platonic dialogues themselves. Interlocutors in discussions of the history of biological thought and classificatory methods in biology should be cautious in ascribing views about biology to Plato and using terms like "Platonic essentialism." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.